Sample records for algal community growing

  1. Molecular evidence for a diverse green algal community growing in the hair of sloths and a specific association with Trichophilus welckeri (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarello Adriano G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sloths are slow-moving arboreal mammals inhabiting tropical rainforests in Central and South America. The six living species of sloths are occasionally reported to display a greenish discoloration of their pelage. Trichophilus welckeri, a green algal species first described more than a century ago, is widely believed to discolor the animals fur and provide the sloth with effective camouflage. However, this phenomenon has not been explored in any detail and there is little evidence to substantiate this widely held opinion. Results Here we investigate the genetic diversity of the eukaryotic community present in fur of all six extant species of sloth. Analysis of 71 sloth hair samples yielding 426 partial 18S rRNA gene sequences demonstrates a diverse eukaryotic microbial assemblage. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that sloth fur hosts a number of green algal species and suggests that acquisition of these organisms from the surrounding rainforest plays an important role in the discoloration of sloth fur. However, an alga corresponding to the morphological description of Trichophilus welckeri was found to be frequent and abundant on sloth fur. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the retention of this alga on the fur of sloths independent of geographic location. Conclusions These results demonstrate a unique diverse microbial eukaryotic community in the fur of sloths from Central and South America. Our analysis streghtens the case for symbiosis between sloths and Trichophilus welckeri.

  2. Growing Data User Communities (United States)

    Wiggin, B.


    Preserving data is not only a technical challenge. Perhaps the best way to protect data is to use it. Grassroots efforts to make research-quality copies of federal data continue to energize communities of data users who often did not previously recognize themselves as open earth data users. Beyond "data rescue" events, the Data Refuge project researches how federal climate and environmental data are used downstream in a variety of local communities and municipal governments to address everyday issues: public health, municipal safety, and even the preservation of cultural heritage assets. Documenting the diverse uses made of open earth data beyond the earth sciences research community grows the community who, in making use of data, also helps to preserve it.

  3. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Cyd E. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States).


    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know, in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.

  4. Benthic algal communities : recovery from experimental acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.A.; Findlay, D.L.; Kasian, S.E.M. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Freshwater Inst.; Baulch, H.M. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada); Armstrong, L.M. [Ducks Unlimited Canada, Stonewall, MB (Canada). Inst. for Wetland and Waterfowl Research; McNicol, D.K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Vinebrooke, R.D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences


    This study evaluated the hypothesis that chemical recovery promotes the rapid recovery of benthic algal communities in formerly acidified lakes. The study was conducted at an experimental lake in Ontario over a 10 year period of pH recovery that followed a 10 year period of experimental acidification from a pH of 6.7 to 4.5. A reference lake in the region was also studied to account for regional changes during the study period. Changes in the epilithon on rock surfaces included lower cyanobacterial biomass following the acidification as well as increases in diatoms and greens. Acidification-induced increases in respiration prevented epilithic metabolic recovery. Prior declines in photosynthesis were reversed. Blooms of metaphytic filamentous green algae with a higher pH occurred during the recovery period. The recovery of many aggregate functional and taxonomic properties lagged behind reductions in acidity. Incomplete chemical recovery and the absence of functionally important biota were attributed to incomplete algal recovery at the lake. 59 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. Algal communities associated with aquatic macrophytes in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The algal flora of the ponds comprised 139 species and varieties from 58 genera. Diatoms and green algae, mostly desmids, were the dominant groups. About 50 of the algal taxa were indicators of low mineral content of the water. Four distinct diatom communities were identified, using Canonical Correspondence Analysis.

  6. Productivity and species composition of algal mat communities exposed to a fluctuating thermal regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, D.L.; Wilde, E.W.; Pope, D.H.; Fliermans, C.B.


    Algal mat communities growing in thermal effluents of production nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant, near Aiken, SC, are exposed to large temperature fluctuations resulting from reactor operations. Rates of primary production and species composition were monitored at 4 sites along a thermal gradient in a trough microcosm to determine how these large temperature fluctuations affected productivity and algal community structure. Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) were the only phototrophic primary producers growing in water above 45 0 C. These thermophiles were able to survive and apparently adapt to ambient temperatures when the reactor was shut down. The algal mat communities exposed to 14 C-labeled dissolved organic compounds and a decrease in primary production were observed during periods of thermal fluctuation. The results show that the dominant phototrophs in this artificially heated aquatic habitat have been selected for their abiity to survive large temperature fluctuations and are similar to those of natural hot springs

  7. Evaluation of attached periphytical algal communities for biofuel feedstock generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandefur, H.N.; Matlock, M.D.; Costello, T.A. [Arkansas Univ., Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Center for Agricultural and Rural Sustainability


    This paper reported on a study that investigated the feasibility of using algal biomass as a feedstock for biofuel production. Algae has a high lipid content, and with its high rate of production, it can produce more oil on less land than traditional bioenergy crops. In addition, algal communities can remove nutrients from wastewater. Enclosed photobioreactors and open pond systems are among the many different algal growth systems that can be highly productive. However, they can also be difficult to maintain. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a pilot scale algal turf scrubber (ATS) to facilitate the growth of attached periphytic algal communities for the production of biomass feedstock and the removal of nutrients from a local stream in Springdale, Arizona. The ATS operated for a 9 month sampling period, during which time the system productivity averaged 26 g per m{sup 2} per day. The removal of total phosphorus and total nitrogen averaged 48 and 13 per cent, respectively.

  8. Automatic identification of algal community from microscopic images. (United States)

    Santhi, Natchimuthu; Pradeepa, Chinnaraj; Subashini, Parthasarathy; Kalaiselvi, Senthil


    A good understanding of the population dynamics of algal communities is crucial in several ecological and pollution studies of freshwater and oceanic systems. This paper reviews the subsequent introduction to the automatic identification of the algal communities using image processing techniques from microscope images. The diverse techniques of image preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and recognition are considered one by one and their parameters are summarized. Automatic identification and classification of algal community are very difficult due to various factors such as change in size and shape with climatic changes, various growth periods, and the presence of other microbes. Therefore, the significance, uniqueness, and various approaches are discussed and the analyses in image processing methods are evaluated. Algal identification and associated problems in water organisms have been projected as challenges in image processing application. Various image processing approaches based on textures, shapes, and an object boundary, as well as some segmentation methods like, edge detection and color segmentations, are highlighted. Finally, artificial neural networks and some machine learning algorithms were used to classify and identifying the algae. Further, some of the benefits and drawbacks of schemes are examined.

  9. Stable and sporadic symbiotic communities of coral and algal holobionts (United States)

    Hester, Eric R; Barott, Katie L; Nulton, Jim; Vermeij, Mark JA; Rohwer, Forest L


    Coral and algal holobionts are assemblages of macroorganisms and microorganisms, including viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, protists and fungi. Despite a decade of research, it remains unclear whether these associations are spatial–temporally stable or species-specific. We hypothesized that conflicting interpretations of the data arise from high noise associated with sporadic microbial symbionts overwhelming signatures of stable holobiont members. To test this hypothesis, the bacterial communities associated with three coral species (Acropora rosaria, Acropora hyacinthus and Porites lutea) and two algal guilds (crustose coralline algae and turf algae) from 131 samples were analyzed using a novel statistical approach termed the Abundance-Ubiquity (AU) test. The AU test determines whether a given bacterial species would be present given additional sampling effort (that is, stable) versus those species that are sporadically associated with a sample. Using the AU test, we show that coral and algal holobionts have a high-diversity group of stable symbionts. Stable symbionts are not exclusive to one species of coral or algae. No single bacterial species was ubiquitously associated with one host, showing that there is not strict heredity of the microbiome. In addition to the stable symbionts, there was a low-diversity community of sporadic symbionts whose abundance varied widely across individual holobionts of the same species. Identification of these two symbiont communities supports the holobiont model and calls into question the hologenome theory of evolution. PMID:26555246

  10. Algal Community Membership of Estuarine Mudflats from the Savannah River, United States

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    Kalina M. Manoylov


    Full Text Available Algae represent a large and diverse group of photosynthetic organisms inhabiting all aquatic habitats. Although the traditional assessment of algal diversity relies mainly on microscopy-based morphological identification, certain limitations exist. In this study, we present a combined molecular and morphological assessment of algal diversity in mudflats from the Savannah River Estuary, Georgia. High diversity of diatoms was documented, and less than 20% of the algal community was physiologically active at the time of collection. From the total genomic DNA extracted from the field samples and lab isolates, 18S rDNA sequences were PCR amplified, cloned, sequenced, identified, and then compared to the taxa identified via microscopy. Only a few of the DNA sequences matched documented taxa, and the abundance of particular algal species was limited to morphological analysis. Surprisingly, upon examination of the remaining lysis buffer from the mechanical lysis step of algal cells, diatom species were left intact even in the presence of a detergent indicating that the diatom species resistant to lysis could be easily underrepresented. Generation of additional algal sequences data, tied to accurate taxonomic identification, is essential to current environmental sequencing projects and potentially would allow faster acquisition of algal community structure within these unique environments.

  11. Stable and sporadic symbiotic communities of coral and algal holobionts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hester, E.R.; Barott, K.L.; Nulton, J.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Rohwer, F.L.


    Coral and algal holobionts are assemblages of macroorganisms and microorganisms, including viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, protists and fungi. Despite a decade of research, it remains unclear whether these associations are spatial-temporally stable or species-specific. We hypothesized that conflicting

  12. The disturbance-driven changes of periphytic algal communities in a Danubian floodplain lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuna Pfeiffer T.


    Full Text Available Disturbance event-driven changes in periphytic algal communities were studied in a Danubian floodplain using artificial substrata (glass slides. The hydrological regime of the river-floodplain system strongly influenced the physical and chemical environment of the investigated lake. Directional changes in the algal communities, demonstrated by the results of non-metric multidimensional scaling, indicated three distinct phases in periphyton development. Strong seasonal influences in the initial accrual phase favored diatom dominance in spring and rapid development of a community composed of filamentous and stalk-forming chlorophytes towards “climax” in summer. Macrophyte and metaphyton stands spreading represented a physical constraint for periphytic algal development. Irrespective of periphyton age and structure, the onset of disturbances resulted in an immediate decrease in periphytic biomass. Disturbances deeply transformed algal communities, whereas the morpho-functional properties of algal species were found to be decisive in community adaptations to altered environmental conditions. Tightly attached and stalk forming diatoms were shown to have an ability to resist and quickly recover from physical disturbance. Our results highlight the necessity for further development of the morpho-functional classification of periphytic algae, which will contribute to more precise evaluations of disturbance-driven events in freshwater ecosystems.

  13. Seasonal and altitudinal variations in snow algal communities on an Alaskan glacier (Gulkana glacier in the Alaska range)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Nozomu


    Snow and ice algae are cold tolerant algae growing on the surface of snow and ice, and they play an important role in the carbon cycles for glaciers and snowfields in the world. Seasonal and altitudinal variations in seven major taxa of algae (green algae and cyanobacteria) were investigated on the Gulkana glacier in Alaska at six different elevations from May to September in 2001. The snow algal communities and their biomasses changed over time and elevation. Snow algae were rarely observed on the glacier in May although air temperature had been above 0 ° C since the middle of the month and surface snow had melted. In June, algae appeared in the lower areas of the glacier, where the ablation ice surface was exposed. In August, the distribution of algae was extended to the upper parts of the glacier as the snow line was elevated. In September, the glacier surface was finally covered with new winter snow, which terminated algal growth in the season. Mean algal biomass of the study sites continuously increased and reached 6.3 × 10 μl m −2 in cell volume or 13 mg carbon m −2 in September. The algal community was dominated by Chlamydomonas nivalis on the snow surface, and by Ancylonema nordenskiöldii and Mesotaenium berggrenii on the ice surface throughout the melting season. Other algae were less abundant and appeared in only a limited area of the glacier. Results in this study suggest that algae on both snow and ice surfaces significantly contribute to the net production of organic carbon on the glacier and substantially affect surface albedo of the snow and ice during the melting season. (letter)

  14. Algal community response to experimental and interannual variation in hydrology in an Alaskan boreal fen (United States)

    A. R. Rober; K. Wyatt; M. Turetsky; R. Stevenson


    Floristic studies indicate the abundance of microalgae in northern boreal peatlands, but we know relatively little about their ecology or how they will respond to changes in environmental conditions expected in this region as climate changes. We examined changes in algal community structure at sites exposed to a long-term water-table manipulation, including drought (...

  15. Interaction between local hydrodynamics and algal community in epilithic biofilm. (United States)

    Graba, Myriam; Sauvage, Sabine; Moulin, Frédéric Y; Urrea, Gemma; Sabater, Sergi; Sanchez-Pérez, José Miguel


    Interactions between epilithic biofilm and local hydrodynamics were investigated in an experimental flume. Epilithic biofilm from a natural river was grown over a 41-day period in three sections with different flow velocities (0.10, 0.25 and 0.40 m s(-1) noted LV, IV and HV respectively). Friction velocities u* and boundary layer parameters were inferred from PIV measurement in the three sections and related to the biofilm structure. The results show that there were no significant differences in Dry Mass and Ash-Free Dry Mass (g m(-2)) at the end of experiment, but velocity is a selective factor in algal composition and the biofilms' morphology differed according to differences in water velocity. A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis distances) and an Indicator Species Analysis (IndVal) showed that the indicator taxa were Fragilaria capucina var. mesolepta in the low-velocity (u*. = 0.010-0.012 m s(-1)), Navicula atomus, Navicula capitatoradiata and Nitzschia frustulum in the intermediate-velocity (u*. = 0.023-0.030 m s(-1)) and Amphora pediculus, Cymbella proxima, Fragilaria capucina var. vaucheriae and Surirella angusta in the high-velocity (u*. = 0.033-0.050 m s(-1)) sections. A sloughing test was performed on 40-day-old biofilms in order to study the resistance of epilithic biofilms to higher hydrodynamic regimes. The results showed an inverse relationship between the proportion of detached biomass and the average value of friction velocity during growth. Therefore, water velocity during epilithic biofilm growth conditioned the structure and algal composition of biofilm, as well as its response (ability to resist) to higher shear stresses. This result should be considered in modelling epilithic biofilm dynamics in streams subject to a variable hydrodynamics regime. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The diversity of ice algal communities on the Greenland Ice Sheet as revealed by oligotyping. (United States)

    Lutz, Stefanie; McCutcheon, Jenine; McQuaid, James B; Benning, Liane G


    The Arctic is being disproportionally affected by climate change compared with other geographic locations, and is currently experiencing unprecedented melt rates. The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) can be regarded as the largest supraglacial ecosystem on Earth, and ice algae are the dominant primary producers on bare ice surfaces throughout the course of a melt season. Ice-algal-derived pigments cause a darkening of the ice surface, which in turn decreases albedo and increases melt rates. The important role of ice algae in changing melt rates has only recently been recognized, and we currently know little about their community compositions and functions. Here, we present the first analysis of ice algal communities across a 100 km transect on the GrIS by high-throughput sequencing and subsequent oligotyping of the most abundant taxa. Our data reveal an extremely low algal diversity with Ancylonema nordenskiöldii and a Mesotaenium species being by far the dominant taxa at all sites. We employed an oligotyping approach and revealed a hidden diversity not detectable by conventional clustering of operational taxonomic units and taxonomic classification. Oligotypes of the dominant taxa exhibit a site-specific distribution, which may be linked to differences in temperatures and subsequently the extent of the melting. Our results help to better understand the distribution patterns of ice algal communities that play a crucial role in the GrIS ecosystem.

  17. Plankton communities and summertime declines in algal abundance associated with low dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Rounds, Stewart A.


    during much of the growing season. A general seasonal trend in the phytoplankton assemblages was observed, with dominance by filamentous centric diatoms Stephanodiscus and Melosira in spring and early summer, and flagellated cryptophytes and green algae, particularly Chlamydomonas sp., in late-summer; or, in 2008, dominance by blue-green algae Anabaena flos-aquae and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae during the Wapato Lake bloom event. There were 99 zooplankton taxa identified from the Tualatin River in 2006–08, composed primarily of cladocerans, copepods, and rotifers. A seasonal increase in zooplankton abundance was observed in early summer just as or shortly after the phytoplankton population began to increase, with populations growing to 15,000−120,000 organisms per cubic meter in the lower river. Zooplankton abundance showed a predictable and distinct longitudinal downstream increase, particularly downstream of Highway 99W (RM 11.6). Although grazing rates were not measured, the data suggest that, at times, zooplankton grazing may affect algal abundance and species composition in the Tualatin River, with diatoms becoming relatively less abundant and flagellated cryptophytes and green algae relatively more abundant during periods when zooplankton densities were highest. Multivariate statistical analyses identified soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), natural flow, flow augmentation, and WWTF effluent as important factors influencing Tualatin River phytoplankton populations, with zooplankton density (particularly rotifers and copepods), specific conductance, chloride, and water temperature also having an important influence. Although SRP was highly correlated with the plankton communities, that correlation was likely the result of high or low algal activity (uptake) as SRP concentrations were often reduced to low levels during blooms. While previous studies have already established that phosphorus, among other factors such as flow, places a theoretical cap on the size of the

  18. Technical Evaluation Report 34: Growing Virtual Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Garber


    Full Text Available As online collaborative technologies become easier to use, an increasing range of “virtual communities” are being established, often for educational purposes. This report stresses that an efficient technology is only part of the process underlying a successful online community. It considers the social process on which an online learning community must be founded if it is to flourish and be useful. Definitions of community, learning community, and virtual learning community are reviewed, and the experience of an online community member is discussed. The importance of nurturing the community’s health, and the natural life cycle of a virtual community, are examined.

  19. Technical Evaluation Report 34: Growing Virtual Communities


    Debbie Garber


    As online collaborative technologies become easier to use, an increasing range of “virtual communities” are being established, often for educational purposes. This report stresses that an efficient technology is only part of the process underlying a successful online community. It considers the social process on which an online learning community must be founded if it is to flourish and be useful. Definitions of community, learning community, and virtual learning community are reviewed, and t...

  20. Preliminary evaluation of an in vivo fluorometer to quantify algal periphyton biomass and community composition (United States)

    Harris, Theodore D.; Graham, Jennifer L.


    The bbe-Moldaenke BenthoTorch (BT) is an in vivo fluorometer designed to quantify algal biomass and community composition in benthic environments. The BT quantifies total algal biomass via chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration and may differentiate among cyanobacteria, green algae, and diatoms based on pigment fluorescence. To evaluate how BT measurements of periphytic algal biomass (as Chl-a) compared with an ethanol extraction laboratory analysis, we collected BT- and laboratory-measured Chl-a data from 6 stream sites in the Indian Creek basin, Johnson County, Kansas, during August and September 2012. BT-measured Chl-a concentrations were positively related to laboratory-measured concentrations (R2 = 0.47); sites with abundant filamentous algae had weaker relations (R2 = 0.27). Additionally, on a single sample date, we used the BT to determine periphyton biomass and community composition upstream and downstream from 2 wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) that discharge into Indian Creek. We found that algal biomass increased immediately downstream from the WWTF discharge then slowly decreased as distance from the WWTF increased. Changes in periphyton community structure also occurred; however, there were discrepancies between BT- and laboratory-measured community composition data. Most notably, cyanobacteria were present at all sites based on BT measurements but were present at only one site based on laboratory-analyzed samples. Overall, we found that the BT compared reasonably well with laboratory methods for relative patterns in Chl-a but not as well with absolute Chl-aconcentrations. Future studies need to test the BT over a wider range of Chl-aconcentrations, in colored waters, and across various periphyton assemblages.

  1. Dynamics of Bacterial and Fungal Communities during the Outbreak and Decline of an Algal Bloom in a Drinking Water Reservoir. (United States)

    Zhang, Haihan; Jia, Jingyu; Chen, Shengnan; Huang, Tinglin; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Zhenfang; Feng, Ji; Hao, Huiyan; Li, Sulin; Ma, Xinxin


    The microbial communities associated with algal blooms play a pivotal role in organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in freshwater ecosystems. However, there have been few studies focused on unveiling the dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities during the outbreak and decline of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs. To address this issue, the compositions of bacterial and fungal communities were assessed in the Zhoucun drinking water reservoir using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene Illumina MiSeq sequencing techniques. The results showed the algal bloom was dominated by Synechococcus, Microcystis, and Prochlorothrix. The bloom was characterized by a steady decrease of total phosphorus (TP) from the outbreak to the decline period (p water bacterial and fungal community structure. During the bloom, the dominant bacterial genus were Acinetobacter sp., Limnobacter sp., Synechococcus sp., and Roseomonas sp. The relative size of the fungal community also changed with algal bloom and its composition mainly contained Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Heat map profiling indicated that algal bloom had a more consistent effect upon fungal communities at genus level. Redundancy analysis (RDA) also demonstrated that the structure of water bacterial communities was significantly correlated to conductivity and ammonia nitrogen. Meanwhile, water temperature, Fe and ammonia nitrogen drive the dynamics of water fungal communities. The results from this work suggested that water bacterial and fungal communities changed significantly during the outbreak and decline of algal bloom in Zhoucun drinking water reservoir. Our study highlights the potential role of microbial diversity as a driving force for the algal bloom and biogeochemical cycling of reservoir ecology.

  2. Stress-Survival Gene Identification From an Acid Mine Drainage Algal Mat Community (United States)

    Urbina-Navarrete, J.; Fujishima, K.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Rothschild-Mancinelli, B.; Rothschild, L. J.


    Microbial communities from acid mine drainage environments are exposed to multiple stressors to include low pH, high dissolved metal loads, seasonal freezing, and desiccation. The microbial and algal communities that inhabit these niche environments have evolved strategies that allow for their ecological success. Metagenomic analyses are useful in identifying species diversity, however they do not elucidate the mechanisms that allow for the resilience of a community under these extreme conditions. Many known or predicted genes encode for protein products that are unknown, or similarly, many proteins cannot be traced to their gene of origin. This investigation seeks to identify genes that are active in an algal consortium during stress from living in an acid mine drainage environment. Our approach involves using the entire community transcriptome for a functional screen in an Escherichia coli host. This approach directly targets the genes involved in survival, without need for characterizing the members of the consortium.The consortium was harvested and stressed with conditions similar to the native environment it was collected from. Exposure to low pH (E. coli. The transformed E. coli were exposed to the same stressors as the original algal consortium to select for surviving cells. Successful cells incorporated the transcripts that encode survival mechanisms, thus allowing for selection and identification of the gene(s) involved. Initial selection screens for freeze and desiccation tolerance have yielded E. coli that are 1 order of magnitude more resistant to freezing (0.01% survival of control with no transcript, 0.2% survival of E. coli with transcript) and 3 orders of magnitude more resistant to desiccation (0.005% survival of control cells with no transcripts, 5% survival of cells with transcript).This work is transformative because genetic functions can be selected without having prior knowledge of the genes or of the organisms involved. Work continues to

  3. Ecological and geographical characteristics of algal communities on gastropod shells of the river Uzh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Korniichuk


    Full Text Available Freshwater molluscs serve as test objects in the ecological monitoring of the environment, because they are able to extract in indicator quantity from the environment and accumulate in their bodies radionuclides, various macro- and micronutrients, toxic substances of inorganic and organic origin, and so on. The gastropods are a taxonomically diverse, ecologically plastic and rather widespread group of aquatic organisms, whose role in the life of freshwater ecosystems is very important. Molluscs often have various interactions in biogeocenoses that determines their trophic net. As a rule, these interactions occur in the form of ectocommensalism, endocommensalism, supercrescence, predation or parasitism. The latter type of interaction is the subject of many studies, but the epibionts of gastropods and bivalves have practically not been studied and this research is an effort towards filling this gap. Species composition of algal epibionts identifies specific sensitivity to the effects of certain environmental factors and reflects the processes occurring in their ecosystem water bodies. This determines their efficient use for analyzing changes of water bodies as aquatic habitat, particularly in terms of complex anthropogenic pressure on aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the research was to determine the ecological characteristics of algal communities on gastropod shells: Lymnaea stagnalis, L. auricularia and Viviparus viviparus (the Uzh river, Korosten district, Zhytomyr region. Identified microalgae communities were grouped and studied according to such indices as: confinedness to the habitat (substrate, temperature, fluidity and water oxygenating, saprobiological characteristics according to the Pantle-Buck system in the modification of Sladecek and Watanabe, salinity according to Kolbe’s system, pH at Hustedt scale in the interpretation of M. M. Davydova and geographical limitations of the objects of study. Algal fouling on the shells L. stagnalis

  4. Diffusive boundary layers and photosynthesis of the epilithic algal community of coral reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larkum, Anthony W.D.; Koch, Eva-Maria W.; Kühl, Michael


    : the Gulf of Aqaba, Eilat (Israel), and One Tree Reef on the Great Barrier Reef (Australia). Microsensors were used to measure O2 and pH at the EAC surface and above. Oxygen profiles in the light and dark indicated a diffusive boundary layer (DBL) thickness of 180–590 µm under moderate flow (~0.08 m s-1......The effects of mass transfer resistance due to the presence of a diffusive boundary layer on the photosynthesis of the epilithic algal community (EAC) of a coral reef were studied. Photosynthesis and respiration of the EAC of dead coral surfaces were investigated for samples from two locations...

  5. Growing community : rooftop gardens for affordable housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, K.N. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This paper reviewed the processes used in recently designed affordable housing roof garden projects in California, Montana and Georgia. Gardens create a sense of community through shared space and social interactions. As such, roof gardens can give residents of affordable housing the opportunity to experience the community-fostering benefits of gardening, with the added advantages of potentially lower energy bills and wastewater fees. The factors that should be considered in planning, design, construction and maintenance of roof gardens for affordable housing were also outlined. As places of refuge, gardens help people relax and promote healing, which is particularly important for physical, emotional, social and economic well-being. For the many residents of affordable housing who earn less than 50 per cent of the area median income, gardens offer a venue for establishing relationships with neighbours, many of whom they might otherwise never meet. They also offer a means to improved nutrition and food security, education and positive recreation for youth, and better aesthetic surroundings. While motivations for choosing green roofs varied widely across the projects, affordability was linked to 3 main areas, namely saving costs in design, construction and operations; getting the roof to generate funding; and, improving the quality of life in affordable housing. 17 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Influence of global change-related impacts on the mercury toxicity of freshwater algal communities. (United States)

    Val, Jonatan; Muñiz, Selene; Gomà, Joan; Navarro, Enrique


    The climatic-change related increase of temperatures, are expected to alter the distribution and survival of freshwater species, ecosystem functions, and also the effects of toxicants to aquatic biota. This study has thus assessed, as a first time, the modulating effect of climate-change drivers on the mercury (Hg) toxicity of freshwater algal photosynthesis. Natural benthic algal communities (periphyton) have been exposed to Hg under present and future temperature scenarios (rise of 5 °C). The modulating effect of other factors (also altered by global change), as the quality and amount of suspended and dissolved materials in the rivers, has been also assessed, exposing algae to Hg in natural river water or a synthetic medium. The EC50 values ranged from the 0.15-0.74 ppm for the most sensitive communities, to the 24-40 ppm for the most tolerant. The higher tolerance shown by communities exposed to higher Hg concentrations, as Jabarrella was in agreement with the Pollution Induced Community Tolerance concept. In other cases, the dominance of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata explained the tolerance or sensitivity of the community to the Hg toxicity. Results shown that while increases in the suspended solids reduced Hg bioavailability, changes in the dissolved materials - such as organic carbon - may increase it and thus its toxic effects on biota. The impacts of the increase of temperatures on the toxicological behaviour of periphyton (combining both changes at species composition and physiological acclimation) would be certainly modulated by other effects at the land level (i.e., alterations in the amount and quality of dissolved and particulate substances arriving to the rivers). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Depth-related variation in epiphytic communities growing on the brown alga Lobophora variegata in a Caribbean coral reef (United States)

    Fricke, A.; Titlyanova, T. V.; Nugues, M. M.; Bischof, K.


    Lobophora variegata is a dominant macroalga on coral reefs across the Caribbean. Over the last two decades, it has expanded its vertical distribution to both shallow and deep reefs along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, Southern Caribbean. However, the ecological implications of this expansion and the role of L. variegata as a living substratum are poorly known. This study compared epiphytic algal communities on L. variegata blades along two depth transects (6-40 m). The epiphytic community was diverse with a total of 70 species of which 49 were found directly attached to L. variegata. The epiphytic community varied significantly between blade surface, depth and site. The greatest number of genera per blade was found growing on the underside of the blades regardless of site and depth. Filamentous red algae (e.g. Neosiphonia howei) were commonly found on the upperside of the blades over the whole depth gradient, whereas the underside was mainly colonized by calcifying (e.g. Hydrolithon spp., Jania spp., Amphiroa fragillissima), fleshy red algae (e.g. Champia spp., Gelidiopsis spp., Hypnea spinella) and foliose brown alga (e.g. Dictyota spp.). Anotrichum tenue, a red alga capable of overgrowing corals, was a common epiphyte of both blade surfaces. L. variegata plays an important role as a newly available substratum. Thus, its spread may influence other algal species and studies of benthic macroalgae such as L. variegata should also take into consideration their associated epiphytic algal communities.

  8. Seasonal patterns in stream periphyton fatty acids and community benthic algal composition in six high quality headwater streams (United States)

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Maloney, Kelly O.


    Fatty acids are integral components of periphyton and differ among algal taxa. We examined seasonal patterns in periphyton fatty acids in six minimally disturbed headwater streams in Pennsylvania’s Appalachian Mountains, USA. Environmental data and periphyton were collected across four seasons for fatty acid and algal taxa content. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination suggested significant seasonal differences in fatty acids; an ordination on algal composition revealed similar seasonal patterns, but with slightly weaker separation of summer and fall. Summer and fall fatty acid profiles were driven by temperature, overstory cover, and conductivity and winter profiles by measures of stream size. Ordination on algal composition suggested that summer and fall communities were driven by overstory and temperature, whereas winter communities were driven by velocity. The physiologically important fatty acid 18:3ω6 was highest in summer and fall. Winter samples had the highest 20:3ω3. Six saturated fatty acids differed among the seasons. Periphyton fatty acids profiles appeared to reflect benthic algal species composition. This suggests that periphyton fatty acid composition can be useful in characterizing basal food resources and stream water quality.

  9. Effect of lake water on algal biomass and microbial community structure in municipal wastewater-based lab-scale photobioreactors. (United States)

    Krustok, I; Truu, J; Odlare, M; Truu, M; Ligi, T; Tiirik, K; Nehrenheim, E


    Photobioreactors are a novel environmental technology that can produce biofuels with the simultaneous removal of nutrients and pollutants from wastewaters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lake water inoculation on the production of algal biomass and phylogenetic and functional structure of the algal and bacterial communities in municipal wastewater-treating lab-scale photobioreactors. Inoculating the reactors with lake water had a significant benefit to the overall algal biomass growth and nutrient reduction in the reactors with wastewater and lake water (ratio 70/30 v/v). The metagenome-based survey showed that the most abundant algal phylum in these reactors was Chlorophyta with Scenedesmus being the most prominent genus. The most abundant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes with most dominant families being Sphingobacteriaceae, Cytophagaceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Comamonadaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Nocardiaceae and Nostocaceae. These photobioreactors were also effective in reducing the overall amount of pathogens in wastewater compared to reactors with wastewater/tap water mixture. Functional analysis of the photobioreactor metagenomes revealed an increase in relative abundance genes related to photosynthesis, synthesis of vitamins important for auxotrophic algae and decrease in virulence and nitrogen metabolism subsystems in lake water reactors. The results of the study indicate that adding lake water to the wastewater-based photobioreactor leads to an altered bacterial community phylogenetic and functional structure that could be linked to higher algal biomass production, as well as to enhanced nutrient and pathogen reduction in these reactors.

  10. Association of coral algal symbionts with a diverse viral community responsive to heat shock

    KAUST Repository

    Brüwer, Jan D.


    Stony corals provide the structural foundation of coral reef ecosystems and are termed holobionts given they engage in symbioses, in particular with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Besides Symbiodinium, corals also engage with bacteria affecting metabolism, immunity, and resilience of the coral holobiont, but the role of associated viruses is largely unknown. In this regard, the increase of studies using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess gene expression provides an opportunity to elucidate viral signatures encompassed within the data via careful delineation of sequence reads and their source of origin.Here, we re-analyzed an RNA-Seq dataset from a cultured coral symbiont (Symbiodinium microadriaticum, Clade A1) across four experimental treatments (control, cold shock, heat shock, dark shock) to characterize associated viral diversity, abundance, and gene expression. Our approach comprised the filtering and removal of host sequence reads, subsequent phylogenetic assignment of sequence reads of putative viral origin, and the assembly and analysis of differentially expressed viral genes. About 15.46% (123 million) of all sequence reads were non-host-related, of which <1% could be classified as archaea, bacteria, or virus. Of these, 18.78% were annotated as virus and comprised a diverse community consistent across experimental treatments. Further, non-host related sequence reads assembled into 56,064 contigs, including 4856 contigs of putative viral origin that featured 43 differentially expressed genes during heat shock. The differentially expressed genes included viral kinases, ubiquitin, and ankyrin repeat proteins (amongst others), which are suggested to help the virus proliferate and inhibit the algal host\\'s antiviral response.Our results suggest that a diverse viral community is associated with coral algal endosymbionts of the genus Symbiodinium, which prompts further research on their ecological role in coral health and resilience.

  11. Influence of Diadema antillarum populations (Echinodermata: Diadematidae) on algal community structure in Jardines de la Reina, Cuba. (United States)

    Martín Blanco, Félix; Clero Alonso, Lídice; González Sansón, Gaspar; Amargós Fabián, Pina


    The 1983-1984 mass mortality of Diadema antillarum produced severe damages on Caribbean reefs contributing to substantial changes in community structure that still persist. Despite the importance of Diadema grazing in structuring coral reefs, available information on current abundances and algal-urchin interactions in Cuba is scarce. We analyzed spatial variations in Diadema abundance and its influence on algal community structure in 22 reef sites in Jardines de la Reina, in June/2004 and April/2005. Urchins were counted in five 30 x 2m transects per site, and algal coverage was estimated in randomly located 0.25m side quadrats (15 per site). Abundances of Diadema were higher at reef crests (0.013-1.553 ind/m2), while reef slope populations showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower and were overgrown by macroalgae (up to 87%, local values). Algal community structure at reef slopes were dominated by macroalgae, especially Dictyota, Lobophora and Halimeda while the most abundant macroalgae at reef crests were Halimeda and Amphiroa. Urchin densities were negatively and positively correlated with mean coverage of macroalgae and crustose coralline algae, respectively, when analyzing data pooled across all sites, but not with data from separate habitats (specially reef crest), suggesting, along with historical fish biomass, that shallow reef community structure is being shaped by the synergistic action of other factors (e.g. fish grazing) rather than the influence of Diadema alone. However, we observed clear signs of Diadema grazing at reef crests and decreased macroalgal cover according to 2001 data, what suggest that grazing intensity at this habitat increased at the same time that Diadema recruitment began to be noticeable. Furthermore, the excessive abundance of macroalgae at reef slopes and the scarcity of crustose coralline algae seems to be due by the almost complete absence of D. antillarum at mid depth reefs, where local densities of this urchin were

  12. Primary productivity, heterotrophy, metabolic indicators of stress and interactions in algal-bacterial mat communities affected by a fluctuating thermal regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, D.L.


    Thermal habitats in effluent cooling waters from production nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant are unlike natural thermal habitats in that reactor operations are periodically halted, exposing the organisms growing in these thermal habitats to ambient temperatures for unpredictable lengths of time. Rates of primary production, glucose heterotrophy, and the composition of algal-bacterial mat communities growing along a thermal gradient from about 50 to 35 0 C during periods of reactor operation were studied. Cyanobacteria were the only photoautotrophs in mat communities above 40 0 C while cyanobacteria and eucaryotic algae comprised the photoautotrophic component of mat communities below 40 0 C. The heterotrophic component of these communities above 40 0 C was made up of stenothermic and eurythermic thermophilic bacteria while both eurythermic thermophiles and mesophilic bacteria were found in communities below 40 0 C. Net CO 2 -fixation rates during thermal conditions dropped after initial exposure to ambient temperatures. After prolonged exposure of the thermal communities to ambient temperatures, adaptation and colonization by mesophilic algae occurred. Rates of glucose utilization under varying degrees of thermal influence suggested that the heterotrophic component may not have been optimally adapted to thermal conditions. During periods of changing thermal conditions, an increase in the percentage extracellular release of photosynthetically fixed 14 CO 2 by cyanobacteria and algae and an increase in the percentage of glucose mineralized (respired) by the heterotrophic component of the mat communities was observed. Results of temperature shift experiments indicated that the short-term response of the photoautotrophic component of these communities to thermal stress was an increase in the percentage of photosynthate released extracellularly

  13. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Gregg


    Full Text Available Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA. BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community.

  14. Benthic meiofaunal community response to the cascading effects of herbivory within an algal halo system of the Great Barrier Reef. (United States)

    Ollivier, Quinn R; Hammill, Edward; Booth, David J; Madin, Elizabeth M P; Hinchliffe, Charles; Harborne, Alastair R; Lovelock, Catherine E; Macreadie, Peter I; Atwood, Trisha B


    Benthic fauna play a crucial role in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling at the sediment-water boundary in aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial systems, grazing herbivores have been shown to influence below-ground communities through alterations to plant distribution and composition, however whether similar cascading effects occur in aquatic systems is unknown. Here, we assess the relationship between benthic invertebrates and above-ground fish grazing across the 'grazing halos' of Heron Island lagoon, Australia. Grazing halos, which occur around patch reefs globally, are caused by removal of seagrass or benthic macroalgae by herbivorous fish that results in distinct bands of unvegetated sediments surrounding patch reefs. We found that benthic algal canopy height significantly increased with distance from patch reef, and that algal canopy height was positively correlated with the abundances of only one invertebrate taxon (Nematoda). Both sediment carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N) and mean sediment particle size (μm) demonstrated a positive correlation with Nematoda and Arthropoda (predominantly copepod) abundances, respectively. These positive correlations indicate that environmental conditions are a major contributor to benthic invertebrate community distribution, acting on benthic communities in conjunction with the cascading effects of above-ground algal grazing. These results suggest that benthic communities, and the ecosystem functions they perform in this system, may be less responsive to changes in above-ground herbivorous processes than those previously studied in terrestrial systems. Understanding how above-ground organisms, and processes, affect their benthic invertebrate counterparts can shed light on how changes in aquatic communities may affect ecosystem function in previously unknown ways.

  15. Suspended organic particles drive the development of attached algal communities in degraded peatlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenberg Vilar, Alejandra; Vonk, J. Arie; van der geest, Harm; van Dam, Herman; Bichebois, Simon; Admiraal, Wim


    Mineral particles in rivers have been shown to cover adnate algal species, promoting motile and filamentous species. Such effects and the role of detrital particles have not been studied in stagnant waters. In degraded peat lands, detrital particles are very prominent and therefore we studied the

  16. Algal and Cyanobacterial communities in two rivers of the province of San Luis (Argentina subjected to anthropogenic influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Daruich


    Full Text Available AIM: The use of biological indicators of pollution has increased in recent years as an alternative to the monitoring of water quality. Phytoplankton community selectively respond to different anthropogenic disturbances, such as water dams and the increase of nutrients coming from city centers, which leads to the eutrophication of the aquatic environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition and the structure of the algal and Cyanobacterial communities in order to prove human influences by the presence of reservoirs with some degree of eutrophication and the impact of urbanization in two rivers at the Bebedero basin in San Luis province (Argentine. METHODS: Four sites were sampled: two of them were placed before dams and villages (V1 and (P1 and two after them (V2 and (P2. Each site was visited in every season of the year: summer, autumn, winter and spring. Qualitative and semi-quantitative phytoplankton samples were taken, and the frequency of occurrence was determined. Variations between pairs of sampling stations were analyzed through the Jaccard similarity and complementarity indices. RESULTS: Ninety two taxa were identified, of which diatoms were the most frequent. The most affected station was P2 with high abundance, less diversity and equitability, whereas the species more tolerant to the presence of organic matter were Melosira varians, Navicula tripunctata, Oscillatoria limosa, Gomphonema parvulum and Coelastrum microporum, and some species of euglenophytas. CONCLUSION: Therefore, the structure and composition of the algal and Cyanobacterial communities allowed us to identify sections more sensitive to human-induced alterations.

  17. Algal biofuels. (United States)

    Razeghifard, Reza


    The world is facing energy crisis and environmental issues due to the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Growing microalgae can contribute to practical solutions for these global problems because they can harvest solar energy and capture CO2 by converting it into biofuel using photosynthesis. Microalgae are robust organisms capable of rapid growth under a variety of conditions including in open ponds or closed photobioreactors. Their reduced biomass compounds can be used as the feedstock for mass production of a variety of biofuels. As another advantage, their ability to accumulate or secrete biofuels can be controlled by changing their growth conditions or metabolic engineering. This review is aimed to highlight different forms of biofuels produced by microalgae and the approaches taken to improve their biofuel productivity. The costs for industrial-scale production of algal biofuels in open ponds or closed photobioreactors are analyzed. Different strategies for photoproduction of hydrogen by the hydrogenase enzyme of green algae are discussed. Algae are also good sources of biodiesel since some species can make large quantities of lipids as their biomass. The lipid contents for some of the best oil-producing strains of algae in optimized growth conditions are reviewed. The potential of microalgae for producing petroleum related chemicals or ready-make fuels such as bioethanol, triterpenic hydrocarbons, isobutyraldehyde, isobutanol, and isoprene from their biomass are also presented.

  18. Influence of Diadema antillarum populations (Echinodermata: Diadematidae on algal community structure in Jardines de la Reina, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Martín Blanco


    Full Text Available The 1983-1984 mass mortality of Diadema antillarum produced severe damages on Caribbean reefs contributing to substantial changes in community structure that still persist. Despite the importance of Diadema grazing in structuring coral reefs, available information on current abundances and algal-urchin interactions in Cuba is scarce. We analyzed spatial variations in Diadema abundance and its influence on algal community structure in 22 reef sites in Jardines de la Reina, in June/2004 and April/2005. Urchins were counted in five 30x2m transects per site, and algal coverage was estimated in randomly located 0.25m side quadrats (15 per site. Abundances of Diadema were higher at reef crests (0.013-1.553 ind/m², while reef slope populations showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower and were overgrown by macroalgae (up to 87%, local values. Algal community structure at reef slopes were dominated by macroalgae, especially Dictyota, Lobophora and Halimeda while the most abundant macroalgae at reef crests were Halimeda and Amphiroa. Urchin densities were negatively and positively correlated with mean coverage of macroalgae and crustose coralline algae, respectively, when analyzing data pooled across all sites, but not with data from separate habitats (specially reef crest, suggesting, along with historical fish biomass, that shallow reef community structure is being shaped by the synergistic action of other factors (e.g. fish grazing rather than the influence of Diadema alone. However, we observed clear signs of Diadema grazing at reef crests and decreased macroalgal cover according to 2001 data, what suggest that grazing intensity at this habitat increased at the same time that Diadema recruitment began to be noticeable. Furthermore, the excessive abundance of macroalgae at reef slopes and the scarcity of crustose coralline algae seems to be due by the almost complete absence of D. antillarum at mid depth reefs, where local densities of this

  19. Particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate and dimethylsulfoxide in relation to iron availability and algal community structure in the Peru Upwelling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riseman, S.F.; DiTullio, G.R. [Charleston College, Charleston, SC (United States). Hillings Marine Lab.


    This study examined one aspect of atmospheric-ocean processes which may impact global climate change. In particular, it examined biogeochemical cycling of sulfur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in the marine environment. The study examined the impact of iron on phytoplankton biogenic sulfur production, physiological status and community structure in the Peruvian Upwelling System. In September 2000, two transects were conducted off the Peru coast to measure algal pigments, photosynthetic efficiency, macronutrients, dissolved iron concentrations, temperature and salinity. Vertical profiles of particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were also measured. Chlorophyll 'a' biomass was found to decrease substantially across the shelf, while DMSP and DMSO concentrations were found to be higher at the offshore stations, most likely because of the lower iron concentrations and the shift from diatom-dominated communities to ones dominated by cryptophytes and haptophytes. Similar patterns were observed during a shipboard iron-addition incubation experiment. The observations support an antioxidant function for DMSP and DMSO. The study showed that concentrations of dissolved iron can influence the net concentrations of DMSO and DMSO in oceans. It was suggested that more laboratory work is needed to address the physiological response of different taxa to iron stress in order to accurately interpret this field data. 46 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: field evidence of acclimatization. (United States)

    Jones, A M; Berkelmans, R; van Oppen, M J H; Mieog, J C; Sinclair, W


    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of zooxanthellae they harbour and, when multiple types are present, the relative abundance of types can be experimentally manipulated to increase the thermal limits of individual corals. Although the potential exists for this to translate into substantial thermal acclimatization of coral communities, to date there is no evidence to show that this takes place under natural conditions. In this study, we show field evidence of a dramatic change in the symbiont community of Acropora millepora, a common and widespread Indo-Pacific hard coral species, after a natural bleaching event in early 2006 in the Keppel Islands (Great Barrier Reef). Before bleaching, 93.5% (n=460) of the randomly sampled and tagged colonies predominantly harboured the thermally sensitive Symbiodinium type C2, while the remainder harboured a tolerant Symbiodinium type belonging to clade D or mixtures of C2 and D. After bleaching, 71% of the surviving tagged colonies that were initially C2 predominant changed to D or C1 predominance. Colonies that were originally C2 predominant suffered high mortality (37%) compared with D-predominant colonies (8%). We estimate that just over 18% of the original A. millepora population survived unchanged leaving 29% of the population C2 and 71% D or C1 predominant six months after the bleaching event. This change in the symbiont community structure, while it persists, is likely to have substantially increased the thermal tolerance of this coral population. Understanding the processes that underpin the temporal changes in symbiont communities is key to assessing the acclimatization potential of reef corals.

  1. Growing Community Capacity in Energy Development through Extension Education (United States)

    Romich, Eric; Bowen-Elzey, Nancy


    New energy policy, industry regulation, and market investment are influencing the development of renewable energy technologies, setting the stage for rural America to provide the energy of tomorrow. This article describes how Extension's renewable energy programming was implemented in two Ohio communities to engage elected officials and residents…

  2. Algal communities in cryoconite holes on the Russell glacier, Southwest Greenland (United States)

    Lamsters, Kristaps; Stivrins, Normunds; Karušs, Jānis; Krievāns, Māris; Rečs, Agnis


    The surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet in ablation zone has considerably darkened in the last decades, thus absorbing more solar radiation and accelerating ice melting. Darkening of glacier is made of different impurities that reduce surface albedo. These impurities are represented as cryoconite - combination of dust, soot and microorganisms. While mineral dust composes the greatest part of cryoconite, the black carbon is the most solar radiation absorbing constituent. Microorganisms on the ice are concentrated in cryoconite holes, which have long been of scientific interest, but still remain poorly understood. In order to investigate the microbial communities in cryoconite holes, we collected 12 samples from cryoconite holes at 6 sites located on a 2.5 km long transect line on Russell glacier, Southwest Greenland. The first sampling site was set 3 km from glacier margin at 552 m a.s.l. and the last sampling site was 500 m from the glacier margin at 423 m a.s.l. Depth and diameter of each cryoconite hole, as well as pH, temperature and electrical conductivity was measured in situ on July 29, 2017. During microscopic analysis all microcharcoal (10-100 µm), spheroidal carbonaceous particles (soot), pollen, spores and algae were recorded. Principal Component Analysis reveal two clusters of cryoconite holes (located at 423-465 m a.s.l. and 465-552 m a.s.l.) indicating altitudinal differences. Further, our results show that the biomass of green algae Mesotaeniaceae is correlated with temperature. Meanwhile green algae Chlamydomonadaceae correlates with temperature, microcharcoal and soot particle abundance. Our results show that green algae are dominant type of microorganisms inhabiting cryconite holes on the Russell's glacier at least up to distance of 3 km from ice margin. It is contrary to the previous study of Uetake et al. (2010), who found that cyanobacterial (Oscillatoriaceae) community dominated at 510-635 m altitude of the ablation area of Russell glacier in

  3. [Algal community structure and water quality assessment on drawdown area of Kaixian waters in Three Gorges Reservoir during winter storage period]. (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Song; Xie, Dan; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Yong-Bo; Long, Man


    The old town area of Kaixian county was flooded and showed reservoir characteristics after the water level of Three Gorges Reservoir got 172. 8 m in December 2008. The aquatic ecology and nutritional status of Kaixian drawdown area after water storage are still rarely reported. To understand the current water environment and changes in algal community structure of Kaixian drawdown area after 172.8 m water level, the algal composition, abundance, biomass distribution and changes of its sampling spots including Hanfeng Lake were observed twice during winter storage period in January and December 2009. The trends in phytoplankton community structure were analyzed and the water quality assessment of nutritional status was carried out. The results indicated that 6 phylums, 37 genera, 69 species of phytoplankton in total were identified in the two sampling, and the dominant species were Dinophyta and Cryptophyta. The cell density and biomass in December 2009 were lower than those in January 2009. The evaluation results of algal population structure and pollution indicators showed that the nutrition level of Kaixian drawdown area during the winter storage period was mesotrophic to eutrophic type, while diversity analysis result indicated moderate pollution.

  4. Characterization of a Methanogenic Community within an Algal Fed Anaerobic Digester (United States)

    Ellis, Joshua T.; Tramp, Cody; Sims, Ronald C.; Miller, Charles D.


    The microbial diversity and metabolic potential of a methanogenic consortium residing in a 3785-liter anaerobic digester, fed with wastewater algae, was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing technology. DNA was extracted from anaerobic sludge material and used in metagenomic analysis through PCR amplification of the methyl-coenzyme M reductase α subunit (mcrA) gene using primer sets ML, MCR, and ME. The majority of annotated mcrA sequences were assigned taxonomically to the genera Methanosaeta in the order Methanosarcinales. Methanogens from the genus Methanosaeta are obligate acetotrophs, suggesting this genus plays a dominant role in methane production from the analyzed fermentation sample. Numerous analyzed sequences within the algae fed anaerobic digester were unclassified and could not be assigned taxonomically. Relative amplicon frequencies were determined for each primer set to determine the utility of each in pyrosequencing. Primer sets ML and MCR performed better quantitatively (representing the large majority of analyzed sequences) than primer set ME. However, each of these primer sets was shown to provide a quantitatively unique community structure, and thus they are of equal importance in mcrA metagenomic analysis. PMID:23724331

  5. The Effect of Zebra Mussels on Algal Community Structure in an Impounded River System (United States)

    Trumble, A. F.; Luttenton, M.


    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, invaded the Great Lakes Region in the mid 1980's, and subsequently colonized inland lakes and coastal river systems through secondary invasions. The Muskegon River below Croton Dam was colonized by zebra mussels in 2000 following their introduction into Croton impoundment in the late 1990's. No zebra mussels were found below Croton Dam in 1999 but had increased to 25,000 m-2 by 2001. We examined the affect of zebra mussels on epilithic periphyton communities by comparing plots that were and were not colonized by zebra mussels. Chlorophyll a increased in both treatments over time but was significantly higher in control plots than in zebra mussel plots. The concentration of chlorophyll a in the control plots increased from 14 µgcm-2 to 26 µgcm-2 and the concentration in the zebra mussel plots started at 12 µgcm-2, peaked at 19 µgcm-2, and then decreased to 15 µgcm-2 over a 6 week period. In a related experiment using artificial streams, chlorophyll a increased with increasing zebra mussel density, but differences were not significant. The different trends observed between the two experiments may be explained in part by arthropod invertebrates associated with zebra mussel populations.

  6. Harmful algal blooms (HABs), dissolved organic matter (DOM), and planktonic microbial community dynamics at a near-shore and a harbour station influenced by upwelling (SW Iberian Peninsula) (United States)

    Loureiro, Sofia; Reñé, Albert; Garcés, Esther; Camp, Jordi; Vaqué, Dolors


    The surface microalgal community, including harmful species, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and bacterial and viral populations were studied during an annual cycle (November 2007-October 2008) in a Near-shore (NS) and a Harbour (H) station located in an upwelling area (Sagres, SW Iberian Peninsula). The higher water residence time, water stability and shallowness of harbours in comparison with open waters likely contributed to the differences found between stations regarding chemical variables, statistical correlations and harmful algal proliferations. Also, several differences were noticed from a previous assessment ( Loureiro et al., 2005) including higher SST, lower nitrate and chlorophyll a concentrations, along with a shift in the microplankton community structure from diatom to nanoflagellate predominance. These variations feasibly reflect the response of this dynamic system to regional environmental modifications contributing to the understanding of common patterns in environmental change trends. The division of the sampling period into (1) non-upwelling (Non-Uw), (2) "spin-up" of upwelling (SU-Uw), and (3) "spin-down" and relaxation-downwelling (SD-Rel) stages allowed the identification of natural groupings of microplankton samples by Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and viruses were the most significant abiotic and biotic variables, respectively, contributing to the dissimilarities between these stages (SIMPER analysis) and, therefore, potentially affecting the microplankton community structure. Harmful algal species and a stable viral community appeared to be favoured by SD-Rel conditions. Data seem to indicate that both Gymnodinium catenatum and Heterosigma akashiwo, the most abundant potentially harmful species, have been imported into the sampling area. Also, the H location, together with potential retention sites developing around the Cabo de São Vicente upwelling centre, may contribute to the local

  7. Emergence of Algal Blooms: The Effects of Short-Term Variability in Water Quality on Phytoplankton Abundance, Diversity, and Community Composition in a Tidal Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Egerton


    Full Text Available Algal blooms are dynamic phenomena, often attributed to environmental parameters that vary on short timescales (e.g., hours to days. Phytoplankton monitoring programs are largely designed to examine long-term trends and interannual variability. In order to better understand and evaluate the relationships between water quality variables and the genesis of algal blooms, daily samples were collected over a 34 day period in the eutrophic Lafayette River, a tidal tributary within Chesapeake Bay’s estuarine complex, during spring 2006. During this period two distinct algal blooms occurred; the first was a cryptomonad bloom and this was followed by a bloom of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium instriatum. Chlorophyll a, nutrient concentrations, and physical and chemical parameters were measured daily along with phytoplankton abundance and community composition. While 65 phytoplankton species from eight major taxonomic groups were identified in samples and total micro- and nano-phytoplankton cell densities ranged from 5.8 × 106 to 7.8 × 107 cells L−1, during blooms, cryptomonads and G. instriatum were 91.6% and 99.0%, respectively, of the total phytoplankton biomass during blooms. The cryptomonad bloom developed following a period of rainfall and concomitant increases in inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium concentrations 0 to 5 days prior were positively lag-correlated with cryptomonad abundance. In contrast, the G. insriatum bloom developed during periods of low dissolved nitrogen concentrations and their abundance was negatively correlated with inorganic nitrogen concentrations.

  8. Biophysical modelling of phytoplankton communities from first principles using two-layered spheres: Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robertson Lain, L


    Full Text Available (PFT) analysis. To these ends, an initial validation of a new model of Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) is presented here. This paper makes a first order comparison of two prominent phytoplankton Inherent Optical Property (IOP) models with the EAP...

  9. Dinoflagellate community structure from the stratified environment of the Bay of Bengal, with special emphasis on harmful algal bloom species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, R.K.; Hegde, S.; Anil, A.C.

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been documented along the coasts of India and the ill effects felt by society at large. Most of these reports are from the Arabian Sea, west coast of India, whereas its counterpart, the Bay of Bengal (BOB), has...

  10. A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event : field evidence of acclimatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, A. M.; Berkelmans, R.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Mieog, J. C.; Sinclair, W.


    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts (zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium) is highly sensitive to temperature stress, which makes coral reefs vulnerable to climate change. Thermal tolerance in corals is known to be substantially linked to the type of

  11. Species composition and structure of a photophilic algal community dominated by Halopteris scoparia (L. Sauvageau from the North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballesteros, Enric


    Full Text Available A photophilic agal community dominated by Halopteris scoparia and other brown algae is described from sheltered environments from the North-Western Mediterranean rocky bottoms. This community is included in the Padino-Cladostephetum hirsutae previously described by FELDMANN(1937 for the same geographical area. This plant association is characterized by the lack of an upper erect stratum of Fucales and by the low degree of presence of thermophilic species which typify other similar communities described from other Mediterranean areas. Algal biomass ranges from 1100 to 2500 g dw m-2 and coverage percentage ranges from 250 to 450 %. The great miniaturization and the extraordinary diversity and species richness of Mediterranean photophilic algal communities is assessed. Although there is not a clear seasonal change in biomass of the dominant species in the community, two structural stages can be discerned along an annual cycle: a developed community (summer and a diversified community (winter. Finally, the community structure and the environmental factors that impinge upon it are compared with those found in other Mediterranean phytobenthic communities.

    Se describe una comunidad de algas fotófilas mediterráneas de modo calmado dominada por Hatopteris scoparia y otros feófitos de porte mediano, la cual se adscribe a la asociación Padino-Clodostephetum hirsutae J. Feldmann 1937. Dicha asociación se caracteriza por la ausencia de un estrato elevado de Fucales y el escaso grado de presencia de especies termófilas propia de comunidades similares descritas de otras zonas del Mediterráneo. La biomasa algal oscila entre 1100 y 2500 g ps m-2 mientras que el porcentaje de recubrimiento varía entre el 250 y el 450%. Se pone de manifiesto la gran miniaturización de las comunidades de algas fotólitas mediterráneas y su extraordinaria diversidad y riqueza especificas. Pese a no existir un claro

  12. Assessment of nutrient enrichment by use of algal-, invertebrate-, and fish-community attributes in wadeable streams in ecoregions surrounding the Great Lakes (United States)

    Frey, Jeffrey W.; Bell, Amanda H.; Hambrook Berkman, Julie A.; Lorenz, David L.


    The algal, invertebrate, and fish taxa and community attributes that best reflect the effects of nutrients along a gradient of low to high nutrient concentrations in wadeable, primarily midwestern streams were determined as part of the U.S. Geological Suvey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Nutrient data collected from 64 sampling sites that reflected reference, agricultural, and urban influences between 1993 and 2006 were used to represent the nutrient gradient within Nutrient Ecoregion VI (Cornbelt and Northern Great Plains), VII (Mostly Glaciated Dairy Region), and VIII (Nutrient Poor Largely Glaciated Upper Midwest and Northeast). Nutrient Ecoregions VII and VIII comprise the Glacial North diatom ecoregion (GNE) and Nutrient Ecoregion VI represents the Central and Western Plains diatom ecoregion (CWPE). The diatom-ecoregion groupings were used chiefly for data analysis. The total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) data from 64 sites, where at least 6 nutrient samples were collected within a year at each site, were used to classify the sites into low-, medium-, and high-nutrient categories based upon the 10th and 75th percentiles of for sites within each Nutrient Ecoregion. In general, TN and TP concentrations were 3-5 times greater in Nutrient Ecoregion VI than in Nutrient Ecoregions VII and VIII. A subgroup of 54 of these 64 sites had algal-, invertebrate-, and fish-community data that were collected within the same year as the nutrients; these sites were used to assess the effects of nutrients on the biological communities. Multidimensional scaling was used to determine whether the entire region could be assessed together or whether there were regional differences between the algal, invertebrate, and fish communities. The biological communities were significantly different between the northern sites, primarily in the GNE and the southern sites, primarily in the CWPE. In the higher nutrient concentration gradient in the streams of the

  13. Contribution to the study of deep coastal detritic bottoms: the algal communities of the continental shelf off the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JOHER


    Full Text Available Three main algal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the continental shelf off Mallorca and Menorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean are described herein: maërl beds dominated by Spongites fruticulosus and forests of Laminaria rodriguezii located in the Menorca channel, and Peyssonnelia inamoena beds found along the Southern coast of Menorca. There seems to be a gradient of disturbance from the highly disturbed Peyssonnelia beds to the almost undisturbed L. rodriguezii forests. Whether this gradient is the result of current and past anthropogenic pressure (e.g. trawling intensity or is driven by natural environmental factors needs further assessment. Finally, the location of the target communities by means of ROV dives combined with the use of a Box-Corer dredge and beam trawl proved to be a good methodology in the study of the composition and structure of these deep water detritic communities.

  14. Ecological Study of Periphytic Algal Community of Doodh Ganga and Khansha-Mansha Streams of Yusmarg Forests: A Health Resort of Kashmir Valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Rashid


    Full Text Available The present study on Doodh Ganga and Khansha-Mansha streams of Yusmarg forests deals with the general ecological studies on periphytic algal community in terms of species composition and density. During the present investigation the periphytic algal community of Doodh Ganga and Khansha-Mansha streams were represented by 30 taxa which belonged to 4 major classes namely Bacillariophyceae (14, Chlorophyceae (11, Cyanophyceae (4 and Euglenophyceae (1. The most common periphytic species encountered across all the sites included Closterium sp., Zygnema sp., Amphora sp., Cymbella sp., Epithemia sp., Fragilaria sp., Navicula sp., Synedra sp., Tabellaria sp., Lyngbya sp. and Phormidium sp. Among the two streams, Doodh Ganga showed large number of taxa (45 and Khansha-Mansha was having 37 taxa of periphyton. Bacillariophyceae was the dominant group both in diversity and density and included 14 taxa contributing 57% of total periphytic algal population. Cyanophyceae forming the second dominant class was represented by 4 genera comprising 22% of the total periphytic algae .Chlorophyceae ranked third in its dominance pattern with 11 genera forming 20% of all the periphytic algae. Euglenophyceae was represented by only one species of Euglena sp. forming 1% of all the periphytic algae and found only at site 2 (Doodh Ganga downstream.Amongst the study sites the highest (5.69 value of Shannon Weiner Index was found at Doodh Ganga upstream while as lowest (4.38 at Khansha-Mansha downstream. The primary conclusion is that the streams, having crystal clear water, and are free from pollution as Chlorophyceae are better represented in both the streams. Further, as a result of less anthropogenic pressures the quality of water is fairly good.

  15. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nobre, Tânia


    with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite, and higher non...

  16. Growing up as a part of teenage communities: Current trends and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G H Azashikov


    Full Text Available The article describes teenage communities as a special space of growing up. The authors examine some major transformations of the contemporary society and socialization risks generated by them in teenage communities for today’s high parental employment outside the home makes peer groups the most important agent of socialization and a key space for teenagers’ growing up. The article identifies the main socio-psychological conceptions of group dynamics, types of relationships among teenagers and functions of peer communities that provide teens a chance to grow up in a system of intergroup communications. The authors emphasize the fact that traditionally peer relationships serve as a “school” of social experience necessary for the normal format of growing up, but today communicational and recreational practices of teens and youth are increasingly “constructed” by the consumption industry. The article considers tendencies of consumerism and virtualization in teenage communities that are changing not only the shape but also the very essence of interactions and relationships among teens and youngsters; discusses the criminalization risks in these groups due to today’s mass media impact, and the risks associated with the Internet activity, such as intellectual primitivization and infantilization due to the overreliance on the Internet.

  17. Photophysiology and albedo-changing potential of the ice algal community on the surface of the Greenland ice sheet. (United States)

    Yallop, Marian L; Anesio, Alexandre M; Perkins, Rupert G; Cook, Joseph; Telling, Jon; Fagan, Daniel; MacFarlane, James; Stibal, Marek; Barker, Gary; Bellas, Chris; Hodson, Andy; Tranter, Martyn; Wadham, Jemma; Roberts, Nicholas W


    Darkening of parts of the Greenland ice sheet surface during the summer months leads to reduced albedo and increased melting. Here we show that heavily pigmented, actively photosynthesising microalgae and cyanobacteria are present on the bare ice. We demonstrate the widespread abundance of green algae in the Zygnematophyceae on the ice sheet surface in Southwest Greenland. Photophysiological measurements (variable chlorophyll fluorescence) indicate that the ice algae likely use screening mechanisms to downregulate photosynthesis when exposed to high intensities of visible and ultraviolet radiation, rather than non-photochemical quenching or cell movement. Using imaging microspectrophotometry, we demonstrate that intact cells and filaments absorb light with characteristic spectral profiles across ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, whereas inorganic dust particles typical for these areas display little absorption. Our results indicate that the phototrophic community growing directly on the bare ice, through their photophysiology, most likely have an important role in changing albedo, and subsequently may impact melt rates on the ice sheet.

  18. Water-quality parameters and benthic algal communities at selected streams in Minnesota, August 2000 - Study design, methods and data (United States)

    Lee, K.E.


    Water-quality measurements and benthic algal samples were measured or collected from select Minnesota streams as part of a multiagency (Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Geological Survey) study. The goal of the multiagency study was to identify quantifiable thresholds of water-quality impairment and establish quantifiable indicators of nutrient enrichment for medium to high-order streams.

  19. Water-quality models to assess algal community dynamics, water quality, and fish habitat suitability for two agricultural land-use dominated lakes in Minnesota, 2014 (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.


    Fish habitat can degrade in many lakes due to summer blue-green algal blooms. Predictive models are needed to better manage and mitigate loss of fish habitat due to these changes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, developed predictive water-quality models for two agricultural land-use dominated lakes in Minnesota—Madison Lake and Pearl Lake, which are part of Minnesota’s sentinel lakes monitoring program—to assess algal community dynamics, water quality, and fish habitat suitability of these two lakes under recent (2014) meteorological conditions. The interaction of basin processes to these two lakes, through the delivery of nutrient loads, were simulated using CE-QUAL-W2, a carbon-based, laterally averaged, two-dimensional water-quality model that predicts distribution of temperature and oxygen from interactions between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics.The CE-QUAL-W2 models successfully predicted water temperature and dissolved oxygen on the basis of the two metrics of mean absolute error and root mean square error. For Madison Lake, the mean absolute error and root mean square error were 0.53 and 0.68 degree Celsius, respectively, for the vertical temperature profile comparisons; for Pearl Lake, the mean absolute error and root mean square error were 0.71 and 0.95 degree Celsius, respectively, for the vertical temperature profile comparisons. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were key metrics for calibration targets. These calibrated lake models also simulated algal community dynamics and water quality. The model simulations presented potential explanations for persistently large total phosphorus concentrations in Madison Lake, key differences in nutrient concentrations between these lakes, and summer blue-green algal bloom persistence.Fish habitat suitability simulations for cool-water and warm-water fish indicated that, in general, both lakes contained a large

  20. Microbial community in a precursory scenario of growing Tagetes patula in a lunar greenhouse (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N. O.; Korniichuk, O. S.; Voznyuk, T. M.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Lytvynenko, T. L.; Rogutskyy, I. S.; Mytrokhyn, O. V.; Estrella-Liopis, V. R.; Borodinova, T. I.; Mashkovska, S. P.; Foing, B. H.; Kordyum, V. A.

    A confined prototype plant-microbial system is elaborated for demonstration of growing pioneer plants in a lunar greenhouse. A precursory scenario of growing Tagetes patula L. in a substrate anorthosite which is similar mineralogically and chemically to lunar silicate rocks includes the use of a microbial community. Microorganisms served for preventive substrate colonization to avoid infection by deleterious microorganisms as well as for bioleaching and delivering of nutritional elements from anorthosite to plants. A model consortium of a siliceous bacterium, biocontrol agents, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provided an acceptable growth and blossoming of Tagetes patula L. under growth limiting factors in terrestrial conditions.

  1. Growing Local Value How to Build Business Partnerships That Strengthen Your Community

    CERN Document Server

    Hammel, Laury


    Hanna Andersson founder Gun Denhart and successful entrepreneur Laury Hammel show how every aspect of a business (from product creation to employee recruitment to vendor selection) holds the dual promise of bigger profits and a stronger local community. With practical tools and real-life examples of the best practitioners and techniques of values-driven business, "Growing Local Value" provides a framework for the full spectrum of ways in which a business can contribute to its community - and the benefits a company receives when it does so.

  2. Algal-bacterial interactions in metal contaminated floodplain sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, M.E.Y.; Greve, G.D.; Garcia-Meza, J.V.; Massieux, B.; Sprenger, W.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Breure, A.M.; Rutgers, M.; Admiraal, W.


    The aim of the present study was to investigate algal-bacterial interactions in a gradient of metal contaminated natural sediments. By means of multivariate techniques, we related the genetic structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE) and the physiological structure (community-level physiological profiling, CLPP) of the bacterial communities to the species composition of the algal communities and to the abiotic environmental variables, including metal contamination. The results revealed that genetic and physiological structure of the bacterial communities correlated with the species composition of the algal community, but hardly to the level of metal pollution. This must be interpreted as an indication for a strong and species-specific linkage of algal and bacterial species in floodplain sediments. Metals were, however, not proven to affect either the algal or the bacterial communities of the Dutch river floodplains. - Algal and bacterial communities in floodplain sediments are interlinked, but are not affected by metal pollution

  3. Effects of application of corn straw on soil microbial community structure during the maize growing season. (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Lin, Yin-Hua; Yang, Zhong-Qi; Xu, Yan-Peng; Tan, Fei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Wang, Miao; Xu, De-Rong; Wang, Xi-Zhuo


    This study investigated the influence of corn straw application on soil microbial communities and the relationship between such communities and soil properties in black soil. The crop used in this study was maize (Zea mays L.). The five treatments consisted of applying a gradient (50, 100, 150, and 200%) of shattered corn straw residue to the soil. Soil samples were taken from May through September during the 2012 maize growing season. The microbial community structure was determined using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Our results revealed that the application of corn straw influenced the soil properties and increased the soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Applying corn straw to fields also influenced the variation in soil microbial biomass and community composition, which is consistent with the variations found in soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil respiration (SR). However, the soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio had no effect on soil microbial communities. The abundance of PLFAs, TN, and SR was higher in C1.5 than those in other treatments, suggesting that the soil properties and soil microbial community composition were affected positively by the application of corn straw to black soil. A Principal Component Analysis indicated that soil microbial communities were different in the straw decomposition processes. Moreover, the soil microbial communities from C1.5 were significantly different from those of CK (p soil and significant variations in the ratio of monounsaturated-to-branched fatty acids with different straw treatments that correlated with SR (p soil properties and soil microbial communities and that these properties affect these communities. The individual PLFA signatures were sensitive indicators that reflected the changes in the soil environment condition. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW): a family-centered, community-based obesity prevention randomized controlled trial for preschool child-parent pairs. (United States)

    Po'e, Eli K; Heerman, William J; Mistry, Rishi S; Barkin, Shari L


    Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) is a randomized controlled trial that tests the efficacy of a family-centered, community-based, behavioral intervention to prevent childhood obesity among preschool-aged children. Focusing on parent-child pairs, GROW utilizes a multi-level framework, which accounts for macro (i.e., built-environment) and micro (i.e., genetics) level systems that contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic. Six hundred parent-child pairs will be randomized to a 3-year healthy lifestyle intervention or a 3-year school readiness program. Eligible children are enrolled between ages 3 and 5, are from minority communities, and are not obese. The principal site for the GROW intervention is local community recreation centers and libraries. The primary outcome is childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectory at the end of the three-year study period. In addition to other anthropometric measurements, mediators and moderators of growth are considered, including genetics, accelerometry, and diet recall. GROW is a staged intensity intervention, consisting of intensive, maintenance, and sustainability phases. Throughout the study, parents build skills in nutrition, physical activity, and parenting, concurrently forming new social networks. Participants are taught goal-setting, self-monitoring, and problem solving techniques to facilitate sustainable behavior change. The GROW curriculum uses low health literacy communication and social media to communicate key health messages. The control arm is administered to both control and intervention participants. By conducting this trial in public community centers, and by implementing a family-centered approach to sustainable healthy childhood growth, we aim to develop an exportable community-based intervention to address the expanding public health crisis of pediatric obesity. © 2013.

  5. Detecting the Killer Toxin (Harmful Algal Blooms)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo


    IAEA is stepping up efforts to help countries understand the phenomenon and use more reliable methods for early detection and monitoring so as to limit harmful algal blooms (HABs) adverse effects on coastal communities everywhere.

  6. Effects of fish density and river fertilization on algal standing stocks, invertebrates communities, and fish production in an Arctic River (United States)

    Deegan, Linda A.; Peterson, B.J.; Golden, H.; McIvor, C.C.; Miller, M.C.


    This study examined the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down controls of an arctic stream food web by simultaneous manipulation of the top predator and nutrient availability. We created a two-step trophic system (algae to insects) by removal of the top predator (Arctic grayling, Thymallus arcticus) in fertilized and control stream reaches. Fish abundance was also increased 10 times to examine the effect of high fish density on stream ecosystem dynamics and fish. We measured the response of epilithic algae, benthic and drifting insects, and fish to nutrient enrichment and to changes in fish density. Insect grazers had little effect on algae and fish had little effect on insects. In both the control and fertilized reaches, fish growth, energy storage, and reproductive response of females declined with increased fish density. Fish growth and energy storage were more closely correlated with per capita insect availability than with per capita algal standing stock

  7. A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils. (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng


    Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators.

  8. Sustainable Algal Energy Production and Environmental Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, William E. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    Overall, our results confirm that wild algal species sequester a wide range of organic and metal contaminants and excess nutrients (PAHs, trace metals, and nutrients) from natural waters, and suggest parameters that could be useful in predicting uptake rates for algae growing on an algal floway or other algal growth systems in the environment or in industrial processes. The implication for various fuel production processes differ with the detailed unit operations involved, and these results will be of use in the developing of scaling experiments for various types of engineering process designs.

  9. Assessment of potential effects of water produced from coalbed natural gas development on macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the Powder River and Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana, 2010 (United States)

    Peterson, David A.; Hargett, Eric G.; Feldman, David L.


    Ongoing development of coalbed natural gas in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and Montana led to formation of an interagency aquatic task group to address concerns about the effects of the resulting production water on biological communities in streams of the area. Ecological assessments, made from 2005–08 under the direction of the task group, indicated biological condition of the macroinvertebrate and algal communities in the middle reaches of the Powder was lower than in the upper or lower reaches. On the basis of the 2005–08 results, sampling of the macroinvertebrate and algae communities was conducted at 18 sites on the mainstem Powder River and 6 sites on the mainstem Tongue River in 2010. Sampling-site locations were selected on a paired approach, with sites located upstream and downstream of discharge points and tributaries associated with coalbed natural gas development. Differences in biological condition among site pairs were evaluated graphically and statistically using multiple lines of evidence that included macroinvertebrate and algal community metrics (such as taxa richness, relative abundance, functional feeding groups, and tolerance) and output from observed/expected (O/E) macroinvertebrate models from Wyoming and Montana. Multiple lines of evidence indicated a decline in biological condition in the middle reaches of the Powder River, potentially indicating cumulative effects from coalbed natural gas discharges within one or more reaches between Flying E Creek and Wild Horse Creek in Wyoming. The maximum concentrations of alkalinity in the Powder River also occurred in the middle reaches. Biological condition in the upper and lower reaches of the Powder River was variable, with declines between some site pairs, such as upstream and downstream of Dry Fork and Willow Creek, and increases at others, such as upstream and downstream of Beaver Creek. Biological condition at site pairs on the Tongue River showed an increase in one case

  10. Coral and algal community primary succession on new vertical substrate at Rackham’s Cay, Port Royal, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Trench


    Full Text Available Jamaica’s trans-shipment industry is amongst the largest in the Caribbean with 90% of trans-shipment activities occurring in Kingston Harbour. The eastern ship channel is populated with patch and fringing coral reefs. In 2002, approximately 20% of an originally sloping face of Rackham’s Cay, on the southern edge of the channel, was cut vertically to 18m and dredged to widen the channel. The successional changes on the newly created vertical limestone wall was assessed between 2009 and 2012 at 5m, 10m and 15m depths using bi-annual photographs of fixed 1 m² quadrats. Photographs were analyzed using Coral Point Count. No colonization of either algal or coralline species was observed at 15m. Initially calcareous and fleshy algae dominated at 5m but showed a gradual decrease over time. Calcareous algae dominated at 10m and increaseed gradually over the 4 years. Stony corals at both 5m and 10m had overall low cover and slow colonization; the shallower depth had more coverage (4.1% maximum in 2011. Siderastrea sidera -which dominated Rackham’s Cay before dredging- was consistently present in low coverage. Colonization by species of Acropora and Scolymia indicate slower but better succession at 10m. Ten years following dredging activities, colonization and recruitment have been slow but successful at 5m and 10m; species previously described as abundant lead the colonization. We recommend limiting coral relocation activities to depths not exceeding 10m.

  11. Macroinvertebrate and algal communities in an extremely acidic river and the Kawah Ijen crater lake (pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhr, A.J.; Sluik, R.; Olaveson, M.M.; Ivorra, N.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.


    Acidic aquatic ecosystems are mainly characterized by low pH and high concentrations of metals and other elements with evident effects on local community structure. Acidity effects on benthic communities in one of the world's largest extremely acidic crater lakes, the Kawah Ijen (East Java,

  12. The role of light availability and herbivory on algal responses to nutrient enrichment in a riparian wetland, Alaska. (United States)

    Rober, Allison R; Stevenson, R Jan; Wyatt, Kevin H


    We investigated how the relative availability of solar radiation in the presence or absence of grazing alters the ability of benthic algae to respond to nutrient enrichment in an Alaskan marsh. We used a factorial mesocosm experiment that included nutrient enrichment (enriched or control), grazing (grazed or ungrazed), and light (unshaded or shaded) to simulate shading by macrophytes early and late in the growing season, respectively. We found stronger effects of grazers and nutrients compared to light on benthic algal biomass and taxonomic composition. Algal biomass increased in nutrient-enriched treatments and was reduced by grazing. Shading did not have an effect on algal biomass or taxonomic composition, but the concentration of chl a per algal biovolume increased with shading, demonstrating the ability of algae to compensate for changes in light availability. Algal taxonomic composition was more affected by grazer presence than nutrients or light. Grazer-resistant taxa (basal filaments of Stigeoclonium) were replaced by diatoms (Nitzschia) and filamentous green algae (Ulothrix) when herbivores were removed. The interacting and opposing influences of nutrients and grazing indicate that the algal community is under dual control from the bottom-up (nutrient limitation) and from the top-down (consumption by herbivores), although grazers had a stronger influence on algal biomass and taxonomic composition than nutrient enrichment. Our results suggest that low light availability will not inhibit the algal response to elevated nutrient concentrations expected with ongoing climate change, but grazers rapidly consume algae following enrichment, masking the effects of elevated nutrients on algal production. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  13. Nutrient removal from horticultural wastewater by benthic filamentous algae Klebsormidium sp., Stigeoclonium spp. and their communities: From laboratory flask to outdoor Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS). (United States)

    Liu, Junzhuo; Danneels, Bram; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Vyverman, Wim


    Benthic filamentous algae have evident advantages in wastewater treatment over unicellular microalgae, including the ease in harvesting and resistance to predation. To assess the potentials of benthic filamentous algae in treating horticultural wastewater under natural conditions in Belgium, three strains and their mixture with naturally wastewater-borne microalgae were cultivated in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks in laboratory as well as in 1 m(2) scale outdoor Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) with different flow rates. Stigeoclonium competed well with the natural wastewater-borne microalgae and contributed to most of the biomass production both in Erlenmeyer flasks and outdoor ATS at flow rates of 2-6 L min(-1) (water velocity 3-9 cm s(-1)), while Klebsormidium was not suitable for growing in horticultural wastewater under the tested conditions. Flow rate had great effects on biomass production and nitrogen removal, while phosphorus removal was less influenced by flow rate due to other mechanisms than assimilation by algae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds (WWT HRAP) for low-cost biofuel production. (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Abbas; Craggs, Rupert; Farid, Mohammed M


    Growing energy demand and water consumption have increased concerns about energy security and efficient wastewater treatment and reuse. Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds (WWT HRAPs) are a promising technology that could help solve these challenges concurrently where climate is favorable. WWT HRAPs have great potential for biofuel production as a by-product of WWT, since the costs of algal cultivation and harvest for biofuel production are covered by the wastewater treatment function. Generally, 800-1400 GJ/ha/year energy (average biomass energy content: 20 GJ/ton; HRAP biomass productivity: 40-70 tons/ha/year) can be produced in the form of harvestable biomass from WWT HRAP which can be used to provide community-level energy supply. In this paper the benefits of WWT HRAPs are compared with conventional mass algal culture systems. Moreover, parameters to effectively increase algal energy content and overall energy production from WWT HRAP are discussed including selection of appropriate algal biomass biofuel conversion pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4627 Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4627

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil. This study evaluated the heterogeneity in periphytic algal community, under the influence of time colonization on artificial substratum. We also examined which abiotic variables most influenced the community in natural and artificial substratum. Egeria najas Planchon was used as natural substratum, and a plastic plant, as artificial. This experiment was carried out in a lateral arm from Rosana Reservoir, formed by Corvo Stream (Paranapanema river basin, in the period from November 21st to December 12nd, 2003, characterized as a warm and rainy period. Changes in species composition were assessed using the similarity indices. 495 taxa were registered in the phycoperiphytic community, distributed in 133 genera and 11 classes. Zygnemaphyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae presented higher species number, in both substrata. Staurodesmus, Closterium, Staurastrum and Cosmarium (Desmidiales; Gomphonema and Eunotia (Pennales; Characium, Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus (Chlorococcales; Anabaena and Aphanocapsa (Nostocales and Chroococcales, respectively were the most species-rich genera. The epiphytic community reached the highest species richness in the 15th successional day. Regardless the substratum type, the number of species was probably related to the high concentrations of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen.Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil. This study evaluated the heterogeneity in periphytic algal community, under the influence of time colonization on artificial substratum. We also examined which abiotic variables most influenced the community in natural and artificial substratum. Egeria najas Planchon was used as natural substratum, and a plastic plant, as artificial. This experiment was

  16. Algal blooms and Membrane Based Desalination Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villacorte, L.O.


    Seawater desalination is rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity (~80 million m3/day in 2013), plant size and global application. An emerging threat to this technology is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational

  17. Effects of changing continuous iron input rates on a Southern Ocean algal assemblage (United States)

    Hare, C. E.; DiTullio, G. R.; Riseman, S. F.; Crossley, A. C.; Popels, L. C.; Sedwick, P. N.; Hutchins, D. A.


    The upwelling of nutrients and iron (Fe) sustains biological production in much of the Southern Ocean. Using a shipboard natural community continuous culture system (Ecostat), we supplied a single added Fe concentration at two dilution rates chosen to examine the effects of variations in realistic growth and loss rates on an Fe-limited algal community in the Antarctic Zone south of Australia. A parallel growout experiment provided "no-dilution" +Fe and -Fe controls. In the continuous flow experiment, phytoplankton biomass was lower and more constant throughout the incubation and major nutrients were never depleted. Nanophytoplankton abundance remained similar in both growout treatments, and therefore, growth of this group did not appear to be Fe-limited. The addition of Fe in a continuous fashion resulted in a community co-dominated by both small diatoms and nanophytoplankton. Increases in dilution rate favored diatom species that were smaller and faster-growing, as well as non-silicified algal groups. Particulate carbon (PC) to particulate nitrogen (PN) ratios increased above the Redfield ratio when Fe was added in a continuous fashion, while biogenic silica (BSi) to PC and PN ratios decreased 2-3 fold in the continuous flow experiment compared to the initial conditions and the parallel growout control experiment. Photosynthetic efficiency increased in the continuous flow treatments above the control but remained significantly lower than in the 1.4 nM Fe addition. The results of our shipboard continuous flow experiments are compared and contrasted with those of the mesoscale Southern Ocean Iron RElease Experiment (SOIREE) carried out at the same site. Our results suggest that increases in natural dilution rates (i.e. vertical turbulent diffusion) in polar Antarctic waters could shift the algal community towards smaller, faster-growing algal species, thus having a major effect on nutrient cycling and carbon export in the Southern Ocean.

  18. Characterization of the Kootenai River Algae Community and Primary Productivity Before and After Experimental Nutrient Addition, 2004–2007 [Chapter 2, Kootenai River Algal Community Characterization, 2009 KTOI REPORT].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holderman, Charlie [Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Bonners Ferry, ID; Anders, Paul [Cramer Fish Sciences; Moscow, ID; Shafii, Bahman [Statistical Consulting Services; Clarkston, WA


    The Kootenai River ecosystem (spelled Kootenay in Canada) has experienced numerous ecological changes since the early 1900s. Some of the largest impacts to habitat, biological communities, and ecological function resulted from levee construction along the 120 km of river upstream from Kootenay Lake, completed by the 1950s, and the construction and operation of Libby Dam on the river near Libby Montana, completed in 1972. Levee construction isolated tens of thousands of hectares of historic functioning floodplain habitat from the river channel downstream in Idaho and British Columbia (B.C.) severely reducing natural biological productivity and habitat diversity crucial to large river-floodplain ecosystem function. Libby Dam greatly reduces sediment and nutrient transport to downstream river reaches, and dam operations cause large changes in the timing, duration, and magnitude of river flows. These and other changes have contributed to the ecological collapse of the post-development Kootenai River ecosystem and its native biological communities. In response to large scale loss of nutrients, experimental nutrient addition was initiated in the North Arm of Kootenay Lake in 1992, in the South Arm of Kootenay Lake in 2004, and in the Kootenai River at the Idaho-Montana border during 2005. This report characterizes baseline chlorophyll concentration and accrual (primary productivity) rates and diatom and algal community composition and ecological metrics in the Kootenai River for four years, one (2004) before, and three (2005 through 2007) after nutrient addition. The study area encompassed a 325 km river reach from the upper Kootenay River at Wardner, B.C. (river kilometer (rkm) 445) downstream through Montana and Idaho to Kootenay Lake in B.C. (rkm 120). Sampling reaches included an unimpounded reach furthest upstream and four reaches downstream from Libby Dam affected by impoundment: two in the canyon reach (one with and one without nutrient addition), a braided reach

  19. Social control as supplyside harm reduction strategy The case of an indigenous coca growing community in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARCIA-YI, Jaqueline


    Full Text Available Traditional coca uses have taken place in Peru and Bolivia from three thousand years. International organizations have urged the implementation of “zero-coca” growing policies in those countries, although without tangible results. Supply-side harm reduction strategies are currently being implemented in Bolivia, which rely on social control to limit, although not totally abolish coca growing. In this article, the different motivations for traditional coca growing are extensively reviewed, and the data from a survey conducted with 496 farmers in an indigenous community is examined, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of the coca-growing problem and to evaluate if social control could potentially influence the scale of coca growing in Peru. The results suggest that social control variables, such as attachment, involvement, and beliefs, seem to limit coca-growing areas. Those factors have been largely overlooked and may offer an opportunity to reduce coca areas if explicitly considered in anti-drug policy design.

  20. Uniform algal growth in photobioreactors using surface scatterers (United States)

    Ahsan, Syed S.; Pereyra, Brandon; Erickson, David


    Cultures of algae, such as cyanobacteria, are a promising source of renewable energy. However, algal growth is highly dependent on light intensity and standard photobioreactors do a poor job of distributing light uniformly for algal utilization due to shading effects in dense algal cultures. Engineered scattering schemes are already employed in current slab-waveguide technologies, like edge-lit LEDs. Stacking such slab-waveguides that uniformly distribute light could potentially yield photobioreactors to overcome the shading effect and grow extremely high densities of algal cultures that would lower monetary and energetic costs. Here, we characterize and design a scattering scheme for specific application within photobioreactors which employs a gradient distribution of surface scatterers with uniform lateral scattering intensity. This uniform scattering scheme is shown to be superior for algal cultivation.

  1. Influence of algal farming on fish assemblages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Kajsa C.; Svensson, Sara; Oehman, Marcus C. [Stockholm Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Stockholm (Sweden)


    We examined the influence of algal farming on fish assemblages in two shallow coastal lagoons in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Fish assemblages were visually investigated using a belt transect method and the line-intercept technique was used to examine the substrate composition. 101 species of fish belonging to 31 families were recorded. Algal farming affected the associated fish fauna in terms of abundance, species richness, trophic identity and fish community composition. However, the impact differed between the lagoons. Algal farms in one lagoon hosted a more abundant and diversified fish fauna than controls, whereas farms in the other lagoon exhibited lower fish densities and similar species diversity compared to controls. The discrepancies between lagoons may be an effect of differences in farming intensity and character of the substratum. (Author)

  2. Landscapes for Learning: Growing Children, Youth, Schools, and Communities. Linking Learning with Life. (United States)

    Vander Mey, Brenda J.; McDonald, Sian I.

    This booklet provides information on implementing the Landscapes for Learning (LFL) program, which was conceived to bring children, youths, and communities together to learn about landscaping while beautifying local schools and communities. The booklet begins with a discussion of the concept of environmental stewardship. Described next are the…

  3. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi detected in forest soil are spatially heterogeneous but do not vary throughout the growing season. (United States)

    Davison, John; Öpik, Maarja; Zobel, Martin; Vasar, Martti; Metsis, Madis; Moora, Mari


    Despite the important ecosystem role played by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), little is known about spatial and temporal variation in soil AMF communities. We used pyrosequencing to characterise AMF communities in soil samples (n = 44) from a natural forest ecosystem. Fungal taxa were identified by BLAST matching of reads against the MaarjAM database of AMF SSU rRNA gene diversity. Sub-sampling within our dataset and experimental shortening of a set of long reads indicated that our approaches to taxonomic identification and diversity analysis were robust to variations in pyrosequencing read length and numbers of reads per sample. Different forest plots (each 10 × 10 m and separated from one another by 30 m) contained significantly different soil AMF communities, and the pairwise similarity of communities decreased with distance up to 50 m. However, there were no significant changes in community composition between different time points in the growing season (May-September). Spatial structure in soil AMF communities may be related to the heterogeneous vegetation of the natural forest study system, while the temporal stability of communities suggests that AMF in soil represent a fairly constant local species pool from which mycorrhizae form and disband during the season.

  4. You grow where you're planted: Community building in Colstrip, Montana (United States)

    Wilson, David Ramsey

    The expansion of energy production in the 1970s resulted in the construction of large extraction and power production facilities in many parts of the American West. Boomtowns almost always accompanied these enterprises. Colstrip, Montana, became the focus of a wide variety of social and environmental controversies when the Montana Power Company began strip mining operations and power plant construction in the early 1970s. Nevertheless, a sense of community attachment in Colstrip has steadily grown. Increased participation in public affairs, often in response to challenges made to the community, has accompanied the integration of Colstrip's residents in the non-economic environments of families, churches, recreation, and school-related activities. Researchers in the 1970s and early '80s often took the view that rapid development disrupts long-standing patterns of community attachment and integration. Using a model derived from Ferdinand Tonnies' Gemeinschaft-Gesell schaft continuum, these researchers undertook to demonstrate the folly of the energy companies' activities. The decline of community has frequently appeared as a theme in sociology and history. Yet the venerable but erroneous and largely sentimental theoretical perspective used by some early social impact assessment researchers did not accurately represent the processes at work in Colstrip and places like it. I suggest that Colstrip demonstrates an evolutionary continuum, but precisely the opposite of Tonnies' proposition. The feeling of attachment and home we call community is a growth-oriented phenomenon, not a simply a passive object subject only to decline. Colstrip, where sociologists found community lacking, is now found by the historian as the model of community.

  5. Supporting Children and Families: Communities, Schools, Employers Play Key Roles. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention. (United States)

    Barthauer, Linda; Halfon, Neal

    This report, eighth and last in a series, discusses the important role community groups and leaders, schools, and employers play in providing children and parents support and encouragement. It reports the opinions of California adults, expressed in a survey conducted by the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI), about a variety of issues…

  6. Growing Our Own: A Sustainable Approach to Teacher Education at Turtle Mountain Community College (United States)

    Lamb, Carmelita


    Through its teacher education program, Turtle Mountain Community College (TMCC) is meeting the Anishinaabe of North Dakota's educational needs, strengthening tribal sovereignty and self-determination, and positively affecting people's lives. Pivotal to the success of the teacher education program are strongly committed faculty, supportive staff,…

  7. Texas Community Colleges and Characteristics of a Growing Undocumented Student Population (United States)

    Jauregui, John A.; Slate, John R.; Brown, Michelle Stallone


    In this study, the researchers examine the undocumented student population in Texas community colleges. The data indicate steady yearly increases in the number of undocumented students and in their percentage of the total student enrollment. The relationships between undocumented student enrollment, college size, and overall Hispanic student…

  8. Growing up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development? (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; Casey, Patrick H.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Barrett, Kathleen W.


    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent…

  9. Growing up the Religious Potential from Religious Community of Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah Dawe Kudus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danusiri Danusiri


    Full Text Available This research focused on the congregation of the Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah in Piji, Dawe, Kudus, particularly on how they make any effort to make their potentials of religious observance can maximally grow. In order to find out their efforts, the writer applied participatory observation and was involved in their daily lives. The data were then organized in certain way according to the theme previously deter- mined. In order to achieve the maximum of religious observance which they call as wuṣūl dan wilāyah, the congregation of Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiyah use a series of rituals namely baiat (allegiance, zikir (remembrance, khataman ratib (complet- ing ratib, muraqabah, khalwat (seclusion, fida’, manaqib, and performing pilgrim- age to the grave of wali (muslim saints.

  10. Bacterial communities associated with the pitcher fluids of three Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) pitcher plant species growing in the wild. (United States)

    Chou, Lee Yiung; Clarke, Charles M; Dykes, Gary A


    Nepenthes pitcher plants produce modified jug-shaped leaves to attract, trap and digest insect prey. We used 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing to compare bacterial communities in pitcher fluids of each of three species, namely Nepenthes ampullaria, Nepenthes gracilis and Nepenthes mirabilis, growing in the wild. In contrast to previous greenhouse-based studies, we found that both opened and unopened pitchers harbored bacterial DNA. Pitchers of N. mirabilis had higher bacterial diversity as compared to other Nepenthes species. The composition of the bacterial communities could be different between pitcher types for N. mirabilis (ANOSIM: R = 0.340, p Nepenthes species had similar bacterial composition between pitcher types. SIMPER showed that more than 50 % of the bacterial taxa identified from the open pitchers of N. mirabilis were not found in other groups. Our study suggests that bacteria in N. mirabilis are divided into native and nonnative groups.

  11. Participatory assessment of the health of Latino immigrant men in a community with a growing Latino population. (United States)

    Documėt, Patricia I; Kamouyerou, Andrea; Pesantes, Amalia; Macia, Laura; Maldonado, Hernan; Fox, Andrea; Bachurski, Leslie; Morgenstern, Dawn; Gonzalez, Miguel; Boyzo, Roberto; Guadamuz, Thomas


    Latino immigrant men are an understudied population in the US, especially in areas with small yet growing Latino populations. For this community-based participatory health assessment we conducted four focus groups and 66 structured surveys with Latino immigrant men, and 10 openended interviews with service providers. We analyzed transcripts using content analysis and survey data using Pearson Chi-square tests. Overall, 53% of participating men had not completed high school. Our findings suggest that their social circumstances precluded men from behaving in a way they believe would protect their health. Loneliness, fear and lack of connections prompted stress among men, who had difficulty locating healthcare services. Newly immigrated men were significantly more likely to experience depression symptoms. Latino immigrant men face social isolation resulting in negative health consequences, which are amplified by the new growth community context. Men can benefit from interventions aimed at building their social connections.

  12. Welcome to Metals––a New Open Access Journal for a Growing Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. López


    Full Text Available As I assume the role of Editor-in-Chief of this new journal, I look forward to serving in contributing to the advance of science and engineering in the field of metallic materials. This formidable task is made possible thanks to the excellent support of the Publisher and of the Editorial Staff of MDPI, as well as to a highly qualified Editorial Board. Hence, it is with pleasure that I accept this challenge, and I look forward to work with all of you in expanding the field of metals through journal contributions of current importance and of great interest to the scientific community. [...

  13. Relations of Principal Components Analysis Site Scores to Algal-Biomass, Habitat, Basin-Characteristics, Nutrient, and Biological-Community Data in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, 2002 (United States)

    Caskey, Brian J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Lowe, B. Scott


    Data were gathered from May through September 2002 at 76 randomly selected sites in the Whitewater River and East Fork White River Basins, Indiana, for algal biomass, habitat, nutrients, and biological communities (fish and invertebrates). Basin characteristics (land use and drainage area) and biolog-ical-community attributes and metric scores were determined for the basin of each sampling site. Yearly Principal Compo-nents Analysis site scores were calculated for algal biomass (periphyton and seston). The yearly Principal Components Analysis site scores for the first axis (PC1) were related using Spearman's rho to the seasonal algal-biomass, basin-charac-teristics, habitat, seasonal nutrient, and biological-community attribute and metric score data. The periphyton PC1 site score was not significantly related to the nine habitat or 12 nutrient variables examined. One land-use variable, drainage area, was negatively related to the periphyton PC1. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the periphyton PC1 was negatively related to one attribute (large-river percent) and one metric score (car-nivore percent metric score). It was positively related to three fish-community attributes (headwater percent, pioneer percent, and simple lithophil percent). The periphyton PC1 was not statistically related to any of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes or metric scores examined. Of the 12 nutrient variables examined two were nega-tively related to the seston PC1 site score in two seasons: total Kjeldahl nitrogen (July and September), and TP (May and September). There were no statistically significant relations between the seston PC1 and the five basin-characteristics or nine habitat variables examined. Of the 43 fish-community attributes and metrics examined, the seston PC1 was positively related to one attribute (headwater percent) and negatively related to one metric score (large-river percent metric score) . Of the 21 invertebrate-community attributes

  14. National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Sarisky-Reed, Valerie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)


    The framework for National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap was constructed at the Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap Workshop, held December 9-10, 2008, at the University of Maryland-College Park. The Workshop was organized by the Biomass Program to discuss and identify the critical challenges currently hindering the development of a domestic, commercial-scale algal biofuels industry. This Roadmap presents information from a scientific, economic, and policy perspectives that can support and guide RD&D investment in algal biofuels. While addressing the potential economic and environmental benefits of using algal biomass for the production of liquid transportation fuels, the Roadmap describes the current status of algae RD&D. In doing so, it lays the groundwork for identifying challenges that likely need to be overcome for algal biomass to be used in the production of economically viable biofuels.

  15. Advanced Algal Systems Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Research and development (R&D) on advanced algal biofuels and bioproducts presents an opportunity to sustainably expand biomass resource potential in the United States. The Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) Advanced Algal Systems Program is carrying out a long-term, applied R&D strategy to lower the costs of algal biofuel production by working with partners to develop revolutionary technologies and conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential

  16. Microbial bioenergetics of coral-algal interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ty N.F. Roach


    Full Text Available Human impacts are causing ecosystem phase shifts from coral- to algal-dominated reef systems on a global scale. As these ecosystems undergo transition, there is an increased incidence of coral-macroalgal interactions. Mounting evidence indicates that the outcome of these interaction events is, in part, governed by microbially mediated dynamics. The allocation of available energy through different trophic levels, including the microbial food web, determines the outcome of these interactions and ultimately shapes the benthic community structure. However, little is known about the underlying thermodynamic mechanisms involved in these trophic energy transfers. This study utilizes a novel combination of methods including calorimetry, flow cytometry, and optical oxygen measurements, to provide a bioenergetic analysis of coral-macroalgal interactions in a controlled aquarium setting. We demonstrate that the energetic demands of microbial communities at the coral-algal interaction interface are higher than in the communities associated with either of the macroorganisms alone. This was evident through higher microbial power output (energy use per unit time and lower oxygen concentrations at interaction zones compared to areas distal from the interface. Increases in microbial power output and lower oxygen concentrations were significantly correlated with the ratio of heterotrophic to autotrophic microbes but not the total microbial abundance. These results suggest that coral-algal interfaces harbor higher proportions of heterotrophic microbes that are optimizing maximal power output, as opposed to yield. This yield to power shift offers a possible thermodynamic mechanism underlying the transition from coral- to algal-dominated reef ecosystems currently being observed worldwide. As changes in the power output of an ecosystem are a significant indicator of the current state of the system, this analysis provides a novel and insightful means to quantify

  17. Mini-review: high rate algal ponds, flexible systems for sustainable wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Young, P; Taylor, M; Fallowfield, H J


    Over the last 20 years, there has been a growing requirement by governments around the world for organisations to adopt more sustainable practices. Wastewater treatment is no exception, with many currently used systems requiring large capital investment, land area and power consumption. High rate algal ponds offer a sustainable, efficient and lower cost option to the systems currently in use. They are shallow, mixed lagoon based systems, which aim to maximise wastewater treatment by creating optimal conditions for algal growth and oxygen production-the key processes which remove nitrogen and organic waste in HRAP systems. This design means they can treat wastewater to an acceptable quality within a fifth of time of other lagoon systems while using 50% less surface area. This smaller land requirement decreases both the construction costs and evaporative water losses, making larger volumes of treated water available for beneficial reuse. They are ideal for rural, peri-urban and remote communities as they require minimum power and little on-site management. This review will address the history of and current trends in high rate algal pond development and application; a comparison of their performance with other systems when treating various wastewaters; and discuss their potential for production of added-value products. Finally, the review will consider areas requiring further research.

  18. Distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs track algal resources. (United States)

    Tootell, Jesse S; Steele, Mark A


    Herbivore distribution can impact community structure and ecosystem function. On coral reefs, herbivores are thought to play an important role in promoting coral dominance, but how they are distributed relative to algae is not well known. Here, we evaluated whether the distribution, behavior, and condition of herbivorous fishes correlated with algal resource availability at six sites in the back reef environment of Moorea, French Polynesia. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that increased algal turf availability would coincide with (1) increased biomass, (2) altered foraging behavior, and (3) increased energy reserves of herbivorous fishes. Fish biomass and algal cover were visually estimated along underwater transects; behavior of herbivorous fishes was quantified by observations of focal individuals; fish were collected to assess their condition; and algal turf production rates were measured on standardized tiles. The best predictor of herbivorous fish biomass was algal turf production, with fish biomass increasing with algal production. Biomass of herbivorous fishes was also negatively related to sea urchin density, suggesting competition for limited resources. Regression models including both algal turf production and urchin density explained 94 % of the variation in herbivorous fish biomass among sites spread over ~20 km. Behavioral observations of the parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus revealed that foraging area increased as algal turf cover decreased. Additionally, energy reserves increased with algal turf production, but declined with herbivorous fish density, implying that algal turf is a limited resource for this species. Our findings support the hypothesis that herbivorous fishes can spatially track algal resources on coral reefs.

  19. Phosphorus dynamics and limitation of fast- and slow-growing temperate seaweeds in Oslofjord, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Borum, Jens; Fotel, Frank Leck


    algae (Ulva and Ceramium) took up dissolved inorganic P (DIP) much faster than thicker, slower growing species (belonging to Fucus, Ascophyllum and Laminaria) but also had much higher P-demands per unit biomass and time. DIP concentrations in the Oslofjord were low from April through August, and fast-growing......During coastal eutrophication, fast-growing, ephemeral macroalgae bloom at the expense of slow-growing, perennial macroalgae. This change in community composition has been explained by a differential ability to exploit and utilize inorganic nitrogen among macroalgae with different growth strategies....... However, some coastal areas are becoming phosphorus- rather than nitrogen-limited; we therefore compared phosphorus dynamics among 6 temperate species of macroalgae with different growth rates in order to test whether differences in algal P-dynamics may explain macroalgal community changes. Thin, fast-growing...

  20. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chamoli Bhatt


    Full Text Available Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  1. Coupling of algal biofuel production with wastewater. (United States)

    Bhatt, Neha Chamoli; Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma


    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  2. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater (United States)

    Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma


    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area. PMID:24982930

  3. Effects of "Reduced" and "Business-As-Usual" CO2 Emission Scenarios on the Algal Territories of the Damselfish Pomacentrus wardi (Pomacentridae). (United States)

    Bender, Dorothea; Champ, Connor Michael; Kline, David; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Dove, Sophie


    Turf algae are a very important component of coral reefs, featuring high growth and turnover rates, whilst covering large areas of substrate. As food for many organisms, turf algae have an important role in the ecosystem. Farming damselfish can modify the species composition and productivity of such algal assemblages, while defending them against intruders. Like all organisms however, turf algae and damselfishes have the potential to be affected by future changes in seawater (SW) temperature and pCO2. In this study, algal assemblages, in the presence and absence of farming Pomacentrus wardi were exposed to two combinations of SW temperature and pCO2 levels projected for the austral spring of 2100 (the B1 "reduced" and the A1FI "business-as-usual" CO2 emission scenarios) at Heron Island (GBR, Australia). These assemblages were dominated by the presence of red algae and non-epiphytic cyanobacteria, i.e. cyanobacteria that grow attached to the substrate rather than on filamentous algae. The endpoint algal composition was mostly controlled by the presence/absence of farming damselfish, despite a large variability found between the algal assemblages of individual fish. Different scenarios appeared to be responsible for a mild, species specific change in community composition, observable in some brown and green algae, but only in the absence of farming fish. Farming fish appeared unaffected by the conditions to which they were exposed. Algal biomass reductions were found under "reduced" CO2 emission, but not "business-as-usual" scenarios. This suggests that action taken to limit CO2 emissions may, if the majority of algae behave similarly across all seasons, reduce the potential for phase shifts that lead to algal dominated communities. At the same time the availability of food resources to damselfish and other herbivores would be smaller under "reduced" emission scenarios.

  4. An overview of the interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB): advancing the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms. (United States)

    Hudnell, H Kenneth; Dortch, Quay; Zenick, Harold


    There is growing evidence that the spatial and temporal incidence of harmful algal blooms is increasing, posing potential risks to human health and ecosystem sustainability. Currently there are no US Federal guidelines, Water Quality Criteria and Standards, or regulations concerning the management of harmful algal blooms. Algal blooms in freshwater are predominantly cyanobacteria, some of which produce highly potent cyanotoxins. The US Congress mandated a Scientific Assessment of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms in the 2004 reauthorization of the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Act. To further the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established an interagency committee to organize the Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB). A theoretical framework to define scientific issues and a systems approach to implement the assessment and management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms were developed as organizing themes for the symposium. Seven major topic areas and 23 subtopics were addressed in Workgroups and platform sessions during the symposium. The primary charge given to platform presenters was to describe the state of the science in the subtopic areas, whereas the Workgroups were charged with identifying research that could be accomplished in the short- and long-term to reduce scientific uncertainties. The proceedings of the symposium, published in this monograph, are intended to inform policy determinations and the mandated Scientific Assessment by describing the scientific knowledge and areas of uncertainty concerning freshwater harmful algal blooms.


    de Mattos Bicudo, C E; Teixeira Bicudo, R M


    A fresluvater floating algal community was repeatedly observed in an artificial pond in the Parque do Estado São Paulo, Brazil. The ontogeny and composition of the community are discussed and are related to oxygen liberation during photosynthesis of the periphyton, or of the pond-bottom algne, which carries up portions of the algae growing there.

  6. A review of algal research in space (United States)

    Niederwieser, Tobias; Kociolek, Patrick; Klaus, David


    With the continued expansion of human presence into space, typical mission durations will routinely exceed six months and extend to distances beyond the Moon. As such, sending periodic resupply vehicles, as currently provided to the International Space Station, will likely no longer be feasible. Instead, self-sustaining life support systems that recycle human waste products will become increasingly necessary, especially for planetary bases. The idea of bioregenerative life support systems using algal photobioreactors has been discussed since the beginning of the space age. In order to evaluate how such a system could be implemented, a variety of space flight studies aimed at characterizing the potential for using algae in air revitalization, water recycling, food production, and radiation shielding applications have been conducted over the years. Also, given the recent, growing interest in algal research for regenerative fuel production, food supplements, and cosmetics, many algal strains are already well documented from related terrestrial experiments. This paper reviews past algal experiments flown in space from 1960 until today. Experimental methods and results from 51 investigations utilizing either green algae (Chlorophyta), cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta), or Euglenophyta are analyzed and categorized by a variety of parameters, including size, species and duration. The collected data are summarized in a matrix that allows easy comparison between the experiments and provides important information for future life support system requirement definition and design. Similarities between experiment results are emphasized. Common problems and shortcomings are summarized and analyzed in terms of potential solutions. Finally, key research gaps, which must be closed before developing a functional life support system, are identified.

  7. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water While Capturing Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, W.


    Algal Turfs and Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. ATS was invented at the Smithsonian Institution, by scientist, Walter Adey in the 1980s as a tool for controlling water quality in highly diverse model ecosystems. The technology received extensive R and D for aqua cultural, municipal, and industrial water cleaning by Dr. Adey, using venture capital, through the 1990s. Later, Hydro Mentia, Inc., of Ocala, Florida, engineered ATS to landscape scale of 20-50 Mgpd (it is important to note that this is a modular system, capable of expanding to any size.) A 2005 independent study of ATS, by the South Florida Water Management District and the IFAS Institute of the University of Florida, certified ATS as 5-100 times more cost efficient at removing nutrients from Everglades canal waters than the next competitor, the STA, a managed marsh system. ATS and STA were the final contestants in a 15-year study of nine technologies, and ATS was the only technology that created a use able byproduct.

  8. Algal Bloom: Boon or Bane?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Algal blooms occur in response to nutrient deplete or replete conditions. Nitrogen fixing forms proliferate under oligotrophic conditions when nutrient levels are low. Replete conditions in response to upwelling creates the most biologically...

  9. Fueling Future with Algal Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor


    Algae constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity, play profound roles in the carbon cycle, and are prominent candidates for biofuel production. The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is leading the world in algal genome sequencing ( and contributes of the algal genome projects worldwide (GOLD database, 2012). The sequenced algal genomes offer catalogs of genes, networks, and pathways. The sequenced first of its kind genomes of a haptophyte E.huxleyii, chlorarachniophyte B.natans, and cryptophyte G.theta fill the gaps in the eukaryotic tree of life and carry unique genes and pathways as well as molecular fossils of secondary endosymbiosis. Natural adaptation to conditions critical for industrial production is encoded in algal genomes, for example, growth of A.anophagefferens at very high cell densities during the harmful algae blooms or a global distribution across diverse environments of E.huxleyii, able to live on sparse nutrients due to its expanded pan-genome. Communications and signaling pathways can be derived from simple symbiotic systems like lichens or complex marine algae metagenomes. Collectively these datasets derived from algal genomics contribute to building a comprehensive parts list essential for algal biofuel development.

  10. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.


    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal Dynamics of the Microbial Community Composition with a Focus on Toxic Cyanobacteria and Toxin Presence during Harmful Algal Blooms in Two South German Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia I. Scherer


    Full Text Available Bacterioplankton plays an essential role in aquatic ecosystems, and cyanobacteria are an influential part of the microbiome in many water bodies. In freshwaters used for recreational activities or drinking water, toxic cyanobacteria cause concerns due to the risk of intoxication with cyanotoxins, such as microcystins. In this study, we aimed to unmask relationships between toxicity, cyanobacterial community composition, and environmental factors. At the same time, we assessed the correlation of a genetic marker with microcystin concentration and aimed to identify the main microcystin producer. We used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to study the bacterioplankton in two recreational lakes in South Germany. We quantified a microcystin biosynthesis gene (mcyB using qPCR and linked this information with microcystin concentration to assess toxicity. Microcystin biosynthesis gene (mcyE-clone libraries were used to determine the origin of microcystin biosynthesis genes. Bloom toxicity did not alter the bacterial community composition, which was highly dynamic at the lowest taxonomic level for some phyla such as Cyanobacteria. At the OTU level, we found distinctly different degrees of temporal variation between major bacteria phyla. Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes showed drastic temporal changes in their community compositions, while the composition of Actinobacteria remained rather stable in both lakes. The bacterial community composition of Alpha- and Beta-proteobacteria remained stable over time in Lake Klostersee, but it showed temporal variations in Lake Bergknappweiher. The presence of potential microcystin degraders and potential algicidal bacteria amongst prevalent Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria implied a role of those co-occurring heterotrophic bacteria in cyanobacterial bloom dynamics. Comparison of both lakes studied revealed a large shared microbiome, which was shaped toward the lake specific community composition by environmental factors

  12. Effects of river sediments on coral recruitment, algal abundance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of sediment concentration and season on coral recruitment algal abundance nd benthic community structure were studied in Kenyan coral reef lagoons to determine their potential influence on coral recovery. Nutrient levels and recruit numbers were higher during the southeast monsoon (SEM) than during the ...

  13. Unusual algal turfs associated with the rhodophyta Phyllophora crispa: Benthic assemblages along a depth gradient in the Central Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    Bonifazi, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Gravina, Maria Flavia; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Belluscio, Andrea; Ardizzone, Gian Domenico


    Macroalgal assemblages dominated by the turf-forming alga Phyllophora crispa are described in detail for the first time in the Central Mediterranean Sea. This particular form of algal growth, which comprises an upper mixed layer of multiple algal species with a basal stratum formed by entangled thalli of P. crispa, was observed for the first time in 2012 along the promontory of Punta del Lazzaretto (Giglio Island, Italy). In this study, this assemblage was analysed to document the diversity of macroalgae and invertebrate associated communities and assess their distribution along a depth gradient. The algae forming turfs grow directly on the rock at low depth up to 10-15 m depth, while they grow above P. crispa from 15 m to 35 m depth, resulting in luxuriant beds covering up to 100% of the substrate. Multivariate analysis revealed clear differences regarding algae and invertebrate species richness and abundance between shallow and deep strata because of the dominance of Phyllophora crispa at depths greater than 20 m. The long laminal thalli of P. crispa favoured sessile fauna colonization, while the vagile species were principally linked to the architectural complexity of the turf layer created by the P. crispa, which increased the microhabitat diversity and favoured sediment deposition within the turf layer. The complex structures of these turf assemblages and their widespread distribution along the whole coast of the island suggest a well-established condition of the communities linked to the high natural sedimentation rate observed in the area.

  14. Algal-Based Renewable Energy for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsen, Christian [Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    To help in the overall evaluation of the potential for growing algal biomass in high productivity systems, we conducted a study that evaluated water from geothermal sources and cultivated mixed consortia from hot springs in Nevada, we evaluated their growth at moderately high varying temperatures and then evaluated potential manipulations that could possibly increase their biomass and oleaginous production. Studies were conducted at scales ranging from the laboratory benchtop to raceways in field settings. Mixed consortia were readily grown at all scales and growth could be maintained in Nevada year round. Moderate productivities were attained even during the shoulder seasons- where temperature control was maintained by hot water and seasonally cold temperatures when there was still plentiful solar radiation. The results enhance the prospects for economic feasibility of developing algal based industries in areas with geothermal energy or even other large alternative sources of heat that are not being used for other purposes. The public may benefit from such development as a means for economic development as well as development of industries for alternative energy and products that do not rely on fossil fuels.

  15. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The biogenic stabilisation of intertidal estuarine sediments by epipelic diatom films and the macrophyte Vaucheria was studied at three sites on the Severn Estuary. The cohesive strength meter (CSM) was developed to measure surface critical shear stress with varied algal density. A number of techniques have been used to determine the general in situ erodibility of cohesive estuarine sediments. The measurements of sediment shear strength and critical erosion velocity were investigated. Field experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of algae on binding sediments, and a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding was developed. (author)

  16. Sapphire Energy - Integrated Algal Biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Rebecca L. [Sapphire Energy, Inc., Columbus, NM (United States). Columbus Algal Biomass Farm; Tyler, Mike [Sapphire Energy, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)


    Sapphire Energy, Inc. (SEI) is a leader in large-scale photosynthetic algal biomass production, with a strongly cohesive research, development, and operations program. SEI takes a multidiscipline approach to integrate lab-based strain selection, cultivation and harvest and production scale, and extraction for the production of Green Crude oil, a drop in replacement for traditional crude oil.. SEI’s technical accomplishments since 2007 have produced a multifunctional platform that can address needs for fuel, feed, and other higher value products. Figure 1 outlines SEI’s commercialization process, including Green Crude production and refinement to drop in fuel replacements. The large scale algal biomass production facility, the SEI Integrated Algal Biorefinery (IABR), was built in Luna County near Columbus, New Mexico (see fig 2). The extraction unit was located at the existing SEI facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico, approximately 95 miles from the IABR. The IABR facility was constructed on time and on budget, and the extraction unit expansion to accommodate the biomass output from the IABR was completed in October 2012. The IABR facility uses open pond cultivation with a proprietary harvesting method to produce algal biomass; this biomass is then shipped to the extraction facility for conversion to Green Crude. The operation of the IABR and the extraction facilities has demonstrated the critical integration of traditional agricultural techniques with algae cultivation knowledge for algal biomass production, and the successful conversion of the biomass to Green Crude. All primary unit operations are de-risked, and at a scale suitable for process demonstration. The results are stable, reliable, and long-term cultivation of strains for year round algal biomass production. From June 2012 to November 2014, the IABR and extraction facilities produced 524 metric tons (MT) of biomass (on a dry weight basis), and 2,587 gallons of Green Crude. Additionally, the IABR

  17. Characterization of Growing Soil Bacterial Communities across a pH gradient Using H218O DNA-Stable Isotope Probing (United States)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Schwartz, E.


    Recent studies have established consistent relationships between pH and bacterial diversity and community structure in soils from site-specific to landscape scales. However, these studies rely on DNA or PLFA extraction techniques from bulk soils that encompass metabolically active and inactive, or dormant, communities, and loose DNA. Dormant cells may comprise up to 80% of total live cells. If dormant cells dominate a particular environment, it is possible that previous interpretations of the soil variables assumed to drive communities could be profoundly affected. We used H218O stable isotope probing and bar-coded illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to monitor the response of actively growing communities to changes in soil pH in a soil microcosm over 14 days. This substrate-independent approach has several advantages over 13C or 15N-labelled molecules in that all growing bacteria should be able to make use of water, allowing characterization of whole communities. We hypothesized that Acidobacteria would increasingly dominate the growing community and that Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes would decline, given previously established responses by these taxa to soil pH. Instead, we observed the reverse. Actinobacteria abundance increased three-fold from 26 to 76% of the overall community as soil pH fell from pH 5.6 to pH 4.6. Shifts in community structure and decreases in diversity with declining soil pH were essentially driven by two families, Streptomyceaca and Microbacteracea, which collectively increased from 2 to 40% of the entire community. In contrast, Acidobacteria as a whole declined although numbers of subdivision 1 remained stable across all soil pH levels. We suggest that the brief incubation period in this SIP study selected for growth of acid-tolerant Actinobacteria over Acidobacteria. Taxa within Actinomycetales have been readily cultured over short time frames, suggesting rapid growth patterns. Conversely, taxa within Acidobacteria have been

  18. UV-Visible Spectroscopic Method and Models for Assessment and Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms (United States)

    Mitchell, B. Greg


    The development of an enhanced predictive and early warning capability for the occurrence and impact of harmful algal blooms (HABs) would be of great benefit to coastal communities. A critical issue for early detection and monitoring of HABs is the need to detect harmful algal species within a mixed-species phytoplankton assemblage. Possession of UV-absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) may be one factor that allows HAB species to out-compete their phytoplankton neighbors. Possession of MAAs, which we believe can be inferred from strong UV-absorption signals in phytoplankton absorption coefficients, can be used as a flag for potential HAB outbreak. The goal of this project was to develop a solar simulating UV-visible incubator to grow HAB dinoflagellates, to begin MAA analysis of samples collected on global cruises, and to carry out initial experiments on HAB dinoflagellate species in pure culture. Our scientific objectives are to quantify MAA production and spectral induction mechanisms in HAB species, to characterize spectral absorption of MAAs, and to define the ecological benefit of MAAs (i.e. photoprotection). Data collected on cruises to the global oceans will be used to parameterize phytoplankton absorption in the UV region, and this parameterization could be incorporated into existing models of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region. Data collected in this project were used for graduate fellowship applications by Elizabeth Frame. She has been awarded an EPA STAR fellowship to continue the work initiated by this project.

  19. Algal Systems for Hydrogen Photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, Maria L [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under the guidance of Drs. Michael Seibert (retired, Fellow Emeritus) and Maria Ghirardi (Fellow), led 15 years of research addressing the issue of algal H2 photoproduction. This project resulted in greatly increased rates and yields of algal hydrogen production; increased understanding of the H2 metabolism in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; expanded our knowledge of other physiological aspects relevant to sustained algal photosynthetic H2 production; led to the genetic identification, cloning and manipulation of algal hydrogenase genes; and contributed to a broader, fundamental understanding of the technical and scientific challenges to improving the conversion efficiencies in order to reach the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office’s targets. Some of the tangible results are: (i) 64 publications and 6 patents, (ii) international visibility to NREL, (iii) reinvigoration of national and international biohydrogen research, and (iv) research progress that helped stimulate new funding from other DOE and non-DOE programs, including the AFOSR and the DOE Office of Science.

  20. Rabbit dietary supplementation with pale purple coneflower. 2. Effects on the performances, bacterial community, blood parameters and immunity of growing rabbits. (United States)

    Kovitvadhi, A; Gai, F; Dabbou, S; Ferrocino, I; Rotolo, L; Falzone, M; Vignolini, C; Gennero, M S; Bergagna, S; Dezzutto, Daniela; Barbero, R; Nebbia, P; Rosati, S; Cocolin, L; Zoccarato, I; Gasco, L


    Echinacea pallida (EPAL), a herbaceous flowering plant with immunomodulatory properties, has been chosen to determine the pre- and post-supplementary effects on the growth performances, bacterial community, blood parameters and immunity of growing rabbits. The same Grimaud does (14-week-old) from the studied in the first part of this study were randomly divided into two groups (n=50/group). The first group was fed a basal diet without supplementation (Control group, C) while the another group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 3 g EPAL/kg diet (Echinacea group, E). From the second parturition, 80 weaned kits (40 from the C does and 40 from the E does) were randomly assigned to four groups of 20 animals each and were fed a growing commercial diet supplemented with or without a 3 g EPAL/kg diet: the CC group (rabbits from the C does fed the control diet), CE group (rabbits from the C does fed the supplemented diet), EC (rabbits from the E does fed the control diet) and EE group (rabbits from the E does fed the supplemented diet). The dietary EPAL treatment did not affect the growth performance. Ten fattening rabbits from each group were selected to evaluate the bacterial community and blood parameters, while the remaining rabbits (n=10/group) were used to study phagocytosis and the humoral immune response. The variability was evaluated from hard faeces at 35, 49 and 89 days, and the caecal content at 89 days. The variability of the bacterial community of the EE group was higher than that of the other groups. The phagocytic activity was higher in the CE and EE groups than in the CC and EC ones (30.9 and 29.7 v. 21.2 and 21.8%; Pbacterial community, blood parameters or humoral immune responses in growing rabbits, except for an increase in phagocytic activities.

  1. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health. (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn


    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  2. Algal biofuels: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Leite, Gustavo B; Abdelaziz, Ahmed E M; Hallenbeck, Patrick C


    Biodiesel production using microalgae is attractive in a number of respects. Here a number of pros and cons to using microalgae for biofuels production are reviewed. Algal cultivation can be carried out using non-arable land and non-potable water with simple nutrient supply. In addition, algal biomass productivities are much higher than those of vascular plants and the extractable content of lipids that can be usefully converted to biodiesel, triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be much higher than that of the oil seeds now used for first generation biodiesel. On the other hand, practical, cost-effective production of biofuels from microalgae requires that a number of obstacles be overcome. These include the development of low-cost, effective growth systems, efficient and energy saving harvesting techniques, and methods for oil extraction and conversion that are environmentally benign and cost-effective. Promising recent advances in these areas are highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of dredged sediment co-composted with green waste as plant growing media assessed by eco-toxicological tests, plant growth and microbial community structure. (United States)

    Mattei, Paola; Pastorelli, Roberta; Rami, Gabriele; Mocali, Stefano; Giagnoni, Laura; Gonnelli, Cristina; Renella, Giancarlo


    Dredged sediments have currently no broad reuse options as compared to other wastes due to their peculiar physico-chemical properties, posing problems for the management of the large volumes of sediments dredged worldwide. In this study we evaluated the performance of sediment (S) co-composted with green waste (GW) as growing medium for ornamental plants. Analysis of the microbial community structure, eco-toxicological tests, were conducted on sediments at 1:1 and 3:1S:GW composting ratios. Sediment-based growing media were then reused to growth the ornamental plant Photina x fraseri in a pilot-scale experiment and plants' physiological and chemical parameters were measured. The results showed that co-composting with green waste increased the diversity of bacteria, fungi and archaea as compared to the untreated sediments, and that both the 1:1 and 3:1 S:GW composted sediments had no substantial eco-toxicological impacts, allowing an excellent plant growth. We concluded that co-composted of sediment with green waste produce a growing medium with suitable properties for growing ornamental plants, and represent a sustainable option for beneficial use of dredged sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Toxicity of coastal waters: use of a quick algal bioassay


    Sjollema, S.B.; Booij, P; van der Geest, H.; Laane, R.; Leonards, P.; Lamoree, M..; Admiraal, W.; Vethaak, D.; de Voogt, P.


    Primary production by microalgae embodies the carrying capacity of marine ecosystems and is primarily linked to nutrient availability and light. However, recent studies indicate that certain industrial chemicals may have a direct impact on coastal plankton communities and hence on the carrying capacity of estuarine and marine ecosystems. At the same time the frequency and intensity of toxic algal blooms in the coastal zone are increasing globally, resulting in increased levels of toxins prosp...

  5. Food resource use by two territorial damselfish (Pomacentridae: Stegastes) on South-Western Atlantic algal-dominated reefs (United States)

    Feitosa, João Lucas L.; Concentino, Adilma M.; Teixeira, Simone F.; Ferreira, Beatrice P.


    Damselfishes are a highly abundant group of reef fishes that are considered keystone species for structuring benthic communities on coral-dominated reefs. To assess how food is utilized by the damselfish species Stegastes fuscus and Stegastes variabilis living on algae-dominated coastal reefs, we evaluated the compositions of algal communities inside their territories and investigated their diets by analyzing their stomach contents. Jointed-calcareous algae were the most abundant morphological group inside the territories of both damselfish species (> 80%), and the biomass of these algae showed a positive linear relationship to all the other non-calcareous algae when grouped together (R² = 0.674; p algae by creating surfaces on which they can grow. Most of the diet of Stegastes spp. consisted of algal material (> 70%), but they also fed on invertebrates and detritus as accessory items (~ 15%). Algal material composed a consistent proportion of the items ingested by adults and juveniles of both damselfish species with diatoms being the most frequent item, followed by filamentous algae. A positive food selection for all macroalgae morphological groups was observed, except for jointed-calcareous algae (Ivlev's index). The most preferred macroalgae types were filamentous, with values close to + 1 for both damselfish species. Pianka's food overlap index was extremely high regardless of the damselfish species or their life phase and ANOSIM analyses also confirmed that there were essentially no differences between their diets. The present work is the first indication that damselfish may maintain territories dominated by highly unpalatable calcareous macroalgae that have herbivore-deterrent life strategies, although the complex branching structures of these macroalgae create suitable microhabitats for the growth of epiphytic species consumed by the damselfish.

  6. Sustainability: A Crucial Quest for Humanity - Welcome to a New Open Access Journal for a Growing Multidisciplinary Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen


    Full Text Available Sustainability, although often hard to define precisely, is a rapidly growing area of study that is becoming increasingly applied in diverse areas. The definition put forth in 1983 by the World Commission on Environment and Development, informally known as the Brundtland Commission, captures many aspects of the topic. That commission defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Other attempts have been made to define what we mean when we refer to sustainability or strive to achieve it as an objective. Despite the differences in definitions, a key theme that emerges is that sustainability is a concept that needs to be incorporated in many if not all of the activities that people undertake. [...

  7. Whole-lake algal responses to a century of acidic industrial deposition on the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinebrooke, R.D.; Dixit, S.S.; Graham, M.D.; Gunn, J.M.; Chen, Y.-W.; Belzile, N.


    A century of cultural acidification is hypothesized to have altered algal community structure in boreal lakes. To date, this hypothesis has remained untested because of both the lack of data predating the onset of industrial pollution and incomplete estimates of whole-lake algal community structure. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of sedimentary pigments was used to quantify whole-lake algal responses to acid deposition in six boreal lakes located in Killarney Park, Ontario, Canada. Concomitant significant increases in chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, diatom-inferred lake acidity, and metal levels since 1900 suggested that algal abundances in four acidified lakes and one small, circumneutral lake were enhanced by aerial pollution. An alternate explanation is that increased acidity and underwater light availability in the acidified lakes shifted algal abundance towards phytobenthos and deepwater phytoplankton, whose pigment signatures were better preserved in the sediments. Taxonomically diagnostic pigment stratigraphies were consistent with shifts in algal community structure towards filamentous green phytobenthos and deepwater phytoflagellates in the acidified lakes. Our findings suggest that decades of aerial pollution have altered the base of foodwebs in boreal lakes, potentially rendering them less resilient to other environmental stressors. (author)

  8. Growing community: the impact of the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program on the social and learning environment in primary schools. (United States)

    Block, Karen; Gibbs, Lisa; Staiger, Petra K; Gold, Lisa; Johnson, Britt; Macfarlane, Susie; Long, Caroline; Townsend, Mardie


    This article presents results from a mixed-method evaluation of a structured cooking and gardening program in Australian primary schools, focusing on program impacts on the social and learning environment of the school. In particular, we address the Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Program objective of providing a pleasurable experience that has a positive impact on student engagement, social connections, and confidence within and beyond the school gates. Primary evidence for the research question came from qualitative data collected from students, parents, teachers, volunteers, school principals, and specialist staff through interviews, focus groups, and participant observations. This was supported by analyses of quantitative data on child quality of life, cooperative behaviors, teacher perceptions of the school environment, and school-level educational outcome and absenteeism data. Results showed that some of the program attributes valued most highly by study participants included increased student engagement and confidence, opportunities for experiential and integrated learning, teamwork, building social skills, and connections and links between schools and their communities. In this analysis, quantitative findings failed to support findings from the primary analysis. Limitations as well as benefits of a mixed-methods approach to evaluation of complex community interventions are discussed.

  9. Ecology of microfungal communities in gardens of fungus-growing ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): a year-long survey of three species of attine ants in Central Texas. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andre; Mueller, Ulrich G; Ishak, Heather D; Bacci, Maurício; Pagnocca, Fernando C


    We profiled the microfungal communities in gardens of fungus-growing ants to evaluate possible species-specific ant-microfungal associations and to assess the potential dependencies of microfungal diversity on ant foraging behavior. In a 1-year survey, we isolated microfungi from nests of Cyphomyrmex wheeleri, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis and Atta texana in Central Texas. Microfungal prevalence was higher in gardens of C. wheeleri (57%) than in the gardens of T. septentrionalis (46%) and A. texana (35%). Culture-dependent methods coupled with a polyphasic approach of species identification revealed diverse and changing microfungal communities in all the sampling periods. Diversity analyses showed no obvious correlations between the number of observed microfungal species, ant species, or the ants' changing foraging behavior across the seasons. However, both correspondence analysis and 5.8S-rRNA gene unifrac analyses suggested structuring of microfungal communities by ant host. These host-specific differences may reflect in part the three different environments where ants were collected. Most interestingly, the specialized fungal parasite Escovopsis was not isolated from any attine garden in this study near the northernmost limit of the range of attine ants, contrasting with previous studies that indicated a significant incidence of this parasite in ant gardens from Central and South America. The observed differences of microfungal communities in attine gardens suggest that the ants are continuously in contact with a diverse microfungal species assemblage. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Macromolecular synthesis in algal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, M.R.; Kikuchi, Tadatoshi


    The present paper is a review of our experimental results obtained previously on the macromolecular biosyntheses in the cells of blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans as a representative species of prokaryote, and also in those of three species of eukaryotic algae, i.e. Euglena gracilis strain Z, Chlamydomonas reinhardi, and Cyanidium caldarium. In these algal cells, the combined methods consisting of pulse-labelling using 32 P, 3 H- and 14 C-labelled precursors for macromolecules, of their chasing and of the use of inhibitors which block specifically the syntheses of macromolecules such as proteins, RNA and DNA in living cells were very effectively applied for the analyses of the regulatory mechanism in biosyntheses of macromolecules and of the mode of their assembly into the cell structure, especially organelle constituents. Rased on the results obtained thus, the following conclusions are reached: (1) the metabolic pool for syntheses of macromolecules in the cells of prokaryotic blue-green alga is limited to the small extent and such activities couple largely with the photosynthetic mechanism; (2) 70 S ribosomes in the blue-green algal cells are assembled on the surface of thylakoid membranes widely distributed in their cytoplasm; and (3) the cells of eukaryotic unicellular algae used here have biochemical characters specific for already differentiated enzyme system involving in transcription and translation machineries as the same as in higher organisms, but the control mechanism concerning with such macromolecule syntheses are different among each species. (author)

  11. NREL Algal Biofuels Projects and Partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This fact sheet highlights several algal biofuels research and development projects focused on improving the economics of the algal biofuels production process. These projects should serve as a foundation for the research efforts toward algae as a source of fuels and other chemicals.

  12. Prevalence and effect of schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth infection on labour input in rice-growing communities of Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo


    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are public health problems in communities which lack basic social amenities with poor hygienic conditions. Studies were carried out to determine the prevalence and effect of schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths infection on labour input on rice production in 9 rice-growing communities of Ogun State. Parasitological examinations of urine and faecal samples, and structured questionnaires were conducted on 243 consented individuals from May 2009 to March 2010. The results showed an overall prevalence of 17% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for hookworms, 2% for Trichuris trichiura, 1% for Schistosoma haematobium and 1% for Schistosoma mansoni. A. lumbricoides and hookworms were more prevalent in Agbajege (25%, and varied in the other 8 communities. T. trichiura was prevalent in three communities, Agbajege (5%, Akodu (4.2%, and Moloko-Asipa (4.8 %; S. haematobium was prevalent only in Ayedere (2.6% and Lufoko (8%, while S. mansoni was prevalent only in Moloko-Asipa (9.5%. Infections among the gender were varied as 26.3 % of males and 33.8 % of females had an overall prevalence of: A. lumbricoides (16.8%, hookworms (11.8%, T. trichiura (1.6%, S. haematobium (1.1% and S. mansoni (1.1%. On frequency of infection to incapacitation per year, 45% of respondents were incapacitated 1-2 times, 27% 3-4 times and 19% were incapacitated more than 4 times. Understanding the effect of these two diseases will not only improve the health status of residents but also increase their productivity and ensure food security.

  13. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels. (United States)

    Chisti, Yusuf


    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract. Amirta R, Yuliansyah, Angi EM, Ananto BR, Setiyono B, Haqiqi MT, Septiana HA, Lodong M, Oktavianto RN. 2016. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 22-30. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in intensifying the production and use of biomass to replace fossil fuels for the production of heat and electricity, especially for a remote area that generally abundance with the wood biomass resources including in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this work, diversity of plant species that commonly growth in community forest area of East Kutai District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia had been studied to point out their energy potency to be used as biomass feedstock for the electricity generated. Diversity of plant species in the community forest was evaluated by making 13 sampling plots with 20mx20m size approximately. Concurently, the energy properties of plant biomass such as proximate and ultimate compositions were also analyzed using ASTM methods. Results showed that more than 30 species of tropical trees and wood shrubs were grown in the community forest. The presence of them was classified into two different growth of origins: natural and artificial plantation, and also three different categories of plant resources: tree species from logged over forest, commercial fast growing plant tree species for the fiber production and woody shrubs. The highest dominancy and productivity was found in Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen since the wood biomass was artificially planted for the commercial purposes. Among the 31 plant species analyzed we found the highest energy potency was obtained from Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Blume that produced 3.17 MWh/ton, and the lowest was from Trema orientalis (L. Blume 0.97 MWh/ton. The woody shrubs species such as Vernonia amigdalina Delile., Piper aduncum L., Gliricidia

  15. Estimation by PLFA of microbial community structure associated with the rhizosphere of Lygeum spartum and Piptatherum miliaceum growing in semiarid mine tailings. (United States)

    Carrasco, Lucía; Gattinger, Andreas; Fliessbach, Andreas; Roldán, Antonio; Schloter, Michael; Caravaca, Fuensanta


    The objective of this study was to compare the microbial community composition and biomass associated with the rhizosphere of a perennial gramineous species (Lygeum spartum L.) with that of an annual (Piptatherum miliaceum L.), both growing in semiarid mine tailings. We also established their relationship with the contents of potentially toxic metals as well as with indicators of soil quality. The total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) amount was significantly higher in the rhizosphere soil of the annual species than in the rhizosphere soil of the perennial species. The fungal/bacterial PLFA ratio was significantly greater in the perennial species compared to the annual species. The fatty acid 16:1ω5c, the fungal/bacterial PLFA ratio and monounsaturated/saturated PLFA ratio were correlated negatively with the soluble contents of toxic metals. The cyc/prec (cy17:0 + cy19:0/16:1ω7 + 18:1ω7) ratio was correlated positively with the soluble contents of Pb, Zn, Al, Ni, Cd, and Cu. The results of the PLFA analysis for profiling microbial communities and their stress status of both the plant species indicate that perennial and annual gramineous species appear equally suitable for use in programmes of revegetation of semiarid mine tailings.

  16. Seaweed richness and herbivory increase rate of community recovery from disturbance. (United States)

    Aquilino, Kristin M; Stachowicz, John J


    The importance of herbivores and of plant diversity for community succession and recovery from disturbance is well documented. However, few studies have assessed the relative magnitude of, or potential interactions between, these factors. To determine the combined effect of herbivory and surrounding algal species richness on the recovery of a rocky intertidal community, we conducted a 27-month field experiment assessing algal recruitment and succession in cleared patches that mimic naturally forming gaps in the ambient community. We crossed two herbivore treatments, ambient and reduced abundance, with monocultures and polycultures of the four most common algal species in a mid-high rocky intertidal zone of northern California. We found that both the presence of herbivores and high surrounding algal richness increased recovery rates, and the effect of algal richness was twice the magnitude of that of herbivores. The increased recovery rate of patches containing herbivores was due to the consumption of fast-growing, early colonist species that preempt space from perennial, late-successional species. Mechanisms linking algal richness and recovery are more numerous. In polycultures, herbivore abundance and species composition is altered, desiccation rates are lower, and propagule recruitment, survival, and growth are higher compared to monocultures, all of which could contribute the observed effect of surrounding species richness. Herbivory and species richness should jointly accelerate recovery wherever palatable species inhibit late-successional, herbivore-resistant species and recruitment and survival of new colonists is promoted by local species richness. These appear to be common features of rocky-shore seaweed, and perhaps other, communities.

  17. Climate Adaptation and Harmful Algal Blooms (United States)

    EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.

  18. Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar


    A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

  19. Investigating Algal Reefs in Xinwu, Taiwan, by using Electrical Resistivity Tomography Method (United States)

    Wu, Ping-Yun; Chen, Chien-Chih


    The Guanxin algal reef, which is locating along the coastal line of Guanyin and Xinwu districts in the Taoyuan city, is the biggest and most complete algal reef in Taiwan. It is consisted of the calcified crustose coralline algae and is one of the most important ecosystems on the northwestern coast. Algal reefs grow extremely slow and expand only 0.1 to 80 mm annually; as a result, any investigation in the algal reef area must be implemented very carefully to reduce potential influence on the environment. Reefs have special electrical property; therefore, it is suitable for applications of electrical exploration methods. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is a fast, non-destructive, and inexpensive surficial geophysical survey method, and therefore it is widely used to investigate reefs. In this study, we used ERT method to investigate the location, distribution area and depth of algal reefs in order to provide a reliable reference of coastal engineering and the establishment of ecosystem refuge. The study area is from the south coast of Fulin river to the south coast of Guanyin river. There are four ERT survey lines, three of them are 960m long and parallel to the shoreline, and the other one is 240m long and perpendicular to others. According to the Archie's Law, we calculated the porosity from the resistivity profile to estimate the depth of reefs beneath each survey line and verified the estimates with the data obtained from drilling well. The results show that the upper boundary of the algal reefs is 0-1.5m deep (there are sands above), and the lower boundary is 4-6m deep (there are gravels below) in the study area. In addition, all profiles obtained from the north-south survey lines show that the depth of the algal reef becomes shallower in the range of 100m in the southernmost end, which indicate the southern boundary of the reef distribution.

  20. Towards developing algal synthetic biology. (United States)

    Scaife, Mark Aden; Smith, Alison Gail


    The genetic, physiological and metabolic diversity of microalgae has driven fundamental research into photosynthesis, flagella structure and function, and eukaryotic evolution. Within the last 10 years these organisms have also been investigated as potential biotechnology platforms, for example to produce high value compounds such as long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments and antioxidants, and for biodiesel precursors, in particular triacylglycerols (TAGs). Transformation protocols, molecular tools and genome sequences are available for a number of model species including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, although for both species there are bottlenecks to be overcome to allow rapid and predictable genetic manipulation. One approach to do this would be to apply the principles of synthetic biology to microalgae, namely the cycle of Design-Build-Test, which requires more robust, predictable and high throughput methods. In this mini-review we highlight recent progress in the areas of improving transgene expression, genome editing, identification and design of standard genetic elements (parts), and the use of microfluidics to increase throughput. We suggest that combining these approaches will provide the means to establish algal synthetic biology, and that application of standard parts and workflows will avoid parallel development and capitalize on lessons learned from other systems. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of pioneer plants (Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis) growing on heavy metals-contaminated soils. (United States)

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; González-Chávez, Maria del Carmen; Hernández-Gama, Regina; Hernández-Rodríguez, César


    In this study, the bacterial communities associated with the rhizospheres of pioneer plants Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis were explored. These plants grow on silver mine tailings with high concentration of heavy metals in Zacatecas, Mexico. Metagenomic DNAs from rhizosphere and bulk soil were extracted to perform a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis (DGGE) and to construct 16S rRNA gene libraries. A moderate bacterial diversity and twelve major phylogenetic groups including Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae and Actinobacteria phyla, and divisions TM7, OP10 and OD1 were recognized in the rhizospheres. Only 25.5% from the phylotypes were common in the rhizosphere libraries and the most abundant groups were members of the phyla Acidobacteria and Betaproteobacteria (Thiobacillus spp., Nitrosomonadaceae). The most abundant groups in bulk soil library were Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria, and no common phylotypes were shared with the rhizosphere libraries. Many of the clones detected were related with chemolithotrophic and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, characteristic of an environment with a high concentration of heavy metal-sulfur complexes, and lacking carbon and organic energy sources.

  2. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  3. Growing up with Retinoblastoma (United States)

    Maley, Tom


    An account is given of growing up as a child blinded as a result of a cancer of the eye known as retinoblastoma. The role of his mother is brought out, variously as a source of objective knowledge, of one's personal worth, and of the worth of other people in one's community. The strengths and weaknesses of his first school in his home area and…

  4. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.


    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  5. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; Daniel Stevens; Allison Ray; Debor


    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  6. Expanded algal cultivation can reverse key planetary boundary transgressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Calahan


    Full Text Available Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming. Expanded globally and appropriately distributed, algal cultivation is capable of removing excess nutrients from global environments, while additionally sequestering appreciable excess carbon. While obviously a major capital and operational investment, such a project is comparable in magnitude to the construction and maintenance of the global road transportation network. Beyond direct amelioration of critical threats, expanded algal cultivation would produce a major new commodity flow of biomass, potentially useful either as a valuable organic commodity itself, or used to reduce the scale of the problem by improving soils, slowing or reversing the loss of arable land. A 100 year project to expand algal cultivation to completely recycle excess global agricultural N and P would, when fully operational, require gross global expenses no greater than $2.3 × 1012 yr−1, (3.0% of the 2016 global domestic product and less than 1.9 × 107 ha (4.7 × 107 ac, 0.38% of the land area used globally to grow food. The biomass generated embodies renewable energy equivalent to 2.8% of global primary energy production.

  7. Algal and microbial exopolysaccharides: new insights as biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers. (United States)

    Paniagua-Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge; Morales-Guerrero, Eduardo Roberto


    Currently, efforts are being made to utilize more natural biological systems as alternatives as a way to replace fossil forms of carbon. There is a growing concern at global level to have nontoxic, nonhazardous surface-active agents; contrary to synthetic surfactants, their biological counterparts or biosurfactants play a primary function, facilitating microbial presence in environments dominated by hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. Algal and microbial biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers from marine and deep-sea environments are attracting major interest due to their structural and functional diversity as molecules actives of surface and an alternative biomass to replace fossil forms of carbon. Algal and microbial surfactants are lipid in nature and classified as glycolipids, phospholipids, lipopeptides, natural lipids, fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolic bioactive products are applicable in a number of industries and processes, viz., food processing, pharmacology, and bioremediation of oil-polluted environments. This chapter presents an update of the progress and potentialities of the principal producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-type biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, viz., macro- and microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms) and bacteria from marine and extreme environments. Particular interest is centered into new sources and applications, viz., marine and deep-sea environments and promissory uses of these EPSs as biosurfactants/emulsifiers and other polymeric roles. The enormous benefits of these molecules encourage their discovery, exploitation, and development of new microbial EPSs that could possess novel industrial importance and corresponding innovations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  9. Significance of Algal Assemblages in Assessing Water Quality of the River Nile at Minia,Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahed, A.M.; Ibrahim, H.A.


    A sector of the Nile system in the Providence Minia, has been studied for physicochemical properties of waters and characteristics of the inhabiting algal communities. Monthly samples in the period April, 1994-Marsh, 1995 were collected from three sites on the Nile and one site on a drainage canal connected to it. Samples were analysed for water temperature, ph, inorganic forms of nitrogen, inorganic phosphates, silicates, chemical oxygen demand, total carbohydrates, total proteins, and the major nutritive metal ions; Na +, K +, Ca + + a nd Mg + + . Algal samples, collected at the same intervals, were studied for the characteristics of algal communities including diversity of species, abundance of populations and species co,position. A total of 124 taxa were recorded during the period of study of which 27 cyanophytes, 34 chlorophyte, 6 euglenophytes and 57 bacillariophytes. Changes in water chemistry of the river Nile, on receiving discharges from domestic, agricultural and industrial effluents, have been shown to be accompanied with alterations in the algal communities including species composition, species diversity and abundance of populations. Water quality was assessed on the basis of both chemical and biological data and results have indicated that the Nile at the area of study is subjected to eutrophication and organic pollution. Bio indicator species have also used to distinguish polluted and relatively clean localities

  10. Algal Biology Toolbox Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    DOE-EERE's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) works to accelerate the development of a sustainable, cost-competitive, advanced biofuel industry that can strengthen U.S. energy security, environmental quality, and economic vitality, through research, development, and demonstration projects in partnership with industry, academia, and national laboratory partners. BETO’s Advanced Algal Systems Program (also called the Algae Program) has a long-term applied research and development (R&D) strategy to increase the yields and lower the costs of algal biofuels. The team works with partners to develop new technologies, to integrate technologies at commercially relevant scales, and to conduct crosscutting analyses to better understand the potential and challenges of the algal biofuels industry. Research has indicated that this industry is capable of producing billions of gallons of renewable diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels annually. R&D activities are integrated with BETO’s longstanding effort to accelerate the commercialization of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  11. Algal recycling enhances algal productivity and settleability in Pediastrum boryanum pure cultures. (United States)

    Park, Jason B K; Craggs, Rupert J; Shilton, Andy N


    Recycling a portion of gravity harvested algae (i.e. algae and associated bacteria biomass) has been shown to improve both algal biomass productivity and harvest efficiency by maintaining the dominance of a rapidly-settleable colonial alga, Pediastrum boryanum in both pilot-scale wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) and outdoor mesocosms. While algal recycling did not change the relative proportions of algae and bacteria in the HRAP culture, the contribution of the wastewater bacteria to the improved algal biomass productivity and settleability with the recycling was not certain and still required investigation. P. boryanum was therefore isolated from the HRAP and grown in pure culture on synthetic wastewater growth media under laboratory conditions. The influence of recycling on the productivity and settleability of the pure P. boryanum culture was then determined without wastewater bacteria present. Six 1 L P. boryanum cultures were grown over 30 days in a laboratory growth chamber simulating New Zealand summer conditions either with (Pr) or without (Pc) recycling of 10% of gravity harvested algae. The cultures with recycling (Pr) had higher algal productivity than the controls (Pc) when the cultures were operated at both 4 and 3 d hydraulic retention times by 11% and 38% respectively. Furthermore, algal recycling also improved 1 h settleability from ∼60% to ∼85% by increasing the average P. boryanum colony size due to the extended mean cell residence time and promoted formation of large algal bio-flocs (>500 μm diameter). These results demonstrate that the presence of wastewater bacteria was not necessary to improve algal productivity and settleability with algal recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conversion of light energy in algal culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorschot, van J.L.P.


    The conversion of light energy in algal culture was quantitatively studied under various growth conditions. Absorbed light energy during growth and energy fixed in organic material were estimated. The efficiency of the conversion was expressed as percentage of fixed energy (calculated from estimates

  13. Resolving Mixed Algal Species in Hyperspectral Images (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Teng, Ming Y.; Zimba, Paul V.


    We investigated a lab-based hyperspectral imaging system's response from pure (single) and mixed (two) algal cultures containing known algae types and volumetric combinations to characterize the system's performance. The spectral response to volumetric changes in single and combinations of algal mixtures with known ratios were tested. Constrained linear spectral unmixing was applied to extract the algal content of the mixtures based on abundances that produced the lowest root mean square error. Percent prediction error was computed as the difference between actual percent volumetric content and abundances at minimum RMS error. Best prediction errors were computed as 0.4%, 0.4% and 6.3% for the mixed spectra from three independent experiments. The worst prediction errors were found as 5.6%, 5.4% and 13.4% for the same order of experiments. Additionally, Beer-Lambert's law was utilized to relate transmittance to different volumes of pure algal suspensions demonstrating linear logarithmic trends for optical property measurements. PMID:24451451

  14. Resolving mixed algal species in hyperspectral images. (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Teng, Ming Y; Zimba, Paul V


    We investigated a lab-based hyperspectral imaging system's response from pure (single) and mixed (two) algal cultures containing known algae types and volumetric combinations to characterize the system's performance. The spectral response to volumetric changes in single and combinations of algal mixtures with known ratios were tested. Constrained linear spectral unmixing was applied to extract the algal content of the mixtures based on abundances that produced the lowest root mean square error. Percent prediction error was computed as the difference between actual percent volumetric content and abundances at minimum RMS error. Best prediction errors were computed as 0.4%, 0.4% and 6.3% for the mixed spectra from three independent experiments. The worst prediction errors were found as 5.6%, 5.4% and 13.4% for the same order of experiments. Additionally, Beer-Lambert's law was utilized to relate transmittance to different volumes of pure algal suspensions demonstrating linear logarithmic trends for optical property measurements.

  15. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  16. Sustainability of algal biofuel production using integrated renewable energy park (IREP) and algal biorefinery approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.


    Algal biomass can provide viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel. However, for a mature commercial industry to develop, sustainability as well as technological and economic issues pertinent to algal biofuel sector must be addressed first. This viewpoint focuses on three integrated approaches laid out to meet these challenges. Firstly, an integrated algal biorefinery for sequential biomass processing for multiple high-value products is delineated to bring in the financial sustainability to the algal biofuel production units. Secondly, an integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for amalgamating various renewable energy industries established in different locations. This would aid in synergistic and efficient electricity and liquid biofuel production with zero net carbon emissions while obviating numerous sustainability issues such as productive usage of agricultural land, water, and fossil fuel usage. A 'renewable energy corridor' rich in multiple energy sources needed for algal biofuel production for deploying IREPs in the United States is also illustrated. Finally, the integration of various industries with algal biofuel sector can bring a multitude of sustainable deliverables to society, such as renewable supply of cheap protein supplements, health products and aquafeed ingredients. The benefits, challenges, and policy needs of the IREP approach are also discussed.

  17. A Miniscale Algal Toxicity Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arensberg, Pia; Hemmingsen, Vicky H.; Nyholm, Niels


    facilitates CO2 mass transfer. Uniform illumination of the individual units of a minitest setup is obtained readily due to the small area that has to be illuminated. Using the rapidly growing green alga S. capricornutum as test organism, it is proposed generally to reduce the standard test duration from 3......A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration......-response curves were obtained with the ISO standard test and the minitest for potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol. The minitest is conveniently carried out using 2.5 ml test volume in 20 ml glass scintillation vials, placed on a microplate shaker or on an ordinary shaking table, but smaller containers...

  18. Ice algal bloom development on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet. (United States)

    Williamson, C J; Anesio, A M; Cook, J; Tedstone, A; Poniecka, E; Holland, A; Fagan, D; Tranter, M; Yallop, M L


    It is fundamental to understand the development of Zygnematophycean (Streptophyte) micro-algal blooms within Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) supraglacial environments, given their potential to significantly impact both physical (melt) and chemical (carbon and nutrient cycling) surface characteristics. Here we report on a space-for-time assessment of a GrIS ice-algal bloom, achieved by sampling an ∼ 85 km transect spanning the south-western GrIS bare ice zone during the 2016 ablation season. Cell abundances ranged from 0 to 1.6 × 104 cells ml-1, with algal biomass demonstrated to increase in surface ice with time since snow line retreat (R2 = 0.73, P < 0.05). A suite of light harvesting and photo-protective pigments were quantified across transects (chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenols) and shown to increase in concert with algal biomass. Ice-algal communities drove net autotrophy of surface ice, with maximal rates of net production averaging 0.52 ± 0.04 mg C l-1 d-1, and a total accumulation of 1.306 Gg C (15.82 ± 8.14 kg C km-2) predicted for the 2016 ablation season across an 8.24 × 104 km2 region of the GrIS. By advancing our understanding of ice-algal bloom development, this study marks an important step toward projecting bloom occurrence and impacts into the future. © FEMS 2018.

  19. Recent progress and future challenges in algal biofuel production [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Shurin


    Full Text Available Modern society is fueled by fossil energy produced millions of years ago by photosynthetic organisms. Cultivating contemporary photosynthetic producers to generate energy and capture carbon from the atmosphere is one potential approach to sustaining society without disrupting the climate. Algae, photosynthetic aquatic microorganisms, are the fastest growing primary producers in the world and can therefore produce more energy with less land, water, and nutrients than terrestrial plant crops. We review recent progress and challenges in developing bioenergy technology based on algae. A variety of high-value products in addition to biofuels can be harvested from algal biomass, and these may be key to developing algal biotechnology and realizing the commercial potential of these organisms. Aspects of algal biology that differentiate them from plants demand an integrative approach based on genetics, cell biology, ecology, and evolution. We call for a systems approach to research on algal biotechnology rooted in understanding their biology, from the level of genes to ecosystems, and integrating perspectives from physical, chemical, and social sciences to solve one of the most critical outstanding technological problems.

  20. Observations on algal populations in an experimental maturation pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shillinglaw, SN


    Full Text Available ?) of influent (HTE) and secondary pond. The arrows indicate the beginning of the noled algal concentration declines. 190 Water SA Vol. 3 No. 4 October 1977 intermittent presence of some factor which suppresses algal growth and/or removes algal cells from... the system at a very rapid rate. Another possibility is that an algal growth suppres sor is almost continuously present and only when the suppres sing factor is intermittently ahsent, do the algal concentrations exhihit a peak. Based on the results...

  1. "When I Grow up I Would Like to Be …": Factors Affecting Career Choice of Community Disability Workers in Southern Africa (United States)

    Rule, Sarah; Kahonde, Callista; Lorenzo, Theresa


    The effectiveness of community based rehabilitation (CBR) programmes depends on the calibre of staff recruited and employed. Therefore, this study aimed to understand how the life experiences of community disability workers (CDWs) in Malawi, Botswana and South Africa influenced their choice of career. A life history approach was used to gather…

  2. Baseline characterization of benthic and coral communities of the Flower Garden Banks (2010 - 2012) (NODC Accession 0124257) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study utilized ROV photograph transects to quantify benthic habitat and coral communities among the five habitat types (algal nodule, coralline algal reefs,...

  3. Making It Safe to Grow Old: A Financial Simulation Model for Launching MediCaring Communities for Frail Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries. (United States)

    Bernhardt, Antonia K; Lynn, Joanne; Berger, Gregory; Lee, James A; Reuter, Kevin; Davanzo, Joan; Montgomery, Anne; Dobson, Allen


    At age 65, the average man and woman can respectively expect 1.5 years and 2.5 years of requiring daily help with "activities of daily living." Available services fail to match frail elders' needs, thereby routinely generating errors, unreliability, unwanted services, unmet needs, and high costs. The number of elderly Medicare beneficiaries likely to be frail will triple between 2000 and 2050. Low retirement savings, rising medical and long-term care costs, and declining family caregiver availability portend gaps in badly needed services. The financial simulation reported here for 4 diverse MediCaring Communities shows lower per capita costs. Program savings are substantial and can improve coverage and function of local supportive services within current overall Medicare spending levels. The Altarum Institute Center for Elder Care and Advanced Illness has developed a reform model, MediCaring Communities, to improve services for frail elderly Medicare beneficiaries through longitudinal care planning, better-coordinated and more desirable medical and social services, and local monitoring and management of a community's quality and supply of services. This study uses financial simulation to determine whether communities could implement the model within current Medicare and Medicaid spending levels, an important consideration to enable development and broad implementation. The financial simulation for MediCaring Communities uses 4 diverse communities chosen for adequate size, varying health care delivery systems, and ability to implement reforms and generate data rapidly: Akron, Ohio; Milwaukie, Oregon; northeastern Queens, New York; and Williamsburg, Virginia. For each community, leaders contributed baseline population and program effect estimates that reflected projections from reported research to build the model. The simulation projected third-year savings between $269 and $537 per beneficiary per month and cumulative returns on investment between 75% and 165%. The

  4. Collection and conversion of algal lipid (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chieh

    Sustainable economic activities mandate a significant replacement of fossil energy by renewable forms. Algae-derived biofuels are increasingly seen as an alternative source of energy with potential to supplement the world's ever increasing demand. Our primary objective is, once the algae were cultivated, to eliminate or make more efficient energy-intensive processing steps of collection, drying, grinding, and solvent extraction prior to conversion. To overcome the processing barrier, we propose to streamline from cultivated algae to biodiesel via algal biomass collection by sand filtration, cell rupturing with ozone, and immediate transesterification. To collect the algal biomass, the specific Chlorococcum aquaticum suspension was acidified to pH 3.3 to promote agglomeration prior to sand filtration. The algae-loaded filter bed was drained of free water and added with methanol and ozonated for 2 min to rupture cell membrane to accelerate release of the cellular contents. The methanol solution now containing the dissolved lipid product was collected by draining, while the filter bed was regenerated by further ozonation when needed. The results showed 95% collection of the algal biomass from the suspension and a 16% yield of lipid from the algae, as well as restoration of filtration velocity of the sand bed via ozonation. The results further showed increased lipid yield upon cell rupturing and transesterified products composed entirely of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) compounds, demonstrating that the rupture and transesterification processes could proceed consecutively in the same medium, requiring no separate steps of drying, extraction, and conversion. The FAME products from algae without exposure to ozone were mainly of 16 to 18 carbons containing up to 3 double bonds, while those from algae having been ozonated were smaller, highly saturated hydrocarbons. The new technique streamlines individual steps from cultivated algal lipid to transesterified products and

  5. Copper desorption from Gelidium algal biomass. (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R


    Desorption of divalent copper from marine algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal waste (from agar extraction industry) and a composite material (the algal waste immobilized in polyacrylonitrile) was studied in a batch system. Copper ions were first adsorbed until saturation and then desorbed by HNO(3) and Na(2)EDTA solutions. Elution efficiency using HNO(3) increases as pH decreases. At pH=1, for a solid to liquid ratio S/L=4gl(-1), elution efficiency was 97%, 95% and 88%, the stoichiometric coefficient for the ionic exchange, 0.70+/-0.02, 0.73+/-0.05 and 0.76+/-0.06 and the selectivity coefficient, 0.93+/-0.07, 1.0+/-0.3 and 1.1+/-0.3, respectively, for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. Complexation of copper ions by EDTA occurs in a molar proportion of 1:1 and the elution efficiency increases with EDTA concentration. For concentrations of 1.4, 0.88 and 0.57 mmoll(-1), the elution efficiency for S/L=4gl(-1), was 91%, 86% and 78%, respectively, for algae Gelidium, algal waste and composite material. The S/L ratio, in the range 1-20gl(-1), has little influence on copper recovery by using 0.1M HNO(3). Desorption kinetics was very fast for all biosorbents. Kinetic data using HNO(3) as eluant were well described by the mass transfer model, considering the average metal concentration in the solid phase and the equilibrium relationship given by the mass action law. The homogeneous diffusion coefficient varied between 1.0 x 10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for algae Gelidium and 3.0 x 10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for the composite material.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of algal biocrude production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beal, C.M.; Hebner, R.E.; Webber, M.E.


    Although algal biofuels possess great potential, profitable production is quite challenging. Much of this challenge is rooted in the thermodynamic constraints associated with producing fuels with high energy, low entropy, and high exergy from dispersed materials. In this study, a preliminary thermodynamic analysis is presented that calculates the energy, entropy, and exergy of the intermediate products for algal biocrude production. These values are also used in an initial attempt to characterize the thermodynamic efficiency of that system. The production pathway is simplified by assuming ideal solutions throughout. Results for the energy and exergy efficiencies, and the first-order energy and exergy return on investment, of the system are given. The summary finding is that the first-order energy return on investment in the best case considered could be as high as 520, as compared to 1.7 × 10 −3 in the experimental unit under development. While this analysis shows that significant improvement may be possible, the ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of algal biofuels likely lies closer to the moderate case examined here, which yielded a first-order energy return on investment of 10. For perspective, the first-order energy return on investment for oil and gas production has been estimated in the literature to be ∼35. -- Highlights: ► A first-principles thermodynamic analysis was conducted for algal biocrude production. ► The energy, entropy, and exergy was determined for each intermediate product by assuming the products were ideal solutions. ► The thermodynamic properties were used to calculate the energy and exergy return on investments for three cases. ► It was determined that the energy and exergy return on investments could be as high as ∼500. ► More realistic assumptions for efficient systems yielded return on investments on the order of 10.

  7. Algal Turf Scrubbers: Cleaning Water while Capturing Solar Energy for Bio fuel Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey Bannon, J.; Adey, W.


    Algal Turfs are bio diverse communities of unicellular to filamentous algae of all major algal phyla. Algal Turf Scrubbers (ATS) are bioengineered ecosystems dominated by algal turfs. They clean water to very high quality, and remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by capturing solar energy at rates 10 times that of agriculture and 50 times that of forestry. Since they are controlled ecosystems, using local algae, ATS does not suffer the major disadvantages of agricultural crops, which for maximum efficiency require fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. ATS removes CO 2 from water and the atmosphere, and can be configured to remove CO 2 from power plant stack gases. As a normal part of operations, ATS removes heavy metals, break down toxic hydrocarbons, and oxygenates treated waters. ATS systems are capable of removing nitrogen and phosphorous from surface waters in the mid latitude US at $0.60/kg and $10.60/kg respectively (10% of the cost certified by the Chesapeake Bay Commission), and independently producing an energy product at $0.85/gallon. Given a nutrient credit system for rewarding nutrient removal from rivers and lakes, this price can be driven down to below $.40/gallon. Conservatively ATS can produce the equivalent of US imported oil on less than 30 M acres of land along major rivers

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of algal symbionts associated with four North American amphibian egg masses. (United States)

    Kim, Eunsoo; Lin, Yuan; Kerney, Ryan; Blumenberg, Lili; Bishop, Cory


    Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga "Oophila amblystomatis" (Lambert ex Wille), which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogeographic study of algae sampled from egg capsules of A. maculatum, its allopatric congener A. gracile, and two frogs: Lithobates sylvatica and L. aurora. All of these North American amphibians form associations with algae in their egg capsules. We sampled algae from egg capsules of these four amphibians from localities across North America, established representative algal cultures, and amplified and sequenced a region of 18S rDNA for phylogenetic analysis. Our combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. We designate this group as the 'Oophila' clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades. Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations. We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of algal symbionts associated with four North American amphibian egg masses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo Kim

    Full Text Available Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga "Oophila amblystomatis" (Lambert ex Wille, which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogeographic study of algae sampled from egg capsules of A. maculatum, its allopatric congener A. gracile, and two frogs: Lithobates sylvatica and L. aurora. All of these North American amphibians form associations with algae in their egg capsules. We sampled algae from egg capsules of these four amphibians from localities across North America, established representative algal cultures, and amplified and sequenced a region of 18S rDNA for phylogenetic analysis. Our combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. We designate this group as the 'Oophila' clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades. Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations. We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae.

  10. Utilization of algal polysaccharides by human colonic bacteria, in axenic culture or in association with hydrogenotrophic microorganisms. (United States)

    Rochet, V; Bernalier, A


    The ability of different hydrolytic bacteria from the human colon to grow on various algal polymers (carrageenans, Palmaria palmata xylan, ulvan, desulphated ulvan and laminaran) was investigated and the interactions between Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and H2-utilizing microorganisms (one methanogenic archaea and an acetogenic bacterium) were studied during laminaran degradation. None of the algal polysaccharides supported the growth of any of the hydrolytic species tested, except for laminaran, which allowed substantial growth of B thetaiotaomicron. This suggested that bacterial consortia were involved in algal polymer breakdown rather than one specific bacterial species. The presence of H2-utilizing microorganisms did not increase the extent of laminaran degradation by B thetaiotaomicron. Whereas the decrease in formate and H2 concentrations attested to their utilization by both hydrogenotrophic microorganisms, the large increase in acetate production observed in the coculture with acetogenic bacteria was mainly due to acetogenic fermentation of sugars released during laminaran hydrolysis.

  11. Comparative analysis of yellow microbial communities growing on the walls of geographically distinct caves indicates a common core of microorganisms involved in their formation. (United States)

    Porca, Estefania; Jurado, Valme; Žgur-Bertok, Darja; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Pašić, Lejla


    Morphologically similar microbial communities that often form on the walls of geographically distinct limestone caves have not yet been comparatively studied. Here, we analysed phylotype distribution in yellow microbial community samples obtained from the walls of distinct caves located in Spain, Czech Republic and Slovenia. To infer the level of similarity in microbial community membership, we analysed inserts of 474 16S rRNA gene clones and compared those using statistical tools. The results show that the microbial communities under investigation are composed solely of Bacteria. The obtained phylotypes formed three distinct groups of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). About 60% of obtained sequences formed three core OTUs common to all three sampling sites. These were affiliated with actinobacterial Pseudonocardinae (30-50% of sequences in individual sampling site libraries), but also with gammaproteobacterial Chromatiales (6-25%) and Xanthomonadales (0.5-2.0%). Another 7% of sequences were common to two sampling sites and formed eight OTUs, while the remaining 35% were site specific and corresponded mostly to OTUs containing single sequences. The same pattern was observed when these data were compared with sequence data available from similar studies. This comparison showed that distinct limestone caves support microbial communities composed mostly of phylotypes common to all sampling sites. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The spatial and temporal dynamic of algal biomass associated with mangrove roots in Buenaventura bay pacific coast of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Salamanca, Enrique Javier


    The spatial and temporal variation of biomass of mangrove associated macro algae growing on roots of Rhizophora mangle and pneumatophores of Avicennia. germinans were studied at three sampling stations in Buenaventura bay, Colombia, between November 1999 and September 2003. Eighteen species of algae were collected including nine Rhodophyceae, five Chlorophyceae and four Cyanophyta (Cyanobacteria). Four species dominated the algal flora and collectively contributed with 90 % of the total algal biomass. Bostrychia calliptera was the most dominant with 32 % of the total biomass, followed by Boodleopsis verticillata (26 %), Catenella impudica (18 %), and Caloglossa leprieurii (12 %) Algal biomass between seasons showed significant differences, with higher biomass found during the dry season compared to those of the rainy season. The algal biomass at the mouth of the estuary was significantly higher than that found in the inner areas of the estuary (annual means of 30.7 ± 10.8 vs. 13.8 ± 4.1 g m 2 respectively).Three well-defined vertical zones were observed, based on algal biomass

  13. Life cycle analysis on fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel: effects of nitrogen deficiency and oil extraction technology. (United States)

    Jian, Hou; Jing, Yang; Peidong, Zhang


    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been widely used to analyze various pathways of biofuel preparation from "cradle to grave." Effects of nitrogen supply for algae cultivation and technology of algal oil extraction on life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel are assessed in this study. Life cycle fossil energy ratio of Chlorella vulgaris based biodiesel is improved by growing algae under nitrogen-limited conditions, while the life cycle fossil energy ratio of biodiesel production from Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown with nitrogen deprivation decreases. Compared to extraction of oil from dried algae, extraction of lipid from wet algae with subcritical cosolvents achieves a 43.83% improvement in fossil energy ratio of algal biodiesel when oilcake drying is not considered. The outcome for sensitivity analysis indicates that the algal oil conversion rate and energy content of algae are found to have the greatest effects on the LCA results of algal biodiesel production, followed by utilization ratio of algal residue, energy demand for algae drying, capacity of water mixing, and productivity of algae.

  14. Growing up and Growing Old: Communities in Counterpoint (United States)

    St John, Patricia A.


    Using a socio-cultural lens, this study explores two unique populations participating in an intergenerational music experience: seven infants/caregivers (ages 3-16 months) and eight retired women religious (ages 70-94). I was curious to examine how music-making across ages might facilitate new-found meaning for old people whilst simultaneously…

  15. Baseline characterization of benthic and coral communities of the Flower Garden Banks, Texas from 2010-05-01 to 2012-08-31 (NODC Accession 0124257) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study utilized ROV photograph transects to quantify benthic habitat and coral communities among the five habitat types (algal nodule, coralline algal reefs,...

  16. Growing health partnerships in rural and remote communities: what drives the joint efforts of primary schools and universities in maintaining service learning partnerships? (United States)

    Kirby, Sue; Held, Fabian P; Jones, Debra; Lyle, David


    Aim This study explored the partnership between universities and local primary schools to deliver a classroom-based paediatric communication impairment service provided by undergraduate speech pathology students. It aimed to understand how partnerships work to facilitate programme replication. The partners included universities sending students on rural clinical placement, local host academic units and primary schools who worked together to provide paediatric speech and language services in primary schools in three sites in Australia. Rural and remote communities experience poorer health outcomes because of chronic workforce shortages, social disadvantage and high Aboriginality, poor access to services and underfunding. The study was in twofold: qualitative analysis of data from interviews/focus group with the partners in the university and education sectors, and quantitative social network analysis of data from an electronic survey of the partners. Findings Factors supporting partnerships were long-term, work and social relationships, commitment to community, trust and an appetite for risk-taking. We postulate that these characteristics are more likely to exist in rural communities.

  17. Effect of Simulated Climate Warming on the Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community of Boreal and Temperate Host Species Growing Near Their Shared Ecotonal Range Limits. (United States)

    Mucha, Joanna; Peay, Kabir G; Smith, Dylan P; Reich, Peter B; Stefański, Artur; Hobbie, Sarah E


    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can influence the establishment and performance of host species by increasing nutrient and water absorption. Therefore, understanding the response of ECM fungi to expected changes in the global climate is crucial for predicting potential changes in the composition and productivity of forests. While anthropogenic activity has, and will continue to, cause global temperature increases, few studies have investigated how increases in temperature will affect the community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The effects of global warming are expected to be particularly strong at biome boundaries and in the northern latitudes. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of experimental manipulations of temperature and canopy structure (open vs. closed) on ectomycorrhizal fungi identified from roots of host seedlings through 454 pyrosequencing. The ecotonal boundary site selected for the study was between the southern boreal and temperate forests in northern Minnesota, USA, which is the southern limit range for Picea glauca and Betula papyrifera and the northern one for Pinus strobus and Quercus rubra. Manipulations that increased air and soil temperature by 1.7 and 3.4 °C above ambient temperatures, respectively, did not change ECM richness but did alter the composition of the ECM community in a manner dependent on host and canopy structure. The prediction that colonization of boreal tree species with ECM symbionts characteristic of temperate species would occur was not substantiated. Overall, only a small proportion of the ECM community appears to be strongly sensitive to warming.

  18. Stimulation of bacterial DNA synthesis by algal exudates in attached algal-bacterial consortia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.E.; Cooksey, K.E.; Priscu, J.C.


    Algal-bacterial consortia attached to polystyrene surfaces were prepared in the laboratory by using the marine diatom Amphora coffeaeformis and the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolytica (the approved name of this bacterium is Vibrio proteolyticus. The organisms were attached to the surfaces at cell densities of approximately 5 x 10 4 cells cm -2 (diatoms) and 5 x 10 6 cells cm -2 (bacteria). The algal-bacterial consortia consistently exhibited higher rates of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation than did biofilms composed solely of bacteria. The rates of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation by the algal-bacterial consortia were fourfold greater than the rates of incorporation by monobacterial biofilms 16 h after biofilm formation and were 16-fold greater 70 h after biofilm formation. Extracellular material released from the attached Amphora cells supported rates of bacterial activity (0.8 x 10 -21 mol to 17.9 x 10 -21 mol of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporated cell -1 h -1 ) and growth (doubling time, 29.5 to 1.4 days) comparable to values reported for a wide variety of marine and freshwater ecosystems. In the presence of sessile diatom populations, DNA synthesis by attached V. proteolytica cells was light dependent and increased with increasing algal abundance. The metabolic activity of diatoms thus appears to be the rate-limiting process in biofilm development on illuminated surfaces under conditions of low bulk-water dissolved organic carbon

  19. Accelerating Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Partnerships (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This brochure describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) algal biofuels research capabilities and partnership opportunities. NREL is accelerating algal biofuels commercialization through: (1) Advances in applied biology; (2) Algal strain development; (3) Development of fuel conversion pathways; (4) Techno-economic analysis; and (5) Development of high-throughput lipid analysis methodologies. NREL scientists and engineers are addressing challenges across the algal biofuels value chain, including algal biology, cultivation, harvesting and extraction, and fuel conversion. Through partnerships, NREL can share knowledge and capabilities in the following areas: (1) Algal Biology - A fundamental understanding of algal biology is key to developing cost-effective algal biofuels processes. NREL scientists are experts in the isolation and characterization of microalgal species. They are identifying genes and pathways involved in biofuel production. In addition, they have developed a high-throughput, non-destructive technique for assessing lipid production in microalgae. (2) Cultivation - NREL researchers study algal growth capabilities and perform compositional analysis of algal biomass. Laboratory-scale photobioreactors and 1-m2 open raceway ponds in an on-site greenhouse allow for year-round cultivation of algae under a variety of conditions. A bioenergy-focused algal strain collection is being established at NREL, and our laboratory houses a cryopreservation system for long-term maintenance of algal cultures and preservation of intellectual property. (3) Harvesting and Extraction - NREL is investigating cost-effective harvesting and extraction methods suitable for a variety of species and conditions. Areas of expertise include cell wall analysis and deconstruction and identification and utilization of co-products. (4) Fuel Conversion - NREL's excellent capabilities and facilities for biochemical and thermochemical conversion of biomass to

  20. Growing media [Chapter 5 (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna


    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  1. Luminescent Solar Concentrators in the Algal Industry (United States)

    Hellier, Katie; Corrado, Carley; Carter, Sue; Detweiler, Angela; Bebout, Leslie


    Today's industry for renewable energy sources and highly efficient energy management systems is rapidly increasing. Development of increased efficiency Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LSCs) has brought about new applications for commercial interests, including greenhouses for agricultural crops. This project is taking first steps to explore the potential of LSCs to enhance production and reduce costs for algae and cyanobacteria used in biofuels and nutraceuticals. This pilot phase uses LSC filtered light for algal growth trials in greenhouses and laboratory experiments, creating specific wavelength combinations to determine effects of discrete solar light regimes on algal growth and the reduction of heating and water loss in the system. Enhancing the optimal spectra for specific algae will not only increase production, but has the potential to lessen contamination of large scale production due to competition from other algae and bacteria. Providing LSC filtered light will reduce evaporation and heating in regions with limited water supply, while the increased energy output from photovoltaic cells will reduce costs of heating and mixing cultures, thus creating a more efficient and cost effective production system.

  2. Mechanical algal disruption for efficient biodiesel extraction (United States)

    Krehbiel, Joel David

    Biodiesel from algae provides several benefits over current biodiesel feedstocks, but the energy requirements of processing algae into a useable fuel are currently so high as to be prohibitive. One route to improving this is via disruption of the cells prior to lipid extraction, which can significantly increase energy recovery. Unfortunately, several obvious disruption techniques require more energy than can be gained. This dissertation examines the use of microbubbles to improve mechanical disruption of algal cells using experimental, theoretical, and computational methods. New laboratory experiments show that effective ultrasonic disruption of algae is achieved by adding microbubbles to an algal solution. The configuration studied flows the solution through a tube and insonifies a small section with a high-pressure ultrasound wave. Previous biomedical research has shown effective cell membrane damage on animal cells with similar methods, but the present research is the first to extend such study to algal cells. Results indicate that disruption increases with peak negative pressure between 1.90 and 3.07 MPa and with microbubble concentration up to 12.5 x 107 bubbles/ml. Energy estimates of this process suggest that it requires only one-fourth the currently most-efficient laboratory-scale disruption process. Estimates of the radius near each bubble that causes disruption (i.e. the disruption radius) suggest that it increases with peak negative pressure and is near 9--20 microm for all cases tested. It is anticipated that these procedures can be designed for better efficiency and efficacy, which will be facilitated by identifying the root mechanisms of the bubble-induced disruption. We therefore examine whether bubble expansion alone creates sufficient cell deformation for cell rupture. The spherically-symmetric Marmottant model for bubble dynamics allows estimation of the flow regime under experimental conditions. Bubble expansion is modeled as a point source of

  3. Transformation of Swine Manure and Algal Consortia to Value-added Products (United States)

    Sharara, Mahmoud A.

    The swine production sector is projected to grow globally. In the past, this growth manifested itself in increased herd sizes and geographically concentrated production. Although economically sound, these trends had negative consequences on surrounding ecosystems. Over-application of manure resulted in water quality degradation, while long-term storage of manure slurries was found to promote release of potent GHG emissions. There is a need for innovative approaches for swine manure management that are compatible with current scales of production, and increasingly strict environmental regulations. This study aims to investigate the potential for incorporating gasification as part of a novel swine manure management system which utilizes liquid-solid separation and periphytic algal consortia as a phycoremediation vector for the liquid slurry. The gasification of swine manure solids, and algal biomass solids generate both a gaseous fuel product (producer gas) in addition to a biochar co-product. First, the decomposition kinetics for both feedstock, i.e., swine manure solids, and algal solids, were quantified using thermogravimetry at different heating rates (1 ~ 40°C min-1) under different atmospheres (nitrogen, and air). Pyrolysis kinetics were determined for manure solids from two farms with different manure management systems. Similarly, the pyrolysis kinetics were determined for phycoremediation algae grown on swine manure slurries. Modeling algal solids pyrolysis as first-order independent parallel reactions was sufficient to describe sample devolatilization. Combustion of swine manure solids blended with algal solids, at different ratios, showed no synergistic effects. Gasification of phycoremediation algal biomass was studied using a bench-scale auger gasification system at temperatures between 760 and 960°C. The temperature profile suggested a stratification of reaction zones common to fixed-bed reactors. The producer gas heating value ranged between 2.2 MJ m

  4. Method and system of culturing an algal mat (United States)

    Das, Keshav C; Cannon, Benjamin R; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Chinnasamy, Senthil


    A system and method for culturing algae are presented. The system and method utilize a fog of growth medium that is delivered to an algal mat generator along with a stream of CO.sub.2 to promote growth of algal cells contained in the generator.

  5. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.


    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  6. Algal diversity of Adada River, Nigeria. I. Chlorophyta (green algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial water tankers collect water and sell to indigenes and towns around the river, hence the need to investigate the algal biodiversity in other to access its suitability for human consumption using known algal indicators of water quality and add to the pool of data useful for long term trends in floral composition in ...

  7. Increasing the extraction efficiency of algal lipid for biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various studies have been conducted recently using microalgal system for the production of algal lipid for biodiesel production. This study aimed at increasing the extraction efficiency of algal lipid from Chlorella sp. by the application of Chlorella viruses. The calorific value of lipid from Chlorella sp. has been reported to be ...


    Hypothermia is often seen in mice and rats exposed acutely to marine algal toxins, but the mechanism of action of these toxins on thermoregulation is not well understood. Our laboratory has assessed the thermoregulatory mechanisms of two marine algal toxins, maitotoxin and brevet...

  9. Changes in algal composition and environmental variables in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly sampling in 2003 and 2006 indicated that dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations decreased, while dissolved inorganic phosphorus concentration increased 12-fold, resulting in increases in algal concentration and a shift from green algal dominance in 2003 to cyanobacterial dominance in 2006. Multivariate ...

  10. Algal endosymbionts in European Hydra strains reflect multiple origins of the zoochlorella symbiosis. (United States)

    Rajević, Nives; Kovačević, Goran; Kalafatić, Mirjana; Gould, Sven B; Martin, William F; Franjević, Damjan


    Symbiotic associations are of broad significance in evolution and biodiversity. Green Hydra is a classic example of endosymbiosis. In its gastrodermal myoepithelial cells it harbors endosymbiotic unicellular green algae, most commonly from the genus Chlorella. We reconstructed the phylogeny of cultured algal endosymbionts isolated and maintained in laboratory conditions for years from green Hydra strains collected from four different geographical sites within Croatia, one from Germany and one from Israel. Nuclear (18S rDNA, ITS region) and chloroplast markers (16S, rbcL) for maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were used. We focused on investigating the positions of these algal endosymbiotic strains within the chlorophyte lineage. Molecular analyses established that different genera and species of unicellular green algae are present as endosymbionts in green Hydra, showing that endosymbiotic algae growing within green Hydra sampled from four Croatian localities are not monophyletic. Our results indicate that the intracellular algal endosymbionts of green Hydra have become established several times independently in evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Grazer diversity interacts with biogenic habitat heterogeneity to accelerate intertidal algal succession. (United States)

    Whalen, Matthew A; Aquilino, Kristin M; Stachowicz, John J


    Environmental heterogeneity contributes to coexistence by allowing species with different traits to persist when different species perform best at different times or places. This interaction between niche differences and environmental variability may also help explain relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but few data are available to rigorously evaluate this hypothesis. We assessed how a biologically relevant aspect of environmental heterogeneity interacts with species diversity to determine ecosystem processes in a natural rocky intertidal community. We used field removals to factorially manipulate biogenic habitat heterogeneity (barnacles, bare rock, and plots that were 50/50 mixes of the two habitat types) and gastropod grazer species richness and then tracked algal community succession and recovery over the course of 1 yr. We found that herbivore diversity, substrate heterogeneity, and their interaction played unique roles in the peak abundance and timing of occurrence of different algal functional groups. Early successional microalgae were most heavily grazed in diverse herbivore assemblages and those with barnacles present, which was likely due to complementary feeding strategies among all three grazers. In contrast, late successional macroalgae were strongly influenced by the presence of a habitat generalist limpet. In this herbivore's absence, heterogeneous habitats (i.e., mixtures of bare rock and barnacles) experienced the greatest algal accumulation, which was partly a result of complementary habitat use by the remaining herbivores. The complex way habitat identity and heterogeneity altered grazer-algal interactions in our study suggests species' differences and environmental heterogeneity both separately and interactively contribute to the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functions. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Algal biofuels: key issues, sustainability and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving


    (GHG) emissions to reduce the climate change effects. Among the various renewable energy sources algal biofuels is a very promising source of biomass as algae sequester huge quantities of carbon from atmosphere and are very efficient in utilizing the nutrients from the industrial effluent and municipal...... wastewater. Algae capture CO2 from atmosphere and industrial flue gases and transform it in to organic biomass that can be used for the production of biofuels. Like other biomass, algal biomass is also a carbon neutral source for the production of bioenergy. Therefore cultivation of algal biomass provides...... capital investment. The harvested algal biomass and its extracts can be efficiently converted to different biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and biohydrogen by implementation of various process technologies. Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of algal biofuels illustrating...

  13. Deep-Learning-Based Approach for Prediction of Algal Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang


    Full Text Available Algal blooms have recently become a critical global environmental concern which might put economic development and sustainability at risk. However, the accurate prediction of algal blooms remains a challenging scientific problem. In this study, a novel prediction approach for algal blooms based on deep learning is presented—a powerful tool to represent and predict highly dynamic and complex phenomena. The proposed approach constructs a five-layered model to extract detailed relationships between the density of phytoplankton cells and various environmental parameters. The algal blooms can be predicted by the phytoplankton density obtained from the output layer. A case study is conducted in coastal waters of East China using both our model and a traditional back-propagation neural network for comparison. The results show that the deep-learning-based model yields better generalization and greater accuracy in predicting algal blooms than a traditional shallow neural network does.

  14. Experimental Protocol for Biodiesel Production with Isolation of Alkenones as Coproducts from Commercial Isochrysis Algal Biomass. (United States)

    O'Neil, Gregory W; Williams, John R; Wilson-Peltier, Julia; Knothe, Gerhard; Reddy, Christopher M


    The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis. Additionally, a unique suite of lipids known as polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones are isolated in parallel as potentially valuable coproducts to offset the cost of biodiesel production. Multi-kilogram quantities of Isochrysis are purchased from two commercial sources, one as a wet paste (80% water) that is first dried prior to processing, and the other a dry milled powder (95% dry). Lipids are extracted with hexanes in a Soxhlet apparatus to produce an algal oil ("hexane algal oil") containing both traditional fats (i.e., triglycerides, 46-60% w/w) and alkenones (16-25% w/w). Saponification of the triglycerides in the algal oil allows for separation of the resulting free fatty acids (FFAs) from alkenone-containing neutral lipids. FFAs are then converted to biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) by acid-catalyzed esterification while alkenones are isolated and purified from the neutral lipids by crystallization. We demonstrate that biodiesel from both commercial Isochrysis biomasses have similar but not identical FAME profiles, characterized by elevated polyunsaturated fatty acid contents (approximately 40% w/w). Yields of biodiesel were consistently higher when starting from the Isochrysis wet paste (12% w/w vs. 7% w/w), which can be traced to lower amounts of hexane algal oil obtained from the powdered Isochrysis product.

  15. Improved algal harvesting using suspended air flotation. (United States)

    Wiley, Patrick E; Brenneman, Kristine J; Jacobson, Arne E


    Current methods to remove algae from a liquid medium are energy intensive and expensive. This study characterized algae contained within a wastewater oxidation pond and sought to identify a more efficient harvesting technique. Analysis of oxidation pond wastewater revealed that algae, consisting primarily of Chlorella and Scenedesmus, composed approximately 80% of the solids inventory during the study period. Results demonstrated that suspended air flotation (SAF) could harvest algae with a lower air:solids (A/S) ratio, lower energy requirements, and higher loading rates compared to dissolved air flotation (DAF) (P plants by enabling cost effective means to reduce solids content of the final effluent. Furthermore, use of SAF to harvest commercially grown Chlorella and Scenedesmus may reduce manufacturing costs of algal-based products such as fuel, fertilizer, and fish food.

  16. Linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp


    Recently, high-quality data were published on the algal growth inhibition caused by 50 non-polar narcotic compounds, of which 39 were liquid compounds with defined water solubility. In the present study, the toxicity data for these liquids were applied to challenge the chemical activity range...... for baseline toxicity. First, the reported effective concentrations (EC50) were divided by the respective water solubilities (Swater), since the obtained EC50/Swater ratio essentially equals the effective chemical activity (Ea50). The majority of EC50/Swater ratios were within the expected chemical activity...... solubility in the applied dataset. On an environmental risk assessment level, predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for baseline toxicity could even be set as a percentage of saturation, which can easily be extended to mixtures. However, EC50 values well below 1% of liquid saturation can still occur...

  17. Plant community tolerant to trace elements growing on the degraded soils of São Domingos mine in the south east of Portugal: environmental implications. (United States)

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J


    The selection of trace element tolerant species is a key factor to the success of remediation of degraded mine soils. Mining activities generate a large amount of waste rocks and tailings, which get deposited at the surface. The degraded soils, the waste rocks and tailings are often very unstable and will become sources of pollution. The direct effects will be the loss of cultivated land, forest or grazing land, and the overall loss of production. The indirect effects will include air and water pollution and siltation of rivers. These will eventually lead to the loss of biodiversity, amenity and economic wealth. Restoration of a vegetation cover can fulfil the objectives of stabilization, pollution control, visual improvement and removal of threats to human beings. Thus, remediation of mine spoils/tailings and biogeochemical prospecting would rely on the appropriate selection of plant species. Plant community responds differently on their ability to uptake or exclude a variety of metals. In this work, plant species were sampled from all populations established in an abandoned copper mine of São Domingos, SE Portugal. Plants belonging to 24 species, 16 genera and 13 families were collected from the degraded copper mine of São Domingos. Plant samples were analysed for total Ag, As, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The highest concentrations of metals in soils dry matter were 11217.5 mg Pb kg(-1), 1829 mg Cu kg(-1), 1291 mg As kg(-1), 713.7 mg Zn kg(-1), 84.6 mg Cr kg(-1), 54.3 mg Co kg(-1), 52.9 mg Ni kg(-1) and 16.6 mg Ag kg(-1). With respect to plants, the higher concentrations of Pb and As were recorded in the semi-aquatic species Juncus conglomeratus with 84.8 and 23.5 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW), Juncus efusus with 22.4 and 8.5 mg kg(-1) DW, and Scirpus holoschoenus with 51.7 and 8.0 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Thymus mastichina also showed high content of As in the aboveground parts, 13.6 mg kg(-1) DW. Overall, the results indicate accumulation of various metals by

  18. Life cycle environmental impacts of wastewater-based algal biofuels. (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Min, Min; Krohn, Brian; Mullins, Kimberley A; Ruan, Roger; Hill, Jason


    Recent research has proposed integrating wastewater treatment with algae cultivation as a way of producing algal biofuels at a commercial scale more sustainably. This study evaluates the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels with a well-to-wheel life cycle assessment (LCA). Production pathways examined include different nutrient sources (municipal wastewater influent to the activated sludge process, centrate from the sludge drying process, swine manure, and freshwater with synthetic fertilizers) combined with emerging biomass conversion technologies (microwave pyrolysis, combustion, wet lipid extraction, and hydrothermal liquefaction). Results show that the environmental performance of wastewater-based algal biofuels is generally better than freshwater-based algal biofuels, but depends on the characteristics of the wastewater and the conversion technologies. Of 16 pathways compared, only the centrate cultivation with wet lipid extraction pathway and the centrate cultivation with combustion pathway have lower impacts than petroleum diesel in all environmental categories examined (fossil fuel use, greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication potential, and consumptive water use). The potential for large-scale implementation of centrate-based algal biofuel, however, is limited by availability of centrate. Thus, it is unlikely that algal biofuels can provide a large-scale and environmentally preferable alternative to petroleum transportation fuels without considerable improvement in current production technologies. Additionally, the cobenefit of wastewater-based algal biofuel production as an alternate means of treating various wastewaters should be further explored.

  19. Fungal farmers or algal escorts: lichen adaptation from the algal perspective. (United States)

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Deduke, Christopher


    Domestication of algae by lichen-forming fungi describes the symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic (green alga or cyanobacterium; photobiont) and fungal (mycobiont) partnership in lichen associations (Goward 1992). The algal domestication implies that the mycobiont cultivates the alga as a monoculture within its thallus, analogous to a farmer cultivating a food crop. However, the initial photobiont 'selection' by the mycobiont may be predetermined by the habitat rather than by the farmer. When the mycobiont selects a photobiont from the available photobionts within a habitat, the mycobiont may influence photobiont growth and reproduction (Ahmadjian & Jacobs 1981) only after the interaction has been initiated. The theory of ecological guilds (Rikkinen et al. 2002) proposes that habitat limits the variety of photobionts available to the fungal partner. While some studies provide evidence to support the theory of ecological guilds in cyanobacterial lichens (Rikkinen et al. 2002), other studies propose models to explain variation in symbiont combinations in green algal lichens (Ohmura et al. 2006; Piercey-Normore 2006; Yahr et al. 2006) hypothesizing the existence of such guilds. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Peksa & Škaloud (2011) test the theory of ecological guilds and suggest a relationship between algal habitat requirements and lichen adaptation in green algal lichens of the genus Lepraria. The environmental parameters examined in this study, exposure to rainfall, altitude and substratum type, are integral to lichen biology. Lichens have a poikilohydric nature, relying on the availability of atmospheric moisture for metabolic processes. Having no known active mechanism to preserve metabolic thallus moisture in times of drought, one would expect a strong influence of the environment on symbiont adaptation to specific habitats. Adaptation to changes in substrata and its properties would be expected with the intimate contact between crustose

  20. Production of biofuel using molluscan pseudofeces derived from algal cells (United States)

    Das, Keshav C.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Shelton, James; Wilde, Susan B.; Haynie, Rebecca S.; Herrin, James A.


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for novel strategies to harvest algal lipids using mollusks which after feeding algae from the growth medium can convert algal lipids into their biomass or excrete lipids in their pseudofeces which makes algae harvesting energy efficient and cost effective. The bioconverter, filter-feeding mollusks and their pseudofeces can be harvested and converted to biocrude using an advanced thermochemical liquefaction technology. Methods, systems, and materials are disclosed for the harvest and isolation of algal lipids from the mollusks, molluscan feces and molluscan pseudofeces.

  1. Relationship between diatom communities and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    . The warmest month is July ..... nitrogen and phosphorus in sewage. Agric. Univ. Hebei. Mäggi H, Christopher TR, Samuel RR, Urs U (2001). Algal Communities. Associated with Different Alpine Stream Types. Arctic. Antarctic.

  2. Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  3. In situ Transesterification of Microalgal Oil to Produce Algal Biodiesel (United States)


    This research was to process whole microalgae cells for biodiesel production without first extracting lipids. The ultimate : goal is develop a novel process for algal biodiesel production directly from microalgae cells in a single step, i.e., in situ...

  4. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels. (United States)

    Lee, D H


    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Raceways-based production of algal crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisti, Yusuf [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). School of Engineering


    Raceway ponds, or 'high-rate algal ponds', of various configurations have been used to treat wastewater since the 1950s. They are also known as Oswald ponds after their inventor W. J. Oswald. Large-scale outdoor culture of microalgae and cyanobacteria in raceways is well established (Terry and Raymond 1985; Oswald 1988; Borowitzka and Borowitzka 1989; Becker 1994; Lee 1997; Molina Grima 1999; Pulz 2001; Borowitzka 2005; Spolaore et al. 2006). Raceway culture is used commercially in the United States, Thailand, China, Israel and elsewhere, mostly to produce algae for relatively high-value applications. This chapter is focused on raceways typically used in the production of algal biomass and not in the treatment of wastewater. The engineering design, operation and performance characteristics of raceways are discussed. The biomass productivity of the raceways is assessed in relation to limits imposed by algal biology. The economics of algal oil production in raceways are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Improving photosynthesis for algal biofuels: toward a green revolution. (United States)

    Stephenson, Patrick G; Moore, C Mark; Terry, Matthew J; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Bibby, Thomas S


    Biofuels derived from marine algae are a potential source of sustainable energy that can contribute to future global demands. The realisation of this potential will require manipulation of the fundamental biology of algal physiology to increase the efficiency with which solar energy is ultimately converted into usable biomass. This 'photosynthetic solar energy conversion efficiency' sets an upper limit on the potential of algal-derived biofuels. In this review, we outline photosynthetic molecular targets that could be manipulated to increase the efficiency and yield of algal biofuel production. We also highlight modern 'omic' and high-throughput technologies that might enable identification, selection and improvement of algal cell lines on timescales relevant for achieving significant contributions to future energy solutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Marine algal flora of submerged Angria Bank (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.; Ambiye, V.

    Submerged Angria Bank was surveyed for the deep water marine algal flora. About 57 species were reported from this bank for the first time. Rhodophyta dominated (30 species) followed by Chlorophyta (18 species) and Phaeophyta (9 species). A few...

  8. Harmful algal blooms and climate change: Learning from the past and present to forecast the future (United States)

    Wells, Mark L.; Trainer, Vera L.; Smayda, Theodore J.; Karlson, Bengt S.O.; Trick, Charles G.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Ishikawa, Akira; Bernard, Stewart; Wulff, Angela; Anderson, Donald M.; Cochlan, William P.


    barriers, how stratification may enhance or diminish HAB events, how trace nutrients (metals, vitamins) influence cell toxicity, and how grazing pressures may leverage, or mitigate HAB development. There is an absence of high quality time-series data in most regions currently experiencing HAB outbreaks, and little if any data from regions expected to develop HAB events in the future. A subset of observer sites is recommended to help develop stronger linkages among global, national, and regional climate change and HAB observation programs, providing fundamental datasets for investigating global changes in the prevalence of harmful algal blooms. Forecasting changes in HAB patterns over the next few decades will depend critically upon considering harmful algal blooms within the competitive context of plankton communities, and linking these insights to ecosystem, oceanographic and climate models. From a broader perspective, the nexus of HAB science and the social sciences of harmful algal blooms is inadequate and prevents quantitative assessment of impacts of future HAB changes on human well-being. These and other fundamental changes in HAB research will be necessary if HAB science is to obtain compelling evidence that climate change has caused alterations in HAB distributions, prevalence or character, and to develop the theoretical, experimental, and empirical evidence explaining the mechanisms underpinning these ecological shifts. PMID:27011761

  9. Environmental variables, algal pigments and phytoplankton in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental variables, algal pigments and phytoplankton in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Badagry, Lagos. ... water temperature (25-31°C), salinity (26.6 - 31.81‰), pH (7.9 - 8.12) and total dissolved solids (26980.1–32900.1mg/L), The phytoplankton diversity consisted of 44 species belonging to three main algal ...

  10. 2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  11. Phytoplankton as Particles - A New Approach to Modeling Algal Blooms (United States)


    ER D C/ EL T R -1 3 -1 3 Civil Works Basic Research Program Phytoplankton as Particles – A New Approach to Modeling Algal Blooms E nv... Phytoplankton as Particles – A New Approach to Modeling Algal Blooms Carl F. Cerco and Mark R. Noel Environmental Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research... phytoplankton blooms can be modeled by treating phytoplankton as discrete particles capable of self- induced transport via buoyancy regulation or other

  12. Ecological study of algal flora of Neelum river Azad Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, M.K.; Leghari, M.Y.


    First time ecological study of Algal Flora of Neelum River Azad Kashmir was carried out during January 1998 to July 1998. A total of 78 species belonging to 48 genera of 4 Algal groups. Cyanophyceae (16 species 20.5 % belonging to 11 genera), Choloronophycease (23 species 29.5 % belonging to 18 genera), Bacillariophyceae (37 species 47 % belonging to 17 genera), Xanthophyceae (2 species 3 % belonging to 2 genera) and 39 physico - chemical parameters were recorded. (author)

  13. Consuming algal products: trophic interactions of bacteria and a diatom species determined by RNA stable isotope probing (United States)

    Sapp, Melanie; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wellinger, Marco; Wichels, Antje


    Heterotrophic marine bacteria utilise a wide range of carbon sources. Recently, techniques were developed to link bacterial identity and physiological capacity of microorganisms within natural communities. One of these methods is stable isotope probing (SIP) which allows an identification of active microorganisms using particular growth substrates. In this study, we present the first attempt to analyse bacterial communities associated with microalgae by rRNA-SIP. This approach was used to analyse bacterial populations consuming algal products of Thalassiosira rotula by applying SIP followed by reverse transcription of 16S rRNA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Generally, our results indicate that bacteria which consume algal products can be detected by isotope arrays coupled with fingerprinting methods.

  14. The algal lift: Buoyancy-mediated sediment transport (United States)

    Mendoza-Lera, Clara; Federlein, Laura L.; Knie, Matthias; Mutz, Michael


    The role of benthic algae as biostabilizers of sediments is well-known, however, their potential to lift and transport sediments remains unclear. Under low-flow conditions, matured algal mats may detach from the bed and may lift up sediment, thereby causing disturbance to the uppermost streambed sediment. We tested the potential of algal mats to lift sediments in 12 indoor flumes filled with sand (0.2 - 0.8 mm), gravel (2 - 8 mm) or a sand-gravel mixture (25/75% mass). After four weeks, the algal mats covered about 50% of the flumes area. Due to the accumulation of oxygen gas bubbles in the mats, that developed from high primary production at 4.5 weeks, about half of the algal mats detached from the bed carrying entangled sediments. Both the area covered by algal mats and detached area were similar among sediment types, but the amount of sediment transported tended to be higher for sand and sand-gravel mixture compared to gravel. Our results reveal that biologically mediated sediment transport mainly depends on the development of a dense filamentous algal matrix, that traps gas bubbles, increasing the mats buoyancy. This novel mechanism of sediment transport will occur in shallow ecosystems during low-flow periods, with the highest impact for sandy sediments.

  15. Algal Cell Factories: Approaches, Applications, and Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqi Fu


    Full Text Available With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive “cell factories”: the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO2, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field.

  16. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom ... (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins in both recreational waters and drinking source waters. Successful cyanoHAB assessment by satellites may provide a first-line of defense indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, assessment methods were developed to determine the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB occurrence frequency at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imager (OLCI) launched in 2016. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, there were 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 hectare in the 48 U.S. states. Results from this evaluation show that 5.6 % of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single pixel resolution and 0.7 % of waterbodies were resolvable when a 3x3 pixel array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data was also spatially joined to US public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single pixel resolution resolved 57% of PWSI and a 3x3 pixel array resolved 33% of

  17. Evaluation of Harmful Algal Bloom Outreach Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Weisman


    Full Text Available With an apparent increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs worldwide,healthcare providers, public health personnel and coastal managers are struggling toprovide scientifically-based appropriately-targeted HAB outreach and education. Since1998, the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami, with its 24 hour/365 day/year freeAquatic Toxins Hotline (1-888-232-8635 available in several languages, has received over 25,000 HAB-related calls. As part of HAB surveillance, all possible cases of HAB-relatedillness among callers are reported to the Florida Health Department. This pilot studyevaluated an automated call processing menu system that allows callers to access bilingualHAB information, and to speak directly with a trained Poison Information Specialist. Themajority (68% of callers reported satisfaction with the information, and many provided specific suggestions for improvement. This pilot study, the first known evaluation of use and satisfaction with HAB educational outreach materials, demonstrated that the automated system provided useful HAB-related information for the majority of callers, and decreased the routine informational call workload for the Poison Information Specialists, allowing them to focus on callers needing immediate assistance and their healthcare providers. These results will lead to improvement of this valuable HAB outreach, education and surveillance tool. Formal evaluation is recommended for future HAB outreach and educational materials.

  18. Linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Mayer, Philipp

    Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity to chemi......Unitless chemical activity, expressing the energetic level of a compound relative to its energetic level in pure liquid [0-1], has proven useful to quantify the effective exposure to hydrophobic organic compounds through both aerial and aqueous media. Several studies have linked toxicity...... to chemical activity, as opposed to e.g. the total concentration. Baseline toxicity (narcosis) for neutral hydrophobic organic compounds has been shown to initiate in the narrow chemical activity range of 0.01 to 0.1. This presentation focuses on linking algal growth inhibition to chemical activity...... with the aims to (1) further challenge the current chemical activity range for baseline toxicity, and (2) extend the utilisation of the chemical activity concept across compounds and species. The first part of the presentation focuses on results from a recently published study, in which toxicity data for 39 non...

  19. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms (United States)

    The Ecological Stewardship Institute at Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are collaborating to optimize a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence and count of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis...

  20. Formation of emerging DBPs from the chlorination and chloramination of seawater algal organic matter and related model compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Nihemaiti, Maolida


    Limited studies focused on reactions occurring during disinfection and oxidation processes of seawater. The aim of this work was to investigate disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation from the chlorination and chloramination of seawater algal organic matter and related model compounds. Simulated algal blooms directly growing in Red Sea, red tide samples collected during an algal bloom event and Hymenomonas sp. monoculture were studied as algal organic matter sources. Experiments were conducted in synthetic seawater containing bromide ion. A variety of DBPs was formed from the chlorination and chloramination of algal organic matter. Brominated DBPs (bromoform, DBAA, DBAN and DBAcAm) were the dominant species. Iodinated DBPs (CIAcAm and iodinated THMs) were detected, which are known to be highly toxic compared to their chlorinated or brominated analogues. Algal organic matter was found to incorporate important precursors of nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs), which have been reported to be more toxic than regulated THMs and HAAs. Isotopically-labeled monochloramine (15N- NH2Cl) was used in order to investigate the nitrogen source in N-DBPs. High formation of N-DBPs was found from Hymenomonas sp. sample in exponential growth phase, which was enriched in nitrogen-containing organic compounds. High inorganic nitrogen incorporation was found from the algal samples enriched in humic-like compounds. HAcAms formation was studied from chlorination and chloramination of amino acids. Asparagine, aspartic acid and other amino acids with an aromatic structure were found to be important precursors of HAcAms and DCAN. Factors affecting HAcAms formation (Cl2/ amino acid molar ratio and pH) were evaluated. Studies on the formation kinetics of DCAcAm and DCAN from asparagine suggested a rapid formation of DCAcAm from organic nitrogen (amide group) and a slower incorporation of inorganic nitrogen coming from monochloramine to form DCAN. High amounts of DCAN and DCAcAm were detected from the

  1. Community. (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.


    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  2. Energetic potential of algal biomass from high-rate algal ponds for the production of solid biofuels. (United States)

    Costa, Taynan de Oliveira; Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Avelar, Nayara Vilela; Carneiro, Angélica de Cássia de Oliveira; de Assis, Letícia Rodrigues


    In this investigation, chemical characteristics, higher, lower and net heating value, bulk and energy density, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to study the thermal characteristics of three algal biomasses. These biomasses, grown as by-products of wastewater treatment in high-rate algal ponds (HRAPs), were: (i) biomass produced in domestic effluent and collected directly from an HRAP (PO); (ii) biomass produced in domestic effluent in a mixed pond-panel system and collected from the panels (PA); and (iii) biomass originating from the treatment effluent from the meat processing industry and collected directly from an HRAP (IN). The biomass IN was the best alternative for thermal power generation. Subsequently, a mixture of the algal biomasses and Jatropha epicarp was used to produce briquettes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of algal biomass, and their properties were evaluated. In general, the addition of algal biomass to briquettes decreased both the hygroscopicity and fixed carbon content and increased the bulk density, ash content, and energy density. A 50% proportion of biomass IN was found to be the best raw material for producing briquettes. Therefore, the production of briquettes consisting of algal biomass and Jatropha epicarp at a laboratory scale was shown to be technically feasible.

  3. Ceramic Ultrafiltration of Marine Algal Solutions: A Comprehensive Study

    KAUST Repository

    Dramas, Laure


    Algal bloom can significantly impact reverse osmosis desalination process and reduce the drinking water production. In 2008, a major bloom event forced several UAE reverse osmosis plants to stop their production, and in this context, a better understanding of UF membrane fouling caused by algal organic matter (AOM) is needed, in order to adjust the filtration conditions during algal bloom events. Polymeric MF/UF membranes are already widely used for RO pretreatment, but ceramic UF membranes can also be an alternative for the filtration of marine algal solutions. The fouling potential of the Red Sea and the Arabian Sea, sampled at different seasons, along with four algal monocultures grown in laboratory, and one mesocosm experiment in the Red Sea was investigated. Algal solutions induce a stronger and more irreversible fouling than terrestrial humic solution, toward ceramic membrane. During algal bloom events, this fouling is enhanced and becomes even more problematic at the decline phase of the bloom, for a similar initial DOC. Three main mechanisms are involved: the formation of a cake layer at the membrane surface; the penetration of the algal organic matter (AOM) in the pore network of the membrane; the strong adhesion of AOM with the membrane surface. The last mechanism is species-specific and metal-oxide specific. In order to understand the stronger ceramic UF fouling at the decline phase, AOM quality was analyzed every two days. During growth, AOM is getting enriched in High Molecular Weight (HMW) structures (> 200 kDa), which are mainly composed by proteins and polysaccharides, and these compounds seem to be responsible for the stronger fouling at decline phase. In order to prevent the fouling of ceramic membrane, coagulation-flocculation (CF) using ferric chloride was implemented prior to filtration. It permits a high removal of HMW compounds and greatly reduces the fouling potential of the algal solution. During brief algal bloom events, CF should be

  4. An association network analysis among microeukaryotes and bacterioplankton reveals algal bloom dynamics. (United States)

    Tan, Shangjin; Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Yu, Shichen; Zhan, Wugen; Wang, Bo; Cai, Zhonghua


    Algal blooms are a worldwide phenomenon and the biological interactions that underlie their regulation are only just beginning to be understood. It is established that algal microorganisms associate with many other ubiquitous, oceanic organisms, but the interactions that lead to the dynamics of bloom formation are currently unknown. To address this gap, we used network approaches to investigate the association patterns among microeukaryotes and bacterioplankton in response to a natural Scrippsiella trochoidea bloom. This is the first study to apply network approaches to bloom dynamics. To this end, terminal restriction fragment (T-RF) length polymorphism analysis showed dramatic changes in community compositions of microeukaryotes and bacterioplankton over the blooming period. A variance ratio test revealed significant positive overall associations both within and between microeukaryotic and bacterioplankton communities. An association network generated from significant correlations between T-RFs revealed that S. trochoidea had few connections to other microeukaryotes and bacterioplankton and was placed on the edge. This lack of connectivity allowed for the S. trochoidea sub-network to break off from the overall network. These results allowed us to propose a conceptual model for explaining how changes in microbial associations regulate the dynamics of an algal bloom. In addition, key T-RFs were screened by principal components analysis, correlation coefficients, and network analysis. Dominant T-RFs were then identified through 18S and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Results showed that microeukaryotes clustered predominantly with Dinophyceae and Perkinsea while the majority of bacterioplankton identified were Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The ecologi-cal roles of both were discussed in the context of these findings. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  5. Growing interest, growing programs, growing pains: Successfully customizing public outreach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, M.; Hill, C.; Hirsch, T.


    Since the mid-1980's, the Institutional and External Affairs staff of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) has developed, coordinated, and maintained various public outreach programs to carry out the YMP's open door policy of keeping local communities informed. However, public involvement first requires public knowledge and, therefore, various information programs have been established over the past few years. First came the speakers bureau program, then the exhibits and science centers; and then came the tours and school district educational programs. All these programs were geared toward teaching the mainstream general public about the YMP and issues related to things nuclear. Today, the YMP outreach programs are established and known and the demand from the public has seen a shift. Over 150 top scientists and staff from around the country who have come to work at the YMP have joined the outreach participant pool to speak to the public not only about Yucca Mountain, but about their areas of expertise as well. For this reason, the public has realized a great opportunity for a general science and engineering education resource -- the YMP staff themselves. In a panel discussion, open-quotes Trust and credibility: The central issueclose quotes, proceedings of the National Conference on Risk Communication, it was shown that university professors and science teachers were among the most trusted individuals in terms of public perception and that government staff and contractors the least trusted. However, when you utilize the core educated knowledge of a YMP scientist in order to teach general science and math, you have, to some extent, placed that individual in an educational role and thus increased trust. The YMP scientists enjoy talking about their general science knowledge and we have found that the public likes to hear about it too

  6. Pigment-Based Chemotaxonomy - A Quick Alternative to Determine Algal Assemblages in Large Shallow Eutrophic Lake? (United States)

    Tamm, Marju; Freiberg, René; Tõnno, Ilmar; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina


    Pigment-based chemotaxonomy and CHEMTAX software have proven to be a valuable phytoplankton monitoring tool in marine environments, but are yet underdeveloped to determine algal assemblages in freshwater ecosystems. The main objectives of this study were (1) to compare the results of direct microscopy and CHEMTAX in describing phytoplankton community composition dynamics in a large, shallow and eutrophic lake; (2) to analyze the efficiency of the pigment-based method to detect changes in phytoplankton seasonal dynamics and during rapid bloom periods; (3) to assess the suitability of specific marker pigments and available marker pigment:chlorophyll a ratios to follow seasonal changes in eutrophic freshwater environment. A 5-year (2009-2013) parallel phytoplankton assessment by direct microscopy and by CHEMTAX was conducted using published marker pigment:chlorophyll a ratios. Despite displaying some differences from microscopy results, the pigment-based method successfully described the overall pattern of phytoplankton community dynamics during seasonal cycle in a eutrophic lake. Good agreement between the methods was achieved for most phytoplankton groups - cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, diatoms and cryptophytes. The agreement was poor in case of chrysophytes and dinoflagellates. Our study shows clearly that published marker pigment:chlorophyll a ratios can be used to describe algal class abundances, but they need to be calibrated for specific freshwater environment. Broader use of this method would enable to expand monitoring networks and increase measurement frequencies of freshwater ecosystems to meet the goals of the Water Framework Directive. PMID:25803038

  7. Combinatorial life cycle assessment to inform process design of industrial production of algal biodiesel. (United States)

    Brentner, Laura B; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B


    The use of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel production is a rapidly growing industry, in the United States and globally. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is presented that compares various methods, either proposed or under development, for algal biodiesel to inform the most promising pathways for sustainable full-scale production. For this analysis, the system is divided into five distinct process steps: (1) microalgae cultivation, (2) harvesting and/or dewatering, (3) lipid extraction, (4) conversion (transesterification) into biodiesel, and (5) byproduct management. A number of technology options are considered for each process step and various technology combinations are assessed for their life cycle environmental impacts. The optimal option for each process step is selected yielding a best case scenario, comprised of a flat panel enclosed photobioreactor and direct transesterification of algal cells with supercritical methanol. For a functional unit of 10 GJ biodiesel, the best case production system yields a cumulative energy demand savings of more than 65 GJ, reduces water consumption by 585 m(3) and decreases greenhouse gas emissions by 86% compared to a base case scenario typical of early industrial practices, highlighting the importance of technological innovation in algae processing and providing guidance on promising production pathways.

  8. Catalytic Processes for Utilizing Carbohydrates Derived from Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Yamaguchi


    Full Text Available The high productivity of oil biosynthesized by microalgae has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Due to the application of such oils in jet fuels, the algal biosynthetic pathway toward oil components has been extensively researched. However, the utilization of the residue from algal cells after oil extraction has been overlooked. This residue is mainly composed of carbohydrates (starch, and so we herein describe the novel processes available for the production of useful chemicals from algal biomass-derived sugars. In particular, this review highlights our latest research in generating lactic acid and levulinic acid derivatives from polysaccharides and monosaccharides using homogeneous catalysts. Furthermore, based on previous reports, we discuss the potential of heterogeneous catalysts for application in such processes.

  9. Hydrogen production from algal biomass - Advances, challenges and prospects. (United States)

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Yan, Yuegen; Ling, Ming; Ye, Guoxiang; Li, Ting; Lee, Duu-Jong


    Extensive effort is being made to explore renewable energy in replacing fossil fuels. Biohydrogen is a promising future fuel because of its clean and high energy content. A challenging issue in establishing hydrogen economy is sustainability. Biohydrogen has the potential for renewable biofuel, and could replace current hydrogen production through fossil fuel thermo-chemical processes. A promising source of biohydrogen is conversion from algal biomass, which is abundant, clean and renewable. Unlike other well-developed biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel, production of hydrogen from algal biomass is still in the early stage of development. There are a variety of technologies for algal hydrogen production, and some laboratory- and pilot-scale systems have demonstrated a good potential for full-scale implementation. This work presents an elucidation on development in biohydrogen encompassing biological pathways, bioreactor designs and operation and techno-economic evaluation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  11. Hydrogen from algal biomass: A review of production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Sharma


    Full Text Available Multifariousness of biofuel sources has marked an edge to an imperative energy issue. Production of hydrogen from microalgae has been gathering much contemplation right away. But, mercantile production of microalgae biofuels considering bio-hydrogen is still not practicable because of low biomass concentration and costly down streaming processes. This review has taken up the hydrogen production by microalgae. Biofuels are the up and coming alternative to exhaustible, environmentally and unsafe fossil fuels. Algal biomass has been considered as an enticing raw material for biofuel production, these days photobioreactors and open-air systems are being used for hydrogen production from algal biomass. The formers allow the careful cultivation control whereas the latter ones are cheaper and simpler. A contemporary, encouraging optimization access has been included called algal cell immobilization on various matrixes which has resulted in marked increase in the productivity per volume of a reactor and addition of the hydrogen-production phase.

  12. Numerical Mesocosm Experimental Study on Harmful Algal Blooms of Two Algal Species in the East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangsheng Zhu


    Full Text Available From the results of algal culture and mesocosm experiments, a numerical mesocosm experiment is designed that accounts for the effect of the marine environment (sea currents, nutrient levels, and temperature on the harmful algal bloom (HAB processes of Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, two of the most frequent HAB-associated species in the East China Sea. Physical and ecological environment of the waters is simulated numerically by applying a hydrodynamic-ecological-one-way-coupled marine culture box model, which is semienclosed. The algal growth rate is digitalized by a temperature-factor-optimization Droop equation. A 90-mode-day numerical mesocosm experiment for the above two species is conducted. The species were found to alternately trigger algal blooms in the experimental waters, replicating the population succession phenomenon observed in the field and confirming that the two HAB species compete for nutrients. Deductively, the numerical result shows that both the Taiwan Warm Current and the eutrophication in the adjacent water of the Yangtze River Estuary contribute to the northward movement of algal concentration centers during HAB and also suggests that the lack of nutritious supplements in the open sea limits HAB occurrences in coastal waters.

  13. Unique characteristics of algal dissolved organic matter and their association with membrane fouling behavior: a review. (United States)

    Ly, Quang Viet; Maqbool, Tahir; Hur, Jin


    Over the last several decades, the frequent occurrence of algal bloom in drinking water supplies, driven by increasing anthropogenic input and climate change, has posed serious problems for membrane filtration processes, resulting in reduced membrane permeability and increased energy consumption. It is essential to comprehensively understand the characteristics of algal dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the subsequent effects on the filtration processes for better insight into membrane fouling mitigation. Many studies have revealed that algal DOM has displayed unique characteristics distinguished from other sources of DOM with respect to the chemical composition, the structures, and the molecular weight distributions. Algal DOM is considered to be a major obstacle in understanding membrane fouling due to its complicated interactions among dissimilar algal DOM constituents as well as between algal DOM and membrane material matrices. The present review article summarizes (1) recent characterizing methods for algal DOM, (2) environmental factors affecting the characteristics of algal DOM, (3) the discrepancies between algal DOM and other sources of aquatic DOM, particularly terrestrial sources, and (4) potential fouling effects of algal DOM on membrane filtration processes and their associations with algal DOM characteristics. A broad understanding of algal DOM-driven membrane fouling can lead to breakthroughs in efficient membrane filtration processes to treat algal bloom water sources.

  14. Composition, buoyancy regulation and fate of ice algal aggregates in the Central Arctic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Fernández-Méndez

    Full Text Available Sea-ice diatoms are known to accumulate in large aggregates in and under sea ice and in melt ponds. There is recent evidence from the Arctic that such aggregates can contribute substantially to particle export when sinking from the ice. The role and regulation of microbial aggregation in the highly seasonal, nutrient- and light-limited Arctic sea-ice ecosystem is not well understood. To elucidate the mechanisms controlling the formation and export of algal aggregates from sea ice, we investigated samples taken in late summer 2011 and 2012, during two cruises to the Eurasian Basin of the Central Arctic Ocean. Spherical aggregates densely packed with pennate diatoms, as well as filamentous aggregates formed by Melosira arctica showed sign of different stages of degradation and physiological stoichiometries, with carbon to chlorophyll a ratios ranging from 110 to 66700, and carbon to nitrogen molar ratios of 8-35 and 9-40, respectively. Sub-ice algal aggregate densities ranged between 1 and 17 aggregates m(-2, maintaining an estimated net primary production of 0.4-40 mg C m(-2 d(-1, and accounted for 3-80% of total phototrophic biomass and up to 94% of local net primary production. A potential factor controlling the buoyancy of the aggregates was light intensity, regulating photosynthetic oxygen production and the amount of gas bubbles trapped within the mucous matrix, even at low ambient nutrient concentrations. Our data-set was used to evaluate the distribution and importance of Arctic algal aggregates as carbon source for pelagic and benthic communities.

  15. Enhanced coal-dependent methanogenesis coupled with algal biofuels: Potential water recycle and carbon capture (United States)

    Barnhart, Elliott P.; Davis, Katherine J.; Varonka, Matthew; Orem, William H.; Cunningham, Alfred B.; Ramsay, Bradley D.; Fields, Matthew W.


    Many coal beds contain microbial communities that can convert coal to natural gas (coalbed methane). Native microorganisms were obtained from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal seams with a diffusive microbial sampler placed downhole and used as an inoculum for enrichments with different nutrients to investigate microbially-enhanced coalbed methane production (MECoM). Coal-dependent methanogenesis more than doubled when yeast extract (YE) and several less complex components (proteins and amino acids) were added to the laboratory microcosms. Stimulated coal-dependent methanogenesis with peptone was 86% of that with YE while glutamate-stimulated activity was 65% of that with YE, and a vitamin mix had only 33% of the YE stimulated activity. For field application of MECoM, there is interest in identifying cost-effective alternatives to YE and other expensive nutrients. In laboratory studies, adding algal extract (AE) with lipids removed stimulated coal-dependent methanogenesis and the activity was 60% of that with YE at 27 d and almost 90% of YE activity at 1406 d. Analysis of British Thermal Unit (BTU) content of coal (a measure of potential energy yield) from long-term incubations indicated > 99.5% of BTU content remained after coalbed methane (CBM) stimulation with either AE or YE. Thus, the coal resource remains largely unchanged following stimulated microbial methane production. Algal CBM stimulation could lead to technologies that utilize coupled biological systems (photosynthesis and methane production) that sustainably enhance CBM production and generate algal biofuels while also sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2).

  16. Novel Enzymes for Targeted Hydrolysis of Algal Cell Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Johansen, Mikkel

    urchins are known algae-eaters and may therefore be inhabited by endosymbiotic bacteria that help in degradation of algal cell wall constituents. This thesis work investigated bacteria associated with seaweed, seagrass and sea urchins for their enzymatic activities against algal cell wall polysaccharides....... These enzymes degraded fucoidan extracted from brown algae of the order Fucales, but displayed individual substrate preference and degradation pattern. This work adds substantial information to a protein family which is largely undiscovered to date. Several of the enzyme activities discovered in this thesis...

  17. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.


    The increasing occurrence of algal blooms and their negative ecological impacts have led to intensified monitoring activities. This needs the proper identification of the most responsible factor/factors for the bloom formation. However, in natural systems, algal blooms result from a combination...... of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing...

  18. Phytoplankton processes. Part 2: Rates of primary production and factors controlling algal growth during the Southern Ocean Iron RElease Experiment (SOIREE) (United States)

    Gall, M. P.; Strzepek, R.; Maldonado, M.; Boyd, P. W.

    The Southern Ocean Iron RElease Experiment (SOIREE) fertilised 200 km 2 of polar waters (mixed-layer depth, 65 m) south of Australia in February 1999. During the 13-d SOIREE, iron enrichment stimulated primary production, algal growth and biogenic silica production rates. A floristic shift from small to large cells resulted in a greater contribution to community production by diatoms, which contributed >60% to community production towards the end of SOIREE. Column-integrated rates of primary production increased by more than 10-fold, and community production rates (normalised to chlorophyll) had doubled by day 4, but then declined after day 6 to initial rates. Iron enrichment increased the growth rates of the algal community from 0.02 to 0.15 d -1 (based on changes in in-situ chlorophyll concentrations), from 0.02 to 0.2 d -1 (based on algal carbon), and more than doubled initial rates (based on 14C) to 0.2 d -1 during SOIREE. However, these iron-elevated rates were less than the maximum rates (0.69 d -1) predicted for waters at 2.5°C. Community biogenic silica production rates increased by 6-fold, i.e. to a lesser extent than primary production rates, resulting in a 2-fold reduction in the silicic-acid : carbon uptake ratio. Shipboard perturbation experiments indicated that iron, rather than both iron and light, limited algal growth in these waters. However, a significant increase in light attenuation in situ due to algal self-shading, suggested that light limitation of algal growth might become significant after day 13 at this locale. Limitation of algal growth by both iron (and silicic acid and/or zinc) within iron-fertilised waters after day 8 of SOIREE was not evident from the results of a shipboard experiment. A simple mathematical model of particulate organic carbon (POC) potential export during SOIREE predicted large increases in export, due to both elevated production rates and a floristic shift to large cells. However, no significant increase in POC

  19. Chemical composition influence of cement based mortars on algal biofouling (United States)

    Estelle, Dalod; Alexandre, Govin; Philippe, Grosseau; Christine, Lors; René, Guyonnet; Denis, Damidot


    The main cause of building-facade biodegradation is the growth of microorganisms. This phenomenon depends on several parameters such as the geographical situation, the environmental conditions and the surface state of the substrate. Several researches have been devoted to the study of the effect of porosity and roughness on the biofouling of stones and mortars. However, none of them have addressed the influence of the mortar chemistry on the microorganism growth kinetic. The main objective of this study is to highlight the influence of the mortar chemistry in relationship with its physical properties on biological weathering. Earlier work showed a good resistance of Calcium Aluminate Cements to biodeterioration by acidogenic bacteria (Thiobacillus) and fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus Niger and Coniosporium uncinatum). In order to characterize the influence of the mortar chemistry on biofouling, two Portland cements and two alumina cements are used. Among micro-organisms able to grow, green algae are most involved in the aesthetic deterioration of facades. Indeed, they can colonize any type of media and can be a source of nutrients for other micro-organisms such as fungi. The green algae Klebsormidium flaccidum is chosen because of its representativeness. It is indeed the species the most frequently identified and isolated from samples taken on sites. The biofouling kinetic is followed on samples exposed outdoor and on samples tested in a laboratory bench which consists in spraying an algae culture on mortar specimens. The results obtained by in situ trials are compared with the results obtained on the laboratory bench. The microorganism growth kinetic is measured by image analysis. To improve the detection of algae on the surface of the cementitious samples, the raw image is converted in the YIQ color space. Y, I and Q correspond respectively to luminance, in-phase, and quadrature. On the Q channel, the areas covered by algae and the areas of clean mortar

  20. Using wastewater and high-rate algal ponds for nutrient removal and the production of bioenergy and biofuels. (United States)

    Batten, David; Beer, Tom; Freischmidt, George; Grant, Tim; Liffman, Kurt; Paterson, David; Priestley, Tony; Rye, Lucas; Threlfall, Greg


    This paper projects a positive outcome for large-scale algal biofuel and energy production when wastewater treatment is the primary goal. Such a view arises partly from a recent change in emphasis in wastewater treatment technology, from simply oxidising the organic matter in the waste (i.e. removing the biological oxygen demand) to removing the nutrients - specifically nitrogen and phosphorus - which are the root cause of eutrophication of inland waterways and coastal zones. A growing need for nutrient removal greatly improves the prospects for using new algal ponds in wastewater treatment, since microalgae are particularly efficient in capturing and removing such nutrients. Using a spreadsheet model, four scenarios combining algae biomass production with the making of biodiesel, biogas and other products were assessed for two of Australia's largest wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that super critical water reactors and anaerobic digesters could be attractive pathway options, the latter providing significant savings in greenhouse gas emissions. Combining anaerobic digestion with oil extraction and the internal economies derived from cheap land and recycling of water and nutrients on-site could allow algal oil to be produced for less than US$1 per litre.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    antiretroviral roll-out in full swing, the. WHEN COMPASSION GROWS WINGS. The free time and expertise given by its deeply committed core of professional volunteers. (including pilots) is the lifeblood of the operation. Red Cross Air Mercy Service volunteer, German national Dr Florian Funk, at the AMS Durban base.

  2. Growing Plants and Minds (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian


    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  3. Characterization of Amoeboaphelidium protococcarum, an algal parasite new to the cryptomycota isolated from an outdoor algal pond used for the production of biofuel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Letcher

    Full Text Available Mass culture of algae for the production of biofuels is a developing technology designed to offset the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. However, large scale culture of algae in open ponds can be challenging because of incidences of infestation with algal parasites. Without knowledge of the identity of the specific parasite and how to control these pests, algal-based biofuel production will be limited. We have characterized a eukaryotic parasite of Scenedesmus dimorphus growing in outdoor ponds used for biofuel production. We demonstrated that as the genomic DNA of parasite FD01 increases, the concentration of S. dimorphus cells decreases; consequently, this is a highly destructive pathogen. Techniques for culture of the parasite and host were developed, and the endoparasite was identified as the Aphelidea, Amoeboaphelidium protococcarum. Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal sequences revealed that parasite FD01 placed within the recently described Cryptomycota, a poorly known phylum based on two species of Rozella and environmental samples. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that aplanospores of the parasite produced filose pseudopodia, which contained fine fibers the diameter of actin microfilaments. Multiple lipid globules clustered and were associated with microbodies, mitochondria and a membrane cisternae, an arrangement characteristic of the microbody-lipid globule complex of chytrid zoospores. After encystment and attachment to the host cells, the parasite injected its protoplast into the host between the host cell wall and plasma membrane. At maturity the unwalled parasite occupied the entire host cell. After cleavage of the protoplast into aplanospores, a vacuole and lipids remained in the host cell. Amoeboaphelidium protococcarum isolate FD01 is characteristic of the original description of this species and is different from strain X-5 recently characterized. Our results help put a face on the Cryptomycota, revealing that the

  4. Rare symbionts may contribute to the resilience of coral-algal assemblages. (United States)

    Ziegler, Maren; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Duarte, Carlos M; Voolstra, Christian R


    The association between corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) is the key to the success of reef ecosystems in highly oligotrophic environments, but it is also their Achilles' heel due to its vulnerability to local stressors and the effects of climate change. Research during the last two decades has shaped a view that coral host-Symbiodinium pairings are diverse, but largely exclusive. Deep sequencing has now revealed the existence of a rare diversity of cryptic Symbiodinium assemblages within the coral holobiont, in addition to one or a few abundant algal members. While the contribution of the most abundant resident Symbiodinium species to coral physiology is widely recognized, the significance of the rare and low abundant background Symbiodinium remains a matter of debate. In this study, we assessed how coral-Symbiodinium communities assemble and how rare and abundant components together constitute the Symbiodinium community by analyzing 892 coral samples comprising >110 000 unique Symbiodinium ITS2 marker gene sequences. Using network modeling, we show that host-Symbiodinium communities assemble in non-random 'clusters' of abundant and rare symbionts. Symbiodinium community structure follows the same principles as bacterial communities, for which the functional significance of rare members (the 'rare bacterial biosphere') has long been recognized. Importantly, the inclusion of rare Symbiodinium taxa in robustness analyses revealed a significant contribution to the stability of the host-symbiont community overall. As such, it highlights the potential functions rare symbionts may provide to environmental resilience of the coral holobiont.

  5. Rare symbionts may contribute to the resilience of coral–algal assemblages

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren


    The association between corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) is the key to the success of reef ecosystems in highly oligotrophic environments, but it is also their Achilles‘ heel due to its vulnerability to local stressors and the effects of climate change. Research during the last two decades has shaped a view that coral host–Symbiodinium pairings are diverse, but largely exclusive. Deep sequencing has now revealed the existence of a rare diversity of cryptic Symbiodinium assemblages within the coral holobiont, in addition to one or a few abundant algal members. While the contribution of the most abundant resident Symbiodinium species to coral physiology is widely recognized, the significance of the rare and low abundant background Symbiodinium remains a matter of debate. In this study, we assessed how coral–Symbiodinium communities assemble and how rare and abundant components together constitute the Symbiodinium community by analyzing 892 coral samples comprising >110 000 unique Symbiodinium ITS2 marker gene sequences. Using network modeling, we show that host–Symbiodinium communities assemble in non-random ‘clusters‘ of abundant and rare symbionts. Symbiodinium community structure follows the same principles as bacterial communities, for which the functional significance of rare members (the ‘rare bacterial biosphere’) has long been recognized. Importantly, the inclusion of rare Symbiodinium taxa in robustness analyses revealed a significant contribution to the stability of the host–symbiont community overall. As such, it highlights the potential functions rare symbionts may provide to environmental resilience of the coral holobiont.

  6. Brown algal morphogenesis: Atomic Force Microscopy as a tool to study the role of mechanical forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit eTesson


    Full Text Available Over the last few years, a growing interest has been directed toward the use of macroalgae as a source of energy, food and molecules for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Besides this, macroalgal development remains poorly understood compared to other multicellular organisms. Brown algae (Phaeophyceae form a monophyletic lineage of usually large multicellular algae which evolved independently from land plants. In their environment, they are subjected to strong mechanical forces (current, waves and tide, in response to which they modify rapidly and reversibly their morphology. Because of their specific cellular features (cell wall composition, cytoskeleton organization, deciphering how they cope with these forces might help discover new control mechanisms of cell wall softening and cellulose synthesis. Despite the current scarcity in knowledge on brown algal cell wall dynamics and protein composition, we will illustrate, in the light of methods adapted to Ectocarpus siliculosus, to what extent atomic force microscopy can contribute to advance this field of investigation.

  7. Brown algal morphogenesis: atomic force microscopy as a tool to study the role of mechanical forces. (United States)

    Tesson, Benoit; Charrier, Bénédicte


    Over the last few years, a growing interest has been directed toward the use of macroalgae as a source of energy, food and molecules for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Besides this, macroalgal development remains poorly understood compared to other multicellular organisms. Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) form a monophyletic lineage of usually large multicellular algae which evolved independently from land plants. In their environment, they are subjected to strong mechanical forces (current, waves, and tide), in response to which they modify rapidly and reversibly their morphology. Because of their specific cellular features (cell wall composition, cytoskeleton organization), deciphering how they cope with these forces might help discover new control mechanisms of cell wall softening and cellulose synthesis. Despite the current scarcity in knowledge on brown algal cell wall dynamics and protein composition, we will illustrate, in the light of methods adapted to Ectocarpus siliculosus, to what extent atomic force microscopy can contribute to advance this field of investigation.

  8. Algal Omics: The Functional Annotation Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, M.J.M.F.; Carreres, B.M.; Schaap, P.J.


    Background: To fully exploit the potential of microalgae as commercial green hosts, the scientific community has to improve their understanding of these organisms from a systems biology perspective. Compared to other model organisms, our genomic knowledge of the microalgae model species

  9. Algal bloom-associated disease outbreaks among users of freshwater lakes-United States, 2009 - 2010 (United States)

    Algal blooms’ are local abundances of phytoplankton – microscopic photosynthesizing aquatic organisms found in surface waters worldwide; blooms are variable temporally and spatially and frequently produce a visible algal scum on the water. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are abundan...

  10. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M. L.


    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  11. Seawater reverse osmosis desalination and (harmful) algal blooms

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.


    This article reviews the occurrence of HABs in seawater, their effects on the operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants, the indicators for quantifying/predicting these effects, and the pretreatment strategies for mitigating operational issues during algal blooms. The potential issues in SWRO plants during HABs are particulate/organic fouling of pretreatment systems and biological fouling of RO membranes, mainly due to accumulation of algal organic matter (AOM). The presence of HAB toxins in desalinated water is also a potential concern but only at very low concentrations. Monitoring algal cell density, AOM concentrations and membrane fouling indices is a promising approach to assess the quality of SWRO feedwater and performance of the pretreatment system. When geological condition is favourable, subsurface intake can be a robust pretreatment for SWRO during HABs. Existing SWRO plants with open intake and are fitted with granular media filtration can improve performance in terms of capacity and product water quality, if preceded by dissolved air flotation or sedimentation. However, the application of advanced pretreatment using ultrafiltration membrane with in-line coagulation is often a better option as it is capable of maintaining stable operation and better RO feed water quality during algal bloom periods with significantly lower chemical consumption.

  12. Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review and appraisal of monitoring from 1989 to 1997. ... The Benguela upwelling system is subjected to blooms of harmful and toxic algae, the incidence and consequences of which are documented here. Red tides are common and usually attributed to members of ...

  13. Estimation of algal colonization growth on mortar surface using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimation of algal colonization growth on mortar surface using a hybridization of machine learning and metaheuristic optimization ... The characteristics of the mortar samples, including surface roughness, porosity, surface pH, carbonated condition and type of cement, are employed as input factors for the analysing process ...

  14. Export of algal biomass from the melting Arctic Sea ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boetius, A.; Albrecht, S.; Bakker, K.; Bienhold, C.; Felden, J.; Fernández-Méndez, M.; Hendricks, S.; Katlein, C.; Lalande, C.; Krumpen, T.; Nicolaus, M.; Peeken, I.; Rabe, B.; Rogacheva, A.; Rybakova, E.; Somavilla, R.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Shipboard Science Party


    In the Arctic, under-ice primary production is limited to summer months and is restricted not only by ice thickness and snow cover but also by the stratification of the water column, which constrains nutrient supply for algal growth. Research Vessel Polarstern visited the ice-covered eastern-central

  15. Estimation of algal colonization growth on mortar surface using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thu-Hien Tran

    method can successfully capture the functional relationship between the algal colonization growth and its influencing factors with a satisfactory outcome (the coefficient of determination R2 .... be trained very fast since its training process requires solving only a set of linear equations. The LS-SVR's model establishment boils ...

  16. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Chattopadhyay, Joydev


    The increasing occurrence of algal blooms and their negative ecological impacts have led to intensified monitoring activities. This needs the proper identification of the most responsible factor/factors for the bloom formation. However, in natural systems, algal blooms result from a combination of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing) on the bloom dynamics and DO level. By applying a sophisticated sensitivity analysis technique, we found that the increasing use of fertilizers in agricultural field causes more rapid algal growth and decreases DO level much faster than eutrophication from other sources and overfishing. We also look at the mechanisms how fertilizer input rate affects the algal bloom dynamics and DO level. The model can be helpful for the policy makers in determining the influential factors responsible for the bloom formation.

  17. Occurrence and Deleterious Effects of Algal Blooms Associated With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bloom-forming algal families found in association included members of the phytoplankton class Chlorophyceae: (Pediastrium spp and Spirogyra spp.), the Bacillariophyceae which included Synedra, Melosira and Nitzschia species and potentially toxin-producing genera of the class Cyanophyceae (Microcystis, Anabaena, ...

  18. Paleoecology of Pennsylvanian phylloid algal buildups in south Guizhou, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enpu, G.; Samankassou, E.; Changqing, G.; Yongli, Z.; Baoliang, S.


    Pennsylvanian phylloid algal reefs are widespread and well exposed in south Guizhou, China. Here we report on reefs ranging from 2 to 8 m thickness and 30-50 m lateral extension. Algae, the main components, display a wide spectrum of growth forms, but are commonly cyathiform (cup-shaped) and

  19. Algal Compost Effects on Soil Nutrient Status and Aggregate Stab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted in the Soil Science laboratory of Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, to investigate the effect of algal compost on soil nutrient status indices such as soil pH, cation exchange capacity, organic matter, total nitrogen and available phosphorus as well as soil structural stability.

  20. Physical processes contributing to harmful algal blooms in Saldanha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of black mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in South Africa. Mussel farming started there in 1985 and the present level of production is some 2 700 tons per annum. Since 1994, disruption of harvesting as a result of the presence of harmful algal species has been a regular late-summer phenomenon. Toxic blooms that are ...

  1. Changes in density and composition of algal assemblages in certain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water purification plants at Virginia and Bothaville, South Africa, experience problems with cyanobacteria and other algae. Their algal assemblages were studied during 2010 and 2011 to determine the dominant species that may pose problems in purification. Cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were the dominant ...

  2. Estimation of algal colonization growth on mortar surface using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thu-Hien Tran

    An obvious consequence of algal colo- nization is that it facilitates other microorganisms to inhabit the building faГade. Gradually, the biofilms become more diverse and complex microbial biocoenoses, which include cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, are estab- lished [3]. These biofilms are responsible for the ...

  3. Flagellar waveform dynamics of freely swimming algal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtuldu, H.; Tam, D.; Hosoi, A.E.; Johnson, K.A.; Gollub, J.P.


    We present quantitative measurements of time-dependent flagellar waveforms for freely swimming biflagellated algal cells, for both synchronous and asynchronous beating. We use the waveforms in conjunction with resistive force theory as well as a singularity method to predict a cell's time-dependent

  4. Assessment of limnological variables and algal diversity of Shagari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to determine the level of limnological variables at two depths (0.5m and 1m) and to survey diversity of algal species in the reservoir. Among the physicochemical variables studied, temperature was slightly higher at 0.5 m than at 1 metre depth. Phosphate concentration tends to be higher at 1 meter depth.

  5. Biological control of Microcystis dominated harmful algal blooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater resources are now threatened by the presence and increase of harmful algal blooms (HAB) all over the world. The HABs are sometimes a direct result of anthropogenic pollution entering water bodies, such as partially treated nutrient-rich effluents and the leaching of fertilisers and animal wastes. The impact of ...

  6. Comparative evaluation of piggery wastewater treatment in algal-bacterial photobioreactors under indoor and outdoor conditions. (United States)

    García, Dimas; Posadas, Esther; Grajeda, Carlos; Blanco, Saúl; Martínez-Páramo, Sonia; Acién, Gabriel; García-Encina, Pedro; Bolado, Silvia; Muñoz, Raúl


    This work evaluated the performance of four open algal-bacterial photobioreactors operated at ≈26days of hydraulic retention time during the treatment of 10 (×10) and 20 (×20) times diluted piggery wastewater (PWW) under indoor (I) and outdoor (O) conditions for four months. The removal efficiencies (REs) of organic matter, nutrients and zinc from PWW, along with the dynamics of biomass concentration and structure of algal-bacterial population were assessed. The highest TOC-RE, TP-RE and Zn-RE (94±1%, 100% and 83±2%, respectively) were achieved indoors in ×10 PWW, while the highest TN-RE (72±8%) was recorded outdoors in ×10 PWW. Chlorella vulgaris was the dominant species regardless of the ambient conditions and PWW dilution. Finally, DGGE-sequencing of the bacterial community revealed the occurrence of four phyla, Proteobacteria being the dominant phylum with 15 out of the 23 most intense bands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal Dynamics of Haptophytes and dsDNA Algal Viruses Suggest Complex Virus-Host Relationship. (United States)

    Johannessen, Torill Vik; Larsen, Aud; Bratbak, Gunnar; Pagarete, António; Edvardsen, Bente; Egge, Elianne D; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne


    Viruses influence the ecology and diversity of phytoplankton in the ocean. Most studies of phytoplankton host-virus interactions have focused on bloom-forming species like Emiliania huxleyi or Phaeocystis spp. The role of viruses infecting phytoplankton that do not form conspicuous blooms have received less attention. Here we explore the dynamics of phytoplankton and algal viruses over several sequential seasons, with a focus on the ubiquitous and diverse phytoplankton division Haptophyta, and their double-stranded DNA viruses, potentially with the capacity to infect the haptophytes. Viral and phytoplankton abundance and diversity showed recurrent seasonal changes, mainly explained by hydrographic conditions. By 454 tag-sequencing we revealed 93 unique haptophyte operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with seasonal changes in abundance. Sixty-one unique viral OTUs, representing Megaviridae and Phycodnaviridae , showed only distant relationship with currently isolated algal viruses. Haptophyte and virus community composition and diversity varied substantially throughout the year, but in an uncoordinated manner. A minority of the viral OTUs were highly abundant at specific time-points, indicating a boom-bust relationship with their host. Most of the viral OTUs were very persistent, which may represent viruses that coexist with their hosts, or able to exploit several host species.

  8. Beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected algal ... (United States)

    Algal blooms occur among nutrient rich, warm surface waters and may adversely impact recreational beaches. During July – September 2003, a prospective study of beachgoers was conducted on weekends at a public beach on a Great Lake in the United States. We measured each beachgoer’s activity at the start and end of their beach visit and the environmental factors: water and air temperature, wind speed and wave height at the study site each day. At the time, there was no notification of algal blooms; we retrospectively evaluated the presence of algal blooms using MERIS data from the Envisat-1 satellite. A total of 2840 people participated in the study over 16 study days. The majority (55%) were female, and 751 (26%) were < 18 years of age. An algal bloom was detected retrospectively by remotely sensed satellite imagery during August 16 – 24. This peak bloom period (PB) included 4 study days. During PB study days, more study participants 226/742 (31%) reported body contact with the water compared to contact 531/2098 (25%) on non-peak days. During the 4 PB days, of the environmental factors, only mean water temperature was significantly different, 250 C vs. 230 C (p<0.05) from other days.These results suggest that beachgoer body contact with water was not deterred by the presence of an algal bloom, and that interventions to actively discourage water contact during a bloom are needed to reduce exposure to blooms. This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and

  9. Effectiveness of an anti-algal compound in eliminating an aquatic unicellular harmful algal Phaeocystis globosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun eZhang


    Full Text Available Phaeocystis globosa blooms can have negative effects on higher trophic levels in the marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. Strain KA22, identified as the bacterium Hahella, was isolated from coastal surface water and used to control P. globosa growth. A methanol extract from the bacteral cells showed strong algicidal activity. After purification, the compound showed a similar structure to prodigiosin when identified with Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The compound showed algicidal activity against P. globosa with a 50% Lethal Dose (LD50 of 2.24 μg/mL. The prodigiosin was stable under heat and acid environment, and it could be degraded under alkaline environment and natural light condition. The growth rates of strain KA22 was fast in 2216E medium and the content of prodigiosin in this medium was more than 70 μg/mL after 16 h incubation. The compound showed particularly strong algicidal activity against Prorocentrum donghaiense, P. globosa and Heterosigma akashiwo, but having little effect on three other phytoplankton species tested. The results of our research could increase our knowledge on harmful algal bloom control compound and lead to further study on the mechanisms of the lysis effect on harmful algae.

  10. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for classification of harmful algal blooms (United States)

    Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. EPA Office of Research Development in Cincinnati Agency are collaborating to develop a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis. Green and blue-green alg...

  11. Growing Youth Food Citizens (United States)

    Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine


    How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same…

  12. Helping Them Grow. (United States)

    Kreidler, William J.; And Others


    Three articles present suggestions to help elementary teachers promote student development. The first describes games that encourage a sense of community. The second deals with making parent teacher conferences a positive experience. The third discusses how to give confused children who are involved in custody battles an alternative to acting out.…

  13. Growing Community Roots for the Geosciences in Miami, Florida, A Program Aimed at High School and Middle School Students to Increase Awareness of Career and Educational Opportunities in the Geosciences (United States)

    Whitman, D.; Hickey-Vargas, R.; Gebelein, J.; Draper, G.; Rego, R.


    Growing Community Roots for the Geosciences is a 2-year pilot recruitment project run by the Department of Earth and Environment at Florida International University (FIU) and funded by the NSF OEDG (Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences) program. FIU, the State University of Florida in Miami is a federally recognized Minority Serving Institution with over 70% of the undergraduate population coming from groups underrepresented in the geoscience workforce. The goal of this project is to inform students enrolled in the local middle and high schools to career opportunities in the geosciences and to promote pathways for underrepresented groups to university geoscience degree programs. The first year's program included a 1-week workshop for middle school teachers and a 2-week summer camp aimed at high school students in the public school system. The teacher workshop was attended by 20 teachers who taught comprehensive and physical science in grades 6-8. It included lectures on geoscience careers, fundamental concepts of solid earth and atmospheric science, hands on exercises with earth materials, fossils and microscopy, interpretation of landform with Google Earth imagery, and a field trip to a local working limestone quarry. On the first day of the workshop, participants were surveyed on their general educational background in science and their familiarity and comfort with teaching basic geoscience concepts. On the final day, the teachers participated in a group discussion where we discussed how to make geoscience topics and careers more visible in the school curriculum. The 2-week summer camp was attended by 21 students entering grades 9-12. The program included hands on exercises on geoscience and GIS concepts, field trips to local barrier islands, the Everglades, a limestone quarry and a waste to energy facility, and tours of the NOAA National Hurricane Center and the FIU SEM lab. Participants were surveyed on their general educational background

  14. Detecting carbon uptake and cellular allocation by individual algae in multispecies assemblages: Tracking carbon into single algal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, Justin N. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, National Sedimentation Laboratory, Oxford Mississippi; Department of Biology, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville Tennessee


    Algal species vary in carbon (C) need and uptake rates. Understanding differences in C uptake and cellular allocation among species from natural communities will bring new insight into many ecosystem process questions including how species changes will alter energy availability and C sequestration in aquatic ecosystems. A major limitation of current methods that measure algal C incorporation is the inability to separate the response of individual species from mixed-species assemblages. I used Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy to qualitatively measure inorganic 13C isotope incorporation into individual algal cells in single species, two species, and natural phytoplankton assemblages. Lateral shifts in spectral peaks from 13C treatments were observed in all species. Comparison of peaks associated with carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids allowed for the detection of which individuals took in C, and which macromolecules the C was used to make. For example, shifts in Spirogyra spectral peaks showed substantial C incorporation in carbohydrates. Further, shifts in peaks at 1160 cm-1, 1108 cm-1, 1080 cm-1, 1048 cm-1, and 1030 cm-1 suggested C was being allocated into cellulose. The natural phytoplankton assemblage demonstrated how C could be tracked into co-occurring species. A diatom had large shifts in protein and carbohydrate peaks, while a green alga and euglenoid had only a few shifts in protein related peaks. Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy is an established, label free method for measuring the chemical composition of algal cells. However, adding a label such as 13C isotope can greatly expand the technique's capabilities by qualitatively tracking C movement between inorganic and organic states within single cells.

  15. Connecting Florida Bay algal blooms to freshwater nutrient sources (United States)

    Blakey, T.; Melesse, A. M.


    In this study, monthly water quality data collected in the Everglades by the Southeast Environmental Research Center (SERC) and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) from 1991 to 2008 at 28 sampling stations distributed across Florida Bay was analyzed within the context of local geomorphology and seasonal wind and current regimes in order to evaluate the feasibility of the various purported nutrient sources for reoccurring algal blooms. The in situ chlorophyll-a (chl-a) measurements from the SERC dataset were evaluated as the indicator of algal biomass. Significant differences in average monthly chl-a concentrations at stations indicated a seasonality of algal blooms in the north central and west areas that is not evidenced in stations exhibiting low levels of chl-a throughout the typical year. Tukey's pairwise comparisons of monthly chl-a indicated, at the 95% confidence level, peak algal biomass occurs in October and November at the end of the wet season with minimums occurring between February and August depending on the location of the station. By month comparison of chl-a levels across stations suggest seasonal trends in the geographic focus and extent of blooms. Significant differences from Tukey's pairwise comparisons at the 95% confidence level showed stations to the west as having higher levels of chl-a in March through May with north central stations dominating from June to January. The month of February shows no significant difference in chl-a levels across this area. The results support hypotheses centering on a western source of nutrients that are delivered to the bay over the course of the rainy season. Mapping water quality sampling station locations on top of the bathymetry of Florida Bay illustrates the importance of considering coastal morphology in explaining trends in estuarine algal blooms. Coastal geomorphology along with seasonal changes in the direction of winds and magnitude of rains are demonstrated to be the predominant

  16. Increased pond depth improves algal productivity and nutrient removal in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds. (United States)

    Sutherland, Donna L; Turnbull, Matthew H; Craggs, Rupert J


    Depth has been widely recognised as a crucial operational feature of a high rate algal pond (HRAP) as it modifies the amount of light and frequency at which microalgal cells are exposed to optimal light. To date, there has been little focus on the optimisation of microalgal performance in wastewater treatment HRAPs with respect to depth, with advice ranging from as shallow as possible to 100 cm deep. This paper investigates the seasonal performance of microalgae in wastewater treatment HRAPs operated at three different depths (200, 300 and 400 mm). Microalgal performance was measured in terms of biomass production and areal productivity, nutrient removal efficiency and photosynthetic performance. The overall areal productivity significantly increased with increasing depth. Areal productivity ranged from 134 to 200% higher in the 400 mm deep HRAP compared to the 200 mm deep HRAP. Microalgae in the 400 mm deep HRAP were more efficient at NH4-N uptake and were photosynthetically more efficient compared to microalgae in the 200 mm deep HRAP. A higher chlorophyll-a concentration in the 200 mm deep HRAP resulted in a decrease in photosynthetic performance, due to insufficient carbon supply, over the course of the day in summer (as indicated by lower α, Pmax and oxygen production) compared to the 300 and 400 mm deep HRAPs. Based on these results, improved areal productivity and more wastewater can be treated per land area in the 400 mm deep HRAPs compared to 200 mm deep HRAPs without compromising wastewater treatment quality, while lowering capital and operational costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytoplankton community characteristics of the icebound season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 25, 2011 ... 3(4): 286-291. Jiang JG (2006). Development of a New Biotic Index to Assess. Freshwater Pollution. Environ. Pollut., 139: 306-317. Yoshimura Y, Kohshima S, Ohtani S (1997). A community of snow algae on a Himalayan glacier: change of algal biomass and community structure with altitude. Arct. Alp. Res.

  18. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.


    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  19. Growing Old in Exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Mirdal, Gretty Mizrahi


    Some studies on immigrants and ageing focus on the question of return; others focus on how immigrants, who grow old in their countries of destination, ‘age in place’, including whether they turn to their children or to public host country provisions for care and support. However, the issues...... of return and of ageing in place may both hold significance in individual immigrants’ lives. To investigate the changing expectations of old age throughout the life course, this paper draws on longitudinal interviews with immigrant women from Turkey who live in Denmark. We focus on the function of proximity...... to children. Using two women who were interviewed three times over three decades as case studies, the analysis shows that in the middle of life, the women share expectations of returning to Turkey, but these plans are perpetually postponed. As the women age, they must face their inability to leave...

  20. Winter-time CO2 addition in high rate algal mesocosms for enhanced microalgal performance. (United States)

    Sutherland, Donna L; Montemezzani, Valerio; Mehrabadi, Abbas; Craggs, Rupert J


    Carbon limitation in domestic wastewater high rate algal ponds is thought to constrain microalgal photo-physiology and productivity and CO2 augmentation is often used to overcome this limitation in summer. However, the implications of carbon limitation during winter are poorly understood. This paper investigates the effects of 0.5%, 2%, 5% and 10% CO2 addition on the winter-time performance of wastewater microalgae in high rate algal mesocosms. Performance was measured in terms of light absorption, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production and nutrient removal rates, along with community composition. Varying percentage CO2 addition and associated change in culture pH resulted in 3 distinct microalgal communities. Light absorption by the microalgae increased by up to 144% with CO2 addition, while a reduction in the package effect meant that there was less internal self-shading thereby increasing the efficiency of light absorption. Carbon augmentation increased the maximum rate of photosynthesis by up to 172%, which led to increased microalgal biovolume by up to 181% and an increase in total organic biomass for all treatments except 10% CO2. While 10% CO2 improved light absorption and photosynthesis this did not translate to enhanced microalgal productivity. Increased microalgal productivity with CO2 addition did not result in increased dissolved nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal. This experiment demonstrated that winter-time carbon augmentation up to 5% CO2 improved microalgal light absorption and utilisation, which ultimately increased microalgal biomass and is likely to enhance total annual microalgal areal productivity in HRAPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The growing fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Linda M; Sara, Rana


    Fibroadenomas (FAs) are the most common tumors of the breast clinically and pathologically in adolescent and young women but may be discovered at any age. With increasing use of core biopsy rather than excision for diagnosis, it is now commonplace to follow these lesions with imaging. To assess the incidence of epithelial abnormalities (atypia, in situ or invasive, ductal or lobular malignancies) in FAs diagnosed by core biopsy and to re-evaluate the management paradigm for any growing FA. A retrospective review of the senior author’s pathology results over 19 years identified 2062 nodular FAs (biopsied by ultrasound or stereotactic guidance). Eighty-three core biopsied FAs were identified which subsequently enlarged. Twelve of 2062 of core biopsied nodules demonstrated atypia, in situ, or invasive malignancy (ductal or lobular) within or adjacent to the FA (0.58%). Eighty-three FAs enlarged and underwent either surgical excision (n = 65), repeat core biopsy (n = 9), or imaging follow-up (n = 9). The incidence of atypia, in situ or invasive malignancy was 0/83 (0%). Two enlarging FAs were subsequently surgically diagnosed as benign phyllodes tumors (PT). Malignancy in or adjacent to a core biopsied FA is rare. The risk of cancer in a growing FA is even rarer; none were present in our series. FAs with abnormal epithelial abnormalities require excision. Otherwise, FAs without epithelial abnormality diagnosed by core biopsy need no specific follow-up considering the negligible incidence of conversion to malignancy. The breast interventionalist must know how to manage discordant pathology results

  2. A Taste of Algal Genomes from the Joint Genome Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor


    Algae play profound roles in aquatic food chains and the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, provide models for the study of symbiosis, photosynthesis, and eukaryotic evolution, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI). To date JGI has sequenced, assembled, annotated, and released to the public the genomes of 18 species and strains of algae, sampling almost all of the major clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. With more algal genomes currently undergoing analysis, JGI continues its commitment to driving forward basic and applied algal science. Among these ongoing projects are the pan-genome of the dominant coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, the interrelationships between the 4 genomes in the nucleomorph-containing Bigelowiella natans and Guillardia theta, and the search for symbiosis genes of lichens.

  3. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in algal food products. (United States)

    Machu, Ludmila; Misurcova, Ladislava; Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Orsavova, Jana; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde


    The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW) by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida) and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata) seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa), and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis). HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g-1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g-1, respectively). A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99). Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  4. Didymosphenia geminata: Algal blooms in oligotrophic streams and rivers (United States)

    Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhayay, S.; Abessa, M.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S. A.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.


    In recent decades, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as nuisance species in river systems around the world. This periphytic alga forms large “blooms” in temperate streams, presenting a counterintuitive result: the blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic streams and rivers, where phosphorus (P) availability typically limits primary production. The goal of this study is to examine how high algal biomass is formed under low P conditions. We reveal a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats concentrate P from flowing waters. First, the mucopolysaccaride stalks of D. geminata adsorb both iron (Fe) and P. Second, enzymatic and bacterial processes interact with Fe to increase the biological availability of P. We propose that a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and high growth rate is created, which results in abundant P for cell division. The affinity of stalks for Fe in association with iron-phosphorus biogeochemistry suggest a resolution to the paradox of algal blooms in oliogotrophic streams and rivers.

  5. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.


    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  6. Fish Kill Incidents and Harmful Algal Blooms in Omani Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mohammed Al Gheilani


    Full Text Available Red tide, one of the harmful algal blooms (HABs is a natural ecological phenomenon and often this event is accompanied by severe impacts on coastal resources, local economies, and public health. The occurrence of red tides has become more frequent in Omani waters in recent years. Some of them caused fish kill, damaged fishery resources and mariculture, threatened the marine environment and the osmosis membranes of desalination plants. However, a number of them have been harmless. The most common dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans is associated with the red tide events in Omani waters. Toxic species like Karenia selliformis, Prorocentrum arabianum, and Trichodesmium erythraeum have also been reported recently. Although red tides in Oman have been considered a consequence of upwelling in the summer season (May to September, recent phytoplankton outbreaks in Oman are not restricted to summer. Frequent algal blooms have been reported during winter (December to March. HABs may have contributed to hypoxia and/or other negative ecological impacts.

  7. Spectroscopic evidence for the chemical structure of algal kerogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premovic, P.I.; Stojkovic, S.R.; Pugmire, R.J.; Woolfenden, W.R.; Rosenberger, H.; Scheler, G.


    Two Permo-Carboniferous aliginites (one sample is from Torbane Hill in Scotland and the other is from South Africa) have been examined by high-resolution /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance employing the techniques of magic angle spinning and cross polarization. This examination has shown that these algal kerogens have predominantly aliphatic-type structure with a relatively high proportion of polymethylene chains and concomitant low total aromatic content. The aliphatic nature of alginite is further confirmed by both /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy employing the magic angle spinning technique as well as Fourier transform infrared analysis. This work and other organic geochemical studies suggest that algal geologic materials tend to preserve their basic aliphatic structure after burial despite relatively extensive diagenetic evolution under mild/moderate geological conditions. This interpretation is of much interest in connection with the problems of the origin and nature of Precambrian life. 32 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Machu


    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  9. Algal omics: unlocking bioproduct diversity in algae cell factories. (United States)

    Guarnieri, Michael T; Pienkos, Philip T


    Rapid advances in "omic" technologies are helping to unlock the full potential of microalgae as multi-use feedstocks, with utility in an array of industrial biotechnology, biofuel, and biomedical applications. In turn, algae are emerging as highly attractive candidates for development as microbial cell factories. In this review, we examine the wide array of potential algal bioproducts, with a focus upon the role of omic technologies in driving bioproduct discovery and optimization in microalgal systems.

  10. Selective algicidal action of peptides against harmful algal bloom species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Cheol Park

    Full Text Available Recently, harmful algal bloom (HAB, also termed "red tide", has been recognized as a serious problem in marine environments according to climate changes worldwide. Many novel materials or methods to prevent HAB have not yet been employed except for clay dispersion, in which can the resulting sedimentation on the seafloor can also cause alteration in marine ecology or secondary environmental pollution. In the current study, we investigated that antimicrobial peptide have a potential in controlling HAB without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Here, antimicrobial peptides are proposed as new algicidal compounds in combating HAB cells. HPA3 and HPA3NT3 peptides which exert potent antimicrobial activity via pore forming action in plasma membrane showed that HPA3NT3 reduced the motility of algal cells, disrupted their plasma membrane, and induced the efflux of intracellular components. Against raphidoflagellate such as Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella sp., and C. marina, it displayed a rapid lysing action in cell membranes at 1~4 µM within 2 min. Comparatively, its lysing effects occurred at 8 µM within 1 h in dinoflagellate such as Cochlodium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Moreover, its lysing action induced the lysis of chloroplasts and loss of chlorophyll a. In the contrary, this peptide was not effective against Skeletonema costatum, harmless algal cell, even at 256 µM, moreover, it killed only H. akashiwo or C. marina in co-cultivation with S. costatum, indicating to its selective algicidal activity between harmful and harmless algal cells. The peptide was non-hemolytic against red blood cells of Sebastes schlegeli, the black rockfish, at 120 µM. HAB cells were quickly and selectively lysed following treatment of antimicrobial peptides without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Thus, the antibiotic peptides examined in our study appear to have much potential in effectively controlling HAB with minimal

  11. The paradox of algal blooms in oligotrophic waters (United States)

    Sundareshwar, P. V.; Upadhyay, S.; Abessa, M. B.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.


    Nutrient inputs to streams and lakes, primarily from anthropogenic sources, lead to eutrophic conditions that favor algal blooms with undesirable consequences. In contrast, low nutrient or oligotrophic waters rarely support algal blooms; such ecosystems are typically lower in productivity. Since the mid-1980’s however, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has dramatically expanded its range colonizing oligotrophic rivers worldwide with blooms appearing as thick benthic mats. This recent global occurrence of Didymosphenia geminata blooms in temperate rivers has been perplexing in its pace of spread and the paradoxical nature of the nuisance growths. The blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic flowing waters, where phosphorus (P) availability often limits primary production. We present a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats adsorb both P and iron (Fe) from flowing waters and make P available for cellular uptake. The adsorbed P becomes bioavailable through biogeochemical processes that occur within the mat. The biogeochemical processes observed here while well accepted in benthic systems are novel for algal blooms in lotic habits. Enzymatic and bacterial processes such as Fe and sulfate reduction can release the adsorbed P and increase its bioavailability, creating a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and nutrient availability. Stalk affinity for Fe, Fe-P biogeochemistry, and interaction between watershed processes and climatic setting explain the paradoxical blooms, and the recent global spread of this invasive aquatic species. At a broader scale the study also implies that such algal blooms in oligotrophic environments can fundamentally alter the retention and longitudinal transfer of important nutrients such as P in streams and rivers.

  12. Algal ancestor of land plants was preadapted for symbiosis


    Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Radhakrishnan, Guru V.; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Cheema, Jitender; Malbreil, Mathilde; Volkening, Jeremy D.; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Melkonian, Michael; Pokorny, Lisa; Rothfels, Carl J.; Sederoff, Heike Winter; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Surek, Barbara; Zhang, Yong


    Colonization of land by plants was a critical event for the emergence of extant ecosystems. The innovations that allowed the algal ancestor of land plants to succeed in such a transition remain unknown. Beneficial interaction with symbiotic fungi has been proposed as one of these innovations. Here we show that the genes required for this interaction appeared in a stepwise manner: Some evolved before the colonization of land by plants and others first appeared in land plants. We thus propose t...

  13. Selective algicidal action of peptides against harmful algal bloom species. (United States)

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Lee, Jong-Kook; Kim, Si Wouk; Park, Yoonkyung


    Recently, harmful algal bloom (HAB), also termed "red tide", has been recognized as a serious problem in marine environments according to climate changes worldwide. Many novel materials or methods to prevent HAB have not yet been employed except for clay dispersion, in which can the resulting sedimentation on the seafloor can also cause alteration in marine ecology or secondary environmental pollution. In the current study, we investigated that antimicrobial peptide have a potential in controlling HAB without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Here, antimicrobial peptides are proposed as new algicidal compounds in combating HAB cells. HPA3 and HPA3NT3 peptides which exert potent antimicrobial activity via pore forming action in plasma membrane showed that HPA3NT3 reduced the motility of algal cells, disrupted their plasma membrane, and induced the efflux of intracellular components. Against raphidoflagellate such as Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella sp., and C. marina, it displayed a rapid lysing action in cell membranes at 1~4 µM within 2 min. Comparatively, its lysing effects occurred at 8 µM within 1 h in dinoflagellate such as Cochlodium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Moreover, its lysing action induced the lysis of chloroplasts and loss of chlorophyll a. In the contrary, this peptide was not effective against Skeletonema costatum, harmless algal cell, even at 256 µM, moreover, it killed only H. akashiwo or C. marina in co-cultivation with S. costatum, indicating to its selective algicidal activity between harmful and harmless algal cells. The peptide was non-hemolytic against red blood cells of Sebastes schlegeli, the black rockfish, at 120 µM. HAB cells were quickly and selectively lysed following treatment of antimicrobial peptides without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Thus, the antibiotic peptides examined in our study appear to have much potential in effectively controlling HAB with minimal impact on marine

  14. Are all red algal parasites cut from the same cloth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Salomaki


    Full Text Available Parasitism is a common life strategy throughout the eukaryotic tree of life. Many devastating human pathogens, including the causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, have evolved from a photosynthetic ancestor. However, how an organism transitions from a photosynthetic to a parasitic life history strategy remains mostly unknown. This is largely because few systems present the opportunity to make meaningful comparisons between a parasite and a close free-living relative. Parasites have independently evolved dozens of times throughout the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta, and often infect close relatives. The accepted evolutionary paradigm proposes that red algal parasites arise by first infecting a close relative and over time diversify and infect more distantly related species. This provides a natural evolutionary gradient of relationships between hosts and parasites that share a photosynthetic common ancestor. Elegant microscopic work in the late 20th century provided detailed insight into the infection cycle of red algal parasites and the cellular interactions between parasites and their hosts. Those studies led to the use of molecular work to further investigate the origins of the parasite organelles and reveal the evolutionary relationships between hosts and their parasites. Here we synthesize the research detailing the infection methods and cellular interactions between red algal parasites and their hosts. We offer an alternative hypothesis to the current dogma of red algal parasite evolution and propose that red algae can adopt a parasitic life strategy through multiple evolutionary pathways, including direct infection of distant relatives. Furthermore, we highlight potential directions for future research to further evaluate parasite evolution in red algae.

  15. Thermodynamic modeling of algal cell–solid substrate interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Yan; Yuan, Wenqiao


    Highlights: • A thermodynamic model was developed to simulate algal cell-substrate attachment. • The number of attached cells was positively correlated to work of attachment. • Algal cell attachment was determined by surface energies of cells and substrata. - Abstract: The process of microalgal cell attachment to solid-carrier surfaces was simulated through a thermodynamic model. The modeling results showed that, for most microbes, when the polar surface energy of the cell is smaller than that of water, cellular attachment would be more favorable on materials with higher dispersive surface energy but lower polar surface energy. If the polar surface energy of the cell is greater than that of water, more cell attachment would be expected on materials that are higher in both dispersive and polar surface energies. Modeling results qualitatively matched experimental data in the attachment of a freshwater alga, Scenedesmus dimorphus, and a marine alga, Nannochloropsis oculata, on five materials (nylon, stainless steel, polycarbonate, polypropylene, and glass). The model was also validated by published literature data on a wider variety of microbes and materials, indicating that the model developed can be applicable in designing, selecting, and matching algal strains and solid carrier materials to enhance cell attachment

  16. Ultrasound pretreatment of filamentous algal biomass for enhanced biogas production. (United States)

    Lee, Kwanyong; Chantrasakdakul, Phrompol; Kim, Daegi; Kong, Mingeun; Park, Ki Young


    The filamentous alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum harvested from a bench-scale wastewater treatment pond was used to evaluate biogas production after ultrasound pretreatment. The effects of ultrasound pretreatment at a range of 10-5000 J/mL were tested with harvested H. reticulatum. Cell disruption by ultrasound was successful and showed a higher degree of disintegration at a higher applied energy. The range of 10-5000 J/mL ultrasound was able to disintegrated H. reticulatum and the soluble COD was increased from 250 mg/L to 1000 mg/L at 2500 J/mL. The disintegrated algal biomass was digested for biogas production in batch experiments. Both cumulative gas generation and volatile solids reduction data were obtained during the digestion. Cell disintegration due to ultrasound pretreatment increased the specific biogas production and degradation rates. Using the ultrasound approach, the specific methane production at a dose of 40 J/mL increased up to 384 mL/g-VS fed that was 2.3 times higher than the untreated sample. For disintegrated samples, the volatile solids reduction was greater with increased energy input, and the degradation increased slightly to 67% at a dose of 50 J/mL. The results also indicate that disintegration of the algal cells is the essential step for efficient anaerobic digestion of algal biomass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Harmful Algal in Banyuasin Coastal Waters, South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riris Aryawati


    Full Text Available Phytoplankton have important as food-chain major component and primary production of marine environment. However, high abundance of phytoplankton could give harmful effects toward water ecosystem. Moreover, they could produce toxic substances that will be accumulated within their consumer. This accumulation could be dangerous for human or animals.This research were aimed to determine and calculatespecies of harmful algae in Banyuasin coastal waters. The study was conducted on April, June, August, October and December of 2013, and in February 2014, at ten stations. Phytoplankton samples were taken vertically using plankton nets. In the form of cone-shaped with a diameter of 30 cm, length 100 cm and mesh size 30 μm.The result showed that there are 35 genera of phytoplankton. That have been found and consisted of four groups; Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Chlorophyceae. 13 species were identified as Harmful Algal (Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Nitzschia, Skeletonema, Thalassiosira, Alexandrium, Ceratium, Dinophysis, Noctiluca, Protoperidinium, Prorocentrum, Anabaena dan Oscillatoria, with seven of them were known for having toxin (Nitzschia, Alexandrium, Dinophysis, Protoperidinium Prorocentrum, Anabaena and Oscillatoria. Monitoring result showed that the highest number of species of potential harmful algal blooms (HABs occured in June and the highest abundance occured in August, especially Chaetoceros and Skeletonema.How to CiteAryawati, R., Bengen, D. G., Prartono, T., & Zulkifli, H. (2016. Harmful Algal in Banyuasin Coastal Waters, South Sumatera. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 231-239.

  18. Contrasting UV-Vis Spectra of Terrestrial and Algal Derived Dissolved Organic Matter. (United States)

    Adams, Jessica; Tipping, Edward; Scholefield, Paul; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Carter, Heather; Keenan, Patrick


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important freshwater component. It controls aquatic ecological and biochemical cycling, and can be problematic in industrial water treatment. Thus, the demand for effective and reliable monitoring is growing. The heterogeneity of the spectroscopic properties of DOM are such that measurements of absorbance at a single wavelength cannot provide accurate predictions of [DOC]. Previous construction of a two-component model, based on the combination of absorbance at two wavelengths and a constant accountable for non-absorbing DOM, resulted in good predictions of [DOC] across approximately 1800 different freshwater systems (R2=0.99). However, there were isolated cases where the model appreciably underestimated [DOC], including shallow lakes and reservoirs in the Yangtze basin, China where waters were deemed to be highly eutrophic. Here, we used a revised series of samples, from small scale algal dominated microcosms, mesocosms and catchment scale field samples to explore the capability of the two component model in situations where algae may be the dominant producer of aquatic DOC. Absorbances were measured using a laboratory based UV-Vis spectrometer and subsamples were also analysed through combustion and infra-red detection. In both the microcosms and mesocosms, the model failed to provide a reliable fit, and [DOC] was considerably underestimated. At the field scale, analysis of 55 samples from a combination of reservoirs, arable ponds, streams and rivers produced mostly reliable predictions of [DOC] (R2=0.96), which can be attributed to the dominant input of terrestrial DOM. Samples of shallow, enclosed meres from the North-West of the UK showed hints of similar behaviour to that of the Chinese lakes, suggesting some influences from algal DOM. Our results therefore provide evidence that algae may produce complex forms of DOM that harbour different spectroscopic properties to terrestrially derived material, in the UV spectral range.

  19. Aggregated filter-feeding consumers alter nutrient limitation: consequences for ecosystem and community dynamics. (United States)

    Atkinson, Carla L; Vaughn, Caryn C; Forshay, Kenneth J; Cooper, Joshua T


    Nutrient cycling is a key process linking organisms in ecosystems. This is especially apparent in stream environments in which nutrients are taken up readily and cycled through the system in a downstream trajectory. Ecological stoichiometry predicts that biogeochemical cycles of different elements are interdependent because the organisms that drive these cycles require fixed ratios of nutrients. There is growing recognition that animals play an important role in biogeochemical cycling across ecosystems. In particular, dense aggregations of consumers can create biogeochemical hotspots in aquatic ecosystems via nutrient translocation. We predicted that filter-feeding freshwater mussels, which occur as speciose, high-biomass aggregates, would create biogeochemical hotspots in streams by altering nutrient limitation and algal dynamics. In a field study, we manipulated nitrogen and phosphorus using nutrient-diffusing substrates in areas with high and low mussel abundance, recorded algal growth and community composition, and determined in situ mussel excretion stoichiometry at 18 sites in three rivers (Kiamichi, Little, and Mountain Fork Rivers, south-central United States). Our results indicate that mussels greatly influence ecosystem processes by modifying the nutrients that limit primary productivity. Sites without mussels were N-limited with -26% higher relative abundances of N-fixing blue-green algae, while sites with high mussel densities were co-limited (N and P) and dominated by diatoms. These results corroborated the results of our excretion experiments; our path analysis indicated that mussel excretion has a strong influence on stream water column N:P. Due to the high N:P of mussel excretion, strict N-limitation was alleviated, and the system switched to being co-limited by both N and P. This shows that translocation of nutrients by mussel aggregations is important to nutrient dynamics and algal species composition in these rivers. Our study highlights the

  20. Growth of algal biomass in laboratory and in large-scale algal photobioreactors in the temperate climate of western Germany. (United States)

    Schreiber, Christina; Behrendt, Dominik; Huber, Gregor; Pfaff, Christian; Widzgowski, Janka; Ackermann, Bärbel; Müller, Andreas; Zachleder, Vilém; Moudříková, Šárka; Mojzeš, Peter; Schurr, Ulrich; Grobbelaar, Johan; Nedbal, Ladislav


    Growth of Chlorella vulgaris was characterized as a function of irradiance in a laboratory turbidostat (1L) and compared to batch growth in sunlit modules (5-25L) of the commercial NOVAgreen photobioreactor. The effects of variable sunlight and culture density were deconvoluted by a mathematical model. The analysis showed that algal growth was light-limited due to shading by external construction elements and due to light attenuation within the algal bags. The model was also used to predict maximum biomass productivity. The manipulative experiments and the model predictions were confronted with data from a production season of three large-scale photobioreactors: NOVAgreen (photobioreactors. An additional limitation of the biomass productivity was caused by the nitrogen starvation that was used to induce lipid accumulation. Reduction of shading and separation of biomass and lipid production are proposed for future optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi


    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  2. Determinación de la influencia de los factores ambientales en las proliferaciones algales fitoplanctónicas en la zona costera de Gandia




    [EN] Eutrophication is a form of water pollution that occurs when an excess of nutrients run into water ecosystems. This nutrient enrichment often induces changes in biota and its habitat. Specifically, in coastal ecosystems, the response of the phytoplankton community to nutrient inputs widely depends on the characteristic of the receiving waters, which encourages the growth of algae and eventually can lead to algal blooms, with negative environmental consequences for fisheries and recreatio...

  3. Evaluating algal growth performance and water use efficiency of pilot-scale revolving algal biofilm (RAB) culture systems. (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Mascarenhas, Vernon; Wen, Zhiyou


    A Revolving Algal Biofilm (RAB) growth system in which algal cells are attached to a flexible material rotating between liquid and gas phases has been developed. In this work, different configurations of RAB systems were developed at pilot-scale by retrofitting the attachment materials to a raceway pond (2000-L with 8.5 m(2) footprint area) and a trough reservoir (150 L with 3.5 m(2) footprint area). The algal growth performance and chemical composition, as well as the water evaporative loss and specific water consumption were evaluated over a period of nine months in a greenhouse environment near Boone, Iowa USA. Additionally a raceway pond was run in parallel, which served as a control. On average the raceway-based RAB and the trough-based RAB outperformed the control pond by 309% and 697%, respectively. A maximum productivity of 46.8 g m(-2) day(-1) was achieved on the trough-based RAB system. The evaporative water loss of the RAB system was modeled based on an energy balance analysis and was experimentally validated. While the RAB system, particularly the trough-based RAB, had higher water evaporative loss, the specific water consumption per unit of biomass produced was only 26% (raceway-based RAB) and 7% (trough-based RAB) of that of the control pond. Collectively, this research shows that the RAB system is an efficient algal culture system and has great potential to commercially produce microalgae with high productivity and efficient water use. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Algal remediation of CO₂ and nutrient discharges: A review. (United States)

    Judd, Simon; van den Broeke, Leo J P; Shurair, Mohamed; Kuti, Yussuf; Znad, Hussein


    The recent literature pertaining to the application of algal photobioreactors (PBRs) to both carbon dioxide mitigation and nutrient abatement is reviewed and the reported data analysed. The review appraises the influence of key system parameters on performance with reference to (a) the absorption and biological fixation of CO2 from gaseous effluent streams, and (b) the removal of nutrients from wastewaters. Key parameters appraised individually with reference to CO2 removal comprise algal speciation, light intensity, mass transfer, gas and hydraulic residence time, pollutant (CO2 and nutrient) loading, biochemical and chemical stoichiometry (including pH), and temperature. Nutrient removal has been assessed with reference to hydraulic residence time and reactor configuration, along with C:nutrient ratios and other factors affecting carbon fixation, and outcomes compared with those reported for classical biological nutrient removal (BNR). Outcomes of the review indicate there has been a disproportionate increase in algal PBR research outputs over the past 5-8 years, with a significant number of studies based on small, bench-scale systems. The quantitative impacts of light intensity and loading on CO2 uptake are highly dependent on the algal species, and also affected by solution chemical conditions such as temperature and pH. Calculations based on available data for biomass growth rates indicate that a reactor CO2 residence time of around 4 h is required for significant CO2 removal. Nutrient removal data indicate residence times of 2-5 days are required for significant nutrient removal, compared with PBR configuration (the high rate algal pond, HRAP) means that its footprint is at least two orders of magnitude greater than a classical BNR plant. It is concluded that the combined carbon capture/nutrient removal process relies on optimisation of a number of process parameters acting synergistically, principally microalgal strain, C:N:P load and balance, CO2 and liquid

  5. Growing swimming algae for bioenergy (United States)

    Croze, Ottavio

    Biofuel production from photosynthetic microalgae is not commercially viable due to high processing costs. New engineering and biological solutions are being sought to reduce these costs by increasing processing efficiency (productivity per energy input). Important physics, however, is ignored. For example, the fluid dynamics of algal suspensions in photobioreactors (ponds or tube arrays) is non-trivial, particularly if the algae swim. Cell reorientation by passive viscous and gravitational torques (gyrotaxis) or active reorientation by light (phototaxis) cause swimming algae in suspension to structure in flows, even turbulent ones. This impacts the distribution and dispersion of swimmers, with significant consequences for photobioreactor operation and design. In this talk, I will describe a theory that predicts swimmer dispersion in laminar pipe flows. I will then then present experimental tests of the theory, as well as new results on the circadian suspension dynamics of the algaChlamydomonas reinhardtii in lab-scale photobioreactors. Finally, I will briefly consider the implications of our work, and related active matter research, for improving algal bioprocessing efficiency. Winton Programme for the Physics of Sustainability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković


    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  7. Growing Galaxies Gently (United States)


    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  8. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture. (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico


    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Inhibition of freshwater algal species by co-culture with two fungi. (United States)

    Jia, Yong; Du, Jingjing; Fang, Hao; Zhao, Guiying; Tian, Xingjun


    Microorganisms have attracted worldwide attention as possible agents for the inhibition of water blooms. Algae can usually be inhibited and degraded directly by fungi. In this study, the effects of Trichaptum abietinum 1302BG and Lopharia spadicea on different freshwater algal species, namely, Microcystis aeruginosa, Chlorella vulgaris, Glenodinium sp., Navicula sp., Cryptomonas ovata, and Euglena gracilis, were detected. After 24h, there was a significant inhibitory effect in all algal cultures with T. abietinum 1302BG, except E. gracilis, and all algal cultures with L. spadicea, except Navicula sp. and E. gracilis. The dried masses of two fungi increased while majority of the algal cells disappeared after 72 h of co-incubation with M. aeruginosa, C. vulgaris, Glenodinium sp., and C. ovata. Thus, the two fungi might inhibit the growth of different freshwater algal species and utilize the algal cells for their growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct and indirect effects of high pCO2 on algal grazing by coral reef herbivores from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) (United States)

    Borell, E. M.; Steinke, M.; Fine, M.


    Grazing on marine macroalgae is a key structuring process for coral reef communities. However, ocean acidification from rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations is predicted to adversely affect many marine animals, while seaweed communities may benefit and prosper. We tested how exposure to different pCO2 (400, 1,800 and 4,000 μatm) may affect grazing on the green alga Ulva lactuca by herbivorous fish and sea urchins from the coral reefs in the northern Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea), either directly, by changing herbivore behaviour, or indirectly via changes in algal palatability. We also determined the effects of pCO2 on algal tissue concentrations of protein and the grazing-deterrent secondary metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Grazing preferences and overall consumption were tested in a series of multiple-choice feeding experiments in the laboratory and in situ following exposure for 14 d (algae) and 28 d (herbivores). 4,000 μatm had a significant effect on the biochemical composition and palatability of U. lactuca. No effects were observed at 1,800 relative to 400 μatm (control). Exposure of U. lactuca to 4,000 μatm resulted in a significant decrease in protein and increase in DMSP concentration. This coincided with a reduced preference for these algae by the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla and different herbivorous fish species in situ (Acanthuridae, Siganidae and Pomacanthidae). No feeding preferences were observed for the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus under laboratory conditions. Exposure to elevated pCO2 had no direct effect on the overall algal consumption by T. gratilla and S. rivulatus. Our results show that CO2 has the potential to alter algal palatability to different herbivores which could have important implications for algal abundance and coral community structure. The fact that pCO2 effects were observed only at a pCO2 of 4,000 μatm, however, indicates that algal-grazer interactions may be resistant to predicted pCO2 concentrations in the

  11. Predator-induced fleeing behaviors in phytoplankton: a new mechanism for harmful algal bloom formation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Harvey

    Full Text Available In the plankton, heterotrophic microbes encounter and ingest phytoplankton prey, which effectively removes >50% of daily phytoplankton production in the ocean and influences global primary production and biochemical cycling rates. Factors such as size, shape, nutritional value, and presence of chemical deterrents are known to affect predation pressure. Effects of movement behaviors of either predator or prey on predation pressure, and particularly fleeing behaviors in phytoplankton are thus far unknown. Here, we quantified individual 3D movements, population distributions, and survival rates of the toxic phytoplankton species, Heterosigma akashiwo in response to a ciliate predator and predator-derived cues. We observed predator-induced defense behaviors previously unknown for phytoplankton. Modulation of individual phytoplankton movements during and after predator exposure resulted in an effective separation of predator and prey species. The strongest avoidance behaviors were observed when H. akashiwo co-occurred with an actively grazing predator. Predator-induced changes in phytoplankton movements resulted in a reduction in encounter rate and a 3-fold increase in net algal population growth rate. A spatially explicit population model predicted rapid phytoplankton bloom formation only when fleeing behaviors were incorporated. These model predictions reflected field observations of rapid H. akashiwo harmful algal bloom (HAB formation in the coastal ocean. Our results document a novel behavior in phytoplankton that can significantly reduce predation pressure and suggests a new mechanism for HAB formation. Phytoplankton behaviors that minimize predatory losses, maximize resource acquisition, and alter community composition and distribution patterns could have major implications for our understanding and predictive capacity of marine primary production and biochemical cycling rates.

  12. Seasonal and algal diet-driven patterns of the digestive microbiota of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a generalist marine herbivore. (United States)

    Gobet, Angélique; Mest, Laëtitia; Perennou, Morgan; Dittami, Simon M; Caralp, Claire; Coulombet, Céline; Huchette, Sylvain; Roussel, Sabine; Michel, Gurvan; Leblanc, Catherine


    Holobionts have a digestive microbiota with catabolic abilities allowing the degradation of complex dietary compounds for the host. In terrestrial herbivores, the digestive microbiota is known to degrade complex polysaccharides from land plants while in marine herbivores, the digestive microbiota is poorly characterized. Most of the latter are generalists and consume red, green, and brown macroalgae, three distinct lineages characterized by a specific composition in complex polysaccharides, which represent half of their biomass. Subsequently, each macroalga features a specific epiphytic microbiota, and the digestive microbiota of marine herbivores is expected to vary with a monospecific algal diet. We investigated the effect of four monospecific diets (Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata) on the composition and specificity of the digestive microbiota of a generalist marine herbivore, the abalone, farmed in a temperate coastal area over a year. The microbiota from the abalone digestive gland was sampled every 2 months and explored using metabarcoding. Diversity and multivariate analyses showed that patterns of the microbiota were significantly linked to seasonal variations of contextual parameters but not directly to a specific algal diet. Three core genera: Psychrilyobacter, Mycoplasma, and Vibrio constantly dominated the microbiota in the abalone digestive gland. Additionally, a less abundant and diet-specific core microbiota featured genera representing aerobic primary degraders of algal polysaccharides. This study highlights the establishment of a persistent core microbiota in the digestive gland of the abalone since its juvenile state and the presence of a less abundant and diet-specific core community. While composed of different microbial taxa compared to terrestrial herbivores, the digestive gland constitutes a particular niche in the abalone holobiont, where bacteria (i) may cooperate to degrade algal polysaccharides to

  13. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuel through Increased Biomass Productivity and Technical Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, David [Cellana, LLC, Kailua-Kona, HI (United States)


    The proposed project built on the foundation of over several years years of intensive and ground-breaking R&D work at Cellana's Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF). Phycological and engineering solutions were provided to tackle key cultivation issues and technical barriers limiting algal biomass productivity identified through work conducted outdoors at industrial (1 acre) scale. The objectives of this project were to significantly improve algal biomass productivity and reduce operational cost in a seawater-based system, using results obtained from two top-performing algal strains as the baseline while technically advancing and more importantly, integrating the various unit operations involved in algal biomass production, processing, and refining.

  14. Quorum sensing is a language of chemical signals and plays an ecological role in algal-bacterial interactions. (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Lyu, Yihua; Richlen, Mindy; Anderson, Donald M; Cai, Zhonghua


    Algae are ubiquitous in the marine environment, and the ways in which they interact with bacteria are of particular interest in marine ecology field. The interactions between primary producers and bacteria impact the physiology of both partners, alter the chemistry of their environment, and shape microbial diversity. Although algal-bacterial interactions are well known and studied, information regarding the chemical-ecological role of this relationship remains limited, particularly with respect to quorum sensing (QS), which is a system of stimuli and response correlated to population density. In the microbial biosphere, QS is pivotal in driving community structure and regulating behavioral ecology, including biofilm formation, virulence, antibiotic resistance, swarming motility, and secondary metabolite production. Many marine habitats, such as the phycosphere, harbour diverse populations of microorganisms and various signal languages (such as QS-based autoinducers). QS-mediated interactions widely influence algal-bacterial symbiotic relationships, which in turn determine community organization, population structure, and ecosystem functioning. Understanding infochemicals-mediated ecological processes may shed light on the symbiotic interactions between algae host and associated microbes. In this review, we summarize current achievements about how QS modulates microbial behavior, affects symbiotic relationships, and regulates phytoplankton chemical ecological processes. Additionally, we present an overview of QS-modulated co-evolutionary relationships between algae and bacterioplankton, and consider the potential applications and future perspectives of QS.

  15. The extended phenotypes of marine symbioses: ecological and evolutionary consequences of intraspecific genetic diversity in coral-algal associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Everett Parkinson


    Full Text Available Reef-building corals owe much of their success to a symbiosis with dinoflagellate microalgae in the genus Symbiodinium. In this association, the performance of each organism is tied to that of its partner, and together the partners form a holobiont that can be subject to selection. Climate change affects coral reefs, which are declining globally as a result. Yet the extent to which coral holobionts will be able to acclimate or evolve to handle climate change and other stressors remains unclear. Selection acts on individuals and evidence from terrestrial systems demonstrates that intraspecific genetic diversity plays a significant role in symbiosis ecology and evolution. However, we have a limited understanding of the effects of such diversity in corals. As molecular methods have advanced, so too has our recognition of the taxonomic and functional diversity of holobiont partners. Resolving the major components of the holobiont to the level of the individual will help us assess the importance of intraspecific diversity and partner interactions in coral-algal symbioses. Here, we hypothesize that unique combinations of coral and algal individuals yield functional diversity that affects not only the ecology and evolution of the coral holobiont, but associated communities as well. Our synthesis is derived from reviewing existing evidence and presenting novel data. By incorporating the effects of holobiont extended phenotypes into predictive models, we may refine our understanding of the evolutionary trajectory of corals and reef communities responding to climate change.

  16. The extended phenotypes of marine symbioses: ecological and evolutionary consequences of intraspecific genetic diversity in coral-algal associations. (United States)

    Parkinson, John E; Baums, Iliana B


    Reef-building corals owe much of their success to a symbiosis with dinoflagellate microalgae in the genus Symbiodinium. In this association, the performance of each organism is tied to that of its partner, and together the partners form a holobiont that can be subject to selection. Climate change affects coral reefs, which are declining globally as a result. Yet the extent to which coral holobionts will be able to acclimate or evolve to handle climate change and other stressors remains unclear. Selection acts on individuals and evidence from terrestrial systems demonstrates that intraspecific genetic diversity plays a significant role in symbiosis ecology and evolution. However, we have a limited understanding of the effects of such diversity in corals. As molecular methods have advanced, so too has our recognition of the taxonomic and functional diversity of holobiont partners. Resolving the major components of the holobiont to the level of the individual will help us assess the importance of intraspecific diversity and partner interactions in coral-algal symbioses. Here, we hypothesize that unique combinations of coral and algal individuals yield functional diversity that affects not only the ecology and evolution of the coral holobiont, but associated communities as well. Our synthesis is derived from reviewing existing evidence and presenting novel data. By incorporating the effects of holobiont extended phenotypes into predictive models, we may refine our understanding of the evolutionary trajectory of corals and reef communities responding to climate change.

  17. Quorum sensing is a language of chemical signals and plays an ecological role in algal-bacterial interactions (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Lyu, Yihua; Richlen, Mindy; Anderson, Donald M.; Cai, Zhonghua


    Algae are ubiquitous in the marine environment, and the ways in which they interact with bacteria are of particular interest in marine ecology field. The interactions between primary producers and bacteria impact the physiology of both partners, alter the chemistry of their environment, and shape microbial diversity. Although algal-bacterial interactions are well known and studied, information regarding the chemical-ecological role of this relationship remains limited, particularly with respect to quorum sensing (QS), which is a system of stimuli and response correlated to population density. In the microbial biosphere, QS is pivotal in driving community structure and regulating behavioral ecology, including biofilm formation, virulence, antibiotic resistance, swarming motility, and secondary metabolite production. Many marine habitats, such as the phycosphere, harbour diverse populations of microorganisms and various signal languages (such as QS-based autoinducers). QS-mediated interactions widely influence algal-bacterial symbiotic relationships, which in turn determine community organization, population structure, and ecosystem functioning. Understanding infochemicals-mediated ecological processes may shed light on the symbiotic interactions between algae host and associated microbes. In this review, we summarize current achievements about how QS modulates microbial behavior, affects symbiotic relationships, and regulates phytoplankton chemical ecological processes. Additionally, we present an overview of QS-modulated co-evolutionary relationships between algae and bacterioplankton, and consider the potential applications and future perspectives of QS. PMID:28966438

  18. Pigment-based chemotaxonomy--a quick alternative to determine algal assemblages in large shallow eutrophic lake? (United States)

    Tamm, Marju; Freiberg, René; Tõnno, Ilmar; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina


    Pigment-based chemotaxonomy and CHEMTAX software have proven to be a valuable phytoplankton monitoring tool in marine environments, but are yet underdeveloped to determine algal assemblages in freshwater ecosystems. The main objectives of this study were (1) to compare the results of direct microscopy and CHEMTAX in describing phytoplankton community composition dynamics in a large, shallow and eutrophic lake; (2) to analyze the efficiency of the pigment-based method to detect changes in phytoplankton seasonal dynamics and during rapid bloom periods; (3) to assess the suitability of specific marker pigments and available marker pigment:chlorophyll a ratios to follow seasonal changes in eutrophic freshwater environment. A 5-year (2009-2013) parallel phytoplankton assessment by direct microscopy and by CHEMTAX was conducted using published marker pigment:chlorophyll a ratios. Despite displaying some differences from microscopy results, the pigment-based method successfully described the overall pattern of phytoplankton community dynamics during seasonal cycle in a eutrophic lake. Good agreement between the methods was achieved for most phytoplankton groups - cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, diatoms and cryptophytes. The agreement was poor in case of chrysophytes and dinoflagellates. Our study shows clearly that published marker pigment:chlorophyll a ratios can be used to describe algal class abundances, but they need to be calibrated for specific freshwater environment. Broader use of this method would enable to expand monitoring networks and increase measurement frequencies of freshwater ecosystems to meet the goals of the Water Framework Directive.

  19. Assessment of Algal Farm Designs Using a Dynamic Modular Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abodeely, Jared [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Coleman, Andre M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Technical Group; Stevens, Daniel M. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Ray, Allison E. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Cafferty, Kara G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Newby, Deborah T. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology


    The notion of renewable energy provides an important mechanism for diversifying an energy portfolio, which ultimately would have numerous benefits including increased energy resilience, reduction of foreign energy supplies, reduced GHG emissions, development of a green energy sector that contributes to economic growth, and providing a sustainable energy supply. The conversion of autotrophic algae to liquid transportation fuels is the basis of several decades of research to competitively bring energy-scale production into reality; however, many challenges still remain for making algal biofuels economically viable. Addressing current challenges associated with algal production systems, in part, requires the ability to assess spatial and temporal variability, rapidly evaluate alternative algal production system designs, and perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. We introduce the Algae Logistics Model (ALM) which helps to address these challenges. The flexible nature of the ALM architecture allows the model to: 1) interface with external biomass production and resource assessment models, as well as other relevant datasets including those with spatiotemporal granularity; 2) interchange design processes to enable operational and economic assessments of multiple design configurations, including the integration of current and new innovative technologies; and 3) conduct trade-off analysis to help understand the site-specific techno-economic trade-offs and inform technology decisions. This study uses the ALM to investigate a baseline open-pond production system determined by model harmonization efforts conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Six sites in the U.S. southern-tier were sub-selected and assessed using daily site-specific algae biomass productivity data to determine the economic viability of large-scale open-pond systems. Results show that costs can vary significantly depending on location and biomass

  20. Assessment of Algal Farm Designs using a Dynamic Modular Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abodeely, Jared M. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Stevens, Daniel M. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Ray, Allison E. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Newby, Deborah T. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Coleman, Andre M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Technical Group; Cafferty, Kara G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology


    The notion of renewable energy provides an importantmechanism for diversifying an energy portfolio,which ultimately would have numerous benefits including increased energy resilience, reduced reliance on foreign energysupplies, reduced GHG emissions, development of a green energy sector that contributes to economic growth,and providing a sustainable energy supply. The conversion of autotrophic algae to liquid transportation fuels is the basis of several decades of research to competitively bring energy-scale production into reality; however, many challenges still remain for making algal biofuels economically viable. Addressing current challenges associatedwith algal production systems, in part, requires the ability to assess spatial and temporal variability, rapidly evaluate alternative algal production system designs, and perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. We introduce the development and application of the Algae Logistics Model (ALM) which is tailored to help address these challenges. The flexible nature of the ALM architecture allows the model to: 1) interface with external biomass production and resource assessment models, as well as other relevant datasets including those with spatiotemporal granularity; 2) interchange design processes to enable operational and economic assessments ofmultiple design configurations, including the integration of current and new innovative technologies; and 3) conduct trade-off analysis to help understand the site-specific techno-economic trade-offs and inform technology decisions. This study uses the ALM to investigate a baseline open-pond production system determined by model harmonization efforts conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Six sites in the U.S. southern-tierwere sub-selected and assessed using daily site-specific algaebiomass productivity data to determine the economic viability of large-scale open-pond systems. Results show that costs can vary

  1. A Collection of Algal Genomes from the JGI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor


    Algae, defined as photosynthetic eukaryotes other than plants, constitute a major component of fundamental eukaryotic diversity. Acquisition of the ability to conduct oxygenic photosynthesis through endosymbiotic events has been a principal driver of eukaryotic evolution, and today algae continue to underpin aquatic food chains as primary producers. Algae play profound roles in the carbon cycle, can impose health and economic costs through toxic blooms, and are candidate sources for bio-fuels; all of these research areas are part of the mission of DOE?s Joint Genome Institute (JGI). A collection of algal projects ongoing at JGI contributes to each of these areas and illustrates analyses employed in their genome exploration.

  2. Beneficial Effects of Marine Algal Compounds in Cosmeceuticals (United States)

    Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon


    The name “cosmeceuticals” is derived from “cosmetics and pharmaceuticals”, indicating that a specific product contains active ingredients. Marine algae have gained much importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their rich bioactive compounds. In the present review, marine algal compounds (phlorotannins, sulfated polysaccharides and tyrosinase inhibitors) have been discussed toward cosmeceutical application. In addition, atopic dermatitis and the possible role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in skin-related diseases have been explored extensively for cosmeceutical products. The proper development of marine algae compounds will be helpful in cosmeceutical product development and in the development of the cosmeceutical industry. PMID:23344156

  3. Beneficial effects of marine algal compounds in cosmeceuticals. (United States)

    Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se-Kwon


    The name "cosmeceuticals" is derived from "cosmetics and pharmaceuticals", indicating that a specific product contains active ingredients. Marine algae have gained much importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their rich bioactive compounds. In the present review, marine algal compounds (phlorotannins, sulfated polysaccharides and tyrosinase inhibitors) have been discussed toward cosmeceutical application. In addition, atopic dermatitis and the possible role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in skin-related diseases have been explored extensively for cosmeceutical products. The proper development of marine algae compounds will be helpful in cosmeceutical product development and in the development of the cosmeceutical industry.

  4. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.


    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify

  5. Bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas and algal production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V.


    An integrated system for the bioconversion of poultry droppings for biogas production and utilization of the effluent for the production of the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis was studied. Poultry droppings produced 0.54 cubic m of biogas per kilogran of Total Solids (TS). The 2% TS biogas plant effluent as sole nutrient medium for Spirulina yielded 7-8 g dry algae a day. The biomass was harvested by filtration. The sundried algal biomass has been used as a poultry feed component. In economic terms the system appears promising. 18 references.

  6. Efficient algal lipid extraction via photocatalysis and its conversion to biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shwetharani, R.; Balakrishna, R. Geetha


    Graphical abstract: Nanostructured semiconductor materials were used for photocatalytic algal cell membrane destruction leading to renewable algal oil production. - Highlights: • We report an efficient photocatalytic process for algal cell disruption leading to lipid release and thereby fuel generation. • The method eradicates dewatering and drying steps required for conventional sustainable algal fuel production. • This technique being economical, yields 52% of algal oil, on par with the existing pilot scale techniques. - Abstract: Microalgae play an important role in energy production to solve the major energy crisis. The present study demonstrates an efficient and environmental friendly route for bio-oil extraction from wet Nannochloropsis oculata algal biomass through photocatalysis. The method uses abundant solar energy and catalytic amount of titanium dioxide photocatalyst for the rupturing of wet algal cells and reduces most of the cost by avoiding dewatering and drying, for algal oil production. The various spectroscopy and microscopy techniques used show destruction of algal cell membrane by the photocatalyst, with a release of 52.2% lipid yield. The obtained lipid by photocatalysis on esterification yields biofuel which is in complete agreement with results obtained from conventional techniques. Algal oil is converted to biofuel through acid catalyzed transesterification. Bio-oil and biofuel samples were analyzed by ATR-IR, NMR and GCMS. The physicochemical characterization of photocatalyst was carried out by UV–Visible spectroscopy, XRD, EDS, BET and electron microscopy studies. The results suggest that the nanoparticles are efficient catalysts for rupturing the rigid micro algal cell membrane in an aqueous environment, using sunlight and hence prove to be a potential economic method for large scale bio-oil extraction.

  7. Didymosphenia geminata: Algal blooms in oligotrophic streams and rivers (United States)

    Sundareshwar, P.V.; Upadhayay, S.; Abessa, M.; Honomichl, S.; Berdanier, B.; Spaulding, S.A.; Sandvik, C.; Trennepohl, A.


    In recent decades, the diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as nuisance species in river systems around the world. This periphytic alga forms large "blooms" in temperate streams, presenting a counterintuitive result: the blooms occur primarily in oligotrophic streams and rivers, where phosphorus (P) availability typically limits primary production. The goal of this study is to examine how high algal biomass is formed under low P conditions. We reveal a biogeochemical process by which D. geminata mats concentrate P from flowing waters. First, the mucopolysaccaride stalks of D. geminata adsorb both iron (Fe) and P. Second, enzymatic and bacterial processes interact with Fe to increase the biological availability of P. We propose that a positive feedback between total stalk biomass and high growth rate is created, which results in abundant P for cell division. The affinity of stalks for Fe in association with iron-phosphorus biogeochemistry suggest a resolution to the paradox of algal blooms in oliogotrophic streams and rivers. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Ohmic heating pretreatment of algal slurry for production of biodiesel. (United States)

    Yodsuwan, Natthawut; Kamonpatana, Pitiya; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote


    Suspensions of the model microalga Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 were pretreated by ohmic heating to facilitate release of lipids from the cells in subsequent extraction and lipase-mediated transesterification to biodiesel. After ohmic pretreatment, the moist biomass was suspended in a system of water, hexane, methanol and immobilized lipase for extraction of lipids and simultaneous conversion to biodiesel. The ohmic pretreatment was optimized using an experimental design based on Taguchi method to provide treated biomass that maximized the biodiesel yield in subsequent extraction-transesterification operation. The experimental factors were the frequency of electric current (5-10 5  Hz), the processing temperature (50-70 °C), the algal biomass concentration in the slurry (algal fresh weight to water mass ratio of 1-3) and the incubation time (1-3 min). Extraction-transesterification of the pretreated biomass was carried out at 40 °C for 24 h using a reaction systems of a fixed composition (i.e. biomass, hexane, methanol, water and immobilized enzyme). Compared to control (i.e. untreated biomass), the ohmic pretreatment under optimal conditions (5 Hz current frequency, 70 °C, 1:2 mass ratio of biomass to water, incubation time of 2-min) increased the rate of subsequent transesterification by nearly 2-fold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO{sub 4}), with IC50 values of 0.82 {mu}M and 0.85 {mu}M, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides.

  10. Algal Blooms and Cyanotoxins in Jordan Lake, North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wiltsie


    Full Text Available The eutrophication of waterways has led to a rise in cyanobacterial, harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs worldwide. The deterioration of water quality due to excess algal biomass in lakes has been well documented (e.g., water clarity, hypoxic conditions, but health risks associated with cyanotoxins remain largely unexplored in the absence of toxin information. This study is the first to document the presence of dissolved microcystin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, and β-N-methylamino-l-alanine in Jordan Lake, a major drinking water reservoir in North Carolina. Saxitoxin presence was not confirmed. Multiple toxins were detected at 86% of the tested sites and during 44% of the sampling events between 2014 and 2016. Although concentrations were low, continued exposure of organisms to multiple toxins raises some concerns. A combination of discrete sampling and in-situ tracking (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking [SPATT] revealed that microcystin and anatoxin were the most pervasive year-round. Between 2011 and 2016, summer and fall blooms were dominated by the same cyanobacterial genera, all of which are suggested producers of single or multiple cyanotoxins. The study’s findings provide further evidence of the ubiquitous nature of cyanotoxins, and the challenges involved in linking CyanoHAB dynamics to specific environmental forcing factors are discussed.

  11. Dissolved organic matter reduces algal accumulation of methylmercury (United States)

    Luengen, Allison C.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly decreased accumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) by the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana in laboratory experiments. Live diatom cells accumulated two to four times more MeHg than dead cells, indicating that accumulation may be partially an energy-requiring process. Methylmercury enrichment in diatoms relative to ambient water was measured by a volume concentration factor (VCF). Without added DOM, the maximum VCF was 32 x 104, and the average VCF (from 10 to 72 h) over all experiments was 12.6 x 104. At very low (1.5 mg/L) added DOM, VCFs dropped by approximately half. At very high (20 mg/L) added DOM, VCFs dropped 10-fold. Presumably, MeHg was bound to a variety of reduced sulfur sites on the DOM, making it unavailable for uptake. Diatoms accumulated significantly more MeHg when exposed to transphilic DOM extracts than hydrophobic ones. However, algal lysate, a labile type of DOM created by resuspending a marine diatom in freshwater, behaved similarly to a refractory DOM isolate from San Francisco Bay. Addition of 67 μM L-cysteine resulted in the largest drop in VCFs, to 0.28 x 104. Although the DOM composition influenced the availability of MeHg to some extent, total DOM concentration was the most important factor in determining algal bioaccumulation of MeHg.

  12. Marine mimivirus relatives are probably large algal viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus is the largest known ds-DNA virus and its 1.2 Mb-genome sequence has revealed many unique features. Mimivirus occupies an independent lineage among eukaryotic viruses and its known hosts include only species from the Acanthamoeba genus. The existence of mimivirus relatives was first suggested by the analysis of the Sargasso Sea metagenomic data. Results We now further demonstrate the presence of numerous "mimivirus-like" sequences using a larger marine metagenomic data set. We also show that the DNA polymerase sequences from three algal viruses (CeV01, PpV01, PoV01 infecting different marine algal species (Chrysochromulina ericina, Phaeocystis pouchetii, Pyramimonas orientalis are very closely related to their homolog in mimivirus. Conclusion Our results suggest that the numerous mimivirus-related sequences identified in marine environments are likely to originate from diverse large DNA viruses infecting phytoplankton. Micro-algae thus constitute a new category of potential hosts in which to look for new species of Mimiviridae.

  13. Microencapsulation of Algal Oil Using Spray Drying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshan Pan


    Full Text Available This work aims at developing a process of microencapsulation of algal oil containing ≥40 % docosahexaenoic acid (DHA using spray drying technology. Purity Gum® 2000 and Capsul®, both obtained from waxy corn starch, were chosen as the encapsulation materials. The effects of emulsification conditions on the droplet size, stability, viscosity and surface tension, and the effects of spraying conditions on the particle size, moisture content and surface oil content were investigated successively. The morphology of emulsion droplets and the microcapsules was observed by optical microscope and scanning electron micro scopy. The results showed that the produced spherical microcapsules were smooth and free of pores, cracks, and surface indentation when shear velocity was 8.63 m/s in the first step of emulsification, homogenization pressure was 1.75·10˄8 Pa and number of passes through homogenization unit was six for fine emulsification, rotational speed of spray disk was 400 s-1, and air inlet temperature was 170 °C. Therefore, it was concluded that the emulsification and encapsulation of algal oil containing DHA with above process was feasible.

  14. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms (SETAC presentation) (United States)

    Reports of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, also known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABS) have increased drastically in recent years. HABS impact human health from causing mild allergies to liver damage and death. The Ecological Stewardship Institute (ESI) at Northern Kentucky Universi...

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid- and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Kinchin, C.; Markham, J.; Tan, E.; Laurens, L.; Sexton, D.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.


    Beginning in 2013, NREL began transitioning from the singular focus on ethanol to a broad slate of products and conversion pathways, ultimately to establish similar benchmarking and targeting efforts. One of these pathways is the conversion of algal biomass to fuels via extraction of lipids (and potentially other components), termed the 'algal lipid upgrading' or ALU pathway. This report describes in detail one potential ALU approach based on a biochemical processing strategy to selectively recover and convert select algal biomass components to fuels, namely carbohydrates to ethanol and lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock (RDB) product. The overarching process design converts algal biomass delivered from upstream cultivation and dewatering (outside the present scope) to ethanol, RDB, and minor coproducts, using dilute-acid pretreatment, fermentation, lipid extraction, and hydrotreating.

  16. Mathematical-statistical model for analysis of Ulva algal net photosynthesis in Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, G.; Rizzo, V.; Bella, A.; Picci, M.; Giordano, P.


    The algal net photosynthesis, an important factor for the characterization of water quality in Venice lagoon, has been studied experimentally providing a mathematical model, validated by using statistical methods. This model relates oxygen production with irradiance, according to a well known law in biological literature. Its observed an inverted proportion between algal oxygen production and temperature, thus seasonality

  17. Releasing Stored Solar Energy within Pond Scum: Biodiesel from Algal Lipids (United States)

    Blatti, Jillian L.; Burkart, Michael D.


    Microalgae have emerged as an attractive feedstock for the mass production of renewable transportation fuels due to their fast growth rate, flexible habitat preferences, and substantial oil yields. As an educational tool, a laboratory was developed that mimics emerging algal biofuel technology, including the extraction of algal lipids and…

  18. Biofouling in capillary and spiral wound membranes facilitated by marine algal bloom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villacorte, L.O.; Ekowati, Y.; Calix-Ponce, H.N.; Kisielius, V.; Kleijn, J.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.; Schippers, J.C.; Kennedy, M.D.


    Algal-derived organic matter (AOM), particularly transparent exopolymer particles, has been suspected to facilitate biofilm development in membrane systems (e.g., seawater reverse osmosis). This study demonstrates the possible role of AOM on biofouling in membrane systems affected by marine algal

  19. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations on wastewater nutrient removal. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The bioreactor containing algal beads (4 mm diameter) with 1.5 x 106 cells bead-1 (cell stocking) at concentration of 10.66 beads ml-1 wastewater (1:3 bead: wastewater, v/v) achieved ...

  20. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis


    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  1. Plasticity of total and intracellular phosphorus quotas in Microcystis aeruginosa cultures and Lake Erie algal assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Saxton


    Full Text Available Blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis are common events globally, and as a result significant resources continue to be dedicated to monitoring and controlling these events. Recent studies have shown that a significant proportion total cell-associated phosphorus (P in phytoplankton can be surface adsorbed, and many of our current measurements do not accurately reflect the P demands of these organisms. In this study we measure the total cell-associated and intracellular P as well as growth rates of two toxic strains of Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz grown under a range of P concentrations. The results show that the intracellular P pool in Microcystis represents a percentage of total cell-associated P (50-90% similar to what has been reported for actively growing algae in marine systems. Intracellular P levels (39-147 fg cell-1 generally increased with increasing growth media P concentrations, but growth rate and the ratio of total cell-associated to intracellular P remained generally stable. Intracellular P quotas and growth rates in cells grown under the different P treatments illustrate the ability of this organism to successfully respond to changes in ambient P loads, and thus have implications for ecosystem scale productivity models employing P concentrations to predict algal bloom events.

  2. Short communication: Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract. Sunpapao A, Pitaloka MK, Arikit S. 2015. Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand. Biodiversitas 17: 31-35. Algal leaf spot disease of Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan was observed in southern Thailand. The algae were isolated on Bold’s basal medium (BBM and identified based on appearance of the lesions, algal morphology and molecular properties. Characteristics of the filamentous thallus cells, sporangiophores, sporangia, gametes and zoospores were clarified. A portion of the 18S small subunit rRNA was amplified to validate the morphological identification by sequence similarity. To summarize the main results, the plant parasite causing algal leaf spot was identified as Cephaleuros virescens, and in sequencing-based phylogenetic analysis the Cephaleuros PSU-R5.1 isolate from rambutan grouped with the algae in genus Cephaleuros. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand.

  3. Harmful Algal Blooms in Asia: an insidious and escalating water pollution phenomenon with effects on ecological and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia M Glibert


    Full Text Available Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs, those proliferations of algae that causeenvironmental, economic, or human health problems, are increasing in frequency,duration, and geographic extent due to nutrient pollution. The scale of the HABproblem in Asia has escalated in recent decades in parallel with the increase in useof agricultural fertilizer, the development of aquaculture, and a growing population.Three examples, all from China but illustrative of the diversity of events and theirecological, economic, and human health effects throughout Asia, are highlightedhere. These examples include inland (Lake Tai or Taihu as well as offshore (EastChina Sea and Yellow Sea waters. The future outlook for controlling these bloomsis bleak. The effects of advancing industrialized agriculture and a continually growingpopulation will continue to result in more nutrient pollution and more HABs—-and more effects - in the foreseeable future.

  4. Algal species composition, photosynthetic pigments and primary productivity in relation to temperature variations in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajadurai, M.; Poornima, E.H.; Rao, V.N.R.; Venugopalan, V.P.


    With increase in the number of nuclear and fossil fuel power plants being commissioned along the sea coast to meet the growing demands of the society, more and more of the heated effluents from them find their way into the sea, elevated temperature of the waters may affect the phytoplankton, periphyton and the phytobenthos and any harmful effect on these algae may have a cascading effect on the higher level of the food chain especially those that are ecologically and commercially valuable. Therefore, it is necessary to gain sufficient knowledge on the response of these algae to elevated temperatures which will help us to arrive at a meaningful assessment on the temperature effects and to formulate optimum discharge criteria with regard to thermal effluents from power stations. Fifteen sites were chosen along the East Coast near the Madras Atomic power Station (MAPS) and surface water and sediments were analyzed for various parameters such as temperature, algal species composition, pigments and primary productivity

  5. Simple mass transport model for metal uptake by marine macroalgae growing at different rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, D.L.


    Although algae growing at different rates may exhibit different concentrations of a given metal, such differences in algal chemistry may or may not reflect actual effects of environmental growth factors on the kinetics of metal uptake. Published data on uptake of rubidium, cadmium, and manganese by the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile grown at different rates in open system sea water was interpreted using the model. Differences in exposure time to sea water of relatively old and relatively young thalli were responsible for significant decreases in algal rubidium and cadmium concentrations with increases in specific growth rate. The biomass-specific growth rates of uptake of these two metals did not vary with growth rate. Both algal concentrations and specific rates of uptake of manganese increase significantly with increasing growth rate, thus indicating a distinct link between the kinetics of manganese uptake and metabolic rate. Under some circumstances, seaweed bioassay coupled with an interpretive model may provide the only reasonable approach to the study of chemical uptake-growth phenomena. In practice, if the residence time of sea water in culture chambers is sufficiently low to preclude pseudo-closed system artifacts, differences in trace metal concentrations between input and output sea water may be difficult to detect. In the field and in situ experiments based on time-series monitoring of changes in the water chemistry would be technically difficult or perhaps impossible to perform. 13 references, 1 figure.

  6. Evolution of sedimentary facies and fossil communities in the Middle Permian Maokou Formation in Zigui County, Hubei Province, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Yu Zhu


    Full Text Available A geological event that happened at the end of the Middle Permian resulted in different levels of erosion in a shallow-water platform of South China, which led to diverse geological records in different sections. The Lianziya section in western Hubei Province of South China has a well-exposed stratigraphic sequence of the late Middle Permian rocks with abundant fossils and sedimentary facies types, providing new evidences for understanding the evolution of marine biota and environment in the late Middle Permian. Our study shows that four fossil communities can be recognized with the change of sedimentary facies in the late Middle Permian: Foraminiferal–algal community, phylloid algal community, bryozoan community and Ungdarella community. The foraminiferal–algal community is dominated by fusulinids and calcareous algae, but was soon replaced by the phylloid algal community. With an increase of terrestrial input, the phylloid algal community was again replaced by the bryozoan community. Near the end of the Middle Permian, with a decrease of terrestrial input, the bryozoan fossil community disappeared while the Ungdarella community became dominant. A 10 cm-thick weathered crust occurred at the top of the Middle Permian limestone, marking a large amplitude fall in sea-level and the beginning of a terrestrial erosion stage. The sedimentary facies and fossil community changes in the Lianziya section indicates that the Middle Permian crisis was a gradual process while the sea-level fall mainly occurred in the latest Middle Permian.

  7. Algal-based, single-step treatment of urban wastewaters. (United States)

    Henkanatte-Gedera, S M; Selvaratnam, T; Caskan, N; Nirmalakhandan, N; Van Voorhies, W; Lammers, Peter J


    Currently, urban wastewaters (UWW) laden with organic carbon (BOD) and nutrients (ammoniacal nitrogen, N, and phosphates, P) are treated in multi-stage, energy-intensive process trains to meet the mandated discharge standards. This study presents a single-step process based on mixotrophic metabolism for simultaneous removal of carbon and nutrients from UWWs. The proposed system is designed specifically for hot, arid environments utilizing an acidophilic, thermotolerant algal species, Galdieria sulphuraria, and an enclosed photobioreactor to limit evaporation. Removal rates of BOD, N, and P recorded in this study (14.93, 7.23, and 1.38 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively) are comparable to literature reports. These results confirm that the mixotrophic system can reduce the energy costs associated with oxygen supply in current UWW treatment systems, and has the potential to generate more energy-rich biomass for net energy extraction from UWW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Marine harmful algal blooms, human health and wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berdalet, Elisa; Fleming, Lora E.; Gowen, Richard


    cause harm to humans and other organisms. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have direct impacts on human health and negative influences on human wellbeing, mainly through their consequences to coastal ecosystem services (fisheries, tourism and recreation) and other marine organisms and environments....... HABs are natural phenomena, but these events can be favoured by anthropogenic pressures in coastal areas. Global warming and associated changes in the oceans could affect HAB occurrences and toxicity as well, although forecasting the possible trends is still speculative and requires intensive...... multidisciplinary research. At the beginning of the 21st century, with expanding human populations, particularly in coastal and developing countries, mitigating HABs impacts on human health and wellbeing is becoming a more pressing public health need. The available tools to address this global challenge include...

  9. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  10. Algal Growth Potential of Microcystis aeruginosa from Reclaimed Water. (United States)

    Joo, Jin Chul; Ahn, Chang Hyuk; Lee, Saeromi; Jang, Dae-Gyu; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Ryu, Byong Ro


    Algal growth potential (AGP) of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa, NIES-298) using reclaimed water from various wastewater reclamation pilot plants was investigated to evaluate the feasibility of the reclaimed water usage for recreational purposes. After completing the coagulation and ultrafiltration processes, the concentrations of most contaminants in the reclaimed water were lower than the reuse guidelines for recreational water. However, M. aeruginosa successfully adapted to low levels of soluble reactive phosphorus (PO(3-)(4)) concentrations. The AGP values of M. aeruginosa decreased with the progression of treatment processes, and with the increases in the dilution volume. Also, both the AGP and chlorophyll-a values can be estimated a priori without conducting the AGP tests. Therefore, aquatic ecosystems in locations prone to environmental conditions favorable for the growth of M. aeruginosa require more rigorous nutrient management plans (e.g., reverse osmosis and dilution with clean water resources) to reduce the nutrient availability.

  11. Oceans and Human Health: Microplastics and Harmful Algal Bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, Elvira Z.


    Traditionally the focus of research and concern of environmental studies in the marine system is the impact of human activities in the ocean: the sources, distribution and fate of pollutants resulting from human activities. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact health can come from eating contaminated seafood, swimming in polluted water, and exposure to toxins from harmful algal blooms. This paper will present two areas of concern that illustrates the fact that the health of the oceans and the health of humans go hand in hand: chemical pollution from plastics in the ocean and harmful alga bloom. The nuclear methodologies than can be useful in these areas will also be introduced. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans. (author)

  12. Algal growth inhibition test results of 425 organic chemical substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Christensen, Anne Munch; Nyholm, Niels


    values were corrected accordingly. The model helped to identify substances, where the calculated water concentration was too uncertain. Substances covering a wide range of physical-chemical properties and different modes of action were tested. Median effect concentrations (EC50) lower than 1000 mg/L were......The toxicity towards the algal species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata of 425 organic chemical substances was tested in a growth inhibition test. Precautions were taken to prevent loss of the compounds from the water phase and the test system (closed test system, low biomass, shorter test duration......, silanized glass) and to keep pH constant by applying a higher alkalinity. Chemical phase distribution was modelled taking ionization, volatilisation, and adsorption to glass and biomass into consideration. If the modelled water concentration was below 90% of the nominal concentration the calculated EC...

  13. How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy (United States)

    ... ACOG Pregnancy Book How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy ...

  14. Epilithic algal assemblages in the Forsmark Biotest basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeijs, P.


    The Forsmark Biotest Basin is an artificial offshore brackish lake, through which the cooling water is led from the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station on the Swedish east coast. The Biotest Basin differs from the Bothnian Sea surrounding it by a temperature elevation of up to 10 degrees C, no ice cover in winter, and an artificial, fast current. At 11 sites in- and outside the basin, benthic algal assemblages on stones in the hydrolittoral belt were sampled every third week during one year. Cover abundances were estimated for all algae occurring on the stones, but for diatoms only when they formed blooms. The results of the vegetation analyses are given. Diversity indices and dominance-diversity curves were computed for each site on the basis of pooled data for the cold season and for the rest of the year. The algae included both unicellular and multicellular forms. In total 88 taxa were distinguished in the species lists: 29 Cyanophyta, 7 Rhodophyta, 1 Chrysophyceae, 9 Fucophyceae, 17 Diatomophyceae and 25 Chlorophyta. In terms of percentage cover-abundance, blue-green and green algae increased with temperature, while red and brown algae and diatoms decreased with temperature in the interval between the minimum (0 degrees C) and the maximum (25.7 degrees C) water temperatures that were measured during the investigation period. Melosira spp. and Nitzschia filiformis proved to be the diatoms most favoured by the cooling water discharge. Lower diversity and greater dominance of one or a few species over the other was caused by thermal discharge at sites with fast-flowing water, but the opposite occurred at sites with quiescent water, mainly due to a greater number and higher abundances of blue-green algal species and thread-like green algae at the latter sites. This report also gives some notes on taxonomy of the encountered species.

  15. Recommendations for Life Cycle Assessment of algal fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, Pierre; Hélias, Arnaud; Lardon, Laurent; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Bernard, Olivier


    Highlights: • A review of 41 publications about LCA of algal biofuels has been carried out. • We define methodological guidelines to standardize microalgae LCA. • We rank the issues by their effect on the results. • The proposed framework has to regularly be updated by studies of new impacts. - Abstract: Many studies have used the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to assess the environmental impacts and energetic suitability of microalgal biofuels. This paper presents a critical review focused on goal and scope, system boundaries, functional unit, Life Cycle Inventories (LCI) and environmental impacts of 41 LCA of algal biofuels. The comparison between these LCA has been made difficult by the heterogeneity of their underlying hypotheses and perimeters. Hence we propose to define methodological guidelines to harmonize results presentation in order to improve the validity of each new contribution and to ease its comparison to other studies. LCA allows detecting pollution transfers between production stages as well as between distinct environmental impacts. At the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) level, a special attention should be paid to the perimeter of the study (e.g. inclusion of infrastructures) and to the handling of the co-products (allocation or substitution). Moreover the inventory data have to be treated in a consistent way in order to guarantee the comparability of LCI between different studies. Hence we recommend that data of all the production steps should be given at a unit process level, i.e. the smallest element for which input and output data can be quantified. At the Life Cycle Impact Assessment level, other impacts than the greenhouse gases balance have to be taken into account, like impacts related to the use of fertilizers (acidification and eutrophication) and phytosanitary products (human toxicity and ecotoxicity), impacts of direct and indirect land use change, and water consumptions. Finally, as biofuel is aiming at replacing

  16. Plant and algal cell walls: diversity and functionality. (United States)

    Popper, Zoë A; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Domozych, David S


    Although plants and many algae (e.g. the Phaeophyceae, brown, and Rhodophyceae, red) are only very distantly related they are united in their possession of carbohydrate-rich cell walls, which are of integral importance being involved in many physiological processes. Furthermore,wall components have applications within food, fuel, pharmaceuticals, fibres (e.g. for textiles and paper) and building materials and have long been an active topic of research. As shown in the 27 papers in this Special Issue, as the major deposit of photosynthetically fixed carbon, and therefore energy investment, cell walls are of undisputed importance to the organisms that possess them, the photosynthetic eukaryotes ( plants and algae). The complexities of cell wall components along with their interactions with the biotic and abiotic environment are becoming increasingly revealed. The importance of plant and algal cell walls and their individual components to the function and survival of the organism, and for a number of industrial applications, are illustrated by the breadth of topics covered in this issue, which includes papers concentrating on various plants and algae, developmental stages, organs, cell wall components, and techniques. Although we acknowledge that there are many alternative ways in which the papers could be categorized (and many would fit within several topics), we have organized them as follows: (1) cell wall biosynthesis and remodelling, (2) cell wall diversity, and (3) application of new technologies to cell walls. Finally, we will consider future directions within plant cell wall research. Expansion of the industrial uses of cell walls and potentially novel uses of cell wall components are both avenues likely to direct future research activities. Fundamentally, it is the continued progression from characterization (structure, metabolism, properties and localization) of individual cell wall components through to defining their roles in almost every aspect of plant

  17. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor (United States)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  18. Pyrolysis Strategies for Effective Utilization of Lignocellulosic and Algal Biomass (United States)

    Maddi, Balakrishna

    Pyrolysis is a processing technique involving thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The bio-oils obtained following the condensation of the pyrolysis vapors form a convenient starting point for valorizing the major components of lignocellulosic as well as algal biomass feed stocks for the production of fuels and value-added chemicals. Pyrolysis can be implemented on whole biomass or on residues left behind following standard fractionation methods. Microalgae and oil seeds predominantly consist of protein, carbohydrate and triglycerides, whereas lignocellulose is composed of carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) and lignin. The differences in the major components of these two types of biomass will necessitate different pyrolysis strategies to derive the optimal benefits from the resulting bio-oils. In this thesis, novel pyrolysis strategies were developed that enable efficient utilization of the bio-oils (and/or their vapors) from lignocellulose, algae, as well as oil seed feed stocks. With lignocellulosic feed stocks, pyrolysis of whole biomass as well as the lignin residue left behind following well-established pretreatment and saccharification (i.e., depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose to their monomeric-sugars) of the biomass was studied with and without catalysts. Following this, pyrolysis of (lipid-deficient) algae and lignocellulosic feed stocks, under similar reactor conditions, was performed for comparison of product (bio-oil, gas and bio-char) yields and composition. In spite of major differences in component bio-polymers, feedstock properties relevant to thermo-chemical conversions, such as overall C, H and O-content, C/O and H/C molar ratio as well as calorific values, were found to be similar for algae and lignocellulosic material. Bio-oil yields from algae and some lignocellulosic materials were similar; however, algal bio-oils were compositionally different and contained several N-compounds (most likely from

  19. Algal Pretreatment Improves Biofuels Yield and Value; Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. This research has been highlighted in the Green Chemistry journal article mentioned above and a milestone report, and is based on the work the researchers are doing for the AOP projects Algal Biomass Conversion and Algal Biofuels Techno-economic Analysis. That work has demonstrated an advanced process for algal biofuel production that captures the value of both the algal lipids and carbohydrates for conversion to biofuels.  With this process, as much as 150 GGE/ton of biomass can be produced, 2-3X more than can be produced by terrestrial feedstocks.  This can also reduce the cost of biofuel production by as much as 40%. This also represents the first ever design case for the algal lipid upgrading pathway.

  20. Impact of Microalgae-Bacteria Interactions on the Production of Algal Biomass and Associated Compounds. (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan Luis; Garbayo, Inés; Cuaresma, María; Montero, Zaida; González-Del-Valle, Manuel; Vílchez, Carlos


    A greater insight on the control of the interactions between microalgae and other microorganisms, particularly bacteria, should be useful for enhancing the efficiency of microalgal biomass production and associated valuable compounds. Little attention has been paid to the controlled utilization of microalgae-bacteria consortia. However, the studies of microalgal-bacterial interactions have revealed a significant impact of the mutualistic or parasitic relationships on algal growth. The algal growth, for instance, has been shown to be enhanced by growth promoting factors produced by bacteria, such as indole-3-acetic acid. Vitamin B12 produced by bacteria in algal cultures and bacterial siderophores are also known to be involved in promoting faster microalgal growth. More interestingly, enhancement in the intracellular levels of carbohydrates, lipids and pigments of microalgae coupled with algal growth stimulation has also been reported. In this sense, massive algal production might occur in the presence of bacteria, and microalgae-bacteria interactions can be beneficial to the massive production of microalgae and algal products. This manuscript reviews the recent knowledge on the impact of the microalgae-bacteria interactions on the production of microalgae and accumulation of valuable compounds, with an emphasis on algal species having application in aquaculture.

  1. The ecology of acidification and recovery: changes in herbivore-algal food web linkages across a stream pH gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledger, M.E.; Hildrew, A.G.


    We examined the effects of acidification on herbivore-algal food web linkages in headwater streams. We determined the structure and abundance of consumer and benthic algal assemblages, and gauged herbivory, in 10 streams along a pH gradient (mean annual pH 4.6-6.4). Biofilm taxonomic composition changed with pH but total abundance did not vary systematically across the gradient. Mayflies and chironomids dominated under circumneutral conditions but declined with increasing acidity and their consumption of algae was strongly reduced. Contrary to expectations, several putative shredder species consumed algae, maintaining the herbivore-algal linkage where specialist grazers could not persist. These shifts in functioning could render the communities of acidified streams resistant to reinvasion when acidity ameliorates and water chemistry is restored to a pre-acidification condition. This hypothesis is discussed in the light of recent trends in the chemistry and biology of the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network sites. - Generalist invertebrates maintain algae-herbivore interactions in acid streams

  2. Remote Sensing as a Tool to Track Algal Blooms in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA (United States)

    Bradt, S. R.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.; Naftz, D.; Moore, T.; Haney, J.


    The Great Salt Lake is a large hypersaline, terminal water body in northern Utah, USA. The lake has both a significant economic importance to the local community as a source of brine shrimp and mineral resources, as well as, an ecological importance to large numbers of migratory waterfowl. Due to nutrient input from sewage treatment plants, sections of the Great Salt Lake are subjected to highly eutrophic conditions. One of the main tributaries, Farmington Bay, experiences massive blooms of cyanobacteria which can reach concentrations in excess of 300 mg l-1 in the bay. Effects of these blooms can be observed stretching into the rest of the lake. The detrimental outcomes of the blooms include unsightly scums, foul odor and the danger of cyanobacterial toxins. While the blooms have an obvious effect on Farmington Bay, it is quite possible that the cyanobacteria impact a much wider area of the lake as currents move eutrophic water masses. Of particular interest is the reaction of brine shrimp to the plumes of cyanobacteria-rich water leaving Farmington Bay. We are employing remote sensing as a tool to map the distribution of algae throughout the lake and produce lake-wide maps of water quality on a regular basis. On-lake reflectance measurements have been coupled with MODIS satellite imagery to produce a time series of maps illustrating changes in algal distribution. The successes and shortcomings of our remote sensing technique will be a central topic of this presentation.

  3. Standard PREanalytical Codes: A New Paradigm for Environmental Biobanking Sectors Explored in Algal Culture Collections. (United States)

    Benson, Erica E; Betsou, Fotini; Amaral, Raquel; Santos, Lília M A; Harding, Keith


    The Standard PREanalytical Code (SPREC) was developed by the medical/clinical biobanking sector motivated by the need to harmonize biospecimen traceability in preanalytical processes and enable interconnectivity and interoperability between different biobanks, research consortia, and infrastructures. The clinical SPREC (01) consists of standard preanalytical variable options (7-code elements), which comprise published and (ideally) validated methodologies. Although the SPREC has been designed to facilitate clinical research, the concept could have utility in biorepositories and culture collections that service environmental and biodiversity communities. The SPREC paradigm can be applied to different storage regimes across all types of biorepository. The objective of this article is to investigate adapting the code in nonclinical biobanks using algal culture collections and their cryostorage as a case study. The SPREC (01) is recalibrated as a putative code that might be adopted for biobanks holding different types of biodiversity; it is extended to include optional coding from the point of sample collection to postcryostorage manipulations, with the caveat that the processes are undertaken by biorepository personnel.

  4. Time-response of cultured deep-sea benthic foraminifera to different algal diets (United States)

    Heinz, P.; Hemleben, Ch; Kitazato, H.


    The vertical distribution of benthic foraminifera in the surface sediment is influenced by environmental factors, mainly by food and oxygen supply. An experiment of three different time series was performed to investigate the response of deep-sea benthic foraminifera to simulated phytodetritus pulses under stable oxygen concentrations. Each series was fed constantly with one distinct algal species in equivalent amounts. The temporal reactions of the benthic foraminifera with regard to the vertical distribution in the sediment, the total number, and the species composition were observed and compared within the three series. Additionally, oxygen contents and bacterial cell numbers were measured to ensure that these factors were invariable and did not influence foraminiferal communities. The addition of algae leads to higher population densities 21 days after food was added. Higher numbers of individuals were probably caused by higher organic levels, which in turn induced reproduction. A stronger response is found after feeding with Amphiprora sp. and Pyramimonas sp., compared to Dunaliella tertiolecta. At a constant high oxygen supply, no migration to upper layers was observed after food addition, and more individuals were found in deeper layers. The laboratory results thus agree with the predictions of the TROX-model. An epifaunal microhabitat preference was shown for Adercotryma glomerata. Hippocrepina sp. was spread over the entire sediment depth with a shallow infaunal maximum. Melonis barleeanum preferred a deeper infaunal habitat. Bacterial cell concentrations were stable during the laboratory experiments and showed no significant response to higher organic fluxes.

  5. Cultivable bacteria from ancient algal mats from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. (United States)

    Antibus, Doug E; Leff, Laura G; Hall, Brenda L; Baeseman, Jenny L; Blackwood, Christopher B


    The McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica are a favorable location for preservation of dormant microbes due to their persistent cold and dry climate. In this study, we examined cultivable bacteria in a series of algal mat samples ranging from 8 to 26539 years old. Cultivable bacteria were found in all samples except one (12303 years old), but abundance and diversity of cultivable bacteria decreased with increasing sample age. Only members of the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were found in the ancient samples, whereas bacteria in the 8-year-old sample also included Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Isolates of the Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium Sporosarcina were found in 5 of 8 samples. The growth of these isolates at different temperatures was related to the phylogenetic distance among genotypes measured by BOX-PCR. These findings suggest that adaptation to growth at different temperatures had occurred among Sporosarcina genotypes in the Dry Valleys, causing the existence of physiologically distinct but closely related genotypes. Additionally, fully psychrophilic isolates (that grew at 15°C, but not 25°C) were found in ancient samples, but not in the modern sample. The preservation of viable bacteria in the Dry Valleys could potentially represent a legacy of bacteria that impacts on current microbial communities of this environment.

  6. Presence of microcystin during events of algal blooms in Araruama Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manildo Marcião de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Algal blooms are phenomena produced by anthropogenic activities, despite the possible natural causes. In Araruama Lagoon, blooms occurred in 2005 and in subsequent years, causing profound changes in phytoplankton communities. These episodes triggered events of extensive fish mortality associated with low levels of dissolved oxygen. Another adverse effect associated with blooms is the production of harmful toxins such as phycotoxins produced by eukaryotic microalgae and cyanotoxins produced by cyanobacteria. Samples of fish (mullet and menhaden and seston showed levels of microcystin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, also a seston sample (São Pedro d'Aldeia on 08/22/2007, in a period not related to fish mortality, showed cells which contained genes encoding microcystin synthetase, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of microcystin. The succession of microalgae with the concomitant presence of potentially toxic cyanobacteria draws attention to the risk of chronic exposure by the population that uses fish as their main protein source.

  7. A comprehensive mechanistic model for simulating algal growth dynamics in photobioreactors. (United States)

    Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Thomas, Jeenu; Bose, Purnendu


    A comprehensive mechanistic model for describing algal growth dynamics in a photobioreactor was developed in this work with state of the art understanding and realistic assumptions for major associated processes. The model included 27 state variables related to various algal processes. This model was validated with extensive experimental data obtained from independent growth experiments in batch reactors, and was able to simulate system performance reasonably well. The comprehensive nature of the formulation also highlights the complex inter-relationship between all processes, and provides a tool for gaining more systematic insights into algal behavior in photobioreactors and other such systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban; Edwards, Mark


    Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed.

  9. An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhadra, Bobban [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Mark [Marketing and Sustainability, W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States)


    Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed. (author)

  10. Algal growth inhibition test in filled, closed bottles for volatile and sorptive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nyholm, Niels; Verbruggen, Eric M. J.


    , and the resulting dissolved CO2 concentration supported maximum algal growth rates without pH drift for algal densities up to 4 mg dry weight/L. Two-day toxicity tests with kerosene were performed with this new test design and compared with an open bottle test and with a closed bottle test with headspace. Exposure...... concentrations of the volatile fraction of kerosene decreased by 99% in the open test, by 77% in the closed flask test with headspace, and by 16% in the filled closed bottle test. Algal growth inhibition was observed at much lower additions of kerosene in the new test design because of the improved maintenance...

  11. "Something good can grow here": chicago urban agriculture food projects. (United States)

    Hatchett, Lena; Brown, Loretta; Hopkins, Joan; Larsen, Kelly; Fournier, Eliza


    Food security is a challenge facing many African-American low-income communities nationally. Community and university partners have established urban agriculture programs to improve access to high quality affordable fruits and vegetables by growing, distributing, and selling food in urban neighborhoods. While the challenge of food security is within communities of color, few studies have described these urban agriculture programs and documented their impact on the crew members who work in the programs and live in the low-income communities. More information is needed on the program impact for crew and community health promotion. Using a survey and focus group discussion from the crew and staff we describe the program and activities of four Chicago Urban Agriculture programs. We summarized the impact these programs have on crew members' perception of urban agriculture, health habits, community engagement, and community health promotion in low-income African-American neighborhoods.

  12. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.


    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  13. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minnett Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs. Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges.

  14. Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences (United States)

    Moczydlowska-Vidal, Malgorzata


    Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences Małgorzata Moczydłowska-Vidal Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Villavägen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden ( Morphological and reproductive features and cell wall ultrastructure and biochemistry of Proterozoic acritarchs are used to determine their affinity to modern algae. The first appearance datum of these microbiota is traced to infer a minimum age of the divergence of the algal classes to which they may belong. The chronological appearance of microfossils that represent phycoma-like and zygotic cysts and vegetative cells and/or aplanospores, respectively interpreted as prasinophyceaen and chlorophyceaen microalgae, is related to the Viridiplantae phylogeny. These divergence times differ from molecular clock estimates, and the palaeontological evidence suggests that they are older. The best examples of unicellular, organic-walled microfossils (acritarchs) from the Mesoproterozoic to Early Ordovician are reviewed to demonstrate features, which are indicative of their affinity to photosynthetic microalgae. The first indication that a microfossil may be algal is a decay- and acid-resistant cell wall, which reflects its biochemistry and ultrastructure, and probably indicates the ability to protect a resting/reproductive cyst. The biopolymers synthesized in the cell walls of algae and in land plants ("plant cells"), such as sporopollenin/algaenan, are diagnostic for photosynthetic taxa and were inherited from early unicellular ancestors. These preservable cell walls are resistant to acetolysis, hydrolysis and acids, and show diagnostic ultrastructures such as the trilaminar sheath structure (TLS). "Plant cell" walls differ in terms of chemical compounds, which give high preservation potential, from fungal and animal cell walls. Fungal and animal cells are fossilized only by syngenetic permineralization, whereas "plant cells" are fossilized as body

  15. Cheap heat grows in fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.


    Slovak farmers resemble the peasants from the film T he Magnificent Seven . They keep complaining about their fate but consider any innovation as an interference. And that is why they still have not started growing fast-growing wood although the number of heating plants processing bio-mass from forests and fields is growing. Natural gas is expensive and coal creates pollution. Energy from biomass is becoming a good business and also creates new business opportunities - growing the raw material it needs. Such heating plants usually use waste from wood processing companies and Slovak Forests (Lesy SR) has also started deliveries of chip wood from old forests. There are plantations of fast growing wood suitable for heat production of over 500-thousand hectares throughout the EU. This is about 10% of Slovakian's area where the first plantations are also already being set up. The first promising plantation project was launched this spring. And this is not a project launched and backed by a big company but a starting up businessman, Miroslav Forgac from Kosice. He founded his company, Forgim, last winter. Without big money involved and thank to a new business idea he managed to persuade farmers to set up the first plantations. He supplied the seedlings and the business has started with 75 ha of plantations around Trnava, Sala, Komarno, Lucenec, Poprad and Kosice. He is gradually signing contracts with other landowners and next year the area of plantations is set to grow by 1500 ha. Plantations of fast growing trees such as willow, poplar and acacia regenerate by new trees growing out of the roots of the old and from cut trees so from one seedling and one investment there can be several harvests. Swedish willows from Forgim regenerate 20 to 25 years after the first planting. And only then new seedlings have to be purchased. Using special machines that even cut the wood to wood chips the plantations can be 'harvested' every three years. Unlike crops, the fields do not

  16. Crucible Grows Wide Silicon Ribbon (United States)

    Seidensticker, R.


    Inexpensive manufacture of solar cells may require quality silicon ribbon crystals. One way to produce them is by growing wide dendritic webs, which can be very long and have high structural perfection. Dendrites grow from supercooled melt, so width of ribbon depends on how wide a region of supercooled molten silicon can be maintained in crucible. Elongated geometry of suscepter/crucible/lid assembly allows molten silicon to supercool over a wider region -- a necessary condition for the growth of wide dendritic crystal ribbon.

  17. Microbial, algal, and fungal strategies for manganese oxidation at a Shade Township coal mine, Somerset County, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.I.; Brant, D.L.; Ziemkiewicz, P.F.


    Successful designs to eliminate Mn from mine discharge are necessary for both restoring abandoned mine lands and permitting the mining of high sulfur coal in the eastern United States. A passive in-line system that meets Mn discharge limits was built at the discharge from the former Shade Township coal mine in south central Pennsylvania. Qualitative research on monthly changes in the microbial and algal community that removes Mn is underway. Epilithic attachment of microorganisms was analyzed on artificial (glass microscope slides) and natural substrates (limestone thin sections) that were immersed in surface water for one month periods over 6 months. Organisms attached to both glass and limestone substrates. Limestone became coated with 34--86% more Mn that did glass surfaces. Light microscopy revealed 12 different strategies are being used by bacteria, cyan bacteria, diatoms, green algae, and fungi to oxidize Mn. the dominant method used by the epilithic community to oxidize Mn is coating of holdfasts by the iron bacterium, Liptothrix discophora, and the green alga, Ulothrix sp. Other methods for Mn removal by oxidation include coating of individual cells, filaments/sheaths/hyphae, extracellular polysaccharides, and biofilms. The unplanned community at the site is multifaceted and extremely efficient in its Mn removal ability. Community interactions or complexity may play roles in the stability of the ecosystem and the efficiency of its Mn oxidizing ability

  18. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS, 1. Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization (United States)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.


    Protein isolate obtained from green algae cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine make algal protein isolate a high quality component of closed ecological life support system diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical carbon dioxide resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  19. Free ammonia offers algal crop protection from predators in dairy wastewater and ammonium-rich media. (United States)

    Thomas, Patrick K; Dunn, Gary P; Passero, Maxine; Feris, Kevin P


    Cost-effective methods for protecting crops from grazing organisms like rotifers are needed to reduce the risk of pond crashes in mass algal cultures. We present a novel strategy to optimize the exposure time to free ammonia, via control of media pH, in both defined media and dairy anaerobic digester effluent to suppress rotifers and maintain algal productivity. We tested five different free ammonia exposure times (0, 1, 2, 6, and 12h) and found a significant nonlinear effect of exposure time (p0.9) on rotifer survival. In both media types, 6-12h of elevated free ammonia significantly reduced Brachionus plicatilis rotifer survival with no negative effects on Nannochloropsis oculata, while shorter exposure times were insufficient to inhibit rotifers, leading to severe algal culture crashes. These results suggest that algal crops can be protected from rotifers, without productivity loss, by elevating free ammonia for 6 or more hours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of Total Carbohydrates in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Laurens, Lieve M. L.


    This procedure uses two-step sulfuric acid hydrolysis to hydrolyze the polymeric forms of carbohydrates in algal biomass into monomeric subunits. The monomers are then quantified by either HPLC or a suitable spectrophotometric method.

  1. The efficacy and mechanisms of fungal suppression of freshwater harmful algal bloom species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Yong; Han Guomin; Wang Congyan; Guo Peng; Jiang Wenxin; Li Xiaona [School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Tian Xingjun, E-mail: [School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)


    Microorganisms have attracted worldwide attention as possible agents for inhibiting water blooms. Algae are usually indirectly inhibited and degraded by secretion from microorganisms. In this study, algal cultures Microcystis aeruginosa (Ma) FACH-918, Microcystis flos-aquae (Mf) FACH-1028, Oocystis borgei (Ob) FACH-1108, and M. aeruginosa PCC 7806 were co-cultured with the fungus strain Trichaptum abietinum 1302BG. All algal cells were destroyed within 48 hours (h) of co-incubation. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the fungal strain had preying ability on the algal cells. The mechanism may be that the algal cells were encased with a mucous membrane secreted by the fungal mycelia, and finally degraded by the fungus directly.

  2. Review of Water Consumption and Water Conservation Technologies in the Algal Biofuel Process. (United States)

    Tu, Qingshi; Lu, Mingming; Thiansathit, Worrarat; Keener, Tim C


    Although water is one of the most critical factors affecting the sustainable development of algal biofuels, it is much less studied as compared to the extensive research on algal biofuel production technologies. This paper provides a review of the recent studies on water consumption of the algae biofuel process and presents the water conservation technologies applicable at different stages of the algal biofuel process. Open ponds tend to have much higher water consumption (216 to 2000 gal/gal) than photobioreactors (25 to 72 gal/gal). Algae growth accounts for the highest water consumption (165 to 2000 gal/gal) in the open pond system. Water consumption during harvesting, oil extraction, and biofuel conversion are much less compared with the growth stage. Potential water conservation opportunities include technology innovations and better management practices at different stages of algal biofuel production.

  3. Harmful algal blooms discovered during the Mote Monthly transect cruises, 1998 and 1999 (NODC Accession 0000532) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, have caused massive fish kills in the Gulf of Mexico since the 1500's, with most occurrences on the...

  4. Determination of algal cell culture (Desmodesmus subspicatus) concentration using a microplate reader

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočí, V.; Dragoun, D.; Lukavský, Jaromír


    Roč. 165, č. 122 (2006), s. 123-135 ISSN 0342-1120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : algal bioassay * microplate spectrophotometry * cell concentration Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengbing; Xue Gang


    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state.

  6. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under the impact of different phytoameliorants (United States)

    Dubovik, I. E.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Khasanova, R. F.; Shalygina, R. R.


    General ecological and taxonomic characteristics of cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under different ameliorative plants (phytoameliorants) were studied in the Trans-Ural region of the Republic of Bashkortostan. A comparative analysis of the taxa of studied cenoses in the soils under leguminous herbs and grasses was performed. The phytoameliorative effect of different herbs and their relationships with cyanobacterial-algal cenoses were examined. Overall, 134 cyanoprokaryotic and algal species belonging to 70 genera, 36 families, 15 orders, and 9 classes were identified. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses included the divisions of Chlorophyta, Cyanoprokaryota, Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Euglenophyta. Representatives of Ch-, X-, CF-, and P-forms were the leading ecobiomorphs in the studied cenoses.

  7. Comparison of Algal Biodiesel Production Pathways Using Life Cycle Assessment Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving


    The consideration of algal biomass in biodiesel production increased very rapidly in the last decade. A life cycle assessment (LCA) study is presented to compare six different biodiesel production pathways (three different harvesting techniques, i.e., aluminum as flocculent, lime flocculent......, and centrifugation, and two different oil extraction methods, i.e., supercritical CO2 (sCO2) and press and co-solvent extraction). The cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. considered in a flat-panel photobioreactor (FPPBR). These algal biodiesel production systems were compared with the conventional diesel in a EURO 5...... passenger car used for transport purpose (functional unit 1 person km (pkm). The algal biodiesel production systems provide lesser impact (22–105 %) in comparison with conventional diesel. Impacts of algal biodiesel on climate change were far better than conventional diesel, but impacts on human health...

  8. Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Algal Metabolites Using Bioluminescence Inhibition Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa Jeswani


    Full Text Available Microalgae are reported to degrade hazardous compounds. However, algae, especially cyanobacteria are known to produce secondary metabolites which may be toxic to flora, fauna and human beings. The aim of this study was selection of an appropriate algal culture for biological treatment of biomass gasification wastewater based on acute toxicity considerations. The three algae that were selected were Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium. Acute toxicity of the metabolites produced by these algal cultures was tested at the end of log phase using the standard bioluminescence inhibition assay based on Vibrio fischeri NRRLB 11174. Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium dominated by cyanobacteria such as Phormidium, Chroococcus and Oscillatoria did not release much toxic metabolites at the end of log phase and caused only about 20% inhibition in bioluminescence. In comparison, Spirulina sp. released toxic metabolites and caused 50% bioluminescence inhibition at 3/5 times dilution of the culture supernatant (EC50.

  9. Algal tests with soil suspensions and elutriates: A comparative evaluation for PAH contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Justesen, Kasper Bo; Nyholm, Niels


    An algal growth inhibition test procedure with soil suspensions is proposed and evaluated for PAH-contaminated soil. The growth rate reduction of the standard freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (formerly known as Selenastrum capricornutum) was used as the toxicity endpoint...... toxicity endpoints 2.5-3000 times lower than tests with the corresponding elutriates. Algal growth inhibition tests with soil suspensions are recommended for screening purposes as a supplement to elutriate testing. Experiments with a phenanthrene-spiked soil, showed that the sorbed compound did...... not contribute to the toxicity. However, the soil did act as a reservoir for phenanthrene, allowing desorption to occur continuously during the algal test which maintained higher concentrations of phenanthrene in the dissolved phase. Phenanthrene-spiked soil incubated for 90 days before algal testing, resulted...

  10. Algal Biofuels Factsheet: Long-Term Energy Benefits Drive U.S. Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Algal biofuels are generating considerable interest around the world. In the United States, they represent promising pathways for helping to meet the biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  11. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS. I - Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization (United States)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.


    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of CELSS diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  12. A Molecular Genetic Classification of Zooxanthellae and the Evolution of Animal-Algal Symbioses (United States)

    Rowan, Rob; Powers, Dennis A.


    Zooxanthellae are unicellular algae that occur as endosymbionts in many hundreds of marine invertebrate species. Because zooxanthellae have traditionally been difficult to classify, little is known about the natural history of these symbioses. Zooxanthellae were isolated from 131 individuals in 22 host taxa and characterized by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in nuclear genes that encode small ribosomal subunit RNA (ssRNA). Six algal RFLPs, distributed host species specifically, were detected. Individual hosts contained one algal RFLP. Zooxanthella phylogenetic relationships were estimated from 22 algal ssRNA sequences-one from each host species. Closely related algae were found in dissimilar hosts, suggesting that animal and algal lineages have maintained a flexible evolutionary relation with each other.

  13. Coeloseira compressa Hollenb. (Champiaceae, Rhodophyta) - a new marine algal species from Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Untawale, A.G.

    Occurrence of a red algal species Coeloseira is recorded from Bambolim coast, Goa along the central west coast of India. The genus is characterised by the presence of polysporangia, stoloniferous pattern branching, separate secondary branches and a...

  14. Bio prospecting for High Lipid-producing Indigenous Algal in 8 South African provinces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, R


    Full Text Available The scope of this project covers the screening and characterisation of selected indigenous algal strains and screening them for lipid production potential. The algae were isolated from salt- and freshwater bodies, along the Western Cape coastline...

  15. Spatiotemporal distribution of harmful algal flora in the tropical estuarine complex of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pednekar, S.M.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Kerkar, V.

    . Bray-Curtis cluster analysis based on log-transformed phytoplankton density detected seven well-defined groups revealing spatio-temporal variability. The density of the dominant harmful algal species was significantly positively correlated...

  16. A study of the seasonal dynamics of three phycoperiphytic communities using nuclear track autoradiography. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pip, E.; Robinson, G.G.C.


    Net inorganic carbon uptake was examined for algal periphytic communities on Potamogeton richardsonii, P. praelongus and P. zosteriformis in a shallow lake. Nuclear track autoradiography was used to examine uptake for individual taxa comprising the communities. Net uptake rates per unit cell surface area were strongly correlated during the season for certain algal taxa, particularly diatoms, on the same macrophyte. The correlated taxa formed a different correlation cluster for each macrophyte. Although several of the same algal taxa appeared in the correlation clusters for different macrophytes, the behavior of a given taxon was only rarely correlated on different macrophytes. Each cluster behaved as an independent unit. Such organized behavior may be important in algal succession. Principal component analysis of the species-time uptake matrix isolated 3 main principal components that accounted for > 95% of the seasonal variation on all 3 macrophytes. (orig.)

  17. Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algai (Omega) System for Biofuel Production, Wastewater Treatment, and CO2 Sequestration (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan; Embaye, Tsegereda; Buckwalter, Patrick; Richardson, Tra-My; Kagawa, Hiromi; Reinsch, Sigrid


    We are developing Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA). OMEGAs are closed photo-bioreactors constructed of flexible, inexpensive, and durable plastic with small sections of semi-permeable membranes for gas exchange and forward osmosis (FO). Each OMEGA modules is filled with municipal wastewater and provided with CO2 from coastal CO2 sources. The OMEGA modules float just below the surface, and the surrounding seawater provides structural support, temperature control, and mixing for the freshwater algae cultures inside. The salinity gradient from inside to outside drives forward osmosis through the patches of FO membranes. This concentrates nutrients in the wastewater, which enhances algal growth, and slowly dewaters the algae, which facilitates harvesting. The concentrated algal biomass is harvested for producing biofuels and fertilizer. OMEGA system cleans the wastewater released into the surrounding coastal waters and functions as a carbon sequestration system.

  18. Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA: A System for Biofuel Production, Wastewater Treatment, and CO2 Sequestration (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan; Embaye, Tsegereda; Buckwalter, Patrick; Richardson, Tra-My; Kagawa, Hiromi; Reinsch, Sigrid; Martis, Mary


    We are developing Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA). OMEGAs are closed photo-bioreactors constructed of flexible, inexpensive, and durable plastic with small sections of semi-permeable membranes for gas exchange and forward osmosis (FO). Each OMEGA modules is filled with municipal wastewater and provided with CO2 from coastal CO2 sources. The OMEGA modules float just below the surface, and the surrounding seawater provides structural support, temperature control, and mixing for the freshwater algae cultures inside. The salinit7 gradient from inside to outside drives forward osmosis through the patches of FO membranes. This concentrates nutrients in the wastewater, which enhances algal growth, and slowly dewaters the algae, which facilitates harvesting. Thy concentrated algal biomass is harvested for producing biofuels and fertilizer. OMEGA system cleans the wastewater released into the surrounding coastal waters and functions as a carbon sequestration system.

  19. The cost benefit of algal technology for combined CO2 mitigation and nutrient abatement


    Judd, Simon J.; Al Momani, F. A. O.; Znad, Hussein; Al Ketife, Ahmed M. D.


    The use of microalgae culture technology (MCT) for mitigating CO2 emissions from flue gases and nutrient discharges from wastewater whilst generating a biofuel product is considered with reference to the cost benefit offered. The review examines the most recent MCT literature (post 2010) focused on the algal biomass or biofuel production cost. The analysis reveals that, according to published studies, biofuel cost follows an approximate inverse relationship with algal or lipid productivit...

  20. Algal Biofuels Strategy. Proceedings from the March 26-27, 2014, Workshop, Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s Algal Biofuel Strategy Workshop on March 26-27, 2014, in Charleston, South Carolina. The workshop objective was to convene stakeholders to engage in discussion on strategies over the next 5 to 10 years to achieve affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  1. Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Algal Metabolites Using Bioluminescence Inhibition Assay


    Hansa Jeswani


    Microalgae are reported to degrade hazardous compounds. However, algae, especially cyanobacteria are known to produce secondary metabolites which may be toxic to flora, fauna and human beings. The aim of this study was selection of an appropriate algal culture for biological treatment of biomass gasification wastewater based on acute toxicity considerations. The three algae that were selected were Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus abundans and a fresh water algal consortium. Acute toxicity of the me...

  2. Raman Microspectroscopy of Individual Algal Cells: Sensing Unsaturation of Storage Lipids in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Nedbal


    Full Text Available Algae are becoming a strategic source of fuels, food, feedstocks, and biologically active compounds. This potential has stimulated the development of innovative analytical methods focused on these microorganisms. Algal lipids are among the most promising potential products for fuels as well as for nutrition. The crucial parameter characterizing the algal lipids is the degree of unsaturation of the constituent fatty acids quantified by the iodine value. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy to determine the effective iodine value in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells. The Raman spectra were collected from three selected algal species immobilized in an agarose gel. Prior to immobilization, the algae were cultivated in the stationary phase inducing an overproduction of lipids. We employed the characteristic peaks in the Raman scattering spectra at 1,656 cm−1 (cis C=C stretching mode and 1,445 cm−1 (CH2 scissoring mode as the markers defining the ratio of unsaturated-to-saturated carbon-carbon bonds of the fatty acids in the algal lipids. These spectral features were first quantified for pure fatty acids of known iodine value. The resultant calibration curve was then used to calculate the effective iodine value of storage lipids in the living algal cells from their Raman spectra. We demonstrated that the iodine value differs significantly for the three studied algal species. Our spectroscopic estimations of the iodine value were validated using GC-MS measurements and an excellent agreement was found for the Trachydiscus minutus species. A good agreement was also found with the earlier published data on Botryococcus braunii. Thus, we propose that Raman microspectroscopy can become technique of choice in the rapidly expanding field of algal biotechnology.

  3. Inferences from growing trees backwards (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald


    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  4. Growing an Emerging Research University (United States)

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth


    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  5. Thallium toxicity: A growing concern


    Saha A


    This review article deals with the growing concern of the toxicity of thallium. This article describes the characteristics of thallium, its potential sources of exposure, kinetics, and toxicity on human being and diagnosis of thallium poisoning. This article also describes some episodes of thallium poisoning arising from both occupational and nonoccupational exposure.

  6. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.


    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  7. Heat stress in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,


    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes

  8. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling. (United States)

    Christman, Robert A.


    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  9. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas. (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  10. Review of the algal biology program within the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Clifford J.; Sayre, Richard T.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Baxter, Ivan; Blaby, Ian K.; Brown, Judith K.; Carleton, Michael; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Dale, Taraka; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Downes, C. Meghan; Dutcher, Susan K.; Fox, David T.; Goodenough, Ursula; Jaworski, Jan; Holladay, Jonathan E.; Kramer, David M.; Koppisch, Andrew T.; Lipton, Mary S.; Marrone, Babetta L.; McCormick, Margaret; Molnár, István; Mott, John B.; Ogden, Kimberly L.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Polle, Juergen; Richardson, James W.; Sabarsky, Martin; Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Stormo, Gary D.; Teshima, Munehiro; Twary, Scott N.; Unkefer, Pat J.; Yuan, Joshua S.; Olivares, José A.


    In 2010,when the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) consortiumbegan, littlewas known about themolecular basis of algal biomass or oil production. Very fewalgal genome sequenceswere available and efforts to identify the best-producing wild species through bioprospecting approaches had largely stalled after the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program. This lack of knowledge included how reduced carbon was partitioned into storage products like triglycerides or starch and the role played bymetabolite remodeling in the accumulation of energy-dense storage products. Furthermore, genetic transformation and metabolic engineering approaches to improve algal biomass and oil yields were in their infancy. Genome sequencing and transcriptional profiling were becoming less expensive, however; and the tools to annotate gene expression profiles under various growth and engineered conditions were just starting to be developed for algae. It was in this context that an integrated algal biology program was introduced in the NAABB to address the greatest constraints limiting algal biomass yield. This review describes the NAABB algal biology program, including hypotheses, research objectives, and strategies to move algal biology research into the twenty-first century and to realize the greatest potential of algae biomass systems to produce biofuels.

  11. Identification of Genes under Positive Selection Reveals Differences in Evolutionary Adaptation between Brown-Algal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhong Teng


    Full Text Available Brown algae are an important taxonomic group in coastal ecosystems. The model brown algal species Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica are closely related lineages. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, they vary greatly in morphology and physiology. To obtain further insights into the evolutionary forces driving divergence in brown algae, we analyzed 3,909 orthologs from both species to identify Genes Under Positive Selection (GUPS. About 12% of the orthologs in each species were considered to be under positive selection. Many GUPS are involved in membrane transport, regulation of homeostasis, and sexual reproduction in the small sporophyte of E. siliculosus, which is known to have a complex life cycle and to occupy a wide range of habitats. Genes involved in photosynthesis and cell division dominated the group of GUPS in the large kelp of S. japonica, which might explain why this alga has evolved the ability to grow very rapidly and to form some of the largest sporophytes. A significant number of molecular chaperones (e.g., heat-shock proteins involved in stress responses were identified to be under positive selection in both species, potentially indicating their important roles for macroalgae to cope with the relatively variable environment of coastal ecosystems. Moreover, analysis of previously published microarray data of E. siliculosus showed that many GUPS in E. siliculosus were responsive to stress conditions, such as oxidative and hyposaline stress, whereas our RNA-seq data of S. japonica showed that GUPS in this species were most highly expressed in large sporophytes, which supports the suggestion that selection largely acts on different sets of genes in both marcoalgal species, potentially reflecting their adaptation to different ecological niches.

  12. Hydrogen production from algal biomass via steam gasification. (United States)

    Duman, Gozde; Uddin, Md Azhar; Yanik, Jale


    Algal biomasses were tested as feedstock for steam gasification in a dual-bed microreactor in a two-stage process. Gasification experiments were carried out in absence and presence of catalyst. The catalysts used were 10% Fe₂O₃-90% CeO₂ and red mud (activated and natural forms). Effects of catalysts on tar formation and gasification efficiencies were comparatively investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of algae gasification was dependent on its components and the catalysts used. The main role of the catalyst was reforming of the tar derived from algae pyrolysis, besides enhancing water gas shift reaction. The tar reduction levels were in the range of 80-100% for seaweeds and of 53-70% for microalgae. Fe₂O₃-CeO₂ was found to be the most effective catalyst. The maximum hydrogen yields obtained were 1036 cc/g algae for Fucus serratus, 937 cc/g algae for Laminaria digitata and 413 cc/g algae for Nannochloropsis oculata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aerosol Emissions from Great Lakes Harmful Algal Blooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Nathaniel W. [Department; Olson, Nicole E. [Department; Panas, Mark [Department; Axson, Jessica L. [Department; Tirella, Peter S. [Department; Kirpes, Rachel M. [Department; Craig, Rebecca L. [Department; Gunsch, Matthew J. [Department; China, Swarup [William; Laskin, Alexander [William; Ault, Andrew P. [Department; Department; Pratt, Kerri A. [Department; Department


    In freshwater lakes, harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that impact human health. However, little is known about the chemical species present in lake spray aerosol (LSA) produced from wave-breaking in freshwater HABs. In this study, a laboratory LSA generator produced aerosols from freshwater samples collected from Lake Michigan and Lake Erie during HAB and non-bloom conditions. Particles were analyzed for size and chemical composition by single particle mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy, with three distinct types of LSA identified with varying levels of organic carbon and biological material associated with calcium salts. LSA autofluorescence increases with blue-green algae concentration, showing that organic molecules of biological origin are incorporated in LSA from HABs. The number fraction of LSA with biological mass spectral markers also increases with particle diameter (greater than 0.5 μm), showing that HABs have size-dependent impacts on aerosol composition. The highest number fraction of LSA enriched in organic carbon were observed in particles less than 0.5 μm in diameter. Understanding the transfer of organic and biogenic material from freshwater to the atmosphere via LSA particles is crucial for determining health and climate effects due to HABs.

  14. In vivo reconstitution of algal triacylglycerol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsien eHung


    Full Text Available The current fascination with algal biofuel production stems from a high lipid biosynthetic capacity and little conflict with land plant cultivation. However, the mechanisms which enable algae to accumulate massive oil remain elusive. An enzyme for triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrDGTT2, can produce a large amount of TAG when expressed in yeast or higher plants, suggesting a unique ability of CrDGTT2 to enhance oil production in a heterologous system. Here, we performed metabolic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by taking advantage of CrDGTT2. We suppressed membrane phospholipid biosynthesis at the log phase by mutating OPI3, enhanced TAG biosynthetic pathway at the stationary phase by overexpressing PAH1 and CrDGTT2, and suppressed TAG hydrolysis on growth resumption from the stationary phase by knocking out DGK1. The resulting engineered yeast cells accumulated about 70-fold of TAG compared with wild type cells. Moreover, TAG production was sustainable. Our results demonstrated the enhanced and sustainable TAG production in the yeast synthetic platform.

  15. Algal ancestor of land plants was preadapted for symbiosis. (United States)

    Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Radhakrishnan, Guru V; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Cheema, Jitender; Malbreil, Mathilde; Volkening, Jeremy D; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Melkonian, Michael; Pokorny, Lisa; Rothfels, Carl J; Sederoff, Heike Winter; Stevenson, Dennis W; Surek, Barbara; Zhang, Yong; Sussman, Michael R; Dunand, Christophe; Morris, Richard J; Roux, Christophe; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Ané, Jean-Michel


    Colonization of land by plants was a major transition on Earth, but the developmental and genetic innovations required for this transition remain unknown. Physiological studies and the fossil record strongly suggest that the ability of the first land plants to form symbiotic associations with beneficial fungi was one of these critical innovations. In angiosperms, genes required for the perception and transduction of diffusible fungal signals for root colonization and for nutrient exchange have been characterized. However, the origin of these genes and their potential correlation with land colonization remain elusive. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 259 transcriptomes and 10 green algal and basal land plant genomes, coupled with the characterization of the evolutionary path leading to the appearance of a key regulator, a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, showed that the symbiotic signaling pathway predated the first land plants. In contrast, downstream genes required for root colonization and their specific expression pattern probably appeared subsequent to the colonization of land. We conclude that the most recent common ancestor of extant land plants and green algae was preadapted for symbiotic associations. Subsequent improvement of this precursor stage in early land plants through rounds of gene duplication led to the acquisition of additional pathways and the ability to form a fully functional arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  16. Inhibition of marine algal photosynthesis by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overnell, J.


    A total of ninety phytoplankton species was recorded from June 1972 to May 1973 in samples taken weekly at Seal Beach, California. The study area was located in the vicinity of the mouth of the San Gabriel River, which is used as a site of discharge for heated effluents by two electric power plants and as a flood control channel by Los Angeles County. On a yearly basis, the two dominant algal groups were diatoms (forty-six species) and dinoflagellates (thirty-six species), accounting respectively for 64 percent and 30 percent of the total cell number, and for 20 percent and 79 percent of the total cell volume. The average phytoplankton concentration throughout the year was 180,000 cells l/sup -1/. A dinoflagellate bloom was observed in August between the two major peaks of diatoms which occurred during June--July and in late September. The five most common species (in order), Rhizosolenia delicatula, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Prorocentrum micans, Ceratium furca and Gymnodinium simplex, were present in more than 50 percent of the samples. The species diversity index (H') remained relatively stable during the year, showing no distinct seasonal pattern. Three interconnected associations of species were distinguished by x/sup 2/ analysis. The major group, composed mainly of dinoflagellates, was correlated with warm water conditions at Seal Beach. The other groups occurred at various times during the year, irrespective of seasonal variations, suggesting a possible mutualistic relationship between the species involved.

  17. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism (United States)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)


    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.

  18. Impact of iron porphyrin complexes when hydroprocessing algal HTL biocrude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Jacqueline M.; Sudasinghe, Nilusha M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Anderson, Daniel B.; Billing, Justin M.; Schaub, Tanner M.


    We apply Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) for direct characterization of iron-porphyrins in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) biocrude oils derived from two algae: Tetraselmis sp. and cyanobacteria. The ironporphyrin compounds are shown to cause catalyst bed plugging during hydroprocessing due to iron deposition. Inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) was utilized for iron quantitation in the plugged catalyst beds formed through hydroprocessing of the two HTL biocrudes and identifies an enrichment of iron in the upper five centimeters of the catalyst bed for Tetraselmis sp. (Fe=100,728 ppm) and cyanobacteria (Fe=115,450 ppm). Direct infusion FT-ICR MS analysis of the two HTL biocrudes with optimized instrument conditions facilitates rapid screening and identification of iron-porphyrins without prior chromatographic separation. With FT-ICR MS we identify 138 unique iron-porphyrin compounds in the two HTL biocrudes that are structurally similar to metal-porphyrins (e.g. Ni and V) observed in petroleum. No ironporphyrins are observed in the cyanobacteria HTL biocrude after hydroprocessing, which indicates that iron-porphyrin structures in the HTL biocrude are degraded during hydroprocessing. Hydrodemetallization reactions that occur through hydroprocessing of HTL biocrudes could be responsible for the decomposition of iron-porphyrin structures leading to metal deposition in the catalyst bed that result in catalyst deactivation and bed plugging, and must be addressed for effective upgrading of algal HTL biocrudes.

  19. Algal resistance to herbivory on a Caribbean barrier reef (United States)

    Littler, Mark M.; Taylor, Phillip R.; Littler, Diane S.


    Field and laboratory research at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize showed that macroalgae, grouped in functional-form units resisted fish and urchin herbivory in the following order (from high to low resistance): Crustose-Group, Jointed Calcareous-Group, Thick Leathery-Group, Coarsely Branched-Group, Filamentous-Group and Sheet-Group; thereby supporting the hypothesis that crustose, calcareous and thick algae have evolved antipredator defenses and should show the greatest resistance to herbivory with a gradation of increasing palatability towards filaments and sheets. Of the 21 species examined, several (e.g., Dictyota cervicornis on grids, Laurencia obtusa and Stypopodium zonale) had exceptionally low losses to fish grazing, probably due to chemical defences. The sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, was more inclined to feed on algae with known toxic secondary metabolites than were herbivorous fishes; hypothetically related to the differences in mobility and concomitant modes of feeding. Tough leathery forms such as Sargassum polyceratium and Turbinaria turbinata resisted grazing by bottom feeding parrotfishes (Scaridae) and surgeonfishes (Acanthuridae) but were susceptible when suspended midway in the water column, possibly due to the presence of rudderfishes (Kyphosidae) which readily consume drift Sargassaceae. The overall tendencies support our predicted relationship between grazer-resistance and algal morphology. In conjunction with our previously reported findings concerning primary productivity, toughness and calorimetry for many of the same species, these results lend credence to generalizations relating form with function in marine macroalgae.

  20. Clostridium botulinum type E occurs and grows in the alga Cladophora glomerata (United States)

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.


    In recent years, massive avian die-offs from Clostridium botulinum type E infection have occurred in the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) area of Lake Michigan. These outbreaks have been coincidental with massive blooms of the green algae Cladophora, mostly Cladophora glomerata. We tested the hypothesis that Clostridium botulinum type E can grow under suitable conditions in these algal mats. In a lab mesocosm study, Cladophora from four outbreak-impacted beaches from SLBE were compared with four unimpacted beaches in the Milwaukee–Racine area for bontE gene of Clostridium botulinum. Frequency of the bontE gene was higher after incubation (25 °C for up to 6 weeks) of Cladophora from impacted vs. the unimpacted area. Since no type E gene was detected initially in Cladophora from any of the eight locations, we infer that the increased occurrence of type E gene arose from spore germination or vegetative Clostridium growth within the existing algal mats of SLBE. Moreover, we found that the congener Clostridium perfringens readily grows in mesocosms containing Cladophora.

  1. Ecogeomorphic Feedbacks that Grow Deltas (United States)

    Ma, H.; Larsen, L.; Wagner, W.


    Coastal river deltas are complex and dynamic ecosystems where vegetation plays an essential role in influencing (as well as being influenced by) physical processes, creating a strong potential for ecogeomorphic feedbacks. However, understanding of the relative strenghts of feedback between vegetation species and topography along different portions of the marsh elevation/zonation gradient is poorly developed, particularly for freshwater, deltaic marshes. In part, this knowledge gap is due to difficulties associated with adequate sampling within heterogeneous vegetation communities to delineate bi-directional feedback applicable at the delta scale.. Emerging technology (high resolution remote sensing and high resolution LiDAR) and data analysis techniques like transfer entropy have made it possible to overcome these difficulties. Here, results of the transfer entropy analysis were consistent with widespread understanding of marsh zonation, yet produced additional insight into which vegetation communities specifically had a dominant impact on topographic change. Ecogeomorphic feedback that has a substantial short-term impact on evolving topography was resolvable only within native vegetation communities (Nelumbo lutea and Polygonum spp.) that occur over low to moderate elevations within the Wax Lake Delta tidal prism. In contrast, nonnative vegetation communities (Colocasia esculenta and Eichhonia crasspies) are not as functional at accreting sediment as native communities. The transfer entropy analysis suggests that different vegetation communities play functionally different roles in landscape evolution that should be differentiated in a model. Within such a model, it would be most critical to resolve detailed flow characteristics at low to low-middle island elevations, where submerged aquatic vegetation and Nelumbo are abundant, as these communities exert the strongest influence on topographic change. Furthermore, within elevation zones, it is likely important to

  2. Morphological and community changes of turf algae in competition with corals (United States)

    Cetz-Navarro, Neidy P.; Quan-Young, Lizette I.; Espinoza-Avalos, Julio


    The morphological plasticity and community responses of algae competing with corals have not been assessed. We evaluated eight morphological characters of four species of stoloniferous clonal filamentous turf algae (FTA), including Lophosiphonia cristata (Lc) and Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (Psv), and the composition and number of turf algae (TA) in competition for space with the coral Orbicella spp. under experimental and non-manipulated conditions. All FTA exhibited morphological responses, such as increasing the formation of new ramets (except for Psv when competing with O. faveolata). Opposite responses in the space between erect axes were found when Psv competed with O. faveolata and when Lc competed with O. annularis. The characters modified by each FTA species, and the number and composition of TA species growing next to coral tissue differed from that of the TA growing at ≥3 cm. The specific and community responses indicate that some species of TA can actively colonise coral tissue and that fundamental competitive interactions between the two types of organisms occur within the first millimetres of the coral-algal boundary. These findings suggest that the morphological plasticity, high number, and functional redundancy of stoloniferous TA species favour their colonisation of coral tissue and resistance against coral invasion.

  3. Heat stress in growing pigs


    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy


    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes it difficult for these pigs to regulate their heat balance. Heat stressed pigs have low performance, poor welfare, and, by pen fouling, they give higher emissions of odour and ammonia.Above certain...

  4. Carbonaceous Matter in Growing Nanoparticles (United States)

    Johnston, M. V.; Stangl, C. M.; Horan, A. J.


    Atmospheric nanoparticles constitute the greatest portion of ambient aerosol loading by number. A major source of atmospheric nanoparticles is new particle formation (NPF), a gas to particle conversion process whereby clusters nucleate from gas phase precursors to form clusters on the order of one or a few nanometers and then grow rapidly to climatically relevant sizes. A substantial fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are thought to arise from NPF. In order to better predict the frequency, growth rates, and climatic impacts of NPF, knowledge of the chemical mechanisms by which nucleated nanoparticles grow is needed. The two main contributors to particle growth are (neutralized) sulfate and carbonaceous matter. Particle growth by sulfuric acid condensation is generally well understood, though uncertainty remains about the extent of base neutralization and the relative roles of ammonia and amines. Much less is known about carbonaceous matter, and field measurements suggest that nitrogen-containing species are important. In this presentation, recent work by our group will be described that uses a combination of ambient measurements, laboratory experiments and computational work to study carbonaceous matter in growing nanoparticles. These studies span a range of particle sizes from the initial adsorption of molecules onto a nanometer-size ammonium bisulfate seed cluster to reactions in particles that are large enough to support condensed-phase chemistry.

  5. Isolation of AHL-degrading bacteria from micro-algal cultures and their impact on algal growth and on virulence of Vibrio campbellii to prawn larvae. (United States)

    Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Natrah, Fatin Mohd Ikhsan; Flandez, Ace Vincent Bravo; Kumar, Uday; Niu, Yufeng; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom


    Inactivation of quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules, such as acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) of pathogenic bacteria, has been proposed as a novel method to combat bacterial diseases in aquaculture. Despite the importance of micro-algae for aquaculture, AHL degradation by bacteria associated with micro-algal cultures has thus far not been investigated. In this study, we isolated Pseudomonas sp. NFMI-T and Bacillus sp. NFMI-C from open cultures of the micro-algae Tetraselmis suecica and Chaetoceros muelleri, respectively. An AHL degradation assay showed that either monocultures or co-cultures of the isolates were able to degrade the AHL N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. In contrast, only Bacillus sp. NFMI-C was able to inactivate N-hydroxybutanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, the AHL produced by Vibrio campbellii. The isolated bacteria were able to persist for up to 3 weeks in conventionalized micro-algal cultures, indicating that they were able to establish and maintain themselves within open algal cultures. Using gnotobiotic algal cultures, we found that the isolates did not affect growth of the micro-algae from which they were isolated, whereas a mixture of both isolates increased the growth of Tetraselmis and decreased the growth of Chaetoceros. Finally, addition of Bacillus sp. NFMI-C to the rearing water of giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae significantly improved survival of the larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, whereas it had no effect on larval growth.

  6. Recent Inventions and Trends in Algal Biofuels Research. (United States)

    Karemore, Ankush; Nayak, Manoranjan; Sen, Ramkrishna


    In recent times, when energy crisis compounded by global warming and climate change is receiving worldwide attention, the emergence of algae, as a better feedstock for third-generation biofuels than energy crops or plants, holds great promise. As compared to conventional biofuels feedstocks, algae offer several advantages and can alone produce a significant amount of biofuels sustainably in a shorter period to fulfill the rising demand for energy. Towards commercialisation, there have been numerous efforts put for- ward for the development of algae-derived biofuel. This article reviews and summarizes the recent inventions and the current trends that are reported and captured in relevant patents pertaining to the novel methods of algae biomass cultivation and processing for biofuels and value-added products. In addition, the recent advancement in techniques and technologies for microalgal biofuel production has been highlighted. Various steps involved in the production of algal biofuels have been considered in this article. Moreover, the work that advances to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the processes for the manufacture of biofuels has been presented. Our survey was conducted in the patent databases: WIPO, Spacenet and USPTO. There are still some technological bottlenecks that could be overcome by designing advanced photobioreactor and raceway ponds, developing new and low cost technologies for biomass cultivation, harvesting, drying and extraction. Recent advancement in algae biofuels methods is directed toward developing efficient and integrated systems to produce biofuels by overcoming the current challenges. However, further research effort is required to scale-up and improve the efficiency of these methods in the upstream and downstream technologies to make the cost of biofuels competitive with petroleum fuels.

  7. Strategies for optimizing algal biology for enhanced biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda N. Barry


    Full Text Available One of the more environmentally sustainable ways to produce high energy density (oils feed stocks for the production of liquid transportation fuels is from biomass. Photosynthetic carbon capture combined with biomass combustion (point source and subsequent carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS has also been proposed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report as one of the most effective and economical strategies to remediate atmospheric greenhouse gases. To maximize photosynthetic carbon capture efficiency and energy-return-on-investment, we must develop biomass production systems that achieve the greatest yields with the lowest inputs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that microalgae have among the greatest potentials for biomass production. This is in part due to the fact that all alga cells are photoautotrophic, they have active carbon concentrating mechanisms to increase photosynthetic productivity, and all the biomass is harvestable unlike plants. All photosynthetic organisms, however, convert only a fraction of the solar energy they capture into chemical energy (reduced carbon or biomass. To increase aerial carbon capture rates and biomass productivity it will be necessary to identify the most robust algal strains and increase their biomass production efficiency often by genetic manipulation. We review recent large-scale efforts to identify the best biomass producing strains and metabolic engineering strategies to improve aerial productivity. These strategies include optimization of photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna size to increase energy capture and conversion efficiency and the potential development of advanced molecular breeding techniques. To date, these strategies have resulted in up to two-fold increases in biomass productivity.

  8. A comparison of the influences of urbanization in contrasting environmental settings on stream benthic algal assemblages (United States)

    Potapova, M.; Coles, J.F.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.


    Patterns of stream benthic algal assemblages along urbanization gradients were investigated in three metropolitan areas-Boston (BOS), Massachusetts; Birmingham (BIR), Alabama; and Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah. An index of urban intensity derived from socioeconomic, infrastructure, and land-use characteristics was used as a measure of urbanization. Of the various attributes of the algal assemblages, species composition changed along gradients of urban intensity in a more consistent manner than biomass or diversity. In urban streams, the relative abundance of pollution-tolerant species was often higher than in less affected streams. Shifts in assemblage composition were associated primarily with increased levels of conductivity, nutrients, and alterations in physical habitat. Water mineralization and nutrients were the most important determinants of assemblage composition in the BOS and SLC study areas; flow regime and grazers were key factors in the BIR study area. Species composition of algal assemblages differed significantly among geographic regions, and no particular algal taxa were found to be universal indicators of urbanization. Patterns in algal biomass and diversity along urban gradients varied among study areas, depending on local environmental conditions and habitat alteration. Biomass and diversity increased with urbanization in the BOS area, apparently because of increased nutrients, light, and flow stability in urban streams, which often are regulated by dams. Biomass and diversity decreased with urbanization in the BIR study area because of intensive fish grazing and less stable flow regime. In the SLC study area, correlations between algal biomass, diversity, and urban intensity were positive but weak. Thus, algal responses to urbanization differed considerably among the three study areas. We concluded that the wide range of responses of benthic algae to urbanization implied that tools for stream bioassessment must be region specific. ?? 2005 by the

  9. Distribution and abundance of sea urchins in Singapore reefs and their potential ecological impacts on macroalgae and coral communities (United States)

    Goh, Beverly P. L.; Lim, Dawn Y. F.


    The sea urchin Diadema setosum is often encountered in the coral reefs in the Southern Islands of Singapore. While sea urchins have been known to play a role in regulating algal communities and influencing coral recruitment in other parts of the world, their role in Singapore reefs has not been determined. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of sea urchins in Singapore reefs, to examine algal cover, algal biomass, algal species and live coral cover, and to determine any interactions between urchin density and algal communities that may impact coral cover. Several reefs in Singapore were surveyed using belt transects measuring 20 m by 2 m, laid down on the reef crest. Abundance of urchins, algal species, biomass, and live coral cover were determined by the use of quadrats within each belt transect. This study revealed an increasing abundance of the sea urchin Diadema setosum in reefs progressing southwards away from mainland Singapore with low density of urchins occurring in Sisters' Island, St John's Island, Pulau Tekukor, and Kusu Island, and the highest density observed at Raffles Lighthouse. A significant negative linear relationship between algal cover and live coral cover (P sea urchins may not be an important component of the herbivore guild in Singapore.

  10. A novel antibody-based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity (United States)

    Lefebvre, Kathi A.; Frame, Elizabeth R.; Gulland, Frances; Hansen, John D.; Kendrick, Preston S.; Beyer, Richard P.; Bammler, Theo K.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hiolski, Emma M.; Smith, Donald R.; Marcinek, David J.


    The neurotoxic amino acid, domoic acid (DA), is naturally produced by marine phytoplankton and presents a significant threat to the health of marine mammals, seabirds and humans via transfer of the toxin through the foodweb. In humans, acute exposure causes a neurotoxic illness known as amnesic shellfish poisoning characterized by seizures, memory loss, coma and death. Regular monitoring for high DA levels in edible shellfish tissues has been effective in protecting human consumers from acute DA exposure. However, chronic low-level DA exposure remains a concern, particularly in coastal and tribal communities that subsistence harvest shellfish known to contain low levels of the toxin. Domoic acid exposure via consumption of planktivorous fish also has a profound health impact on California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) affecting hundreds of animals yearly. Due to increasing algal toxin exposure threats globally, there is a critical need for reliable diagnostic tests for assessing chronic DA exposure in humans and wildlife. Here we report the discovery of a novel DA-specific antibody response that is a signature of chronic low-level exposure identified initially in a zebrafish exposure model and confirmed in naturally exposed wild sea lions. Additionally, we found that chronic exposure in zebrafish caused increased neurologic sensitivity to DA, revealing that repetitive exposure to DA well below the threshold for acute behavioral toxicity has underlying neurotoxic consequences. The discovery that chronic exposure to low levels of a small, water-soluble single amino acid triggers a detectable antibody response is surprising and has profound implications for the development of diagnostic tests for exposure to other pervasive environmental toxins.

  11. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks between private and public goods: evidence from toxic algal blooms. (United States)

    Driscoll, William W; Hackett, Jeremiah D; Ferrière, Régis


    The importance of 'eco-evolutionary feedbacks' in natural systems is currently unclear. Here, we advance a general hypothesis for a particular class of eco-evolutionary feedbacks with potentially large, long-lasting impacts in complex ecosystems. These eco-evolutionary feedbacks involve traits that mediate important interactions with abiotic and biotic features of the environment and a self-driven reversal of selection as the ecological impact of the trait varies between private (small scale) and public (large scale). Toxic algal blooms may involve such eco-evolutionary feedbacks due to the emergence of public goods. We review evidence that toxin production by microalgae may yield 'privatised' benefits for individual cells or colonies under pre- and early-bloom conditions; however, the large-scale, ecosystem-level effects of toxicity associated with bloom states yield benefits that are necessarily 'public'. Theory predicts that the replacement of private with public goods may reverse selection for toxicity in the absence of higher level selection. Indeed, blooms often harbor significant genetic and functional diversity: bloom populations may undergo genetic differentiation over a scale of days, and even genetically similar lineages may vary widely in toxic potential. Intriguingly, these observations find parallels in terrestrial communities, suggesting that toxic blooms may serve as useful models for eco-evolutionary dynamics in nature. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks involving the emergence of a public good may shed new light on the potential for interactions between ecology and evolution to influence the structure and function of entire ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  12. General Aviation Citizen Science Study to Help Tackle Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Schubert, Terry


    We present a new, low-cost approach, based on volunteer pilots conducting high-resolution aerial imaging, to help document the onset, growth, and outbreak of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and related water quality issues in central and western Lake Erie. In this model study, volunteer private pilots acting as citizen scientists frequently flew over 200 mi of Lake Erie coastline, its islands, and freshwater estuaries, taking high-quality aerial photographs and videos. The photographs were taken in the nadir (vertical) position in red, green, and blue (RGB) and near-infrared (NIR) every 5 s with rugged, commercially available built-in Global Positioning System (GPS) cameras. The high-definition (HD) videos in 1080p format were taken continuously in an oblique forward direction. The unobstructed, georeferenced, high-resolution images, and HD videos can provide an early warning of ensuing HAB events to coastal communities and freshwater resource managers. The scientists and academic researchers can use the data to compliment a collection of in situ water measurements, matching satellite imagery, and help develop advanced airborne instrumentation, and validation of their algorithms. This data may help develop empirical models, which may lead to the next steps in predicting a HAB event as some watershed observed events changed the water quality such as particle size, sedimentation, color, mineralogy, and turbidity delivered to the Lake site. This paper shows the efficacy and scalability of citizen science (CS) aerial imaging as a complimentary tool for rapid emergency response in HABs monitoring, land and vegetation management, and scientific studies. This study can serve as a model for monitoring/management of freshwater and marine aquatic systems.

  13. Biodiversity of zoobenthic hard-substrate sublittoral communities in the Eastern Mediterranean (North Aegean Sea) (United States)

    Antoniadou, Chryssanthi; Chintiroglou, Chariton


    The spatial dispersion of zoobenthos from sublittoral hard substrate communities in the northern part of the Aegean Sea has been studied during summer 1997 and 1998. Material was collected by SCUBA diving, by totally scraping off five replicate quadrates (400 cm 2 each) at three depth levels (15, 30, 40 m) from six sites located in Chalkidiki peninsula, plus one in Kavala Gulf. The examination of the 19,343 living specimens collected revealed the presence of 314 species. Though the multivariate analyses showed high similarity between stations, the structure of this sciaphilic algal community seems to have an increased spatial heterogeneity. Four distinct facies were recorded in accordance with the occurrence of different algal forms, the degree of hard substrate inclination and the water clarity. A short review on the biodiversity of sublittoral communities in the Mediterranean revealed the affinity between the western and the eastern basin and also among the photophilic and the sciaphilic algal communities.

  14. TIGER capacity building facility : Growing from projects to professional community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vekerdy, Z.; Su, B.; Menenti, M.; Swinnen, E.; Painho, M.; Fernandez, D.


    Water security has become one of the most important challenges in the sustainable development of Africa, but only limited reliable information is available on the use and availability of water to support adequate planning and management of water resources. Data acquired from space can contribute to

  15. Growing Hemorrhagic Choroidal Fissure Cyst. (United States)

    Karatas, Ayse; Gelal, Fazıl; Gurkan, Gokhan; Feran, Hamit


    Choroidal fissure cysts are often incidentally discovered. They are usually asymptomatic. The authors report a case of growing and hemorrhagic choroidal fissure cyst which was treated surgically. A 22-year-old female presented with headache. Cranial MRI showed a left-sided choroidal fissure cyst. Follow-up MRI showed that the size of the cyst had increased gradually. Twenty months later, the patient was admitted to our emergency department with severe headache. MRI and CT showed an intracystic hematoma. Although such cysts usually have a benign course without symptoms and progression, they may rarely present with intracystic hemorrhage, enlargement of the cyst and increasing symptomatology.

  16. Growing energy demand - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, G.A.


    Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can help the public and its representatives to understand the likely causes of events (such as natural and technological disasters) and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies. Often they can testify to what is not possible. Even so, scientists can seldom bring definitive answers to matters of public debate. Some issues are too complex to fit within the current scope of science, or there may be little reliable information available, or the values involved may lie outside of science. Scientists and technologists strive to find an answer to the growing energy demand

  17. Lysine requirements of growing emus. (United States)

    Mannion, P F; Kent, P B; Barram, K M; Trappett, P C; Blight, G W; Sales, J


    1. The lysine requirement of growing emus between 23 and 65 d of age was determined according to growth response variables. 2. The optimal lysine requirement of emus was found to be 0.83 and 0.90 g/MJ ME for growth rate and gain:food ratio respectively. These findings are in accordance with the recommended value of 0.80 g/MJ ME, but is lower than the recommended value for ostriches (1.02 g/MJ ME) and higher than determined values for broilers (0.75 g/MJ ME) of the same age range.

  18. Highly-efficient enzymatic conversion of crude algal oils into biodiesel. (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Jin; Gerken, Henri; Zhang, Chengwu; Hu, Qiang; Li, Yantao


    Energy-intensive chemical conversion of crude algal oils into biodiesel is a major barrier for cost-effective algal biofuel production. To overcome this problem, we developed an enzyme-based platform for conversion of crude algal oils into fatty acid methyl esters. Crude algal oils were extracted from the oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1 and converted by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica. The effects of different acyl acceptors, t-butanol as a co-solvent, oil to t-butanol ratio, oil to methanol ratio, temperature and reaction time on biodiesel conversion efficiency were studied. The conversion efficiency reached 99.1% when the conversion conditions were optimized, i.e., an oil to t-butanol weight ratio of 1:1, an oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:12, and a reaction time of 4h at 25°C. The enzymatic conversion process developed in this study may hold a promise for low energy consumption, low wastewater-discharge biochemical conversion of algal feedstocks into biofuels. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Geographic analysis of the feasibility of collocating algal biomass production with wastewater treatment plants. (United States)

    Fortier, Marie-Odile P; Sturm, Belinda S M


    Resource demand analyses indicate that algal biodiesel production would require unsustainable amounts of freshwater and fertilizer supplies. Alternatively, municipal wastewater effluent can be used, but this restricts production of algae to areas near wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and to date, there has been no geospatial analysis of the feasibility of collocating large algal ponds with WWTPs. The goals of this analysis were to determine the available areas by land cover type within radial extents (REs) up to 1.5 miles from WWTPs; to determine the limiting factor for algal production using wastewater; and to investigate the potential algal biomass production at urban, near-urban, and rural WWTPs in Kansas. Over 50% and 87% of the land around urban and rural WWTPs, respectively, was found to be potentially available for algal production. The analysis highlights a trade-off between urban WWTPs, which are generally land-limited but have excess wastewater effluent, and rural WWTPs, which are generally water-limited but have 96% of the total available land. Overall, commercial-scale algae production collocated with WWTPs is feasible; 29% of the Kansas liquid fuel demand could be met with implementation of ponds within 1 mile of all WWTPs and supplementation of water and nutrients when these are limited.

  20. Algal control and enhanced removal in drinking waters in Cairo, Egypt. (United States)

    El-Dars, Farida M S E; Abdel Rahman, M A M; Salem, Olfat M A; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed A


    Algal blooms at the major water treatment plants in Egypt have been reported since 2006. While previous studies focused on algal types and their correlation with disinfection by-products, correlation between raw water quality and algal blooms were not explored. Therefore, a survey of Nile water quality parameters at a major water intake in the Greater Cairo Urban Region was conducted from December 2011 to November 2012. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the conventional chloride/alum treatment compared with combined Cl/permanganate pre-oxidation with Al and Fe coagulants during the outbreak period. Addition of permanganate (0.5 mg/L) significantly reduced the chlorine demand from 5.5 to 2.7 mg/L. The applied alum coagulant dose was slightly reduced while residual Al was reduced by 27% and the algal count by 50% in the final treated waters. Applying ferric chloride and ferric sulfate as coagulants to waters treated with the combined pre-oxidation procedure effectively reduced algal count by 60% and better the total organic carbon reduction and residual aluminum in the treated water. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify the relationship between water quality parameters and occurrence of algae and to explain the impact of coagulants on the final water quality.

  1. Problems related to water quality and algal control in Lopez Reservoir, San Luis Obispo County, California (United States)

    Fuller, Richard H.; Averett, Robert C.; Hines, Walter G.


    A study to determine the present enrichment status of Liopez Reservoir in San Luis Obispo county, California, and to evaluate copper sulfate algal treatment found that stratification in the reservoir regulates nutrient release and that algal control has been ineffective. Nuisance algal blooms, particularly from March to June, have been a problem in the warm multipurpose reservoir since it was initially filled following intense storms in 1968-69. The cyanophyte Anabaena unispora has been dominant; cospecies are the diatoms Stephanodiscus astraea and Cyclotella operculata, and the chlorophytes Pediastrum deplex and Sphaerocystis schroeteri. During an A. unispora bloom in May 1972 the total lake surface cell count was nearly 100,000 cells/ml. Thermal stratification from late spring through autumn results in oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion and metalimnion caused by bacterial oxidation of organic detritus. The anaerobic conditions favor chemical reduction of organic matter, which constitute 10-14% of the sediment. As algae die, sink to the bottom, and decompose, nutrients are released to the hypolimnion , and with the autumn overturn are spread to the epilimnion. Algal blooms not only hamper recreation, but through depletion of dissolved oxygen in the epilimnion may have caused periodic fishkills. Copper sulfate mixed with sodium citrate and applied at 1.10-1.73 lbs/acre has not significantly reduced algal growth; a method for determining correct dosage is presented. (Lynch-Wisconsin)

  2. Algal massive growth in relation to water quality and salinity at Damietta, north of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Ibraheem Deyab


    Full Text Available Objective: To relate the proliferation and dominance of certain algal species at the Damietta and its relation to water quality. Methods: Water and algal biomass were bimonthly sampled from five selected sites at Damietta Province, Egypt during 2012. Algae were identified and quantified. Waters, algae and sediment were analyzed. Results: The physicochemical properties of water showed limited seasonal but substantial local variation. The high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and turbidity of water pointed to marked eutrophication, which could enhance massive algal growth. The temporal fluctuation in temperature, exposure to industrial and domestic sewage and salinity results in succession between blooming algal species. Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris alternated in a moderately saline water and Oscillatoria agardhii and Mougeotia scalaris in a fresh water body during summer and winter respectively. Likewise, Microcystis aureginosa and Ulva lactuca alternated in a moderately saline site during autumn and summer respectively. Cladophora albida dominated a fish pond of brackish water and Dunaliella salina dominated the most saline water over the whole period of study. Conclusions: Growth of the predominant algal species is correlated to water quality. These species are of considerable nutritive value, with moderate contents of protein, carbohydrate, macronutrients and micronutrients, which evaluates them for usage as food (green and macroalgae, fodder or bio-fertilizer (cyanophytes.

  3. Sewage, green algal mats anchored by lugworms, and the effects on Turbellaria and small Polychaeta (United States)

    Reise, Karsten


    On sandy tidal flats at the Island of Sylt (North Sea) ephemeral mats of green algae covered wide areas in the vicinity of sewage outflows. Algae became anchored in the feeding funnels of lugworms ( Arenicola marina) and thus were able to resist displacement by tidal currents. Below the algal mats anoxic conditions extend to the sediment surface. After about one month a rough sea removed all algae. Polychaetes endured this short-term environmental deterioration, while the more sensitive Turbellaria decreased in abundance and species richness. Diatom-feeders were affected most, predators to a medium extent, and bacteria-feeders the least affected. Rare and very abundant species were more affected than moderately abundant ones. None of the turbellarian species increased in abundance and none colonized the algal mats above the sediment. In a semicontrolled experiment with daily hand-removal of drift algae from a 100-m2 plot within an extensive field of algal mats, this cleaned "island" served as a refuge to Turbellaria escaping from their algal covered habitat. Here abundance doubled relative to initial conditions and was 5-times higher than below algal mats.

  4. How fast do eels grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.M.


    Not so very much about the growth pattern of the eel is known yet. Eels move about nearly all the time. They are thus very difficult to follow and we do not, for examble, yet know how long it actually takes for them to grow to maturity in the wild. So far, a macroscopic analysis of the number of bright and dark areas (growth rings) in the 'earstones' has been used to determine eel age, but this method was recently challenged. Use of radioisotopes has been suggested previously for this purpose. For this present study the rare earth elements, europium-152 and europium-155 are used. When incubated in artificial sea water, a satisfactory final radioactive label was achieved. Two experiments were planned in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. 2000 Elvers were set out in 1982, in the cooling water outlet of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant, each marked with europium-155. In 1984 another 10 000 elvers labelled with europium-152 were set out under similar conditions. The idea was mainly to see how fast the eels would grow, and to compare their known age with that determined by examining the earstones. Results showed that there was no clear-cut correlation between actual eel age and the biological age determination used so far. During four years, only 10 of the original 1300 eels were recaptured. It is thus hard to say anything definite from our results on the viability of setting out elvers in the environment

  5. Treatment of dairy manure effluent using freshwater algae: algal productivity and recovery of manure nutrients using pilot-scale algal turf scrubbers. (United States)

    Mulbry, Walter; Kondrad, Shannon; Pizarro, Carolina; Kebede-Westhead, Elizabeth


    Cultivating algae on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in animal manure effluents presents an alternative to the current practice of land application. The objective of this study was to determine values for productivity, nutrient content, and nutrient recovery using filamentous green algae grown in outdoor raceways at different loading rates of raw and anaerobically digested dairy manure effluent. Algal turf scrubber raceways (30m2 each) were operated in central Maryland for approximately 270 days each year (roughly April 1-December 31) from 2003 to 2006. Algal biomass was harvested every 4-12 days from the raceways after daily additions of manure effluent corresponding to loading rates of 0.3 to 2.5g total N (TN) and 0.08 to 0.42g total P (TP) m(-2)d(-1). Mean algal productivity values increased from approximately 2.5g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the lowest loading rate (0.3g TN m(-2)d(-1)) to 25g DW m(-2)d(-1) at the highest loading rate (2.5g TN m(-2)d(-1)). Mean N and P contents in the dried biomass increased 1.5-2.0-fold with increasing loading rate up to maximums of 7% N and 1% P (dry weight basis). Although variable, algal N and P accounted for roughly 70-90% of input N and P at loading rates below 1g TN, 0.15g TP m(-2)d(-1). N and P recovery rates decreased to 50-80% at higher loading rates. There were no significant differences in algal productivity, algal N and P content, or N and P recovery values from raceways with carbon dioxide supplementation compared to values from raceways without added carbon dioxide. Projected annual operational costs are very high on a per animal basis ($780 per cow). However, within the context of reducing nutrient inputs in sensitive watersheds such as the Chesapeake Bay, projected operational costs of $11 per kgN are well below the costs cited for upgrading existing water treatment plants.

  6. Addressing harmful algal blooms (HABs) impacts with ferrate(VI): Simultaneous removal of algal cells and toxins for drinking water treatment. (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Wu, Meiyin; Zhang, Huiqin; Zheng, Lei; Acosta, Yaritza; Hsu, Tsung-Ta D


    Although ferrate(VI) has long been recognized as a multi-purpose treatment agent, previous investigations regarding ferrate(VI) for addressing harmful algal blooms (HABs) impacts in drinking water treatment only focused on a single HAB pollutant (e.g. algal cells or algal toxins). Moreover, the performance of ferrate(VI)-driven coagulation was poorly investigated in comparison with ferrate(VI) oxidation, though it has been widely acknowledged as a major ferrate(VI) treatment mechanism. We herein reported ferrate(VI) as an emerging agent for simultaneous and effective removal of algal cells and toxins in a simulated HAB-impacted water. Ferrate(VI)-driven oxidation enabled algal cell inactivation and toxin decomposition. Subsequently, Fe(III) from ferrate(VI) reduction initiated an in-situ coagulation for cell aggregation. Cell viability (initial 4.26 × 10 4 cells/mL at pH 5.5 and 5.16 × 10 4 cells/mL at pH 7.5) decreased to 0.0% at ≥ 7 mg/L Fe(VI) at pH 5.5 and 7.5, respectively. Cell density and turbidity were dramatically decreased at pH 5.5 once ferrate(VI) doses were beyond their respective threshold levels, which are defined as minimum effective iron doses (MEIDs). However, the particulate removal at pH 7.5 was poor, likely because the coagulation was principally driven by charge neutralization and a higher pH could not sufficiently lower the particle surface charge. Meanwhile, algal toxins (i.e., microcystins) of 3.98 μg/L could be substantially decomposed at either pH. And the greater degradation achieved at pH 5.5 was due to the higher reactivity of ferrate(VI) at the lower pH. This study represents the first step toward the ferrate(VI) application as a promising approach for addressing multiple HABs impacts for water treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phytoplankton community and physico-chemical seasonality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytoplankton community was dominated by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, in contrast to the dominance by cyanobacteria before 1989, and by dinoflagellates and chlorophytes shortly thereafter. Total phytoplankton Chl a averaged ... The development of algal blooms in future is anticipated. Keywords: Chl a, light, ...

  8. Sublittoral seaweed communities on natural and artificial substrata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also compared algal communities colonising ceramic, marble and pretreated ceramic tiles placed on the reef for six months. We identified 95 algae (14 Chlorophyta, 11 Phaeophyceae, 69 Rhodophyta and one cyanobacterium). Assemblages on natural and artificial substrata were dominated by the brown alga ...

  9. Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mucina, L.; Bültmann, H.; Dierssen, K.; Theurillat, J. P.; Raus, T.; Carni, A.; Šumberová, Kateřina; Willner, W.; Dengler, J.; Gavilán García, R.; Chytrý, M.; Hájek, M.; Di Pietro, R.; Iakushenko, D.; Pallas, J.; Daniëls, F. J. A.; Bergmeier, E.; Santos Guerra, A.; Ermakov, N.; Valachovič, M.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Lysenko, T.; Didukh, Y. P.; Pignatti, S.; Rodwell, J. S.; Capelo, J.; Weber, H. E.; Solomeshch, A.; Dimopoulos, P.; Aguiar, C.; Hennekens, S. M.; Tichý, L.


    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2016), s. 3-264 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Europe * syntaxonomy * vegetation classification Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.474, year: 2016

  10. Data Analysis of Sequences and qPCR for Microbial Communities during Algal Blooms (United States)

    A training opportunity is open to a highly microbial-research-motivated student to conduct sequence analysis, explore novel genes and metabolic pathways, validate resultant findings using qPCR/RT-qPCR and summarize the findings

  11. The effects of trophic interactions and spatial competition on algal community composition on Hawaiian coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Dailer, M.L.; Walsh, S.M.; Donovan, M.K.; Smith, C.M.


    Much of coral reef ecology has focused on how human impacts change coral reefs to macroalgal reefs. However, macroalgae may not always be a good indicator of reef decline, especially on reefs with significant sea urchin populations, as found in Kenya and Hawaii. This study tests the effects of

  12. Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucina, L.; Bültmann, Helga; Dierssen, Klaus; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Raus, Thomas; Carni, Andraz; Šumberová, Kateřina; Willner, Wolfgang; Dengler, J.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Hennekens, S.M.


    Aims: Vegetation classification consistent with the Braun-Blanquet approach is
    widely used in Europe for applied vegetation science, conservation planning
    and landmanagement. During the long history of syntaxonomy,many concepts
    and names of vegetation units have been proposed, but there

  13. Limited flexibility in resource use in a coral reef grazer foraging on seasonally changing algal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afeworki, Y.; Bruggemann, J. H.; Videler, J. J.

    Feeding ecology of three life phases of the parrotfish Scarus ferrugineus was studied on a southern Red Sea fringing reef by comparing availability and consumption of benthic algae during the monsoon hot and cool seasons. Dominant biota covering dead carbonate substrates were in decreasing order of

  14. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.


    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  15. Growing Vertical in the Flatland. (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua A


    The world of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures continues to expand at a rate much greater than anyone could have predicted 10 years ago, but if we are to make the leap from science to technology, many materials challenges must still be overcome. Recent advances, such as those by Liu et al. in this issue of ACS Nano, demonstrate that it is possible to grow rotationally commensurate 2D heterostructures, which could pave the way toward single crystal van der Waals solids. In this Perspective, I provide some insight into a few of the challenges associated with growth of heterostructures, and discuss some of the recent works that help us better understand synthetic realization of 2D heterostructures.

  16. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille


    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  17. Growing bubbles rising in line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Harper


    Full Text Available Over many years the author and others have given theories for bubbles rising in line in a liquid. Theory has usually suggested that the bubbles will tend towards a stable distance apart, but experiments have often showed them pairing off and sometimes coalescing. However, existing theory seems not to deal adequately with the case of bubbles growing as they rise, which they do if the liquid is boiling, or is a supersaturated solution of a gas, or simply because the pressure decreases with height. That omission is now addressed, for spherical bubbles rising at high Reynolds numbers. As the flow is then nearly irrotational, Lagrange's equations can be used with Rayleigh's dissipation function. The theory also works for bubbles shrinking as they rise because they dissolve.

  18. From MERIS To OLCI And Sentinel 2: Harmful Algal Bloom Applications & Modelling In South Africa (United States)

    Robertson Lain, L.; Bernard, S.; Evers-King, H.; Matthews, M. W.; Smith, M.


    The Sentinel 2 and 3 missions offer new capabilities for Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) observations in Southern Africa and further afield on the African continent where there is a great need for improved monitoring of water quality: both in freshwater resources where eutrophication is common, and in vulnerable coastal ecosystems. Two well validated algorithms - Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) & Maximum Peak Height (MPH) - available for operational use on eutrophic waters are described. Spectral remote sensing reflectances (Rrs) and inherent optical properties (IOPs) are characterised via measurement and modelling of phytoplankton assemblages typical of high biomass algal blooms of the Southern Benguela and inland waters of South Africa. Sensitivity to phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) is investigated, with focus on optically significant biological characteristics e.g. particle size distribution and intracellular structure (including vacuoles).

  19. Simulation of photosynthetically active radiation distribution in algal photobioreactors using a multidimensional spectral radiation model. (United States)

    Kong, Bo; Vigil, R Dennis


    A numerical method for simulating the spectral light distribution in algal photobioreactors is developed by adapting the discrete ordinate method for solving the radiative transport equation. The technique, which was developed for two and three spatial dimensions, provides a detailed accounting for light absorption and scattering by algae in the culture medium. In particular, the optical properties of the algal cells and the radiative properties of the turbid culture medium were calculated using a method based on Mie theory and that makes use of information concerning algal pigmentation, shape, and size distribution. The model was validated using a small cylindrical bioreactor, and subsequently simulations were carried out for an annular photobioreactor configuration. It is shown that even in this relatively simple geometry, nontrivial photon flux distributions arise that cannot be predicted by one-dimensional models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterized hydrochar of algal biomass for producing solid fuel through hydrothermal carbonization. (United States)

    Park, Ki Young; Lee, Kwanyong; Kim, Daegi


    The aim of this work was to study the characterized hydrochar of algal biomass to produce solid fuel though hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization conducted at temperatures ranging from 180 to 270 °C with a 60 min reaction improved the upgrading of the fuel properties and the dewatering of wet-basis biomasses such as algae. The carbon content, carbon recovery, energy recovery, and atomic C/O and C/H ratios in all the hydrochars in this study were improved. These characteristic changes in hydrochar from algal biomass are similar to the coalification reactions due to dehydration and decarboxylation with an increase in the hydrothermal reaction temperature. The results of this study indicate that hydrothermal carbonization can be used as an effective means of generating highly energy-efficient renewable fuel resources using algal biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Algal layer ratios as indicators of air pollutant effects in Permelia sulcata (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.


    Parmelia sulcata Taylor is generally believed to be fairly pollution tolerant, and consequently it is sometimes collected in urban and/or polluted localities. The condition of these specimens, however, is not always luxuriant and healthy. This study tested the hypothesis that total thallus and algal layer thickness, and the algal layer ratio would be thinner in polluted areas, thus allowing these characters to be used a indicators of air pollutant effects. Herbarium specimens were studied from 16 different localities varying in pollution level. The thallus and algal layers and ratio were not affected by year or locality of sampling, but decreased 11, 31 and 21% respectively between low and high pollution level localities. These results agreed with earlier studies using other species, but further work is needed to clarify the effects of geography and substrate on these phenomena.

  2. Nutrient recovery and energy efficient algal harvest from anaerobic digestor wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Murthy


    Full Text Available The increasing levels of generation of wastewaters which are nutrient rich pose serious issues where conventional biological and chemical methods of treatment have failed in meeting sustainability challenges. In this study naturally occurring mixed algal species reared in mixotrophic growth modes have been deployed to remove recalcitrant organics and recover high nutrient concentrations (N and P from anaerobic digestor wastewater at short residence times of 6-7 days. Results from pilot scale operation show that the cultivation methods adopted and the use of naturally selected species lead to a tendency among these species to clump at certain stages of growth that in turn float or settle rapidly making algal harvest and thereby the nutrient recovery processes energy efficient. Algal biomass productivity in the liquid from anaerobic digestor of the consortia varied with season with a maximum of 6.3 g/m2/d.

  3. Detection of Harmful Algal Toxins Using the Radioligand Receptor Binding Assay. A Manual of Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    of significant national, regional and interregional capabilities in algal toxin detection and monitoring, and management and mitigation of HABs associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning, diarrheic shellfish poisoning and ciguatera poisoning. In order to support and to facilitate the continuing effort of Member States to acquire, develop and sustain capabilities to address the impacts of HABs, the IAEA has taken the initiative to conceive and produce this manual of radioligand receptor binding assay methods. This is the first publication produced in collaboration with the NOAA and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC UNESCO), the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (an IAEA collaborating centre) and the Institut Louis Malarde in French Polynesia. It complements the Manual on Phytoplankton Sampling Techniques produced under the regional project RLA7014 and published by the IOC UNESCO. The series of well established nuclear techniques for early identification and quantification of HAB related toxins that are presented in this publication are intended to reduce the health and socioeconomic impacts of HAB events. The end users include national phytoplankton monitoring programmes with benefits to fisheries, research scientists, public health, communities, etc

  4. The engine of the reef: Photobiology of the coral-algal symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Susan Roth


    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems thrive in tropical oligotrophic oceans because of the relationship between corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae called Symbiodinium. Symbiodinium convert sunlight and carbon dioxide into organic carbon and oxygen to fuel coral growth and calcification, creating habitat for these diverse and productive ecosystems. Light is thus a key regulating factor shaping the productivity, physiology and ecology of the coral holobiont. Similar to all oxygenic photoautotrophs, Symbiodinium must safely harvest sunlight for photosynthesis and dissipate excess energy to prevent oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is caused by environmental stressors such as those associated with global climate change, and ultimately leads to breakdown of the coral-algal symbiosis known as coral bleaching. Recently, large-scale coral bleaching events have become pervasive and frequent threatening and endangering coral reefs. Because the coral-algal symbiosis is the biological engine producing the reef, the future of coral reef ecosystems depends on the ecophysiology of the symbiosis. This review examines the photobiology of the coral-algal symbiosis with particular focus on the photophysiological responses and timescales of corals and Symbiodinium. Additionally, this review summarizes the light environment and its dynamics, the vulnerability of the symbiosis to oxidative stress, the abiotic and biotic factors influencing photosynthesis, the diversity of the coral-algal symbiosis and recent advances in the field. Studies integrating physiology with the developing omics fields will provide new insights into the coral-algal symbiosis. Greater physiological and ecological understanding of the coral-algal symbiosis is needed for protection and conservation of coral reefs.

  5. Slugs' last meals: molecular identification of sequestered chloroplasts from different algal origins in Sacoglossa (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda). (United States)

    Händeler, Katharina; Wägele, Heike; Wahrmund, Ute; Rüdinger, Mareike; Knoop, Volker


    Some sacoglossan sea slugs have become famous for their unique capability to extract and incorporate functional chloroplasts from algal food organisms (mainly Ulvophyceae) into their gut cells. The functional incorporation of the so-called kleptoplasts allows the slugs to rely on photosynthetic products for weeks to months, enabling them to survive long periods of food shortage over most of their life-span. The algal food spectrum providing kleptoplasts as temporary, non-inherited endosymbionts appears to vary among sacoglossan slugs, but detailed knowledge is sketchy or unavailable. Accurate identification of algal donor species, which provide the chloroplasts for long-term retention is of primary importance to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms allowing long-term functionality of the captured chloroplast in the foreign animal cell environment. Whereas some sacoglossans forage on a variety of algal species, (e.g. Elysia crispata and E. viridis) others are more selective. Hence, characterizing the range of functional sacoglossan-chloroplast associations in nature is a prerequisite to understand the basis of this enigmatic endosymbiosis. Here, we present a suitable chloroplast gene (tufA) as a marker, which allows identification of the respective algal kleptoplast donor taxa by analysing DNA from whole animals. This novel approach allows identification of donor algae on genus or even species level, thus providing evidence for the taxonomic range of food organisms. We report molecular evidence that chloroplasts from different algal sources are simultaneously incorporated in some species of Elysia. NeigborNet analyses for species assignments are preferred over tree reconstruction methods because the former allow more reliable statements on species identification via barcoding, or rather visualize alternative allocations not to be seen in the latter. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.


    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (<0.4μm). The relative stickiness of AOM substantially varied between algal species and that the cohesion between AOM-coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms.

  7. Algal and archaeal polyisoprenoids in a recent marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, Liangqiao; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Xie, Tianmin


    four isoprene units arranged symmetrically around a tail-to-tail linkage, suggests that it is produced by a member of the archaea. Growing at the intersection of the diffusion gradients for sulfate and methane in sedimentary pore waters, the source organism apparently function as a methane...... or methanotrophic sources. The ether-bound lipids are isotopically uniform throughout the section and are presumed to derive from archaea that utilize a carbon source unaffected by the oxidation of methane....

  8. Structural and evolutionary aspects of algal blue light receptors of the cryptochrome and aureochrome type. (United States)

    Essen, Lars-Oliver; Franz, Sophie; Banerjee, Ankan


    Blue-light reception plays a pivotal role for algae to adapt to changing environmental conditions. In this review we summarize the current structural and mechanistic knowledge about flavin-dependent algal photoreceptors. We especially focus on the cryptochrome and aureochrome type photoreceptors in the context of their evolutionary divergence. Despite similar photochemical characteristics to orthologous photoreceptors from higher plants and animals the algal blue-light photoreceptors have developed a set of unique structural and mechanistic features that are summarized below. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Atmosphere behavior in gas-closed mouse-algal systems - An experimental and modelling study (United States)

    Averner, M. M.; Moore, B., III; Bartholomew, I.; Wharton, R.


    A NASA-sponsored research program initiated using mathematical modelling and laboratory experimentation aimed at examining the gas-exchange characteristics of artificial animal/plant systems closed to the ambient atmosphere is studied. The development of control techniques and management strategies for maintaining the atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen at physiological levels is considered. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of a gas-closed mouse-algal system under varying environmental conditions is described. To verify and validate the model simulations, an analytical system with which algal growth and gas exchange characteristics can be manipulated and measured is designed, fabricated, and tested. The preliminary results are presented.

  10. Blueprint and Approach to Grow Revenue in Small Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti


    Full Text Available This article examines a new approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. We name this new approach the business ecosystem approach. The article is organized into five sections. The first section provides a blueprint to grow revenue and an inventory of growth formulas that top management teams of small technology companies and founders of startups find useful. The second section briefly defines business ecosystems, keystones and platforms. The third section describes the business ecosystem approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. It compares the traditional and business ecosystem approaches to growing revenue; identifies when the business ecosystem approach works better than the traditional approach; explains what small companies and startups need to do to grow revenue using the business ecosystem approach; and describes the benefits and risks of implementing the business ecosystem approach. The fourth section compares three approaches to growing revenue and highlights the differences between i business ecosystems and development communities and ii the business ecosystem approach and outsourcing. The fifth section identifies the key decisions a small technology company or technology startup needs to make to become the keystone that anchors a business ecosystem.

  11. Alternation in the suspended algal abundance, distribution and diversity within a stormwater treatment area in south Florida, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dierberg, F.E.; Potts, J.; Kaštovská, Klára


    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2006), s. 2227-2231 ISSN 0368-0770. [Congress SIL /29./. Lahti, 08.08.2004-14.08.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : algal abundance * algal composition * Everglades Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality

  12. Alginate and Algal-Based Beads for the Sorption of Metal Cations: Cu(II and Pb(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengye Wang


    Full Text Available Alginate and algal-biomass (Laminaria digitata beads were prepared by homogeneous Ca ionotropic gelation. In addition, glutaraldehyde-crosslinked poly (ethyleneimine (PEI was incorporated into algal beads. The three sorbents were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX: the sorption occurs in the whole mass of the sorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of pH, sorption isotherms, and uptake kinetics. A special attention was paid to the effect of drying (air-drying vs. freeze-drying on the mass transfer properties. For alginate, freeze drying is required for maintaining the porosity of the hydrogel, while for algal-based sorbents the swelling of the material minimizes the impact of the drying procedure. The maximum sorption capacities observed from experiments were 415, 296 and 218 mg Pb g−1 and 112, 77 and 67 mg Cu g−1 for alginate, algal and algal/PEI beads respectively. Though the sorption capacities of algal-beads decreased slightly (compared to alginate beads, the greener and cheaper one-pot synthesis of algal beads makes this sorbent more competitive for environmental applications. PEI in algal beads decreases the sorption properties in the case of the sorption of metal cations under selected experimental conditions.

  13. Fractional absorption of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa) and calcium carbonate measured by a dual stable-isotope method (United States)

    With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In ...

  14. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo


    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Production of Algal Biomass: Algal Biomass Production in Open Pond Systems and Processing Through Dewatering for Downstream Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grundl, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, Eric C.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States)


    This report describes in detail a set of aspirational design and process targets to better understand the realistic economic potential for the production of algal biomass for subsequent conversion to biofuels and/or coproducts, based on the use of open pond cultivation systems and a series of dewatering operations to concentrate the biomass up to 20 wt% solids (ash-free dry weight basis).

  16. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Biofuels: Algal Biomass Fractionation to Lipid-and Carbohydrate-Derived Fuel Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass production, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the conceptual production economics of these fuels. This includes fuel pathways from lignocellulosic (terrestrial) biomass, as well as from algal (aquatic) biomass systems.

  17. Toxicity of coastal waters: use of a quick algal bioassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, S.B.; Booij, P; van der Geest, H.; Laane, R.; Leonards, P.; Lamoree, M..; Admiraal, W.; Vethaak, D.; de Voogt, P.


    Primary production by microalgae embodies the carrying capacity of marine ecosystems and is primarily linked to nutrient availability and light. However, recent studies indicate that certain industrial chemicals may have a direct impact on coastal plankton communities and hence on the carrying

  18. Remote Sensing Marine Ecology: Wind-driven algal blooms in the open oceans and their ecological impacts (United States)

    Tang, DanLing


    Algal bloom not only can increase the primary production but also could result in negative ecological consequence, e.g., Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). According to the classic theory for the formation of algal blooms "critical depth" and "eutrophication", oligotrophic sea area is usually difficult to form a large area of algal blooms, and actually the traditional observation is only sporadic capture to the existence of algal blooms. Taking full advantage of multiple data of satellite remote sensing, this study: 1), introduces "Wind-driven algal blooms in open oceans: observation and mechanisms" It explained except classic coastal Ekman transport, the wind through a variety of mechanisms affecting the formation of algal blooms. Proposed a conceptual model of "Strong wind -upwelling-nutrient-phytoplankton blooms" in Western South China Sea (SCS) to assess role of wind-induced advection transport in phytoplankton bloom formation. It illustrates the nutrient resources that support long-term offshore phytoplankton blooms in the western SCS; 2), Proposal of the theory that "typhoons cause vertical mixing, induce phytoplankton blooms", and quantify their important contribution to marine primary production; Proposal a new ecological index for typhoon. Proposed remote sensing inversion models. 3), Finding of the spatial and temporaldistributions pattern of harmful algal bloom (HAB)and species variations of HAB in the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and in the Pearl River estuary, and their oceanic dynamic mechanisms related with monsoon; The project developed new techniques and generated new knowledge, which significantly improved understanding of the formation mechanisms of algal blooms. 1), It proposed "wind-pump" mechanism integrates theoretical system combing "ocean dynamics, development of algal blooms, and impact on primary production", which will benefit fisheries management. 2), A new interdisciplinary subject "Remote Sensing Marine Ecology"(RSME) has been

  19. Investigating the feasibility of growing algae for fuel in Southern nevada (United States)

    Moazeni, Faegheh

    Microalgae capable of growing in waste are adequate to be mass-cultivated for biodiesel, avoiding fertilizers and clean water, two obstacles to sustainability of the feedstock production. This study replaces fertilizers and clean water with waste products. The investigated wastes include (1) the liquid fraction of sewage after solids and particles are removed, known as centrate, and (2) algal biomass residue, i.e. the algae remaining at the end of the lipids extraction process at biofuel plants. These wastes contain sufficient amount of nitrogen and phosphorus required for algal growth. This study proposes a system in which centrate would be used as an initial source of water and nutrients for microalgal growth. The generated biomass waste can be continuously recycled, serving as a fertilizer. If so desired, the centrate can be reverted back into the system from time to time as a nutrition supplement and as a make-up water source, particularly in open ponds that face evaporation. Of the six studied algae, i.e. Chlorella sorokiniana, Encyonema caespitosum, Nitzschia thermalis, Scenedesmus sp., Synechocystis sp., and Limnothrix sp., mostly isolated from the habitats influenced by municipal wastewater in and around the Las Vegas Valley, two green algae were eligible. In the laboratory, the green algae C. sorokiniana and Scenedesmus sp. grew in the media composed of centrate or algal residue faster than in the mineral medium BG11, optimized for algal growth. The enhanced productivity is mainly attributed to the photosynthesis known for mixotrophic process and the presence of organic carbon in the waste which serves as an extra source of energy. Tolerance for hard water and strong light and, in the case of C. sorokiniana , an unusually high optimum temperature between 32 and 35°C are also attributing factors to the enhanced productivity of algae. These studied species are particularly suited for cultivation in their native southwestern United States, particularly

  20. Bariatric amputee: A growing problem? (United States)

    Kulkarni, Jai; Hannett, Dominic P; Purcell, Steven


    This study reviewed prevalence of patients with lower limb amputations with above normal weight profile, with body mass index over 25, in seven disablement services centres managing their amputee rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. To review two clinical standards of practice in amputee rehabilitation. Ambulant lower limb amputees should have their body weight recorded on an electronic information system, with identification of cohort with body weight >100 kg. Lower limb amputees to be provided with suitable weight-rated prosthesis. Observational study of clinical practice. Data were collected from the Clinical Information Management Systems. Inclusion criteria--subjects were ambulant prosthetic users with some prosthetic intervention in the last 5 years and had at least one lower limb amputation. In 96% of patients, the weight record profile was maintained. In addition, 86% were under 100 kg, which is the most common weight limit of prosthetic componentry. Of 15,204 amputation levels, there were 1830 transfemoral and transtibial sites in users with body weight over 100 kg. In 60 cases, the prosthetic limb build was rated to be below the user body weight. In 96% of our patients, body weight was documented, and in 97%, the prosthetic limb builds were within stated body weight limits, but this may not be the case in all the other disablement services centres in the United Kingdom. Also, the incidence of obesity in the United Kingdom is a growing problem, and the health issues associated with obesity are further compounded in the amputee population. Prosthetic componentry has distinct weight limits which must be considered during prescription. As people with amputation approach the limits of specific components, clinicians are faced with the challenge of continued provision in a safe and suitable manner. This article reviews the amputee population and the current national profile to consider trends in provision and the incidence of these challenges. © The

  1. Growing population causes of unemployment. (United States)


    At the March, 1995, International Meeting on Population and Social Development in Copenhagen, during the session on unemployment, underemployment, and population it was stated that the problem of employment was the extent to which a nation's labor supply was not matched by labor demand or job opportunities. Population was thus a supply factor, and the country's economic situation was a demand factor. The demographic variables that were considered important in the supply of labor were: a) the size and rate of growth of the population, which was a function of the birth rate, the death rate, and migration; and b) the age structure of the population, which was also a product of the rate of growth of the population and its distribution. An imbalance between the supply of labor and the demand for it gave rise to unemployment and underemployment. The vicious cycle generated by a high dependency burden associated with a young age-structure led to low savings and investments, which in turn led to low economic growth and a low standard of living. This produced high fertility rates, which in turn heightened the dependency burden perpetuating the cycle. This vicious cycle could be broken at only two points: at the high fertility stage, primarily by introducing family planning programs; and at the stage of low economic growth, by adopting policies to accelerate economic growth. To be successful, however, both actions had to be pursued simultaneously. Numerous participants emphasized the global nature of the issue of unemployment and underemployment; the effects of international competition and restrictive trade policies on employment opportunities. The growing disparity between North and South had created a social injustice between countries. Several participants called for more humane policies that favored democracy and promoted human development, and asked for assistance to help create an enabling environment for social and economic development.

  2. Protein nutrition of growing cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, W.; Scott, G.C.


    In vitro studies on apparent degradation of amino acids by mixed and pure cultures of rumen bacteria demonstrated that (a) amino acids are degraded at differing rates (Arg, Thr>Lys, Phe, Leu, Ile>Val, Met); (b) certain amino acids (Met, Val, Try, Orn) are degraded to greater extents when fermented alone than in conjunction with other amino acids; (c) individual strains of rumen bacteria do not utilize all amino acids; and (d) total ruminal degradation of amino acids is the result of extensive bacterial interaction, and may vary greatly depending on the predominant types of micro-organisms present. Abomasal infusion of a mixture of 10 essential amino acids consistently increased nitrogen retention, but attempts to elucidate primary limiting amino acids were not conclusive. Our data suggested that supplementary methionine alone may not significantly increase nitrogen retention, but methionine must be present in order to obtain responses from other amino acids. Methionine plus lysine plus threonine usually increased nitrogen retention, but the magnitude of responses varied. The classical nitrogen balance technique may lack the sensitivity needed to detect small responses resulting from supplements of single amino acids, or growing cattle, unlike sheep used for wool growth, may not be suffering from specific amino acid deficiencies. Chemical suppression of ruminal degradation of amino acids produced significant increases in nitrogen retention and growth, and improved feed efficiencies. Productivity responses to rumen bypass techniques would seem to depend primarily upon (a) the degree to which dietary protein is degraded in the rumen, and (b) the quantity of absorbable amino acids supplied by the diet in relation to quantities required by the animal. (author)

  3. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte


    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  4. CKD and poverty: a growing global challenge. (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammed P; Goyder, Elizabeth C; Rigby, Jan E; El Nahas, Meguid


    Approximately 1.2 billion individuals worldwide live in extreme poverty (poverty (Poverty is most prevalent in developing countries, but does not spare richer economies, where huge income discrepancies have been reported. Poverty is a major health care marker affecting a number of chronic, communicable, and noncommunicable diseases. Poverty and social deprivation are known to affect the predisposition, diagnosis, and management of chronic diseases; they directly impact on the prevalence of such conditions as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Also, growing evidence links poverty to chronic kidney disease (CKD). This may be caused by a direct impact of poverty on CKD or indirectly through the increased health care burden linked to poverty-associated diabetes and hypertension. Furthermore, data have shown that the poor and socially deprived have a greater prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Access to renal care, dialysis, and transplantation may also be affected by social deprivation. Overall, poverty and social deprivation are emerging as major risk markers for CKD in both developing and developed countries. Their impact on CKD warrants careful analysis because it may confound the interpretation of CKD risk factors within communities. This review therefore aims to look at the evidence linking poverty to CKD and its major risk factors, namely, diabetes and hypertension.

  5. Green genes: bioinformatics and systems-biology innovations drive algal biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, M.J.M.F.; Heck, van R.G.A.; Lam, C.M.C.; Scaife, M.A.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Smith, A.G.; Schaap, P.J.


    Many species of microalgae produce hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other valuable products in significant amounts. However, large-scale production of algal products is not yet competitive against non-renewable alternatives from fossil fuel. Metabolic engineering approaches will help to improve

  6. A new measure to study phylogenetic relations in the brown algal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    our classification with the ones done earlier. [Das S, Chakrabarti J, Ghosh Z, Sahoo S and Mallick B 2005 A new measure to study phylogenetic relations in the brown algal order Ectocarpales: The “codon impact parameter”; J. Biosci. 30 699–709]. 1. Introduction. Algae have grown in importance all over the world. Today.

  7. The effect of algal and bacterial filters on sea water quality during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of using filamentous algae for biological filtration in closed culture systems was tested by comparing water quality changes in bacterial and algal filtration systems over a two month period. Juvenile Penaeus indicus Milne Edwards were cultured in 125–1 recirculation systems and periodic analyses of inorganic ...

  8. The effect of algal and bacterial filters on sea water quality during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality changes in bacterial and algal filtration systems over a two month period. Juvenile Penaeus indicus Milne Edwards ... Little is known about the effects of algae on water in which animals are grown even though they have been a ..... A practical hand- book of seawater analysis. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd Can. 167: 1-311.

  9. Phylogenomic Analyses Indicate that Early Fungi Evolved Digesting Cell Walls of Algal Ancestors of Land Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Ying; Wang, Sishuo; Sekimoto, Satoshi; Aerts, Andrea L; Choi, Cindy; Clum, Alicia; LaButti, Kurt M; Lindquist, Erika A; Yee Ngan, Chew; Ohm, Robin A; Salamov, Asaf A; Grigoriev, Igor V; Spatafora, Joseph W; Berbee, Mary L

    As decomposers, fungi are key players in recycling plant material in global carbon cycles. We hypothesized that genomes of early diverging fungi may have inherited pectinases from an ancestral species that had been able to extract nutrients from pectin-containing land plants and their algal allies

  10. Using Multi-media Modeling to Investigate Conditions Leading to Harmful Algal Blooms (United States)

    Lake Erie is the twelfth largest lake in the world and provides drinking water to over 11 million people in the United States. 22,720 square miles of varying landcover (e.g., urban, agriculture) drain directly into Lake Erie. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have historically been an ...

  11. Kill your enemies and eat them with the help of your toxins: an algal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prymnesium spp. have been shown to kill both their grazers and other algal species, by producing allelopathic compounds. Killing nutrient-competing phytoplankton species enables Prymnesium to freely utilise limiting resources. Mixotrophy, i.e. the ability to ingest bacteria, other algae, and potential grazers, also ...

  12. Amino acid composition of algal products and its contribution to RDI. (United States)

    Mišurcová, L; Buňka, F; Vávra Ambrožová, J; Machů, L; Samek, D; Kráčmar, S


    In this paper, the amino acid profiles of algal products from diverse groups (Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta) were established. Contents of essential and non-essential amino acids varied in the range of 22.8-42.3 and 31.0-66.5 (g·16 g(-1)N), respectively. In dependence on daily algal intakes, the highest participation in recommended daily intakes (RDI; related to adult, body weight of 70 kg) of all EAAs was observed in freshwater micro-algal products, especially from Spirulina genus where contribution ranged from 12.6% (Lys, SB) to 38.8% (Thr, S). Generally, Lys was the lowest contributor to RDIs in almost all algal samples except Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C) and Palmaria palmata (D), where Ile and Leu, respectively, were established. Interestingly, the contents of sulfur AAs of both products of the Spirulina genus covered 74.5% (S) and 73.8% (SB) of their RDI. Finally, products from brown seaweeds showed the lowest contributions to the RDIs of all EAAs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Algal defenses, population stability and the risk of herbivore extinctions: A chemostat model and experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    v.d. Stap, I.; Vos, M.; Kooi, B.W.; Mulling, B.T.; van Donk, E..; Mooij, W.M.


    The effects of inducible defenses and constitutive defenses on population dynamics were investigated in a freshwater plankton system with rotifers as predators and different algal strains as prey. We made predictions for these systems using a chemostat predator-prey model and focused on population

  14. Identification and Initial Screening of New Compounds to Control Harmful Algal Blooms (United States)


    collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources ...hampered by the thick sheath of mucilage that surrounds the algal cells, and the presence of both surface and benthic mats in the spring and summer

  15. Clarifying functional roles: algal removal by the surgeonfishes Ctenochaetus striatus and Acanthurus nigrofuscus (United States)

    Tebbett, Sterling B.; Goatley, Christopher H. R.; Bellwood, David R.


    The lined bristletooth, Ctenochaetus striatus, and the brown surgeonfish, Acanthurus nigrofuscus, are among the most abundant surgeonfishes on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Yet, the functional role of these species has been the focus of an ongoing debate lasting at least six decades. Specifically, to what extent are C. striatus herbivorous like the visually similar A. nigrofuscus? To address this question, we used natural feeding surfaces, covered with late successional stage reef-grown algal turfs, to examine turf algal removal by the two species. Surfaces exposed to C. striatus in laboratory experiments exhibited no significant reductions in turf length or area covered by turfing algae. In marked contrast, A. nigrofuscus reduced turf length by 51% and area covered by turfing algae by 15% in 1 h. The gut contents of specimens from the reef revealed that A. nigrofuscus predominantly ingests algae (the dominant item in 79.6-94.7% of gut content quadrats), while C. striatus ingests detritus and sediments (dominant in 99.6-100% of quadrats). Therefore, C. striatus ingests detritus and sediment, leaving mature algal turfs relatively intact, while A. nigrofuscus directly removes and ingests turf algae. The function of C. striatus differs from cropping herbivorous surgeonfishes such as A. nigrofuscus. On coral reefs, C. striatus brush detrital aggregates from algal turfs, removing microorganisms, organic detritus and inorganic sediment. Confusion over the functional role of C. striatus may stem from an inability to fit it into a single functional category.

  16. Algal Biomass from Wastewater and Flue Gases as a Source of Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lage


    Full Text Available Algae are without doubt the most productive photosynthetic organisms on Earth; they are highly efficient in converting CO2 and nutrients into biomass. These abilities can be exploited by culturing microalgae from wastewater and flue gases for effective wastewater reclamation. Algae are known to remove nitrogen and phosphorus as well as several organic contaminants including pharmaceuticals from wastewater. Biomass production can even be enhanced by the addition of CO2 originating from flue gases. The algal biomass can then be used as a raw material to produce bioenergy; depending on its composition, various types of biofuels such as biodiesel, biogas, bioethanol, biobutanol or biohydrogen can be obtained. However, algal biomass generated in wastewater and flue gases also contains contaminants which, if not degraded, will end up in the ashes. In this review, the current knowledge on algal biomass production in wastewater and flue gases is summarized; special focus is given to the algal capacity to remove contaminants from wastewater and flue gases, and the consequences when converting this biomass into different types of biofuels.

  17. Physical abrasion method using submerged spike balls to remove algal biofilm from photobioreactors. (United States)

    Nawar, Azra; Khoja, Asif Hussain; Akbar, Naveed; Ansari, Abeera Ayaz; Qayyum, Muneeb; Ali, Ehsan


    A major factor in practical application of photobioreactors (PBR) is the adhesion of algal cells onto their inner walls. Optimized algal growth requires an adequate sunlight for the photosynthesis and cell growth. Limitation in light exposure adversely affects the algal biomass yield. The removal of the biofilm from PBR is a challenging and expansive task. This study was designed to develop an inexpensive technique to prevent adhesion of algal biofilm on tubular PBR to ensure high efficiency of light utilization. Rubber balls with surface projections were introduced into the reactor, to remove the adherent biofilm by physical abrasion technique. The floatation of spike balls created a turbulent flow, thereby inhibiting further biofilm formation. The parameters such as, specific growth rate and doubling time of the algae before introducing the balls were 0.451 day -1 and 1.5 days respectively. Visible biofilm impeding light transmission was formed by 15-20 days. The removal of the biofilm commenced immediately after the introduction of the spike balls with visibly reduced deposits in 3 days. This was also validated by enhance cell count (6.95 × 106 cells mL -1 ) in the medium. The employment of spike balls in PBR is an environmental friendly and economical method for the removal of biofilm.

  18. Juvenile corals can acquire more carbon from high-performance algal symbionts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantin, N. E.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Willis, B. L.; Mieog, J. C.; Negri, A. P.

    Algal endosymbionts of the genus Symbiodinium play a key role in the nutrition of reef building corals and strongly affect the thermal tolerance and growth rate of the animal host. This study reports that (14)C photosynthate incorporation into juvenile coral tissues was doubled in Acropora millepora

  19. Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilt, de H.A.; Butkovskyi, A.; Tuantet, K.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Fernandes, T.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Zeeman, G.


    Micropollutant removal in an algal treatment system fed with source separated wastewater streams was studied. Batch experiments with the microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana grown on urine, anaerobically treated black water and synthetic urine were performed to assess the removal of six spiked

  20. Effect of algal density in bead, bead size and bead concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by the unicellular green microalga Chlorella vulgaris immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Different cell stockings in beads, different bead sizes and different algal bead concentrations in wastewaters were tested. Significant higher nutrients ...