WorldWideScience

Sample records for algae

  1. Algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raven, John A.; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 13 (2014), s. 590-595. ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : algae * life cycle * evolution Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.571, year: 2014

  2. Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  3. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  4. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  5. Algae associated with mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The algae associated with mangroves is described. Substrate plays very important role in algal establishment in intertidal and subtidal areas. Algae colonising the mud surface are seasonal because of the unstable conditions causEd. by the erosion...

  6. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  7. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira maxima, Arthrospira platensis, BGA, Blue Green Algae, Blue-Green Micro-Algae, Cyanobacteria, Cyanobactérie, Cyanophycée, Dihe, Espirulina, Hawaiian Spirulina, Klamath, Klamath Lake Algae, Lyngbya wollei, Microcystis aeruginosa, ...

  8. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  9. Algae liquefaction / Hope Baloyi

    OpenAIRE

    Baloyi, Hope

    2012-01-01

    The liquefaction of algae for the recovery of bio–oil was studied. Algae oil is a non–edible feedstock and has minimal impact on food security and food prices; furthermore, it has been identified as a favourable feedstock for the production of biodiesel and this is attributed to its high oil yield per hectare. Algae oil can be potentially used for fuel blending for conventional diesel. The recovery step for algae oil for the production of biodiesel is costly and demands a lot of energy due to...

  10. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unresponsive to other treatments, taking 500 mg of spirulina blue-green algae by mouth 3 times daily for 6 months ... was seen in undernourished children who were given spirulina blue-green algae with a combination of millet, soy and peanut ...

  11. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  12. Algae and blue-green algae as mosquito food

    OpenAIRE

    Rettich, František; Popovský, Jiří; Cepák, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Ten genera of cyanophytes and 73 genera of algae were found in the guts of Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Culiseta larvae collected in various breeding places of the Elbe-Lowland (Bohemia) and Prague. The quality and quantity of blue-green algae and algae found in mosquito guts depended on their presence in the water of mosquito breeding places and on the feeding type (filter fieders, scrapers) of mosquito larvae. Chlorophycean algae possesing cell wall with sporopollenin and algae with a mucila...

  13. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  14. Microbubbles for algae cultivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    Santa Fe: ELSEVIER Global Conferences, 2014, 0120. [International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts /4./. Santa Fe (US), 15.06.2014-18.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : microbubbles * algae * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  15. Radionuclides in Bentic Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentic micro-algae (mainly consisting of diatoms) were taken from 4 sites in the discharge area of the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station (Sweden) and from 1 site in the cooling water intake channel of the power station. Samples were taken every third week during 1984. The micro-algae were brushed of a 0.1-0.15 m2 area on stones collected from the hydrolittoral zone. Radionuclide concentration was measured as gamma radiation with a Ge-detector. Fission products from the power plant cooling water can easily be detected in the micro-algae. We show that benthic diatom assemblages are good indicators for radionuclides; good correlations were found between radionuclide concentration in the algae and the discharge from the power plant. The best correlations were obtained if the accumulated discharge for the 15 days before sampling was used in the calculations. Of the investigated radionuclides, Co-60 and Zn-65 show significant relationships between concentration in the algae and discharge for 2 site, Ag-110m for 3 sites and Mn-54 for 1 site. No correlations were found for the site in the intake channel. The results show differences which depend on whether calculations were done for total, particulate or dissolved fractions of the radionuclides. There are indications that there is considerable recirculation of the radionuclides within the algal assemblages, and the recirculation from the outlet of the Biotest basin to the intake channel is of about 10%. In this report we also present a budget for the total amount of radionuclides in the Biotest Basin for 1984. The highest amounts of radionuclides in diatoms were found during late winter and early spring, associated with the large diatom blooms at that time of the year in the basin. (authors)

  16. Algae Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  17. Biological importance of marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. El Gamal

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological...

  18. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  19. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  20. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  1. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  2. Photosynthesis and photorespiration in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, N D; Canvin, D T; Culver, D A

    1977-05-01

    The CO(2) exchange of several species of fresh water and marine algae was measured in the laboratory to determine whether photorespiration occurs in these organisms. The algae were positioned as thin layers on filter paper and the CO(2) exchange determined in an open gas exchange system. In either 21 or 1% O(2) there was little difference between (14)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) uptake. Apparent photosynthesis was the same in 2, 21, or 50% O(2). The compensation points of all algae were less than 10 mul 1(-1). CO(2) or (14)CO(2) evolution into CO(2)-free air in the light was always less than the corresponding evolution in darkness. These observations are inconsistent with the proposal that photorespiration exists in these algae. PMID:16659972

  3. Cryopreservation of eukaryotic soil algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, Alena; Worland, M. R.; Hrouzek, Pavel

    Coimbra: Society for Cryobiology, 2003. s. 32. [Cryobiomol 2003 - Low Temperature Biology. 14.09.2003-18.09.2003, Coimbra] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : cryopreservation * eukaryotic soil algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. MONOTERPENE BIOSYNTHESIS IN MARINE ALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine algae produce a variety of secondary metabolites involved in chemical defense. Among these the monoterpenes present several highly unusual characteristics relative to their terrestrial counterparts. The monoterpenes produced by these marine organisms are nearly always halogenated and posses...

  5. Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Takaichi

    2011-01-01

    For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carote...

  6. FUNCTIONAL VEGETABLE SALADS WITH ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    Козонова, Ю.О.; Авдєєва, А.А.

    2015-01-01

    Now on the Ukrainian market frozen vegetable salads are well represented. They contain a small amount of protein and have an unbalanced composition nutrientny. Adding algae to the vegetable salads composition allows to resolve this contradiction. In this paper the functional vegetable salads expanding assortment possibilities are represented. The product components composition was designed. It is advisable to add different types of algae (kelp, spirulina and fucus) to the quick-frozen functio...

  7. Scenario studies for algae production

    OpenAIRE

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass productivity and energy consumption, while considering the uncertainty and complexity in such large-scale systems. In this thesis frameworks are developed to assess 1) the productivity during algae cultiva...

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Kwon Kim; Ratih Pangestuti

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, choline...

  9. Measurement of photorespiration in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, B C; Coleman, J R; Colman, B

    1982-01-01

    The rates of true and apparent photosynthesis of two unicellular green algae, one diatom and four blue-green algae were measured in buffer at pH 8.0 at subsaturating concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (13-27 micromolar). Initial rates of depletion from the medium of inorganic carbon and (14)C activity caused by the algae in a closed system were measured by gas chromatography and by liquid scintillation counting, respectively. The rate of photorespiration was calculated as the difference between the rates of apparent and true photosynthesis. The three eucaryotic algae and two blue-green algae had photorespiratory rates of 10 to 28% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2). Reduction of the O(2) level to 2% caused a 52 to 91% reduction in photorespiratory rate. Two other blue-green algae displayed low photorespiratory rates, 2.4 to 6.2% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2), and reduction of the O(2) concentration had no effect on these rates. PMID:16662171

  10. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Kwon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

  11. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    OpenAIRE

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface...

  12. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  13. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  16. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass producti

  17. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  18. Measurements of photorespiration in some microscopic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K H; Colman, B

    1974-09-01

    The rate of photorespiration in three green algae and four blue-green algae was determined by the measurement of the rate of loss of photosynthetically fixed (14)CO2 in light in CO2-free air at 25°. In all algae studied, CO2 evolution in light was considerably less than that in the dark, except for Chlamydomonas reinhardii which released slightly more CO2 in the light. Raising the temperature to 35° had little effect on the ratio of light to dark (14)CO2 release. Blue-green algae showed the lowest photorespiration rate of the algae studied. PMID:24458883

  19. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  20. Allelopatrhic effect of Acorus tatarinowii upon algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Besides competing with algae for light and mineralnutrients (i.e. N, P, etc.), the root system of Acorus tatarinowii excretes some chemical substances, which injure and eliminate alga cells, to inhibit the growth of the algae. When the algae cells were treated in "A. tatarinowii water", some of the chlorophyll a were destroyed and the photosynthetic rate of algae decreased markedly and the ability of alga cells to deoxidize triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduced greatly. Then alga cells turned from bright red to bluish green under fluorescence microscope. These showed that the allelopathic effects of A.tatarinowii on algae were obvious and planting A. tatarinowii can control some green algae. The experiment on the extractions of the secretions of the root system showed that the inhibitory effect had a concentration effect. If the concentration of the root secretion was below 30 /disc, the inhibitory rate was negative; if it was over 45 /disc, the inhibitory rate was positive. This proved that the influence of the root secretion on the same acceptor was a kind of concentration effect. When the concentration of the root secretion was low, it promoted the growth of algae; when the concentration reached a definite threshold value, it restrained the growth of algae. In present case, the threshold value was between 30 /disc and 45 u?disc.

  1. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...... thermophilic treatment of Laminaria produced an average of 142 L CH4/kgVS, Ulva yielded around 122 L/kgVS. Overall, it was found that algae are promising substrates for co-digestion with cattle manure and besides producing energy algae can remove substantial amounts of nutrients from the water environment that...

  2. PPR proteins of green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage:...

  3. Parasites in algae mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Lane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

  4. Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Pilar Rauter

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds.

  5. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  6. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. PMID:20022488

  7. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    OpenAIRE

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae ...

  8. Bacterial Enhancement of Vinyl Fouling by Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of bacteria in the development of algae on low-density vinyl was investigated. Unidentified bacterial contaminants in unialgal stock cultures of Phormidium faveolarum and Pleurochloris pyrenoidosa enhanced, by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, colonization of vinyl by these algae, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy counts and chlorophyll a in extracts of colonized vinyl. Colonization by bacteria always preceded that by algae. Scanning electron microscopy of the colonized Phormidiu...

  9. Zeolite‐Based Algae Biofilm Rotating Photobioreactor for Algae and Biomass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Ashton M.

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline conditions induced by algae growth in wastewater stabilization ponds create deprotonated ammonium ions that result in ammonia gas (NH3) volatilization. If algae are utilized to remediate wastewater through uptake of phosphorus, the resulting nitrogen loss will hinder this process because algae generally require a stoichiometric molar ratio of N16P1. Lower ratios of N/P due to loss of ammonia gas will limit the growth and yield of algae, and therefore will reduce phosphorus removal fr...

  10. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  11. Waste streams for algae cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kautto, Antti

    2011-01-01

    ALDIGA, short for “Algae from Waste for Combined Biodiesel and Biogas Pro-duction”, aims to develop a concept for a closed circulation of resources in pro-ducing biodiesel and biogas from waste. The project is realized in co-operation between VTT, University of Helsinki, Lahti and Häme Universities of Applied Sciences, SYKE and funded by Tekes. The project’s first work phase ergo this bachelor’s thesis covered the mapping of available and suitable streams to be used in the cultivation of ...

  12. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Adana (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Marine algae and seagrasses were researched in the upper infralittoral zone of Adana (Turkish Mediterranean coasts) in this study. 381 algae and 5 seagrasses (Liliopsida) were determined (Total 386 taxa). 27 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae(195)], 78 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 72 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (18), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophor...

  13. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Hatay (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Hatay (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 377 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 30 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 201 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae (192)], 73 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 73 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (5), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (24...

  14. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Mersin Shore (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Okudan, E. S.; Erdugan, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Mersin (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 396 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 36 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (6), Florideophyceae(I94)], 82 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 74 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (25...

  15. Phthalates pollution in algae of Turkish coast

    OpenAIRE

    Erakın, Sinem; Binark, Neşe; Güven, Kasım Cemal; Coban, Burak; Erduğan, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this work phthalates pollution in red, brown and green algae in the Black Sea, Istanbul Starait and Çanakkale Strait were investigated. The detected phthalate derivatives were DEP, DIBP, DBP and DEHP. Very toxic phthalate DEHP was found only in the Istanbul Strait. Phthalates pollution of algae depends on the pollution of sea water.

  16. The Algae flora in Tekirdag - Istanbul coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Koç, Hüseyin; AYDIN, Ayten

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In this work 36 algae species were collected on the coastline between Tekirdag and Istanbul. There were 12 Chlorophyceae, 10 Phaeophyceae and 14 Rhodophyceae amongst them. The algae were f irst determined in Sea of Marmara are: Gigartina teedii, Cystoseira opuntioides, Lithothamnion lichenoides, Hildenbrandia prototypus, Rhodymenia corallicola.

  17. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Worland, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the level of cold acclimation and cryoprotection estimated as ice nucleation activity in snow algae (Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis and Chloromonas nivalis), lichen symbiotic algae (Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia erici and Trebouxia glomerata), and a mesophilic strain (Chlamydomonas reinhardti) were evaluated. Ice nucleation activity was measured using the freezing droplet method. Measurements were performed using suspensions of cells of A750 (absorbance at 750 nm) ~ 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dilutions for each strain. The algae had lower ice nucleation activity, with the exception of Chloromonas nivalis contaminated by bacteria. The supercooling points of the snow algae were higher than those of lichen photobionts. The supercooling points of both, mesophilic and snow Chlamydomonas strains were similar. The lower freezing temperatures of the lichen algae may reflect either the more extreme and more variable environmental conditions of the original localities or the different cellular structure of the strains examined. PMID:23625082

  18. Cars will be fed on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the first and second generations of bio-fuels has led to a rise in food prices and the carbon balance sheet is less good than expected. Great hopes have been put on unicellular algae for they can synthesize oils, sugar and even hydrogen and the competition with food production is far less harsh than with actual bio-fuels. Moreover, when you grow micro-algae, the loss of water through evaporation is less important than in the case of intensive farm cultures. In 2009 10.000 tonnes of micro-algae were produced worldwide, they were mainly used for the production of fish food and of complements for humane food (fat acids and antioxidants). Different research programs concern unicellular algae: they aim at modifying micro-algae genetically in order to give them a higher productivity or to make them produce an oil more adapted for motor fuel or more easily recoverable. (A.C.)

  19. Thermal springs and thermal algae in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mifune, Masaaki (Misasa Branch Hospital, Okayama Univ. Medical School, Misasa Spa, Tottori, Japan)

    1989-03-20

    Oman is situated in the southern east part of the Arabian Peninsula. Specimens of thermal algae in Oman were obtained, and the outlines of thermal springs and thermal algae in Oman are introduced. In Oman, spring waters including thermal springs are precious water resources, and widely used as farming irrigation waters as well as for drinking and bathing purposes. The ranges of temperatures and pH values of the thermal waters are 42.0 - 67.2{sup 0}C and 6.3 - 8.0 respectively. The thermal algae identified were divided into 9 species. The feature of the thermal algae in Oman is that Oscillatorious algae is the dominant species among the alage such as Synechococcus, Cyanidium, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, Mostigocladus, etc. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  1. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  2. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  3. Nonlinear Analysis in a Nutrient-Algae-Zooplankton System with Sinking of Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanjun Dai; Min Zhao

    2014-01-01

    A reaction-diffusion-advection model is proposed for the Zeya Reservoir to study interactions between algae and zooplankton, including the diffusive spread of algae and zooplankton and the sinking of algae. The model is investigated both with and without sinking. Conditions of Hopf and Turing bifurcation in the spatial domain are obtained, and conditions for differential-flow instability that gives rise to the formation of spatial patterns are derived. Using numerical simulation, the authors ...

  4. Role of marine algae in organic farming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    As the efforts to unearth new sources for organic farming accelerate, one needs to evaluate the options available. Marine algae popularly known as seaweeds, have served mankind from times immemorial. form. Seaweed-based fertilizer is rich in growth...

  5. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  6. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  7. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  8. Marine algae and seagrasses of Tekirdag (Black Sea,Turkey)*

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; Erdugan, Hüseyin; DURAL, Berrin; SükranOkudan, E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this study, marine algae and seagrasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea coast of Tekirdag (Turkey) were investigated. A total 156 taxon (153 algae and 3 seagrasses) in species or inferior to the species category were determined. 15 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 84 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 26 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 28 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 3 to marineflowering plants (Magnoliophyta).

  9. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on the value chains in which algae production was positioned within these initiatives. The questionnaire was used by EnAlgae project partners to collect information in Great Britain, Ireland, Germany...

  10. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  11. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  12. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  13. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  14. Radiation effects on algae and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on algae have been summarized in this article. Today, algae are being considered to have the great potential to fulfill the demand of food, fodder, fuel and various pharmaceutical products. Red algae are particularly rich in the content of polysaccharides present in their cell wall. For isolation of these polysaccharides, separation of cells cemented together by middle lamella is essential. The gamma rays are known to bring about biochemical changes in the cell wall and cause the breakdown of the middle lamella. These rays ate also known to speed up the starch sugar inter-conversion in the cells which is very useful for the tapping the potential of algae to be used as biofuel as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Cyanobacteria, among algae and other plants are more resistant to the radiation. In some cyanobacteria the radiation treatment is known to enhance the resistance against the antibiotics. Radiation treatment is also known to enhance the diameter of cell and size of the nitrogen fixing heterocyst. (author)

  15. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. PMID:20547408

  16. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  17. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications. PMID:27206511

  18. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1979-06-01

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs.

  19. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs

  20. Algae a promising alternative for biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sayadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on renewable and environmentally friendly fuel is growing rapidly and many scientists and governments are interested to grow it fast due to limitation of conventional fuel sources and their harmful effects on the environment. Biofuels are not only the best and reliably available fuels attained from renewable sources which are environment friendly. Besdies biofuels are abundantly available in all the locations easily accessible and highly sustainable. In the present review, the authors present a brief highlight of challenges that necessitates to be covered in order to make both, micro as well as macro algae a viable option to produce renewable biofuels. It is interesting to note that algae are varied, pervasive, and productive and also having less impact with plants as a food for human and animals. Further research is required to a high quantity of product innovation because most dedicated algae are faced uneconomically high costs.

  1. Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Qiu, Huan; Rose, Nicholas; Ball, Steven; Weber, Andreas P M; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Krishnan, Anagha; Zäuner, Simone; Morath, Shannon; Hilliou, Frédérique; Egizi, Andrea; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2013-01-01

    The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life. PMID:23770768

  2. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation

  3. Harvesting of algae by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, G V; CLENDENNING, J R; GIBOR, A; BOGAR, F D

    1962-03-01

    A highly efficient froth flotation procedure has been developed for harvesting algae from dilute suspensions. The method does not depend upon the addition of flotants. Harvesting is carried out in a long column containing the feed solution which is aerated from below. A stable column of foam is produced and harvested from a side arm near the top of the column. The cell concentration of the harvest is a function of pH, aeration rate, aerator porosity, feed concentration, and height of foam in the harvesting column. The economic aspects of this process seem favorable for mass harvesting of algae for food or other purposes. PMID:14464557

  4. Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fu...

  5. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  6. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    Occurrence of thraustochytrids, yeasts and mycelial fungi in six marine algae was studied. Thraustochytrids and mycelial fungi were recovered from non-surface-sterilized as well as surface-sterilized pieces of algae, whereas yeasts were isolated...

  7. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  8. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  9. Growth acceleration and photosynthesis of the scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae in deuterium water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to find new way to treat the radioactive tritium waste water, scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae are cultured in medium which contains 30% (w) deuterium water. During different time, activities of photosymthesis, absorption spectrum, growth rate and low-temperature fluorescence spectrum are measured. Accelerated growth is found in the deuterium water compared to the normal water. Activities of photosynthesis show the similar result (Fv/Fm) to the growth data. It is also concluded from low-temperature fluorescence spectra that algae activities in the deuterium water, which are expressed by PS I/PS II, are more sensitive than those in the normal water

  10. ALGAE OF RIVER GANGAWATER BETWEEN BITHOOR TO JAJMAU, KANPUR

    OpenAIRE

    Sachendra Kumar Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Present study deals with the study of algae in Ganga water from Bithoor to Jajmau, Kanpur (U.P.). During present study a total number of 316 algal species spread over 83 chlorophyceae, 108 cyano phyceae, 121 bacillariophyceae, and 4 euglenophyceae were recorded from Ganga water between Bithoor to Jajmau A very large number of planktonic algae including diatoms formed broad chunk of algae. Algae showing luxuriant growth and qualitative abundance are of major significance and their implications...

  11. Catalog of marine benthic algae from New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigue, Claire; Tsuda, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    A catalog of the marine benthic algae (#Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta$ and #Rhodophyta$) reported from New Caledonia is presented in two sections : 1. Classification; 2. Check list with references and localities. There are 35 genera, 130 species of green algae; 23 genera, 59 species of brown algae; and 79 genera, 147 species of red algae which represent a rich algal flora for the subtropics. (Résumé d'auteur)

  12. Marine algae and seagrasses of Samsun (Black Sea, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; DURAL, Berrin; Şenkardeşler, Ayhan; Aysel, Hüseyin Erduğan and Fulya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this investigation, the presence and the distribution of the blue-green algae; Cyanophyeae, 20 taxa, red algae; Rhodophyceae, 106 taxa, one of them is new record for the Blacksea shore of Turkey, Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis var. pusillum brown algae; Fucophyceae, 27 taxa, green algae; Chlorophyceae, 21 taxa, and seagrasses, 2 taxa were identified in the upper infralittoral zone of Samsun (Black Sea) shore of Turkey. A total 176 taxon was determined.

  13. Algae Along Qatar Coasts Utilization And Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    Most of marine algae have no equivalent on earth and therefore could be considered as irreplaceable sources of primary and secondary metabolites. This is especially the case for hydrocolloids from red and brown algae that are cultured and used at an industrial scale for food-processing (carrageenans and agars from red algae and alginates from brown algae are widely used as gelling agents and thickeners) but also for pharmaceutical uses (agar gels for culture of microorganisms). Others main ap...

  14. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  15. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fe

  16. Technetium uptake by the green alga Chlorella fusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astonishingly very small transfer factor of 0.16 ± 0.07 (Bq g-1 fresh algae: Bq ml-1 solution) was found for the uptake of TcO4- by the green alga Chlorella fusca. No dependency of the technetium concentration was observed. These results are in accordance with most other reported values for green algae. (author) 8 refs

  17. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  18. Novel Fiber Optic Fluorometer for the Measurement of Alga Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel fluorometer based on fiber optics is briefly introduced for the measurement of alga concentration. Both the exciting light and the fluorescence from alga chlorophyll are transmitted along a fiber cable. By this way, we can get alga concentration by measuring its chlorophyll-a fluorescence intensity. The experiment results show that this instrument is characterized by good sensitivity, linearity and accuracy.

  19. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  20. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  1. Photosynthetic production of hydrogen by algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.

    1978-09-01

    Because hydrogen as a fuel is very attractive both in energy and ecological terms, the photosynthetic production of hydrogen by some algae is attracting considerable attention. In addition to the ordinary photosynthetic mechanisms, many algae have enzymes which can produce hydrogen: hydrogenation enzymes and nitrogen-fixation enzymes. Certain enzymes with the former begin to produce hydrogen after several hours in an anaerobic envirionment; the reason for the delay is that the hydrogen-producing enzymes must adjust to the anaerobic conditions. Eventually the production of hydrogen ceases because production of oxygen by the ordinary photosynthetic mechanism suppresses activity of the hydrogen-producing enzymes. Any use of these algae to produce hydrogen must involve alternating hydrogen production and rest. Nitrogen-fixing enzymes are found especially in the blue-green algae. These seem to produce hydrogen from organic compounds produced by the ordinary photosynthetic process. The nitrogen-fixation type of hydrogen-producing photosynthesis seems the more promising type for future exploitation.

  2. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  3. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  4. Starch Overproduction by Means of Algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zachleder, Vilém; Brányiková, I.

    Dordrecht, Heidelberg, london, New York: Springer Science+Business Media, 2014 - (Bajpai, R.; Prokop, A.; Zappi, M.), s. 217-240. (Cultivation of cells and products. Volume 1). ISBN 978-94-007-7493-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OE 221; GA MŠk OE09025 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : starch * alga * overproduction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvíderová, Jana; Hájek, J.; Worland, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2013), s. 137-148. ISSN 0143-2044 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601630808; GA AV ČR KJB600050708 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Ice nucleation * snow algae * lichen photobionts Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2013

  6. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Liu; Poul Erik Hansen; Xiukun Lin

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals.

  7. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to...

  8. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  9. Componentes funcionales en aceites de pescado y de alga Functional components in fish and algae oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Conchillo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Buena parte del desarrollo de nuevos alimentos funcionales está encaminada al descubrimiento o aplicación de componentes de los alimentos que favorezcan la instauración de un perfil lipídico saludable en el organismo. El objetivo del trabajo fue realizar la caracterización de la fracción lipídica de dos tipos de aceites, de pescado y de alga, para valorar su potencial utilización como ingredientes funcionales, tanto en relación con el contenido en ácidos grasos de alto peso molecular como con la presencia de esteroles y otros componentes de la fracción insaponificable. Ambos aceites presentaron una fracción lipídica muy rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 de alto peso molecular, con un 33,75% en el caso del aceite de pescado y un 43,97% en el de alga, siendo el EPA el ácido graso mayoritario en el pescado y el DHA en el alga. La relación ω-6/ω-3 fue en ambos aceites inferior a 0,4. En cuanto a la fracciσn insaponificable, el aceite de alga presentσ un contenido 3 veces menor de colesterol y una mayor proporciσn de escualeno. El contenido en fitosteroles fue significativamente superior en el aceite de alga.An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio was lower

  10. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junwei Zhang; Dafang Fu; Jilong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W,λmax =365 nm) was investigated.Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algaewater systems.The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration,and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution.Meanwhile,the cooperation action of algae and Fe(Ⅲ),and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxaciu.The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae.In addition,we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae.This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae,for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution.

  11. Biofuels from algae for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and useful chemicals. Two algae samples (Cladophora fracta and Chlorella protothecoid) were studied for biofuel production. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil, biohydrogen and biomethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 liters per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. Algal oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. The effect of temperature on the yield of hydrogen from two algae (C. fracta and C. protothecoid) by pyrolysis and steam gasification were investigated in this study. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO2, CO, H2, and CH4.The yields of hydrogen by pyrolysis and steam gasification processes of the samples increased with temperature. The yields of gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 8.2% to 39.2% and 9.5% to 40.6% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 575 to 925 K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 25.8% to 44.4% and 27.6% to 48.7% by volume, respectively

  12. Structurally Distinct Cation Channelrhodopsins from Cryptophyte Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

    2016-06-01

    Microbial rhodopsins are remarkable for the diversity of their functional mechanisms based on the same protein scaffold. A class of rhodopsins from cryptophyte algae show close sequence homology with haloarchaeal rhodopsin proton pumps rather than with previously known channelrhodopsins from chlorophyte (green) algae. In particular, both aspartate residues that occupy the positions of the chromophore Schiff base proton acceptor and donor, a hallmark of rhodopsin proton pumps, are conserved in these cryptophyte proteins. We expressed the corresponding polynucleotides in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and studied electrogenic properties of the encoded proteins with whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Despite their lack of residues characteristic of the chlorophyte cation channels, these proteins are cation-conducting channelrhodopsins that carry out light-gated passive transport of Na(+) and H(+). These findings show that channel function in rhodopsins has evolved via multiple routes. PMID:27233115

  13. Hyperaccumulation of radioactive isotopes by marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperaccumlators are effective indicator organisms for monitoring marine pollution by heavy metals and artificial radionuclides. We found a green algae, Bryopsis maxima that hyperaccumulate a stable and radioactive isotopes such as Sr-90, Tc-99, Ba-138, Re-187, and Ra-226. B. maxima showed high concentration factors for heavy alkali earth metals like Ba and Ra, compared with other marine algae in Japan. Furthermore, this species had the highest concentrations for Tc-99 and Re-187. The accumulation and excretion patterns of Sr-85 and Tc-95m were examined by tracer experiments. The chemical states of Sr and Re in living B. maxima were analyzed by HPLC-ICP/MS, LC/MS, and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis using synchrotron radiation. (author)

  14. Use of algae as biofuel sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the algae production technologies such as open, closed and hybrid systems, production costs, and algal energy conversions. Liquid biofuels are alternative fuels promoted with potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuel imports. Biofuels production costs can vary widely by feedstock, conversion process, scale of production and region. Algae will become the most important biofuel source in the near future. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to bio-oil, bioethanol, bio-hydrogen and bimethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Microalgae are theoretically very promising source of biodiesel.

  15. Radiokinetic study in betony marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influx and outflux kinetics of some radionuclides in algae of the Rio de Janeiro coastline, were studied in order to select bioindicators for radioactive contamination in aquatic media, due to the presence of Nuclear Power Stations. Bioassays of the concentration and loss of radionuclides such as 137Cs, 51Cr, 60Co and 131I were performed in 1000cm3 aquarium under controlled laboratory conditions, using a single channel gamma counting system, to study the species of algae most frequently found in the region. The concentration and loss parameters for all the species and radionuclides studied were obtained from the normalized results. The loss parameters were computerwise adjusted using Powell's multiparametric method. (author)

  16. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  17. Flavonoids from the Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Long-Mei(曾陇梅); 曾陇梅; WANG Chao-Jie(王超杰); 王超杰; SU Jing-Yu(苏镜娱); 苏镜娱; LI Du(李笃); 李笃; OWEN Noel L.; OWEN Noel L; LU Yang(吕扬); 吕扬; LU Nan(鲁南); 鲁南; ZHENG Qi-Tai(郑启泰); 郑启泰

    2001-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, acanthophorin A (1) and acanthophorin B (2), along with three known compounds tiliroside (3),( - )-catechin (4) and quercetin (5) were isolated from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera. The structures of 1 and 2were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed significant anfioxidant activity.

  18. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  19. Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Sweet

    Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is

  20. Cytoskeleton and Early Development in Fucoid Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions play important roles during development in many multicellular eukaryotes.Fucoid algae have a long history as models for studying early developmental processes, probably because of the ease with which zygotes can be observed and manipulated in the laboratory. This review discusses cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions in fucoid algal zygotes with an emphasis on the roles played by the cytoskeleton.

  1. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view. PMID:20042280

  2. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm2, pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 109-1.55 x 109 cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m3. The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  3. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Shanshan, E-mail: luck81919@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, Hei Longjiang (China); Yang Jixian; Tian Jiayu; Ma Fang; Tu Gang; Du Maoan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, Hei Longjiang (China)

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 10{sup 9}-1.55 x 10{sup 9} cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m{sup 3}. The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  4. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae. PMID:26905655

  5. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  6. Cytoplasmic inheritance of organelles in brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Taizo; Nagasato, Chikako; Kimura, Kei

    2010-03-01

    Brown algae, together with diatoms and chrysophytes, are a member of the heterokonts. They have either a characteristic life cycle of diplohaplontic alternation of gametophytic and sporophytic generations that are isomorphic or heteromorphic, or a diplontic life cycle. Isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy have been recognized as the mode of sexual reproduction. Brown algae are the characteristic group having elaborated multicellular organization within the heterokonts. In this study, cytoplasmic inheritance of chloroplasts, mitochondria and centrioles was examined, with special focus on sexual reproduction and subsequent zygote development. In oogamy, chloroplasts and mitochondria are inherited maternally. In isogamy, chloroplasts in sporophyte cells are inherited biparentally (maternal or paternal); however, mitochondria (or mitochondrial DNA) derived from the female gamete only remained during zygote development after fertilization. Centrioles in zygotes are definitely derived from the male gamete, irrespective of the sexual reproduction pattern. Female centrioles in zygotes are selectively broken down within 1-2 h after fertilization. The remaining male centrioles play a crucial role as a part of the centrosome for microtubule organization, mitosis, determination of the cytokinetic plane and cytokinesis, as well as for maintaining multicellularity and regular morphogenesis in brown algae. PMID:20145971

  7. Removal of Pb(2+) by biomass of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, A A

    2000-10-01

    New biosorbent material derived from ubiquitous marine algae has been examined in packed-bed flow for Pb(2+) removal through sorption columns. Mixed biomass of marine algae has been used, consisting of representative species of the following algae: Ulva lactuca (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Sargassum asperifolium (brown algae). A mixture of these three species showed a promising removal capacity for Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Lead uptake up to 281.8 mg/g dry algal mixture was observed. Equilibrium was achieved after 120 min. No significant effect of changing the flow rate on the removal capacity was noticed. It was found that Langmuir model expresses the system at pH 4. Mineral acids exhibited good elution properties (a mean of 93%) for recovery of sorbed biomass ions as compared with the tested alkalies (about 60%). PMID:10977889

  8. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Kun; SUN Pei-ting; XIAO Jing-kun; SONG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships' ballast water,experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships' ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.)is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  9. Pseudostimulatory effect of γ-radiation on red algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of γ-irradiation of fragments with doses of 50 to 250 Gy, at the stage of spore formation, the alga biomass increased by 1.4-1.7 times, as compared to control, due to the blockade of processes of decreasing the rate of growth and destruction of telome after the transfer of algae to the sporiferous stage. The radiostimulatory effect was paralleled by the damaging effect of the doses used and was the result of alga damage (pseudostimulation)

  10. Photosynthesis and respiration of some marine benthic algae from Spitsbergen

    OpenAIRE

    Latala, Adam

    1990-01-01

    Light-photosynthesis curves for 9 species of benthic algae from the Hornsund fiord were determined. As a result of adaptation to the conditions in the Arctic, benthic algae from Spitsbergen have a low requirement of light. Saturation and compensation points are low and within a range typical for shadow-tolerant plants.The values for gas exchange rates indicate that Arctic algae have lower photosynthctic capacity than temperate species.

  11. Bromophenols from Marine Algae with Potential Anti-Diabetic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiukun; LIU Ming

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities,including antimicrobial,anticancer,and anti-diabetic effects.Here,we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae,emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications.Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B,α-glucosidase,as well as other mechanisms.

  12. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  13. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal

  14. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of polonium 210Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  15. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of blue-green and green algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantkumar P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of a blue-green alga and two green algae have been investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus nigricans using agar cup-plate method. Blue-green alga, namely, Microchaete tenera ; and green algae, namely, Nitella tenuissima and Sphaeroplea annulina , showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Microchaete tenera showed good antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris and Aspergillus niger. Sphaeroplea annulina showed feeble antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus .

  17. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses. PMID:25537136

  18. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  19. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  20. Inorganic carbon acquisition in some synurophyte algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Shabana; Colman, Brian

    2008-05-01

    Some characteristics of photosynthesis of three synurophyte algae, Synura petersenii, Synura uvella and Tessellaria volvocina were investigated to determine the mechanism of inorganic carbon (C(i)) uptake. All three species were found to have no external carbonic anhydrase, no capacity for direct bicarbonate uptake and a low whole-cell affinity for C(i). The internal pH of S. petersenii determined using (14)C-benzoic acid and [2-(14)C]-5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione was pH 7.0-7.5, over an external pH range of 5.0-7.5. Thus, the pH difference between the cell interior of S. petersenii and the external medium was large enough, over the alga's growth range, to allow the accumulation of C(i) by the diffusive uptake of CO(2). Monitoring O(2) evolution and CO(2) uptake by suspensions of S. petersenii at pH 7.0 by mass spectrometry did not indicate a rapid uptake of CO(2), and the final CO(2) compensation concentration reached was 24 +/- 0.7 microM. Furthermore, when the cells were darkened, a brief burst of CO(2) occurred before a steady rate of dark respiration was established, suggesting a loss of CO(2) by photorespiration. An examination of the kinetics of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in homogenates of cells of S. petersenii, S. uvella and Mallomonas papillosa showed that values of the K(m) (CO(2)) were 28.4, 41.8 and 18.2 microM, respectively. These species lack the characteristics of cells with a CO(2)-concentrating mechanism because the cell affinity for C(i) appears to be determined by the relatively high CO(2) affinity of the Rubisco of these algae. PMID:18298411

  1. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  2. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  3. Algae and extreme environments - ecology and physiology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elster, Josef

    Noordwijk : ESA Publications Division, 2002 - (Lacoste, H.), s. 227-229 ISBN 92-9092-828-X. [European Workshop on Exo/Astrobiology /2./. Graz (AT), 16.09.2002-19.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Grant ostatní: COBRA No. QLRI-CT-2001-01645(EU) French-Czech cooperative research program BARRANDE, No. 99054 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : algae, cyanobacteria, extreme environment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae

  5. ALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Тітлова, О.А.

    2015-01-01

    Today humanity is beginning to understand the consequences of ill-considered use of energy resources. In the last decade  a new direction of the economy is actively developing – «The Blue Economy». Its aim is to find innovative solutions that are safe for the environment and society. Bioenergy is one of the directions of the «Blue Economy» which is actively developing lately. The article discusses the possibility, advisability and examples of the algae use as a feedstock for the energy resour...

  6. Epiphytic algae on mosses in the vicinity of Syowa Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Shuji, Ohtani

    1986-01-01

    Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae on mosses growing in the vicinity of Syowa Station were investigated. Moss samples were collected from three localities, East Ongul Island, Mukai Rocks and Langhovde. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 23 species in total, 16 of blue-green algae, 4 of diatoms, 3 of green algae. Blue-green algae were more frequently found among these epiphytic algae on mosses in each locality. Among the three localities, Langhovde was the m...

  7. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  9. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  10. The algae biodiesel physical property and spray parameters modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Колодницька, Руслана Віталіївна; Васильєв, Руслан

    2015-01-01

    The modelling of micro-algae biodiesel density, viscosity and surface tension was performed. The spray middle diameters of droplets in diesel engine were counted.   It was shown that the property of algae biodiesel can be compare with  traditional biodiesel based on rapeseed oil.

  11. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  12. Comments on the Manuscript, "Biodiesel Production from Freshwater Algae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent publication (Vijayaragahavan, K.; Hemanathan, K., Biodiesel from freshwater algae, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23(11):5448-5453) on fuel production from algae is evaluated. It is discussed herein that the fuel discussed in that paper is not biodiesel, rather it probably consists of hydrocarbons. ...

  13. Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, H.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone;

    1996-01-01

    The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source of......'Etoile, France), but further genetic and physiological analyses identified them as Shewanella alga....

  14. New Records for the Freshwater Algae of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BAYKAL, Tülay; AKBULUT, Aydın; İlkay AÇIKGÖZ

    2009-01-01

    Algae samples were collected from important dam lakes and running waters of the Lower Euphrates Basin. Eighteen new records of Turkish freshwater algae were identified. Among these new records, 5 belong to Cyanophyta, 10 to Chlorophyta, 1 to Xanthophyta, and 2 to Bacillariophyta.

  15. First Case of Osteomyelitis Due to Shewanella algae

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho-Nevers, E.; Gouriet, F.; Rovery, C.; Paris, P.; Roux, V.; Raoult, D.; Brouqui, P.

    2005-01-01

    Shewanella spp. are infrequently recovered from clinical specimens. We report here on the first case of osteomyelitis due to Shewanella algae. This bacterium, at first misidentified by phenotypic tests as Shewanella putrefaciens, was subsequently identified correctly as S. algae by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

  16. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter. PMID:12868282

  17. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  18. Rubidium efflux from the alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compartmental analysis of 86Rb outflux into a non-radioactive medium suggests that the distribution of potassium (for which rubidium seems to be a satisfactory marker) in the alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum is uniform, i.e. at the medium conditions used (0.1 mM CaCl2, 0.1 mM NaCl and 1.0 mM KCl) the potassium concentration is practically equal in the cytoplasm and in the vacuole. The unidirectional potassium flux across the tonoplast (about one order of magnitude lower than that across the plasmalemma) thus appears to be passive and does not result in an appreciable electrochemical potential difference of the potassium ion. (author)

  19. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  20. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  1. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  2. Algae Technology for Reduction of Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short overview about the climate situation with regard to CO2, the physiology of photosynthesis will be explained in nonprofessional's style using algae as an example. The photosynthesis products and their conversions into valuable materials for human nutrition or into base substances for diverse industries will be described. Furthermore, I will introduce the state of the art on current scientific projects aiming to improve algae productivity and for the synthesis of therapeutically medicinal proteins. A highly productive algae facility will be introduced including its integration in an energy concept.(author)

  3. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13N, 24Na and 22Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  4. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  5. A survey of Marine Algae and Seagrasses of İstanbul, (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erduğan, H.; Dural, B.; Okudan, E.Ş.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this research, have been studied marine algae in the upper infralittoral zone of the Bosphorus coasts of İstanbul (including Bosphorus) . A total of 244 taxon have been determined. 11 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 127 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 46 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 60 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 2 to flowering plants (Tracheophyta).

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 on sensitivity of six species of algae and interspecific competition of three species of algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (5000 μl/L) on sensitivity comparison of six species of algae and interspecific competition of three species of algae were investigated. The results showed that, the cell densities of six species of algae grown in elevated CO2significantly increased compared to those in ambient CO2 (360 μl/L), and with the time prolonged, the increasing extent increased.Therefore, elevated CO2 can promote the growth of six species of algae. However, there were differences in sensitivity between six species of algae. Based on the effects of elevated CO2 on biomass, the sensitive order (from high to low) was Platymanas sp.,Platymanas subcordiformis, Nitzschia closterium, Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, Dunaliella salina, Chlorella sp., on the condition of solitary cultivation. Compared to ambient CO2, elevated CO2 promoted the growth of three species of algae, Platymanas subcordiformis, Nitzschia closterium and Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701 under the condition of mixed cultivation. The sensitivity of the three species to elevated CO2 in mixed cultivation changed a lot compared to the condition of solitary cultivation. When grown in elevated CO2 under the condition of mixed cultivation, the sensitive order from high to low were Nitzschia clostertium, Platymonas subcordiformis and Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701. However, under the condition of solitary cultivation, the sensitive order in elevated CO2 was Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, Nitzschia clostertium, Platymonas subcordiformis, from sensitive to less sensitive. On the day 21, the dominant algae, the sub-dominant algae and inferior algae grown in elevated CO2 did not change. However, the population increasing dynamic and composition proportion of three algal species have significantly changed.

  7. AlgaeEconomics: bio-economic production models of micro-algae and downstream processing to produce bio energy carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.; Schipperus, R.; Kootstra, A.M.J.; de Visser

    2015-01-01

    This report describes results of work carried out within the EnAlgae project to describe production costs and identify the variables that have most effect in determining future cost prices so that R&D can be focussed on these issues. This has been done by making use of pilots within the EnAlgae consortium and by describing the process in Excel models that have been spread among and discussed with stakeholders active in the field of commercial algae production. The expectation is that this...

  8. Chemical examination of the Red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analyses of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the marine alga Acanthophora spicifera exhibiting antifertility activity led to the isolation of sterols and fatty acids as well as the rare dipeptides aurantiamides. All the compounds were...

  9. Glycolipids from the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al-Fadhli, A.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    Three distinct fractions containing polar glycolipids (PF1–3) were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of crude methanolic extract of red alga Chondria armata (Kütz.) Okamura on gel chromatography over Sephadex LH20. Their structure...

  10. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported. PMID:22728180

  11. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  12. The plastid genome of the red alga Laurencia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Heroen; Costa, Joana F

    2015-06-01

    We present the 174,935 nt long plastid genome of the red alga Laurencia sp. JFC0032. It is the third plastid genome characterized for the largest order of red algae (Ceramiales). The circular-mapping plastid genome is small compared to most florideophyte red algae, and our comparisons show a trend toward smaller plastid genome sizes in the family Rhodomelaceae, independent from a similar trend in Cyanidiophyceae. The Laurencia genome is densely packed with 200 annotated protein-coding genes (188 widely conserved, 3 open reading frames shared with other red algae and 9 hypothetical coding regions). It has 29 tRNAs, a single-copy ribosomal RNA cistron, a tmRNA, and the RNase P RNA. PMID:26986672

  13. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eWang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO2 and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In the article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed.

  14. Kalaärimeeste kohus algas venitamisega / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2007-01-01

    Harju maakohtus algas kohtuprotsess veterinaar- ja toiduameti endise asejuhi Vladimir Razumovski väidetava altkäemaksuvõtmise üle, kus on süüdistavaid eraisikuid ja ettevõtjaid. Lisa: Kes on kohtu all?

  15. Removal of nutrients by algae from municipal wastewater contaminated with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Bigyan

    2015-01-01

    Selected species of algae (green algae and blue green algae) were cultivated in municipal wastewater using PBR (photo-bioreactor) bottles. Uptake of nutrients by these algae species was measured on different dates. From the results of the experiments, it was observed that a combination of certain blue green algae species (cyanobacteria) was able to remove most of the nutrients from the wastewater. The presence of heavy metal ions in the wastewater also affected the nutrient-absorbing capacit...

  16. THE ALGAE OF LITTORAL SALT MARSHES OF THE MOLOCHNIY LIMAN LEFT BANK

    OpenAIRE

    Yaroviy S.O.; Solonenko A.M.; Yarovaya T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Data on algae floristic spectrum of coastal salt marshes of the left bank of Molochny liman were presented. Thealgae diversity was presented by four compartments: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Xanthophyta. Theregistered algae belong to 15 orders, 20 families, and 27 genera. The Cyanophyta algae were the dominant in exploredsalt marshes, counted 56% from total discovered species. The schematic algae structure of left bank salt marshes ofMolochniy liman was performed, some algae...

  17. Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02

    OpenAIRE

    Voort, van der, R.; Vulsteke, E.; de Visser

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these market characteristics a conclusion is drawn on the market potential for algae products. Per market desk research is done and literature is consulted to create a reliable market outlook.

  18. Taxonomy of marine micro-algae - An addendum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    . V. S. LIGADE D. SREEDHAR M. AJAY N. UDUPA* Department of Pharmacy Management, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal 576 104, India *e-mail: n.udupa@manipal.edu Taxonomy of marine micro-algae, an addendum... in the marine environment. Let me cite micro-algae (free- floating microscopic plants of 20–200 µm size) in particular as an example, since they are discussed over decades globally for notoriety in forming toxic or harmful algal blooms (HAB). Perhaps...

  19. Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possess endogenous sialylated N-glycans

    OpenAIRE

    Mamedov, Tarlan; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2011-01-01

    Green algae have a great potential as biofactories for the production of proteins. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a representative of eukaryotic microalgae, has been extensively used as a model organism to study light-induced gene expression, chloroplast biogenesis, photosynthesis, light perception, cell–cell recognition, and cell cycle control. However, little is known about the glycosylation machinery and N-linked glycan structures of green algae. In this study, we performed mass spectrometry a...

  20. Cytotoxicity of Algae Extracts on Normal and Malignant Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Liesveld; Karen Rosell; Jeremy Bechelli; Myra Coppage

    2011-01-01

    Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun), Astaxanthin (Ast), Spirulina platensis (Spir), and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primar...

  1. Accumulation and excretion of radionuclides by alga Chara tomentosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been found in the course of the study of accumulation and excretion of radionuclides by alga chara tomentosa that 55Fe, 60Co, 91Y are accumulated by living and dead components of alga chara tomentosa to a far greater extent and are stronger retained than 90Sr, 137Cs, 144Ce. The main part of the absorbed quantities of all investigated nuclides (80-92%) is fixed on the surface of the plant in the ''cortex'' layer

  2. Evolution of reproductive development in the volvocine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Hallmann, Armin

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of multicellularity, the separation of germline cells from sterile somatic cells, and the generation of a male–female dichotomy are certainly among the greatest innovations of eukaryotes. Remarkably, phylogenetic analysis suggests that the shift from simple to complex, differentiated multicellularity was not a unique progression in the evolution of life, but in fact a quite frequent event. The spheroidal green alga Volvox and its close relatives, the volvocine algae, span the fu...

  3. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Kaysheva; M. N. Arkhipova; A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus) and red (Ahnfeltia plicata) algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results ...

  5. Homogeneity of Danish Environmental and Clinical Isolates of Shewanella algae

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, Hanne Marie; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Bundvad, Anemone; Søgaard, Per; Gram, Lone

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the prima...

  6. Molecular Characterization of Epiphytic Bacterial Communities on Charophycean Green Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Madeline M.; Wilcox, Lee W.; Linda E Graham

    1998-01-01

    Epiphytic bacterial communities within the sheath material of three filamentous green algae, Desmidium grevillii, Hyalotheca dissiliens, and Spondylosium pulchrum (class Charophyceae, order Zygnematales), collected from a Sphagnum bog were characterized by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. A total of 20 partial sequences and nine different sequence types were obtained, and one sequence type was recovered from the bacterial communities on all three algae. By phyl...

  7. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-01

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential. PMID:22681590

  8. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that 137Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg-1 dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 210Po and 210Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg-1 dry weight) for 210Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate 210Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br

  9. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-12-21

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  10. Micro-algae: French players discuss the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 75000 species of algae have been reported so far, the domains of application are huge and investment are increasing all around the world. One of the difficulties is to find the most appropriate algae to a specific application. Some development programs have failed scientifically or economically for instance the production of protein for animal food from the chlorella algae or the production of bio-fuel from C14-C18 chains, from zeaxanthine and from phycoerytrine. On the other side some research programs have led to promising industrial applications such as the production of food for fish and farm animals. Some research fields are completely innovative such as the use of micro-algae for the construction of bio-walls for buildings. Micro-algae are diverse and fragile. Photo-bioreactors have been designed to breed fragile algae like some types of chlorophycees used in bio-fuel and in cosmetics, a prototype has been tested for 15 months and its production is about 2 kg of dry matter a day. (A.C.)

  11. Biofuels and algae; Biocarburants, la promesse des algues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-15

    Bio-fuels based on micro-algae are promising, their licensing for being used in plane fuels in a mix containing 50% of fossil kerosene is expected in the coming months. In United-States research on bio-fuels has been made more important since 2006 when 2 policies were launched: 'Advanced energy initiative' and 'Twenty-in-ten', the latter aiming to develop alternative fuels. In Europe less investment has been made concerning micro-algae fuels but research programs were launched in Spain, United-Kingdom and France. In France 3 important projects were launched: SHAMASH (2006-2010) whose aim is to produce lipidic fuels from micro-algae, ALGOHUB (2008-2013) whose aim is to use micro-algae as a raw material for humane and animal food, medicine and cosmetics, SYMBIOSE (2009-2011) whose aim is the optimization of the production of methane through the anaerobic digestion of micro-algae, SALINALGUE (2010-2016) whose aim is to grow micro-algae for the production of bio-energies and bio-products. (A.C.)

  12. Study on Algae Removal by Immobilized Biosystem on Sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Haiyan; HU Wenrong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake's water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae,organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively.The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans.Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  13. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  14. Microfluidic one-way streets for algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Jorn; Kantsler, Vasily; Polin, Marco; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-02-01

    Controlling locomotion and transport of microorganisms is a key challenge in the development of future biotechnological applications. Here, we demonstrate the use of optimized microfluidic ratchets to rectify the mean swimming direction in suspensions of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is a promising candidate for the photosynthetic production of hydrogen. To assess the potential of microfluidic barriers for the manipulation of algal swimming, we studied first the scattering of individual C. reinhardtii from solid boundaries. High-speed imaging reveals the surprising result that these quasi-spherical ``puller''-type microswimmers primarily interact with surfaces via direct flagellar contact, whereas hydrodynamic effects play a subordinate role. A minimal theoretical model, based on run-and-turn motion and the experimentally measured surface-scattering law, predicts the existence of optimal wedge-shaped ratchets that maximize rectification of initially uniform suspensions. We confirm this prediction in experimental measurements with different geometries. Since the mechano-elastic properties of eukaryotic flagella are conserved across many genera, we expect that our results and methods are applicable to a broad class of biflagellate microorganisms.

  15. Is the Future Really in Algae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we "cultivate" enerm without competing with agriculture for land, freshwater, or fertilizer? Can we develop an "ecology of technology" that optimizes our use of limited resources? Is human activity compatible with improved conditions in the world's oceans? Will our ingenuity prevail in time to make a difference for our children and the children of all species? With support from NASA ARMD and the California Energy Commission, a group of dedicated scientists and engineers are working on a project called OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae), to provide practical answers to these critical questions and to leave a legacy of hope for the oceans and for the future.

  16. Two-Step Evolution of Endosymbiosis between Hydra and Algae

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-07-09

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  17. [Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Green Algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-05-01

    Coptis chinensis contains antiseptic alkaloids and thus its rhizomes and preparations are widely used for the treatment of.fish diseases. In order to realize the risk of water ecosystems produced by this medical herb and preparations used in aquaculture, the present experiment was carried out to study the toxicity of Coptis chinensis rhizome extract (CRE) to Scenedesmus oblique and Chlorella pyrenoidosa grown in culture solution with 0.00 (CK), 0.088 (Tl), 0.44 (T2) and 1.76 mg · L(-1) (T3) of CRE, respectively. The results show that low concentration of CRE (T1) inhibited the growth rate of the alga and high CRE (T2 and T3) ceased growth and reproductions. CRE also decreased the chlorophyll and proteins in alga cells, indicating the inhibition of photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis, which could be direct reasons for the low growth rate and death of green alga. The efflux of protons and substances from alga cells led to pH reduction and conductivity increment in culture solution with CRE. Furthermore, the activity of superoxide dismutase in alga increased at the beginning of CRE in T1 and T2 treatments but decreased as time prolonged which was in contrast to high CRE treatment. And the long exposure to low CRE treatment behaved otherwise. This suggests that the low concentration of CRE could induce the resistant reactions in alga at initial time but high CRE concentration or long exposure even at low CRE concentration could inhibit the enzyme synthesis. Similarly, malondialdehyde in alga increased as CRE concentrations increased in culture solutions, implying the damage and high permeability of cell membrane. In general, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was more sensitive to CRE. The abuse of rhizomes and preparations in aquaculture and intensive cultivation of Coptis chinensis plants in a large scale might produce ecological risks to primary productivity of water ecosystems. PMID:26314112

  18. Two-step evolution of endosymbiosis between hydra and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians. PMID:27404042

  19. [Comparison of histone-like proteins from blue-green algae with ribosomal basic proteins of alga and wheat germ histones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofshteĭn, L V; Iurina, N P; Romashkin, V I; Oparin, A I

    1975-01-01

    Histone-like proteins was found in blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans, which has no nucleus. F2b2, F2a2, F2a1 fractions were found in histone-like algae proteins and no fraction F1. Content of basic amino acids (arginine being prevailing in algae protein) is quite identical in histone-like algae proteins and in wheat germs histones, while the content of acid amino acids is considerably higher in algae. The presence in procaryotic cells of basic proteins similar in a number of properties to histones of higher organisms suggests that these proteins are evolutionary precursors of eucaryotic histones. PMID:813782

  20. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  1. Conversion of solar energy to liquid fuels via algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, J.T.; Mauldin, G.L.; Phelan, P.F.

    1980-12-01

    Conceptual designs for a commercial algae farm and alcohol plant are presented in this paper. The designs envision algae being grown in shallow basins and being harvested continuously. The algae would then be degraded by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermented to produce alcohol which would be concentrated to 190 proof by distillation. Protein from the algae would be a valuable by-product that could be sold as animal feed. An economic analysis is described, and the results are compared with the costs of other common processes for producing energy. The sensitivity of the venture to uncertainties in plant investment, utility costs and other parameters is discussed. The design is based on an annual growth rate of 160 T of algae per acre. This is over 10 times the best yield ever observed experimentally. The calculations and reasons for assuming this extraordinarily high yield are presented in detail. This paper summarizes scientists' present understanding of photosynthesis and photorespiration and explains how culture conditions must be adjusted to achieve high yields.

  2. Application of algae-biosensor for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Lazuardi; Alexander, Frank A; Wiest, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Environmental problems including water and air pollution, over fertilization, insufficient wastewater treatment and even ecological disaster are receiving greater attention in the technical and scientific area. In this paper, a method for water quality monitoring using living green algae (Chlorella Kessleri) with the help of the intelligent mobile lab (IMOLA) is presented. This measurement used two IMOLA systems for measurement and reference simultaneously to verify changes due to pollution inside the measurement system. The IMOLA includes light emitting diodes to stimulate photosynthesis of the living algae immobilized on a biochip containing a dissolved oxygen microsensor. A fluid system is used to transport algae culture medium in a stop and go mode; 600s ON, 300s OFF, while the oxygen concentration of the water probe is measured. When the pump stops, the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration due to photosynthesis is detected. In case of a pollutant being transported toward the algae, this can be detected by monitoring the photosynthetic activity. Monitoring pollution is shown by adding emulsion of 0,5mL of Indonesian crude palm oil and 10mL algae medium to the water probe in the biosensor. PMID:26737928

  3. THE FAMILY CALCIFOLIACEAE EMEND.,MISSISSIPPIAN-EARLY PENNSYLVANIAN ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL VACHARD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Fasciellaceae was created as a group of red algae. It was emended as a tribe Fascielleae of incertae sedis algae, and related to the tribe Calcifolieae Shuysky emend. Vachard & Cózar. The tribes Fascielleae and Calcifolieae both constitute the family Calcifoliaceae emend. This family is actually a homogeneous group, and could be more or less closely related with some questionable Moravamminales and Aoujgaliales: Claracrustaceae, Labyrinthoconaceae and Donezellaceae. All these microfossils were successively considered as green algae, red algae, "phylloid" algae, or fibres of calcispongia. The genera included in Fascielleae are: Fasciella, Praedonezella, and ?Kulikaella. The genera Calcifolium, Falsocalcifolium and Frustulata are included in the Calcifolieae. The phylogeny of the Calcifoliaceae is reconstructed. Thus, the family appears to be ancestrally linked, in the early Mississippian and even earlier in the Devonian, to Kulikaella, Stacheoidella, Pseudostacheoides, Pokorninella and Precorninella. The Calcifoliaceae are important for the zonation of the Late Mississippian-earliest Pennsylvanian (early Bashkirian interval (Asbian to Siuransky in the carbonate platform facies from western Palaeotethys and Ural Oceans.

  4. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131I, 129Tem, and 110Agm and lowest for radiocesium and 140Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  5. Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp. and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp. separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. Size and orientation of these areas were dependent on flow regime. For corals and algae in close proximity the 2D optodes show areas of extremely low oxygen concentration at the interaction interfaces under both dark (18.4 ± 7.7 µmol O2 L- 1 and daylight (97.9 ± 27.5 µmol O2 L- 1 conditions. These images present the first two-dimensional visualization of oxygen gradients generated by benthic reef algae and corals under varying flow conditions and provide a 2D depiction of previously observed hypoxic zones at coral algae interfaces. This approach allows for visualization of locally confined, distinctive alterations of oxygen concentrations facilitated by benthic organisms and provides compelling evidence for hypoxic conditions at coral-algae interaction zones.

  6. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  7. Algae-bacteria interactions: Evolution, ecology and emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Rishiram; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Algae and bacteria have coexisted ever since the early stages of evolution. This coevolution has revolutionized life on earth in many aspects. Algae and bacteria together influence ecosystems as varied as deep seas to lichens and represent all conceivable modes of interactions - from mutualism to parasitism. Several studies have shown that algae and bacteria synergistically affect each other's physiology and metabolism, a classic case being algae-roseobacter interaction. These interactions are ubiquitous and define the primary productivity in most ecosystems. In recent years, algae have received much attention for industrial exploitation but their interaction with bacteria is often considered a contamination during commercialization. A few recent studies have shown that bacteria not only enhance algal growth but also help in flocculation, both essential processes in algal biotechnology. Hence, there is a need to understand these interactions from an evolutionary and ecological standpoint, and integrate this understanding for industrial use. Here we reflect on the diversity of such relationships and their associated mechanisms, as well as the habitats that they mutually influence. This review also outlines the role of these interactions in key evolutionary events such as endosymbiosis, besides their ecological role in biogeochemical cycles. Finally, we focus on extending such studies on algal-bacterial interactions to various environmental and bio-technological applications. PMID:26657897

  8. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  9. Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em

  10. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  11. [Immunostimulating activity of the lipopolysaccharides of blue-green algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besednova, N N; Smolina, T P; Mikheĭskaia, L V; Ovodova, R G

    1979-12-01

    The whole cells of blue-gree algae and lipopolysaccharides isolated from these cells were shown to stimulate the production of macro-(mainly) and microglobulin antibodies in rabbits. The macro- and microphage indices in rabbits increased significantly after the injection of LPS isolated from blue-green algae 24--48 hours before infecting the animals with a virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis strain. Besides, the inhibiting action of this strain on the migration of phagocytes to the site of infection was abolished immediately after the injection. The use of the indirect hemagglutination test allowed to prove the absence of close antigenic interrelations between blue-green algae and the following organisms: Spirulina platensis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Phormidium africanum and P. uncinatum. PMID:117655

  12. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xinping; ZHU Xiaobin; DENG Liping; DENG Zhiwei; LIN Wenhan

    2006-01-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2).cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5).cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  13. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

  14. The attached algae community near Pickering GS: III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between attached algae and macro-invertebrates in the nearshore zone of Lake Ontario was investigated in the vicinity of the Pickering 'A' NGS. Measures of faunal density, richness, evenness, and biomass were generally higher from areas which supported attached algae. Gammarus fasciatus, Cricotopus bicinctus, Dicrotendipes spp., Orthocladius obumbratus, Cladotanytarsus spp., Orthocladius spp., and Parakiefferiella spp., were significantly correlated with algal standing crop. All of the above dominant invertebrates ingested epiphytes associated with Cladophora glomerata. Attempts to explain the distribution of the zoobenthic assemblages using the physical/biological characteristics of the study area indicated algal cover, substrate size, wind velocity and water temperature were most important

  15. Uptake of americium-241 by algae and bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of americium by three algae, scenedesmus obliquus, selenastrum capricomutum and chlorella pyrenosdosa and a bacterium aeromonas hydrophila was studied. Live and fixed cells of each algal species and live bacterial cells were used. it is shown that algae and bacteria concentrate americium 241 to a high degree which makes them important links in the biomagnification phenomenon which may ultimately lead to a human hazard and be potentially important in recycling Am 241 in the water column and mobilization from sediments. Chemical fixation of algal cells caused increased uptake which indicated that uptake is by passive diffusion and probably due to chemical alteration of surface binding sites. (U.K.)

  16. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Baltmiškytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential are built to estimate the best model fitting for algae quantity prediction. Unknown model parameters are estimated and Bayesian kriging prediction posterior distribution is computed in OpenBUGS modeling environment by using Bayesian spatial statistics methods.

  17. Algae as promising organisms for environment and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-09-01

    Algae, like other plants, produce a variety of remarkable compounds collectively referred to as secondary metabolites. They are synthesized by these organisms at the end of the growth phase and/or due to metabolic alterations induced by environmental stress conditions. Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phycobiliprotein pigments, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids are same of the algal natural products, which were reported to have variable biological activities, including antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, antimicroabial activity against bacteria-virus-algae-fungi, organic fertilizer and bioremediation potentials. PMID:21862867

  18. Algas (Phaeophyta) presentes en productos comerciales utilizados para adelgazar

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Patricia Marta; Correa, Rubén Florestan; Cortella, Alicia Rita

    1997-01-01

    Numerosos registros bibliográficos se refieren a la utilización de algas en tratamientos para combatir la obesidad. En particular, están muy difundidos los productos comerciales que contienen algas pardas (Phaeophyta), principalmente del género Fucus. En el presente trabajo se analizaron los contenidos de muestras comerciales de diverso origen, en sus distintas formas farmacéuticas. Se identificaron principalmente dos géneros de Phaeophyta: Fucus y Ascophyllum. Se encontraron además elementos...

  19. Chemical composition of the green alga Codium Divaricatum Holmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhizhou; Zhang, Anjiang; Ding, Lisheng; Lei, Xinxiang; Sun, Jianzhang; Zhang, Lixue

    2010-12-01

    A new sterol, 24-R-stigmasta-4,25-diene-3β,6β-diol (1), along with three known compounds (2-3), was isolated from the green alga Codium divaricatum Holmes, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is efficacious against cancer. All structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and comparison with related known compounds. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography allowed us to confirm the structure of 1. To our knowledge, the compound 1 is reported as the first from natural source, and compounds 2, 4 have not been isolated from green algae before. PMID:20655992

  20. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, H.M.; Gerner-Smidt, P.;

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random...... amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection....

  1. Smallest algae thrive as the Arctic Ocean freshens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, William K W; McLaughlin, Fiona A; Lovejoy, Connie; Carmack, Eddy C

    2009-10-23

    As climate changes and the upper Arctic Ocean receives more heat and fresh water, it becomes more difficult for mixing processes to deliver nutrients from depth to the surface for phytoplankton growth. Competitive advantage will presumably accrue to small cells because they are more effective in acquiring nutrients and less susceptible to gravitational settling than large cells. Since 2004, we have discerned an increase in the smallest algae and bacteria along with a concomitant decrease in somewhat larger algae. If this trend toward a community of smaller cells is sustained, it may lead to reduced biological production at higher trophic levels. PMID:19900890

  2. Assessment of calcareous alga Corallina pilulifera as elemental provider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcareous algae such as Corallina pilulifera Postels et Ruprecht can be one of the most potential candidates to be used in biological carbon dioxide assimilation to reduce greenhouse effect because of its calcification capacity as well as photosynthesis if utilized extensively and properly. The major elemental composition of C. pilulifera is as follows: sodium 0.13%, chloride 1.75%, magnesium 4.37%, calcium 18.4%, iron 0.31%, and carbonate 28.5%. Calcareous algae can be used as elemental provider for livestock or agriculture. (author)

  3. Bioecology of an articulated coralline alga Amphiroa fragilissima from Anjuna, Goa, Central Western Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ambiye, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    An articulated coralline alga Amphiroa fragilissima L. Lam. was found to exhibit spasmogenic and hypotensive activities due to the presence of a biogenic amine. This biologically active alga was studied for its bioecology. Its thallus is multiaxial...

  4. A Novel Aeration Method for the Preparation of Algae (Dunaliella Salina Biomass for Biofuel Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.O. Enwereuzoh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of algae (Dunaliela Salina biomass in ammonia (NH4 + and nitrate (NO3 - growth media for biofuel production was investigated, with special attention on the elimination of inhibitory oxygen that adversely affects algae growth. A novel aeration method based on high and efficient transfer of carbon dioxide (CO2 required to stabilize the CO2 of the algae growth medium in a short time was adopted for the elimination of the inhibitory oxygen. The novel aeration method was found to increase the algae growth rate in the growth media investigated as suggested by increases in pH and decreases in dissolved oxygen concentration. However, algae grown in ammonia medium showed 17% higher growth rate than algae grown in nitrate medium. The high mass transfer of CO2 and high energy efficiency make the novel aeration method of algae growth in ammonia medium better suited for high yield of algae biomass for biofuel production.

  5. Algae of economic importance that accumulate cadmium and lead: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila O. Souza; Lizângela R. Ferreira; Natanael R. X. Pires; Pedro J. S. Filho; Fabio A. Duarte; Claudio M. P. Pereira; Márcia F. Mesko

    2012-01-01

    Currently, algae and algae products are extensively applied in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Algae are the main organisms that take up and store heavy metals. Therefore, the use of compounds derived from algae by the pharmaceutical industry should be closely monitored for possible contamination. The pollution generated by heavy metals released by industrial and domestic sources causes serious changes in the aquatic ecosystem, resulting in a loss of biological diversity and...

  6. BEBERAPA MARGA ALGA BENANG DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEBERADAAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI BALI UTARA

    OpenAIRE

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-01-01

    A study of filamentous algae and its relation to malaria vector control was conducted during the dry season in several lagoons at the north coast of Bali. Floating masses of these algae under the sunshine barricated the spread of solar-triton larvicide, reducing tremendously the effectiveness of the larvicide. Identification of the genera of these algae under the subphyllum of CYANOPHYTA (Blue Algae) in the family of Cyanophyceae were Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Phormidium, Rivularia, Nostoc, an...

  7. Green algae in alpine biological soil crust communities: acclimation strategies against ultraviolet radiation and dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten, Ulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are major components of biological soil crusts in alpine habitats. Together with cyanobacteria, fungi and lichens, green algae form a pioneer community important for the organisms that will succeed them. In their high altitudinal habitat these algae are exposed to harsh and strongly fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly intense irradiation, including ultraviolet radiation, and lack of water leading to desiccation. Therefore, green algae surviving in these environments must ...

  8. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska; Teresa Mrozińska

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland), in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances). The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epili...

  9. Research of Influence of Aniline on the Growth of Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Haiyuan; WANG Xian

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of aniline and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. It is showed by experimental results that aniline has pretty toxic effects on algae. Suspended substances in water can offset some effects of aniline. It also discusses the dynamic constant of first order degradation reaction rate of algae on aniline from the point of view of chemical dynamics.

  10. Vitamin A, nutrition, and health values of algae: Spirulina, Chlorella, and Dunaliella

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, G.; Suter, P M

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro and micro nutrients have been studied and confirmed in various populations. The safety of human consuming these algae and products derived from these algae by humans has been widely studied. It is ...

  11. Viruses of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae isolated from Paramecium bursaria and Hydra viridis

    OpenAIRE

    James L Van Etten; Meints, Russel H.; Kuczmarski, Daniel; Burbank, Dwight E.; Lee, Kit

    1982-01-01

    We previously reported that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from the Florida strain of Hydra viridis induced replication of a virus (designated HVCV-1) in the algae. We now report that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from four other sources of green hydra and one source of the protozoan Paramecium bursaria also induced virus synthesis. Algae from one of these hydra contained a virus identical to HVCV-1 (based on its rate of sedimentation, buoyant density, reaction to H...

  12. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  13. Relationship between carbohydrate movement and the symbiosis in lichens with green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D J; Ahmadjian, V

    1972-09-01

    When isolated in pure culture, four genera of lichen algae were able to produce the polyol which is known to move from the alga to the fungus in lichens with these algae. This conclusion corrects earlier suggestions that the mobile polyol is only formed by the alga in the lichen thallus. Stichococcus produced sorbitol and it is therefore suggested that, in lichens with this alga, sorbitol moves between the symbionts. Hyalococcus and Stichococcus had a similar pattern of incorporation of H(14)CO 3 (-) in the light, suggesting a close relationship between these algae which are only separated now on morphological grounds.The pattern of incorporation of H(14)CO 3 (-) in the light into Cladonia cristatella and its alga (Trebouxia erici) in culture indicates that in the cultured algae more (14)C was incorporated into ethanol insoluble substances and lipids and less into ribitol than in the lichen. The pattern in a joint culture of the alga and the fungus of C. cristatella was approximately intermediate between that of the lichen and the alga. However, only a small amount of (14)C fixed by the alga reached the fungus in the joint culture, and it is therefore suggested that the presence of the fungus without morphological differentiation into a lichen thallus is not sufficient to promote the alga to release carbohydrate. PMID:24481561

  14. New methodologies for the integration of power plants with algae ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, K.; Gijp, S. van der; Stel, R.W van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally recognized that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fee

  15. Oxidative stress and antioxidant indices of marine alga Porphyra vietnamensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pise, N.M.; Gaikwad, D.K.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems were assessed in a marine red alga Porphyra vietnamensis Tanaka et Pham-Hoang Ho, from India. Lipid peroxidation (LPX) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were measured as oxidative...

  16. Lipid constituents of the red alga Acantophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Govenkar, M.B.

    A new steroid cholest-4-ene-3 alpha, 6 beta-diol together with the known cholest-4-ene-3-one, lauric acid and O-phathalic acid bis-(2-ethyl nonly)-ester were isolated from the red alga Acantophora spicifera. The structures of these compounds were...

  17. Free Sterols of the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    The free sterols of the red alga, Chondria armata have been identified by means of NMR, EIMS and GCMS analyses. The mixture contained besides cholesterol, C sub(28) and C sub(29) saturated as well as unsaturated components. The major component...

  18. New bromotriterpene polyethers from the Indian alga Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Scognamiglio, G.; Cimino, G.

    Six new bromotriterpene polyethers, armatol A-F (1-6), with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from the Indian Ocean red alga Chondria armata. The structures were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, in particular 1D- and 2D-NMR...

  19. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  20. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Stephen P.; Franklin, Scott E.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Although combinatorial antibody libraries have solved the problem of access to large immunological repertoires, efficient production of these complex molecules remains a problem. Here we demonstrate the efficient expression of a unique large single-chain (lsc) antibody in the chloroplast of the unicellular, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We achieved high levels of protein accumulation by synthesizing the lsc gene in chloroplast codon bias and by driving expression of the chimeric gene using either of two C. reinhardtii chloroplast promoters and 5' and 3' RNA elements. This lsc antibody, directed against glycoprotein D of the herpes simplex virus, is produced in a soluble form by the alga and assembles into higher order complexes in vivo. Aside from dimerization by disulfide bond formation, the antibody undergoes no detectable posttranslational modification. We further demonstrate that accumulation of the antibody can be modulated by the specific growth regime used to culture the alga, and by the choice of 5' and 3' elements used to drive expression of the antibody gene. These results demonstrate the utility of alga as an expression platform for recombinant proteins, and describe a new type of single chain antibody containing the entire heavy chain protein, including the Fc domain.

  1. Uptake of tritiated lysine by fresh water alga, Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium uptake by fresh water alga. S.obliquus was studied using tritium labelled lysine, and a sequential solvent extraction procedure was used to study the distribution of tritium in different organic constituents of the algal cells. The accumulation of tritium in the algal cells was found to be 3-4 orders of magnitude more than that obtained for tritiated water. (author)

  2. Uptake of plutonium by alga Dunaliella and bivalve Meretrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium uptake from seawater by Dunaliella indicated kd(ratio of Pu in alga to that in seawater) factors of 104 similar to those obtained for sediments. However transfer ratios for Pu from contaminated sediments for Meretrix was 10-4 for short term periods ranging up to 20 days. (author)

  3. Effect of sonication frequency on the disruption of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Masaki; King, Patrick M; Wu, Xiaoge; Joyce, Eadaoin M; Mason, Timothy J; Yamamoto, Ken

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the efficiency of ultrasonic disruption of Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp. was investigated by applying ultrasonic waves of 0.02, 0.4, 1.0, 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3MHz to algal suspensions. The results showed that reduction in the number of algae was frequency dependent and that the highest efficiency was achieved at 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3MHz for C. gracilis, C. calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp., respectively. A review of the literature suggested that cavitation, rather than direct effects of ultrasonication, are required for ultrasonic algae disruption, and that chemical effects are likely not the main mechanism for algal cell disruption. The mechanical resonance frequencies estimated by a shell model, taking into account elastic properties, demonstrated that suitable disruption frequencies for each alga were associated with the cell's mechanical properties. Taken together, we consider here that physical effects of ultrasonication were responsible for algae disruption. PMID:26964936

  4. Epiphytic Algae study from pool of Ammiq (Bekaa, Lebanon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this particular place which constitutes the pool of Ammiq, 104 species and varieties have been collected. The diatoms constitute in themselves 85% of the algae population. This is an epiphytic microflora which is attached to the immerged macrophytics on this above mentioned place . (author)

  5. Enhanced high energy efficient steam drying of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology (HC) were proposed. • HC was developed on exergy recovery through exergy elevation and heat pairing. • The energy efficiency of the proposed drying processes was evaluated. • Significant reduction of energy input and CO2 emission in drying is readily achieved. - Abstract: State-of-the-art brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology were proposed, and their performance with respect to energy consumption was evaluated. Heat circulation technology was developed using the principle of exergy recovery performed through exergy elevation and effective heat pairing for both sensible and latent heat. Two steam drying processes based on heat circulation technology for algae drying were proposed, involving heat circulation with or without steam recirculation. The proposed processes were compared with the conventional heat recovery system employing heat cascade technology. Brown algae Laminaria japonica was selected as the test sample. From the results, it is very clear that both proposed drying processes can reduce the required drying energy significantly by up to 90% of that required in conventional heat recovery drying. Furthermore, the temperature–enthalpy diagram for each process shows that in heat circulation technology based drying, the curves of both hot and cold streams are almost parallel, resulting in the minimization of exergy losses

  6. The alga Trachydiscus minutus (Pseudostaurastrum minutum): growth and composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iliev, I.; Petkov, G.; Lukavský, Jaromír; Furnadzhieva, S.; Andreeva, R.; Bankova, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, 3-4 (2011), 222-231. ISSN 1312-8183 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : algae, * fatty acids * pilot plant cultivation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Phagomixotrophic Green Alga Cymbomonas tetramitiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Amber E.; Graham, Linda E.; Kim, Eunsoo

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cymbomonas tetramitiformis strain PLY262, which is a prasinophycean green alga that retains a phagomixotrophic mode of nutrition. The genome is 84,524 bp in length, with a G+C content of 37%, and contains 3 rRNAs, 26 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. PMID:27313295

  8. Algae of the Bohemian Forest. 1. Specieses richness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lederer, F.; Lukavský, Jaromír

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2001), s. 97-104. ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA60504; GA ČR GA206/99/1411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Bohemian Forest * species richness * biodiversity * algae * cyanobacteria * lakes * brooks * rivers * bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Selenocystamine improves protein accumulation in chloroplasts of eukaryotic green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira-Camargo, Livia S; Tran, Miller; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D.; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic green algae have become an increasingly popular platform for recombinant proteins production. In particular, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has garnered increased attention for having the necessary biochemical machinery to produce vaccines, human antibodies and next generation cancer targeting immunotoxins. While it has been shown that chloroplasts contain chaperones, peptidyl prolylisomerases and protein disulfide isomerases that facilitate these complex proteins folding and assembly,...

  10. Proteomics analysis of heterogeneous flagella in brown algae (stramenopiles).

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Gang; Nagasato, Chikako; Oka, Seiko; Cock, J. Mark; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    International audience Flagella are conserved organelles among eukaryotes and they are composed of many proteins, which are necessary for flagellar assembly, maintenance and function. Stramenopiles, which include brown algae, diatoms and oomycetes, possess two laterally inserted flagella. The anterior flagellum (AF) extends forward and bears tripartite mastigonemes, whilst the smooth posterior flagellum (PF) often has a paraflagellar body structure. These heterogeneous flagella have served...

  11. Emulsion properties of algae soluble protein isolate from Tetraselmis sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenzfeier, A.; Helbig, A.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    To study possible applications of microalgae proteins in foods, a colourless, protein-rich fraction was isolated from Tetraselmis sp. In the present study the emulsion properties of this algae soluble protein isolate (ASPI) were investigated. Droplet size and droplet aggregation of ASPI stabilized o

  12. Rare Earth Elements and Algae: Physiological Effects, Biorefinery and Recycling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goecke, Franz; Vítová, Milada; Zachleder, Vilém

    Švýcarsko: Springer International Publishing, 2015 - (Prokop, A.; Bajpai, R.; Zappi, M.), s. 339-363 ISBN 978-3-319-20199-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Algae * Algal blooms * Bioaccumulation of metals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  14. Algas vene kirjanduse nädal / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    22. septembril algas Tartu Linnaraamatukogus vene kirjanduse nädal Inga Ivanova raamatu "Kadunud koerte saladus" esitlusega; 24. sept. toimub Igor Kotjuhi autoriõhtu; 26.-28. toimub Tartu Ülikoolis vene kirjandusele pühendatud rahvusvaheline teaduskonverents. Raamatukogust saab osta ka venekeelseid raamatuid

  15. Biochar production from freshwater algae by slow pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the feasibility of biochar production from 3 kinds of freshwateralgae, viz. Spirulina, Spirogyra and Cladophora, was undertaken. Using a slow pyrolysis process in a specially designed reactor, biochar could be generated at 550oC under nitrogen atmosphere. The yields of biochar were between 28-31% of the dry algae.

  16. Biochar production from freshwater algae by slow pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

    2012-01-01

    A study on the feasibility of biochar production from 3 kinds of freshwateralgae, viz. Spirulina, Spirogyra and Cladophora, was undertaken. Using a slow pyrolysis process in a specially designed reactor, biochar could be generated at 550oC under nitrogen atmosphere. The yields of biochar were between 28-31% of the dry algae.

  17. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, H.M.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Bundvad, A.; Søgaard, P.; Gram, Lone

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random...

  18. Alga-lysing bioreactor and the dominant bacteria strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Hai-yan; HU Wen-rong; MU Rui-min; LI Xiao-cai

    2007-01-01

    Alga-lysing bacteria have been paid much attention to in recent years. In this study, the alga-lysing strain P05 which was isolated from an immobilizing biosystem was immobilized by coke and elastic filler, forming two biological reactors. The removal efficiencies of algae, NH3-N and organic matter using the two reactors were studied. The results showed that strain P05 was an ideal algal-lysing bacteria strain because it was easy to be immobilized by coke and elastic filler which are of cheap, low biodegradability and the simple immobilization procedure. After 7 d filming, the biological film could be formed and the reactors were used to treat the eutrophic water. These two reactors were of stability and high effect with low cost and easy operation. The optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each reactor was 4 h. The algae removal rates were 80.38% and 82.1% (in term of Chl-a) of coke reactor and filler reactor, respectively. And that of NH3-N were 52.3% and 52.7%. The removal rates of CODMn were 39.03% and 39.64%. The strain P05 was identified as Bacillus sp. by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, BLAST analysis, and comparison with sequences in the GenBank nucleotide database.

  19. Fuzzy Pattern Recognition System for Detection of Alga Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To realize the on-line measurement and make analysis on the density of algae and their cluster distribution, the fluorescent detection and fuzzy pattern recognition techniques are used. The principle of fluorescent fiber-optic detection is given as well as the method of fuzzy feature extraction using a class of neural network.

  20. A REVIEW OF HEAVY METAL ADSORPTION BY MARINE ALGAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  1. A Novel Lanostanoid Lactone From the Alga Hypnea cerricornis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Xiao-Hua; CHEN, Xiao; LU, Jian-Hua; YAO, Guang-Min; LI, Yah-Ming; ZE NG, Long-Mei

    2001-01-01

    A novel lanntanoid lactone (1) was first isolated fron the Alga Hypnen cerriconis collected from the Xisha Islands in theSouth China Sea. The structure of 1 was determined on spectral evidence as 5a-tansta-8-en-3β,22ζ-dihydroxy-22 (R), 24(S)-lactone.

  2. The Occurrence of Hormesis in Plants and Algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedergreen, Nina; Streibig, Jens C; Kudsk, Per;

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the frequency, magnitude and dose/concentration range of hormesis in four species: The aquatic plant Lemna minor, the micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the two terrestrial plants Tripleurospermum inodorum and Stellaria media exposed to nine herbicides and one...

  3. Photo-producing Hydrogen with Marine Green Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Hydrogen is often hailed as a potential source of unlimited clean power.It can be produced with green algae from water and solar energy through a process called "photobiological hydrogen production."Although its efficiency is rather low at present, scientists believe,an increase to 10% would make this process economically feasible.

  4. Survey of Hydrogenase Activity in Algae: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, J. J.

    1982-04-01

    The capacity for hydrogen gas production was examined in nearly 100 strains of Eukaryotic algae. Each strain was assessed for rate of H2 production in darkness, at compensating light intensity and at saturating Tight intensity. Maximum H2 yield on illumination and sensitivity to molecular oxygen were also measured.

  5. THE OCCURRENCE OF HORMESIS IN PLANTS AND ALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluated the frequency, magnitude and dose/concentration range of hormesis in four species: The aquatic plant Lemna minor, the micro-algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the two terrestrial plants Tripleurospermum inodorum and Stellaria media exposed to nine herbicides and one fung...

  6. Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols (TAGs in plants and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Cagliari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Triacylglycerols (TAGs, which consist of three fatty acids bound to a glycerol backbone, are major storage lipids that accumulate in developing seeds, flower petals, pollen grains, and fruits of innumerous plant species. These storage lipids are of great nutritional and nutraceutical value and, thus, are a common source of edible oils for human consumption and industrial purposes. Two metabolic pathways for the production of TAGs have been clarified: an acyl¬ CoA-dependent pathway and an acyl-CoA-independent pathway. Lipid metabolism, specially the pathways to fatty acids and TAG biosynthesis, is relatively well understood in plants, but poorly known in algae. It is generally accepted that the basic pathways of fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis in algae are analogous to those of higher plants. However, unlike higher plants where individual classes of lipids may be synthesized and localized in a specific cell, tissue or organ, the complete pathway, from carbon dioxide fixation to TAG synthesis and sequestration, takes place within a single algal cell. Another distinguishing feature of some algae is the large amounts of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC- PUFAs as major fatty acid components. Nowadays, the focus of attention in biotechnology is the isolation of novel fatty acid metabolizing genes, especially elongases and desaturases that are responsible for PUFAs synthesis, from different species of algae, and its transfer to plants. The aim is to boost the seed oil content and to generate desirable fatty acids in oilseed crops through genetic engineering approaches. This paper presents the current knowledge of the neutral storage lipids in plants and algae from fatty acid biosynthesis to TAG accumulation.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  8. Photosynthetic H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular green algae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios

    2007-10-01

    Unicellular green algae have the ability to operate in two distinctly different environments (aerobic and anaerobic), and to photosynthetically generate molecular hydrogen (H2). A recently developed metabolic protocol in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii permitted separation of photosynthetic O2-evolution and carbon accumulation from anaerobic consumption of cellular metabolites and concomitant photosynthetic H2-evolution. The H2 evolution process was induced upon sulfate nutrient deprivation of the cells, which reversibly inhibits photosystem-II and O2-evolution in their chloroplast. In the absence of O2, and in order to generate ATP, green algae resorted to anaerobic photosynthetic metabolism, evolved H2 in the light and consumed endogenous substrate. This study summarizes recent advances on green algal hydrogen metabolism and discusses avenues of research for the further development of this method. Included is the mechanism of a substantial tenfold starch accumulation in the cells, observed promptly upon S-deprivation, and the regulated starch and protein catabolism during the subsequent H2-evolution. Also discussed is the function of a chloroplast envelope-localized sulfate permease, and the photosynthesis-respiration relationship in green algae as potential tools by which to stabilize and enhance H2 metabolism. In addition to potential practical applications of H2, approaches discussed in this work are beginning to address the biochemistry of anaerobic H2 photoproduction, its genes, proteins, regulation, and communication with other metabolic pathways in microalgae. Photosynthetic H2 production by green algae may hold the promise of generating a renewable fuel from nature's most plentiful resources, sunlight and water. The process potentially concerns global warming and the question of energy supply and demand. PMID:17721788

  9. A Green Algae Mixture of Scenedesmus and Schroederiella Attenuates Obesity-Linked Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Arun Kumar; Marie Magnusson; Leigh C. Ward; Paul, Nicholas A.; Lindsay Brown

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the responses to a green algae mixture of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Schroederiella apiculata (SC) containing protein (46.1% of dry algae), insoluble fibre (19.6% of dry algae), minerals (3.7% of dry algae) and omega-3 fatty acids (2.8% of dry algae) as a dietary intervention in a high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome model in four groups of male Wistar rats. Two groups were fed with a corn starch diet containing 68% carbohydrates as polysaccharide...

  10. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal;

    2016-01-01

    concentrations of the ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect the susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). During exposure to sublethal algal concentrations, the fish increased production of mucus on their gills. When fish were exposed to the algae...... for 12 h prior to the addition of virus, a marginal decrease in the susceptibility to VHSV was observed compared to fish exposed to VHSV without algae. If virus and algae were added simultaneously, inclusion of the algae increased mortality by 50% compared to fish exposed to virus only, depending on...

  11. Study on the concentration and seasonal variation of inorganic elements in 35 species of marine algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Yan, X.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of five major and 28 trace elements in 35 marine algae collected along the coast of China were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of halogens, rare earth elements and many transition metal elements in marine algae are remarkably higher than...... those in terrestrial plants. The concentration factors for 31 elements in all collected algae were calculated, those for tri- and tetra-valent elements were higher than those of the mono- and di-valent elements in marine algae. The biogeochemical characteristics of inorganic elements in marine algae...

  12. Photoreduction of chromium(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Lin [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang Hongli [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: nsdengwhu@163.com

    2006-11-16

    In this thesis, the photochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated under the irradiation of metal halide lamps ({lambda}=365nm, 250W). The affecting factors of photochemical reduction were studied in detail, such as exposure time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, initial algae concentration and pH. The rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction increased with algae concentration increasing, exposure time increasing, initial Cr(VI) concentration decreasing and the decrease of pH. When pH increased to 6, the rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction nearly vanished. When initial Cr(VI) concentration ranged from 0.4 to 1.0mgL{sup -1} and initial algae concentration ranged from ABS{sub algae} (the absorbency of algae)=0.025 to ABS{sub algae}=0.180, According to the results of kinetic analyses, the kinetic equation of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction in aqueous solution with algae under 250W metal halide lamps was V{sub 0}=kC{sub 0}{sup 0.1718}A{sub algae}{sup 0.5235} (C{sub 0} was initial concentration of Cr(VI); A{sub algae} was initial concentration of algae) under the condition of pH 4.

  13. The effects of ProAlgaZyme novel algae infusion on metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildreth DeWall J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome, or Syndrome X, is characterized by a set of metabolic and lipid imbalances that greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The syndrome is highly prevalent in the United States and worldwide, and treatments are in high demand. ProAlgaZyme, a novel and proprietary freshwater algae infusion in purified water, has been the subject of several animal studies and has demonstrated low toxicity even with chronic administration at elevated doses. The infusion has been used historically for the treatment of several inflammatory and immune disorders in humans and is considered well-tolerated. Here, the infusion is evaluated for its effects on the cardiovascular risk factors present in metabolic syndrome in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 60 overweight and obese persons, ages 25–60. All participants received four daily oral doses (1 fl oz of ProAlgaZyme (N = 22 or water placebo (N = 30 for a total of 10 weeks, and were encouraged to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Blood sampling and anthropometric measurements were taken at the beginning of the study period and after 4, 8 and 10 weeks of treatment. Eight participants did not complete the study. Results ProAlgaZyme brought about statistically significant (p Conclusion ProAlgaZyme (4 fl oz daily consumption resulted in significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while significantly improving serum lipid profiles and reducing markers of inflammation, thus improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects over a course of 10 weeks with an absence of adverse side effects. Trial Registration US ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00489333

  14. The Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Herbivore Abundance on the Ability of Turf Algae to Overgrow Coral in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Imke van Moorselaar; Sarah Engelhard; Christine Hörnlein; Vonk, Sophie M.; Visser, Petra M

    2010-01-01

    Turf algae are multispecies communities of small marine macrophytes that are becoming a dominant component of coral reef communities around the world. To assess the impact of turf algae on corals, we investigated the effects of increased nutrients (eutrophication) on the interaction between the Caribbean coral Montastraea annularis and turf algae at their growth boundary. We also assessed whether herbivores are capable of reducing the abundance of turf algae at coral-algae boundaries. We foun...

  15. Neutron activation analysis of stable elements in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry has grown during the last decades and continuing growth is predicted. Although considerable efforts are being made to minimize the release of the increasing amounts of radioactive wastes into marine environment, it is evident that the potential for radioactive contamination will continue to grow. The purposes of marine environment monitoring around nuclear facilities are to verify that they are functioning as it was designed and to detect the unplanned releases of radioactive contaminants. To provide a sufficient assessment with biological indicators of 60Co and 137Cs, most significant radionuclides in waste effluents released with nuclear power station, the concentration of stable elements in the Sargassum and other algae were surveyed with thermal neutron activation method. The results were followed: 1) The concentration of Mn, As, Zn, and Co were seem to be higher in the sargassum than in other algae. 2) The concentration of Co and Cs were higher in S. thunbergit than in other Sargassum. (author)

  16. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae.

  17. Bioremoval of toxic elements with aquatic plants and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.C.; Ramesh, G. [Harbor Branch Oceanographic Inst., Fort Pierce, FL (United States); Weissman, J.C.; Varadarajan, R. [Microbial Products, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States); Benemann, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic plants were screened to evaluate their ability to adsorb dissolved metals. The plants screened included those that are naturally immobilized (attached algae and rooted plants) and those that could be easily separated from suspension (filamentous microalgae, macroalgae, and floating plants). Two plants were observed to have high adsorption capabilities for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) removal: one blue green filamentous alga of the genus Phormidium and one aquatic rooted plant, water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). These plants could also reduce the residual metal concentration to 0.1 mg/L or less. Both plants also exhibited high specific adsorption for other metals (Pb, Ni, and Cu) both individually and in combination. Metal concentrations were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

  18. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimeters), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured, and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  19. Accumulation and loss of technetium by macrophytic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are presented of a study of the accumulation of Tc by four species of brown algae (Sargassum vulgare, Cystoseira complexa, Dictyopteris membranacea, Dictyota dichotama implexa) and one species of green algae (Chlorophyta, Ulva rigida). With the exception of Cystoseira complexa, the accumulation was very rapid, and concentration factors decreased from Sargassum vulgare to Ulva rigida. Young stipes of Cystoseira complexa concentrated twice as much more Tc than cylindrical main axes. Attempts were made to understand the mechanism of Tc accumulation by brown seaweed. Fucoidan, a pool of high molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from Fucus sp. was put with sup(95m)Tc in seawater for 48 h and then dialysed, but no activity was retained by Fucoidan. (UK)

  20. Recurring patterns in bacterioplankton dynamics during coastal spring algae blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeling, Hanno; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Bennke, Christin M; Krüger, Karen; Chafee, Meghan; Kappelmann, Lennart; Reintjes, Greta; Waldmann, Jost; Quast, Christian; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wiltshire, Karen H; Amann, Rudolf I

    2016-01-01

    A process of global importance in carbon cycling is the remineralization of algae biomass by heterotrophic bacteria, most notably during massive marine algae blooms. Such blooms can trigger secondary blooms of planktonic bacteria that consist of swift successions of distinct bacterial clades, most prominently members of the Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria and the alphaproteobacterial Roseobacter clade. We investigated such successions during spring phytoplankton blooms in the southern North Sea (German Bight) for four consecutive years. Dense sampling and high-resolution taxonomic analyses allowed the detection of recurring patterns down to the genus level. Metagenome analyses also revealed recurrent patterns at the functional level, in particular with respect to algal polysaccharide degradation genes. We, therefore, hypothesize that even though there is substantial inter-annual variation between spring phytoplankton blooms, the accompanying succession of bacterial clades is largely governed by deterministic principles such as substrate-induced forcing. PMID:27054497

  1. Physiology and cryosensitivity of coral endosymbiotic algae (Symbiodinium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, M; Carter, V L; Leong, J C; Kleinhans, F W

    2010-04-01

    Coral throughout the world are under threat. To save coral via cryopreservation methods, the Symbiodinium algae that live within many coral cells must also be considered. Coral juvenile must often take up these important cells from their surrounding water and when adult coral bleach, they lose their endosymbiotic algae and will die if they are not regained. The focus of this paper was to understand some of the cryo-physiology of the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium, living within three species of Hawaiian coral, Fungia scutaria, Porites compressa and Pocillopora damicornis in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Although cryopreservation of algae is common, the successful cryopreservation of these important coral endosymbionts is not common, and these species are often maintained in live serial cultures within stock centers worldwide. Freshly-extracted Symbiodinium were exposed to cryobiologically appropriate physiological stresses and their viability assessed with a Pulse Amplitude Fluorometer. Stresses included sensitivity to chilling temperatures, osmotic stress, and toxic effects of various concentrations and types of cryoprotectants (i.e., dimethyl sulfoxide, propylene glycol, glycerol and methanol). To determine the water and cryoprotectant permeabilities of Symbiodinium, uptake of radio-labeled glycerol and heavy water (D(2)O) were measured. The three different Symbiodinium subtypes studied demonstrated remarkable similarities in their morphology, sensitivity to cryoprotectants and permeability characteristics; however, they differed greatly in their sensitivity to hypo- and hyposmotic challenges and sensitivity to chilling, suggesting that standard slow freezing cryopreservation may not work well for all Symbiodinium. An appendix describes our H(2)O:D(2)O water exchange experiments and compares the diffusionally determined permeability with the two parameter model osmotic permeability. PMID:19857482

  2. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Barbosa-Filho; Maria de Fátima V. de Souza; Luis C. Rodrigues; Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Lira, Narlize S.; Camila De A. Montenegro; Lima, Gedson R. de M.; Batista, Leônia M.; Falcão, Heloina de S.; de Almeida, Cynthia Layse F.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested fo...

  3. The life with harmful algae in Norway - management

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Einar; Tangen, Karl

    1999-01-01

    Harmful phytoplankton is a part of the natural, marine flora. The need for management and mitigation of their occurrence and effects has raised with the increased use and utilization of the coastal waters. Besides fisheries, fish farming and harvesting/cultivation of bivalves are activities in Norway, which have experienced problems, including economic losses, due to harmful algae. Management tools for tackling such problems and minimize losses are proper site selection of aqua...

  4. Sustainable Fuel from Algae: Challenges and New Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken, Douglas; Antizar Ladislao, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating the potential of producing biofuels from algae has been enjoying a recent revival due to heightened oil prices, uncertain fossil fuel sources and legislative targets aimed at reducing our contribution to climate change. If the concept is to become a reality however, many obstacles need to be overcome. It is necessary to minimise energetic inputs to the system and maximize energy recovery. The cultivation process can be one of the greatest energy consumption hotspots in ...

  5. Toxicity Assessment of Expired Pesticides to Green Algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    OpenAIRE

    Satyavani, G.; G. Chandrasehar; K. Krishna Varma; Goparaju, A.; Ayyappan, S.; P. Neelakanta Reddy; P. Balakrishna Murthy

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of expired pesticides on the yield and growth rate of green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, a study was conducted as per the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline number 201. Fifteen expired pesticide formulations, most commonly used in Indian agriculture, were tested in comparison with their unexpired counterparts. The expired pesticide formulations studied belonged to various class and functional groups: organophosph...

  6. PCD and autophagy in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Affenzeller, Matthias Josef; Darehshouri, Anza; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; LÜTZ-MEINDL, URSULA

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a central role in normal plant development and is also induced by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. In the unicellular freshwater green alga Micrasterias denticulata morphological and biochemical hallmarks such as the appearance of autophagosomes, increased production of ROS and degradation of genomic DNA into small fragments (“DNA laddering”) indicate PCD. Our data not only demonstrate that Micrasterias is capable of performing PCD under salt stress...

  7. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae

    OpenAIRE

    Mayfield, Stephen P.; Franklin, Scott E.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Although combinatorial antibody libraries have solved the problem of access to large immunological repertoires, efficient production of these complex molecules remains a problem. Here we demonstrate the efficient expression of a unique large single-chain (lsc) antibody in the chloroplast of the unicellular, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We achieved high levels of protein accumulation by synthesizing the lsc gene in chloroplast codon bias and by driving expression of the chimeric gene...

  8. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    OpenAIRE

    Eglė Baltmiškytė; Kęstutis Dučinskas

    2013-01-01

    Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential) are built to estima...

  9. Techno-Economic Assessment of Micro-Algae Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Global oil consumption is rising at an unprecedented rate renewing interest in alternative fuels. Micro-algae represents a promising feedstock due to inherent advantages such as high solar energy efficiencies, large lipid fractions, and utilization of various waste streams including industrial flue gas. Current technological challenges have limited the commercial viability of microalgae based biofuel production systems. This study directly evaluates and compares the economic viability of biom...

  10. Evidence of ancient genome reduction in red algae (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan; Price, Dana C; Yang, Eun Chan; Yoon, Hwan Su; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2015-08-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) comprise a monophyletic eukaryotic lineage of ~6,500 species with a fossil record that extends back 1.2 billion years. A surprising aspect of red algal evolution is that sequenced genomes encode a relatively limited gene inventory (~5-10 thousand genes) when compared with other free-living algae or to other eukaryotes. This suggests that the common ancestor of red algae may have undergone extensive genome reduction, which can result from lineage specialization to a symbiotic or parasitic lifestyle or adaptation to an extreme or oligotrophic environment. We gathered genome and transcriptome data from a total of 14 red algal genera that represent the major branches of this phylum to study genome evolution in Rhodophyta. Analysis of orthologous gene gains and losses identifies two putative major phases of genome reduction: (i) in the stem lineage leading to all red algae resulting in the loss of major functions such as flagellae and basal bodies, the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis pathway, and the autophagy regulation pathway; and (ii) in the common ancestor of the extremophilic Cyanidiophytina. Red algal genomes are also characterized by the recruitment of hundreds of bacterial genes through horizontal gene transfer that have taken on multiple functions in shared pathways and have replaced eukaryotic gene homologs. Our results suggest that Rhodophyta may trace their origin to a gene depauperate ancestor. Unlike plants, it appears that a limited gene inventory is sufficient to support the diversification of a major eukaryote lineage that possesses sophisticated multicellular reproductive structures and an elaborate triphasic sexual cycle. PMID:26986787

  11. A computerized image database for freshwater algae recorded in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Şen, Bülent; SÖNMEZ, Feray; ÇETİN, Ahmet Kadri; ALP, Mehmet Tahir; ÖZER, Tülay BAYKAL

    2015-01-01

    A computer-based image database for freshwater algae recorded in Turkey has been established. A separate page was prepared for each algal taxon and each page includes images and taxonomic and ecological information related to the taxon. Algal images were obtained mainly from authors of algal studies previously carried out in various freshwater bodies in Turkey. Data were then standardized in accordance with that of the central database of Turkish herbaria and a database for Turkish freshwater...

  12. Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Andreas F; Allison K. Gregg; Smith, Jennifer E.; Abieri, Maria L.; Mark Hatay; Forest Rohwer

    2013-01-01

    Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp.) and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp.) separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. ...

  13. Analytical approaches to photobiological hydrogen production in unicellular green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Melis, Anastasios; Happe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Several species of unicellular green algae, such as the model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, can operate under either aerobic photosynthesis or anaerobic metabolism conditions. A particularly interesting metabolic condition is that of “anaerobic oxygenic photosynthesis”, whereby photosynthetically generated oxygen is consumed by the cell’s own respiration, causing anaerobiosis in the culture in the light, and induction of the cellular “hydrogen metabolism” process. The latter enta...

  14. Nitrogen and sulfur assimilation in plants and algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giordano, Mario; Raven, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 2 (2014), s. 45-61. ISSN 0304-3770 Grant ostatní: University of Dundee(GB) SC 015096; Italian Ministry for Agriculture(IT) MIPAF, Bioforme project; Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs(IT) MAE. Joint Italian-Israel Cooperation Program Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : nitrogen * sulfur * assimilation * algae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2014

  15. The diversity and evolution of telomeres in algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulnečková, J.; Ševčíková, T.; Fajkus, J.; Lukešová, Alena; Eliáš, M.; Sýkorová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, Supp 1 (2015), s. 149-150. ISSN 0967-0262. [European Phycological Congress /6./. 23.08.2015-28.08.2015, London] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06595S Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0189 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : telomeres * algae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  16. Cryopreservation of freezing sensitive soil algae using encapsulation dehydration method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouzek, Pavel; Lukešová, Alena; Hauer, Tomáš; Lukeš, Martin

    České Budějovice: Jihočeská univerzita, 2003. s. 30. [TEMP 2003 - International Symposium on Animal and Plant Cold Hardiness. 10.08.2003-14.08.2003, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : cryopreservation * freezing sensitive soil algae * encapsulation dehydration method Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Enhanced Genetic Tools for Engineering Multigene Traits into Green Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Rasala, Beth A.; Syh-Shiuan Chao; Matthew Pier; Daniel J Barrera; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes withi...

  18. Toxicity of Fluoranthene and Its Biodegradation by Cyclotella caspia Alga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fluoranthene is one of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with four benzene rings. Because of its toxicity,mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, fluoranthene is on the black lists of 129 and 68 priority pollutants established by US Environmental Protection Agency and the People's Republic of China, respectively. In recent years, the amount of fluoranthene in the aquatic environment has been increasing with increases in anthropogenic discharge. Based on the biological investigation of tidal water in the Futian mangrove, Cyclotella caspia was selected as the dominant algal species to determine the toxicity of fluoranthene towards C. caspia alga and to investigate the biodegradation of fluoranthene by C. caspia under pure culture. The toxicity experiment showed that the 96-h EC50 vaiue for fluoranthene was 0.2 mg/mL. Four parameters, namely C. caspia algal growth rate,chlorophyll (Chi) a content, cell morphology, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, were chosen as indices of toxicity and were measured at 6 d (144 h). The results showed that: (i) the toxicity of fluoranthene towards C.caspia alga was obvious; (ii) C. caspia algal growth rate and Chi a content decreased with increasing concentrations of fluoranthene; and (iii) the rate of cell deformation and SOD activity increased with increasing concentrations of fluoranthene. The biodegradation experiment showed that: (i) the rate of physical degradation of fluoranthene was only 5.86%; (ii) the rate of biodegradation of fluoranthene on the 1st and 6th days (i.e. at 24 and 144 h) was approximately 35% and 85%, respectively; and (iii) the biodegradation capability of C. caspia alga towards fluoranthene was high. It is suggested that further investigations on the toxicity of fluoranthene towards algae, as well as on algal biodegradation mechanisms, are of great importance to use C. caspia as a biological treatment species in an organic wastewater treatment system.

  19. Adsorption of copper onto char derived macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A release of heavy metals into the environment by industrial activities raises much environmental problems because they tend to remain indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain. Copper is essential to human life and health but, like all heavy metals, is potentially toxic as well. The excessive intakes of copper result in its accumulation in the liver and produce gastrointestinal problems, kidney damage, anemia, and continued inhalation of copper-containing sprays is linked with an increase in lung cancer among exposed people. Consequently, we need to eliminate the copper in drinking water. Also, growth rates of marine macro algae far exceed those of terrestrial biomass, without water limitations, so annual primary production rates are higher for the major marine macro algae than for most terrestrial biomass. According to these reasons, we try to use the macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida. Adsorption of heavy metals is one of the possible technologies involved in the removal of toxic metals from industrial waste streams and mining waste water using low-cost adsorbents. In recent years, many low-cost adsorbents such as seaweeds, activated carbon, etc. have been investigated, but the char by macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida, have not proven to be the most effective and promising substrates. The aim of this study is to remove copper from its aqueous solution by Undaria pinnatifida char for various parameters like pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) by Undaria pinnatifida char was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration at room temperature. And it was verified using equilibrium studies. (author)

  20. Endolithic algae: an alternative source of photoassimilates during coral bleaching.

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, Maoz; Loya, Yossi

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of worldwide coral bleaching events leading to devastating coral mortality have caused alarm among scientists and resource managers. Differential survival of coral species through bleaching events has been widely documented. We suggest that among the possible factors contributing to survival of coral species during such events are endolithic algae harboured in their skeleton, providing an alternative source of energy. We studied the dynamics of photosynthetic pigment concentrat...

  1. The algae raceway integrated design for optimal temperature management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) minimizes diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations and maintains temperature within the optimal range, between 15 and 30 °C, during day and night and during all seasons in Tucson, Arizona. The system regulates temperature by adjusting the water surface area and thus regulates the energy transfer to and from the atmosphere and raceway. A temperature model of the raceway was developed and was based on a standardized energy balance model for agricultural crops. The model includes the Penman–Monteith evapotranspiration equation, long wave radiation, short wave radiation, sensible heat transfer (convection) and soil heat flux. The temperature model predicted minimum daily raceway water temperature within 1–2 °C over a range of atmospheric conditions during a 21 day algae growth experiment. Because the model is based on standard agricultural weather station data, it can be used in any location that is in proximity to an agricultural weather station. The model automatically downloads data from any weather station in Arizona, allows specification of various cover and liner conditions, specifies the timing of circulation, and has a dynamic simulation mode. -- Highlights: ► An innovative raceway system (ARID) was designed and constructed for temperature management. ► A Visual Basic language/Excel model was developed for algae culture temperature. ► The ARID raceway model predictions were in good agreement with the measured temperatures. ► The ARID raceway model can automatically download standard agricultural weather station data. ► The ARID raceway has a superior temperature regime for algae growth compared to conventional raceways.

  2. Cytotoxic sterols from the formosan brown alga Turbinaria ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, J H; Wang, G H; Sung, P J; Chiu, Y H; Duh, C Y

    1997-12-01

    Two hydroperoxysterols 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (1) and 29-hydroperoxystigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol (2), and fucosterol (3) were isolated from the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Sargassaceae). Hydroperoxide 2 is a new natural compound and was converted into 29-hydroxystigmasta-5,24 (28)-dien-3beta-ol (4) by reaction with LAH. Sterols 1, 2, and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:17252381

  3. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R.; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged. PMID:27119147

  4. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence emission spectra at 77K of isolated heterocysts of Anabaena L-31 do not show F685-695 but rather F715-730, thus confirming the absence of photosystem II and the presence of photosystem I. Recent work using radioactive nitrogen has been collated and a tentative scheme is outlined indicating the location of the enzymes and the pathways involved in the initial assimilation of nitrogen in blue-green algae. Glutamine synthetase extracted from heterocysts of Anabaena L-31 does not exhibit the adenylylation/deadenylylation phenomenon characteristic of the enzyme from bacteria. Our recent experiments suggest that nitrogenase in Anabaena is under dual control by glutamic acid and aspartic acid, the former inhibiting the enzyme synthesis and the latter relieving the inhibition. Two extracellular polypeptides have been obtained from this alga, one of which inhibits heterocyst formation whereas the other enhances heterocyst formation and partially relieves the inhibitory effect of the former. An extracellular substance, possibly a glycopeptide, has been obtained from A. torulosa, which stimulates sporulation. Studies with 24Na and 22Na indicate that A. torulosa, an alga from saline habitats, has an active photosynthesis-linked mechanism for the extrusion of sodium. Sodium is essential for optimum nitrogenase activity and growth. In field experiments inoculation with Nostoc 4 resulted in substantial increase in soil nitrogen. Paddy yield was comparable to those plots where 80kg N/ha of urea was used. (author)

  5. Cytotoxicity of algae extracts on normal and malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechelli, Jeremy; Coppage, Myra; Rosell, Karen; Liesveld, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun), Astaxanthin (Ast), Spirulina platensis (Spir), and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primary CLL cells showed apoptosis at 24 hours after exposure to Dun, Ast, Spir, and AFA. High AFA concentrations decreased viability of normal marrow cells. Normal CD34+ viability was inhibited by Dun. Dun and AFA inhibited BFU-E, but all extracts inhibited CFU-GM. Cell-cycle analysis of AML cell lines showed G0/G1 arrest in the presence of AFA. These data suggest that algae extracts may inhibit AML cell lines and leukemia blasts, but they may also have potential inhibitory effects on normal hematopoiesis. PMID:23213541

  6. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments. PMID:23917560

  7. Influence of thermal loading on the ecology of intertidal algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal effluents from the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (operating intermittently from October 1972 to December 1974) increased water temperatures in the discharge area by 7 to 150C. Plant operation and the removal of a causeway increased mixing and salinities in Montsweag Bay. Four small red algae immigrated into the area, but no species were lost from the system. Distribution and abundance patterns of the dominant algae, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, were altered by the thermal discharge. The cover of F. vesiculosus decreased, whereas that of A. nodosum increased in 1973 but declined significantly in 1974. Reductions in biomass and percent cover were accompanied by changes in the growth dynamics of A. nodosum. Growth and survival in the discharge area were enhanced in 1973 but reduced in 1974. Growth was initiated earlier at all sites affected by the warm water. Plants at experimental sites not directly in the discharge channel grew at accelerated rates during the two years, but stressed plants in the discharge produced few or no viable apexes in 1974. The net effect has been a compression and reduction of intertidal algae into a narrower and less dense band

  8. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  9. Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis of natural algae from water blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Linling; Tong, Dongmei; Hu, Changwei

    2016-07-01

    Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis (MEP) of natural algae under different reaction conditions was carried out. The optimal conditions for bio-oil production were the following: algae particle size of 20-5 mesh, microwave power of 600W, and 10% of activated carbon as microwave absorber and catalyst. The maximum liquid yield obtained under N2, 10% H2/Ar, and CO2 atmosphere was 49.1%, 51.7%, and 54.3% respectively. The energy yield of bio-products was 216.7%, 236.9% and 208.7% respectively. More long chain fatty acids were converted into hydrocarbons by hydrodeoxygenation under 10% H2/Ar atmosphere assisted by microwave over activated carbon containing small amounts of metals. Under CO2 atmosphere, carboxylic acids (66.6%) were the main products in bio-oil because the existence of CO2 vastly inhibited the decarboxylation. The MEP of algae was quick and efficient for bio-oil production, which provided a way to not only ameliorate the environment but also obtain fuel or chemicals at the same time. PMID:27128164

  10. Comparative phycoremediation of sewage water by various species of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study sewage water treatment efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris, Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum And mixed algae culture (Microspora sp., Navicula sp., Lyngbya sp.,Cladophora sp.,Spirogyra sp. and Rhizoclonium sp.) was compared. Sampled wastewater was analyzed for various parameters (i.e., COD, BOD, TS, TSS, TDS, TC, FC, TKN, TP, NO/sub 3/-N, PO/sub 4/,SO/sub 4/and Cl-) and concentrations of all these parameters in the untreated water were above the permissible limits of National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan (2000). Various algal species were used to treat sewage water by varying pond size, treatment duration, seasonal variation and growth rate of algae to arrive at the optimum outcome. Maximum percent reductions of various parameters, attained with C. vulgaris, were: chemical oxygen demand (98.3%), biochemical oxygen demand (98.7%), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (93.1%), total phosphorus (98.0%), nitrate (98.3%), phosphate (98.6%), chloride (94.2%), total coliforms (99.0%), faecal coliforms (99.0%) and total dissolved solids (98.2%) while maximum reduction in total suspended solids (92.0%) was obtained with a mixed algae culture and maximum increase in biomass by R. hieroglyphicum (0.75 g L/sup -1/day/sup -1/). Reduction in the concentration of pollutants in sewage water was to such a low level that it can be thrown in water bodies without any further treatment. (author)

  11. Algae as test organisms of harmful effects of various radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes a complex biotest in which algae serve as the test organisms and where a variety of algal characteristics are employed as indicators of the effects of harmful radiations on the cultures and single organisms. Rules for a successful choice of a suitable algal organism are discussed and the preparation of the latter for the test as well as the growth and morphogenic tests and some physiological responses of algae to harmful radiation are described. The survival and lethality are related to the interpretation of the test results particularly from the physiological and genetic points of view. The complex biotest concerns not only toxic but also mutagenic effects of the factors tested. Some easily detectable mutations in algae are mentioned and their spectra are recommended. The stability of the mutations and the possibility of their delayed manifestation are considered. The possibility of occurrence of teratogenic effects is also dealt with and the negative role of phenocopies in the correct evaluation of the mutation effects is mentioned. Advice for the breeding and laboratory maintenance of suitable algal strains for the biotest is given. Practical use of the biotest is demonstrated on the results of a test using modified samples of waste water from uranium industries. It is recommended that biotests confined to the evaluation of single characteristics of the test organism be replaced by this complex biotest whose results can be interpreted more extensively and exhibit a higher reliability. (author). 268 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  12. Extraction, Purification, and NMR Analysis of Terpenes from Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysinski, Marc; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Algal terpenes constitute a wide and well-documented group of marine natural products with structures differing from their terrestrial plant biosynthetic analogues. Amongst macroalgae, brown seaweeds are considered as one of the richest source of biologically and ecologically relevant terpenoids. These metabolites, mostly encountered in algae of the class Phaeophyceae, are mainly diterpenes and meroditerpenes (metabolites of mixed biogenesis characterized by a toluquinol or a toluquinone nucleus linked to a diterpene moiety).In this chapter, we describe analytical processes commonly employed for the isolation and structural characterization of the main terpenoid constituents obtained from organic extracts of brown algae. The successive steps include (1) extraction of lipidic content from algal samples; (2) purification of terpenes by column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; and (3) structure elucidation of the isolated terpenes by means of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More precisely, we propose a representative methodology which allows the isolation and structural determination of the monocyclic meroditerpene methoxybifurcarenone (MBFC) from the Mediterranean brown alga Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. This methodology has a large field of applications and can then be extended to terpenes isolated from other species of the family Sargassaceae. PMID:26108508

  13. Towards tradable permits for filamentous green algae pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, W J; Botha, A M; Oberholster, P J

    2016-09-01

    Water pollution permit systems are challenging to design and implement. Operational systems that has maintained functionality remains few and far between, particularly in developing countries. We present current progress towards developing such a system for nutrient enrichment based water pollution, mainly from commercial agriculture. We applied a production function approach to first estimate the monetary value of the impact of the pollution, which is then used as reference point for establishing a reserve price for pollution permits. The subsequent market making process is explained according to five steps including permit design, terms, conditions and transactional protocol, the monitoring system, piloting and implementation. The monetary value of the impact of pollution was estimated at R1887 per hectare per year, which not only provide a "management budget" for filamentous green algae mitigation strategies in the study area, but also enabled the calculation of a reserve price for filamentous green algae pollution permits, which was estimated between R2.25 and R111 per gram filamentous algae and R8.99 per gram at the preferred state. PMID:27155255

  14. Bio sorption of copper ions with biomass of algae and dehydrated waste of olives; Biosorcion de iones cobre con biomasa de algas y orujos deshidratados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia, P.; Santander, M.; Pavez, O.; Valderrama, L.; Guzman, D.; Romero, L.

    2011-07-01

    They were carried out experiments of biosorption batch and in continuous to remove copper from aqueous solutions using as adsorbents green algae and olive residues under virgins conditions and chemically activated. The results of batch bio sorption indicate that the algae present mayor elimination capacities than the waste of olives, with uptakes of copper of the order of 96 % using activated algae with dissolution of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under the optimum conditions. The results of the columns tests show that the virgin algae permits the removal of more copper ions than the activate algae, with removal efficiency of 98 % during the firth 20 min, a breakthrough time of 240 min and a saturation at time of 600 min. In the second cycle the regenerated biomass showed a best performance indicating that they can be used for another bio sorption cycle. (Author) 42 refs.

  15. Sludge-grown algae for culturing aquatic organisms: Part II. Sludge-grown algae as feeds for aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. H.; Hung, K. M.; Chiu, S. T.

    1996-05-01

    This project investigated the feasibility of using sewage sludge to culture microalgae ( Chlorella-HKBU) and their subsequent usage as feeds for rearing different organisms. Part II of the project evaluated the results of applying the sludge-grown algae to feed Oreochromis mossambicus (fish), Macrobrachium hainenese (shrimp), and Moina macrocopa (cladocera). In general, the yields of the cultivated organisms were unsatisfactory when they were fed the sludge-grown algae directly. The body weights of O. mossambicus and M. macrocopa dropped 21% and 37%, respectively, although there was a slight increase (4.4%) in M. hainenese. However, when feeding the algal-fed cladocerans to fish and shrimp, the body weights of the fish and shrimp were increased 7% and 11% accordingly. Protein contents of the cultivated organisms were comparable to the control diet, although they contained a rather high amount of heavy metals. When comparing absolute heavy metal contents in the cultivated organisms, the following order was observed: alga > cladocera > shrimp, fish > sludge extracts. Bioelimination of heavy metals may account for the decreasing heavy metal concentrations in higher trophic organisms.

  16. Photodegradation of bisphenol A in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and ferric ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected endocrine disruptor (ED), in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and Fe3+ ions was investigated. Algae, humic acid and Fe3+ ions enhanced the photodegradation of BPA. Photodegradation efficiency of BPA was 36% after 4 h irradiation in the presence of 6.5 x 109 cells L-1 raw Chlorella vulgaris, 4 mg L-1 humic acid and 20 μmol L-1 Fe3+. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA was higher in the presence of algae treated with ultrasonic than that without ultrasonic. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA in the water only containing algae treated with ultrasonic was 37% after 4 h irradiation. The algae treated with heating can also enhance the photodegradation of BPA. This work helps environmental scientists to understand the photochemical behavior of BPA in lake water. - Algae, humic acid and ferric ions can induce the photodegradation of bisphenol A in an aqueous environment

  17. Chemical and radioactivity study of sea alga distribution along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied from the chemical and radioactivity point of view. Results have shown the metals that red alga contains the highest levels of Ca and Mg while brown alga were found to contain relatively high concentrations of other elements and non metals such as Cl, I and Br. In addition, sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were low while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po, sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Pb and radium isotopes were found to be high in red alga which indicates their selectivity to these isotopes. On the other hand, brown alga and especially Cysteseira has shown a clear selectivity for some trace elements such as As, Cr, Cd, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage the use of brown alga as biological indicator for trace elements pollution. (author)

  18. Chemical and radioactivity study of sea alga distribution along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied from the chemical and radioactivity point of view. Results have shown the metals that red alga contains the highest levels of Ca and Mg while brown alga were found to contain relatively high concentrations of other elements and non metals such as Cl, I and Br. In addition, 137Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were low while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 210Po, 210Pb and radium isotopes were found to be high in red alga which indicates their selectivity to these isotopes. On the other hand, brown alga and especially Cysteseira has shown a clear selectivity for some trace elements such as As, Cr, Cd, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage the use of brown alga as biological indicator for trace elements pollution. (author)

  19. Extraction of alginate biopolymer present in marine alga sargassum filipendula and bioadsorption of metallic ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Jaiana Kleinübing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the bioadsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions by marine alga Sargassum filipendula and by the alginate biopolymer extracted from this alga. The objective is to evaluate the importance of this biopolymer in removing different metallic ions by the marine alga S. filipendula. In the equilibrium study, the same affinity order was observed for both bioadsorbents: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+. For Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions when the alginate is isolated and acting as bioadsorbents, adsorption capacities greater than those found for the alga were observed, indicating that it is the main component responsible for the removal of metallic ions. For Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, greater bioadsorption capacities were observed for the alga, indicating that other functional groups of the alga, such as sulfates and amino, are also important in the bioadsorption of these ions.

  20. The Effects of Environmental Factors on the Growth and Competition of Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; WANG; Jiazhang; CHEN; Shunlong; MENG

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of environmental factors on the algae growth and competition,the author summarized overseas and domestic related researches in recent years.Most of the researches are about the influence of single factor on growth of algae.However,there is insufficient investment on the interaction of different factors and the competition between algae growth.This paper briefly introduced the classification of algae and the role they played in ecological system and focused on the influence which included temperature,illumination,nitrogen,phosphorus and pH on the growth and competition of algal.In the end,the author proposed key questions which were still needed to be studied in order to know more about the relationship between environment effects and growth and competition of algae.Therefore,people could better improve the community structure of algae and water ecological environment,and improve water primary productivity.

  1. A Novel Aeration Method for the Preparation of Algae (Dunaliella Salina) Biomass for Biofuel Production.

    OpenAIRE

    U.O. Enwereuzoh; G.N. Onyeagoro

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of algae (Dunaliela Salina) biomass in ammonia (NH4 + ) and nitrate (NO3 - ) growth media for biofuel production was investigated, with special attention on the elimination of inhibitory oxygen that adversely affects algae growth. A novel aeration method based on high and efficient transfer of carbon dioxide (CO2) required to stabilize the CO2 of the algae growth medium in a short time was adopted for the elimination of the inhibitory oxygen. The novel aeration method was found...

  2. Biological activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis from Persian Gulf.

    OpenAIRE

    Saeidnia, S.; A.R. Gohari; Shahverdi, A.R.; P Permeh; M. Nasiri; Mollazadeh, K.; F. Farahani

    2009-01-01

    Among marine organisms, algae are a large and diverse group of organisms from which a wide range of secondary metabolites have been isolated. A number of these compounds possess biological activity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, collected from Persian Gulf. Ethyl acetate extracts of both algae showed a potent cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina nauplii (LC50 = 3 and ...

  3. Sterols from the red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, from Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Nasiri; Soodabeh Saeidnia; Ali Mashinchian-Moradi; Gohari, Ahmad R

    2011-01-01

    Context: Two of the important algae from Persian Gulf are Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flageliformis (Rhodophyta). Antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic effects of the mentioned algae have been presented in the previous studies. Aim: In this study, the isolation and structural elucidation of the sterols from these algae are reported. Materials and Methods: The separation and purification of the compounds were carried out with silica gel, sephadex LH 20 column chromatography (CC) and HP...

  4. Antibacterial activities of bioactive compounds extracted from Marine algae Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Rasooli; Masoud Sattari; Zohreh Ramezanpour; Javid Imanpour Namin

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicinal products have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Considering the efficiency of algae products in controlling pathogenic bacteria and also easy access to large resources of algae, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila, a heterotrophic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found mainly in warm climate. Algae samples were collected from Qeshm Isl...

  5. The place of algae in agriculture: policies for algal biomass production

    OpenAIRE

    Trentacoste, Emily M.; Martinez, Alice M.; Zenk, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Algae have been used for food and nutraceuticals for thousands of years, and the large-scale cultivation of algae, or algaculture, has existed for over half a century. More recently algae have been identified and developed as renewable fuel sources, and the cultivation of algal biomass for various products is transitioning to commercial-scale systems. It is crucial during this period that institutional frameworks (i.e., policies) support and promote development and commercialization and antic...

  6. Determination of the bioaccumulation of sucralose un the freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    OpenAIRE

    Lillicrap, A; Langford, K.; Brooks, S.; Tollefsen, K.

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of sucralose in the freshwater alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was determined using a 48 hour static exposure system. Two exposure concentrations (10 and 100 mg/L) plus an appropriate control were used for the study. The algae was analysed on 2 occasions during the exposure phase using liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC/MS). A steady state concentration in the algae was achieved after 24 hours and the bioconcentration factor (BCF) at steady state (BCFSS) wa...

  7. Interaction between the macrophyte Stratiotes aloides and filamentous algae: does it indicate allelopathy?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulderij, G.; Mau, B.; De Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Smolders, A. J. P.; Van Donk, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aquatic macrophyte Stratiotes aloides Linnaeus, which has recently received attention in studies on allelopathy, has been shown to suppress phytoplankton growth. In the Netherlands, S. aloides often co-occurs with floating filamentous algae. However, filamentous algae are generally absent in close proximity to S. aloides, resulting in gaps in filamentous algae mats. We analyzed whether those gaps may be caused by allelopathic substances excreted by S. aloides or by nutrient depletion. We ...

  8. Toxic Algae and Early Warning Management in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song; Lun; Song; Guangjun; Song; Yonggang; Xu; Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The research status of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are reviewed from the aspects of toxicity characteristics,toxic mechanism and early warning management,and the existing toxic algae and their toxicity in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are analyzed in the paper. The early warning level of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China is put forward,and the research direction of shellfish poisoning in future is summarized.

  9. SOIL ALGAE AND MESOFAUNA COMMUNITIES IN BIOTOPES OF FOREST REHABILITATION IN ZHOVTI VODY (DNIPROPETROVSK REGION)

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Posrednikova; O. Y. Pakhomov; Y. L. Kulbachko

    2009-01-01

    The variety of soil algae was studied on areas of revegetation and without it in the Zhovti Vody. The systematic and ecological structure of algal flora and algae dominant species were indicated. We counted 28 species of soil algae on the dumps of uranium mining: Chlorophyta – 11 species (39.5 %), Cyanophyta – 11 (39.5 %), Xanthophyta – 2 (7 %), Bacillariophyta – 2 (7 %), Eustigmatohyta – 2 (7 %).

  10. Biosorption of Heavy Metal Ions to Brown Algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental study of the application of brown algae to the aqueous-phase separation of toxic heavy metals was carried out. The biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead ions were determined with brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera, Kjellmaniella crassiforia, and Undaria pinnatifida. A metal binding model proposed by the authors was used for the description of metal binding data. The results showed that the biosorption of bivalent metal ions to brown algae was due to bivalent binding to ...

  11. Low oxygen consumption in slow sand filtration by effective removal of floating algae

    OpenAIRE

    ISOBE, Yoshikuni; NAKAMOTO, Nobutada

    2004-01-01

    Slow Sand Filtration (SSF) is a biolofical system to purify tap water. In this study, dissolced oxygen concentration and its diurnal changes were measured at three different production rate was almost the same in there three different SSF plants. Different tratments of floating algae were done in these SSF plants. The daily respiration rate at the Sodeyama plant was the lowest rate. The floating algae were effectively removed at this plant. Therefore, oxygen consumption by floating algae beca...

  12. A preliminary study on automated freshwater algae recognition and classification system

    OpenAIRE

    Mosleh Mogeeb AA; Manssor Hayat; Malek Sorayya; Milow Pozi; Salleh Aishah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Freshwater algae can be used as indicators to monitor freshwater ecosystem condition. Algae react quickly and predictably to a broad range of pollutants. Thus they provide early signals of worsening environment. This study was carried out to develop a computer-based image processing technique to automatically detect, recognize, and identify algae genera from the divisions Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria in Putrajaya Lake. Literature shows that most automated...

  13. Direct bioconversion of brown algae into ethanol by thermophilic bacterium Defluviitalea phaphyphila

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Shi-Qi; Wang, Bing; Lu, Ming; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Brown algae are promising feedstocks for biofuel production with inherent advantages of no structural lignin, high growth rate, and no competition for land and fresh water. However, it is difficult for one microorganism to convert all components of brown algae with different oxidoreduction potentials to ethanol. Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 is the first characterized thermophilic bacterium capable of direct utilization of brown algae. Results Defluviitalea phaphyphila Alg1 can si...

  14. How-to-Do-It: Diatoms: The Ignored Alga in High School Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, James J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides historical background, descriptions, uses and basis for identification of diatoms. Explains collection, dry-mount cleaning, and preparation procedures of the algae. Cites additional resources. (RT)

  15. Biogas performance from co-digestion of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Co-digestion mode improves the biogas yield of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes. • Neutral protease enzyme reached maximum in algae only group. • The activity of dehydrogenase enzyme in mixed substrate groups was higher than that of algae and kitchen wastes only group. - Abstract: Co-digestion of Taihu algae with high carbon content substrate can balance the nutrients in the fermentation process. In this study, optimal mixing ratio for co-digestion of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes were investigated in order to improve biogas production potential. The results indicated that the biogas yield reached 388.6 mL/gTS at C/N15:1 group, which was 1.29 and 1.18 times of algae and kitchen wastes only. The maximum concentration of VFA reached 4239 mg/L on 8th day in kitchen wastes group, which was 1.21 times of algae group. Neutral protease enzyme activity in algae group reached maximum of 904.2 μg/(gTS h), while dehydrogenase enzyme at C/N 15:1 group reached maximum of 3402.2 μgTF/(gTS h). The feasibility of adjusting the C/N with co-digestion of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes to increase biogas production was demonstrated. Remarkably, the C/N of 15:1 was found to be the most appropriate ratio

  16. Endozoic algae in shelled gastropods — a new symbiotic association in coral reefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, T.; Wishkovsky, A.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1986-10-01

    Live algae were found in the hepatopancreas and gonads of the Red Sea snail Strombus tricornis. These organs are constantly concealed within the upper whorls of the snail's shell. Light penetration was 5 15% of the incident light reaching the shell. Pigment analysis indicated the presence of chlorophyll a, c and peridinin, a composition resembling the Dinoflagellata. Chlorophyll a concentration in the algae was 1.18±0.36 pg chl/cell. 14C assimilation of isolated algae incubated in the light exceeded that of dark controls, demonstrating the photosynthetic activity of the endozoic algae.

  17. Design and optimization of artificial cultivation units for algae production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on finding the optimum design of artificial cultivation units for biomass production depending on geographical location and kind of algal species selected for growth. Here, the optimum is defined as the design that yields the lowest net present sink for the lifetime of the cultivation unit. Models are developed for tubular, column, and flat plate photobioreactors by considering diurnal pattern of sunlight and temperature fluctuations. As part of the case study, algae growth is modeled for 10 years in each cultivation unit using two species and four locations, resulting in twenty-four optimization problems. Each optimization model is implemented in GAMS 23.6.5 and the solution is obtained using CONOPT (version 3.14W) solver. The results indicate that algae species with higher oil content requires smaller reactor volume to produce the desired amount of biomass. The results also reveal that the geographical location with higher incident solar irradiance may not necessarily be the optimal location for algae culturing because higher irradiance may lead to cell damage, and hence, lower growth rates. Among the options considered in the case study, the design of tubular photobioreactor for culturing Phaeodactylum tricornutum at Hyderabad, India yields the minimum net present sink. - Highlights: • Studied 3 types of outdoor cultivation units: tubular, column, and flat plate PBRs. • Developed dynamic model to find best combination of species, location, and reactor. • Considered the diurnal pattern of sunlight and temperature fluctuations for a year. • Species with higher oil content and location with moderate irradiance is preferable. • Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown at Hyderabad, India in a tubular PBR occupies a volume of 29 L

  18. Spectroradiometric monitoring for open outdoor culturing of algae and cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A; Collins, Aaron M; McBride, Robert C; Behnke, Craig A; Timlin, Jerilyn A

    2014-08-20

    We assess the measurement of hyperspectral reflectance for outdoor monitoring of green algae and cyanobacteria cultures with a multichannel, fiber-coupled spectroradiometer. Reflectance data acquired over a 4-week period are interpreted via numerical inversion of a reflectance model, in which the above-water reflectance is expressed as a quadratic function of the single backscattering albedo, which is dependent on the absorption and backscatter coefficients. The absorption coefficient is treated as the sum of component spectra consisting of the cultured species (green algae or cyanobacteria), dissolved organic matter, and water (including the temperature dependence of the water absorption spectrum). The backscatter coefficient is approximated as the scaled Hilbert transform of the culture absorption spectrum with a wavelength-independent vertical offset. Additional terms in the reflectance model account for the pigment fluorescence features and the water-surface reflection of sunlight and skylight. For the green algae and cyanobacteria, the wavelength-independent vertical offset of the backscatter coefficient is found to scale linearly with daily dry weight measurements, providing the capability for a nonsampling measurement of biomass in outdoor ponds. Other fitting parameters in the reflectance model are compared with auxiliary measurements and physics-based calculations. The model-derived magnitudes of sunlight and skylight water-surface reflections compare favorably with Fresnel reflectance calculations, while the model-derived quantum efficiency of Chl-a fluorescence is found to be in agreement with literature values. Finally, the water temperatures derived from the reflectance model exhibit excellent agreement with thermocouple measurements during the morning hours but correspond to significantly elevated temperatures in the afternoon hours. PMID:25321139

  19. Multispectral sorter for rapid, nondestructive optical bioprospecting for algae biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan W.; Wu, Hauwen; Singh, Seema

    2014-03-01

    Microalgal biotechnology is a nascent yet burgeoning field for developing the next generation of sustainable feeds, fuels, and specialty chemicals. Among the issues facing the algae bioproducts industry, the lack of efficient means of cultivar screening and phenotype selection represents a critical hurdle for rapid development and diversification. To address this challenge, we have developed a multi-modal and label-free optical tool which simultaneously assesses the photosynthetic productivity and biochemical composition of single microalgal cells, and provides a means for actively sorting attractive specimen (bioprospecting) based on the spectral readout. The device integrates laser-trapping micro-Raman spectroscopy and pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry of microalgal cells in a flow cell. Specifically, the instrument employs a dual-purpose epi-configured IR laser for single-cell trapping and Raman spectroscopy, and a high-intensity VISNIR trans-illumination LED bank for detection of variable photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence. Micro-Raman scatter of single algae cells revealed vibrational modes corresponding to the speciation and total lipid content, as well as other major biochemical pools, including total protein, carbohydrates, and carotenoids. PSII fluorescence dynamics provide a quantitative estimate of maximum photosynthetic efficiency and regulated and non-regulated non-photochemical quenching processes. The combined spectroscopic readouts provide a set of metrics for subsequent optical sorting of the cells by the laser trap for desirable biomass properties, e.g. the combination of high lipid productivity and high photosynthetic yield. Thus the device provides means for rapid evaluation and sorting of algae cultures and environmental samples for biofuels development.

  20. Bio-reduction of plutonyl and neptunyl by Shewanella alga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D.T.; Lucchini, J.F [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, Carlsbad NM, 88220 (United States); Rittmann, B.E. [Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, Tempe, AZ 85282-5801 (United States); Songkasiri, W. [National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Biochemical Engineering and Plant Research and Development Unit, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, 10150 (Thailand)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The results of a concurrent experimental and modeling study to investigate the bio-reduction of higher-valent plutonium and neptunium by Shewanella alga strain BrY are presented. S. Alga, as a facultative metal reducer, is representative of bacteria that will be important in defining the mobility of plutonium and neptunium species as they migrate from oxic to anoxic zones. This is also an important consideration in defining the long-term stability of bio-precipitated 'immobilized' plutonium phases under changing redox conditions in biologically active systems and subsequently the effectiveness of remediation/containment approaches used for bio-remediation. Neptunium (VI) is readily reduced in groundwaters by many organics. In biologically active systems, it is unlikely, for this reason, that this oxidation state of neptunium will be important. Under all conditions investigated, neptunium (V) was reduced to neptunium (IV) when anaerobic conditions were established for a wide variety of electron donors. This was evidences by 3-4 orders of magnitude reduction in solution concentration and confirmed by XANES analysis. This led to high bio-association and/or precipitation of the neptunium. Plutonium (VI), as was the case with neptunium (VI) was reduced by the organics typically present in biologically active systems. Analogous bio-reduction experiments with plutonium (V) and plutonium (VI) are in progress and are expected to show that bio-reduction will predominate under anaerobic conditions, as was the case with neptunium. These results for neptunium and plutonium show S. Alga to be an effective microbe for the bio-reduction, and consequently the immobilization, of these important actinide contaminants. (authors)

  1. Bio-reduction of plutonyl and neptunyl by Shewanella alga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The results of a concurrent experimental and modeling study to investigate the bio-reduction of higher-valent plutonium and neptunium by Shewanella alga strain BrY are presented. S. Alga, as a facultative metal reducer, is representative of bacteria that will be important in defining the mobility of plutonium and neptunium species as they migrate from oxic to anoxic zones. This is also an important consideration in defining the long-term stability of bio-precipitated 'immobilized' plutonium phases under changing redox conditions in biologically active systems and subsequently the effectiveness of remediation/containment approaches used for bio-remediation. Neptunium (VI) is readily reduced in groundwaters by many organics. In biologically active systems, it is unlikely, for this reason, that this oxidation state of neptunium will be important. Under all conditions investigated, neptunium (V) was reduced to neptunium (IV) when anaerobic conditions were established for a wide variety of electron donors. This was evidences by 3-4 orders of magnitude reduction in solution concentration and confirmed by XANES analysis. This led to high bio-association and/or precipitation of the neptunium. Plutonium (VI), as was the case with neptunium (VI) was reduced by the organics typically present in biologically active systems. Analogous bio-reduction experiments with plutonium (V) and plutonium (VI) are in progress and are expected to show that bio-reduction will predominate under anaerobic conditions, as was the case with neptunium. These results for neptunium and plutonium show S. Alga to be an effective microbe for the bio-reduction, and consequently the immobilization, of these important actinide contaminants. (authors)

  2. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Barbosa-Filho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS, inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted.

  3. The vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of green inicellular alga chlamydomonas reinbardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The action of vacuum ultraviolet (Ar, 120-130 nm) irradiation of green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was investigated. The high frequency discharge in Ar as a source of vacuum ultraviolet radiation was used. The registration of cell destruction by microscopic observation and photography was realized. The dependence of cells survival rate was compared with those by UV-B and UV-C irradiation. It was shown that most efficiency of cell's destruction by vacuum ultraviolet irradiation was realized. This work was carring out according with project proposed for vacuum ultraviolet support. 21 refs., 6 figs.,

  4. Two freshwater filamentous, branched green algae, newly discovered in Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caisová, Lenka; Komárek, Jiří; Elster, Josef; Nedbalová, Linda

    Brno: Masarykova Univerzita, 2009 - (Barták, M.; Hájek, J.; Váczi, P.), s. 14-22 ISBN 978-80-210-4987-1. [Electronic Conference on Interactions between Antarctic Life and Environmental Factors. Brno (CZ), 22.10.2009-23.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0697; GA AV ČR IAA600050704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : filamentous branced green algae, Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. Production of Biodiesel from Marine Algae to Mitigate Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research article demonstrates the conversion of oily contents of marine macroalgae, namely Cystoseira indica and Scinia hatei to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) through alkaline transesterification. The algae were dried, crushed and grinded into the powder form, which were analyzed for physical appearance, water content and particle size profile. The oily contents from these powdered algae were extracted by using different non-polar solvents like n-hexane, n-heptane, dichloromethane, diethyl ether and n-hexane: diethyl ether (1:1) mixture at small scale. The efficiency index of the solvent was developed based on the yield of the oily content and boiling point of these solvents, which showed that n-hexane: diethyl ether (1:1) mixture is the best solvent system for the extraction of oils. The yield of oily contents with respect to the dried algal weight was found to be 2.81 ± 0.43 percentage w/w and 3.10 ± 0.27 percentage w/w for C. indica and S. hatei respectively. These oily contents were subjected to physical and chemical analysis. The oily contents were converted into biodiesel by alkaline transesterification using potassium methoxide as catalyst which is prepared by dissolving KOH in methanol (0.5g/12 ml, 4.2 percentage w/v) in a separate flask. All the reactions were carried out under completely anhydrous conditions using silica as desiccant and with continuous stirring so that the reactants in two immiscible phases of oily contents and methanol were remain in contact. The yield of biodiesel was found to be 89.0 ± 0.51 percentage w/w (2.50 percentage w/w of dried alga) and 90.6 ± 0.36 percentage w/w (2.81 percentage w/w of dried alga) of biodiesel from C. indica and S. hatei respectively. Finally, biodiesel was characterized by gas chromatography and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as well as by European (EN) standards which were found to be in agreement with the standard values of biodiesel. (author)

  6. Radioactive accumulation in alga samples from Romanian Black Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural and artificial radioactivity of the brown alga Cystoseira barbata samples collected on the Romanian Black Sea coast in 1996 in reported. The results on 137Cs were obtained through gamma-spectrometry, on 90Sr by beta-counting of the 90Y oxalate precipitated after strontium separation, on 226Ra by the emanation method, while the concentrations of U, Th, Pu and Am isotopes were obtained through radiochemical separations using tracers followed by alpha-spectrometry counting of the stainless steel discs after electrodeposition. These results add further evidence that Cystoseira barbata may be used as a bioindicator for radioactive contamination of the coastal waters. (author)

  7. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy of phycobiliproteins from cryptophyte algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    We describe new spectroscopic measurements which reveal additional information regarding the observed quantum coherences in proteins extracted from photosynthetic algae. The proteins we investigate are the phycobiliproteins phycoerythrin 545 and phycocyanin 645. Two new avenues have been explored. We describe how changes to the chemical and biological environment impact the quantum coherence present in the 2D electronic correlation spectrum. We also use new multidimensional spectroscopic techniques to reveal insights into the nature of the quantum coherence and the nature of the participating states.

  8. Study on sterols from brown algae (Sargassum muticum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peirong; XU Guanjun; BIAN Lizeng; ZHANG Shuichang; SONG Fuqing

    2006-01-01

    Various △5-3β-sterenols, whose carbon numbers range from C19-C23 to C26-C30and some compounds have many stereomers maximal up to six,have been detected out from the extract of brown algae (Sargassum muticum), which means that steranes with lower carbon numbers are likely different in the origin, and some corresponding sterol stereoisomers may have already existed in their precursor organisms. This provides some experimental evidence for supplementing and amending the traditional interpretation of the sterol stereoisomer transformation during the deposition and diagenesis of organic matter.

  9. Multi-scale Characterization of Improved Algae Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Taraka T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report relays the important role biofuels such as algae could have in the energy market. The report cites that problem of crude oil becoming less abundant while the demand for energy continues to rise. There are many benefits of producing energy with biofuels such as fewer carbon emissions as well as less land area to produce the same amount of energy compared to other sources of renewable fuels. One challenge that faces biofuels right now is the cost to produce it is high.

  10. Fitoremediasi limbah budidaya sidat menggunakan filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Apriadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi dari filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp. sebagai agen bioremediasi dalam mereduksi kandungan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan perbedaan dosis limbah (25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100%. Wadah penelitian berupa akuarium resirkulasi menggunakan sistem carrousel. Dilakukan pengukuran secara rutin terhadap beberapa parameter kualitas air serta perubahan bobot Spirogyra sp. selama dua minggu retensi. Diperoleh hasil bahwa penurunan konsentrasi bahan organik menggunakan Spirogyra sp. berlangsung efektif hingga hari keenam. Spirogyra sp. mampu mentolelir limbah budidaya sidat pada dosis limbah 25% dan 50%. Spirogyra sp. pada perlakuan dosis limbah 50% memiliki kemampuan yang lebih baik dalam menurunkan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat.

  11. Fucoidan from Marine Brown Algae Inhibits Lipid Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Changhyun Roh; Min-Kyoung Park; Uhee Jung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan from marine brown algae on the lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism. The treatment of fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner was examined on lipid inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells by using Oil Red O staining. Fucoidan showed high lipid inhibition activity at 200 µg/mL concentration (P < 0.001). Lipolytic activity in adipocytes is highly dependent on hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), which is one of the ...

  12. The auxin concentration in sixteen Chinese marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lijun

    2006-01-01

    The author determined the occurrence of indole-3-acetic acid in sixteen Chinese marine algae collected from the east coast of China with fluorescence spectrophotometry (FS) and wheat coleoptile bioanalysis methods (WCB). The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) presented was from 1.1-46.9 ng/g Fw (fresh weight) with FS and 5.3-110.2 ng/g Fw with WCB. The results by the two methods were in the orders of 10-3-103 ng/g Fw reported previously from multiple references.

  13. Four New Records for the Freshwater Algae of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memet VAROL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that planktonic algae are a critical component of freshwater ecosystems, our understanding of their diversity and species distributions is still rather poor. This study contributes new information to the knowledge of Turkish freshwater microflora. A total of 84 phytoplankton samples were collected from 7 sites in the Tigris River from February 2008 to January 2009. Four taxa representing new records for the freshwater algal flora of Turkey were identified from the river. They belong to the following phyla: 1 (Oscillatoria nitida  to Cyanobacteria, 2 (Micractinium bornhemiense and Lagerheimia wratislaviensis to Chlorophyta and 1 (Audouinella chalybaea to Rhodophyta.

  14. Measuring Oscillatory Velocity Fields Due to Swimming Algae

    CERN Document Server

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P

    2010-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we present the first time-resolved measurements of the oscillatory velocity field induced by swimming unicellular microorganisms. Confinement of the green alga C. reinhardtii in stabilized thin liquid films allows simultaneous tracking of cells and tracer particles. The measured velocity field reveals complex time-dependent flow structures, and scales inversely with distance. The instantaneous mechanical power generated by the cells is measured from the velocity fields and peaks at 15 fW. The dissipation per cycle is more than four times what steady swimming would require.

  15. Un atlas d'algues calcaires. Carbonifère, Alaska arctique [An atlas of calcareous algae. Carboniferous algae of the Arctic Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Mamet Bernard; Préat Alain

    2010-01-01

    An atlas illustrating 54 genera of marine algae and some microproblematica. They are observed in the field and in boreholes of the Lisburne Group throughout the Alaskan Arctic Cordillera (Brooks Range).

  16. Shotgun proteomic analysis of the unicellular alga Ostreococcus tauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Thierry; Martin, Sarah F; Chirnside, Eliane S; van Ooijen, Gerben; Barrios-Llerena, Martin E; O'Neill, John S; Shliaha, Pavel V; Kerr, Lorraine E; Millar, Andrew J

    2011-09-01

    Ostreococcus tauri is a unicellular green alga and amongst the smallest and simplest free-living eukaryotes. The O. tauri genome sequence was determined in 2006. Molecular, physiological and taxonomic data that has been generated since then highlight its potential as a simple model species for algae and plants. However, its proteome remains largely unexplored. This paper describes the global proteomic study of O. tauri, using mass spectrometry-based approaches: phosphopeptide enrichment, cellular fractionation, label-free quantification and (15)N metabolic labeling. The O. tauri proteome was analyzed under the following conditions: sampling at different times during the circadian cycle, after 24h of illumination, after 24h of darkness and under various nitrogen source supply levels. Cell cycle related proteins such as dynamin and kinesin were significantly up-regulated during the daylight-to-darkness transition. This is reflected by their higher intensity at ZT13 and this transition phase coincides with the end of mitosis. Proteins involved in several metabolic mechanisms were found to be up-regulated under low nitrogen conditions, including carbon storage pathways, glycolysis, phosphate transport, and the synthesis of inorganic polyphosphates. Ostreococcus tauri responds to low nitrogen conditions by reducing its nitrogen assimilation machinery which suggests an atypical adaptation mechanism for coping with a nutrient-limited environment. PMID:21635980

  17. Valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae via pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoni, Andrés I; Zunino, Josefina; Piccolo, María C; Volpe, María A

    2016-09-01

    The valorization of Rhizoclonium sp. algae through pyrolysis for obtaining bio-oils is studied in this work. The reaction is carried out at 400°C, at high contact time. The bio-oil has a practical yield of 35% and is rich in phytol. Besides, it is simpler than the corresponding to lignocellulosic biomass due to the absence of phenolic compounds. This property leads to a bio-oil relatively stable to storage. In addition, heterogeneous catalysts (Al-Fe/MCM-41, SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15), in contact with algae during pyrolysis, are analyzed. The general trend is that the catalysts decrease the concentration of fatty alcohols and other high molecular weight products, since their mild acidity sites promote degradation reactions. Thus, the amount of light products increases upon the use of the catalysts. Particularly, acetol concentration in the bio-oils obtained from the catalytic pyrolysis with SBA-15 and Cu/SBA-15 is notably high. PMID:27253478

  18. Halophytes, Algae, and Bacteria Food and Fuel Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The constant, increasing demand for energy, freshwater, and food stresses our ability to meet these demands within reasonable cost and impact on climate while sustaining quality of life. This environmental Triangle of Conflicts between energy, food, and water--while provoked by anthropogenic monetary and power struggles--can be resolved through an anthropogenic paradigm shift in how we produce and use energy, water, and food. With world population (6.6 billion) projected to increase 40 percent in 40 to 60 yr, proper development of saline agriculture and aquaculture is required, as 43 percent of the Earth's landmass is arid or semi-arid and 97 percent of the Earth's water is seawater. In light of this, we seek fuel alternatives in plants that thrive in brackish and saltwater with the ability to survive in arid lands. The development and application of these plants (halophytes) become the primary focus. Herein we introduce some not-so-familiar halophytes and present a few of their benefits, cite a few research projects (including some on the alternatives algae and bacteria), and then set theoretical limits on biomass production followed by projections in terms of world energy demands. Based on diverse arid lands with a total size equivalent to the Sahara Desert (8.6(exp 8) ha, or 2.1(exp 9) acres), these projections show that halophyte agriculture and algae systems can provide for the projected world energy demand.

  19. Health benefit of fucosterol from marine algae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Qudeer Ahmed; Choi, Ran Joo; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds belong to a group of marine plants known as algae, which are consumed as sea vegetables in several Asian countries. Recent studies have focused on the biological and pharmacological activities of seaweeds and their highly bioactive secondary metabolites because of their potential in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Although several varieties of bioactive novel compounds such as phlorotannins, diterpenes and polysaccharides from seaweeds have already been well scrutinized, fucosterol as a phytosterol still needs to reinvent itself. Fucosterol (24-ethylidene cholesterol) is a sterol that can be isolated from algae, seaweed and diatoms. Fucosterol exhibits various biological therapeutics, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, antifungal, antihistaminic, anticholinergic, antiadipogenic, antiphotodamaging, anti-osteoporotic, blood cholesterol reducing, blood vessel thrombosis preventive and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. In this review, we address some potential approaches for arbitrating novel fucosterol biologics in the medical field, focusing on the selection of personalized drug candidates and highlighting the challenges and opportunities regarding medical breakthroughs. We also highlight recent advances made in the design of this novel compound, as the significant health benefits from using these optimized applications apply to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical fields. PMID:26455344

  20. Identifying vital effects in Halimeda algae with Ca isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Blättler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical records of biogenic carbonates provide some of the most valuable records of the geological past, but are often difficult to interpret without a mechanistic understanding of growth processes. In this experimental study, Halimeda algae are used as a test organism to untangle some of the specific factors that influence their skeletal composition, in particular their Ca-isotope composition. Algae were stimulated to precipitate both calcite and aragonite by growth in artificial Cretaceous seawater. The Ca-isotope fractionation of the algal calcite is much smaller than that for the algal aragonite, similar to the behaviour observed in inorganic precipitates. However, the carbonate from Halimeda is isotopically heavier than inorganic forms, likely due to Rayleigh distillation within the algal intercellular space. In identifying specific vital effects and the magnitude of their influence on Ca-isotope ratios, this study suggests that mineralogy has a first-order control on the Ca-isotope budget of the carbonate sink and the Ca-isotope composition of seawater.

  1. Spectrin-like proteins in green algae (Desmidiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, A; De Ruijter, N; Emons, A M; Lütz-Meindl, U

    1999-01-01

    Immunochemical detection of actin as well as spectrin-like proteins have been carried out in the green algae Micrasterias denticulata, Closterium lunula, and Euastrum oblongum. In these algae, actin is detected on Western blots at 43 kDa with antibodies to actin from higher plant and animal origin. By use of antibodies to human and chicken erythrocyte spectrin a cross-reactivity with desmid proteins is found at about the molecular mass of 220 kDa, where also human erythrocyte spectrin is detected. Additional bands are present at 120 kDa and 70 kDa, which are probably breakdown products. An antibody against chicken alpha-actinin, a small protein of the spectrin superfamily, recognizes bands at 90 kDa, where it is expected, and 70 kDa, probably the same breakdown product as mentioned for spectrin. Isoelectric focusing provides staining at pI 4.6 with antibodies against spectrin. Immunogold labelling of spectrin and alpha-actinin antigens on high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted Micrasterias denticulata cells with the same antibodies exhibits staining, especially at membranes of different populations of secretory vesicles, at dictyosomes, and the plasma membrane. However, no clear correlation to the growth pattern of the cell could be observed. Taken together, our results demonstrate the presence of spectrin-like proteins in desmid cells which are probably functional in exocytosis. PMID:10579899

  2. Solar-driven hydrogen production in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Steven J; Tamburic, Bojan; Zemichael, Fessehaye; Hellgardt, Klaus; Nixon, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The twin problems of energy security and global warming make hydrogen an attractive alternative to traditional fossil fuels with its combustion resulting only in the release of water vapor. Biological hydrogen production represents a renewable source of the gas and can be performed by a diverse range of microorganisms from strict anaerobic bacteria to eukaryotic green algae. Compared to conventional methods for generating H(2), biological systems can operate at ambient temperatures and pressures without the need for rare metals and could potentially be coupled to a variety of biotechnological processes ranging from desalination and waste water treatment to pharmaceutical production. Photobiological hydrogen production by microalgae is particularly attractive as the main inputs for the process (water and solar energy) are plentiful. This chapter focuses on recent developments in solar-driven H(2) production in green algae with emphasis on the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We review the current methods used to achieve sustained H(2) evolution and discuss possible approaches to improve H(2) yields, including the optimization of culturing conditions, reducing light-harvesting antennae and targeting auxiliary electron transport and fermentative pathways that compete with the hydrogenase for reductant. Finally, industrial scale-up is discussed in the context of photobioreactor design and the future prospects of the field are considered within the broader context of a biorefinery concept. PMID:21807246

  3. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO2-enriched air can be converted to oily substances. Such an approach can contribute to solve major problems of air pollution resulting from CO2 evolution and future crisis due to a shortage of energy sources. This study was undertaken to know the proper transesterification, amount of biodiesel production (ester and physical properties of biodiesel. In this study we used common species Oedogonium and Spirogyra to compare the amount of biodiesel production. Algal oil and biodiesel (ester production was higher in Oedogonium than Spirogyra sp. However, biomass (after oil extraction was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. Sediments (glycerine, water and pigments was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. There was no difference of pH between Spirogyra and Oedogonium sp. These results indicate that biodiesel can be produced from both species and Oedogonium is better source than Spirogyra sp.

  4. Identifying vital effects in Halimeda algae with Ca isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Blättler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical records of biogenic carbonates provide some of the most valuable records of the geological past, but are often difficult to interpret without a mechanistic understanding of growth processes. In this experimental study, Halimeda algae are used as a test organism to untangle some of the specific factors that influence their skeletal composition, in particular their Ca-isotope composition. Algae were stimulated to precipitate both calcite and aragonite by growth in artificial Cretaceous seawater, resulting in experimental samples with somewhat malformed skeletons. The Ca-isotope fractionation of the algal calcite (−0.6‰ appears to be much smaller than that for the algal aragonite (−1.4‰, similar to the behaviour observed in inorganic precipitates. However, the carbonate from Halimeda has higher Ca-isotope ratios than inorganic forms by approximately 0.25‰, likely because of Rayleigh distillation within the algal intercellular space. In identifying specific vital effects and the magnitude of their influence on Ca-isotope ratios, this study suggests that mineralogy has a first-order control on the marine Ca-isotope cycle.

  5. Algas: da economia nos ambientes aquáticos à bioremediação e à química analítica Algae: from aquatic environment economy to bioremediation and analytical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Vidotti

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae constitute a large group of many different organisms, essentially aquatic and able to live in all systems giving them sufficient light and humidity. Some algae species have been used in the evaluation or in the bioremediation of aquatic systems. More recently algae have been suggested as interesting tools in the field of analytical chemistry. In this work the most important aspects related to the different uses of algae are presented with a brief discussion.

  6. Arsenic content in certain marine brown algae and mangroves from Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.K.; Chinnaraj, S.; Inamdar, S.N.; Untawale, A.G.

    Arsenic has been estimated in 7 species each of brown algae and mangroves, including different parts of Sargassum cinereum. Arsenic is more concentrated in brown algae [concentration /factor(CF) range 1.5 - 7 x 10 super(3)] as compared to mangroves...

  7. FRESHWATER ALGAE OF RAE LAKES BASIN, KINGS CANYON NATIONAL PARK (CALIFORNIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report illustrates and characterizes algae (exclusive of diatoms) found in Kings Canyon National Park, California and describes their distribution among the Rae Lakes within. It is the first taxonomic study of the freshwater algae for the southern Sierra Nevada and the most ...

  8. Life cycle assessment of biofuels from an integrated Brazilian algae-sugarcane biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane ethanol biorefineries in Brazil produce carbon dioxide, electricity and heat as byproducts. These are essential inputs for algae biodiesel production. In this paper, we assessed ethanol's life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy use produced in an integrated sugarcane and algae biorefinery where biodiesel replaces petroleum diesel for all agricultural operations. Carbon dioxide from cane juice fermentation is used as the carbon source for algae cultivation, and sugarcane bagasse is the sole source of energy for the entire facility. Glycerin produced from the biodiesel plant is consumed by algae during the mixotrophic growth phase. We assessed the uncertainties through a detailed Monte-Carlo analysis. We found that this integrated system can improve both the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and the fossil energy use of sugarcane ethanol by around 10% and 50%, respectively, compared to a traditional Brazilian sugarcane ethanol distillery. - Highlights: • A high diesel consumption is associated to the ethanol sugarcane life-cycle. • Sugarcane industry can provide sources of carbon and energy for the algae growing. • The sugarcane-algae integration can improve the ethanol life-cycle performance. • This integration is a promising pathway for the deployment of algae biodiesel. • There are still significant techno-economic barriers associated with algae biodiesel

  9. Interaction between the macrophyte Stratiotes aloides and filamentous algae: does it indicate allelopathy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulderij, G.; Mau, B.; De Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Smolders, A.J.P.; Van Donk, E.

    2009-01-01

    The aquatic macrophyte Stratiotes aloides Linnaeus, which has recently received attention in studies on allelopathy, has been shown to suppress phytoplankton growth. In the Netherlands, S. aloides often co-occurs with floating filamentous algae. However, filamentous algae are generally absent in clo

  10. BEBERAPA MARGA ALGA BENANG DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEBERADAAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI BALI UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of filamentous algae and its relation to malaria vector control was conducted during the dry season in several lagoons at the north coast of Bali. Floating masses of these algae under the sunshine barricated the spread of solar-triton larvicide, reducing tremendously the effectiveness of the larvicide. Identification of the genera of these algae under the subphyllum of CYANOPHYTA (Blue Algae in the family of Cyanophyceae were Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Phormidium, Rivularia, Nostoc, and Anabaena; under the subphyllum of CHLOROPHYTA (Green Algae in the family of Chlorophyceae were Enteromorpha, Spirogyra, Mougeotia, Zygnema, and Oedogonium. The surface of water in between the floating masses of algae were an exellent breeding place of mosquitoes mainly Anopheles sundaicus. The density of Enteromorpha, the main attractant of An sundaicus compared to other filamantous algae, has no direct relation on the density of An. sundaicus larva. Hence Enteromorpha could only be considered as the indicator of the presence of larvae and not as the indicator of population densities of larvae Lagoons surrounded with mangrove plantations did not harbour filamentous algae and larvae of An. sundaicus were not found.

  11. Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

    In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

  12. The potential of optimized process design to advance LCA performance of algae production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Perez-Lopez, P.; Breitmayer, E.; Slegers, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental impact is an essential aspect for the introduction of algae production systems. As information of large scale algae production is hardly available, process simulation is the only way to evaluate environmental sustainability in an early phase of process design. Simulation results allow

  13. The Mediterranean Red Alga Asparagopsis: A Source of Compounds against Leishmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Morabito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts and column fractions from the red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis and A. armata from the Strait of Messina (Italy were screened for the production of antimicrobial compounds. Extracts from both species revealed remarkable antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania, revealing such algae as a great source of natural antiprotozoal products.

  14. Accumulation of 95mTc by marine algae and sea urchin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to investigate the accumulation of technetium by marine algae popular in Japan and it is also important to examine the contribution of food to the accumulation of the nuclide by sea urchin which grazes algae. In the laboratory tracer experiment, some species of algae and sea urchin were kept separately for 7 days in sea water containing 95mTc (uptake experiment) and then transferred into non-radioactive sea water to be held for 28 days with the frequent renewal of the sea water (excretion experiment). No food was given during the uptake experiment to prevent the urchins from accumulating 95mTc through food. Another experiment was done by feeding urchins with 95mTc labeled algae in the non-radioactive sea water. Five species of brown algae showed CFs in the range of 900 and 35000 but CFs of green and red algae were 1-4. Sea urchin accumulated more 95mTc through food (brown algae) than directly from sea water, so that the main pathway of technetium accumulation by sea urchin was estimated to be brown algae which were the most favorite food of the organism. (author)

  15. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    KAUST Repository

    Wild, Christian

    2014-09-16

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29%) when compared to the other sites (4–19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  16. Can stormwater be detected by algae in an urban reef in Hawai‘i?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Invasive and native algae are a part of a reef assemblage located in an urban area. • Algal nitrogen (N) composition tested if N was enriched from storm-drain outlets. • Elevated N values indicated a mixed, high nutrient environment. • Storm-drains as plausible nitrogenous source was not supported. • Temporal and spatial values indicate algae incorporated terrestrial derived N. -- Abstract: Nitrogen (N) enrichment of tropical reefs can result in the dominance of invasive algae. The invasive alga Acanthophora spicifera and the native alga Laurencia nidifica are part of a diverse reef assemblage in ‘Ewa Beach, O‘ahu. Their N contents and δ15N values were investigated to determine if N was enriched and to evaluate potential nitrogenous sources near and removed from storm-drain outlets. δ15N values of algae (3.8–17.7‰) were within and above the range for algae around the island (1.9–11.9‰). Elevated algae N isotope values (δ15N > +7‰, [N] > 1.6%) and seawater nitrate + nitrite levels (0.59–7.93 μM) indicated a mixed, high nutrient environment. The overlap in δ15N values with multiple nitrogenous sources precluded identification. However, spatial and temporal patterns did not support stormwater as the dominant, nitrogenous source. Patterns were congruent with algal incorporation of terrestrial derived N, subjected to a high degree of biogeochemical cycling

  17. Possible future effects of large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels on coastal eutrophication in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaas, H.; Kroeze, C.

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is increasingly considered as an alternative for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from rapeseed, palm, sunflower, soybean and algae. In this study, the consequences of large-scale production of biodiesel from micro-algae for eutrophication in four large European seas are analysed.

  18. Nuclear DNA Content Estimates in Multicellular Green, Red and Brown Algae: Phylogenetic Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Kapraun, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Multicellular eukaryotic algae are phylogenetically disparate. Nuclear DNA content estimates have been published for fewer than 1 % of the described species of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. The present investigation aims to summarize the state of our knowledge and to add substantially to our database of C-values for theses algae.

  19. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Mark JA

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral–turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship. PMID:27190707

  20. Economic Feasibility of Commercial Algae Oil Production in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Bart L.; Richardson, James W.; Outlaw, Joe L.; Allison, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation model was constructed to analyze the economic feasibility of growing algae as a renewable fuel source. Increasing growth rates, pond water depth, oil content, and facility size are important for ensuring the economic viability of a commercial algae facility.

  1. Biochemical composition of some brown algae from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe present study aimed to determine total protein, total carbohydrate, total phenolic substances and pigment contents of brown algae collected in Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Totally eight brown algae samples (Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira corniculata, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyota dichotoma, Padina pavonia, Sargassum vulgare, Stypocaulon scoparium, Stypopodium schimperii) were analyzed. The highest protein content was obtained from S. schimperii ...

  2. Fucoxanthin and Its Metabolites in Edible Brown Algae Cultivated in Deep Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanami Mori

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Three metabolites of fucoxanthin were isolated from a brown alga, Scytosiphon lomentaria, and the structure of a new compound was determined by NMR. The content of fucoxanthin, a biologically active carotenoid, in four edible brown algae, cultivated in deep seawater, was studied.

  3. Photobiology of sea ice algae during initial spring growth in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawes, Ian; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Sorrell, Brian Keith;

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a series of measurements of photophysiological parameters of sea ice algae over 12 days of early spring growth in a West Greenland Fjord, by variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Imaging of the ice–water interface showed the development of ice algae in 0.3–0.4 mm wide brine...

  4. All Fiber-optic Fluorescent Spectral Measurement and Analysis on Alga Chla/c Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fluorescent principle used for measuring alga characteristic parameters and the optimum structure design of the instrument are discussed. The fluorescent spectrum of Chla/c and the time-resolved different spectrum ΔA(λ,t) are given. The research provides an effective method for considering the density and the classification of algae, which will be helpful to monitor sea pollution.

  5. Blue-green algae in rice fields. Their ecology and their use as inoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a short review on blue-green algae in rice fields, their ecology and their use as inoculants. Some emphasis has been given to the recent studies of the relations between blue-green algae and rice which include the availability of algal nitrogen to the rice plant and epiphytic relationships. (author)

  6. Field testing for toxic algae with a microarray: initial results from the MIDTAL project

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In: Pagou, P. and Hallegraeff, G. (eds). Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Harmful Algae. International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO 2012 ISBN 978-87-990827-3-5 Archived in DUO with permission from ISSHA.

  7. The current potential of algae biofuels in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of future uncertainties about industrial algae biofuel production, the UAE is planning to become "a world leader in biofuels from the algae industry by 2020;" thus joining major countries which have already started producing renewable energy and biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from rene...

  8. Preliminary Study of Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Algae from South Sulawesi Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin, Elmi Nurhaidah

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will cover recent progress from our laboratory into South Sulawesi marine algae and their microbial symbionts, as a source of cytotoxic and antimicrobial compounds. Preliminary data on the activities of algae extracts against human, aquaculture organism and plant pathogens will be presented along with the identification and characterization of microbial symbionts and pathogens.

  9. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wild

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km: Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore, Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore, and Lighthouse Reef (offshore. In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29% when compared to the other sites (4–19%. The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia, particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  10. The Chloroplast Protein Translocation Complexes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A Bioinformatic Comparison of Toc and Tic Components in Plants, Green Algae and Red Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Kalanon, Ming; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2008-01-01

    The recently completed genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was surveyed for components of the chloroplast protein translocation complexes. Putative components were identified using reciprocal BlastP searches with the protein sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as queries. As a comparison, we also surveyed the new genomes of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, two prasinophyte green algae (Ostreococcus lucimarinus and Ostreococcus tauri), the red alga Cyanidioschizon merolae, and several cyanob...

  11. Cars will be fed on algae; Quand nos voitures rouleront aux algues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, G. [CEA-CNRS, Laboratoire de bioenergetique des bacteries et microalgues, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France)

    2012-02-15

    The development of the first and second generations of bio-fuels has led to a rise in food prices and the carbon balance sheet is less good than expected. Great hopes have been put on unicellular algae for they can synthesize oils, sugar and even hydrogen and the competition with food production is far less harsh than with actual bio-fuels. Moreover, when you grow micro-algae, the loss of water through evaporation is less important than in the case of intensive farm cultures. In 2009 10.000 tonnes of micro-algae were produced worldwide, they were mainly used for the production of fish food and of complements for humane food (fat acids and antioxidants). Different research programs concern unicellular algae: they aim at modifying micro-algae genetically in order to give them a higher productivity or to make them produce an oil more adapted for motor fuel or more easily recoverable. (A.C.)

  12. Adsorption Studies of Lead by Enteromorpha Algae and Its Silicates Bonded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. Hammud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead adsorption by green Enteromorpha algae was studied. Adsorption capacity was 83.8 mg/g at pH 3.0 with algae (E and 1433.5 mg/g for silicates modified algae (EM. FTIR and thermal analysis of algae materials were studied. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson column model were best for adsorbent (E and algae after reflux (ER and Yan model for (EM with capacity 76.2, 71.1, and 982.5 mg/g, respectively. (ER and (EM show less swelling and better flow rate control than (E. Nonlinear methods are more appropriate technique. Error function calculations proved valuable for predicting the best adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and column models.

  13. Algae of economic importance that accumulate cadmium and lead: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila O. Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, algae and algae products are extensively applied in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Algae are the main organisms that take up and store heavy metals. Therefore, the use of compounds derived from algae by the pharmaceutical industry should be closely monitored for possible contamination. The pollution generated by heavy metals released by industrial and domestic sources causes serious changes in the aquatic ecosystem, resulting in a loss of biological diversity and a magnification and bioaccumulation of toxic agents in the food chain. Since algae are at the bottom of the aquatic food chain, they are the most important vector for transfer of pollution to upper levels of the trophic chain in aquatic environments. Moreover, microalgae are also used for the bioremediation of wastewater, a process that does not produce secondary pollution, that enables efficient recycling of nutrients and that generates biomass useful for the production of bioactive compounds and biofuel.

  14. Benthic soft-bodied algae as bioindicators of stream water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the state-of-the-art of benthic soft-bodied algae as biondicators of stream and river water quality, with emphasis on bioassessments set by the legislation (e.g., European Water Framework Directive, USA Clean Water Act to promote the restoration and ensure ecological sustainability of water resources. The advantages and shortcomings of a variety of bioassessment field and laboratory methods for algae are discussed. The increasing use of soft-bodied algae in biotic indices to assess individual anthropogenic stressors, and in multimetric indices of biotic integrity to evaluate ecological condition in streams is summarized. Rapid microscopic and molecular approaches for inferring nutrient supply with heterocystous cyanobacteria and other sensitive algae are proposed. The need of better understanding of soft-bodied algae as bioindicators is discussed and suggestions are made for obtaining meaningful bioassessment information with cost-efficient efforts.

  15. The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbridge, George; Azadi, Pooya; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Taylor, Benjamin; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a techno-economic assessment of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties associated with the development of algal biorefineries. A global sensitivity analysis was performed using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method. It was found that, considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the sensitivity of the biodiesel production cost to the key input parameters decreases in the following order: algae oil content>algae annual productivity per unit area>plant production capacity>carbon price increase rate. It was also found that the Return on Investment (ROI) is highly sensitive to the algae oil content, and to a lesser extent to the algae annual productivity, crude oil price and price increase rate, plant production capacity, and carbon price increase rate. For a large scale plant (100,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year) the production cost of biodiesel is likely to be £0.8-1.6 per kg. PMID:24220544

  16. Computational Visual Stress Level Analysis of Calcareous Algae Exposed to Sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterloff, Jonas; Nilssen, Ingunn; Eide, Ingvar; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Marcia Abreu; de Souza Tâmega, Frederico Tapajós; Nattkemper, Tim W

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a machine learning based approach for analyses of photos collected from laboratory experiments conducted to assess the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water rhodolith-forming calcareous algae. This pilot study uses imaging technology to quantify and monitor the stress levels of the calcareous algae Mesophyllum engelhartii (Foslie) Adey caused by various degrees of light exposure, flow intensity and amount of sediment. A machine learning based algorithm was applied to assess the temporal variation of the calcareous algae size (∼ mass) and color automatically. Measured size and color were correlated to the photosynthetic efficiency (maximum quantum yield of charge separation in photosystem II, [Formula: see text]) and degree of sediment coverage using multivariate regression. The multivariate regression showed correlations between time and calcareous algae sizes, as well as correlations between fluorescence and calcareous algae colors. PMID:27285611

  17. Uptake of caprolactam and its influence on growth and oxygen production of Desmodesmus quadricauda algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, Jana Pexová; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Novák, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The consumption of polyamides produced from caprolactam is increasing continuously, and for that reason the danger of environmental contamination by this lactam is also rising. This study's aim was to evaluate the influence of caprolactam on the growth and oxygen production of the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda and on caprolactam uptake by this alga. The presence of caprolactam in water was observed to cause the algae significantly to increase its oxygen production. Caprolactam concentration of 5,000 mg/L stopped algae growth after 6 days and influenced coenobia structure (seen as disappearance of pyrenoids, deformation of cells) but did not decrease the number of cells in the coenobia. Caprolactam uptake is probably passive but relatively rapid. Maximum concentration in the algae was reached after 18-24 h. PMID:26985739

  18. Isolation of algae of the Neusa reservoir by means of cultivations in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cultivation of algae at world level is an occupation of old it dates, but in Colombia it is in its first development stages. The present work developed in the Laboratory of Bioassays, Department of Biology, National University of Colombia, is guided to contribute technical in the development of the cultivation of algae. In the practical part of the work; samples of water of the Reservoir of the Neusa were used for cultivation in liquid medium and solid medium. A better growth of filamentous cianoficeas was observed in solid medium and green algae in liquid medium. The clamidomonas is favored in both mediums, fact that allowed isolating a pure stump of this type of algae. The diatomeas for the fact of growing in connection with green algae generates a methodological problem for their isolation that is still without solving

  19. Application of rbcL based molecular diversity analysis to algae in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Love, Nancy G

    2011-02-01

    The molecular diversity of algae in the final clarifier or denitrification filter outfall from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with activated sludge based treatment was analyzed using the rbcL gene as a phylogenetic marker. The rbcL gene encodes the large subunit of the CO(2) fixing enzyme RuBisCO. Among algae identified at the WWTPs were diatoms, green algae, cyanobacteria, Eustigmatophyceae, and unknown heterokonts. A high level of diversity was observed within WWTPs with 19-24 unique rbcL sequences detected at each plant. Algae composition also varied between treatment plants. Our results show that the rbcL gene can be used as a phylogenetic marker for algae diversity analysis in a wastewater treatment context. PMID:21130646

  20. Bio sorption of copper ions with biomass of algae and dehydrated waste of olives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    They were carried out experiments of biosorption batch and in continuous to remove copper from aqueous solutions using as adsorbents green algae and olive residues under virgins conditions and chemically activated. The results of batch bio sorption indicate that the algae present mayor elimination capacities than the waste of olives, with uptakes of copper of the order of 96 % using activated algae with dissolution of Na2SO4 under the optimum conditions. The results of the columns tests show that the virgin algae permits the removal of more copper ions than the activate algae, with removal efficiency of 98 % during the firth 20 min, a breakthrough time of 240 min and a saturation at time of 600 min. In the second cycle the regenerated biomass showed a best performance indicating that they can be used for another bio sorption cycle. (Author) 42 refs.

  1. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions: In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  2. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Tejada; Antoni Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma) epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands) by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands). Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions:In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  3. Paleoecology of Late Carboniferous Phylloid Algae in Southern Guizhou,SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Phylloid algae are important reef-builders in the late Carboniferous. This paper focuses on the paleoecology of phylloid algae in the Late Carboniferous on well-exposed reefs in Ziyun County,Guizhou Province. Phylloid algae growing closely packed are attached via holdfast or similar structure to substrate. They were growing in environments such as shallow water, photic zone and below the wave base with medium energy currents. They have a variety of morphological forms, such as single cup-shaped, cabbage-shaped and clustering cup-shaped. The thalli are of certain tenacity and intensity. In the areas dominated by phylloid algae, other marine organisms are relatively scarce.Obviously, phylloid algae are stronger competitors for living space than other co-occurring organisms.

  4. Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    本多, 愛美; 竹内, 望; 世良, 峻太郎; 藤田, 耕史; 岡本, 祥子; 直木, 和弘; Vladimr, Aizen

    2010-01-01

    Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their the biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on the glacier. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studing biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores may clean that not only restoring the amont of the paleo-snow algae but also environmental condition...

  5. Characterization of phosphorus forms in lake macrophytes and algae by solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic macrophytes and algae are important sources of phosphorus (P) in the lake environment that cause blooms of algae under certain biogeochemical conditions. However, the knowledge of forms of P in these plants and algae and their contribution to internal loads of lake P is very limited. Witho...

  6. Managing phosphorus fertilizer to reduce algae, maintain water quality, and sustain yields in water-seeded rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    In water-seeded rice systems blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) hinder early-season crop growth by dislodging rice seedlings and reducing light. Since algae are often phosphorus (P) limited, we investigated whether changing the timing of P fertilizer application could reduce algae without reducing cro...

  7. Surface gas-exchange processes of snow algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, William E; Gorton, Holly L; Vogelmann, Thomas C

    2003-01-21

    The red-colored chlorophyte Chlamydomonas nivalis is commonly found in summer snowfields. We used a modified Li-Cor gas-exchange system to investigate surface gas-exchange characteristics of snow colonized by this alga, finding rates of CO(2) uptake up to 0.3 micromol.m(-2).s(-1) in dense algal blooms. Experiments varying the irradiance resulted in light curves that resembled those of the leaves of higher plants. Red light was more effective than white and much more effective than green or blue, because of the red astaxanthin that surrounds and masks the algal chloroplasts. Integrating daily course measurements of gas exchange showed CO(2) uptake around 2,300 micromol.m(-2).day(-1) in heavily colonized patches, indicating that summer snowfields can be surprisingly productive. PMID:12518048

  8. PCD and autophagy in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affenzeller, Matthias Josef; Darehshouri, Anza; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2009-08-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a central role in normal plant development and is also induced by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. In the unicellular freshwater green alga Micrasterias denticulata morphological and biochemical hallmarks such as the appearance of autophagosomes, increased production of ROS and degradation of genomic DNA into small fragments ("DNA laddering") indicate PCD. Our data not only demonstrate that Micrasterias is capable of performing PCD under salt stress, but also that it is triggered by the ionic and not osmotic component of salinity. Additionally, results from the present and previous studies suggest that different inducers may lead to different cell death pathways in one and the same organism. PMID:19430197

  9. PCD and autophagy in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affenzeller, Matthias Josef; Darehshouri, Anza; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a central role in normal plant development and is also induced by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. In the unicellular freshwater green alga Micrasterias denticulata morphological and biochemical hallmarks such as the appearance of autophagosomes, increased production of ROS and degradation of genomic DNA into small fragments (“DNA laddering”) indicate PCD. Our data not only demonstrate that Micrasterias is capable of performing PCD under salt stress, but also that it is triggered by the ionic and not osmotic component of salinity. Additionally, results from the present and previous studies suggest that different inducers may lead to different cell death pathways in one and the same organism. PMID:19430197

  10. 60Co retention by a freshwater planktonic alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of various decontamination experiments aimed at evaluating 60Co retention by Scenedesmus obliquus, and the respective role played by absorption and adsorption in the contamination of the alga by this radionuclide. The physiological condition of cells is not involved in radiocobalt desorption, which seems to indicate that the phenomenon is of a passive nature. When the precontamination time is extended, the proportion of adsorbed 60Co decreases, and the final percentage of radionuclide retained increases. These results are confirmed by bringing cells into contact with a strong chelating agent. The elimination of 60Co in the presence of EDTA undergoes a sharp decrease which is correlated with the increase in the duration of the precontamination phase. The use of a weaker complexing agent, such as NaCl, leads to the hypothesis of there being 2 types of 60Co receptor on cell membranes. (author)

  11. Metal bioaccumulation by the freshwater alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of six metals (Cu2+, Cu+, Mo6+, Mn2+, V5+, Ni2+) and their combinations by alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was determined by using radio nuclide X-ray fluorescence (RXFA). The metals were added into the cultivation medium in concentrations corresponding with EC50 value for each metal. The obtained results indicate that Ni2+, Cu2+ and Cu+ were accumulated in high amounts (20%, 17.5% and 15.9%) the Mo6+ ion (2+, Ni, Mn, V; V→Ni, Mn; Mn→Ni, Cu2+, Cu+; Cu+→Ni; Cu2+→Ni; Ni→Mn, V), enhancement (V→Cu+; Cu2+→Mn; Cu+→V, Mn; Mn→V; Ni→Cu2+, Cu+) and neutral effect (V→Mo; Cu2+→Mo; Cu+→Mo; Mn→Mo; Ni→Mo). (author)

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on the alga Cosmarium undulatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study the algal material was irradiated with different doses gamma rays, i.e. 1KR, 2.5KR, 5KR, 10KR, 20KR, 30KR, 40KR, 50KR, 60KR, 70KR, 80KR, and 90KR. The experiments were conducted mostly to study the growth pattern, survival and phenotypic variations. Growth was evaluated by taking cell counts, optical density measurements, percentage mitosis and also by recording the morphological variations of the control and the treated samples at frequent intervals. During the course of present investigation the alga Cosmarium undulatum was found to be highly resistant and survived upto 90KR. (author). 5 figs., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  13. Self-deconstructing algae biomass as feedstock for transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Biomass Science and Conversion Technologies

    2014-09-01

    The potential for producing biofuels from algae has generated much excitement based on projections of large oil yields with relatively little land use. However, numerous technical challenges remain for achieving market parity with conventional non-renewable liquid fuel sources. Among these challenges, the energy intensive requirements of traditional cell rupture, lipid extraction, and residuals fractioning of microalgae biomass have posed significant challenges to the nascent field of algal biotechnology. Our novel approach to address these problems was to employ low cost solution-state methods and biochemical engineering to eliminate the need for extensive hardware and energy intensive methods for cell rupture, carbohydrate and protein solubilization and hydrolysis, and fuel product recovery using consolidated bioprocessing strategies. The outcome of the biochemical deconstruction and conversion process consists of an emulsion of algal lipids and mixed alcohol products from carbohydrate and protein fermentation for co-extraction or in situ transesterification.

  14. Phytochemical Studies On The Marine Algae Of Qatar, Arabian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Heiba, H. I. [حلمي اسماعيل هيبة

    1990-01-01

    The most dominant twenty three algal species representing the main three groups of benthic macroalgae, Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae were collected from the coastal zones of the Qatar peninsula. These algae were screened for alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. The moisture, ash, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, minerals and trace elements content of the investigated algal species were determined. يشمل البحث المسح الكيميائي لثلاثة وعشرين طحلبا تمثل أكثر الأنو...

  15. Enhanced genetic tools for engineering multigene traits into green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasala, Beth A; Chao, Syh-Shiuan; Pier, Matthew; Barrera, Daniel J; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization. PMID:24710110

  16. Toxicity testing with the marine algae, Symbiodinium kawagutii (Dinophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrie, J.R.; Bidwell, J.R.; Rippingale, R.J. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Bentley (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium kawagutii, is among the algal taxa which exist in symbiosis with a range of marine invertebrates. S. kawagutii is commonly found in association with the Hawaiian stony coral, Montipora verrucosa. The algae has been successfully cultured in the laboratory using a common marine algal growth media (Guillard f/2), and sufficient cell densities were achieved in a 96-hr bioassay to allow statistical evaluation of toxicity data. A 96-hr EC{sub 50} of 6.47 mg/L (95% C.I.: 3.54--9.88 mg/L) was calculated after exposure to potassium dichromate. Wide distribution of the coral host and ecological importance of the symbiosis make S. kawagutii an excellent candidate species for hazard evaluation in tropical marine ecosystems. Continuing research will seek to further refine the bioassay, including the use of a microplate technique for more rapid testing.

  17. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  18. A new ketosteroid from red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dayong; Guo, Shuju; Fan, Xiao

    2011-05-01

    A new ketosteroid, along with six known steroids, was isolated from the ethanolic extracts of red alga Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl.) Boergesen. The structures, identified using chemical and spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR, were: (1) 22-hydroxy-5α-cholest-3,6-dione, (2) 6-hydroxycholest-4-ene-3-one, (3) cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione, (4) cholest-5-ene-3β-ol, (5) 5α-cholestane-3,6-dione, (6) β-Sitosterol and (7) Saringosterol. The MTT method was used to test the cytotoxicity of the compounds against the human cancer cell lines, HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and HELA. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 5 showed moderate cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines.

  19. Investigations on the biokinetics of carbon 14 in algae cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of 14C by Scenedesmus quadricauda is quantitatively investigated by simulation models of radio ecological relevance. Due to the complexing of the procedures in the natural ecosystem, it was only possible to consider idealized conditions. The batch culture ressembles the conditons of still waters or relatively still waters without notable water exchange. The effect of the 14C enrichment, as well as the drastic carbon reduction in the substrate as a result of algae growth, was avoided in the modified batch culture under conditions of simultaneous substrate diffusion by means of a permeation system. The 14C and 12C uptake of the cells thus took place solely under the conditions of constant concentration in the culture medium. The consequences for flowing water resulting from a nuclear power plant accident are to be simulated for the extent of the 14C uptake by green algae using the continuous culture model with dynamic 14C exposure. The continuous infusion of 14C in the continuous culture corresponds to the possible cases where 14C escapes into a flowing water at a constant rate over a long period of time, whether this may be via chronical release from a nuclear power plant or by 'fallout' resulting from nuclear arms testing. The results shown lead to the conclusion that the emission of 14C to the environment, which according to prognoses will be considerably higher after the year 2000, presents a serious radioactivity potential which man and environment will have to live with should these developments continue and the prognoses come true. (orig./MG)

  20. Evidence for methane production by the marine algae Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Katharina; Klintzsch, Thomas; Langer, Gerald; Nehrke, Gernot; Bunge, Michael; Schnell, Sylvia; Keppler, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas that affects radiation balance and consequently the earth's climate, still has uncertainties in its sinks and sources. The world's oceans are considered to be a source of CH4 to the atmosphere, although the biogeochemical processes involved in its formation are not fully understood. Several recent studies provided strong evidence of CH4 production in oxic marine and freshwaters, but its source is still a topic of debate. Studies of CH4 dynamics in surface waters of oceans and large lakes have concluded that pelagic CH4 supersaturation cannot be sustained either by lateral inputs from littoral or benthic inputs alone. However, regional and temporal oversaturation of surface waters occurs frequently. This comprises the observation of a CH4 oversaturating state within the surface mixed layer, sometimes also termed the "oceanic methane paradox". In this study we considered marine algae as a possible direct source of CH4. Therefore, the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi was grown under controlled laboratory conditions and supplemented with two 13C-labeled carbon substrates, namely bicarbonate and a position-specific 13C-labeled methionine (R-S-13CH3). The CH4 production was 0.7 µg particular organic carbon (POC) g-1 d-1, or 30 ng g-1 POC h-1. After supplementation of the cultures with the 13C-labeled substrate, the isotope label was observed in headspace CH4. Moreover, the absence of methanogenic archaea within the algal culture and the oxic conditions during CH4 formation suggest that the widespread marine algae Emiliania huxleyi might contribute to the observed spatially and temporally restricted CH4 oversaturation in ocean surface waters.

  1. Ecotoxicological effects of Mikado and Viper on algae and daphnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, C R; Gonçalves, A M M; Pereira, R; Gonçalves, F

    2012-12-01

    The toxicity of single and combined formulated herbicides (Mikado and Viper) was assessed on several endpoints in species from two trophic levels: algae growth-Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris-immobilization and life-history traits (only for single compound toxicity) of daphnids-Daphnia longispina and Daphnia magna. Viper was the most toxic formulated herbicide. It was hypothesized that the toxicity of both formulated herbicides could have been enhanced by adjuvants, especially for Viper. In most cases, the sublethal endpoints were the most sensitive and affected by both formulations, comparatively to their acute effects. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models provided an accurate description of Mikado and Viper joint action on algae growth and immobilization of daphnids, although significant deviations were always detected. A low-dose antagonism and high-dose synergism were identified for P. subcapitata, whereas C. vulgaris response deviated antagonistically from CA and synergistically from IA. For both daphnids, however, synergistic effects were observed for higher mixture concentrations. Under a regulatory standpoint, CA provided the most conservative estimation either because the mixture effects were overestimated or less subestimated than IA. Overall, the great sensitivity differences observed within species did not allow the conclusion that one trophic level was more tolerant than the other. Instead, P. subcapitata was always the most sensitive species to both herbicide formulations, followed by D. longispina, while D. magna and C. vulgaris were the most tolerant species. On a whole, further studies are needed toward a comprehensive understanding of herbicides mode of action, their effects at lower biological-level endpoints, and under different mixture designs. PMID:21374788

  2. Salt Stress Culture of Blue-green Algae Spirulinafusiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Rafiqul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A Study was conducted on the salt stress culture of blue green algae S. fusiformis. The blue green algae S. fusiformis was grown at the different salinity of sea water as 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 14.0, 15.0, 16.0, 17.0 and 18.0 ppt which were enriched with Zarouk medium. A new steady state was established after carry out an initial lag phase. The observed growth rate was slower and inversely related with concentration of salt stress i.e. the more was salinity, the slower was growth rate during the experiment. Instead of growth, a decrease in biomass was also observed in high salinity. The specific growth rate at all salt stress culture was lower than that of control (0 ppt. The result showed that the protein and carbohydrate content were varied from 37.3 to 56.1% and 16.8 to 31.4 %, respectively. At 1.0 and 1.2 ppt a marked increase in lipids of 19.6 and 15.6% were observed. Highest carotenoid content of 3.53 mg-1 g dry weight was found at 16 ppt, which is significantly (P<0.05 higher compared to control. Phycocyanin was high at 1 ppt (93 mg 1 g dry weight, which is significantly lower than that of control. The result showed that the production of lipids and carotenes in salt stress culture which would be 1-1.2 ppt and 15-16, ppt respectively in laboratory culture conditions.

  3. Mannitol metabolism in brown algae involves a new phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisillier, Agnès; Shao, Zhanru; Michel, Gurvan; Goulitquer, Sophie; Bonin, Patricia; Krahulec, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd; Duan, Delin; Boyen, Catherine; Tonon, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to green plants and animals, and are found predominantly in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment. Because of their unique evolutionary history and of their habitat, brown algae feature several peculiarities in their metabolism. One of these is the mannitol cycle, which plays a central role in their physiology, as mannitol acts as carbon storage, osmoprotectant, and antioxidant. This polyol is derived directly from the photoassimilate fructose-6-phosphate via the action of a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and a mannitol-1-phosphatase (M1Pase). Genome analysis of the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus allowed identification of genes potentially involved in the mannitol cycle. Among these, two genes coding for haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes were suggested to correspond to M1Pase activity, and thus were named EsM1Pase1 and EsM1Pase2, respectively. To test this hypothesis, both genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant EsM1Pase2 was shown to hydrolyse the phosphate group from mannitol-1-phosphate to produce mannitol but was not active on the hexose monophosphates tested. Gene expression analysis showed that transcription of both E. siliculosus genes was under the influence of the diurnal cycle. Sequence analysis and three-dimensional homology modelling indicated that EsM1Pases, and their orthologues in Prasinophytes, should be seen as founding members of a new family of phosphatase with original substrate specificity within the HAD superfamily of proteins. This is the first report describing the characterization of a gene encoding M1Pase activity in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24323504

  4. Effect of Alexandrium tamarense on three bloom-forming algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Juan; Xie, Jin; Yang, Weidong; Li, Hongye; Liu, Jiesheng

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the allelopathic properties of Alexandrium tamarense (Laboar) Balech on the growth of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu, Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara and Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada in a laboratory experiment. We examined the growth of A. tamarense, C. marina, P. donghaiense and H. Akashiwo in co-cultures and the effect of filtrates from A. tamarense cultures in various growth phases, on the three harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming algae. In co-cultures with A. tamarense, both C. marina and H. akashiwo were dramatically suppressed at high cell densities; in contrast, the growth of P. donghaiense varied in different inoculative ratios of A. tamarense and P. donghaiense. When the ratio was 1:1 ( P. donghaiense: A. tamarense), growth of P. donghaiense was inhibited considerably, while the growth of P. donghaiense was almost the same as that of the control when the ratio was 9:1. The growth difference of P. donghaiense, C. marina and H. akashiwo when co-cultured with A. tamarense indicated that the allelopathic effect may be one of the important factors in algal competition and phytoplankton succession involving A. tamarense. In addition, the filtrate from A. tamarense culture had negative impacts on these three HAB algae, and such inhibition varied with different growth phases of A. tamarense in parallel with reported values of PSP toxin content in Alexandrium cells. This implied that PSP toxin was possibly involved in allelopathy of A. tamarense. However, the rapid decomposition and inactivation of PSP toxin above pH 7 weakened this possibility. Further studies on the allelochemicals responsible for the allelopathy of A. tamarense need to be carried out in future.

  5. Concentration factors for Cs-137 in marine algae from Japanese coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration factors (CF: Bq·kg-1 in wet algae/Bq·kg-1 in filtered seawater) for Cs-137 in Japanese coastal algae, were investigated during 1984-1990. Cs-137/Cs (stable) atom ratios were also examined to clarify the distribution equilibrium of Cs-137 in marine algae and sea water. The CFs in marine algae were within the range of 5.4-92, and the geometric mean of CF was 28±2 (standard error) in Japanese coastal species. The CFs in edible species were within the range of 5.4-67, and the geometric means of CF was 26±4 (standard error). The values of Cs-137/Cs atom ratios in marine algae and sea water indicated that Cs-137 reached an equilibrium state in partition between algae and sea water. Therefore, the CF value obtained in the present study can be regarded as an equilibrated value. Our results showed that hte CF for Cs-137 in Japanese coastal algae were consistent with the Japanese guideline CFs, but were smaller than the recommended value by IAEA. (author)

  6. Influences of marine sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by green alga (Ulva pertusa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of radionuclides (60Co, 137Cs, 95Zr-95Nb and 106Ru-106Rh) among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment were examined by radioisotope tracer experiment in order to estimate the influence of sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by the alga. By the application of the compartment model to the experimental results, exponential formulas of distributions were obtained. Through comparison of the transfer coefficients of radionuclides calculated from the exponential formulas, the influence of the sediment on the accumulation of the radionuclides by the green alga was determined to be the largest for 60Co, followed by 95Zr-95Nb, 106Ru-106Rh and 137Cs in this order. The activity ratios of 95Zr-95Nb and 106Ru-106Rh calculated from the transfer coefficients are larger for the alga than for the sediment, inversely those of 60Co and 137Cs show higher values for the sediment than for the alga. Especially, in the case of 60Co, the activity ratio for the sediment is approximately 20 times greater than that for the alga. Biological half lives in green alga estimated from the transfer coefficients were 10 days for 60Co, 7 days for 137Cs, 26 days for 95Zr-95Nb and 24 days for 106Ru-106Rh. (auth.)

  7. Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R Angell

    Full Text Available Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1 and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1 of dry weight was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties.

  8. Determination of Algae and Macrophyte Species Distribution in Three Wastewater Stabilization Ponds Using Metagenomics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the evaluation of algae and macrophyte species distributions in three wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs at a wastewater treatment plant in Ontario, Canada, which has experienced high pH levels at the final effluent and excessive algae growth during the summer since 2003. From samples collected from the system, the relative abundances of specific algae and aquatic plant (macrophyte taxa were assessed and correlated to water chemistry data. A strong shift from the dominance of green algae, chlorophyceae, in WSP#2, to the dominance of aquatic macrophytes, embryophyta, in WSP#4, was observed and corresponded to field observations. Correlation of the abundances to nutrient parameters suggested that the macronutrient rich conditions in WSP#2 allowed floating green algae to proliferate against macrophytes. In WSP#1 and WSP#4, macrophytes competed against algae and thrived, due to their adaptability to lower nutrient conditions. The pH increases occurred primarily in WSP#2 and were not buffered or reduced in WSP#1 and WSP#4. Two alternatives strategies for pH control were recommended for the system: decreasing algae growth in WSP#2 through duckweed seeding or macronutrient loading reduction; or designing and implementing a constructed wetland (CW in WSP#4 with soil and vegetation to buffer pH prior to release.

  9. Algae in fish feed: performances and fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Norambuena

    Full Text Available Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet of algae in fish feed (aquafeed resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal, Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp. for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar. Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination, in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed.

  10. Changes of Cellular Superficial Configuration of Symbiotic Algae During Cultivation from Two Anemones Found in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Symbiotic algae from two anemones, Radianthus macrodactylus and Stichodactyla mertensii, found in the South China Sea, were cultivated in ASP-8A medium in this study. Changes of superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during the cultivation were studied by means of a microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A number of small cavities appeared on the surfaces of symbiotic algae after they were cultivated for 10 h. The cavities enlarged and the cell contents were lost with extended cultivation. Our data suggested that the presence of cavities on symbiotic algae surfaces may be one of the main reasons for failure to culture symbiotic algae in an artificial medium.

  11. Platinum anniversary: virus and lichen alga together more than 70 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Petrzik

    Full Text Available Trebouxia aggregata (Archibald Gärtner (phylum Chlorophyta, family Trebouxiaceae, a lichen symbiotic alga, has been identified as host of the well-known herbaceous plant virus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV, family Caulimoviridae. The alga had been isolated from Xanthoria parietina more than 70 years ago and has been maintained in a collection since that time. The CaMV detected in this collection entry has now been completely sequenced. The virus from T. aggregata is mechanically transmissible to a herbaceous host and induces disease symptoms there. Its genome differs by 173 nt from the closest European CaMV-D/H isolate from cauliflower. No site under positive selection was found on the CaMV genome from T. aggregata. We therefore assume that the virus's presence in this alga was not sufficiently long to fix any specific changes in its genome. Apart from this symbiotic alga, CaMV capsid protein sequences were amplified from many other non-symbiotic algae species maintained in a collection (e.g., Oonephris obesa, Elliptochloris sp., Microthamnion kuetzingianum, Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudococcomyxa sp.. CaMV-free Chlorella vulgaris was treated with CaMV to establish virus infection. The virus was still detected there after five passages. The virus infection is morphologically symptomless on Chlorella algae and the photosynthesis activity is slightly decreased in comparison to CaMV-free alga culture. This is the first proof as to the natural presence of CaMV in algae and the first demonstration of algae being artificially infected with this virus.

  12. Energy Productivity of the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attalah, Said; Waller, Peter M.; Khawam, George; Ryan, Randy D.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2015-06-03

    The original Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) raceway was an effective method to increase algae culture temperature in open raceways. However, the energy input was high and flow mixing was poor. Thus, the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV) raceway was developed to reduce energy input requirements and improve flow mixing in a serpentine flow path. A prototype ARID-HV system was installed in Tucson, Arizona. Based on algae growth simulation and hydraulic analysis, an optimal ARID-HV raceway was designed, and the electrical energy input requirement (kWh ha-1 d-1) was calculated. An algae growth model was used to compare the productivity of ARIDHV and conventional raceways. The model uses a pond surface energy balance to calculate water temperature as a function of environmental parameters. Algae growth and biomass loss are calculated based on rate constants during day and night, respectively. A 10 year simulation of DOE strain 1412 (Chlorella sorokiniana) showed that the ARID-HV raceway had significantly higher production than a conventional raceway for all months of the year in Tucson, Arizona. It should be noted that this difference is species and climate specific and is not observed in other climates and with other algae species. The algae growth model results and electrical energy input evaluation were used to compare the energy productivity (algae production rate/energy input) of the ARID-HV and conventional raceways for Chlorella sorokiniana in Tucson, Arizona. The energy productivity of the ARID-HV raceway was significantly greater than the energy productivity of a conventional raceway for all months of the year.

  13. Comparing the effects of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium clades C1 and D on early growth stages of Acropora tenuis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Yuyama

    Full Text Available Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades - including A and D - have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages.

  14. Snow algae of the Sierra Nevada, Spain, and High Atlas mountains of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B; Duval, E; Hoham, R W

    1999-03-01

    Snow algae (Chlorophyta) are reported from the Sierra Nevada mountains in southern Spain and the High Atlas mountains of Morocco. Populations of the snow algae Chlamydomonas sp., coloring the snow orange-red, were collected from Pico de Veleta, Spain, while snow samples from Mt. Neltner in the High Atlas mountains, contained resting spores of an orange-green colored Chloromonas sp. Other microbes observed in snow samples include bacteria, fungi, heterotrophic euglenids, diatoms, nematodes, and heterotrophic mastigotes (flagellated protists). This is the first report of snow algae from the Sierra Nevada mountains of Spain and from the Afro-alpine environment. PMID:10943390

  15. The seasonal change of snow algae on snowpack in Qaanaaq, Greenland in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    大沼, 友貴彦; 竹内, 望; 植竹, 淳; 永塚, 尚子; 朽木, 勝幸; 庭野, 匡思; 青木, 輝夫

    2013-01-01

    It is known that phototrophic microbes called snow algae grow on the snow surface in thawing season. Bloom of snow algae can reduce reflectance of snow surface, resulting in promotion of snow melting. Therefore, it is important to determine factors of their growth in order to predict melting of snow coverage. However, it is still not known what the most major factor for the growth is. In this study, we aimed to determine the factors of initiation and growth of snow algae on snowpack on Qaanaa...

  16. Accumulation of uranium by filamentous green algae under natural environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity of algae to concentrate uranium under natural environmental conditions is measured by a-spectrometry. Spirogyra, a filamentous green fresh-water alga, has concentrated uranium from a surface concrete ponds with elevated uranium levels (140-1140 ppb). The concentration factors (CFs) ranged from 8.9-67 with an average value of 22. Cladophora spp, a filamentous green marine alga has concentrated uranium from the marine water with a concentration factor ranged from 220-280. The average concentration factor was 250. The factors affecting the sorption process are discussed in detail. (author)

  17. Marine algae-derived bioactive peptides for human nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaodan; Bai, Lu; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xuewu

    2014-09-24

    Within the parent protein molecule, most peptides are inactive, and they are released with biofunctionalities after enzymatic hydrolysis. Marine algae have high protein content, up to 47% of the dry weight, depending on the season and the species. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using marine algae protein as a source of bioactive peptides due to their health promotion and disease therapy potentials. This review presents an overview of marine algae-derived bioactive peptides and especially highlights some key issues, such as in silico proteolysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies, in vivo fate of bioactive peptides, and novel technologies in bioactive peptides studies and production. PMID:25179496

  18. PECULIARITIES OF THE MINERAL COMPOSITION OF THE BROWN ALGAE IN THE WHITE AND BARENTS SEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Григорьевич Боголицын

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The contents of macro (Mg, Na, Ca, K, Cl, S and trace elements (I, Br, Fe, Cr, Ti, P, Si, Sr, Zn, Cu, Al, as well as toxic heavy metals (Pb, Hg was analyzed in 25 samples of four brown algae (Laminaria saccharina (Linnaeus J.V.Lamouroux, Laminaria digitata (Hudson J.V.Lamouroux, Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus, Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus Le Jolis, harvested during the complex research expedition "The Arctic Floating University 2012", in the White and Barents Seas. Conclusions are drawn on the patterns in the accumulation of elements in brown algae depending on family and growth conditions, and also regarding the nutritional value of brown algae.

  19. The Dynamics of a Diffusive Nutrient-Algae Model Based upon the Sanyang Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability and spatiotemporal dynamics of a diffusive nutrient-algae model are investigated mathematically and numerically. Mathematical theoretical studies have considered the positivity and boundedness of the solution and the existence, local stability, and global stability of equilibria. Turing instability has also been studied. Furthermore, a series of numerical simulations was performed and a complex Turing pattern found. These results indicate that the nutrient input rate has an important influence on the density and spatial distribution of algae populations. This may help us to obtain a better understanding of the interactions of nutrient and algae and to investigate plankton dynamics in aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Studies on Biquaternary Ammonium Salt Algaecide for Removing Red Tide Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁生; 张珩; 杨维东; 高洁; 柯琼

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the removal and control of red tide algae, Phaeoecystis globosa and Alexandrium tamarense by biquaternary ammonium salt algaecide. The results show that the efficient concentration of biquaternary ammonium salt to control the two algaes in 96 h is 0.8 mg · L-1 and 0.4 mg · L-1, respectively. It is found that biquaternary ammonium salt has high efficiency and longer duration of action in the removal and control of algae.Biquaternary ammonium salt might be an excellent algaecide to control HAB.

  1. Study on the Adsorption of Metal Ions by Immobilized Marine Algae with the Existence of Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The process of adsorption of metal ions by immobilized marine algae with the existence of clay was investigated. It can be noted from the results that, after mixing with clay,the adsorption rate increases rapidly with the increasing amount of the marine algae. When pH=5, the best ratio between the clay and the marine algae is 1:4 for Pb2+. The result of in situ handling of the waste water containing heavy metals shows that the average adsorption rates of heavy metal irons Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ and Ni2+ are all over 70 %.

  2. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP from Three Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Ukai

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  3. Homegrown hydrogen. Best working under stress: micro-algae as hydrogen producers.; Wasserstoff aus eigenem Anbau. Unter Stress arbeiten sie am besten: Mikroalgen als Wasserstofffabriken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegner, M.; Happe, T. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Biologie und Biotechnologie

    2007-07-01

    On the search for alternative, ecologically beneficial energy sources micro-algae are promising. Micro-algae may produce hydrogen for use in fuel cells. In the scope of the EU project ''Solar-H'' researchers try to optimize the system algae. Its target is an algae fermenter for domestic purposes.

  4. Effects of extreme seasonality on community structure and functional group dynamics of coral reef algae in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M.; Bruggemann, J. H.; Breeman, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in the biomass of four functional groups of coral reef algae (canopy algae, foliose algae, turf algae and crustose corallines) was investigated in the southern Red Sea. This region is characterised by extremely high summer temperatures (ca. 35 degrees C). Strong season

  5. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v. Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively. On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively at nitrogen starvation condition.

    Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v. La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos. El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v

  6. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  7. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the green alga Tetraselmis indica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Arora, M.; Anil, A.C.; Burgess, K.; Delany, J.E.; Mesbahi, E.

    The prasinophytes (early diverging Chlorophyta), consisting of simple unicellular green algae, occupy a critical position at the base of the green algal tree of life, with some of its representatives viewed as the cell form most similar to the first...

  8. Development of chemistry support programme for algae control in spray pond waters of CIRUS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major problem in any open recirculating cooling water system, is the growth of micro-organisms, especially algae, which adversely affects the efficient and safe operation of the plant. The algae control depends to a great extent, on the selection of an effective algaecide and on the adoption of proper dose and dosing frequency of the algaecide. The present paper describes the development of (i) a generally applicable analytical method for comparing the algicidal efficacies of available commercial algaecides, for the specific local strains of algae in the spray pond waters of CIRUS reactor at Trombay, and (ii) a procedure for assessing 'algicide demand' in open recirculating cooling water systems, which can be used to establish an effective and efficient algae control programme. (author)

  9. Soil and freshwater micro-algae as a food source for invertebrates in extreme environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, Alena; Frouz, Jan

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2007, s. 267-284. ISBN 978-1-4020-6111-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : micro-algae * food source for invertebrates * extreme environments Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. The Antimicrobial Properties of Red Algae. The Fight of Your Life: Battling Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Christine L.; Warner, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research project in which a professor and a student collaborated in the screening of macroscopic algae for antimicrobial properties. Includes background information, materials and methods, results, and a discussion of the experiment. (SAH)

  11. Lipidomic profiling of snow algae by ESI-MS and silver-LC/APCI-MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Nedbalová, L.; Procházková, L.; Sigler, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 100, APR 2014 (2014), s. 34-42. ISSN 0031-9422 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Snow alga * Chloromonas pichinchae * Lipidomics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.547, year: 2014

  12. Wide bandgap engineering of (AlGa)2O3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandgap tunable (AlGa)2O3 films were deposited on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The deposited films are of high transmittance as measured by spectrophotometer. The Al content in films is almost the same as that in targets. The measurement of bandgap energies by examining the onset of inelastic energy loss in core-level atomic spectra using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is proved to be valid for determining the bandgap of (AlGa)2O3 films as it is in good agreement with the bandgap values from transmittance spectra. The measured bandgap of (AlGa)2O3 films increases continuously with the Al content covering the whole Al content range from about 5 to 7 eV, indicating PLD is a promising growth technology for growing bandgap tunable (AlGa)2O3 films.

  13. Biological activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis from Persian Gulf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saeidnia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among marine organisms, algae are a large and diverse group of organisms from which a wide range of secondary metabolites have been isolated. A number of these compounds possess biological activity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, collected from Persian Gulf. Ethyl acetate extracts of both algae showed a potent cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina nauplii (LC50 = 3 and 4 μg.ml−1, respectively. Aqueous methanol (50% extracts were also effective. None of the methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of the algae showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by the Broth-dilution method. Only the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited antibacterial activity (MIC = 2 μg.ml−1 on S. aureus. In conclusion, G. salicornia and H. flagelliformis could be a promising source of cytotoxic components.

  14. High efficiency metal removal from hexane-extracted algae oil using super and subcritical propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Metal removal from algae oil was achieved by supercritical propane solvent extraction. • Continuous metal removing process was developed. • Required energy for metal removing was calculated. - Abstract: As a renewable energy source, oil-producing algae have received much attention in recent years. Raw oil, which is normally extracted from algae using solvents such as hexane or ethyl acetate, includes trace metal compounds that rapidly deactivate the hydrogenation catalyst. In this study, metal removal from hexane-extracted algae oil with supercritical and subcritical propane extraction was examined at temperatures from 40 °C to 130 °C and at 6 MPa pressure. The results showed that the metal concentration became decreasing with temperature increasing and metals were not detectable at 114 °C. Using these results, an energy saving process was proposed. Simulation results showed that the metal removal required a mere 3–4% energy consumption compared to a lower heating value of raw oil

  15. Evidence for a photoprotective function for secondary carotenoids of snow algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidigare, R.R.; Ondrusek, M.E. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Kennicutt, M.C. II (Geochemical Environmental Research Group, College Station, TX (United States)); Iturriaga, R. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Harvey, H.R. (Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States)); Hoham, R.W. (Colgate Univ., Hamilton, NY (United States)); Macko, S.A. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Snow algae occupy a unique habitat in high altitude and polar environments. These algae are often subject to extremes in nutrient availability, acidity, solar irradiance, desiccation, and ambient temperature. This report documents the accumulation of secondary carotenoids by snow algae in response to the availability of nitrogenous nutrients. Unusually large accumulations of astaxanthin esters in extra-chloroplastic lipid globules produce the characteristic red pigmentation typical of some snow algae (e.g., Chlamydomonas nivalis (Bauer) Wille). Consequently, these compounds greatly reduce the amount of light available for absorption by the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes, thus potentially limiting photoinhibition and photodamage caused by intense solar radiation. The esterification of astaxanthin with fatty acids represents a possible mechanism by which this chromophore can be concentrated within cytoplasmic globules to maximize its photoprotective efficiency. 53 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Evidence for a photoprotective function for secondary carotenoids of snow algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow algae occupy a unique habitat in high altitude and polar environments. These algae are often subject to extremes in nutrient availability, acidity, solar irradiance, desiccation, and ambient temperature. This report documents the accumulation of secondary carotenoids by snow algae in response to the availability of nitrogenous nutrients. Unusually large accumulations of astaxanthin esters in extra-chloroplastic lipid globules produce the characteristic red pigmentation typical of some snow algae (e.g., Chlamydomonas nivalis (Bauer) Wille). Consequently, these compounds greatly reduce the amount of light available for absorption by the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes, thus potentially limiting photoinhibition and photodamage caused by intense solar radiation. The esterification of astaxanthin with fatty acids represents a possible mechanism by which this chromophore can be concentrated within cytoplasmic globules to maximize its photoprotective efficiency. 53 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Anticancer and antioxidant activities of the peptide fraction from algae protein waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheih, I-Chuan; Fang, Tony J; Wu, Tung-Kung; Lin, Peng-Hsiang

    2010-01-27

    Algae protein waste is a byproduct during production of algae essence from Chlorella vulgaris. There is no known report on the anticancer peptides derived from the microalgae protein waste. In this paper, the peptide fraction isolated from pepsin hydrolysate of algae protein waste had strong dose-dependent antiproliferation and induced a post-G1 cell cycle arrest in AGS cells; however, no cytotoxicity was observed in WI-38 lung fibroblasts cells in vitro. The peptide fraction also revealed much better antioxidant activity toward peroxyl radicals and LDL than those of Trolox. Among these peptides, a potent antiproliferative, antioxidant, and NO-production-inhibiting hendecapeptide was isolated, and its amino acid sequence was VECYGPNRPQF. These results demonstrate that inexpensive algae protein waste could be a new alternative to produce anticancer peptides. PMID:19916544

  18. Temporal and spatial dynamics of ephemeral drift-algae in eelgrass, Zostera marina, beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Olesen, Birgit;

    2013-01-01

    ) suggesting that variability in algal cover may go by undetected in monthly assessments. The changes in cover were caused either by algal growth or by physical forces moving large aggregations of algae into or out of the study area. Within plots (1 m2) variability was even higher and algal cover changed...... regularly between observations (days). Hence, the algae were continuously rearranged within the eelgrass beds; also during periods with no change in average algal cover. The variability in cover of individual plots was negatively correlated to eelgrass cover, suggesting that algae were retained by the...... eelgrass leaves. This highly dynamic nature of filamentous macroalgal aggregations in eelgrass beds should be considered when evaluating implications of macroalgal blooms for seagrass growth and survival. A frequent relocation of drift-algae at small spatial scale may moderate the formation of poor oxygen...

  19. Characteristic and mechanism of inactivating algae with O3 and ClO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Both O3 and ClO2 have a high effect on inacti- vating-algae in source water with no forming THMs which do harm to human in producing drinking water, so they will be favorably substituted for Cl2. In order to make certain of the mechanism of inactivating algae with O3 and ClO2, the algal cell number change and its different characteristics of figures and structures in treated and untreated water have been studied by the microscopy and SEM and the mode of inactivating algae has been inferred. The results show that the mechanism of inactivating algae by O3 is not completely identical with that by ClO2. The actual reaction process and efficiency have been controlled by many factors, such as the different characteristics of oxidants and algal cells.

  20. Study on contrast test of PPC pre-oxidation and coagulation for algae removal and deodorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The effect of treating algae-bearing water and induced odor by use of permanganate potassium composite (PPC) pre-oxidation was investigated, and was compared with the effect of treatments by pre-chlorination, permanganate potassium pre-oxidation and simple coagulation. The results showed that simple coagulation and pre-chlorination were less effective in removing algae and its odor, whereas PPC pre-oxidation was the most effective in algae removal and deodorization. Upon oxidation with PPC, the cells of Oscillatoria agardhic were inactivated and some intra-cellular and extra-cellular components were released into the water, which may help the coagulation by their bridging effect. The efficient removal of algae by PPC pre-oxidation is believed to be the joint contribution of several mechanisms.

  1. Method and apparatus for detecting phycocyanin-pigmented algae and bacteria from reflected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting phycocyanin algae or bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  2. Re-utilization of Industrial CO2 for Algae Production Using a Phase Change Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Brian

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report of a 36-month Phase II cooperative agreement. Under this project, Touchstone Research Laboratory (Touchstone) investigated the merits of incorporating a Phase Change Material (PCM) into an open-pond algae production system that can capture and re-use the CO2 from a coal-fired flue gas source located in Wooster, OH. The primary objective of the project was to design, construct, and operate a series of open algae ponds that accept a slipstream of flue gas from a coal-fired source and convert a significant portion of the CO2 to liquid biofuels, electricity, and specialty products, while demonstrating the merits of the PCM technology. Construction of the pilot facility and shakedown of the facility in Wooster, OH, was completed during the first two years, and the focus of the last year was on operations and the cultivation of algae. During this Phase II effort a large-scale algae concentration unit from OpenAlgae was installed and utilized to continuously harvest algae from indoor raceways. An Algae Lysing Unit and Oil Recovery Unit were also received and installed. Initial parameters for lysing nanochloropsis were tested. Conditions were established that showed the lysing operation was effective at killing the algae cells. Continuous harvesting activities yielded over 200 kg algae dry weight for Ponds 1, 2 and 4. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source and the resulting lipid productivity of the algae. Lipid content and total fatty acids were unaffected by culture system and nutrient source, indicating that open raceway ponds fed diluted anaerobic digestion effluent can obtain similar lipid productivities to open raceway ponds using commercial nutrients. Data were also collected with respect to the performance of the PCM material on the pilot-scale raceway ponds. Parameters such as evaporative water loss, temperature differences, and growth/productivity were tracked. The pond with the

  3. Algae biodiesel life cycle assessment using current commercial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passell, Howard; Dhaliwal, Harnoor; Reno, Marissa; Wu, Ben; Ben Amotz, Ami; Ivry, Etai; Gay, Marcus; Czartoski, Tom; Laurin, Lise; Ayer, Nathan

    2013-11-15

    Autotrophic microalgae represent a potential feedstock for transportation fuels, but life cycle assessment (LCA) studies based on laboratory-scale or theoretical data have shown mixed results. We attempt to bridge the gap between laboratory-scale and larger scale biodiesel production by using cultivation and harvesting data from a commercial algae producer with ∼1000 m(2) production area (the base case), and compare that with a hypothetical scaled up facility of 101,000 m(2) (the future case). Extraction and separation data are from Solution Recovery Services, Inc. Conversion and combustion data are from the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET). The LCA boundaries are defined as "pond-to-wheels". Environmental impacts are quantified as NER (energy in/energy out), global warming potential, photochemical oxidation potential, water depletion, particulate matter, and total NOx and SOx. The functional unit is 1 MJ of energy produced in a passenger car. Results for the base case and the future case show an NER of 33.4 and 1.37, respectively and GWP of 2.9 and 0.18 kg CO2-equivalent, respectively. In comparison, petroleum diesel and soy diesel show an NER of 0.18 and 0.80, respectively and GWP of 0.12 and 0.025, respectively. A critical feature in this work is the low algal productivity (3 g/m(2)/day) reported by the commercial producer, relative to the much higher productivities (20-30 g/m(2)/day) reported by other sources. Notable results include a sensitivity analysis showing that algae with an oil yield of 0.75 kg oil/kg dry biomass in the future case can bring the NER down to 0.64, more comparable with petroleum diesel and soy biodiesel. An important assumption in this work is that all processes are fully co-located and that no transport of intermediate or final products from processing stage to stage is required. PMID:23900083

  4. Bioaccumulation of gasoline in brackish green algae and popular clams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gihan A. El-Shoubaky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha clathrata and the clams (Tapes decussates and Venerupis aurea grow together in Timsah Lake, Suez Canal, Egypt. Our ultimate goal is to validate the bioaccumulation of gasoline in the marine organisms and their behavior after exposure to the pollutant, experimentally. These species were treated with a serial treatment of gasoline (1000, 4000, 16,000 and 64,000 μl in aquaria with brackish sea-water for 72 h. The tested green algae and clams were taken for an analysis of total hydrocarbon accumulation daily. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between the four species and also between the duration of exposure. The accumulation of gasoline in U. lactuca and E. clathrata reached their maximum after 48 h at 1000 and 4000 μl. The highest absorption was registered after 24 h only at 16,000 and at 64,000 μl. U. lactuca recorded complete mortality in 64,000 μl at 72 h whereas E. clathrata registered death at 48 h and 72 h in the same treatment. V. aurea was more sensitive than T. decussates. The accumulation of gasoline reached its maximum in V. aurea after only 24 h in the first treatment while it retarded to 48 h in T. decussates with a lesser accumulation. However, both clam species accumulated the highest amount of petroleum hydrocarbons during the first hour of exposure at the first treatment. In the third and fourth treatments, clams did not accumulate gasoline but began to dispose it from their tissues till it became less than that in the control. Mortality gradually increased with time in each treatment except the last one (64,000 μl in which 100% death of the specimens was observed. In general, the bioaccumulation of gasoline level was in a descending order as follows: U. lactuca > E. clathrata > V. aurea > T. decussates. Their behavior changed from accumulation to detoxification with time and with the increase in pollutant concentration. Generally, these

  5. A review on fungal diseases of algae, marine fishes, shrimps and corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    of Marine Sciences Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 380-387 A review on fungal diseases of algae, marine fishes, shrimps and corals N. Ramaiah* Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of OceanographyDoan Paula, Goa 403 004, India... diseases in particular. [Key words: Fungi, parasites, pathogens, algae, corals, marine fishes, Fusarium, Lagenidium, Sirolidium] Introduction Marine fisheries and aquaculture contribute to national productivity, socio-economic development...

  6. Recruitment potential of a green alga Ulva flexuosa Wolfen dark preserved zoospore and its development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Imchen, T.

    Green Alga Ulva flexuosa Wulfen Dark Preserved Zoospore and Its Development Temjensangba Imchen* National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Goa, India Abstract The recruitment potential and the ability of Ulva... factors play a role in the process of recruitment. Citation: Imchen T (2012) Recruitment Potential of a Green Alga Ulva flexuosa Wulfen Dark Preserved Zoospore and Its Development. PLoS ONE 7(3): e32651. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032651 Editor: Ross...

  7. Calcareous Algae of a Tropical Lagoon : Primary Productivity, Calcification and Carbonate Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kangwe, Juma W.

    2005-01-01

    The green algae of the genus Halimeda Lamouroux (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) and the encrusting loose-lying red coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) known as rhodoliths are abundant and widespread in all oceans. They significantly contribute to primary productivity while alive and production of CaCO3 rich sediment materials on death and decay. Carbonate rich sediments are important components in the formation of Coral Reefs and as sources of inorganic carbon (influx) in tropical and subt...

  8. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Jeddah corniche algae, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amoudi, Omar A.; Mutawie, Hawazin H.; Patel, Asmita V.; Blunden, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for bioactive compounds in marine algae. An important economic algae, through chemical composition analysis and their antioxidant activities were investigated in this study. Chemical composition analysis of three algal samples from the Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca (U), Phaeophyta Sargassum crassifolia (S) and Rhodophyta Digenea simplex (D) was tested. Main components were sugars (57....

  9. Biofuels from algae: technology options, energy balance and GHG emissions: Insights from a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    ROCCA STEFANIA; AGOSTINI ALESSANDRO; GIUNTOLI JACOPO; MARELLI Luisa

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade(s), algal biomass received increasing interest as a potential source of advanced biofuels production resulting in a considerable attention from research, industry and policy makers. In fact, algae are expected to offer several advantages compared to land-based biomass crops, including: better photosynthetic efficiency; higher oil yield; growth on non-fertile land; tolerance to a variety of water sources (i.e. fresh, brackish, saline) and CO2 re-using potential. The alga...

  10. Microorganisms living on algae : An interesting reservoir of enzymes hydrolyzing algal biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Marjolaine; Biver, Sophie; Barbeyron, Tristan; Michel, Gurvan; Portetelle, Daniel; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2013-01-01

    Algal polysaccharides are increasingly used in food industry for their gelling properties and in pharmacology for their therapeutic properties. Furthermore, increasingly interest is taken on algae for their use in the production of biofuels and bioenergies. To purify algal polysaccharides and degrade algal biomass, specific microbial enzymes are needed. Microorganisms living on algae are an interesting source of those enzymes, as they are in constant interaction with algal biomass. The aim...

  11. Preliminary results on accumulation and loss of artificial radionuclides in marine benthic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acummulation and the loss of artificial radionuclides in three species of marine benthic algae of the state of Rio de Janeiro were studied under laboratory conditions, so that a selection of biological indicators for radioctive contamination of the marine environment could be made. Medium concentration factors were calculated, the most significant figures being those obtained for the algae Pterocladia Capillacea (Gmelin) Bornet et Thuret (132+-40) p/ sub(131) I and Sargassum vulgares J. Agardh (19+-5) p/ 51Cr

  12. Recent developments in the commercial production of DHA and EPA rich oils from micro-algae

    OpenAIRE

    Winwood Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The regular intake of marine omega 3’s DHA and EPA has been scientifically established as providing a wide range of health benefits. This paper reviews recent developments in the commercial production of DHA and EPA rich oils from micro-algae. The selection of suitable micro-algae species is discussed. The complexities of producing algal oil rich in marine omega 3’s is examined in terms of both upstream and downstream production.

  13. Perubahan Populasi Protozoa dan Alga Dominan pada Air Genangan Tanah Padi Sawah yang Diberi Bokashi Berkelanjutan

    OpenAIRE

    Ainin Niswati; Dermiyati; Mas Achmad Syamsul Arif

    2008-01-01

    Protozoa and alga play important roles in biogeochemical nutrient cycles in freshwater environment, especially in the paddy fields. The changes from the conventional technologies to organic technologies will change the communities structures of organisms lived in the paddy fields environment. The fields experiment was conducted to study the population dynamic of protozoa and algae dominant inhabited in the floodwater of the paddy fields subjected by continues ‘bokashi’ application. The re...

  14. Cell death in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias upon H2O2 induction

    OpenAIRE

    Darehshouri, Anza; Affenzeller, Matthias; LÜTZ-MEINDL, URSULA

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we investigate whether the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata is capable of executing programmed cell death (PCD) upon experimental induction and by which morphological, molecular and physiological hallmarks it is characterized. This is particularly interesting as unicellular fresh water green algae growing in shallow bog ponds are exposed to extreme environmental conditions and the capability to perform PCD may provide an important strategy to guarantee surv...

  15. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles to green algae – towards a biotic ligand understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laruelle, Sacha; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Cupi, Denisa;

    the freshwater green algae Pseudokirschneriella subcapitata were carried out to falsify the hypothesis: “The toxicity of silver nanoparticles towards algae is solely caused by the monovalent silver ion”. These experiments were based on PHREEQC modeling of silver ion behavior (added as AgNO3) in 72h...... result modifications of test conditions (pH, addition of mono-valent ions and chelator) benchmarked against changes predicted and observed for AgNO3....

  16. Boron Analysis of Alga and Agar-Agar by Prompt Gamma-Ray Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this research is to develop Prompt Gamma-Ray Technique and to analyse boron concentration in Alga and Agar-Agar. The equipments were designed to find the suitable position of neutron source and detector and the suitable model of collimator, in order to attenuating background. After that, these equipments were used to determine the concentration of boron in Alga and Agar-Agar

  17. Molecular biology and physiology of isolated chloroplasts from the algae Vaucheria

    OpenAIRE

    Didriksen, Alena

    2010-01-01

    Sea slugs of the genus Elysia (e.g. E. chlorotica) are known for their ability to incorporate chloroplasts from the yellow-green alga Vaucheria litorea. These “kleptoplasts” stay active in the digestive tract of the sea slug for several months. Chloroplasts from Vaucheria litorea are also reported to be significantly more stable after in vitro isolation than chloroplasts of other algae or of higher plants. In organello assays with isolated chloroplasts are used in studies on photosynthetical ...

  18. Distribution of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) in streams of Mt. Stara planina: Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Simić Snežana B.

    2002-01-01

    Distribution of blue-green algae was studied at 14 sites along five streams in the Stara Planina mountains. Algological samples were taken from the community of benthos and periphyton in the spring (March-May 1991), summer (June-August 1991, August 1996, July 1997), and autumn (September-November 1991, September 1997). Algae of the classes Chamaesiphonophyceae (species of the genus Chamaesiphon) and Hormogoniophyceae (species of the genera Symploca, Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Schizothrix, Nost...

  19. Advanced emission control system: CO2 sequestration using algae integrated management system (AIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the companies under Algae tech, Sasaran Bio fuel Sdn. Bhd. provides project management, technology transfer and technical expertise to develop a solution to minimize and mitigate Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions through the diversion of the CO2 to open algal ponds and enclosed photo-bioreactors as algal propagation technologies to consume CO2 waste stream. The company is presently consulting a listed company from Indonesia to address the technology know-how and implementation of microalgae development from the flue gas of the Groups power plants. Nowadays, one of the aspects that contribute to the air pollution is the emission of flue gases from the factories. So, we provide a system that can reduce the emission of flue gas to the atmosphere and at the same time, cultivate certain strain of algae. With the technology, Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS), it will be for sure a new beginning for way to reduce air pollution. The utilization of power plant resources for growing selected microalgae at a low energy cost for valuable products and bio-fuels while providing CO2 sequestering. In the same time, it also a low cost algae agriculture. By doing so, it provides all year algae production which can be an income. This residual energy used CO2 produced from power stations and industrial plants to feed the process (CO2 recycling and bio-fixation) in cultivation of algae. This will be a low cost flue gas (CO2) to the developer. In a nutshell, CO2 Sequestration by algae reactors is a potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission by using the CO2 in the stack gases to produce algae. (author)

  20. Monitoring of qualitative parameters of milk from dairy cows fed algae

    OpenAIRE

    Dědinová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this research was to determine the possible influence of adding green algae Chlorella sp. to the diet of dairy cows and evaluate the subsequent effects on milk quality. Algae contain high levels of protein, essential fatty acids, and a number of important vitamins and minerals, to improve and enrich the diet of dairy cows with subsequent benefits to the quality of milk. Continuing cost increases of feedstuffs directly affects the selling price of the milk produced, which is ...

  1. Algae as promising feedstocks for fermentative biohydrogen production according to a biorefinery approach: A comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    Sambusiti, Cécilia; Bellucci, Micol; Zabaniotou, Anastasia; Beneduce, Luciano; Monlau, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Interest is growing in the production of biohydrogen from algae through dark fermentation, as alternative to fossil fuels. However, one of the limiting steps of biohydrogen production is the conversion of polymeric carbohydrates into monomeric sugars. Thus, physical, chemical and biological pretreatments are usually employed in order to facilitate carbohydrates de-polymerization and enhancing biohydrogen production from algae. Considering the overall process, biohydrogen production through da...

  2. The marine algae Sargassum spp. (Sargassaceae) as feed for sheep in tropical and subtropical regions

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Álvarez, Alejandro; Casas Valdez, María Margarita; Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Hernández Contreras, Hugo; Monroy, Alberto; Sanginés, Leonor; Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate Sargassum meal as feed for sheep through the measures of in vivo digestibility, dry matter degradability, pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids in rumen. The Sargassum algae used in this experiment were collected at the end of spring, when they are more abundant, bigger, and have completed their reproductive cycle. Four tons (wet weigth) were collected manually from the intertidal zone of La Paz bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico. These algae were sun-...

  3. DRY BIOMASS OF FRESH WATER ALGAE OF CHLORELLA GENUS IN THE COMBINED FORAGES FOR LAYING HENS

    OpenAIRE

    SVETLANA GRIGOROVA

    2006-01-01

    Dry biomass of algae is a good source of nutrients and biologically active substances, which in the last years attracted the interest of the specialists in their search for natural, ecologically and healthy sound foods for the animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition and the nutritive value of the dry biomass of fresh water algae of Chlorella genus cultivated in Bulgaria and to establish its effect on the laying hen productivity and the morphological ...

  4. Micro-algae come of age as a platform for recombinant protein production

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Elizabeth; Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki; Mayfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A complete set of genetic tools is still being developed for the micro-alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Yet even with this incomplete set, this photosynthetic single-celled plant has demonstrated significant promise as a platform for recombinant protein expression. In recent years, techniques have been developed that allow for robust expression of genes from both the nuclear and plastid genome. With these advances, many research groups have examined the pliability of this and other micro-algae...

  5. Characteristic Study of the Marine Algae Sargassum sp. on Metal Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    A. Saravanan; V. Brindha; Soundarajan Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Biomass of brown marine macro algae is a biological resource that is available in large quantities and can form a good base for the development of biosorbent material. Approach: Algae have been found to be potentially suitable biosorbents because of its cheap availability, both in fresh or salt water, relatively high surface area and high binding affinity. Results: The study considered the molecular status of the biomass such as DNA, Protein and Pigment ...

  6. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Hongli; Yu, Xiaona; Wang, Yan; Cui, Yulin; Li, Xueqin; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a c...

  7. Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Azin Ahmadi; Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi; Sazaly Abubakar; Keivan Zandi

    2015-01-01

    From food to fertilizer, algal derived products are largely employed in assorted industries, including agricultural, biomedical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Among different chemical compositions isolated from algae, polysaccharides are the most well-established compounds, which were subjected to a variety of studies due to extensive bioactivities. Over the past few decades, the promising results for antiviral potential of algae-derived polysaccharides have advocated them as inordinat...

  8. In Silico Analysis of Correlations between Protein Disorder and Post-Translational Modifications in Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Kurotani; Tetsuya Sakurai

    2015-01-01

    Recent proteome analyses have reported that intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins play important roles in biological processes. In higher plants whose genomes have been sequenced, the correlation between IDRs and post-translational modifications (PTMs) has been reported. The genomes of various eukaryotic algae as common ancestors of plants have also been sequenced. However, no analysis of the relationship to protein properties such as structure and PTMs in algae has been reporte...

  9. Brown Algae (Phaeophyceae) from the Coast of Madagascar: preliminary Bioactivity Studies and Isolation of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Rahelivao, Marie Pascaline; Gruner, Margit; Andriamanantoanina, Hanta; Bauer, Ingmar; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Eight species of brown algae (Phaeophyceae) from the coast of Madagascar have been investigated for their chemical constituents. Fucosterol (3) was obtained as the most abundant compound. The brown alga Sargassum ilicifolium was the source for the first isolation of the terpenoid C27-alcohol 1,1′,2-trinorsqualenol (1) from marine sources. From S. incisifolium we isolated the highly unsaturated glycolipid 1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-stearidonoyl-3-O-β-D-galactopyranosylglycerol (4) and we repor...

  10. Identifying vital effects in Halimeda algae with Ca isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Blättler, C. L.; S. M. Stanley; Henderson, G. M.; Jenkyns, H.C

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical records of biogenic carbonates provide some of the most valuable records of the geological past, but are often difficult to interpret without a mechanistic understanding of growth processes. In this experimental study, Halimeda algae are used as a test organism to untangle some of the specific factors that influence their skeletal composition, in particular their Ca-isotope composition. Algae were stimulated to precipitate both calcite and aragon...

  11. Recent developments in the commercial production of DHA and EPA rich oils from micro-algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winwood Robert J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The regular intake of marine omega 3’s DHA and EPA has been scientifically established as providing a wide range of health benefits. This paper reviews recent developments in the commercial production of DHA and EPA rich oils from micro-algae. The selection of suitable micro-algae species is discussed. The complexities of producing algal oil rich in marine omega 3’s is examined in terms of both upstream and downstream production.

  12. An alga oil fuel; Un carburant a base d'huile d'algue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielo, O.

    2005-05-15

    Biofuels are nowadays presented as a sustainable energetic alternative. Researches occur now on microscopic algae particularly rich on oil and whose hectare yield is better than those of turnsole or colza. The use at the industrial scale of micro-algae bioreactors, which trap the CO{sub 2} and the NO{sub x}, is in development in the United States. (O.M.)

  13. A Lipid-Accumulating Alga Maintains Growth in Outdoor, Alkaliphilic Raceway Pond with Mixed Microbial Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Tisza A. S.; Prithiviraj, Bharath; Wahlen, Brad D.; Matthew W Fields; Peyton, Brent M.

    2016-01-01

    Algal biofuels and valuable co-products are being produced in both open and closed cultivation systems. Growing algae in open pond systems may be a more economical alternative, but this approach allows environmental microorganisms to colonize the pond and potentially infect or outcompete the algal “crop.” In this study, we monitored the microbial community of an outdoor, open raceway pond inoculated with a high lipid-producing alkaliphilic alga, Chlorella vulgaris BA050. The strain C. vulgari...

  14. Drifting algae and fish: Implications of tropical Sargassum invasion due to ocean warming in western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Mami; Aono, Mikina; Ogawa, Naoto; Tanaka, Koichiro; Imoto, Zenji; Nakamura, Yohei

    2014-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the invasion and extinction of habitat-forming seaweed species alters coastal community structure and ecological services, but their effects on the pelagic environment have been largely ignored. Thus, we examined the seasonal occurrence patterns of indigenous temperate and invasive tropical drifting algae and associated fish species every month for 2 years (2009-2011) in western Japan (Tosa Bay), where a rapid shift from temperate to tropical Sargassum species has been occurring in the coastal area since the late 1980s due to rising seawater temperatures. Of the 19 Sargassum species (31.6%) in drifting algae, we found that six were tropical species, whereas a study in the early 1980s found only one tropical species among 12 species (8.3%), thereby suggesting an increase in the proportion of tropical Sargassum species in drifting algae during the last 30 years. Drifting temperate algae were abundantly present from late winter to summer, whereas tropical algal clumps occurred primarily during summer. In the warm season, fish assemblages did not differ significantly between drifting temperate and tropical algae, suggesting the low host-algal specificity of most fishes. We also found that yellowtail juveniles frequently aggregated with drifting temperate algae from late winter to spring when drifting tropical algae were unavailable. Local fishermen collect these juveniles for use as aquaculture seed stock; therefore, the occurrence of drifting temperate algae in early spring is important for local fisheries. These results suggest that the further extinction of temperate Sargassum spp. may have negative impacts on the pelagic ecosystem and associated regional fisheries.

  15. Comparison of passive and standard dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the marine algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, G.; Niehus, N. C.; Konopka, K.;

    2015-01-01

    dosing according to the standard marine algae test procedure on microtiter plates. A comparison of the EC50 values of passive dosing vs. EC50 values of standard dosing showed an underestimation of the effects when using nominal standard dosing probably due to sorption, evaporation and limiting....... Passive dosing is a practical and economical way of improving the exposure of HOCs in aquatic toxicity or bioconcentration tests like the algae growth inhibition test. \

  16. Sistema de control automático de plataformas de crecimiento de algas en el espacio

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Mota, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This final degree work has been done with the aim to study and build a system capable of automatically controlling algae growth platforms. It is a land simulation of an ECLSS "Environmental Control and Life Support System". The study of algae as a species to be incorporated into closed bioregenerative systems for space missions is interesting. Because thanks to their photosynthetic and filtering properties they can generate food and other vital substances to the space crew, in addition to reg...

  17. Astaxanthin Accumulation in the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis: Effects of Cultivation Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping He; James Duncan; James Barber

    2007-01-01

    The green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow is used as a source of the ketocarotenoid astaxanthin for application in fish aquaculture, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cells of the green alga were induced by the application of different light and starvation conditions to evaluate the effect in astaxanthin accumulate. The condiphosphate starvation. The results show that stresses applied in culture, which interfere with cell division, trigger the accumulation of astaxanthin. Notably, sulfur starvation results in a massive accumulation of this commercially important carotenoid.

  18. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on laboratory cultures of green algae and cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of the ozone hole, an increasing amount of work has been devoted to measuring the impact of the UV-radiation on living organisms. In this point of view, algae as the primer producers of aquatic ecosystems, get to the central part of the interest. The aim of the study was to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation on laboratory cultures of green algae and cyanobacteria

  19. Algogroup : towards a shared vision of the possible deployment of algae to biofuels.

    OpenAIRE

    Montagne Xavier; Porot Pierre; Aymard Caroline; Querleu Cécile; Bouter Anne; Lorne Daphné; Cadoret Jean-Paul; Lombaert-Valot Isabelle; Petillon Odile

    2013-01-01

    A strong interest has been focused from several years on the algae pathway for energy production, especially for transportation fuels called third generation biofuel or G3 biofuel, and mainly from microalgae route, considering it could be a high potential alternative strategy for renewable energy and fuel production. Algae, and especially microalgae, present significant advantages compared with land resources, such as much higher productivity and lack of competition with food application...

  20. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.