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Sample records for algae fucus distichus

  1. Effect of enzyme preparation from the marine mollusk Littorina kurila on fucoidan from the brown alga Fucus distichus.

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    Bilan, M I; Kusaykin, M I; Grachev, A A; Tsvetkova, E A; Zvyagintseva, T N; Nifantiev, N E; Usov, A I

    2005-12-01

    A fucoidanase preparation from the marine mollusk Littorina kurila cleaved some glycosidic bonds in fucoidan from the brown alga Fucus distichus, but neither fucose nor lower oligosaccharides were produced. The main product isolated from the incubation mixture was a polysaccharide built up of disaccharide repeating units -->3)-alpha-L-Fucp-(2,4-di-SO3(-))-(1-->4)-alpha-L-Fucp-(2SO3(-))-(1-->, the structure coinciding with the idealized formula proposed for the initial substance. A polymer fraction with the same carbohydrate chain but sulfated only at positions 2 and nonstoichiometrically acetylated at positions 3 and 4 of fucose residues was isolated as a minor component. It is suggested that the native polysaccharide should contain small amounts of non-sulfated and non-acetylated fucose residues, and only their glycosidic bonds are cleaved by the enzyme. The enzymatic hydrolysis showed that irregular regions of the native polysaccharide containing acetylated and partially sulfated repeating units were assembled in blocks.

  2. Early embryo development in Fucus distichus is auxin sensitive

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    Basu, Swati; Sun, Haiguo; Brian, Leigh; Quatrano, Ralph L.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2002-01-01

    Auxin and polar auxin transport have been implicated in controlling embryo development in land plants. The goal of these studies was to determine if auxin and auxin transport are also important during the earliest stages of development in embryos of the brown alga Fucus distichus. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was identified in F. distichus embryos and mature tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. F. distichus embryos accumulate [(3)H]IAA and an inhibitor of IAA efflux, naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), elevates IAA accumulation, suggesting the presence of an auxin efflux protein complex similar to that found in land plants. F. distichus embryos normally develop with a single unbranched rhizoid, but growth on IAA leads to formation of multiple rhizoids and growth on NPA leads to formation of embryos with branched rhizoids, at concentrations that are active in auxin accumulation assays. The effects of IAA and NPA are complete before 6 h after fertilization (AF), which is before rhizoid germination and cell division. The maximal effects of IAA and NPA are between 3.5 and 5 h AF and 4 and 5.5 h AF, respectively. Although, the location of the planes of cell division was significantly altered in NPA- and IAA-treated embryos, these abnormal divisions occurred after abnormal rhizoid initiation and branching was observed. The results of this study suggest that auxin acts in the formation of apical basal patterns in F. distichus embryo development.

  3. The fate of the Arctic seaweed Fucus distichus under climate change: an ecological niche modeling approach.

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    Jueterbock, Alexander; Smolina, Irina; Coyer, James A; Hoarau, Galice

    2016-03-01

    Rising temperatures are predicted to melt all perennial ice cover in the Arctic by the end of this century, thus opening up suitable habitat for temperate and subarctic species. Canopy-forming seaweeds provide an ideal system to predict the potential impact of climate-change on rocky-shore ecosystems, given their direct dependence on temperature and their key role in the ecological system. Our primary objective was to predict the climate-change induced range-shift of Fucus distichus, the dominant canopy-forming macroalga in the Arctic and subarctic rocky intertidal. More specifically, we asked: which Arctic/subarctic and cold-temperate shores of the northern hemisphere will display the greatest distributional change of F. distichus and how will this affect niche overlap with seaweeds from temperate regions? We used the program MAXENT to develop correlative ecological niche models with dominant range-limiting factors and 169 occurrence records. Using three climate-change scenarios, we projected habitat suitability of F. distichus - and its niche overlap with three dominant temperate macroalgae - until year 2200. Maximum sea surface temperature was identified as the most important factor in limiting the fundamental niche of F. distichus. Rising temperatures were predicted to have low impact on the species' southern distribution limits, but to shift its northern distribution limits poleward into the high Arctic. In cold-temperate to subarctic regions, new areas of niche overlap were predicted between F. distichus and intertidal macroalgae immigrating from the south. While climate-change threatens intertidal seaweeds in warm-temperate regions, seaweed meadows will likely flourish in the Arctic intertidal. Although this enriches biodiversity and opens up new seaweed-harvesting grounds, it will also trigger unpredictable changes in the structure and functioning of the Arctic intertidal ecosystem.

  4. Dynamics of biomass and population density of fucus algae of the Kola Bay, Barents Sea

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    Malavenda S. S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term dynamics of biomass and population density of Fucus distichus and F. vesiculosus in the southern and middle knees of the Kola Bay have been analyzed. The feedbacks between these parameters and their changes over several years have been revealed for the first time. Changing the prevalence of biomass and population density can be considered as an adaptation at the population level to maintain the stability of algae communities in chronic pollution

  5. Evolution of the Northern Rockweed, Fucus distichus, in a Regime of Glacial Cycling: Implications for Benthic Algal Phylogenetics.

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    Haywood Dail Laughinghouse

    Full Text Available Northern hemisphere rockweeds (Fucus are thought to have evolved in the North Pacific and then spread to the North Atlantic following the opening of the Bering Strait. They have dispersed and widely speciated in the North Atlantic and its tributary seas. Fucus distichus is likely near the ancestral member of this genus, and studies have shown that there are several species/subspecies in this complex (i.e. F. evanescens and F. gardneri. We used phylogenetic and haplotype analyses to test the phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of F. distichus. Our data and subsequent analyses demonstrate that, unlike previous studies that lacked samples from an extensive geographical area of the Arctic and Subarctic, there is a distinct Arctic haplotype that is the source of subspecies in both the North Pacific and North Atlantic. Fucus distichus occupies a low tide zone habitat, and in Arctic/Subarctic regions it is adapted to the severe stress of sea ice coverage and disturbance during many months per year. We hypothesize that the very large geographic area of Arctic and Subarctic rocky shores available to this species during interglacials, supported by large Arctic/Subarctic fringe areas as well as unglaciated refugia during glacial cycles, provided a robust population and gene pool (described by the Thermogeographic Model. This gene pool dilutes that of the more fragmented and area-limited Temperate/Boreal area populations when they are brought together during glacial cycles. We suggest that similar subspecies complexes for a variety of Arctic/Subarctic shore biota should be examined further in this context, rather than arbitrarily being split up into numerous species.

  6. Trans-Pacific and trans-Arctic pathways of the intertidal macroalga Fucus distichus L. reveal multiple glacial refugia and colonizations from the North Pacific to the North Atlantic

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    Coyer, James A.; Hoarau, Galice; Van Schaik, Jaap; Luijckx, Pepijn; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim We examined the phylogeography of the cold-temperate macroalgal species Fucus distichus L., a key foundation species in rocky intertidal shores and the only Fucus species to occur naturally in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Location North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans (42 deg

  7. Development and characterization of 35 single nucleotide polymorphism markers for the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

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    Canovas, Fernando; Mota, Catarina; Ferreira-Costa, Joana; Serrao, Ester; Coyer, Jim; Olsen, Jeanine; Pearson, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    We characterized 35 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. Based on existing Fucus Expressed Sequence Tag libraries for heat and desiccation-stressed tissue, SNPs were developed and confirmed by re-sequencing cDNA from a diverse panel of individuals. SNP l

  8. Fucoidans from brown alga Fucus evanescens: structure and biological activity

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    Roza Menshova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Fucus evanescens, widespread in the Far Eastern seas of Russia, is valuable source of sulfated polysaccharides – fucoidans with beneficial biological activities. The most homogenous fraction of fucoidan from F. evanescens was shown to be molecule containing linear main chain of alternating 2-sulfated 1,3- and 1,4-linked α-L-fucose residues. Few sulfate groups were found in position 4 of some 1,3-linked fucose residues. Acetyl groups occupied free C-3 of 1,4-linked residues and/or the C-4 of 1,3-linked fucose residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis, mild acid hydrolysis and autohydrolysis of native fucoidan were used for elucidation of the fine structural characteristics of fucoidan from F. evanescens. The aim of this review to summarize published data on biological activities of fucoidan from F. evanescens: antiviral, anticoagulant, thrombolytic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anticancer, and their practical application.

  9. Sterol composition of the Adriatic Sea algae Ulva lactuca, Codium dichotomum, Cystoseira adriatica and Fucus virsoides

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    RADOMIR KAPETANOVIC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The sterol composition of two green algae and two brown algae from the South Adriatic was determined. In the green alga Ulva lactuca, the principal sterols were cholesterol and isofucosterol. In the brown alga Cystoseira adriatica, the main sterols were cholesterol and stigmast-5-en-3ß-ol, while the characteristic sterol of the brown algae, fucosterol, was found only in low concentration. The sterol fractions of the green alga Codium dichotomum and the brown alga Fucus virsoides contained practically only one sterol each, comprising more than 90 % of the total sterols (clerosterol in the former and fucosterol in the latter.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the three brown algae (Heterokonta : Phaeophyceae) Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis

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    Secq, MPO; Goer, SL; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL; Oudot-LeSecq, M.-P.

    2006-01-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial sequences of three brown algae (Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis) belonging to three phaeophycean lineages. They have circular mapping organization and contain almost the same set of mitochondrial genes, despite their size differences

  11. Diffusion or advection? Mass transfer and complex boundary layer landscapes of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

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    Lichtenberg, Mads; Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Kühl, Michael

    2017-03-01

    The role of hyaline hairs on the thallus of brown algae in the genus Fucus is long debated and several functions have been proposed. We used a novel motorized set-up for two-dimensional and three-dimensional mapping with O2 microsensors to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) and O2 flux around single and multiple tufts of hyaline hairs on the thallus of Fucus vesiculosus. Flow was a major determinant of DBL thickness, where higher flow decreased DBL thickness and increased O2 flux between the algal thallus and the surrounding seawater. However, the topography of the DBL varied and did not directly follow the contour of the underlying thallus. Areas around single tufts of hyaline hairs exhibited a more complex mass-transfer boundary layer, showing both increased and decreased thickness when compared with areas over smooth thallus surfaces. Over thallus areas with several hyaline hair tufts, the overall effect was an apparent increase in the boundary layer thickness. We also found indications for advective O2 transport driven by pressure gradients or vortex shedding downstream from dense tufts of hyaline hairs that could alleviate local mass-transfer resistances. Mass-transfer dynamics around hyaline hair tufts are thus more complex than hitherto assumed and may have important implications for algal physiology and plant-microbe interactions.

  12. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

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    Mata, Y.N. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Blazquez, M.L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)], E-mail: mlblazquez@quim.ucm.es; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2008-10-30

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu > Cd {approx} Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb > Cu > Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups.

  13. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

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    Mata, Y N; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A

    2008-10-30

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu>Cd approximately Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb>Cu>Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups.

  14. Nodularin induces oxidative stress in the Baltic Sea brown alga Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae).

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    Pflugmacher, Stephan; Olin, Miikka; Kankaanpää, Harri

    2007-08-01

    In the Baltic Sea regular, intensive cyanobacterial blooms rich in the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena occur during the summer season. N. spumigena is known to produce the cyclic pentapeptide nodularin (NOD) in high concentrations. Marine macroalgae, together with sea-grass meadows, are an extremely important habitat for life in the sea. In addition to this, the decaying macroalgae substantially contribute to the substrate for the microbial loop in coastal food webs. Uptake of nodularin into the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus was assessed using an ELISA technique resulting in an uptake of up to 45.1 microg kg(-1) fresh weight (fw). Nodularin was also detected in the reproductive part of the algae (receptacle) at 14.1 microg kg(-1) fw. The induction of oxidative stress in F. vesiculosus, after exposure to NOD, was also shown by monitoring cellular damage as changes in lipid peroxidation and the activation of antioxidative defence systems (antioxidative capacity, superoxide dismutase and soluble glutathione S-transferase).

  15. Variation in natural selection for growth and phlorotannins in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

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    Jormalainen, V; Honkanen, T

    2004-07-01

    Directional selection for plant traits associated with resistance to herbivory tends to eliminate genetic variation in such traits. On the other hand, balancing selection arising from trade-offs between resistance and growth or spatially variable selection acts against the elimination of genetic variation. We explore both the amount of genetic variation and variability of natural selection for growth and concentration of phenolic secondary compounds, phlorotannins, in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. We measured variation in selection at two growing depths and two levels of nutrient availability in algae that had faced two kinds of past growing environments. Genetic variation was low for growth but high for phlorotannins. The form and strength of selection for both focal traits depended on the past growing environment of the algae. We found strong directional selection for growth rate in algae previously subjected to higher ultraviolet radiation, but not in algae previously subjected to higher nutrient availability. Stabilizing selection for growth occurred especially in the deep growing environment. Selection for phlorotannins was generally weak, but in some past-environment-current-environment combinations we detected either directional selection against phlorotannins or stabilizing selection. Thus, phlorotannins are not selectively neutral but affect the fitness of F. vesiculosus. In particular, there may be a fitness cost of producing phlorotannins, but the realization of such a cost varies from one environment to another. Genetic correlations between selective environments were high for growth but nonexistent for phlorotannins, emphasizing the high phenotypic plasticity of phlorotannin production. The highly heterogeneous selection, including directional, stabilizing, and spatially variable selection as well as temporal change in selection due to responses to past environmental conditions, probably maintains a high amount of genetic variation in phlorotannins

  16. Genotypic variation in tolerance and resistance to fouling in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

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    Honkanen, Tuija; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we examined genetic variation in resistance and tolerance to fouling organisms in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. We first grew 30 algal genotypes in the field, where we allowed fouling organisms to colonise the genotypes at natural levels. We then conducted a manipulative experiment, where we grew 20 genotypes of algae in aquaria with or without fouling organisms. We measured host resistance as the load of fouling organisms and tolerance as the slope of the regression of algal performance on fouling level. Fouling organisms decreased host growth and contents of phlorotannins and thus have the potential to act as selective agents on algal defenses. We found significant among-genotype variation in both resistance and tolerance to fouling. We did not find a trade-off between resistance and tolerance. We found a marginally significant cost of resistance, but no cost of tolerance. Our results thus indicate that both the tolerance and resistance of F. vesiculosus can evolve as a response to fouling and that the costs of resistance may maintain genetic variation in resistance.

  17. Dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP) and proline from the surface of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus inhibit bacterial attachment.

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    Saha, M; Rempt, M; Gebser, B; Grueneberg, J; Pohnert, G; Weinberger, F

    2012-01-01

    It was demonstrated previously that polar and non-polar surface extracts of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus collected during winter from the Kiel Bight (Germany) inhibited bacterial attachment at natural concentrations. The present study describes the bioassay-guided identification of the active metabolites from the polar fraction. Chromatographic separation on a size-exclusion liquid chromatography column and bioassays identified an active fraction that was further investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. This fraction contained the metabolites dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), proline and alanine. DMSP and proline caused the anti-attachment activity. The metabolites were further quantified on the algal surface together with its associated boundary layer. DMSP and proline were detected in the range 0.12-1.08 ng cm(-2) and 0.09-0.59 ng cm(-2), respectively. These metabolites were tested in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1000 ng cm(-2) against the attachment of five bacterial strains isolated from algae and sediment co-occurring with F. vesiculosus. The surface concentrations for 50% inhibition of attachment of these strains were always vesiculosus were also tested, but proved to be the least sensitive. This study shows that DMSP and proline have an ecologically relevant role as surface inhibitors against bacterial attachment on F. vesiculosus.

  18. Fouling mediates grazing: intertwining of resistances to multiple enemies in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

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    Jormalainen, Veijo; Wikström, Sofia A; Honkanen, Tuija

    2008-03-01

    Macroalgae have to cope with multiple natural enemies, such as herbivores and epibionts. As these are harmful for the host, the host is expected to show resistance to them. Evolution of resistance is complicated by the interactions among the enemies and the genetic correlations among resistances to different enemies. Here, we explored genetic variation in resistance to epibiosis and herbivory in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, both under conditions where the enemies coexisted and where they were isolated. F. vesiculosus showed substantial genetic variation in the resistance to both epibiosis and grazing. Grazing pressure on the alga was generally lower in the presence than in the absence of epibiota. Furthermore, epibiosis modified the susceptibility of different algal genotypes to grazing. Resistances to epibiosis and grazing were independent when measured separately for both enemies but positively correlated when both these enemies coexisted. Thus, when the enemies coexisted, the fate of genotypes with respect to these enemies was intertwined. Genotypic correlation between phlorotannins, brown-algal phenolic secondary metabolites, and the amount of epibiota was negative, indicating that these compounds contribute to resistance to epibiosis. In addition, phlorotannins correlated also with the resistance to grazing, but this correlation disappeared when grazing occurred in the absence of epibiota. This indicates that the patterns of selection for the type of the resistance as well as for the resistance traits vary with the occurrence patterns of the enemies.

  19. Gold(III) biosorption and bioreduction with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

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    Mata, Y N; Torres, E; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A

    2009-07-30

    In this paper, the bioreduction of Au(III) to Au(0) using biomass of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was investigated. The recovery and reduction process took place in two stages with an optimum pH range of 4-9 with a maximum uptake obtained at pH 7. In the first stage, an induction period previous to gold reduction, the variation of pH, redox potential and gold concentration in solution was practically negligible and no color change was observed. In the second stage, the gold reduction was followed by a sharp decrease of gold concentration, pH and redox potential of solution and a color change from yellow to reddish purple. Hydroxyl groups present in the algal polysaccharides were involved in the gold bioreduction. Metallic gold was detected as microprecipitates on the biomass surface and in colloidal form as nanoparticles in the solution. Bioreduction with F. vesiculosus could be an alternative and environmentally friendly process that can be used for recovering gold from dilute hydrometallurgical solutions and leachates of electronic scraps, and for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles of different size and shape.

  20. Gold(III) biosorption and bioreduction with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Y.N.; Torres, E. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Blazquez, M.L., E-mail: mlblazquez@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2009-07-30

    In this paper, the bioreduction of Au(III) to Au(0) using biomass of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was investigated. The recovery and reduction process took place in two stages with an optimum pH range of 4-9 with a maximum uptake obtained at pH 7. In the first stage, an induction period previous to gold reduction, the variation of pH, redox potential and gold concentration in solution was practically negligible and no color change was observed. In the second stage, the gold reduction was followed by a sharp decrease of gold concentration, pH and redox potential of solution and a color change from yellow to reddish purple. Hydroxyl groups present in the algal polysaccharides were involved in the gold bioreduction. Metallic gold was detected as microprecipitates on the biomass surface and in colloidal form as nanoparticles in the solution. Bioreduction with F. vesiculosus could be an alternative and environmentally friendly process that can be used for recovering gold from dilute hydrometallurgical solutions and leachates of electronic scraps, and for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles of different size and shape.

  1. Cadmium tolerance and adsorption by the marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus from the Irish Sea and the Bothnian Sea.

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    Brinza, Loredana; Nygård, Charlotta A; Dring, Matthew J; Gavrilescu, Maria; Benning, Liane G

    2009-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) uptake capacities and Cd tolerance of the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus from the Irish Sea (salinity 35 psu) and from the Bothnian Sea (northern Baltic, 5 psu) were quantified. These data were complemented by measurements of changes in maximal photosynthetic rate (P(max)), dark respiration rate and variable fluorescence vs. maximal fluorescence (F(v):F(m)). At concentrations between 0.01 and 1 mmol Cd l(-1), F. vesiculosus from the Bothnian Sea adsorbed significantly more (about 98%) Cd compared with F. vesiculosus from the Irish Sea. The photosynthetic measurements showed that the Bothnian Sea F. vesiculosus were more sensitive to Cd exposure than the Irish Sea algae. The algae from the Irish Sea showed negative photosynthetic effects only at 1 mmol Cd l(-1), which was expressed as a decreased P(max) (-12.3%) and F(v):F(m) (-4.6%). On the contrary, the algae from the Bothnian Sea were negatively affected already at Cd concentrations as low at 0.1 mmol Cd l(-1). They exhibited increased dark respiration (+11.1%) and decreased F(v):F(m) (-13.9%). The results show that F. vesiculosus from the Bothnian Sea may be an efficient sorption substrate for Cd removal from Cd contaminated seawater and this algae type may also have applications for wastewater treatment.

  2. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of phlorotannins from the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

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    Koivikko, Riitta; Loponen, Jyrki; Pihlaja, Kalevi; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2007-01-01

    Separating individual compounds by HPLC represents an effective method for the detection and quantification of phenolic compounds and has been widely utilised. However, phlorotannins are commonly quantified using colorimetric methods, as the total amount of the whole compound group. In the present paper the separation of a set of individual soluble phlorotannins from the phenolic crude extract of Fucus vesiculosus was achieved by HPLC with UV photodiode array detection. Different gradient programs for reversed- and normal-phase HPLC methods were developed and tested. Normal-phase (NP) conditions with a silica stationary phase and a mobile phase with a linear gradient of increasing polarity were found to separate 16 individual components of the phenolic extract. The suitability of the NP-HPLC method for mass spectrometric application was preliminarily tested. Sample preparation was found to be a critical step in the analysis owing to the rapid oxidation of phlorotannins; ascorbic acid was used as an antioxidant.

  3. Phlorotannins from brown algae (Fucus vesiculosus) inhibited the formation of advanced glycation endproducts by scavenging reactive carbonyls.

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    Liu, Haiyan; Gu, Liwei

    2012-02-08

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in vivo is associated with aging, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, renal failure, etc. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae Fucus vesiculosus phlorotannins on the formation of AGEs. F. vesiculosus phlorotannins were extracted using 70% acetone. The resultant extract was fractionated into dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was further fractionated into four subfractions (Ethyl-F1 to -F4) using a Sephadex LH-20 column. F. vesiculosus acetone extract or fractions significantly inhibited the formation of AGEs mediated by glucose and methylglyoxal in a concentration-dependent manner. The concentrations of F. vesiculosus extracts required to inhibit 50% of albumin glycation (EC(50)) in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)-methylglyoxal assay were lower than those of aminoguanidine (a drug candidate for diabetic complication), except for F. vesiculosus acetone extract and dichloromethane fraction. In the BSA-glucose assay, F. vesiculosus extracts inhibited BSA glycation more than or as effectively as aminoguanidine, except for Ethyl-F3 and -F4. The ethyl acetate fraction and its four subfractions scavenged more than 50% of methylglyoxal in two hours. The hypothesis whether F. vesiculosus phlorotannins scavenged reactive carbonyls by forming adducts was tested. Phloroglucinol, the constituent unit of phlorotannins, reacted with glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Five phloroglucinol-carbonyl adducts were detected and tentatively identified using HPLC-ESI-MS(n).

  4. Seasonal variation in the antifouling defence of the temperate brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

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    Saha, Mahasweta; Wahl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The important role of marine epibiotic biofilms in the interactions of the host with its environment has been acknowledged recently. Previous studies with the temperate brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus have identified polar and non-polar compounds recovered from the algal surface that have the potential to control such biofilms. Furthermore, both the fouling pressure and the composition of the epibiotic bacterial communities on this macroalga varied seasonally. The extent to which this reflects a seasonal fluctuation of the fouling control mechanisms of the host is, however, unexplored in an ecological context. The present study investigated seasonal variation in the anti-settlement activity of surface extracts of F. vesiculosus against eight biofilm-forming bacteria isolated from rockweed-dominated habitats, including replication of two populations from two geographically distant sites. The anti-settlement activity at both sites was found to vary temporally, reaching a peak in summer/autumn. Anti-settlement activity also showed a consistent and strong difference between sites throughout the year. This study is the first to report temporal variation of antifouling defence originating from ecologically relevant surface-associated compounds.

  5. Antioxidant capacities of phlorotannins extracted from the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus.

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    Wang, Tao; Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Liu, Haiyan; Gu, Liwei; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Raghavan, Sivakumar; Olafsdóttir, Gudrún

    2012-06-13

    A process for the effective extraction and fractionation of phlorotannins from Fucus vesiculosus with high antioxidant potentials was investigated. The antioxidant activity of F. vesiculosus extract/fractions was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, and ferrous ion-chelating assays. Among the crude extract and different polarity fractions, the phlorotannin-enriched ethyl acetate fraction possessed the highest DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. This fraction was further fractionated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography or ultrafiltration. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by both the above chemical antioxidant tests and a mononuclear cell-based bioassay. Sephadex subfractions LH-2 and LH-3 with high total phlorotannin content exhibited strong DPPH quenching activity, comparable to those of ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene and significantly higher than that of α-tocopherol. Polyphenols in F. vesiculosus were found to consist mainly of high molecular weight phlorotannin polymers. There were no clear relationships between the degree of polymerization, molecular size, and antioxidant activity. All the subfractions separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and ultrafiltration showed a high ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species generated by mononuclear cells. Further characterization of the phlorotannin compounds was performed on six Sephadex subfractions. Several phlorotannin oligomers were tentatively identified on the basis of HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses.

  6. Extraction, characterization and application of antioxidants from the Nordic brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun

    makes this alga particularly attractive for the development of new natural antioxidants. While the in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts are widely studied, studies evaluating the antioxidant efficacy of such extracts in food and skin care products are scarce. This PhD study...... investigated the possibilities of using extracts from Nordic F. vesiculosus as natural antioxidants in food and skin care products. All tested food products were fortified with fish oil rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The fish oil was added specifically in order to examine the effectiveness......, and how each specific phlorotannin contributed to the overall antioxidant activity. All extracts examined and also the phlorotannin-rich fraction were somewhat able to improve the oxidative stability of the food and skin care products. The effectiveness of these extracts was to a large degree dependant...

  7. Isolation of Polysaccharides Sulfated during Early Embryogenesis in Fucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsett, W E; Quatrano, R S

    1975-01-01

    Beginning 10 hours after fertilization, zygotes of Fucus distichus L. Powell incorporate (35)S into polysaccharides as a sulfate ester of fucose. These sulfated polysaccharides are sequestered in only the rhizoid cell of the two-celled embryo and can serve as a marker of cellular differentiation. Zygotes were pulsed at different times after fertilization with Na(2) (35)SO(4) to identify and isolate the fucans localized within the region of cytoplasm destined to become the rhizoid cell. Low molecular weight pools of (35)S were saturated within 60 minutes, with the greatest incorporation into ethanol-soluble and insoluble fractions occurring with 0.1 mm Na(2)SO(4) in the artificial sea water medium. At the time of rhizoid formation, four fucose-containing polysaccharide fractions incorporated (35)S. When each fraction was subjected to diethylaminoethyl chromatography, two components were eluted with KCl that contained over 84% of the fucose and 93% of the (35)S of the particular fraction. Highvoltage paper electrophoresis of each fraction also resulted in the separation of these two major components. Both components from each of the four fractions behaved identically when separated by diethylaminoethyl chromatography and paper electrophoresis. By comparing the incorporation of (35)S into the polysaccharide fractions at 4 and 16 hours after fertilization, the fucan-sulfate components that are localized in the cytoplasm at the time of rhizoid formation were isolated. Although sulfated polysaccharides in brown algae are reported to be very heterogeneous in terms of their sugar composition and complexes with other heteropolymers, we propose that there are two major components that are sulfated during early embryogenesis in Fucus. The location of these two sulfated polysaccharides in different chemical fractions may reflect their subcellular localization (e.g., cytoplasmic vesicles or cell walls), or their association with other heteropolymers.

  8. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Creis

    Full Text Available A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure. After exposure of the intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus to artificial UV-B radiation, we examined its physiological responses by following the transcript level of the pksIII gene encoding a phloroglucinol synthase, likely to be involved in the first step of phlorotannins biosynthesis. We also monitored the expression of three targeted genes, encoding a heat shock protein (hsp70, which is involved in global stress responses, an aryl sulfotransferase (ast, which could be involved in the sulfation of phlorotannins, and a vanadium bromoperoxidase (vbpo, which can potentially participate in the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and in the cross-linking and condensation of phlorotannins. We investigated whether transcriptional regulation of these genes is correlated with an induction of phlorotannin accumulation by establishing metabolite profiling of purified fractions of low molecular weight phlorotannins. Our findings demonstrated that a high dose of UV-B radiation induced a significant overexpression of hsp70 after 12 and 24 hours following the exposure to the UV-B treatment, compared to control treatment. The physiological performance of algae quantified by the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm was slightly reduced. However UV-B treatment did not induce the accumulation of soluble phlorotannins in F. vesiculosus during the kinetics of four weeks, a result that may be related to the lack of induction of the pksIII gene expression. Taken together these results suggest a constitutive accumulation of phlorotannins occurring during the development of F.vesiculosus, rather than inducible processes. Gene expression studies and phlorotannin profiling provide here complementary approaches to global quantifications currently used in studies of

  9. Constitutive or Inducible Protective Mechanisms against UV-B Radiation in the Brown Alga Fucus vesiculosus? A Study of Gene Expression and Phlorotannin Content Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creis, Emeline; Delage, Ludovic; Charton, Sophie; Goulitquer, Sophie; Leblanc, Catherine; Potin, Philippe; Ar Gall, Erwan

    2015-01-01

    A role as UV sunscreens has been suggested for phlorotannins, the phenolic compounds that accumulate in brown algae in response to a number of external stimuli and take part in cell wall structure. After exposure of the intertidal brown alga Fucus vesiculosus to artificial UV-B radiation, we examined its physiological responses by following the transcript level of the pksIII gene encoding a phloroglucinol synthase, likely to be involved in the first step of phlorotannins biosynthesis. We also monitored the expression of three targeted genes, encoding a heat shock protein (hsp70), which is involved in global stress responses, an aryl sulfotransferase (ast), which could be involved in the sulfation of phlorotannins, and a vanadium bromoperoxidase (vbpo), which can potentially participate in the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the cross-linking and condensation of phlorotannins. We investigated whether transcriptional regulation of these genes is correlated with an induction of phlorotannin accumulation by establishing metabolite profiling of purified fractions of low molecular weight phlorotannins. Our findings demonstrated that a high dose of UV-B radiation induced a significant overexpression of hsp70 after 12 and 24 hours following the exposure to the UV-B treatment, compared to control treatment. The physiological performance of algae quantified by the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was slightly reduced. However UV-B treatment did not induce the accumulation of soluble phlorotannins in F. vesiculosus during the kinetics of four weeks, a result that may be related to the lack of induction of the pksIII gene expression. Taken together these results suggest a constitutive accumulation of phlorotannins occurring during the development of F.vesiculosus, rather than inducible processes. Gene expression studies and phlorotannin profiling provide here complementary approaches to global quantifications currently used in studies of phenolic compounds

  10. Contents of soluble, cell-wall-bound and exuded phlorotannins in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, with implications on their ecological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivikko, Riitta; Loponen, Jyrki; Honkanen, Tuija; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2005-01-01

    Phlorotannins are ubiquitous secondary metabolites in brown algae that are phenotypically plastic and suggested to have multiple ecological roles. Traditionally, phlorotannins have been quantified as total soluble phlorotannins. Here, we modify a quantification procedure to measure, for the first time, the amount of cell-wall-bound phlorotannins. We also optimize the quantification of soluble phlorotannins. We use these methods to study the responses of soluble and cell-wall-bound phlorotannin to nutrient enrichment in growing and nongrowing parts of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. We also examine the effects of nutrient shortage and herbivory on the rate of phlorotannin exudation. Concentrations of cell-wall-bound phlorotannins were much lower than concentrations of soluble phlorotannins; we also found that nutrient treatment over a period of 41 days affected only soluble phlorotannins. Concentrations of each phlorotannin type correlated positively between growing and nongrowing parts of individual seaweeds. However, within nongrowing thalli, soluble and cell-wall-bound phlorotannins were negatively correlated, whereas within growing thalli there was no correlation. Phlorotannins were exuded from the thallus in all treatments. Herbivory increased exudation, while a lack of nutrients had no effect on exudation. Because the amount of cell-wall-bound phlorotannins is much smaller than the amount of soluble phlorotannins, the major function of phlorotannins appears to be a secondary one.

  11. Epiphytic bacterial communities of the alga Fucus vesiculosus in oil-contaminated water areas of the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugovkin, D V; Liaimer, A; Jensen, J B

    2016-11-01

    Taxonomic compositions of epiphytic bacterial communities in water areas differing in levels of oil pollution were revealed. In total, 82 bacterial genera belonging to 16 classes and 11 phyla were detected. All detected representatives of epiphytic bacterial communities belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Fusobacteria and candidate division TM7. The ratio of the phyla in the communities varied depending on the levels of oil pollution. New data on taxonomic composition of uncultivated epiphytic bacterial communities of Fucus vesiculosus were obtained.

  12. Induction of expression of a 14-3-3 gene in response to copper exposure in the marine alga, Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jennifer R; Morris, Ceri A; Nicolaus, Beate; Harwood, John L; Kille, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The macro-alga Fucus vesiculosus has a broad global and estuarine distribution and exhibits exceptional resistance to toxic metals, the molecular basis of which is poorly understood. To address this issue a cDNA library was constructed from an environmental isolate of F. vesiculosus growing in an area with chronic copper pollution. Characterisation of this library led to the identification of a cDNA encoding a protein known to be synthesised in response to toxicity, a full length 14-3-3 exhibiting a 71% identity to human/mouse epsilon isoform, 70-71% identity to yeast BMH1/2 and 95 and 71% identity to the Ectocarpus siliculosus 14-3-3 isoforms 1 and 2 respectively. Preliminary characterisation of the expression profile of the 14-3-3 indicated concentration- and time-dependent inductions on acute exposure of F. vesiculosus of copper (3-30 μg/l). Higher concentrations of copper (≥150 μg/l) did not elicit significant induction of the 14-3-3 gene compared with the control even though levels of both intracellular copper and the expression of a cytosolic metal chaperone, metallothionein, continued to rise. Analysis of gene expression within environmental isolates demonstrated up-regulation of the 14-3-3 gene associated with the known copper pollution gradient. Here we report for the first time, identification of a gene encoding a putative 14-3-3 protein in a multicellular alga and provide preliminary evidence to link the induction of this 14-3-3 gene to copper exposure in this alga. Interestingly, the threshold exposure profile may be associated with a decrease in the organism's ability to control copper influx so that it perceives copper as a toxic response.

  13. Analysis of bioactive ingredients in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus by capillary electrophoresis and neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truus, Kalle; Vaher, Merike; Koel, Mihkel; Mähar, Andres; Taure, Imants

    2004-07-01

    Two different types of bioactive components of the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were analysed: (1) polyphenols (phlorotannins) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and (2) mineral part (including bioactive microelements) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). CE experiments were carried out using a UV detector (at 210 nm) and an uncoated silica capillary. The best separation was achieved at a voltage of 20 kV using borate or acetate buffer in a methanol/acetonitrile mixture as background electrolyte. The CE analysis data were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Determination of mineral composition of algal biomass by NAA was performed on the basis of various nuclides; the best results (from 38 elements determined) were obtained for Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Sr, I, Ba, Au and Hg.

  14. In vitro chemopreventive potential of fucophlorethols from the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. by anti-oxidant activity and inhibition of selected cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parys, Sabine; Kehraus, Stefan; Krick, Anja; Glombitza, Karl-Werner; Carmeli, Shmuel; Klimo, Karin; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; König, Gabriele M

    2010-02-01

    Within a project focusing on the chemopreventive potential of algal phenols, two phloroglucinol derivatives, belonging to the class of fucophlorethols, and the known fucotriphlorethol A were obtained from the ethanolic extract of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. The compounds trifucodiphlorethol A and trifucotriphlorethol A are composed of six and seven units of phloroglucinol, respectively. The compounds were examined for their cancer chemopreventive potential, in comparison with the monomer phloroglucinol. Trifucodiphlorethol A, trifucotriphlorethol A as well as fucotriphlorethol A were identified as strong radical scavengers, with IC(50) values for scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) in the range of 10.0-14.4 microg/ml. All three compounds potently scavenged peroxyl radicals in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In addition, the compounds were shown to inhibit cytochrome P450 1A activity with IC(50) values in the range of 17.9-33 microg/ml, and aromatase (Cyp19) activity with IC(50) values in the range of 1.2-5.6 microg/ml.

  15. Travelling in time with networks: Revealing present day hybridization versus ancestral polymorphism between two species of brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus and F. spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Gareth A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization or divergence between sympatric sister species provides a natural laboratory to study speciation processes. The shared polymorphism in sister species may either be ancestral or derive from hybridization, and the accuracy of analytic methods used thus far to derive convincing evidence for the occurrence of present day hybridization is largely debated. Results Here we propose the application of network analysis to test for the occurrence of present day hybridization between the two species of brown algae Fucus spiralis and F. vesiculosus. Individual-centered networks were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite genotypes from North Africa to the Pacific American coast, through the North Atlantic. Two genetic distances integrating different time steps were used, the Rozenfeld (RD; based on alleles divergence and the Shared Allele (SAD; based on alleles identity distances. A diagnostic level of genotype divergence and clustering of individuals from each species was obtained through RD while screening for exchanges through putative hybridization was facilitated using SAD. Intermediate individuals linking both clusters on the RD network were those sampled at the limits of the sympatric zone in Northwest Iberia. Conclusion These results suggesting rare hybridization were confirmed by simulation of hybrids and F2 with directed backcrosses. Comparison with the Bayesian method STRUCTURE confirmed the usefulness of both approaches and emphasized the reliability of network analysis to unravel and study hybridization

  16. Isolated thallus-associated compounds from the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus mediate bacterial surface colonization in the field similar to that on the natural alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachnit, Tim; Wahl, Martin; Harder, Tilmann

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether surface-associated compounds isolated from the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus had the potential to mediate microbial and/or macrobial epibiosis similar to that on the natural alga. To selectively yield thallus-associated compounds and avoid contamination by intracellular algal compounds, cell lysis was monitored by surface microscopy of algal cells and chemical profiling of algal surface extracts by coupled gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. The optimized extraction resulted in polar and non-polar algal surface extracts. The non-polar surface extract was immobilized in hydrogel, the polar surface extract was homogeneously perfused through the gel to ensure a temporally constant delivery of polar extract components. During a 7 day field trial, bacterial biofilms were formed on control gels and gels featuring polar and/or non-polar extract components. PERMANOVA revealed that bacterial community profiles on controls and on gels featuring polar or non-polar extract were significantly different from the profile on F. vesiculosus, while the profile on the gels bearing both polar and non-polar extracts was not. Moreover, the polar surface extracts inhibited the settlement of barnacle cyprids. Considering the pronounced effects of bacterial biofilms on invertebrate larval settlement, these results suggest that algal surface chemistry affects macrofouling not only directly but also indirectly, via its control of biofilm formation and composition.

  17. Sulfation of fucoidin in Fucus embryos. III. Required for localization in the rhizoid wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsett, W E; Quatrano, R S

    1978-09-01

    Zygotes of the brown alga Fucus distichus L. Powell accumulate a sulfated polysaccharide (fucoidin) in the cell wall at the site of rhizoid formation. Previous work indicated that zygotes grown in seawater minus sulfate do not sulfate the preformed fucan (an unsulfated fucoidin) but form rhizoids. Under these conditions, we determined whether sulfation of the fucan is required for its localization in the rhizoid wall. This was accomplished by developing a specific stain for both the fucan and fucoidin. Using a precipitin assay, we demonstrated in vitro that the lectin ricin (RCA(I)) specifically complexes with both the sulfated and desulfated polysaccharide. No precipitate is observed when either is incubated in 0.1 M D-galactose or when RCA(I) is mixed with laminarin or alginic acid, the other major polysaccharides in Fucus. RCA(I) conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is also shown to bind specifically to fucoidin using a filter paper (DE81) assay. When added to zygotes, RCA(I)-FITC binds only to the site of fucoidin localization, i.e., the rhizoid cell wall. However, RCA(I)-FITC is not observed in the rhizoid wall of zygotes grown in the absence of sulfate. This observation is not due to inability of RCA(I)-FITC to bind to the fucan in vivo. Chemically desulfated cell walls that contained fucoidin in the rhizoid wall bind RCA(I)-FITC only in the rhizoid region. Also, the concentration of fucose-containing polymers and polysaccharides that form precipitates with RCA(I) is the same in embryos grown in the presence or absence of sulfate. If sulfate is added back to cultures of zygotes grown without sulfate, fucoidin is detected at the rhizoid tip by RCA(I)-FITC several hours later. These results support the conclusion that the enzymatic sulfation of the fucan is a modification of the polysaccharide required for its localization and/or assembly into a specific region of the cell wall.

  18. Pronounced gradients of light, photosynthesis and O2 consumption in the tissue of the brown alga Fucus serratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Mads; Kühl, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Macroalgae live in an ever-changing light environment affected by wave motion, self-shading and light-scattering effects, and on the thallus scale, gradients of light and chemical parameters influence algal photosynthesis. However, the thallus microenvironment and internal gradients remain underexplored. In this study, microsensors were used to quantify gradients of light, O2 concentration, variable chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis and O2 consumption as a function of irradiance in the cortex and medulla layers of Fucus serratus. The two cortex layers showed more efficient light utilization compared to the medulla, calculated both from electron transport rates through photosystem II and from photosynthesis-irradiance curves. At moderate irradiance, the upper cortex exhibited onset of photosynthetic saturation, whereas lower thallus layers exhibited net O2 consumption. O2 consumption rates in light varied with depth and irradiance and were more than two-fold higher than dark respiration. We show that the thallus microenvironment of F. serratus exhibits a highly stratified balance of production and consumption of O2 , and when the frond was held in a fixed position, high incident irradiance levels on the upper cortex did not saturate photosynthesis in the lower thallus layers. We discuss possible photoadaptive responses and consequences for optimizing photosynthetic activity on the basis of vertical differences in light attenuation coefficients.

  19. Future warming and acidification effects on anti-fouling and anti-herbivory traits of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddatz, Stefanie; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Rilov, Gil; Wahl, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Human-induced ocean warming and acidification have received increasing attention over the past decade and are considered to have substantial consequences for a broad range of marine species and their interactions. Understanding how these interactions shift in response to climate change is particularly important with regard to foundation species, such as the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This macroalga represents the dominant habitat former on coastal rocky substrata of the Baltic Sea, fulfilling functions essential for the entire benthic community. Its ability to withstand extensive fouling and herbivory regulates the associated community and ecosystem dynamics. This study tested the interactive effects of future warming, acidification, and seasonality on the interactions of a marine macroalga with potential foulers and consumers. F. vesiculosus rockweeds were exposed to different combinations of conditions predicted regionally for the year 2100 (+∆5°C, +∆700 μatm CO2 ) using multifactorial long-term experiments in novel outdoor benthic mesocosms ("Benthocosms") over 9-12-week periods in four seasons. Possible shifts in the macroalgal susceptibility to fouling and consumption were tested using consecutive bioassays. Algal susceptibility to fouling and grazing varied substantially among seasons and between treatments. In all seasons, warming predominantly affected anti-fouling and anti-herbivory interactions while acidification had a subtle nonsignificant influence. Interestingly, anti-microfouling activity was highest during winter under warming, while anti-macrofouling and anti-herbivory activities were highest in the summer under warming. These contrasting findings indicate that seasonal changes in anti-fouling and anti-herbivory traits may interact with ocean warming in altering F. vesiculosus community composition in the future.

  20. Plastid genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus: further insights on the evolution of red-algal derived plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corre Erwan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterokont algae, together with cryptophytes, haptophytes and some alveolates, possess red-algal derived plastids. The chromalveolate hypothesis proposes that the red-algal derived plastids of all four groups have a monophyletic origin resulting from a single secondary endosymbiotic event. However, due to incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, this controversial hypothesis remains under debate. Large-scale genomic analyses have shown to be a powerful tool for phylogenetic reconstruction but insufficient sequence data have been available for red-algal derived plastid genomes. Results The chloroplast genomes of two brown algae, Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus, have been fully sequenced. These species represent two distinct orders of the Phaeophyceae, which is a major group within the heterokont lineage. The sizes of the circular plastid genomes are 139,954 and 124,986 base pairs, respectively, the size difference being due principally to the presence of longer inverted repeat and intergenic regions in E. siliculosus. Gene contents of the two plastids are similar with 139-148 protein-coding genes, 28-31 tRNA genes, and 3 ribosomal RNA genes. The two genomes also exhibit very similar rearrangements compared to other sequenced plastid genomes. The tRNA-Leu gene of E. siliculosus lacks an intron, in contrast to the F. vesiculosus and other heterokont plastid homologues, suggesting its recent loss in the Ectocarpales. Most of the brown algal plastid genes are shared with other red-algal derived plastid genomes, but a few are absent from raphidophyte or diatom plastid genomes. One of these regions is most similar to an apicomplexan nuclear sequence. The phylogenetic relationship between heterokonts, cryptophytes and haptophytes (collectively referred to as chromists plastids was investigated using several datasets of concatenated proteins from two cyanobacterial genomes and 18 plastid genomes, including

  1. Oxidative stability and microstructure of 5% fish-oil-enriched granola bars added natural antioxidants derived from brown algaFucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karadağ, Ayşe; Hermund, Ditte Baun; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    2016-01-01

    applications: The work showed the application potential of Fucus vesiculosus extracts as a natural antioxidant in low-moisture foods such as granola bars. These findings implied that the multi-functional nature of these extracts provides not only oxidative stability of the food but also a physical stability....

  2. PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase is a target of the fucoidan from brown alga Fucus evanescens in the prevention of EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation and colon cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishchuk, Olesia S; Sun, Huimin; Wang, Zhe; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Xiao, JuanJuan; Lu, Tao; Xue, PeiPei; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N; Xiong, Hua; Shao, Chen; Yan, Wei; Duan, Qiuhong; Zhu, Feng

    2016-04-05

    The fucoidan with high anticancer activity was isolated from brown alga Fucus evanescens. The compound effectively prevented EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation through inhibition of TOPK/ERK1/2/MSK 1 signaling axis. In vitro studies showed that the fucoidan attenuated mitogen-activated protein kinases downstream signaling in a colon cancer cells with different expression level of TOPK, resulting in growth inhibition. The fucoidan exerts its effects by directly interacting with TOPK kinase in vitro and ex vivo and inhibits its kinase activity. In xenograft animal model, oral administration of the fucoidan suppressed HCT 116 colon tumor growth. The phosphorylation of TOPK downstream signaling molecules in tumor tissues was also inhibited by the fucoidan. Taken together, our findings support the cancer preventive efficacy of the fucoidan through its targeting of TOPK for the prevention of neoplastic cell transformation and progression of colon carcinomas in vitro and ex vivo.

  3. An Expressed Sequence Tag Analysis of the Intertidal Brown Seaweeds Fucus serratus (L.) and F. vesiculosus (L.) (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae) in Response to Abiotic Stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearson, Gareth A.; Hoarau, Galice; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Coyer, James A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Henckel, Kolja; Serrao, Ester T. A.; Corre, Erwan; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to aid gene discovery and uncover genes responding to abiotic stressors in stress-tolerant brown algae of the genus Fucus, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were studied in two species, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus. Clustering of over 12,000 ESTs from three libraries for heat shock/rec

  4. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  5. Seasonal fluctuations in chemical defenses against macrofouling in Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Esther; Karsten, Ulf; Pohnert, Georg; Wahl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Macroalgae, especially perennial species, are exposed to a seasonally variable fouling pressure. It was hypothesized that macroalgae regulate their antifouling defense to fouling pressure. Over one year, the macrofouling pressure and the chemical anti-macrofouling defense strength of the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus were assessed with monthly evaluation. The anti-macrofouling defense was assessed by means of surface-extracted Fucus metabolites tested at near-natural concentrations in a novel in situ bioassay. Additionally, the mannitol content of both Fucus species was determined to assess resource availability for defense production. The surface chemistry of both Fucus species exhibited seasonal variability in attractiveness to Amphibalanus improvisus and Mytilus edulis. Of this variability, 50-60% is explained by a sinusoidal model. Only F. vesiculosus extracts originating from the spring and summer significantly deterred settlement of A. improvisus. The strength of macroalgal antifouling defense did not correlate either with in situ macrofouling pressure or with measured mannitol content, which, however, were never depleted.

  6. Photosynthetic activity in marine and brackish water strains of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus radicans (Phaeophyceae) at different light qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn, Carina; Maria Gylle, A; Ekelund, Nils G A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of different light qualities on the photosynthetic capacity of the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus, from the Norwegian Sea, and Fucus radicans and F. vesiculosus, from the Bothnian Sea. The electron transport rates (ETR) obtained for F. vesiculosus from the Norwegian Sea showed significantly higher levels of light saturation compared with both species of algae from the Bothnian Sea. The maximum of ETR values for the Norwegian Sea strain showed no significant changes due to varying light quality compared with the initial values. For F. vesiculosus, from the Bothnian Sea, treatment with blue light showed an effect after 1 week of 30 and 90 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) (Pvesiculosus from the Norwegian Sea, the photosynthetic efficiency (α) was significantly higher regardless of light quality and irradiance compared with the initial values. Variation in light quality and irradiance had minor effects on the F(v):F(m) values of the three algal strains studied.

  7. Nutrient availability modifies species abundance and community structure of Fucus-associated littoral benthic fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Samuli; Jormalainen, Veijo; Pettay, Esko

    2010-01-01

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus is a foundation species in the Baltic Sea littoral, hosting a rich faunal community. We compared the species composition and diversity of invertebrate macrofauna living on F. vesiculosus between sites differing in their eutrophication status and exposure to waves at three different times during a season. We determined the size, nitrogen and phlorotannin content of the alga. The invertebrate community differed substantially between sites near fish farms and those in more pristine environment. Snails and bivalves were more abundant on the Fucus stands near fish farms than on control stands, where crustaceans were more abundant. The abundance of molluscs decreased with the increasing shore exposure, while gammaridean amphipods dominated on the exposed shores. Abundance of several taxa increased during the proceeding growing season. The density of the most important herbivore of F. vesiculosus, Idotea balthica, varied 100-fold during the season being the lowest in June and the highest in August when the generation born in the summer started to feed on Fucus. Thus, the diversity and composition of Fucus-associated invertebrate fauna varies both with environmental conditions of the stand and seasonally. Although the negative effects of eutrophication on distribution and abundance of Fucus stands are well documented, a moderate increase of nutrients was found to increase the species richness of Fucus-associated fauna in early summer.

  8. Arsenic binding to Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Maureen E; Ngu, Thanh; Stillman, Martin J

    2004-11-05

    The seaweed Fucus vesiculosus is a member of the brown algae family. Kille and co-workers [Biochem. J. 338 (1999) 553] reported that this species contains the gene for metallothionein. Metallothionein is a metalloprotein having low molecular weight, and high cysteine content, which binds a range of metals. F. vesiculosus bioaccumulates arsenic from the aquatic environment [Mar. Chem. 18 (1986) 321]. In this paper we describe arsenic binding to F. vesiculosus metallothionein, characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Five arsenic-MT species were detected with increasing As to protein ratios. These results provide important information about the metal-chelation behaviour of this novel algal metallothionein which is a putative model for arsenic binding to F. vesiculosus in vivo.

  9. Grays Harbor and Chehalis River Improvements to Navigation Environmental Studies. Primary Productivity and Organic Carbon Input to Grays Harbor Estuary, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    brown fucoid alga Fucus vesiculosus L. The algal associations studied by Pomeroy (1977) exuded from 0 to 30 percent of net carbon (as dissolved...1J79 gC/m2/hr), Fucus distichus ssp. edentatus (0.601 gC/m2/hr), macroscopically evident diatom tufts (0.266 gC/m2/hr), PolysTphonia hendryi var...were: E. intestinalis (1.179 gC/m /hr), Fucus distichus "" 2 ssp. edentatus (0.601 gC/m /hr), macroscopically evident diatom tufts 2 (0.266

  10. Intriguing asexual life in marginal populations of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarenkov, A; Bergström, L; Jönsson, R B; Serrão, E A; Kautsky, L; Johannesson, K

    2005-02-01

    Reproduction of attached large brown algae is known to occur only by sexual zygotes. Using microsatellites we show evolution of asexual reproduction in the bladder wrack promoting population persistence in the brackish water Baltic Sea (Fucus vesiculosus is dominated by a single clone but clonal reproduction is also present in the common form of the species. We describe a possible mechanism for vegetative reproduction of attached algae, and conclude that clonality plays an important role in persistence and dispersal of these marginal populations, in which sexual reproduction is impaired by low salinity.

  11. Biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with calcium alginate xerogels and immobilized Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Y N; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A

    2009-04-30

    This paper determines the effect of immobilized brown alga Fucus vesiculosus in the biosorption of heavy metals with alginate xerogels. Immobilization increased the kinetic uptakes and intraparticle diffusion rates of the three metals. The Langmuir maximum biosorption capacity increased twofold for cadmium, 10 times for lead, and decreased by half for copper. According to this model, the affinity of the metals for the biomass was as follows: Cu>Pb>Cd without alga and Pb>Cu>Cd with alga. FITR confirmed that carboxyl groups were the main groups involved in the metal uptake. Calcium in the gels was displaced by heavy metals from solution according to the "egg-box" model. The restructured gel matrix became more uniform and organized as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. F. vesiculosus immobilized in alginate xerogels constitutes an excellent biosorbent for cadmium, lead and copper, sometimes surpassing the biosorption performance of alginate alone and even the free alga.

  12. Biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with calcium alginate xerogels and immobilized Fucus vesiculosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Y.N. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blazquez, M.L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mlblazquez@quim.ucm.es; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    This paper determines the effect of immobilized brown alga Fucus vesiculosus in the biosorption of heavy metals with alginate xerogels. Immobilization increased the kinetic uptakes and intraparticle diffusion rates of the three metals. The Langmuir maximum biosorption capacity increased twofold for cadmium, 10 times for lead, and decreased by half for copper. According to this model, the affinity of the metals for the biomass was as follows: Cu > Pb > Cd without alga and Pb > Cu > Cd with alga. FITR confirmed that carboxyl groups were the main groups involved in the metal uptake. Calcium in the gels was displaced by heavy metals from solution according to the 'egg-box' model. The restructured gel matrix became more uniform and organized as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. F. vesiculosus immobilized in alginate xerogels constitutes an excellent biosorbent for cadmium, lead and copper, sometimes surpassing the biosorption performance of alginate alone and even the free alga.

  13. Dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity in Fucus vesiculosus products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2009-01-01

    Several nutraceutical products have been developed from Fucus vesiculosus, a brown edible seaweed, rich in dietary fiber and polyphenolic antioxidants (phlorotannins). The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant capacity and polysaccharide composition of raw Fucus with those of some common commercial nutraceuticals. All tested products contained a high percentage of dietary fiber (45-59%), raw Fucus powder being the sample with the highest content. Also, raw Fucus powder exhibited significantly higher antioxidant capacity (determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays) than the commercial fucoidans and commercial antioxidant extracts. Polyphenols (phlorotannins) seem to be the main contributors to Fucus' antioxidant capacity in both raw powder and commercial fucoidans.

  14. Antioxidant effect of water and acetone extracts of Fucus vesiculosuson oxidative stability of skin care emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poyato, Candelaria; Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Hermund, Ditte Baun

    2017-01-01

    A water and an acetone extract of the Icelandic brown algae Fucus vesiculosus were evaluated as potential natural sources of antioxidant compounds in skin care emulsions. To assess their efficacy in inhibiting lipid oxidation caused by photo- or thermoxidation, they were stored in darkness and room...... temperature. High temperature also caused greater increments in the droplet size of the emulsions. The analysis of the tocopherol content, peroxide value and volatile compounds during the storage revealed that, whereas both water and acetone extracts showed (at 2 mg/g of emulsion) protective effect against...

  15. Highly selective and rapid arsenic removal by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli cells expressing Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailendra; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2008-05-01

    An arsenic-chelating metallothionein (fMT) from the arsenic-tolerant marine alga Fucus vesiculosus was expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in 30- and 26-fold-higher As(III) and As(V) binding, respectively. Coexpression of the As(III)-specific transporter GlpF with fMT further improved arsenic accumulation and offered high selectivity toward As. Resting E. coli cells coexpressing fMT and GlpF completely removed trace amounts (35 ppb) of As(III) within 20 min, providing a promising technology for compliance with the As limit of 10 ppb newly recommended by the U.S. EPA.

  16. Microsensor measurements of the external and internal microenvironment of Fucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilling, Kristian; Titelman, Josefin; Greve, Tina M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the O2, pH, and irradiance microenvironment in and around the tissue of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. using microsensors. Microsensors are ideal tools for gaining new insights into what limits and controls macroalgal activity and growth at very fine spatial (...) and temporal (seconds) scales. This first microsensor investigation of a fucoid macroalga revealed differences in the microenvironment and metabolic activities at the level of different cell layers and thallus structures. F. vesiculosus responded quickly to rapid shifts in irradiance resulting in a highly...

  17. Seasonal Variations in Surface Metabolite Composition of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Esther; Wahl, Martin; Link, Heike; Richter, Hannes; Pohnert, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Perennial macroalgae within the genus Fucus are known to exude metabolites through their outer thallus surface. Some of these metabolites have pro- and/or antifouling properties. Seasonal fluctuations of natural fouling pressure and chemical fouling control strength against micro- and macrofoulers have previously been observed in Fucus, suggesting that control strength varies with threat. To date, a study on the seasonal composition of surface associated metabolites, responsible for much of the fouling control, has not been done. We sampled individuals of the two co-occurring species F. vesiculosus and F. serratus at monthly intervals (six per species and month) during a one-year field study. We analysed the chemical composition of surface associated metabolites of both Fucus species by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to describe temporal patterns in chemical surface composition. Additionally, we correlated abiotic and biotic parameters recorded monthly within the sampled habitat with the variation in the chemical surface landscape of Fucus. Our study revealed that the chemical surface composition of both Fucus species exhibits substantial seasonal differences between spring/summer and autumn/winter months. Light and temperature explained most of the seasonal variability in surface metabolite composition of both Fucus species. A strong summerly up-regulation of eighteen saccharides and two hydroxy acids in F. vesiculosus as well as of four fatty acids and two saccharides in F. serratus was observed. We discuss how these up-regulated molecules may have a complex effect on associated microfoulers, both promoting or decreasing fouling depending on metabolite and bacterial identity. These seasonal shifts in the surface metabolome seem to exert a compound control of density and composition of the Fucus associated biofilm.

  18. Seasonal Variations in Surface Metabolite Composition of Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus from the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Esther; Wahl, Martin; Link, Heike; Richter, Hannes; Pohnert, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Perennial macroalgae within the genus Fucus are known to exude metabolites through their outer thallus surface. Some of these metabolites have pro- and/or antifouling properties. Seasonal fluctuations of natural fouling pressure and chemical fouling control strength against micro- and macrofoulers have previously been observed in Fucus, suggesting that control strength varies with threat. To date, a study on the seasonal composition of surface associated metabolites, responsible for much of the fouling control, has not been done. We sampled individuals of the two co-occurring species F. vesiculosus and F. serratus at monthly intervals (six per species and month) during a one-year field study. We analysed the chemical composition of surface associated metabolites of both Fucus species by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to describe temporal patterns in chemical surface composition. Additionally, we correlated abiotic and biotic parameters recorded monthly within the sampled habitat with the variation in the chemical surface landscape of Fucus. Our study revealed that the chemical surface composition of both Fucus species exhibits substantial seasonal differences between spring/summer and autumn/winter months. Light and temperature explained most of the seasonal variability in surface metabolite composition of both Fucus species. A strong summerly up-regulation of eighteen saccharides and two hydroxy acids in F. vesiculosus as well as of four fatty acids and two saccharides in F. serratus was observed. We discuss how these up-regulated molecules may have a complex effect on associated microfoulers, both promoting or decreasing fouling depending on metabolite and bacterial identity. These seasonal shifts in the surface metabolome seem to exert a compound control of density and composition of the Fucus associated biofilm. PMID:27959901

  19. FLUORESCENCE EMISSION SPECTRA OF MARINE AND BRACKISH-WATER ECOTYPES OF FUCUS VESICULOSUS AND FUCUS RADICANS (PHAEOPHYCEAE) REVEAL DIFFERENCES IN LIGHT-HARVESTING APPARATUS(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Gylle, Anna; Rantamäki, Susanne; Ekelund, Nils G A; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2011-02-01

    The Bothnian Sea in the northerly part of the Baltic Sea is a geologically recent brackish-water environment, and rapid speciation is occurring in the algal community of the Bothnian Sea. We measured low-temperature fluorescence emission spectra from the Bothnian Sea and the Norwegian Sea ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus L., a marine macroalga widespread in the Bothnian Sea. Powdered, frozen thallus was used to obtain undistorted emission spectra. The spectra were compared with spectra measured from the newly identified species Fucus radicans Bergström et L. Kautsky, which is a close relative of F. vesiculosus and endemic to the Bothnian Sea. The spectrum of variable fluorescence was used to identify fluorescence peaks originating in PSI and PSII in this chl c-containing alga. The spectra revealed much higher PSII emission, compared to PSI emission, in the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus than in F. radicans or in the Norwegian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus. The results suggest that more light-harvesting chl a/c proteins serve PSII in the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus than in the two other algal strains. Treatment of the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus in high salinity (10, 20, and 35 practical salinity units) for 1 week did not lead to spectral changes, indicating that the measured features of the Bothnian Sea F. vesiculosus are stable and not simply a direct result of exposure to low salinity.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  1. [Role of auxin in induction of polarity in zygotes of Fucus vesiculosus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevoĭ, V V; Tarakhovskaia, E R; Maslov, Iu I; Polevoĭ, A V

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effects of auxin (indolyl-3 acetic acid) on formation of the primary polarity axis in zygotes of the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. Within the first 2.5 h after fertilization, the zygotes release this phytohormone in the environment. The treatment of developing zygotes with the inhibitor of indolyl-3-acetic acid transport from the cell triiodobenzoic acid at 5 mg/l arrests the auxin secretion and leads to its accumulation in the cells. This causes a significant delay in zygote polarization. The treatment of zygotes with the exogenous indolyl-3-acetic acid at 1 mg/l stimulates cell polarization and formation of a rhizoid process. When auxin was added to the medium with triiodobenzoic acid, the inhibitory effect of the latter was fully relieved. It has been proposed that the content of indolyl-3-acetic acid in the environment is a key factor in the induction of polarity of the F. vesiculosus zygotes.

  2. Fucoidan Extracted from Fucus evanescens Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Damage in a Mouse Model of Endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Kuznetsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of treating patients with endotoxemia is to find drugs to reduce the negative effects of endotoxin on the organism. We tested fucoidan (sulfated polysaccharide from the brown alga Fucus evanescens as a potential drug in a mouse model of endotoxemia inducted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The survival time of mice injected with LPS increased under fucoidan treatment compared with the group of mice injected with LPS only. The preventive administration of fucoidan to mice with endotoxemia resulted in inhibition of increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6, as well as decreasing of the processes of hypercoagulability. The parenteral or per os administration of fucoidan resulted in decreasing the degree of microcirculatory disorders and secondary dystrophic-destructive changes in parenchymal organs of mice with endotoxemia. Taken together, these results demonstrate that fucoidan prevents endotoxin-induced damage in a mouse model of endotoxemia and increases the mice’s resistance to LPS.

  3. Macroinvertebrates communities associated with the decomposition of Phragmites australis and Fucus vesiculosus in transitional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta Lobão; Martins, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Quintino, Victor

    2013-10-01

    The decomposition rates of a macrophyte (Phragmites australis) and an alga (Fucus vesiculosus) and the associated macrofauna communities were studied along a full salinity gradient, using the leaf-bag technique and four sampling times (days 3, 7, 15 and 30). A control was set up using an artificial substrate. A subsequent study conducted in the mesohaline part of the salinity gradient also included empty bags as procedure control. The decay rates of the alga and the macrophyte were significantly different, the alga decaying faster, and presented an opposite trend along the salinity gradient, with the faster decay rate for reed in the less saline areas and for the alga in the euhaline part of the gradient. The fauna associated with the decaying and the artificial substrate showed equally well the benthic succession from the marine to the freshwater areas, in all sampling times. Arthropods were dominant in all substrates along the estuarine gradient and replaced by annelids in freshwater. No significant differences were found between the benthic communities associated with P. australis and F. vesiculosus, despite the strong differences in the decay rates, suggesting that these do not seem to be primarily related to the benthic colonizers. Although the organic substrates sustained a more abundant fauna, the benthic communities did not show significant differences between the organic and the artificial substrates, especially at the level of the species composition, suggesting that the macroinvertebrates may colonize both substrates to feed on the biofilm and/or to seek shelter. The strongly impoverished benthic community sampled by the empty bags reinforced this idea.

  4. Variation of phlorotannins among three populations of Fucus vesiculosus as revealed by HPLC and colorimetric quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivikko, R; Eränen, J K; Loponen, J; Jormalainen, V

    2008-01-01

    In ecological studies, phlorotannins have conventionally been quantified as a group with similar functionality. Since this group consists of oligo- and polymers, the quantification of their pooled contents alone may not sufficiently describe the variation of these metabolites. Genetic variation, plastic responses to environment, and the ecological functions of separate phlorotannin oligo- and polymers may differ. Two analyses, i.e., the colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu assay and a normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method were used to study genetic and environmental variation in phlorotannins of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus (L.). The colorimetric method provides the total phlorotannin content, the latter a profile of 14 separate traces from the phenolic extract that represent an individual or groups of phlorotannins. We reared the algae that originated from three separate populations in a common garden for 3 months under ambient and enriched-nutrient availability and found that they differed in both their total phlorotannin content and in phlorotannin profiles. Some individual traces of the profiles separated the populations more clearly than the colorimetric assay. Although nutrient enrichment decreased total phlorotannin content, it did not show a significant influence on the phlorotannin profile. This implies that plastic responses of compounds other than phlorotannins may interfere with the determination of total phlorotannins. However, the phlorotannin profile and the total content showed genetic variation among local populations of F. vesiculosus; therefore, phlorotannins may respond to natural selection and evolve both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  5. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehed, Angelica; Johansson, Daniel; Sundqvist, Lisa; Schagerström, Ellen; Zagrodzka, Zuzanna; Kovaltchouk, Nikolaj A; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Rafajlovic, Marina; Pereyra, Ricardo T; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a need for more

  6. Alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibition is differentially modulated by fucoidan obtained from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Tae; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2014-02-01

    Fucoidan is a water-soluble, negatively charged, biologically active polysaccharide found in great abundance in brown marine algae. However, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by fucoidan derived from two algal species (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) harvested at different periods (accounting for seasonal and yearly variations) has never been investigated. It was found that fucoidans inhibited α-glucosidase differently, depending on the algal species from which it was extracted and the algae's season of harvest. Fucoidan extracted from A. nodosum was a more potent inhibitor of α-glucosidase, with an IC50 ranging from 0.013 to 0.047 mg/mL, than the inhibition by fucoidan extracted from F. vesiculosus (IC50=0.049 mg/mL). In contrast, fucoidan extracted from F. vesiculosus did not inhibit α-amylase activity, while fucoidan from A. nodosum decreased α-amylase activity by 7-100% at 5 mg/mL depending upon the algae harvest period. An IC50 of 0.12-4.64 mg/mL for fucoidan from A. nodosum was found for the α-amylase inhibition. The ability of fucoidan to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase thus varies according to the algae species and harvest period. A. nodosum is more suitable than F. vesiculosus as a source of fucoidan to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Their potential benefits towards Type 2 diabetes management should be further investigated.

  7. An expressed sequence tag analysis of the intertidal brown seaweeds Fucus serratus (L.) and F. vesiculosus (L.) (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae) in response to abiotic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Gareth A; Hoarau, Galice; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Coyer, James A; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Henckel, Kolja; Serrão, Ester T A; Corre, Erwan; Olsen, Jeanine L

    2010-04-01

    In order to aid gene discovery and uncover genes responding to abiotic stressors in stress-tolerant brown algae of the genus Fucus, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were studied in two species, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus. Clustering of over 12,000 ESTs from three libraries for heat shock/recovery and desiccation/rehydration resulted in identification of 2,503, 1,290, and 2,409 unigenes from heat-shocked F. serratus, desiccated F. serratus, and desiccated F. vesiculosus, respectively. Low overall annotation rates (18-31%) were strongly associated with the presence of long 3' untranslated regions in Fucus transcripts, as shown by analyses of predicted protein-coding sequence in annotated and nonannotated tentative consensus sequences. Posttranslational modification genes were overrepresented in the heat shock/recovery library, including many chaperones, the most abundant of which were a family of small heat shock protein transcripts, Hsp90 and Hsp70 members. Transcripts of LI818-like light-harvesting genes implicated in photoprotection were also expressed during heat shock in high light. The expression of several heat-shock-responsive genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. However, candidate genes were notably absent from both desiccation/rehydration libraries, while the responses of the two species to desiccation were divergent, perhaps reflecting the species-specific physiological differences in stress tolerance previously established. Desiccation-tolerant F. vesiculosus overexpressed at least 17 ribosomal protein genes and two ubiquitin-ribosomal protein fusion genes, suggesting that ribosome function and/or biogenesis are important during cycles of rapid desiccation and rehydration in the intertidal zone and possibly indicate parallels with other poikilohydric organisms such as desiccation-tolerant bryophytes.

  8. FREQUENT CLONALITY IN FUCOIDS (FUCUS RADICANS AND FUCUS VESICULOSUS; FUCALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) IN THE BALTIC SEA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin; Johansson, Daniel; Larsson, Karl H; Huenchuñir, Cecilia J; Perus, Jens; Forslund, Helena; Kautsky, Lena; Pereyra, Ricardo T

    2011-10-01

    Asexual reproduction by cloning may affect the genetic structure of populations, their potential to evolve, and, among foundation species, contributions to ecosystem functions. Macroalgae of the genus Fucus are known to produce attached plants only by sexual recruitment. Recently, however, clones of attached plants recruited by asexual reproduction were observed in a few populations of Fucus radicans Bergström et L. Kautsky and F. vesiculosus L. inside the Baltic Sea. Herein we assess the distribution and prevalence of clonality in Baltic fucoids using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci and samples of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus from 13 Baltic sites. Clonality was more common in F. radicans than in F. vesiculosus, and in both species it tended to be most common in northern Baltic sites, although variation among close populations was sometimes extensive. Individual clonal lineages were mostly restricted to single or nearby locations, but one clonal lineage of F. radicans dominated five of 10 populations and was widely distributed over 550 × 100 km of coast. Populations dominated by a few clonal lineages were common in F. radicans, and these were less genetically variable than in other populations. As thalli recruited by cloning produced gametes, a possible explanation for this reduced genetic variation is that dominance of one or a few clonal lineages biases the gamete pool resulting in a decreased effective population size and thereby loss of genetic variation by genetic drift. Baltic fucoids are important habitat-forming species, and genetic structure and presence of clonality have implications for conservation strategies.

  9. Hybridization of the marine seaweeds, Fucus serratus and Fucus evanescens (Heterokontophyta : Phaeophyceae) in a 100-year-old zone of secondary contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, JA; Hoarau, G; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the intertidal seaweeds Fucus serratus (Fs) and Fucus evanescens (Fe) were sympatric only along the western coast of Norway. In the mid-1890s, Fe (monoecious) was accidentally introduced into the Oslofjord. Putative hybridization with the endemic Fs (dioecious) was observed in Oslofjor

  10. Expressed sequence tag-derived polymorphic SSR markers for Fucus serratus and amplification in other species of Fucus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, J. A.; Hoarau, G.; Beszteri, B.; Pearson, G.; Olsen, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The seaweed genus Fucus is a dominant component of intertidal shores throughout the North Atlantic and North Pacific and has been the focus of considerable developmental, ecological, and evolutionary research for the past century. Here, we present details of 21 expressed sequence tag-derived simple

  11. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  12. Quantification of metallic iodides in fucus vesiculosus and serratus heated at 80 deg, 550 deg and 1 000 deg; Quantification des iodures metalliques dans des cendres d'algues. Analyse de fucus vesiculosus et serratus chauffees a 80 degres, 550 degre et 1000 degre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aujollet, Y. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-02-01

    Metallic iodides in aqueous phase of Fucus ashes were measured by gamma spectrometry. Before the measurements, different samples of Fucus were heated at 80 deg C (Fucus vesiculosus), 550 deg C (Fucus serratus) and 1 000 deg C (Fucus serratus). The first results gave 63% of iodide salts in Fucus vesiculosus heated at 80 deg C, 27% of iodide salts in Fucus serratus (550 deg C) and no result for ashes of Fucus serratus heated at 1 000 deg C, because there was not enough mass of product for a good analysis by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  13. Salinity affects compositional traits of epibacterial communities on the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, Stephanie B; Neulinger, Sven C; Knecht, Henrik; Friedrichs, Anette K; Wahl, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Epibiotic biofilms have the potential to control major aspects of the biology and ecology of their hosts. Their composition and function may thus be essential for the health of the host. We tested the influence of salinity on the composition of epibacterial communities associated with the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus. Algal individuals were incubated at three salinities (5, 19, and 25) for 14 days and nonliving reference substrata (stones) were included in the experiment. Subsequently, the composition of their surface-associated bacterial communities was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Redundancy analysis revealed that the composition of epiphytic and epilithic communities significantly differed and were both affected by salinity. We found that 5% of 2494 epiphytic operational taxonomic units at 97% sequence similarity were responsible for the observed shifts. Epibacterial α-diversity was significantly lower at salinity 5 but did not differ between substrata. Our results indicate that salinity is an important factor in structuring alga-associated epibacterial communities with respect to composition and/or diversity. Whether direct or indirect mechanisms (via altered biotic interactions) may have been responsible for the observed shifts is discussed.

  14. Temperature-driven shifts in the epibiotic bacterial community composition of the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, Stephanie B; Neulinger, Sven C; Knecht, Henrik; Friedrichs, Anette K; Wahl, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The thallus surface of the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus is covered by a specific biofilm community. This biofilm supposedly plays an important role in the interaction between host and environment. So far, we know little about compositional or functional shifts of this epibiotic bacterial community under changing environmental conditions. In this study, the response of the microbiota to different temperatures with respect to cell density and community composition was analyzed by nonculture-based methods (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene). Redundancy analysis showed that despite high variability among host individuals temperature accounted for 20% of the variation in the bacterial community composition, whereas cell density did not differ between groups. Across all samples, 4341 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at a 97% similarity level were identified. Eight percent of OTUs were significantly correlated with low, medium, and high temperatures. Notably, the family Rhodobacteraceae increased in relative abundance from 20% to 50% with increasing temperature. OTU diversity (evenness and richness) was higher at 15 °C than at the lower and higher temperatures. Considering their known and presumed ecological functions for the host, change in the epibacterial community may entail shifts in the performance of the host alga.

  15. Surface-associated fucoxanthin mediates settlement of bacterial epiphytes on the rockweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, M; Rempt, M; Grosser, K; Pohnert, G; Weinberger, F

    2011-04-01

    The chemical defence against microfouling in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus was investigated and an inhibitor of bacterial settlement was isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation of non-polar surface extracts. UV-vis and mass spectrometry were used to identify the compound as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. The metabolite was tested at the natural concentration (in a surface volume based assay) against the settlement of four bacterial strains isolated from F. vesiculosus and 11 strains isolated from co-occurring algae and marine sediment. Surface concentrations between 1.4 and 6 μg cm(-2) resulted in 50% inhibition of four of these isolates, which were studied in more detail using a surface area-based assay, while a fifth isolate proved to be less sensitive. The presence of fucoxanthin on the surface of F. vesiculosus was demonstrated with two different surface extraction methods. Fucoxanthin was detected at concentrations between 0.7 and 9 μg cm(-2) on the algal surface. Fucoxanthin was still present at the algal surface after removal of associated diatoms through mechanical cleaning and germanium dioxide treatment and was thus mainly produced by F. vesiculosus rather than by diatoms. Thus, the photosynthetic pigment fucoxanthin appears to be ecologically relevant as a surface-associated antimicrobial agent, acting against the settlement of bacteria on the surface of the macroalga F. vesiculosus.

  16. Compounds associated with algal surfaces mediate epiphytic colonization of the marine macroalga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachnit, Tim; Fischer, Matthias; Künzel, Sven; Baines, John F; Harder, Tilmann

    2013-05-01

    The macroalga Fucus vesiculosus carries a specific community of surface bacteria. To identify chemical compounds that possibly mediate abundance and community composition of algae-associated bacteria, we tested the effect of surface-available algal compounds on bacterial settlement and community composition under field conditions. Compounds on algal thalli were separated from the surface by extraction with organic solvents and investigated on growth inhibition and settlement of bacterial isolates. Based on in vitro data, partially purified extract fractions were then exposed to bacterial colonizers in vivo followed by bacterial enumeration and community analysis. The polar fraction of the algal surface extract revealed a significant profouling effect for Vibrionales, whereas the nonpolar fraction - containing the xanthophyll pigment fucoxanthin and other unidentified nonpolar surface compounds - revealed a significant 80% reduction of surface colonizing bacteria. The analysis of bacterial surface communities by 454 pyrosequencing demonstrated that the antifouling activity of nonpolar algal surface compounds was targeting the abundance of natural bacterial colonizers rather than the relative composition of bacterial members within the community. Moreover, the bacterial community composition on F. vesiculosus was markedly different from artificial control substrates and chemically manipulated experimental treatments, suggesting that other, nonextractable surface features and/or physical properties render algal-specific epiphytic bacterial communities.

  17. Seasonal variations in activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 239/240}Pu in Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum from the South-Eastern coast of Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaum, A.; Christensen, G.C. [Institute for Energy Technology, Health and Safety Dept., Kjeller (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    Brown algae have been proven to be useful indicator organisms for heavy metals and radionuclides in the marine environments due to their ability to concentrate elements from the ambient water. There is quite a lot of data available on {sup 137}Cs in brown algae, especially for Fucus Vesiculosus. Fucus Vesiculosus is also commonly used to monitor the impact of the releases of {sup 99}Tc from the reprocessing plant in Sellafield. There is however a lack of data for other long-lived anthropogenic nuclides as {sup 90}Sr and Pu, and for natural occurring radionuclides. There is also a need for more knowledge about the mechanisms for uptake and accumulation of the different elements, and about different factors influencing the uptake. In this study activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239/240}Pu are measured in whole plants of Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum collected over a period of one year from the south-eastern coast of Norway. Significant differences between the two species have been found. For {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 239/240}Pu, the activity concentrations were significantly higher in Fucus vesiculosus than in Ascophyllum nodosum, whereas for {sup 99}Tc the activity concentrations were higher in Ascophyllum nodosum than in Fucus vesiculosus. There were great seasonal variations in the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. For {sup 99}Tc there was also a difference in the temporal pattern for the two species. Possible uptake mechanisms will be discussed based on the results and on the known physiological differences between the two species. (author)

  18. [EFFECT OF FUCOIDANS ISOLATED FROM SEAWEEDS LAMINARIA DIGITATA AND FUCUS VESICULOSUS ON CELL LINES HELA G-63, ECV 304 AND PC 12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhurishkina, E V; Lapina, I M; Ivanen, D R; Stepanov, S I; Shvetsova, S V; Shavarda, A L; Giliano, N Ya; Kulminskaya, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate cytotoxicity of fucoidans on mammals cells. Three different samples of fucoidans were isolated from mechanically grounded brown algae Laminaria digitata and Fucus ve- siculosus. The sample F2 that differed from the others by higher sulfatation level and suppression of HeLa G-63 line culture growth was taken for further study in cell lines HeLa G-63, ECV 304 and PC 12. We have shown that fucoidan preparation F2 inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner for all investigated cell lines. Neuroendocrine tumor rat cell line PC 12 appeared to be the most sensitive to fucoidan treatment whereas endothelial human cells ECV 304 were the least sensitive.

  19. A mtDNA-based phylogeny of the brown algal genus Fucus (Heterokontophyta; Phaeophyta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, JA; Hoarau, G; Oudot-Le Secq, MP; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL; Oudot-LeSecq, M.-P.

    2006-01-01

    Species of Fucus are among the dominant seaweeds along Northern Hemisphere shores, but taxonomic designations often are confounded by significant intraspecific morphological variability. We analyzed intra- and inter-specific phylogenetic relationships within the genus (275 individuals representing 1

  20. The Application of Fucus vesiculosus as a Bioindicator of 60Co Concentrations in the Danish Straits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelskifte, S.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of 60Co in the Danish Straits is investigated by applying the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus as a bioindicator. In order to describe different dispersion situations, three areas have been studied separately: the North Sea, where it is possible to measure 60Co from sources in France and...... of distance from Barsebäck. Problems of uncertainty related to differences in environmental parameters are discussed and new investigations to improve the use of Fucus as a bioindicator are suggested....

  1. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus on the grazing of harpacticoid copepods on diatom biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Troch, M.; Chepurnov, V. A.; Vincx, M.; Ólafsson, E.

    2008-10-01

    The effect of Fucus vesiculosus on the functional traits of three harpacticoid copepod species ( Tigriopus brevicornis, Paramphiascella fulvofasciata and Microarthridion littorale) was studied. These copepods are likely to be important grazers on biofilms consisting mainly of diatoms. Several microcosms were created using diatom cultures ( Navicula phyllepta and Seminavis robusta) and vegetative thalli of Fucus, with the biofilm associated, collected from the field. The diatoms were enriched in the stable carbon 13C to facilitate tracing in the harpacticoids. The biofilm on the Fucus was labeled through impregnation of the Fucus leaves in 13C enriched seawater. In all treatments a measurable uptake of diatoms was found for the three copepod species. All copepods showed a low uptake of labeled material when only Fucus thalli were available. The grazing on the benthic diatoms was negatively affected by the presence of the Fucus thalli in the case of P. fulvofasciata. One species, T. brevicornis, grazed efficiently both on sedimentary and epiphytic biofilms. We hereby proved experimentally that benthic harpacticoid copepods are able to switch their food uptake under different habitat/food circumstances. This variety of food uptake is an illustration of the so-called 'niche complementarity effect' that lies at the basis of diverse communities.

  2. Molecular Mechanisms by Which a Fucus vesiculosus Extract Mediates Cell Cycle Inhibition and Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Geisen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive cancer entities, with an extremely poor 5-year survival rate. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents with specific modes of action are urgently needed. Marine organisms represent a promising source to identify new pharmacologically active substances. Secondary metabolites derived from marine algae are of particular interest. The present work describes cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by an HPLC-fractionated, hydrophilic extract derived from the Baltic brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Fv1. Treatment with Fv1 resulted in a strong inhibition of viability in various pancreatic cancer cell lines. This extract inhibited the cell cycle of proliferating cells due to the up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, shown on the mRNA (microarray data and protein level. As a result, cells were dying in a caspase-independent manner. Experiments with non-dividing cells showed that proliferation is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of Fv1. Importantly, Fv1 showed low cytotoxic activity against non-malignant resting T cells and terminally differentiated cells like erythrocytes. Interestingly, accelerated killing effects were observed in combination with inhibitors of autophagy. Our in vitro data suggest that Fv1 may represent a promising new agent that deserves further development towards clinical application.

  3. Molecular Mechanisms by Which a Fucus vesiculosus Extract Mediates Cell Cycle Inhibition and Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, Ulf; Zenthoefer, Marion; Peipp, Matthias; Kerber, Jannik; Plenge, Johannes; Managò, Antonella; Fuhrmann, Markus; Geyer, Roland; Hennig, Steffen; Adam, Dieter; Piker, Levent; Rimbach, Gerald; Kalthoff, Holger

    2015-07-20

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive cancer entities, with an extremely poor 5-year survival rate. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents with specific modes of action are urgently needed. Marine organisms represent a promising source to identify new pharmacologically active substances. Secondary metabolites derived from marine algae are of particular interest. The present work describes cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by an HPLC-fractionated, hydrophilic extract derived from the Baltic brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Fv1). Treatment with Fv1 resulted in a strong inhibition of viability in various pancreatic cancer cell lines. This extract inhibited the cell cycle of proliferating cells due to the up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, shown on the mRNA (microarray data) and protein level. As a result, cells were dying in a caspase-independent manner. Experiments with non-dividing cells showed that proliferation is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of Fv1. Importantly, Fv1 showed low cytotoxic activity against non-malignant resting T cells and terminally differentiated cells like erythrocytes. Interestingly, accelerated killing effects were observed in combination with inhibitors of autophagy. Our in vitro data suggest that Fv1 may represent a promising new agent that deserves further development towards clinical application.

  4. Complete Plastid Genome Sequence of the Brown Alga Undaria pinnatifida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this study, we fully sequenced the circular plastid genome of a brown alga, Undaria pinnatifida. The genome is 130,383 base pairs (bp in size; it contains a large single-copy (LSC, 76,598 bp and a small single-copy region (SSC, 42,977 bp, separated by two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb: 5,404 bp. The genome contains 139 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and 6 rRNA genes; none of these genes contains introns. Organization and gene contents of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome were similar to those of Saccharina japonica. There is a co-linear relationship between the plastid genome of U. pinnatifida and that of three previously sequenced large brown algal species. Phylogenetic analyses of 43 taxa based on 23 plastid protein-coding genes grouped all plastids into a red or green lineage. In the large brown algae branch, U. pinnatifida and S. japonica formed a sister clade with much closer relationship to Ectocarpus siliculosus than to Fucus vesiculosus. For the first time, the start codon ATT was identified in the plastid genome of large brown algae, in the atpA gene of U. pinnatifida. In addition, we found a gene-length change induced by a 3-bp repetitive DNA in ycf35 and ilvB genes of the U. pinnatifida plastid genome.

  5. Hybridization and introgression in a mixed population of the intertidal seaweeds Fucus evanescens and F-serratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, J. A.; Hoarau, G.; Stam, W. T.; Olsen, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    The introduced Fucus evanescens (hermaphroditic) and the native F. serratus (dioecious) have been in secondary contact along the Danish coast of the Kattegat Sea for 60-100 years and dioecious hybrids have been observed at Blushoj for several years. Hybridization in Fucus is unusual because it appea

  6. Evolution and diversification within the intertidal brown macroalgae Fucus spiralis/F. vesiculosus species complex in the North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, J. A.; Hoarau, G.; Costa, J. F.; Hogerdijk, B.; Serrao, E. A.; Billard, E.; Valero, M.; Pearson, G. A.; Olsen, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 733 individuals of Fucus spiralis from 21 locations and 1093 Fucus vesiculosus individuals from 37 locations throughout their northern hemisphere ranges using nuclear and mitochondrial markers. Three genetic entities of F. spiralis were recovered. In northern and sympatric populations, t

  7. Magnetic separation of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  8. Fucus spp. as a mercury contamination bioindicator in costal areas (Northwestern Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairrão, E; Pereira, M J; Pastorinho, M R; Morgado, F; Soares, A M V M; Guilhermino, L

    2007-10-01

    Mercury has been considered as one of the most important pollutants in coastal and estuarine areas. Efforts have been made to detect, as early as possible, the effects of this and other metals in several species. Macroalgae, particularly Fucus spp., have been widely used as biomonitors of metal pollution. In this study, three Fucus species (F. spiralis, F. vesiculosus and F. ceranoides) were collected from several sampling sites in Portugal. The concentrations of mercury were determined in three structural parts (holdfast, stipe and receptacles). Two different techniques were used to determine mercury concentrations. Almost all mercury concentrations (in sediments and in water) were below national and international standards. Mercury concentration in the specimens (0.012-0.061 microg g(-1) for receptacles, 0.028-0.221 microg g(-1) for stipe and 0.029-0.287 microg g(-1) for holdfast) was always higher that those obtained for the sediment (0.001-0.112 microg g(-1)). With few exceptions the contrary was found for receptacles. In general, a good agreement between concentrations of mercury in sediment and Fucus was found. The results indicate that Fucus accumulate mercury and may be a suitable species for use in risk assessment for coast and estuarine areas, by providing valuable information regarding the levels of mercury that will be available for the consumers of Fucus spp.

  9. Hydrolysis of Fucoidan by Fucoidanase Isolated from the Marine Bacterium, Formosa algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem S. Silchenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular fucoidanase was isolated from the marine bacterium, Formosa algae strain KMM 3553. The first appearance of fucoidan enzymatic hydrolysis products in a cell-free extract was detected after 4 h of bacterial growth, and maximal fucoidanase activity was observed after 12 h of growth. The fucoidanase displayed maximal activity in a wide range of pH values, from 6.5 to 9.1. The presence of Mg2+, Ca2+ and Ba2+ cations strongly activated the enzyme; however, Cu2+ and Zn2+ cations had inhibitory effects on the enzymatic activity. The enzymatic activity of fucoidanase was considerably reduced after prolonged (about 60 min incubation of the enzyme solution at 45 °C. The fucoidanase catalyzed the hydrolysis of fucoidans from Fucus evanescens and Fucus vesiculosus, but not from Saccharina cichorioides. The fucoidanase also did not hydrolyze carrageenan. Desulfated fucoidan from F. evanescens was hydrolysed very weakly in contrast to deacetylated fucoidan, which was hydrolysed more actively compared to the native fucoidan from F. evanescens. Analysis of the structure of the enzymatic products showed that the marine bacteria, F. algae, synthesized an α-l-fucanase with an endo-type action that is specific for 1→4-bonds in a polysaccharide molecule built up of alternating three- and four-linked α-l-fucopyranose residues sulfated mainly at position 2.

  10. The Phytocomplex from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Controls Postprandial Plasma Glucose Levels: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study in a Mouse Model of NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbia, Daniela; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Bogialli, Sara; Caputi, Valentina; Albertoni, Laura; Marsilio, Ilaria; Paccagnella, Nicola; Carrara, Maria; Giron, Maria Cecilia; De Martin, Sara

    2017-02-15

    Edible seaweeds have been consumed by Asian coastal communities since ancient times. Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts have been traditionally used for the treatment of obesity and several gastrointestinal diseases. We evaluated the ability of extracts obtained from these algae to inhibit the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, and control postprandial plasma glucose levels in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); a liver disease often preceding the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This model was obtained by the administration of a high-fat diet. Our results demonstrate that these algae only delayed and reduced the peak of blood glucose (p < 0.05) in mice fed with normal diet, without changing the area under the blood glucose curve (AUC). In the model of NASH, the phytocomplex was able to reduce both the postprandial glycaemic peak, and the AUC. The administration of the extract in a diet particularly rich in fat is associated with a delay in carbohydrate digestion, but also with a decrease in its assimilation. In conclusion, our results indicate that this algal extract may be useful in the control of carbohydrate digestion and absorption. This effect may be therapeutically exploited to prevent the transition of NASH to T2DM.

  11. The Phytocomplex from Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum Controls Postprandial Plasma Glucose Levels: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study in a Mouse Model of NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gabbia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweeds have been consumed by Asian coastal communities since ancient times. Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts have been traditionally used for the treatment of obesity and several gastrointestinal diseases. We evaluated the ability of extracts obtained from these algae to inhibit the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, and control postprandial plasma glucose levels in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; a liver disease often preceding the development of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM. This model was obtained by the administration of a high-fat diet. Our results demonstrate that these algae only delayed and reduced the peak of blood glucose (p < 0.05 in mice fed with normal diet, without changing the area under the blood glucose curve (AUC. In the model of NASH, the phytocomplex was able to reduce both the postprandial glycaemic peak, and the AUC. The administration of the extract in a diet particularly rich in fat is associated with a delay in carbohydrate digestion, but also with a decrease in its assimilation. In conclusion, our results indicate that this algal extract may be useful in the control of carbohydrate digestion and absorption. This effect may be therapeutically exploited to prevent the transition of NASH to T2DM.

  12. Rhenium uptake and distribution in phaeophyceae macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racionero-Gómez, B; Sproson, A D; Selby, D; Gröcke, D R; Redden, H; Greenwell, H C

    2016-05-01

    Owing to Rhenium (Re) having no known biological role, it is not fully understood how Re is concentrated in oil kerogens. A commonly held assumption is that Re is incorporated into decomposing biomass under reducing conditions. However, living macroalgae also concentrate Re to several orders of magnitude greater than that of seawater. This study uses Fucus vesiculosus to assess Re uptake and its subsequent localization in the biomass. It is demonstrated that the Re abundance varies within the macroalgae and that Re is not located in one specific structure. In F. vesiculosus, the uptake and tolerance of Re was evaluated via tip cultures grown in seawater of different Re(VII) compound concentrations (0-7450 ng g(-1)). A positive correlation is shown between the concentration of Re-doped seawater and the abundance of Re accumulated in the tips. However, significant differences between Re(VII) compounds are observed. Although the specific cell structures where the Re is localized is not known, our findings suggest that Re is not held within chloroplasts or cytoplasmic proteins. In addition, metabolically inactivated F. vesiculosus does not accumulate Re, which indicates that Re uptake is via syn-life bioadsorption/bioaccumulation and that macroalgae may provide a source for Re phytomining and/or bioremediation.

  13. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  14. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torode, Thomas A; Marcus, Susan E; Jam, Murielle; Tonon, Thierry; Blackburn, Richard S; Hervé, Cécile; Knox, J Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  15. Monoclonal antibodies directed to fucoidan preparations from brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Torode

    Full Text Available Cell walls of the brown algae contain a diverse range of polysaccharides with useful bioactivities. The precise structures of the sulfated fucan/fucoidan group of polysaccharides and their roles in generating cell wall architectures and cell properties are not known in detail. Four rat monoclonal antibodies, BAM1 to BAM4, directed to sulfated fucan preparations, have been generated and used to dissect the heterogeneity of brown algal cell wall polysaccharides. BAM1 and BAM4, respectively, bind to a non-sulfated epitope and a sulfated epitope present in the sulfated fucan preparations. BAM2 and BAM3 identified additional distinct epitopes present in the fucoidan preparations. All four epitopes, not yet fully characterised, occur widely within the major brown algal taxonomic groups and show divergent distribution patterns in tissues. The analysis of cell wall extractions and fluorescence imaging reveal differences in the occurrence of the BAM1 to BAM4 epitopes in various tissues of Fucus vesiculosus. In Ectocarpus subulatus, a species closely related to the brown algal model Ectocarpus siliculosus, the BAM4 sulfated epitope was modulated in relation to salinity levels. This new set of monoclonal antibodies will be useful for the dissection of the highly complex and yet poorly resolved sulfated polysaccharides in the brown algae in relation to their ecological and economic significance.

  16. Glacial refugia and recolonization pathways in the brown seaweed Fucus serratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoarau, G.; Coyer, J. A.; Veldsink, J. H.; Stam, W. T.; Olsen, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    The last glacial maximum (20 000-18 000 years ago) dramatically affected extant distributions of virtually all northern European biota. Locations of refugia and postglacial recolonization pathways were examined in Fucus serratus (Heterokontophyta; Fucaceae) using a highly variable intergenic spacer

  17. Sedimentation reduces recruitment success of Fucus vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Klemens; Johansson, Gustav

    2003-01-01

    During the last few decades, Fucus vesiculosus has decreased throughout the Baltic Sea, where it is the dominant canopy-forming macroalga of the sublittoral zone. Concurrently, the organic sedimentation originating from primary production has increased substantially due to a large-scale eutrophicati

  18. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the marine seaweeds, Fucus serratus and F-evanescens (Heterokontophyta; Fucaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, JA; Veldsink, JH; Jones, K; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL

    2002-01-01

    Fucus serratus and F. evanescens commonly occur on Northern European shores. Nine microsatellite loci were developed for F. serratus (8-22 alleles, observed heterozygosities = 0.367-0.850) and one for F. evanescens (seven alleles, observed heterozygosity = 0.804). Cross-amplification was apparent, a

  19. Genetic variation in photosynthetic performance and tolerance to osmotic stress (desiccation, freezing, hyposalinity) in the rocky littoral foundation species Fucus vesiculosus (Fucales, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothäusler, Eva; Sjöroos, Joakim; Heye, Katharina; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2016-10-01

    Genetic diversity may play an analogous role to species diversity, as it can contribute to ecosystem function and stability, and provision of ecosystem services. In the Baltic Sea, perennial algal beds are often comprised of only Fucus vesiculosus and the amount of genetic variation in fitness-related traits (i.e., the ability of the alga to photosynthesize or withstand stress) will thus determine the alga's local persistence in a changing environment. To study genetic variation in the crucial traits behind persistence we grew replicate vegetative branches that came from the same genotype in common gardens. We quantified osmotic stress tolerance and recovery responses by exposing branches to desiccation, freezing, and hyposalinity regimens. Our results show that genetic variation among genotypes was apparent for some photosynthetic parameters (maximal electron transport rate, saturation irradiance for electron transport, nonphotochemical quenching) and growth. Algae tolerated freezing (1,440 min at -2.5°C) and hyposalinity (1,560 min at 2.5) well, but did not recover from desiccation (70 min at 12°C, causing ~94% water loss). Furthermore, we found very little if any evidence on genetic variation in tolerance to these stressors. Our results suggest that low salinity and cold winters in the northern marginal populations selected for hyposalinity and freezing tolerant genotypes, possibly eroding genetic variation in tolerance, but that tolerance to harsh desiccation has been lost, likely due to relaxed selection. The overall availability of genetic variation in fitness related traits might be supportive for F. vesiculosus during adaptation to gradual changes of its environment.

  20. Let them eat algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciferri, O.

    1981-09-24

    The blue-green alga, Spirulina appears to be one of the candidates for the solution of the global problems of energy, food and chemical feedstock supplies. The harvesting of algae from Lake Texcoco, Mexico for the making of bread was noted in the 16th century by the Spanish and over 400 years later, dried biscuits made from algae were noted in Chad. Recent investigations have shown that the alga contains a very high proportion of protein - even higher than soya beans and is of high quality. A pilot plant covering 2 hectares for culturing Spirulina in a closed system is under construction in Italy. The polyethylene tubes will function as solar collectors and so extend the production season of the algae in more temperate regions.

  1. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  2. Removal of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by brown marine macro algae: kinetic modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Olga; Martins, Ramiro; Matos, Cristina; Boaventura, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Specific marine macro algae species abundant at the Portuguese coast (Laminaria hiperborea, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Sargassum muticum and Fucus spiralis) were shown to be effective for removing toxic metals (Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions. The initial metal concentrations in solution were about 75-100 mg L-1. The observed biosorption capacities for cadmium, zinc and lead ions were in the ranges of 23.9-39.5 mg g-1, 18.6-32.0 mg g-1 and 32.3-50.4 mg g-1, respectively. Kinetic ...

  3. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  4. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protects against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage by Modulating Inflammatory Mediators in Mice and HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dae Lim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or without fucoidan (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg for seven days. Alcohol administration increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, but these increases were suppressed by the treatment of fucoidan. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, a liver fibrosis-inducing factor, was highly expressed in the alcohol-fed group and human hepatoma HepG2 cell; however, the increase in TGF-β1 expression was reduced following fucoidan administration. Treatment with fucoidan was also found to significantly reduce the production of inflammation-promoting cyclooygenase-2 and nitric oxide, while markedly increasing the expression of the hepatoprotective enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, on murine liver and HepG2 cells. Taken together, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on alcohol-induced liver damage may provide valuable insights into developing new therapeutics or interventions.

  5. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus protects against alcohol-induced liver damage by modulating inflammatory mediators in mice and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Dae; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Taeseong; Jang, Seon-A; Kang, Se Chan; Koo, Hyun Jung; Sohn, Eunsoo; Bak, Jong Phil; Namkoong, Seung; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Song, In Sung; Kim, Nari; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Han, Jin

    2015-02-16

    Fucoidan is an l-fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown algae and marine invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on alcohol-induced murine liver damage. Liver injury was induced by oral administration of 25% alcohol with or without fucoidan (30 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) for seven days. Alcohol administration increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, but these increases were suppressed by the treatment of fucoidan. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a liver fibrosis-inducing factor, was highly expressed in the alcohol-fed group and human hepatoma HepG2 cell; however, the increase in TGF-β1 expression was reduced following fucoidan administration. Treatment with fucoidan was also found to significantly reduce the production of inflammation-promoting cyclooygenase-2 and nitric oxide, while markedly increasing the expression of the hepatoprotective enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1, on murine liver and HepG2 cells. Taken together, the antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of fucoidan on alcohol-induced liver damage may provide valuable insights into developing new therapeutics or interventions.

  6. Seasonal variation of technetium-99 in Fucus vesiculosus and its application as an oceanographic tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Keliang; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of 99Tc was determined in archived time series seaweed samples collected at Klint (Denmark). The results demonstrate a significantly seasonal variation of 99Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus with maximum values in winter and minimum values in summer. The mechanism driving t...... of (1.9 0.5) 105 L/kg, were obtained. This indicates that F. vesiculosus can be used as a reliable bioindicator to monitor 99Tc concentration in seawater....

  7. [Description of the photosynthetic apparatus of Fucus vesiculosus L. in early embryogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakhovskaia, E R; Maslov, Iu I

    2005-01-01

    Dynamics of some photosynthetic parameters was studied in gametes, zygotes, and embryos of kelp Fucus vesiculosus L. The following indices were determined at different stages of early development of the seaweed: the contents of pigments and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the rates of photosynthesis and dark respiration, and the activities of photosystems I and II. The dynamics of photosynthetic apparatus activity in zygotes and embryos of F. vesiculosus proved to reflect the main physiological processes of its early development.

  8. Algae fuels : a tantalizing alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2010-11-15

    This article surveyed the current state of research and development in the area of algae use as a basis for fuel and as a feedstock for the chemical industry. The constraints inhibiting the commercialization of algae-related processes were discussed and a brief overview of the history of algae research was presented. Interest in algae research has ebbed and flowed in conjunction with economic and social concerns. It is unknown whether algae can be grown on a scale and cost that is commercially viable. A bench-scale algae cultivation system involving photobioreactors was described. Algae are increasingly being used in treating wastewater from industrial processes, as algae can reduce ammonia and phosphate loads in effluent. Exhaust carbon dioxide is being used to feed algae crops. Advances are needed to make turning algae oil into fuel cost effective. A bench-stage process for extracting algae oil from water for biofuel conversion was described. The process results in easier-to-dry biomass without using chemical solvents or centrifuges. Algae biomass is also being explored for used as a polymer feedstock. Algae can be grown anywhere there is sun, but the challenge is in developing a large enough supply of algae biomass. Second generation algae plastic products will be more complex and may involve the creation of a monomer out of algae itself, which could make algae competitive with oil in the plastics industry. Skeptics doubt that algae processes can be commercialized, but some within the industry believe that algae biomass will eventually work within the norms of industrial processes. 5 figs.

  9. Direct quantification of brown algae-derived fucoidans in human plasma by a fluorescent probe assay

    CERN Document Server

    Warttinger, Ulrich; Harenberg, Job; Krämer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Fucoidan is a generic term for a class of fucose rich, structurally diverse sulfated polysaccharides that are found in brown algae and other marine organisms. Depending on the species from which the fucoidan is extracted, a wide variety of biological activities including antitumor, antiinflammatory, immune-modulating, antiviral, antibacterial and pro- and anticoagulant activities has been described. Fucoidans have the advantage of low toxicity and oral bioavailibiity and are viable drug candidates, preclinical and pilot clinical trials show promising results. The availability of robust assays, in particular for analysing the blood levels of fucoidan, is a fundamental requirement for pharmacokinetic analysis in drug development projects. This contribution describes the application of a commercially availbale, protein-free fluorescent probe assay (Heparin Red) for the direct quantification of several fucoidans (from Fucus vesiculosus, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Undaria pinnatifida) in human plasma. By only minor...

  10. Thermal stress resistance of the brown alga Fucus serratus along the North-Atlantic coast : Acclimatization potential to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Kollias, Spyros; Smolina, Irina; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.; Coyer, James A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Hoarau, Galice

    2014-01-01

    Seaweed-dominated communities are predicted to disappear south of 45 degrees latitude on North-Atlantic rocky shores by 2200 because of climate change. The extent of predicted habitat loss, however, could be mitigated if the seaweeds' physiology is sufficiently plastic to rapidly acclimatize to the

  11. Development of an ointment for burns based in dry extract of the seaweed Fucus spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fucus spiralis is a brown seaweed found on the Portuguese coast used as wound healing in traditional medicine were their antioxidant, immunostimulant, anticoagulant, antibacterial properties and also remineralizing, smoothing, moisturizing capacities and anti-tumor action were studied with proved results. These seaweed are one of the several described in the European Pharmacopoeia, making F.spiralis a seaweed with great potential for the development of new drugs and/or pharmaceuticals. The objective of this project was to formulate an ointment with F. spiralis dry extracts using vaseline as a base for the treatment of burns. Fucus spiralis was collected on the coast of Peniche (west coast of Portugal, washed, sorted, lyophilized and crushed for the dry extract preparation. The ash (g/g and iodine (% content in F. spiralis were determined. The ointment was prepared and homogenized with three concentrations of dry extract (1%, 2% and 5% and were analyzed over time in parallel with the observation of the physical, chemical, organoleptic and rheological characteristics. The results showed that the F. spiralis presented a iodine content of 0,0076%, a low concentration in comparison with the Farmacopeia europea directives. The ointment prepared is a non-Newtonian fluid, and the absorption spectrum in ultraviolet light (UV detected that it behaves as UVB and UVC blocker, despite of not having the same effect on UVA radiation. With these results and the many properties of Fucus spiralis we conclude that the ointment with dry extract of F. spiralis with the three concentrations of dry extract established is likely to have a great potential in the area of pharmaceutical and medicine, especially for burns application or other skins disorders.

  12. Spiruline, a virtuous algae

    OpenAIRE

    Various, Authors

    2015-01-01

    A short video about a local development practice focusing on the production and commercialization of spiruline, an algae used as an nutritional integrator. The practice was one of six prize winners resulting from a national competition for innovative practices of local development, launched by the Senegalese Ministry of local governance, development and territorial planning, with funding from the Italian Cooperation and technical support from the KIP International School.

  13. Origin of Fucus serratus (Heterokontophyta; Fucaceae) populations in Iceland and the Faroes : a microsatellite-based assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, JA; Hoarau, G; Skage, M; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL

    2006-01-01

    The common intertidal seaweed Fucus serratus was almost certainly introduced to Iceland and the Faroes by humans from Europe, as previous genetic studies have confirmed that life-history constraints preclude long-distance dispersal. Introduction must have occurred sometime in the 1,000 years between

  14. Convergent adaptation to a marginal habitat by homoploid hybrids and polyploid ecads in the seaweed genus Fucus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyer, James A.; Hoarau, Galice; Pearson, Gareth A.; Serrao, Ester A.; Stam, Wytze T.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2006-01-01

    Hybridization and polyploidy are two major sources of genetic variability that can lead to adaptation in new habitats. Most species of the brown algal genus Fucus are found along wave-swept rocky shores of the Northern Hemisphere, but some species have adapted to brackish and salt marsh habitats. Us

  15. Modelling {sup 99}Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus from the north-east Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawakowski, Claire; Nicholson, Michael D.; John Kershaw, Peter E-mail: p.j.kershaw@cefas.co.uk; Leonard, Kinson S

    2004-07-01

    In 1994 there were substantial increases in the quantity of {sup 99}Tc discharged into the north-east Irish Sea from BNFL Sellafield (UK), concomitant with improvements in waste treatment procedures. As a consequence, the concentration of {sup 99}Tc observed in seawater and biota samples, taken from the Irish Sea coastline, increased significantly. Elevated concentrations were also reported in Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Arctic waters in subsequent years. In the present study a simple numerical model was developed and applied to time-series data of {sup 99}Tc concentrations in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, collected from three UK sites in the vicinity of Sellafield (St. Bees, Heysham, Port William). The model considered site-specific scaling effects, lag times, previous discharge history and potential seasonal variation in uptake. In general, there was a good fit between predicted and observed concentrations, but the degree of uncertainty varied inversely with the frequency of sampling. We did not observe a significant seasonal variation. The modelled lag times to the three sites were consistent with transport times based on observations of the water column distribution of {sup 99}Tc. The model was applied to a variety of discharge scenarios, reflecting current discussion on the future management of {sup 99}Tc releases. Concentrations in Fucus reached asymptotic values in 3-10 years, depending on the scenario and sampling site under consideration.

  16. Modelling 99Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus from the north-east Irish Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawakowski, Claire; Nicholson, Michael D; Kershaw, Peter John; Leonard, Kinson S

    2004-01-01

    In 1994 there were substantial increases in the quantity of 99Tc discharged into the north-east Irish Sea from BNFL Sellafield (UK), concomitant with improvements in waste treatment procedures. As a consequence, the concentration of 99Tc observed in seawater and biota samples, taken from the Irish Sea coastline, increased significantly. Elevated concentrations were also reported in Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Arctic waters in subsequent years. In the present study a simple numerical model was developed and applied to time-series data of 99Tc concentrations in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, collected from three UK sites in the vicinity of Sellafield (St. Bees, Heysham, Port William). The model considered site-specific scaling effects, lag times, previous discharge history and potential seasonal variation in uptake. In general, there was a good fit between predicted and observed concentrations, but the degree of uncertainty varied inversely with the frequency of sampling. We did not observe a significant seasonal variation. The modelled lag times to the three sites were consistent with transport times based on observations of the water column distribution of 99Tc. The model was applied to a variety of discharge scenarios, reflecting current discussion on the future management of 99Tc releases. Concentrations in Fucus reached asymptotic values in 3-10 years, depending on the scenario and sampling site under consideration.

  17. Effects of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Biogeochemical Dynamics in Aquatic Environments: Report of a Workshop Held in Woods Hole, Massachusetts on 23-26 October 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    University of Amsterdam Plantage Muidergracht 12 1018 TV Amsterdam The Netherlands It is well documented that marine brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus ... vesiculosus ), red (Gigertina stellata) and green seaweeds (Enteromorpha linza, Ulva lacta) release large quantities of volatile brominated methanes...we have been able to demonstrate that the brown seaweeds Alaria esculenta, A. nodosum and Fucus distichus, which were collected along the shores of

  18. Trends in the spatial and temporal distribution of 129I and 99Tc in coastal waters surrounding Ireland using Fucus vesiculosus as a bio-indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, S M; Aldahan, A; Possnert, G; Finegan, P; León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I

    2007-01-01

    Spatial and temporal trends in (129)I and (99)Tc concentrations around the Irish coastline have been evaluated using Fucus vesiculosus as a bio-indicator. (129)I concentrations in a recent set of seawater samples have also been recorded and reveal an identical spatial pattern. Concentrations of (129)I in Fucus from the northeast coast of Ireland proved to be at least two orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in Fucus from the west coast. The (129)I content of Fucus increased significantly between 1985 and 2003, in line with increases in discharges of (129)I from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Similar trends were observed in the case of (99)Tc. (129)I/(99)Tc ratios in Irish seawater were deduced from the Fucus data, and compared to ratios in discharges from Sellafield and from the French reprocessing plant at Cap de la Hague. Levels of (129)I and (99)Tc in Fucus from the west coast were found to be enhanced with respect to levels in seaweeds from other regions in the Northern Hemisphere unaffected by discharges from nuclear installations such as those referred to.

  19. Trends in the spatial and temporal distribution of {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc in coastal waters surrounding Ireland using Fucus vesiculosus as a bio-indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keogh, S.M. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Aldahan, A. [Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Possnert, G. [Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Finegan, P. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Leon Vintro, L. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Mitchell, P.I. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: peter.mitchell@ucd.ie

    2007-06-15

    Spatial and temporal trends in {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc concentrations around the Irish coastline have been evaluated using Fucus vesiculosus as a bio-indicator. {sup 129}I concentrations in a recent set of seawater samples have also been recorded and reveal an identical spatial pattern. Concentrations of {sup 129}I in Fucus from the northeast coast of Ireland proved to be at least two orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in Fucus from the west coast. The {sup 129}I content of Fucus increased significantly between 1985 and 2003, in line with increases in discharges of {sup 129}I from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Similar trends were observed in the case of {sup 99}Tc. {sup 129}I/{sup 99}Tc ratios in Irish seawater were deduced from the Fucus data, and compared to ratios in discharges from Sellafield and from the French reprocessing plant at Cap de la Hague. Levels of {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc in Fucus from the west coast were found to be enhanced with respect to levels in seaweeds from other regions in the Northern Hemisphere unaffected by discharges from nuclear installations such as those referred to.

  20. The fucoidans from brown algae of Far-Eastern seas: anti-tumor activity and structure-function relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishchuk, Olesya S; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2013-11-15

    The sulfated polysaccharides from brown algae - the fucoidans - are known to be a topic of numerous studies, due to their beneficial biological activities including anti-tumour activity. In this study the effect of fucoidans isolated from brown algae Saccharina cichorioides, Fucus evanescens, and Undaria pinnatifida on the proliferation, neoplastic transformation, and colony formation of mouse epidermal cells JB6 Cl41, human colon cancer DLD-1, breast cancer T-47D, and melanoma RPMI-7951 cell lines was investigated. The algal fucoidans specifically and markedly suppressed the proliferation of human cancer cells with less cytotoxic effects against normal mouse epidermal cells. The highly sulfated (1→3)-α-l-fucan from S. cichorioides was found to be vitally important in the inhibition of EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 Cl41 cells. In colony formation assay the fucoidans from different species of brown algae showed selective anti-tumour activity against different types of cancer, which depended on unique structures of the investigated polysaccharides. These results provide evidence for further exploring the use of the fucoidans from S. cichorioides, F. evanescens, and U. pinnatifida as novel chemotherapeutics against different types of cancer.

  1. Miocene Coralline algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosence, D.W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The coralline algae (Order Corallinales) were sedimentologically and ecologically important during the Miocene, a period when they were particularly abundant. The many poorly described and illustrated species and the lack of quantitative data in coralline thalli make specific determinations particularly difficult, but some species are well known and widespread in the Tethyan area. The sedimentologic importance of the Miocene coralline algae is reflected in the abundance of in-situ coralline buildups, rhodoliths, and coralline debris facies at Malta and Spain; similar sequences are known throughout the Tethyan Miocene. In-situ buildups vary from leafy crustose biostromes to walled reefs with dense coralline crusts and branches. Growth forms are apparently related to hydraulic energy. Rhodoliths vary from leafy, crustose, and open-branched forms in muddy sediments to dense, crustose, and radial-branching forms in coarse grainstones. Rhodolith form and internal structure correlate closely with hydraulic energy. Coralline genera are conservative and, as such, are useful in paleoenvironmental analysis. Of particular interest are the restricted depth ranges of recent coralline genera. More research is needed on the sedimentology, paleoecology, and systematics of the Cenozoic corallines, as they have particular value in paleoenvironmental analysis.

  2. Interannual changes in δ¹⁵N values in Fucus vesiculosus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeira, Carlos; Rey-Asensio, Ana; Carballeira, Alejo

    2014-08-15

    The natural abundance of (15)N (δ(15)N) has been widely used to detect anthropogenically derived N loads in environmental impact studies. The present study involved retrospective analysis of subsamples of Fucus vesiculosus L. collected during a period of three years (2008-2010) from two sites: a control site, within a coastal reference area, and an area affected by the effluents of a marine land-based fish farm. The isotopic signal in different subsamples of the macroalgae thalli (tissue that has grown during the same period) varied depending on the age of the tissue. Moreover, the isotopic signal decreased significantly with the age of the frond to within a certain range. The δ(15)N of F. vesiculosus is temporally unstable; therefore, measurement of the δ(15)N of macroalgal tissues does not allow reliable retrospective biomonitoring of environmental pollution. Further knowledge about the growth and other biological aspects of this species is required.

  3. Determination of the Cd/S cluster stoichiometry in Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, Maureen E; Chaseley, Jennifer; Kille, Peter; Stillman, Martin J

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Fucus vesiculosus is unusual when compared with other algal species, in that it can survive in toxic-metal-contaminated aquatic environments. The metallothionein gene has been identified in F. vesiculosus by Kille and co-workers (Morris, C. A., Nicolaus, B., Sampson, V., Harwood, J. L., and Kille, P. (1999) Biochem. J. 338, 553), which suggests a possible protective mechanism against toxic metals for this species. We report the first detailed study of the metal binding properties of F. vesiculosus metallothionein using UV absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and electrospray mass spectral techniques. The overall metal-to-sulfur ratios of this novel algal protein when bound to divalent cadmium and zinc were determined to be Cd(6)S(16) and Zn(6)S(16), respectively. Mixed Cd/Zn species were also formed when Cd(2+) was added to the Zn-containing Fucus metallothionein. Only one conformation was identified at low pH for the native protein. Analysis of the UV absorption, CD, and ESI-MS spectral data recorded during stepwise, acid-induced demetalation supports a two-domain structure for the protein, with two 3-metal binding sites. The data suggest that one of the domains is significantly less stable than the other, and we tentatively propose from the arrangement of cysteines in the sequence that the two domains are M(3)S(7) and M(3)S(9) (where M = Cd(2+) or Zn(2+)). While the M(3)S(9) cluster is known in the beta clusters of crab, lobster, and mammalian metallothioneins, the M(3)S(7) is a hitherto unknown cluster structure. Metallothionein in F. vesiculosus is thought to act as a protective mechanism against incoming toxic metals. The metal binding studies reported are a putative model for metal binding in vivo.

  4. Gulf ring algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although they rank among the tiniest of the microspcopic phytoplankton, coccolithophore algae aid oceanographers studying the Gulf Stream rings and the ring boundaries. The algal group could help to identify more precisely the boundary of the warm rings of water that spin off from the Gulf Stream and become independent pools of warm water in the colder waters along the northeastern U.S. coast.Coccolithophore populations in the Gulf Stream rings intrigue oceanographers for two reasons: The phytoplankton are subjected to an environment that changes every few days, and population explosions within one coccolithophore species seem to be associated with changes in the characteristics of ocean water, said Pat Blackwelder, an associate professor at the Nova Oceanographic Center in Dania, Fla. She is one of many studying the physics, chemistry, and biology of warm core rings. A special oceanography session on these rings was held at the recent AGU Fall Meeting/ASLO Winter Meeting.

  5. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  6. Compositional impact of acidification and warming on Fucus vesiculosus: First biogeochemical and stable isotope results from coastal benthocosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winde, Vera; Al-Janabi, Balsam; Sokol, Steffani; Buchholz, Björn; Escher, Peter; Voss, Maren; Schneider, Bernd; Wahl, Martin; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of the German BIOACID II project, the separate and combined effects of warming and acidification on the elemental and stable isotope composition of Fucus vesiculosus are investigated by means of benthic mesocosm experiments in brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. We aim for a calibration of the composition of Fucus in response to single and combined temperature and pCO2 elevation. Benthocosm experiments are carried out in the Kiel Fjord with a fully crossed array of 2 globally importnant stressors: an increase in temperature and an increase in atmospheric CO2 partial pressure. The experiments run for almost 3 months per season (winter, spring, summer, autumn). There are analyses from the experiments of the aquatic chemistry (TA, pH, salinity, carbon isotope composition of DIC, main and trace elements and nutrients) as well as the composition of the Fucus vesiculosus organic tissues (C-N-S-P contents, and C and N stable isotope composition, as well as major and trace elements). The composition of the aqueous solution in the mesocosms was recovered two times a week and for the Fucus tissue at the start and the end of the experiments. In addition several 24h cycles were followed in high temporal resolution to characterize the community response to diurnal light cycles. It was found, that seasonal variations in the composition of the input solutions (brackish water from the Kiel Fjord) were reflected by changes in the experiments with short time delay. The changes in the aquatic chemistry of the mesocosms, however, were strongly superimposed for most parameters during daytime by biological activity. The response of the communities to light conditions was clearly observed during the 24h-campaigns, when alternating phases of net respiration and photosynthesis were creating strong variations in the dissolved carbonate system. These variations were accompanied by significant changes in the carbon isotope composition of DIC. The atmosphere of some experimental

  7. Season exerts differential effects of ocean acidification and warming on growth and carbon metabolism of the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus in the western Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika eGraiff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Warming and acidification of the oceans as a consequence of increasing CO2-concentrations occur at large scales. Numerous studies have shown the impact of single stressors on individual species. However, studies on the combined effect of multiple stressors on a multi-species assemblage, which is ecologically much more realistic and relevant, are still scarce. Therefore, we orthogonally crossed the two factors warming and acidification in mesocosm experiments and studied their single and combined impact on the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus associated with its natural community (epiphytes and mesograzers in the Baltic Sea in all seasons (from April 2013 to April 2014. We superimposed our treatment factors onto the natural fluctuations of all environmental variables present in the Benthocosms in so-called delta-treatments. Thereby we compared the physiological responses of F. vesiculosus (growth and metabolites to the single and combined effects of natural Kiel Fjord temperatures and pCO2 conditions with a 5 °C temperature increase and/or pCO2 increase treatment (1100 ppm in the headspace above the mesocosms. Responses were also related to the factor photoperiod which changes over the course of the year. Our results demonstrate complex seasonal pattern. Elevated pCO2 positively affected growth of F. vesiculosus alone and/or interactively with warming. The response direction (additive, synergistic or antagonistic, however, depended on season and daylength. The effects were most obvious when plants were actively growing during spring and early summer. Our study revealed for the first time that it is crucial to always consider the impact of variable environmental conditions throughout all seasons. In summary, our study indicates that in future F. vesiculosus will be more affected by detrimental summer heat-waves than by ocean acidification although the latter consequently enhances growth throughout the year. The mainly negative influence of rising

  8. Structure-activity relationship of the pro- and anticoagulant effects of Fucus vesiculosus fucoidan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Till, S; Jiang, C; Knappe, S; Reutterer, S; Scheiflinger, F; Szabo, C M; Dockal, M

    2014-03-03

    Fucoidan is a highly complex sulfated polysaccharide commonly extracted from brown seaweed. In addition to their many biological activities, fucoidans have recently been demonstrated to inhibit or increase coagulation at different concentration ranges. Their structural features, i.e. molecular weight (Mw), Mw distribution, degree of sulfation, monosaccharide composition, and different linkages, are known to affect these activities. Therefore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of fucoidan is crucial for its potential use as a procoagulant. In this study, Fucus vesiculosus (F.v.) fucoidan was fractionated by charge and size as well as over- and desulfated to different degrees to yield preparations with various structural properties. The fractions' pro- and anticoagulant activities were assessed by calibrated automated thrombography (CAT) and activated partial thromboplastin time(aPTT) assays. Binding to and inhibition of the anticoagulant protein tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and the ability to activate coagulation via the contact pathway were also investigated. This paper discusses the impact of charge density, size, and sugar composition on fucoidan's pro- and anticoagulant activities. Fucoidan requires a minimal charge density of 0.5 sulfates per sugar unit and a size of 70 sugar units to demonstrate desired procoagulant activities for improvement of haemostasis in factor VIII/factor IX-deficient plasma.

  9. Effect studies of human pharmaceuticals on Fucus vesiculosus and Gammarus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, Hanna; Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Lindh, Karolina; Kumblad, Linda

    2012-03-01

    In two experiments, the human pharmaceutical propranolol negatively affected the physiology of two test organisms, Fucus vesiculosus and Gammarus spp. from a Baltic Sea littoral community in a concentration of 1000 μg l⁻¹. Some effects were also observed for the lower, more ecologically relevant concentrations (10 μg l⁻¹ and 100 μg l⁻¹). The effects on F. vesiculosus not only increased with increasing concentration, but also with exposure time; while the effects on Gammarus spp. were more inconsistent over time. No clear effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and ibuprofen were observed for any of the organisms. Physiological parameters measured were GP:R-ratio, chlorophyll fluorescence and release of coloured dissolved organic matter, respiration and ammonium excretion. Pharmaceutical substances are repeatedly detected in the Baltic Sea which is the recipient for STP effluents from more than 85 million people living in the catchment area, but the knowledge of their effects on non-target organisms is still very limited.

  10. Toxicity and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of two Fucus vesiculosus extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragozá, M C; López, D; P Sáiz, M; Poquet, M; Pérez, J; Puig-Parellada, P; Màrmol, F; Simonetti, P; Gardana, C; Lerat, Y; Burtin, P; Inisan, C; Rousseau, I; Besnard, M; Mitjavila, M T

    2008-09-10

    The consumption of seaweeds has increased in recent years. However, their adverse and beneficial effects have scarcely been studied. Two extracts from the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus containing 28.8% polyphenols or 18% polyphenols plus 0.0012% fucoxanthin have been obtained and studied to determine their toxicity in mice and rats and also their antioxidant activity. Both extracts were shown to lack any relevant toxic effects in an acute toxicity test following a 4 week daily treatment in rats. The extracts exhibited antioxidant activity in noncellular systems and in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, as well as in ex vivo assays in plasma and erythrocytes, after the 4 week treatment in rats. Our ex vivo results indicated that compounds from extract 2 may be more easily absorbed and that the antioxidants in their parent or metabolized form are more active. These findings support the view that the daily consumption of F. vesiculosus extract 2 (Healsea) would have potential benefits to humans.

  11. Dissolved organic carbon reduces the toxicity of copper to germlings of the macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven J; Bolam, Thi; Tolhurst, Laura; Bassett, Janice; La Roche, Jay; Waldock, Mike; Barry, Jon; Thomas, Kevin V

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of waterborne copper exposure on germling growth in chemically defined seawater. Germlings of the macroalgae, Fucus vesiculosus were exposed to a range of copper and dissolved organic carbon (DOC as humic acid) concentrations over 14 days. Germling growth was found to be a sensitive indicator of copper exposure with total copper (TCu) and labile copper (LCu) EC(50) values of approximately 40 and 20 microg/L, respectively, in the absence of added DOC. The addition of DOC into the exposure media provided germlings with protection against copper toxicity, with an increased TCu EC(50) value of 117.3 microg/L at a corrected DOC (cDOC from humic acid only) concentration of 2.03 mg/L. The LCu EC(50) was not affected by a cDOC concentration of 1.65 mg/L or less, suggesting that the LCu concentration not the TCu concentration was responsible for inhibiting germling growth. However, at a cDOC concentration of approximately 2mg/L an increase in the LCu EC(50) suggests that the LCu concentration may play a role in the overall toxicity to the germlings. This is contrary to current understanding of aquatic copper toxicity and possible explanations for this are discussed.

  12. Inhibition of reverse transcriptase activity of HIV by polysaccharides of brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, K C S; Medeiros, V P; Queiroz, L S; Abreu, L R D; Rocha, H A O; Ferreira, C V; Jucá, M B; Aoyama, H; Leite, E L

    2008-06-01

    Brown algae have two kinds of acid polysaccharides present in the extracellular matrix: sulfated fucan and alginic acid. We have previously isolated and characterized fucans from several species of brown seaweed. The characterized fucans from Dictyotaceae are heterofucans containing mainly fucose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and/or uronic acid. The fucan from Fucus vesiculosus is a homofucan containing only sulfated fucose. We assessed the activity of these fucans as inhibitors of HIV from reverse transcriptase (RT). Using activated DNA and template primers poly(rA)-oligo(dT), we found that fucans at a concentration of 0.5-1.0 microg/mL had a pronounced inhibitory effect in vitro on the avian reverse transcriptase, with the exception of xylogalactofucan isolated from Spatoglossum schröederi, which had no inhibitory activity. The alginic acid (1.0 microg/mL) inhibited the reverse transcriptase activity by 51.1% using activated DNA. The inhibitory effect of fucans was eliminated by their desulfation. Furthermore, only xylofucoglucuronan from S. schröederi lost its activity after carboxyreduction. We suggest that fucan activity is not only dependent on the ionic changes but also on the sugar rings that act to spatially orientate the charges in a configuration that recognizes the enzyme, thus determining the specificity of the binding.

  13. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  14. Cyanobacteria: algas productoras de toxinas

    OpenAIRE

    Echenique, Ricardo Omar; Giannuzzi, Leda; Andrinolo, Darío

    2007-01-01

    El de las Cyanobacteria es un grupo de algas con características particulares. Por su coloración, dada por los pigmentos que posee, comúnmente se las conoce como algas verde-azules. Según registros fósiles, son los primeros organismos fotosintéticos aparecidos en nuestro planeta (3000-3500 millones de años), por esto se los consideran los responsables de originar la atmósfera inicial que posibilitó la evolución del resto de los seres vivos habitantes de la Tierra. Estos organismos, desde micr...

  15. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  16. Uptake and release of [sup 54]Mn and [sup 60]Co in Fucus vesiculosus L. and its epiphytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, L. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Marine Ecology)

    1994-01-01

    Fucus vesiculosus L. with epiphytic Pilayella littoralis (L.) Kjelm, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link and Cladophora sp, was collected at a swedish locality where contamination by [sup 54]Mn and [sup 60]Co was relatively low and then transplanted to a locality in the vicinity of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant in the Oeresund, Southern Sweden. The reverse process was also carried out. Differences in uptake and release of [sup 54]Mn and [sup 60]Co were studied in the various species and in tissues of different ages. (Author).

  17. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  18. Algae -- a poor man's HAART?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Hebert, James R; Fitton, J Helen; Zimba, Paul V

    2004-01-01

    Drawing inferences from epidemiologic studies of HIV/AIDS and in vivo and in vitro HIV inhibition by algae, we propose algal consumption as one unifying characteristic of countries with anomalously low rates. HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence in Eastern Asia ( approximately 1/10000 adults in Japan and Korea), compared to Africa ( approximately 1/10 adults), strongly suggest that differences in IV drug use and sexual behavior are insufficient to explain the 1000-fold variation. Even in Africa, AIDS/HIV rates vary. Chad has consistently reported low rates of HIV/AIDS (2-4/100). Possibly not coincidentally, most people in Japan and Korea eat seaweed daily and the Kanemba, one of the major tribal groups in Chad, eat a blue green alga (Spirulina) daily. Average daily algae consumption in Asia and Africa ranges between 1 and 2 tablespoons (3-13 g). Regular consumption of dietary algae might help prevent HIV infection and suppress viral load among those infected.

  19. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass producti

  20. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  1. The seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-J. Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2 above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland, we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. The mean values of chem{I_2} mixing ratio found above the macroalgae beds at nine different locations ranged from 104 to 393 ppt, implying a high source strength of I2. Such mixing ratios are sufficient to result in photochemically driven coastal new-particle formation events. Mixing ratios above the Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus beds increased with exposure time: after 6 h exposure to ambient air the mixing ratios were one order of magnitude higher than those initially present. This contrasts with the emission characteristics of Laminaria digitata, where most I2 was emitted within the first half hour of exposure. Discrete in situ measurements (offline of I2 emission from ambient air-exposed chamber experiments of L. digitata, A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus substantially supported the field observations. Further online and time-resolved measurements of the I2 emission from O3-exposed macroalgal experiments in a chamber confirmed the distinct I2 emission characteristics of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus compared to those of L. digitata. The emission rates of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus were comparable to or even higher than L. digitata after the initial exposure period of ~20–30 min. We suggest that A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus may provide an important source of photolabile iodine in the coastal boundary layer and that their impact on photochemistry and coastal new-particle formation should be reevaluated in light of their longer exposure at low tide and their widespread distribution.

  2. Physicochemical and Biological Characterization of Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Purified by Dye Affinity Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Zayed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study concerning the physicochemical, monomeric composition and biological characters among different fucoidan fractions is presented. Common purification techniques for fucoidan usually involve many steps. During these steps, the important structural features might be affected and consequently alter its biological activities. Three purified fractions were derived from Fucus vesiculosus water extract which, afterwards, were purified by a recently-developed dye affinity chromatography protocol. This protocol is based on dye-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. The first two fractions were obtained from crude precipitated fucoidan at different pH values of the adsorption phase: pH 1 and 6. This procedure resulted in fucoidan_1 and 6 fractions. The other, third, fraction: fucoidan_M, however, was obtained from a buffered crude extract at pH 1, eliminating the ethanol precipitation step. All of the three fractions were then further evaluated. Results revealed that fucoidan_M showed the highest sulfur content (S%, 12.11%, with the lowest average molecular weight, 48 kDa. Fucose, galactose, and uronic acid/glucose dimers were detected in all fractions, although, xylose was only detected in fucoidan_1 and 6. In a concentration of 10 µg·mL−1, Fucoidan_6 showed the highest heparin-like anticoagulant activity and could prolong the APTT and TT significantly to 66.03 ± 2.93 and 75.36 ± 1.37 s, respectively. In addition, fucoidan_M demonstrated the highest potency against HSV-1 with an IC50 of 2.41 µg·mL−1. The technique proved to be a candidate for fucoidan purifaction from its crude extract removing the precipitation step from common purification protocols and produced different fucoidan qualities resulted from the different incubation conditions with the immobilized thiazine toluidine blue O dye.

  3. Nitrate uptake varies with tide height and nutrient availability in the intertidal seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Kylla M; Bracken, Matthew E S

    2016-10-01

    Intertidal seaweeds must cope with a suite of stressors imposed by aerial exposure at low tide, including nutrient limitation due to emersion. Seaweeds can access nutrients only when submerged, so individuals living higher compared to lower on the shore may have adaptations allowing them to acquire sufficient amounts of nutrients to survive and maintain growth. Using a combination of observations and experiments, we aimed to identify intraspecific variation in nitrate uptake rates across the intertidal distribution of F. vesiculosus, as well as test for acclimation in response to a change in tide height. We replicated our study at sites spanning nearly the entire Gulf of Maine coastline, to examine how local environmental variability may alter intraspecific variation in nitrate uptake. We found that average nitrate uptake rates were ~18% higher in upper compared to lower intertidal Fucus vesiculosus. Furthermore, we found evidence for both acclimation and adaptation to tide height during a transplant experiment. F. vesiculosus transplanted from the lower to the upper intertidal zone was characterized by increased nitrate uptake, but individuals transplanted from the upper to the lower intertidal zone retained high uptake rates. Our observations differed among Gulf of Maine regions and among time points of our study. Importantly, these differences may reflect associations between nitrate uptake rates and abiotic environmental conditions and seaweed nutrient status. Our study highlights the importance of long-term variation in ambient nutrient supply in driving intraspecific variation of seaweeds across the intertidal gradient and local and seasonal variation in ambient nutrient levels in mediating intraspecific differences.

  4. Arsenic metalation of seaweed Fucus vesiculosus metallothionein: the importance of the interdomain linker in metallothionein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Thanh T; Lee, Janice A; Rushton, Moira K; Stillman, Martin J

    2009-09-22

    The presence of metallothionein in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus has been suggested as the protecting agent against toxic metals in the contaminated waters it can grow in. We report the first kinetic pathway data for A3+ binding to an algal metallothionein, F. vesiculosus metallothionein (rfMT). The time and temperature dependence of the relative concentrations of apo-rfMT and the five As-containing species have been determined following mixing of As3+ and apo-rfMT using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS). Kinetic analysis of the detailed time-resolved mass spectral data for As3+ metalation allows the simulation of the metalation reactions showing the consumption of apo-rfMT, the formation and consumption of As1- to As4-rfMT, and subsequent, final formation of As5-rfMT. The kinetic model proposed here provides a stepwise analysis of the metalation reaction showing time-resolved occupancy of the Cys7 and the Cys9 domain. The rate constants (M(-1) s(-1)) calculated from the fits for the 7-cysteine gamma domain are k1gamma, 19.8, and k2gamma, 1.4, and for the 9-cysteine beta domain are k1beta, 16.3, k2beta, 9.1, and k3beta, 2.2. The activation energies and Arrhenius factors for each of the reaction steps are also reported. rfMT has a long 14 residue linker, which as we show from analysis of the ESI MS data, allows each of its two domains to bind As3+ independently of each other. The analysis provides for the first time an explanation of the differing metal-binding properties of two-domain MTs with linkers of varying lengths, suggesting further comparison between plant (with long linkers) and mammalian (with short linkers) metallothioneins will shed light on the role of the interdomain linker.

  5. Parallel speciation or long-distance dispersal? Lessons from seaweeds (Fucus) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, R T; Huenchuñir, C; Johansson, D; Forslund, H; Kautsky, L; Jonsson, P R; Johannesson, K

    2013-08-01

    Parallel evolution has been invoked as a forceful mechanism of ecotype and species formation in many animal taxa. However, parallelism may be difficult to separate from recently monophyletically diverged species that are likely to show complex genetic relationships as a result of considerable shared ancestral variation and secondary hybridization in local areas. Thus, species' degrees of reproductive isolation, barriers to dispersal and, in particular, limited capacities for long-distance dispersal will affect demographical structures underlying mechanisms of divergent evolution. Here, we used nine microsatellite DNA markers to study intra- and interspecific genetic diversity of two recently diverged species of brown macroalgae, Fucus radicans (L. Bergström & L. Kautsky) and F. vesiculosus (Linnaeus), in the Baltic Sea. We further performed biophysical modelling to identify likely connectivity patterns influencing the species' genetic structures. For each species, we found intraspecific contrasting patterns of clonality incidence and population structure. In addition, strong genetic differentiation between the two species within each locality supported the existence of two distinct evolutionary lineages (FST  = 0.15-0.41). However, overall genetic clustering analyses across both species' populations revealed that all populations from one region (Estonia) were more genetically similar to each other than to their own taxon from the other two regions (Sweden and Finland). Our data support a hypothesis of parallel speciation. Alternatively, Estonia may be the ancestral source of both species, but is presently isolated by oceanographic barriers to dispersal. Thus, a limited gene flow in combination with genetic drift could have shaped the seemingly parallel structure.

  6. Fucus and Ascophyllum seaweeds are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Berresheim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2 above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland, we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. I2 mixing ratios from 104 to 393 ppt were found above the macroalgae beds, implying a high source strength of I2. Such mixing ratios are sufficient to result in photochemically-driven coastal new-particle formation events. Mixing ratios above the Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus beds increased with exposure time – after 6 h exposure to ambient air the mixing ratios were one order of magnitude higher than those initially present. This contrasts with the emission characteristics of Laminaria digitata, where most I2 was emitted within the first half hour of exposure. Discrete in situ measurements (off-line of I2 emission from ambient air-exposed chamber experiments of L. digitata, A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus substantially supported the field observations. Further online and time-resolved measurements of the I2 emission from O3-exposed macroalgal experiments in chamber confirmed the distinct I2 emission characteristics of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus compared to that of L. digitata. The emission rates of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus were comparable to or even higher than L. digitata after the initial exposure period of ~20–30 min. We suggest that A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus may provide an unaccounted and important source of photolabile iodine in the coastal boundary layer and that their impact on photochemistry and coastal new particle formation should be reevaluated in light of their longer exposure at low-tide and their widespread distribution.

  7. Physicochemical and Biological Characterization of Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Purified by Dye Affinity Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ahmed; Muffler, Kai; Hahn, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Finkelmeier, Doris; Burger-Kentischer, Anke; Ulber, Roland

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study concerning the physicochemical, monomeric composition and biological characters among different fucoidan fractions is presented. Common purification techniques for fucoidan usually involve many steps. During these steps, the important structural features might be affected and consequently alter its biological activities. Three purified fractions were derived from Fucus vesiculosus water extract which, afterwards, were purified by a recently-developed dye affinity chromatography protocol. This protocol is based on dye-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. The first two fractions were obtained from crude precipitated fucoidan at different pH values of the adsorption phase: pH 1 and 6. This procedure resulted in fucoidan_1 and 6 fractions. The other, third, fraction: fucoidan_M, however, was obtained from a buffered crude extract at pH 1, eliminating the ethanol precipitation step. All of the three fractions were then further evaluated. Results revealed that fucoidan_M showed the highest sulfur content (S%), 12.11%, with the lowest average molecular weight, 48 kDa. Fucose, galactose, and uronic acid/glucose dimers were detected in all fractions, although, xylose was only detected in fucoidan_1 and 6. In a concentration of 10 µg·mL−1, Fucoidan_6 showed the highest heparin-like anticoagulant activity and could prolong the APTT and TT significantly to 66.03 ± 2.93 and 75.36 ± 1.37 s, respectively. In addition, fucoidan_M demonstrated the highest potency against HSV-1 with an IC50 of 2.41 µg·mL−1. The technique proved to be a candidate for fucoidan purifaction from its crude extract removing the precipitation step from common purification protocols and produced different fucoidan qualities resulted from the different incubation conditions with the immobilized thiazine toluidine blue O dye. PMID:27092514

  8. Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Fails to Improve Outcomes Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, Sherrefa R; Iniaghe, Loretta O; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most fatal stroke subtype, with no effective therapies. Hematoma expansion and inflammation play major roles in the pathophysiology of ICH, contributing to primary and secondary brain injury, respectively. Fucoidan, a polysaccharide from the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, has been reported to activate a platelet receptor that may function in limiting bleeding, and to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. As such, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of fucoidan on hemorrhaging and neurological outcomes after ICH. Male CD-1 mice were subjected to experimental ICH by infusion of bacterial collagenase. Animals were randomly divided into the following groups: sham, ICH + vehicle, ICH + 25 mg/kg fucoidan, ICH + 75 mg/kg fucoidan, and ICH + 100 mg/kg fucoidan. Brain water content, neurobehavioral outcomes, and hemoglobin content were evaluated at 24 h post ICH. Our findings show that fucoidan failed to attenuate the ICH-induced increase in BWC. The neurological deficits that result from ICH also did not differ in the treatment groups at all three doses. Finally, we found that fucoidan had no effect on the hemoglobin content after ICH. We postulate that fucoidan treatment did not improve the measured outcomes after ICH because we used crude fucoidan, which has a high molecular weight, in our study. High-molecular-weight fucoidans are reported to have less therapeutic potential than low molecular weight fucoidans. They have been shown to exhibit anti-coagulant and pro-apoptotic properties, which seem to outweigh their anti-inflammatory and potential procoagulant abilities. We propose that using a low-molecular-weight fucoidan, or fractionating the crude polysaccharide, may be effective in treating ICH. Future studies are needed to confirm this.

  9. Physicochemical and Biological Characterization of Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Purified by Dye Affinity Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ahmed; Muffler, Kai; Hahn, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Finkelmeier, Doris; Burger-Kentischer, Anke; Ulber, Roland

    2016-04-15

    A comparative study concerning the physicochemical, monomeric composition and biological characters among different fucoidan fractions is presented. Common purification techniques for fucoidan usually involve many steps. During these steps, the important structural features might be affected and consequently alter its biological activities. Three purified fractions were derived from Fucus vesiculosus water extract which, afterwards, were purified by a recently-developed dye affinity chromatography protocol. This protocol is based on dye-sulfated polysaccharide interactions. The first two fractions were obtained from crude precipitated fucoidan at different pH values of the adsorption phase: pH 1 and 6. This procedure resulted in fucoidan_1 and 6 fractions. The other, third, fraction: fucoidan_M, however, was obtained from a buffered crude extract at pH 1, eliminating the ethanol precipitation step. All of the three fractions were then further evaluated. Results revealed that fucoidan_M showed the highest sulfur content (S%), 12.11%, with the lowest average molecular weight, 48 kDa. Fucose, galactose, and uronic acid/glucose dimers were detected in all fractions, although, xylose was only detected in fucoidan_1 and 6. In a concentration of 10 µg·mL(-1), Fucoidan_6 showed the highest heparin-like anticoagulant activity and could prolong the APTT and TT significantly to 66.03 ± 2.93 and 75.36 ± 1.37 s, respectively. In addition, fucoidan_M demonstrated the highest potency against HSV-1 with an IC50 of 2.41 µg·mL(-1). The technique proved to be a candidate for fucoidan purifaction from its crude extract removing the precipitation step from common purification protocols and produced different fucoidan qualities resulted from the different incubation conditions with the immobilized thiazine toluidine blue O dye.

  10. Inhibition of haemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle and cod protein isolates by Fucus vesiculosus extract and fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Tao; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Fucus vesiculosus extract and fractions towards haemoglobin- (Hb-) catalysed lipid oxidation in washed cod muscle system and cod protein isolates during ice storage were examined. The extract and fractions were characterised in terms of total phlorotannin content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl...

  11. Allelopatrhic effect of Acorus tatarinowii upon algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Besides competing with algae for light and mineralnutrients (i.e. N, P, etc.), the root system of Acorus tatarinowii excretes some chemical substances, which injure and eliminate alga cells, to inhibit the growth of the algae. When the algae cells were treated in "A. tatarinowii water", some of the chlorophyll a were destroyed and the photosynthetic rate of algae decreased markedly and the ability of alga cells to deoxidize triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduced greatly. Then alga cells turned from bright red to bluish green under fluorescence microscope. These showed that the allelopathic effects of A.tatarinowii on algae were obvious and planting A. tatarinowii can control some green algae. The experiment on the extractions of the secretions of the root system showed that the inhibitory effect had a concentration effect. If the concentration of the root secretion was below 30 /disc, the inhibitory rate was negative; if it was over 45 /disc, the inhibitory rate was positive. This proved that the influence of the root secretion on the same acceptor was a kind of concentration effect. When the concentration of the root secretion was low, it promoted the growth of algae; when the concentration reached a definite threshold value, it restrained the growth of algae. In present case, the threshold value was between 30 /disc and 45 u?disc.

  12. Genetic entities and mating system in hermaphroditic Fucus spiralis and its close dioecious relative F. vesiculosus (Fucaceae, Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C R; Daguin, C; Serrão, E A

    2005-06-01

    To date, molecular markers have not settled the question of the specific status of the closely related, but phylogenetically unresolved, brown seaweeds, hermaphroditic Fucus spiralis and dioecious Fucus vesiculosus, nor their propensity for natural hybridization. To test the degree of species integrity and to assess effect of the mating system on the population genetic structure, 288 individuals coming from parapatric (discontinuous) and sympatric (contiguous) spatial configurations at two sites were genotyped with five microsatellite loci. Using a Bayesian admixture analysis, our results show that F. spiralis and F. vesiculosus comprise clearly distinct genetic entities (clusters) generally characterized by cosexual and unisexual individuals, respectively. Genetic diversity within each entity suggests that F. spiralis reproduces primarily through selfing while F. vesiculosus is characterized by an endogamous breeding regime. Nevertheless, aberrant sexual phenotypes were observed in each cluster, no diagnostic alleles were revealed and 10% of study individuals were intermediate between the two genetic entities. This pattern can be explained by recent divergence of two taxa with retention of ancestral polymorphism or asymmetrical, introgressive hybridization. However, given (i) coincident monomorphism at three loci in spiralis clusters and (ii) that significantly more intermediates were observed in sympatric stations than in parapatric stations, we argue that interspecific gene flow has occurred after divergence of the two taxa. Finally, we show that whether recently separated or recently introgressive, the divergent breeding systems probably contribute to species integrity in these two taxa.

  13. The ecological effect of CO2 on the brown algae Fucus serratus and its epibionts: From the habitat to the organismic scale.

    OpenAIRE

    Saderne, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide plays a central role in the functioning of organisms and ecosystems. For autotrophs, it is the substrate for photosynthesis while for heterotrophs it is a waste product of respiration. For two centuries Human activities, are responsible for an increase from 280 to 380 μatm of the atmospheric pCO2. A further increase up to 1000 μatm is predicted for the 21th century. The ocean surface and the atmosphere are at the equilibrium for CO2. The CO2 dissolving in seawater reduces the p...

  14. Modelling the biological half-life and seasonality of ¹⁴C in Fucus vesiculosus from the east coast of Ireland: implications for the estimation of future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, S M; Cournane, S; León Vintró, L; McGee, E J; Mitchell, P I

    2011-04-01

    Radiocarbon levels were recorded in Fucus vesiculosus samples collected on a monthly basis over a three-year period at a site on the east coast of Ireland. The resulting data was analysed using a numerical model which estimates the transit times from the Sellafield plant to the sampling location, and the mean availability time of ¹⁴C in seaweed. With the inclusion of a model parameter allowing for seasonal variability in uptake by the Fucus, good correlation was observed between the predicted and measured concentrations. Future temporal trends of ¹⁴C Fucus concentrations along the eastern Irish coastline were modelled with the application of three possible prospective discharge scenarios, predicting ¹⁴C Fucus concentrations to reduce to ambient background levels within 2.5-years of discharges being set to zero. Such projections may prove helpful in assessing the consequences of discharge management and policy making in the context of the OSPAR convention.

  15. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature.

  16. Parasites in algae mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Lane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

  17. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  18. Photobioreactors for mass cultivation of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, C U; Aoyagi, H; Uchiyama, H

    2008-07-01

    Algae have attracted much interest for production of foods, bioactive compounds and also for their usefulness in cleaning the environment. In order to grow and tap the potentials of algae, efficient photobioreactors are required. Although a good number of photobioreactors have been proposed, only a few of them can be practically used for mass production of algae. One of the major factors that limits their practical application in algal mass cultures is mass transfer. Thus, a thorough understanding of mass transfer rates in photobioreactors is necessary for efficient operation of mass algal cultures. In this review article, various photobioreactors that are very promising for mass production of algae are discussed.

  19. Removal of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by brown marine macro algae: kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Olga M M; Martins, Ramiro J E; Delerue-Matos, Cristina M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-05-01

    Specific marine macro algae species abundant at the Portuguese coast (Laminaria hyperborea, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Sargassum muticum and Fucus spiralis) were shown to be effective for removing toxic metals (Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions. The initial metal concentrations in solution were about 75-100 mg L(-1). The observed biosorption capacities for cadmium, zinc and lead ions were in the ranges of 23.9-39.5, 18.6-32.0 and 32.3-50.4 mg g(-1), respectively. Kinetic studies revealed that the metal uptake rate was rather fast, with 75% of the total amount occurring in the first 10 min for all algal species. Experimental data were well fitted by a pseudo-second order rate equation. The contribution of internal diffusion mechanism was significant only to the initial biosorption stage. Results indicate that all the studied macro algae species can provide an efficient and cost-effective technology for eliminating heavy metals from industrial effluents.

  20. Removal of Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by brown marine macro algae: Kinetic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Olga M.M. [LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua Dr. Bernardino de Almeida 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Martins, Ramiro J.E. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Escola Superior de Tecnologia, Instituto Politecnico de Braganca, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5301-857 Braganca (Portugal); LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Delerue-Matos, Cristina M. [REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua Dr. Bernardino de Almeida 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Boaventura, Rui A.R. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); LRSE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: bventura@fe.up.pt

    2008-05-01

    Specific marine macro algae species abundant at the Portuguese coast (Laminaria hyperborea, Bifurcaria bifurcata, Sargassum muticum and Fucus spiralis) were shown to be effective for removing toxic metals (Cd(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions. The initial metal concentrations in solution were about 75-100 mg L{sup -1}. The observed biosorption capacities for cadmium, zinc and lead ions were in the ranges of 23.9-39.5, 18.6-32.0 and 32.3-50.4 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. Kinetic studies revealed that the metal uptake rate was rather fast, with 75% of the total amount occurring in the first 10 min for all algal species. Experimental data were well fitted by a pseudo-second order rate equation. The contribution of internal diffusion mechanism was significant only to the initial biosorption stage. Results indicate that all the studied macro algae species can provide an efficient and cost-effective technology for eliminating heavy metals from industrial effluents.

  1. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  2. Modeling and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony; Weinhart, Thomas; Bokhove, Onno; Zhang, Bowen; Sar, van der Dick M.; Kumar, Kundan; Pisarenco, Maxim; Rudnaya, Maria; Savceno, Valeriu; Rademacher, Jens; Zijlstra, Julia; Szabelska, Alicja; Zyprych, Joanna; Schans, van der Martin; Timperio, Vincent; Veerman, Frits; Frank, J.; van der Mei, R.; den Boer, A.; Bosman, J.; Bouman, N.; van Dam, S.; Verhoef, C.

    2010-01-01

    The wastewater from greenhouses has a high amount of mineral contamination and an environmentally-friendly method of removal is to use algae to clean this runo water. The algae consume the minerals as part of their growth process. In addition to cleaning the water, the created algal bio-mass has a v

  3. Vanadium in marine mussels and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, K.R.; Bahr, B. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Ott, J. [Fachhochschule Hamburg (Germany). Fachbereich Naturwissenschaftliche Technik, Studiengang Biotechnologie

    2000-01-01

    A method is presented which is sensitive enough for the determination of vanadium (V) in marine organisms such as mussels and algae. It was sufficiently checked by a reference material and it was applied to V determination in blue mussels and brown algae from the German Bight. (orig.)

  4. Take a Dip! Culturing Algae Is Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities using algae as the organisms of choice. These include examination of typical algal cells, demonstration of alternation of generations, sexual reproduction in Oedogonium, demonstration of phototaxis, effect of nitrate concentration on Ankistrodesmus, and study of competition between two algae in the same environment.…

  5. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis.

  6. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed.

  7. Algae inhibition experiment and load characteristics of the algae solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L.; Gao, J. X.; Zhang, Y. X.; Yang, Z. K.; Zhang, D. Q.; He, W.

    2016-08-01

    It is necessary to inhibit microbial growth in an industrial cooling water system. This paper has developed a Monopolar/Bipolar polarity high voltage pulser with load adaptability for an algal experimental study. The load characteristics of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa solution were examined, and it was found that the solution load is resistive. The resistance is related to the plate area, concentration, and temperature of the solution. Furthermore, the pulser's treatment actually inhibits the algae cell growth. This article also explores the influence of various parameters of electric pulses on the algal effect. After the experiment, the optimum pulse parameters were determined to be an electric field intensity of 750 V/cm, a pulse width per second of 120μs, and monopolar polarity.

  8. Structural elucidation of polysaccharide fractions from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii and in vitro investigation of their anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbs, Tatiana I; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Malyarenko Vishchuk, Olesya S; Isakov, Vladimir V; Zvyagintseva, Tatiana N

    2016-01-01

    Laminaran, fucoidan, and alginate were isolated from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii collected in the Japan Sea. The structural characteristics of polysaccharides were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The laminaran was determined as β-d-glucan, which consisted of 80% of 1,3- and 20% of 1,6-linked residues and was terminated with mannitol. The alginate was a guluronic acid-rich polysaccharide (M/G=0.85). Fucoidan, sulfated α-l-fucan, contained a linear backbone of alternating (1→3)- and (1→4)- linked α-l-fucopyranose residues with sulfate at C2 and C4 of (1→3)-α-l-fucopyranose residues. Anticancer activity of this fucoidan was investigated in comparison with activity of fucoidan having similar linear backbone from the brown alga Fucus evanescens. The fucoidan from C. langsdorfii significantly inhibited colony formation of SK-MEL-5 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells (the percentage of inhibition was 28 and 76, respectively) and weakly inhibited colony formation of breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 (the percentage of inhibition was about 5). Similar results were obtained for fucoidan from F. evanescens; the percentage of inhibition of colony formation of SK-MEL-5 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells was 54 and 56, respectively. The inhibition of colony formation of breast adenocarcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 was weak. We suppose that other sulfated and partially acetylated fucoidans consisting of (1→3)- and (1→4)-linked α-l-fucopyranose residues may suppress progression of melanoma cell colony formation similar to fucoidans of C. langsdorfii and F. evanescens.

  9. Complete Plastid Genome of the Brown Alga Costaria costata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Costaria costata is a commercially and industrially important brown alga. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the complete plastid genome of C. costata. The genome consists of a 129,947 bp circular DNA molecule with an A+T content of 69.13% encoding a standard set of six ribosomal RNA genes, 27 transfer RNA genes, and 137 protein-coding genes with two conserved open reading frames (ORFs. The overall genome structure of C. costata is nearly the same as those of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. The plastid genomes of these three algal species retain a strong conservation of the GTG start codon while infrequently using TGA as a stop codon. In this regard, they differ substantially from the plastid genomes of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus. Analysis of the nucleic acid substitution rates of the Laminariales plastid genes revealed that the petF gene has the highest substitution rate and the petN gene contains no substitution over its complete length. The variation in plastid genes between C. costata and S. japonica is lower than that between C. costata and U. pinnatifida as well as that between U. pinnatifida and S. japonica. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that C. costata and U. pinnatifida have a closer genetic relationship. We also identified two gene length mutations caused by the insertion or deletion of repeated sequences, which suggest a mechanism of gene length mutation that may be one of the key explanations for the genetic variation in plastid genomes.

  10. Rapid Mass Spectrometric Analysis of a Novel Fucoidan, Extracted from the Brown Alga Coccophora langsdorfii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav D. Anastyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel highly sulfated (35% fucoidan fraction Cf2 , which contained, along with fucose, galactose and traces of xylose and uronic acids was purified from the brown alga Coccophora langsdorfii. Its structural features were predominantly determined (in comparison with fragments of known structure by a rapid mass spectrometric investigation of the low-molecular-weight fragments, obtained by “mild” (5 mg/mL and “exhaustive” (maximal concentration autohydrolysis. Tandem matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectra (MALDI-TOF/TOFMS of fucooligosaccharides with even degree of polymerization (DP, obtained by “mild” autohydrolysis, were the same as that observed for fucoidan from Fucus evanescens, which have a backbone of alternating (1 → 3- and (1 → 4 linked sulfated at C-2 and sometimes at C-4 of 3-linked α-L-Fucp residues. Fragmentation patterns of oligosaccharides with odd DP indicated sulfation at C-2 and at C-4 of (1 → 3 linked α-L-Fucp residues on the reducing terminus. Minor sulfation at C-3 was also suggested. The “exhaustive” autohydrolysis allowed us to observe the “mixed” oligosaccharides, built up of fucose/xylose and fucose/galactose. Xylose residues were found to occupy both the reducing and nonreducing termini of FucXyl disaccharides. Nonreducing galactose residues as part of GalFuc disaccharides were found to be linked, possibly, by 2-type of linkage to fucose residues and were found to be sulfated, most likely, at position C-2.

  11. Trophic structure of two intertidal Fucus spp. communities along a vertical gradient: Similarity and seasonal stability evidenced with δ13C and δ15N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeyne, François; Davoult, Dominique; Migné, Aline; Bertaud du Chazaud, Euriell; Leroux, Cédric; Riera, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    Intertidal communities dominated by canopy-forming macroalgae typically exhibit some differences in their specific composition that are related to their location along the emersion gradient of rocky shores. Tidal level is also expected to affect resource availability for both primary producers and consumers, potentially leading to divergence in the trophic structure of these communities. Furthermore, in temperate areas, the alternation of seasons has usually a large influence on the primary production and on life-history traits of numerous species, which may induce some changes in the food webs of intertidal communities. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the trophic structure of two intertidal communities located at different tidal levels, over several seasons. Focusing on the dominant species of primary producers and consumers, the food webs of the Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus and Fucus serratus Linnaeus communities were studied during four successive seasons, using an isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) approach. Due to the diversity of primary producers and consumers living in these two communities, food webs were relatively complex and composed of several trophic pathways. These food webs remained rather conserved over the successive seasons, even though some variability in isotopic signature and in diet has been highlighted for several species. Finally, despite their location at different tidal levels, the two Fucus spp. communities exhibited nearly the same trophic structure, with common consumer species displaying similar isotopic signature in both of them.

  12. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  13. DGDG and Glycolipids in Plants and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Barbara; Dörmann, Peter; Hölzl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic organelles in plants and algae are characterized by the high abundance of glycolipids, including the galactolipids mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, DGDG) and the sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). Glycolipids are crucial to maintain an optimal efficiency of photosynthesis. During phosphate limitation, the amounts of DGDG and SQDG increase in the plastids of plants, and DGDG is exported to extraplastidial membranes to replace phospholipids. Algae often use betaine lipids as surrogate for phospholipids. Glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG) is a further glycolipid that accumulates under phosphate deprived conditions. In contrast to plants, a number of eukaryotic algae contain very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of 20 or more carbon atoms in their glycolipids. The pathways and genes for galactolipid and sulfolipid synthesis are largely conserved between plants, Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and algae with complex plastids derived from secondary or tertiary endosymbiosis. However, the relative contribution of the endoplasmic reticulum- and plastid-derived lipid pathways for glycolipid synthesis varies between plants and algae. The genes for glycolipid synthesis encode precursor proteins imported into the photosynthetic organelles. While most eukaryotic algae contain the plant-like galactolipid (MGD1, DGD1) and sulfolipid (SQD1, SQD2) synthases, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon harbors a cyanobacterium-type DGDG synthase (DgdA), and the amoeba Paulinella, derived from a more recent endosymbiosis event, contains cyanobacterium-type enzymes for MGDG and DGDG synthesis (MgdA, MgdE, DgdA).

  14. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  15. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  16. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  17. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  18. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  19. Use of an environmental specimen bank for evaluating the impact of the Prestige oil spill on the levels of trace elements in two species of Fucus on the coast of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villares, Ruben; Real, Carlos [Area de Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Fernandez, Jose Angel; Aboal, Jesus; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    In the present study we investigated possible contamination by trace elements due to the oil slick caused by the shipwreck of the Prestige oil tanker, in two species of brown macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus ceranoides) collected from the coastal area most severely affected by the spill (Galicia, NW Spain). The oil slick apparently did not cause significant increases in the concentrations of the trace elements studied, except vanadium. It appears that the magnitude of terrestrial inputs to coastal waters is sufficiently high to mask the inputs of trace elements from the fuel. The observed exception of V suggests that bioaccumulation of this element by the two species of Fucus may be used to indicate exposure to petrochemical products similar to the Prestige fuel. The findings of the study are another example of the importance of the existence of Environmental Specimen Banks for studies of this type. (author)

  20. Isolation and partial characterization of a novel amino sugar-containing fucan sulfate from commercial Fucus vesiculosus fucoidan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, T; Nishioka, C; Ura, H; Nagumo, T

    1994-03-04

    Commercial crude fucoidan (Sigma) from the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus was fractionated into its polysaccharide components by gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatography to clarify the structure-anticoagulant activity relationship. The products comprised a wide spectrum of fucans ranging from typical fucoidans (major components) containing mainly fucose, sulfate, and no uronic acid to low sulfate-containing heteropolysaccharide-like fucans (minor components) being composed of neutral sugars other than fucose and a high content of uronic acid(s). The polysaccharide components also had a wide range of molecular weight. The typical fucoidans showed a potent anticoagulant activity, whereas the other fucans had no or only slight activity. One of the fractions found as a minor component, was a novel polysaccharide containing an appreciable amount (11.5%) of glucosamine and a small amount (5.2%) of protein in addition to fucose and sulfate, and having a low apparent molecular weight of 6800. This is the first report that a proteoglycan-like, amino sugar-containing fucan sulfate, composed of fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose, uronic acid, glucosamine, and sulfate in the molar ratio of 1.00:0.04:0.01:0.48:0.24:0.18:0.56:1.90, could be obtained from brown seaweed. However, this polysaccharide showed no anticoagulant activity.

  1. RECENT VERSUS RELIC: DISCERNING THE GENETIC SIGNATURE OF FUCUS VESICULOSUS (HETEROKONTOPHYTA; PHAEOPHYCEAE) IN THE NORTHWESTERN ATLANTIC(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlin, Jessica F; Brawley, Susan H

    2009-08-01

    Fucus vesiculosus L. is one of the most widespread macrophytes in the northwestern Atlantic, ranging from North Carolina (USA) to Greenland (DK). We investigated genetic diversity, population differentiation, patterns of isolation by distance, and putative glacial refugial populations across seven locations from North Carolina (USA) to Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia (Canada), with microsatellite analyses. Distinct northern versus southern (Delaware-North Carolina) populations were revealed by microsatellite data. Five of six microsatellite loci were fixed in populations in North Carolina, suggesting a recent founder event or a bottleneck, and the same homozygous genotype was found in herbarium materials collected on the North Carolina coast from more than 60 years ago. An additional set of individuals from the northern limit in Greenland was included in our analysis of mitochondrial intergenic spacer (mt IGS) haplotypes in the northwestern Atlantic. Remarkably, 184 of 188 F. vesiculosus specimens from North Carolina to Greenland shared the same haplotype. Recent colonization of the North American shore from Europe is hypothesized based upon the ubiquity of this common haplotype, which was earlier reported from Europe.

  2. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Fucus vesiculosus extract on cultured human lymphocytes using the chromosome aberration and Comet assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Leite-Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Fucales, Fucaceae was screened for its protective activity using doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. In this study, we assessed the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of three different concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg mL-1 of F. vesiculosus aqueous extract using the chromosome aberration and Comet assays. Treatment of human lymphocyte cultures with 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg mL-1 F. vesiculosus aqueous extract had no effect on the chromosome aberration frequency or on the extent of DNA damage detected by the Comet assay. The antigenotoxic effects of the extract were tested in human lymphocyte cultures treated with 15 µg mL-1 of doxorubicin, either alone or combined with the different concentrations of the extract, which was added to the cultures before, simultaneously with or after the doxorubicin. Only when lymphocytes were pre-treated with extract there was a reduction in doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations and DNA damage as detected by the Comet assay. These results demonstrate that F. vesiculosus aqueous extract is not genotoxic in cultured human lymphocytes and indicate that when added to lymphocyte cultures before doxorubicin it has antigenotoxic activity against doxorubicin-induced DNA damage.

  3. Modelling temporal trends of 137Cs and 99Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus from the eastern Irish coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournane, S; Vintró, L León; Mitchell, P I; McMahon, C A; Smith, K; Long, S

    2011-11-01

    Time series of 137Cs and 99Tc activity concentrations in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and seawater, gathered at three locations on the eastern Irish coastline during the period 1988-2008, have been modelled using a novel approach incorporating a variable uptake rate in the seaweed. Seasonal variations in the time series, identified using spectral analysis, were incorporated into the model which was used to determine transfer kinetic parameters and to predict 137Cs and 99Tc concentrations in seaweed, as influenced by levels in ambient seawater. An optimisation method combining evolutionary and grid search minimisation techniques was adopted to determine the best values for the model parameters, from which concentration factors (CF) and biological half-lives (tb1/2) for 137Cs and 99Tc in F. vesiculosus were calculated. CF values of 170-179 and 1.1×105 l kg(-1) (dry weight) were obtained for 137Cs and 99Tc, respectively, while the corresponding tb1/2 values were 39-47 and 32 days, respectively.

  4. Effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus in reducing symptoms of osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers SP

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stephen P Myers,1 Ann M Mulder,1 Don G Baker,1 Shelley R Robinson,1 Margaret I Rolfe,2 Lyndon Brooks,1 J Helen Fitton,3 1NatMed-Research Unit, Southern Cross University, 2University Centre for Rural Health, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Lismore, NSW, 3Marinova Pty Ltd, Cambridge, TAS, Australia Purpose: Preliminary investigation of a fucoidan with demonstrated reduction in the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA of the hip and knee. Patients and methods: A double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out to determine the safety and efficacy of a 300 mg dose of a Fucus vesiculosus extract (85% fucoidan over a 12-week period in a population (n=122 with mild-to-moderate OA of the hip and knee as measured by the validated instrument "Comprehensive Osteoarthritis Test." Safety was measured by assessing cholesterol, liver function, renal function, and hematopoietic function, and closely monitoring adverse events. Result: Ninety-six participants completed the study. The reduction in symptoms of OA was not significantly different from the placebo response. There were no changes in the blood measurements that were of any clinical significance during the course of the study. Conclusion: The F. vesiculosus fucoidan extract was safe and well tolerated. At a dose of 300 mg, the extract showed no difference in reduction of OA symptoms from the placebo. Keywords: joint pain, clinical trial, seaweed, polysaccharide 

  5. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  6. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elegbede Isa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author’s deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  7. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements.

  8. Oil from algae; salvation from peak oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of the use of algae principally to produce biodiesel fuel, as a replacement for conventional fuel derived from petroleum. The imperative for such a strategy is that cheap supplies of crude oil will begin to wane within a decade and land-based crops cannot provide more than a small amount of the fuel the world currently uses, even if food production were allowed to be severely compromised. For comparison, if one tonne of biodiesel might be produced say, from rape-seed per hectare, that same area of land might ideally yield 100 tonnes of biodiesel grown from algae. Placed into perspective, the entire world annual petroleum demand which is now provided for by 31 billion barrels of crude oil might instead be met from algae grown on an area equivalent to 4% of that of the United States. As an additional benefit, in contrast to growing crops it is not necessary to use arable land, since pond-systems might be placed anywhere, even in deserts, and since algae grow well on saline water or wastewaters, no additional burden is imposed on freshwater-a significant advantage, as water shortages threaten. Algae offer the further promise that they might provide future food supplies, beyond what can be offered by land-based agriculture to a rising global population.

  9. Characterization of the egg vesicular components in the seaweed, Fucus serratus L. (Fucales, Phaeophyta), using enzyme histochemistry and vital staining: the search for a lysosome-like body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, R D; Pitt, D; Moore, M N; Brownlee, C

    1997-03-01

    Fucus serratus eggs were examined for evidence of the existence of a lysosome-like body using enzyme histochemical and vital staining techniques. Simultaneous coupling azo-dye techniques for lysosomal acid phosphatase proved inappropriate owing to endogenous phenolic binding artefacts. The large number of alginate polysaccharide and polyphenolic egg vesicles interfered with vital staining techniques for lysosomes. Lysosomal esterase activity was detected in the abundant egg lipid bodies. The role of the egg lipid body as an equivalent lysosome-like body of higher plants, the spherosome, is discussed in relation to egg fertilization and early zygote development.

  10. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1979-06-01

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs.

  11. Algae a promising alternative for biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sayadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on renewable and environmentally friendly fuel is growing rapidly and many scientists and governments are interested to grow it fast due to limitation of conventional fuel sources and their harmful effects on the environment. Biofuels are not only the best and reliably available fuels attained from renewable sources which are environment friendly. Besdies biofuels are abundantly available in all the locations easily accessible and highly sustainable. In the present review, the authors present a brief highlight of challenges that necessitates to be covered in order to make both, micro as well as macro algae a viable option to produce renewable biofuels. It is interesting to note that algae are varied, pervasive, and productive and also having less impact with plants as a food for human and animals. Further research is required to a high quantity of product innovation because most dedicated algae are faced uneconomically high costs.

  12. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J. E-mail: iamzhu@hotmail.com; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T

    2000-03-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd{sup 3+} by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 {mu}m size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 {mu}m) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation.

  13. Genome and metabolic network of Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi Ec32, a new candidate genus of Alphaproteobacteria frequently associated with brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Dittami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobiales and related orders of Alphaproteobacteria comprise several genera of nodule-inducing symbiotic bacteria associated with plant roots. Here we describe the genome and the metabolic network of Candidatus Phaeomarinobacter ectocarpi Ec32, a member of a new candidate genus closely related to Rhizobiales and found in association with cultures of the filamentous brown algal model Ectocarpus. The Ca. P. ectocarpi genome encodes numerous metabolic pathways that may be relevant for this bacterium to interact with algae. Notably, it possesses a large set of glycoside hydrolases and transporters, which may serve to process and assimilate algal metabolites. It also harbors several proteins likely to be involved in the synthesis of algal hormones such as auxins and cytokinins, as well as the vitamins pyridoxine, biotin, and thiamine. As of today, Ca. P. ectocarpi has not been successfully cultured, and identical 16S rDNA sequences have been found exclusively associated with Ectocarpus. However, related sequences (≥ 97% identity have also been detected free-living and in a Fucus vesiculosus microbiome barcoding project, indicating that the candidate genus Phaeomarinobacter may comprise several species, which may colonize different niches.

  14. Microspectroscopy of the photosynthetic compartment of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We performed microspectroscopic evaluation of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic compartments of algae belonging to different taxonomic divisions and higher plants. The feasibility of microspectroscopy for discriminating among species and/or phylogenetic groups was tested on laboratory cultures. Gaussian bands decompositions and a fitting algorithm, together with fourth-derivative transformation of absorbance spectra, provided a reliable discrimination among chlorophylls a, b and c, phycobiliproteins and carotenoids. Comparative analysis of absorption spectra highlighted the evolutionary grouping of the algae into three main lineages in accordance with the most recent endosymbiotic theories.

  15. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  16. Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fu...

  17. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    only in C. clavulatum, Sargassum cinereum and Padina tetrastromatica whilst mycelial fungi occurred in all. Growth experiments in the laboratory indicated that the growth of thraustochytrids was inhibited on live algae, whereas killed algae supported...

  18. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  19. Defence chemistry modulation by light and temperature shifts and the resulting effects on associated epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Saha

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were (1 to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against epibacteria in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2 to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%, respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds--dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP, fucoxanthin and proline--were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C.

  20. Defence chemistry modulation by light and temperature shifts and the resulting effects on associated epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mahasweta; Rempt, Martin; Stratil, Stephanie B; Wahl, Martin; Pohnert, Georg; Weinberger, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against epibacteria in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2) to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C) and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%), respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds--dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), fucoxanthin and proline--were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP) were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C.

  1. Extraction of essential oils from native plants and algae from the coast of Peniche (Portugal: antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Neves Afonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are highly complex and dynamic ecosystem of interface between land, sea and atmosphere, which also suffer biotic influences. These areas play several important ecological functions, and here we can find an enormous biodiversity. The coastline of Portugal features a high number of endemic flora and vegetation with the potential to provide functional compounds that may provide physiological benefits at nutritional and therapeutic levels, as sources of bioactive substances with antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, antitumalr and anti-inflammatory activity. Among these compounds, we find essential oils, also known as volatile oils, which are a result of secondary metabolism of aromatic plants, containing a large number of substances with varied chemical composition that can be obtained by different methods of extraction. The aim of this study was to extract essential oils of native plants and seaweeds from the coast of Peniche by hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus, with optimization of the purification process. Extracted essential oils were tested as to their ability as antibacterial and antifungal agents, and also as antioxidants. The plants studied for this purpose were Inula chritmoides L., Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata (Guss. Nyman, Daucus carota spp. halophilus and the seaweeds Fucus spiralis L., Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Stypocaulon scoparium (Linnaeus Kützing and Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus P.S.Dixon. The antimicrobial ability was tested in two bacteria species, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using standard procedures. The antioxidant potential was evaluated and from the results obtained, we can conclude that the essential oils extracted by the hydrodistillation method of plants and algae contain bioactive compounds present in its constitution with interesting bio-activity that can offer significant benefits and biotechnological relevance.

  2. Novel Fiber Optic Fluorometer for the Measurement of Alga Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel fluorometer based on fiber optics is briefly introduced for the measurement of alga concentration. Both the exciting light and the fluorescence from alga chlorophyll are transmitted along a fiber cable. By this way, we can get alga concentration by measuring its chlorophyll-a fluorescence intensity. The experiment results show that this instrument is characterized by good sensitivity, linearity and accuracy.

  3. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  4. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fe

  5. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  6. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  7. Pretreatment with Fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus Protected against ConA-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting Both Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Li

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effects of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on concanavalin A (ConA-induced acute liver injury in mice. Pretreatment with fucoidan protected liver function indicated by ALT, AST and histopathological changes by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interferon gamma (IFN-γ. In addition, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by Bax, Bid, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 were inhibited by fucoidan and the action was associated with the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 signal pathways. Our results demonstrated that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus alleviated ConA-induced acute liver injury via the inhibition of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis mediated by the TRADD/TRAF2 and JAK2/STAT1 pathways which were activated by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These findings could provide a potential powerful therapy for T cell-related hepatitis.

  8. Research and development for algae-based technologies in Korea: a review of algae biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Won; Jo, Seung-Woo; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2015-03-01

    This review covers recent research and development (R&D) activities in the field of algae-based biofuels in Korea. As South Korea's energy policy paradigm has focused on the development of green energies, the government has funded several algae biofuel R&D consortia and pilot projects. Three major programs have been launched since 2009, and significant efforts are now being made to ensure a sustainable supply of algae-based biofuels. If these R&D projects are executed as planned for the next 10 years, they will enable us to overcome many technical barriers in algae biofuel technologies and help Korea to become one of the leading countries in green energy by 2020.

  9. Fucoidans - sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Anatolii I; Bilan, M I [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  10. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  11. Pheromone signaling during sexual reproduction in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Johannes; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Algae are found in all aquatic and many terrestrial habitats. They are dominant in phytoplankton and biofilms thereby contributing massively to global primary production. Since algae comprise photosynthetic representatives of the various protoctist groups their physiology and appearance is highly diverse. This diversity is also mirrored in their characteristic life cycles that exhibit various facets of ploidy and duration of the asexual phase as well as gamete morphology. Nevertheless, sexual reproduction in unicellular and colonial algae usually has as common motive that two specialized, sexually compatible haploid gametes establish physical contact and fuse. To guarantee mating success, processes during sexual reproduction are highly synchronized and regulated. This review focuses on sex pheromones of algae that play a key role in these processes. Especially, the diversity of sexual strategies as well as of the compounds involved are the focus of this contribution. Discoveries connected to algal pheromone chemistry shed light on the role of key evolutionary processes, including endosymbiotic events and lateral gene transfer, speciation and adaptation at all phylogenetic levels. But progress in this field might also in the future provide valid tools for the manipulation of aquaculture and environmental processes.

  12. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  13. Research for Developing Renewable Biofuels from Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Paul N. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Task A. Expansion of knowledge related to lipid production and secretion in algae A.1 Lipid biosynthesis in target algal species; Systems biology approaches are being used in combination with recent advances in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas genomics to address lipid accumulation in response to defined nutrient regimes. The UNL Algal Group continues screening additional species of Chlorella and other naturally occurring algae for those with optimal triglyceride production; Of the strains examined by the DOE's Aquatic Species Program, green algae, several species of Chlorella represent the largest group from which oleaginous candidates have been identified; A.1.1. Lipid profiling; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by Nile red and BODIPY staining using high throughput strategies to screen for naturally occurring algae that accumulate triglyceride. These strategies complement those using spectrofluorometry to quantify lipid accumulation; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lipid extracts in conjunction with; Carbon portioning experiments have been completed and the data currently are being analyzed and prepared for publication; Methods in the Black lab were developed to identify and quantify triacylglycerol (TAG), major membrane lipids [diacylglycerol trimethylhomoserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and chloroplast glycolipids], biosynthetic intermediates such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids and different species of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl CoA).

  14. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  15. Design your own Algae Photobioreactor Facade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juarez Ortiz, T.V.; Choi, Z.F.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. There are several reasons why to implement algae in the building facade. Imagine our future buildings covered with photosynthetic skins and vertical gardens, collecting the sun’s energy and making buildings

  16. THE USE OF ALGAE CONCENTRATES, DRIED ALGAE AND ALGAL SUBSTITUTES TO FEED BIVALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludi Parwadani Aji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have high nutritional value and are used to feed adult and larval stages of bivalves, the larvae of some fish and crustaceans and zooplankton. However, microalgae production for aquaculture animal is very expensive. To overcome this, the use of preserved microalgae such as algae concentrate and dried algae, or algal substitutes has been developed. There are both advantages and disadvantages to this alternative food. For example, even though the cost production for algal substitute yeast-based diet is cheaper, their nutritional value is much lower compared to fresh microalgae. Moreover, there is no significant difference in nutritional value between preserved (concentrated or dried and fresh microalgae; however, preserving microalgae for long periods will affect their nutritional value. In spite of this problem, preserved microalgae such as algal concentrate and dried algae seem to be more effective to feed bivalves than algal substitutes yeast based diet due to their availability and relatively high nutritional value. Furthermore, algae concentrates are more suitable to replace fresh algae than dried algae.

  17. Componentes funcionales en aceites de pescado y de alga Functional components in fish and algae oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Conchillo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Buena parte del desarrollo de nuevos alimentos funcionales está encaminada al descubrimiento o aplicación de componentes de los alimentos que favorezcan la instauración de un perfil lipídico saludable en el organismo. El objetivo del trabajo fue realizar la caracterización de la fracción lipídica de dos tipos de aceites, de pescado y de alga, para valorar su potencial utilización como ingredientes funcionales, tanto en relación con el contenido en ácidos grasos de alto peso molecular como con la presencia de esteroles y otros componentes de la fracción insaponificable. Ambos aceites presentaron una fracción lipídica muy rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 de alto peso molecular, con un 33,75% en el caso del aceite de pescado y un 43,97% en el de alga, siendo el EPA el ácido graso mayoritario en el pescado y el DHA en el alga. La relación ω-6/ω-3 fue en ambos aceites inferior a 0,4. En cuanto a la fracciσn insaponificable, el aceite de alga presentσ un contenido 3 veces menor de colesterol y una mayor proporciσn de escualeno. El contenido en fitosteroles fue significativamente superior en el aceite de alga.An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio was lower

  18. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junwei Zhang; Dafang Fu; Jilong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W,λmax =365 nm) was investigated.Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algaewater systems.The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration,and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution.Meanwhile,the cooperation action of algae and Fe(Ⅲ),and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxaciu.The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae.In addition,we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae.This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae,for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution.

  19. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saderne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification. Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the

  20. Positive and negative effects of habitat-forming algae on survival, growth and intra-specific competition of limpets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Marzinelli

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of environmental change on the distribution and abundance of strongly interacting organisms, such as intertidal macroalgae and their grazers, needs a thorough knowledge of their underpinning ecological relationships. Control of grazer-plant interactions is bi-directional on northwestern European coasts: grazing by limpets structures populations of macroalgae, while macroalgae provide habitat and food for limpets. Scottish shores dominated by the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus support lower densities and larger sizes of limpets Patella vulgata than shores with less Fucus. These patterns may be due to differences in inter-size-class competitive interactions of limpets among shores with different covers of Fucus. To examine this model, densities of small and large limpets were manipulated in plots with and without Fucus. Amounts of biofilm were measured in each plot. The presence of Fucus increased survival but hindered growth of small (15 mm TL limpets, which were negatively affected by the presence of large limpets (31 mm TL. In contrast, large limpets were not affected by the presence of Fucus or of small limpets. This suggests the occurrence of asymmetric inter-size-class competition, which was influenced by the presence of macroalgae. Macroalgae and increased densities of limpets did not influence amounts of biofilm. Our findings highlight the role of interactions among organisms in generating ecological responses to environmental change.

  1. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  2. Cytoskeleton and Early Development in Fucoid Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions play important roles during development in many multicellular eukaryotes.Fucoid algae have a long history as models for studying early developmental processes, probably because of the ease with which zygotes can be observed and manipulated in the laboratory. This review discusses cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions in fucoid algal zygotes with an emphasis on the roles played by the cytoskeleton.

  3. Flavonoids from the Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Long-Mei(曾陇梅); 曾陇梅; WANG Chao-Jie(王超杰); 王超杰; SU Jing-Yu(苏镜娱); 苏镜娱; LI Du(李笃); 李笃; OWEN Noel L.; OWEN Noel L; LU Yang(吕扬); 吕扬; LU Nan(鲁南); 鲁南; ZHENG Qi-Tai(郑启泰); 郑启泰

    2001-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, acanthophorin A (1) and acanthophorin B (2), along with three known compounds tiliroside (3),( - )-catechin (4) and quercetin (5) were isolated from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera. The structures of 1 and 2were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed significant anfioxidant activity.

  4. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  5. [Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, G; Salazar, M; Favila, L; Bourges, H

    1996-01-01

    Spirulina, a unicellular filamentous blue-green alga has been consumed by man since ancient times in Mexico and central Africa. It is currently grown in many countries by synthetic methods. Initially the interest in Spirulina was on its nutritive value: it was found almost equal to other plant proteins. More recently, some preclinical testing suggests it has several therapeutic properties such as hypocholesterolemic, immunological, antiviral and antimutagenic. This has led to more detailed evaluations such as nucleic acid content and presence of toxic metals, biogenic toxins and organic chemicals: they have shown absence or presence at tolerable levels according to the recommendations of international regulatory agencies. In animal experiments for acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity the algae did not cause body or organ toxicity. In all instances, the Spirulina administered to the animals were at much higher amounts than those expected for human consumption. On the other hand there is scant information of the effects of the algae in humans. This area needs more research.

  6. Screening for bioactive compounds from algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, M; Santoyo, S; Jaime, L; García-Blairsy Reina, G; Herrero, M; Señoráns, F J; Ibáñez, E

    2010-01-20

    In the present work, a comprehensive methodology to carry out the screening for novel natural functional compounds is presented. To do that, a new strategy has been developed including the use of unexplored natural sources (i.e., algae and microalgae) together with environmentally clean extraction techniques and advanced analytical tools. The developed procedure allows also estimating the functional activities of the different extracts obtained and even more important, to correlate these activities with their particular chemical composition. By applying this methodology it has been possible to carry out the screening for bioactive compounds in the algae Himanthalia elongata and the microalgae Synechocystis sp. Both algae produced active extracts in terms of both antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The obtained pressurized liquid extracts were chemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD. Different fatty acids and volatile compounds with antimicrobial activity were identified, such as phytol, fucosterol, neophytadiene or palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids. Based on the results obtained, ethanol was selected as the most appropriate solvent to extract this kind of compounds from the natural sources studied.

  7. Environmental life cycle comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarens, Andres F; Resurreccion, Eleazer P; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2010-03-01

    Algae are an attractive source of biomass energy since they do not compete with food crops and have higher energy yields per area than terrestrial crops. In spite of these advantages, algae cultivation has not yet been compared with conventional crops from a life cycle perspective. In this work, the impacts associated with algae production were determined using a stochastic life cycle model and compared with switchgrass, canola, and corn farming. The results indicate that these conventional crops have lower environmental impacts than algae in energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and water regardless of cultivation location. Only in total land use and eutrophication potential do algae perform favorably. The large environmental footprint of algae cultivation is driven predominantly by upstream impacts, such as the demand for CO(2) and fertilizer. To reduce these impacts, flue gas and, to a greater extent, wastewater could be used to offset most of the environmental burdens associated with algae. To demonstrate the benefits of algae production coupled with wastewater treatment, the model was expanded to include three different municipal wastewater effluents as sources of nitrogen and phosphorus. Each provided a significant reduction in the burdens of algae cultivation, and the use of source-separated urine was found to make algae more environmentally beneficial than the terrestrial crops.

  8. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  9. Fucoidan from Sargassum sp. and Fucus vesiculosus reduces cell viability of lung carcinoma and melanoma cells in vitro and activates natural killer cells in mice in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu

    2011-01-01

    Fucoidan is known to exhibit crucial biological activities, including anti-tumor activity. In this study, we examined the influence of crude fucoidan extracted from Sargassum sp. (MTA) and Fucus vesiculosus (SIG) on Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LCC) and melanoma B16 cells (MC). In vitro studies were...... performed using cell viability analysis and showed that SIG and MTA fucoidans significantly decreased the viable number of LCC and MC cells in a dose–response fashion. Histochemical staining showed morphological changes of melanoma B16 cells after exposure to fucoidan. The observed changes were indicative...... of crude fucoidan induced apoptosis. Male C57BL/6JJCL mice were subjected to daily i.p. injections over 4 days with either SIG or MTA fucoidan (50 mg/kg body wt.). The cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells was enhanced by crude fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner as indicated by 51Cr labeled YAC...

  10. An antithrombotic fucoidan, unlike heparin, does not prolong bleeding time in a murine arterial thrombosis model: a comparative study of Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls and Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Soon-Ki; Kwon, Oh-Choon; Lee, Sub; Park, Ki-Hyuk; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2012-05-01

    The antithrombotic activities and bleeding effects of selected fucoidans (source from either Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls or from Fucus vesiculosus) have been compared with heparin in the ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombus mouse model. Thrombosis was induced by applying 5% ferric chloride for 3 min on the carotid artery region of Balb/c mouse. Five minutes prior to thrombus induction, mice were infused through the tail vein with either saline (control) or polysaccharides. Either fucoidan or heparin was dosed at 0.1, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.) The carotid blood flow was monitored until more than 60 min post-thrombus induction. Mouse tail transection bleeding time was measured up to 60 min after making a cut in the mouse tail. Both antithrombotic and bleeding effects were observed in a dose-dependent manner for both fucoidans and heparin. Thrombus formation was totally (reflected by Doppler flow meter) inhibited at either 5 or 50 mg/kg of unfractionated Undaria fucoidan or a low-molecular-weight Undaria fucoidan fraction, respectively, without prolonging the time-to-stop bleeding compared with the control (p Fucus fucoidan at 25 mg/kg where the time-to-stop bleeding was still significantly prolonged, by as much as 8 ± 1.7 min (p < 0.02). In contrast the heparin-treated group showed total inhibition of thrombus formation even at a small dose of 0.8 mg/kg (400 IU) at which bleeding continued until 60 min. In conclusion algal fucoidans are highly antithrombotic without potential haemorrhagic effects compared with heparin in the arterial thrombus model, but this property differs from algal species to species, and from the molecular structure of fucoidans.

  11. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Kun; SUN Pei-ting; XIAO Jing-kun; SONG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships' ballast water,experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships' ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.)is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  12. Bromophenols from Marine Algae with Potential Anti-Diabetic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiukun; LIU Ming

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities,including antimicrobial,anticancer,and anti-diabetic effects.Here,we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae,emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications.Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B,α-glucosidase,as well as other mechanisms.

  13. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-15

    exclusively caused by strains of species that are members of the L division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae or cyanobacteria . Although...0 0 Lfl (NAD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION ANNCUAL REPORT Wayne W. Carmichael Sarojini Bose...Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 62770A 6277GA871 AA 378 11 TITLE &who* Secwn~y C11mrfaon) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolation

  14. Effects of triphenyltin exposure on the red alga Eucheuma denticulatum

    OpenAIRE

    Rumampuk, Natalie D. C.; Grevo, Gerung S.; Rumengan, Inneke F. M.; Ohji, Madoka; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Toxic effects of triphenyltin (TPT) on the marine alga Eucheuma denticulatum obtained from Nain Island, North Sulawesi, Indonesia have been examined in laboratory condition. The algal samples were first acclimated in laboratory prepared seawater for three days. The algae were then divided into 12 culture chambers for treatments with different concentrations of TPT between 5-30 μgl^ with 5μgl^ interval, and in another container for control. After two-week experimentation, some samples of algae...

  15. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  16. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal

  17. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses.

  18. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from wastewater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Joshua T; Hengge, Neal N; Sims, Ronald C; Miller, Charles D

    2012-05-01

    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 using wastewater algae biomass as a carbon source was demonstrated. Algae from the Logan City Wastewater Lagoon system grow naturally at high rates providing an abundant source of renewable algal biomass. Batch fermentations were performed with 10% algae as feedstock. Fermentation of acid/base pretreated algae produced 2.74 g/L of total ABE, as compared with 7.27 g/L from pretreated algae supplemented with 1% glucose. Additionally, 9.74 g/L of total ABE was produced when xylanase and cellulase enzymes were supplemented to the pretreated algae media. The 1% glucose supplement increased total ABE production approximately 160%, while supplementing with enzymes resulted in a 250% increase in total ABE production when compared to production from pretreated algae with no supplementation of extraneous sugar and enzymes. Additionally, supplementation of enzymes produced the highest total ABE production yield of 0.311 g/g and volumetric productivity of 0.102 g/Lh. The use of non-pretreated algae produced 0.73 g/L of total ABE. The ability to engineer novel methods to produce these high value products from an abundant and renewable feedstock such as algae could have significant implications in stimulating domestic energy economies.

  19. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  20. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Dean of Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Fatih Demirbas, M. [Sila Science, University Mah., Mekan Sok No. 24, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops. (author)

  1. Buffering and Amplifying Interactions among OAW (Ocean Acidification & Warming) and Nutrient Enrichment on Early Life-Stage Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae) and Their Carry Over Effects to Hypoxia Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Balsam; Kruse, Inken; Graiff, Angelika; Winde, Vera; Lenz, Mark; Wahl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming (OAW) are occurring globally. Additionally, at a more local scale the spreading of hypoxic conditions is promoted by eutrophication and warming. In the semi-enclosed brackish Baltic Sea, occasional upwelling in late summer and autumn may expose even shallow-water communities including the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus to particularly acidified, nutrient-rich and oxygen-poor water bodies. During summer 2014 (July-September) sibling groups of early life-stage F. vesiculosus were exposed to OAW in the presence and absence of enhanced nutrient levels and, subsequently to a single upwelling event in a near-natural scenario which included all environmental fluctuations in the Kiel Fjord, southwestern Baltic Sea, Germany (54°27 ´N, 10°11 ´W). We strove to elucidate the single and combined impacts of these potential stressors, and how stress sensitivity varies among genetically different sibling groups. Enhanced by a circumstantial natural heat wave, warming and acidification increased mortalities and reduced growth in F. vesiculosus germlings. This impact, however, was mitigated by enhanced nutrient conditions. Survival under OAW conditions strongly varied among sibling groups hinting at a substantial adaptive potential of the natural Fucus populations in the Western Baltic. A three-day experimental upwelling caused severe mortality of Fucus germlings, which was substantially more severe in those sibling groups which previously had been exposed to OAW. Our results show that global (OAW), regional (nutrient enrichment) and local pressures (upwelling), both alone and co-occurring may have synergistic and antagonistic effects on survival and/or growth of Fucus germlings. This result emphasizes the need to consider combined stress effects.

  2. Buffering and Amplifying Interactions among OAW (Ocean Acidification & Warming and Nutrient Enrichment on Early Life-Stage Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae and Their Carry Over Effects to Hypoxia Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsam Al-Janabi

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming (OAW are occurring globally. Additionally, at a more local scale the spreading of hypoxic conditions is promoted by eutrophication and warming. In the semi-enclosed brackish Baltic Sea, occasional upwelling in late summer and autumn may expose even shallow-water communities including the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus to particularly acidified, nutrient-rich and oxygen-poor water bodies. During summer 2014 (July-September sibling groups of early life-stage F. vesiculosus were exposed to OAW in the presence and absence of enhanced nutrient levels and, subsequently to a single upwelling event in a near-natural scenario which included all environmental fluctuations in the Kiel Fjord, southwestern Baltic Sea, Germany (54°27 ´N, 10°11 ´W. We strove to elucidate the single and combined impacts of these potential stressors, and how stress sensitivity varies among genetically different sibling groups. Enhanced by a circumstantial natural heat wave, warming and acidification increased mortalities and reduced growth in F. vesiculosus germlings. This impact, however, was mitigated by enhanced nutrient conditions. Survival under OAW conditions strongly varied among sibling groups hinting at a substantial adaptive potential of the natural Fucus populations in the Western Baltic. A three-day experimental upwelling caused severe mortality of Fucus germlings, which was substantially more severe in those sibling groups which previously had been exposed to OAW. Our results show that global (OAW, regional (nutrient enrichment and local pressures (upwelling, both alone and co-occurring may have synergistic and antagonistic effects on survival and/or growth of Fucus germlings. This result emphasizes the need to consider combined stress effects.

  3. Buffering and Amplifying Interactions among OAW (Ocean Acidification & Warming) and Nutrient Enrichment on Early Life-Stage Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyceae) and Their Carry Over Effects to Hypoxia Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Balsam; Kruse, Inken; Graiff, Angelika; Winde, Vera; Lenz, Mark; Wahl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming (OAW) are occurring globally. Additionally, at a more local scale the spreading of hypoxic conditions is promoted by eutrophication and warming. In the semi-enclosed brackish Baltic Sea, occasional upwelling in late summer and autumn may expose even shallow-water communities including the macroalga Fucus vesiculosus to particularly acidified, nutrient-rich and oxygen-poor water bodies. During summer 2014 (July–September) sibling groups of early life-stage F. vesiculosus were exposed to OAW in the presence and absence of enhanced nutrient levels and, subsequently to a single upwelling event in a near-natural scenario which included all environmental fluctuations in the Kiel Fjord, southwestern Baltic Sea, Germany (54°27 ´N, 10°11 ´W). We strove to elucidate the single and combined impacts of these potential stressors, and how stress sensitivity varies among genetically different sibling groups. Enhanced by a circumstantial natural heat wave, warming and acidification increased mortalities and reduced growth in F. vesiculosus germlings. This impact, however, was mitigated by enhanced nutrient conditions. Survival under OAW conditions strongly varied among sibling groups hinting at a substantial adaptive potential of the natural Fucus populations in the Western Baltic. A three-day experimental upwelling caused severe mortality of Fucus germlings, which was substantially more severe in those sibling groups which previously had been exposed to OAW. Our results show that global (OAW), regional (nutrient enrichment) and local pressures (upwelling), both alone and co-occurring may have synergistic and antagonistic effects on survival and/or growth of Fucus germlings. This result emphasizes the need to consider combined stress effects. PMID:27043710

  4. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  5. Pheromones in marine algae: A technical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, G.; Müller, D. G.; Fritz, P.

    1995-03-01

    It is now well known that many marine organisms use low-molecular volatile substances as signals, in order to coordinate activities between different individuals. The study of such pheromones requires the isolation and enrichment of the secretions from undisturbed living cells or organisms over extended periods of time. The Grob-Hersch extraction device, which we describe here, avoids adverse factors for the biological materials such as strong water currents, rising gas bubbles or chemical solvents. Furthermore, the formation of sea-water spray is greatly reduced. The application of this technique for the isolation of pheromones of marine algae and animals is described.

  6. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for "molecular pharming" in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered - from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

  8. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  9. Sustainability of algae derived biodiesel: a mass balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfromm, Peter H; Amanor-Boadu, Vincent; Nelson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous chemical engineering mass balance/unit operations approach is applied here to bio-diesel from algae mass culture. An equivalent of 50,000,000 gallons per year (0.006002 m3/s) of petroleum-based Number 2 fuel oil (US, diesel for compression-ignition engines, about 0.1% of annual US consumption) from oleaginous algae is the target. Methyl algaeate and ethyl algaeate diesel can according to this analysis conceptually be produced largely in a technologically sustainable way albeit at a lower available diesel yield. About 11 square miles of algae ponds would be needed with optimistic assumptions of 50 g biomass yield per day and m2 pond area. CO2 to foster algae growth should be supplied from a sustainable source such as a biomass-based ethanol production. Reliance on fossil-based CO2 from power plants or fertilizer production renders algae diesel non-sustainable in the long term.

  10. Reduction of water and energy requirement of algae cultivation using an algae biofilm photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Altan; Kinney, Kerry; Katz, Lynn; Berberoglu, Halil

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the construction and performance of an algae biofilm photobioreactor that offers a significant reduction of the energy and water requirements of cultivation. The green alga Botryococcus braunii was cultivated as a biofilm. The system achieved a direct biomass harvest concentration of 96.4 kg/m(3) with a total lipid content 26.8% by dry weight and a productivity of 0.71 g/m(2) day, representing a light to biomass energy conversion efficiency of 2.02%. Moreover, it reduced the volume of water required to cultivate a kilogram of algal biomass by 45% and reduced the dewatering energy requirement by 99.7% compared to open ponds. Finally, the net energy ratio of the cultivation was 6.00 including dewatering. The current issues of this novel photobioreactor are also identified to further improve the system productivity and scaleup.

  11. Phycobiliproteins: A Novel Green Tool from Marine Origin Blue-Green Algae and Red Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rashmi; Parra, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine species are comprising about a half of the whole global biodiversity; the sea offers an enormous resource for novel bioactive compounds. Several of the marine origin species show multifunctional bioactivities and characteristics that are useful for a discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active compounds. For millennia, marine species that includes cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae have been targeted to explore their enormous potential candidature status along with a wider spectrum of novel applications in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Among them, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes, phylogenetically a primitive group of Gramnegative prokaryotes, ranging from Arctic to Antarctic regions, capable of carrying out photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. In the recent decade, a great deal of research attention has been paid on the pronouncement of bio-functional proteins along with novel peptides, vitamins, fine chemicals, renewable fuel and bioactive compounds, e.g., phycobiliproteins from marine species, cyanobacteria and red algae. Interestingly, they are extensively commercialized for natural colorants in food and cosmetics, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective agents and fluorescent neo-glycoproteins as probes for single particle fluorescence imaging fluorescent applications in clinical and immunological analysis. However, a comprehensive knowledge and technological base for augmenting their commercial utilities are lacking. Therefore, this paper will provide an overview of the phycobiliproteins-based research literature from marine cyanobacteria and red algae. This review is also focused towards analyzing global and commercial activities with application oriented-based research. Towards the end, the information is also given on the potential biotechnological and biomedical applications of phycobiliproteins.

  12. The globins of cyanobacteria and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric A; Lecomte, Juliette T J

    2013-01-01

    Approximately, 20 years ago, a haemoglobin gene was identified within the genome of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Haemoglobins have now been confirmed in multiple species of photosynthetic microbes beyond N. commune, and the diversity of these proteins has recently come under increased scrutiny. This chapter summarizes the state of knowledge concerning the phylogeny, physiology and chemistry of globins in cyanobacteria and green algae. Sequence information is by far the best developed and the most rapidly expanding aspect of the field. Structural and ligand-binding properties have been described for just a few proteins. Physiological data are available for even fewer. Although activities such as nitric oxide dioxygenation and oxygen scavenging are strong candidates for cellular function, dedicated studies will be required to complete the story on this intriguing and ancient group of proteins.

  13. Juvenile life stages of the brown alga Fucus serratus L. are more sensitive to combined stress from high copper concentration and temperature than adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2014-01-01

    not significantly so. The photosynthetic performance (i.e., chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: F v/F m, maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax) and maximum non-photosynthetic quenching (NPQmax) of adults was largely unaffected by both copper and temperature. Germling survival, growth rate and chlorophyll...... endpoints were growth rate, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and for germlings also survival. The growth rate of adult specimens of F. serratus changed with increasing temperature. Growth tended to be negatively affected by high concentrations of copper when exposed to heat (22 °C) though...

  14. Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, H.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone;

    1996-01-01

    The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source of infec......The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source......'Etoile, France), but further genetic and physiological analyses identified them as Shewanella alga....

  15. Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.P.J.; Vulsteke, E.; Visser, de C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these marke

  16. Effects of elevated CO2 on sensitivity of six species of algae and interspecific competition of three species of algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (5000 μl/L) on sensitivity comparison of six species of algae and interspecific competition of three species of algae were investigated. The results showed that, the cell densities of six species of algae grown in elevated CO2significantly increased compared to those in ambient CO2 (360 μl/L), and with the time prolonged, the increasing extent increased.Therefore, elevated CO2 can promote the growth of six species of algae. However, there were differences in sensitivity between six species of algae. Based on the effects of elevated CO2 on biomass, the sensitive order (from high to low) was Platymanas sp.,Platymanas subcordiformis, Nitzschia closterium, Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, Dunaliella salina, Chlorella sp., on the condition of solitary cultivation. Compared to ambient CO2, elevated CO2 promoted the growth of three species of algae, Platymanas subcordiformis, Nitzschia closterium and Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701 under the condition of mixed cultivation. The sensitivity of the three species to elevated CO2 in mixed cultivation changed a lot compared to the condition of solitary cultivation. When grown in elevated CO2 under the condition of mixed cultivation, the sensitive order from high to low were Nitzschia clostertium, Platymonas subcordiformis and Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701. However, under the condition of solitary cultivation, the sensitive order in elevated CO2 was Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, Nitzschia clostertium, Platymonas subcordiformis, from sensitive to less sensitive. On the day 21, the dominant algae, the sub-dominant algae and inferior algae grown in elevated CO2 did not change. However, the population increasing dynamic and composition proportion of three algal species have significantly changed.

  17. Fucoidan from Sargassum sp. and Fucus vesiculosus reduces cell viability of lung carcinoma and melanoma cells in vitro and activates natural killer cells in mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Meyer, Anne S

    2011-10-01

    Fucoidan is known to exhibit crucial biological activities, including anti-tumor activity. In this study, we examined the influence of crude fucoidan extracted from Sargassum sp. (MTA) and Fucus vesiculosus (SIG) on Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LCC) and melanoma B16 cells (MC). In vitro studies were performed using cell viability analysis and showed that SIG and MTA fucoidans significantly decreased the viable number of LCC and MC cells in a dose-response fashion. Histochemical staining showed morphological changes of melanoma B16 cells after exposure to fucoidan. The observed changes were indicative of crude fucoidan induced apoptosis. Male C57BL/6JJCL mice were subjected to daily i.p. injections over 4 days with either SIG or MTA fucoidan (50mg/kg body wt.). The cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells was enhanced by crude fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner as indicated by (51)Cr labeled YAC-1 target cell release. This study provides substantial indications that crude fucoidan exerts bioactive effects on lung and skin cancer model cells in vitro and induces enhanced natural killer cell activity in mice in vivo.

  18. Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by Fucus vesiculosus in single and multi-metal contamination scenarios and its effect on growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Bruno; Lopes, Cláudia B; Figueira, Paula; Rocha, Luciana S; Duarte, Armando C; Vale, Carlos; Pardal, Miguel A; Pereira, Eduarda

    2017-03-01

    Results of 7-days exposure to metals, using environmentally realistic conditions, evidenced the high potential of living Fucus vesiculosus to remove Pb, Hg and Cd from contaminated salt waters. For different contamination scenarios (single- and multi-contamination), ca 450 mg L(-1) (dry weight), enable to reduce the concentrations of Pb in 65%, of Hg in 95% and of Cd between 25 and 76%. Overall, bioconcentration factors ranged from 600 to 2300. Elovich kinetic model described very well the bioaccumulation of Pb and Cd over time, while pseudo-second-order model adjusted better to experimental data regarding Hg. F. vesiculosus showed different affinity toward studied metals, following the sequence order: Hg > Pb > Cd. Analysis of metal content in the macroalgae after bioaccumulation, proved that all metal removed from solution was bound to the biomass. Depuration experiments reveled no significant loss of metal back to solution. Exposure to contaminants only adversely affected the organism's growth for the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb. Findings are an important contribute for the development of remediation biotechnologies for confined saline waters contaminated with trace metal contaminants, more efficient and with lower costs than the traditional treatment methods.

  19. Herb-drug interaction of Fucus vesiculosus extract and amiodarone in rats: a potential risk for reduced bioavailability of amiodarone in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Abrantes, João; Falcão, Amílcar

    2013-02-01

    Fucus vesiculosus is a seaweed claimed to be useful for obesity management. Therefore, considering the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular diseases, this work aimed to assess the potential for an herb-drug interaction among a standardized F. vesiculosus extract (GMP certificate) and amiodarone (a narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In a first pharmacokinetic study, rats were simultaneously co-administered with a single-dose of F. vesiculosus (575 mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.); in a second study, rats were pre-treated during 14 days with F. vesiculosus (575 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and received amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. After analysis of the pharmacokinetic data it deserves to be highlighted the significant decrease in the peak plasma concentration of amiodarone (55.4%) as well as the reduction of systemic exposure to the parent drug (~30%) following the simultaneous co-administration of F. vesiculosus extract and amiodarone. This paper reports, for the first time, the herb-drug interaction between F. vesiculosus and amiodarone, which determined a considerable decrease on amiodarone bioavailability in rats. Therefore, the therapeutic efficacy of amiodarone may be compromised by the concurrent administration of herbal slimming medicines/dietary supplements containing F. vesiculosus.

  20. Protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on liver fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smad pathway-mediated inhibition of extracellular matrix and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Feng, Jiao; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Shizan; Zhou, Yuqing; Zhou, Shunfeng; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a dynamic reversible pathological process in the development of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis. However, the current treatments are not administered for a long term due to their various side effects. Autophagy is initiated to decompose damaged or excess organelles, which had been found to alter the progression of liver fibrosis. In this article, we hypothesized that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus may attenuate liver fibrosis in mice by inhibition of the extracellular matrix and autophagy in carbon tetrachloride- and bile duct ligation-induced animal models of liver fibrosis. The results were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Fucoidan from F. vesiculosus could inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells and the formation of extracellular matrix and autophagosomes, and its effect may be associated with the downregulation of transforming growth factor beta 1/Smads pathways. Fucoidan, as an autophagy and transforming growth factor beta 1 inhibitor, could be a promising potential therapeutic agent for liver fibrosis.

  1. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported.

  2. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eWang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO2 and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In the article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed.

  3. Lab on a chip technologies for algae detection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Allison; Rohrlack, Thomas; Bellouard, Yves

    2012-08-01

    Over the last few decades, lab on a chip technologies have emerged as powerful tools for high-accuracy diagnosis with minute quantities of liquid and as tools for exploring cell properties in general. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of this technology in the context of algae detection and monitoring. We start with an overview of the detection methods currently used for algae monitoring, followed by a review of lab on a chip devices for algae detection and classification, and then discuss a case study based on our own research activities. We conclude with a discussion on future challenges and motivations for algae-oriented lab on a chip technologies.

  4. Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhanyou; O'Fallon, James V; Chen, Shulin

    2011-11-01

    Using captured CO(2) to grow microalgae is limited by the high cost of CO(2) capture and transportation, as well as significant CO(2) loss during algae culture. Moreover, algae grow poorly at night, but CO(2) cannot be temporarily stored until sunrise. To address these challenges, we discuss a process where CO(2) is captured as bicarbonate and used as feedstock for algae culture, and the carbonate regenerated by the culture process is used as an absorbent to capture more CO(2). This process would significantly reduce carbon capture costs because it does not require additional energy for carbonate regeneration. Furthermore, not only would transport of the aqueous bicarbonate solution cost less than for that of compressed CO(2), but using bicarbonate would also provide a superior alternative for CO(2) delivery to an algae culture system.

  5. Kalaärimeeste kohus algas venitamisega / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2007-01-01

    Harju maakohtus algas kohtuprotsess veterinaar- ja toiduameti endise asejuhi Vladimir Razumovski väidetava altkäemaksuvõtmise üle, kus on süüdistavaid eraisikuid ja ettevõtjaid. Lisa: Kes on kohtu all?

  6. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production.

  7. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  8. Scenario analysis of large scale algae production in tubular photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Beveren, van P.J.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae productivity in tubular photobioreactors depends on algae species, location, tube diameter, biomass concentration, distance between tubes and for vertically stacked systems, the number of horizontal tubes per stack. A simulation model for horizontal and vertically stacked horizontal tubul

  9. Chemical examination of the Red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analyses of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the marine alga Acanthophora spicifera exhibiting antifertility activity led to the isolation of sterols and fatty acids as well as the rare dipeptides aurantiamides. All the compounds were...

  10. Calculating the global contribution of coralline algae to carbon burial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. van der Heijden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions is changing the global marine environment and is causing warming and acidification of the oceans. Reduction of CO2 to a sustainable level is required to avoid further marine change. Many studies investigate the potential of marine carbon sinks (e.g. seagrass to mitigate anthropogenic emissions, however, information on storage by coralline algae and the beds they create is scant. Calcifying photosynthetic organisms, including coralline algae, can act as a CO2 sink via photosynthesis and CaCO3 dissolution and act as a CO2 source during respiration and CaCO3 production on short-term time scales. Long-term carbon storage potential might come from the accumulation of coralline algae deposits over geological time scales. Here, the carbon storage potential of coralline algae is assessed using meta-analysis of their global organic and inorganic carbon production and the processes involved in this metabolism. Organic and inorganic production were estimated at 330 g C m−2 yr−1 and 880 g CaCO3 m−2 yr−1 respectively giving global organic/inorganic C production of 0.7/1.8 × 109 t C yr−1. Calcium carbonate production by free-living/crustose coralline algae (CCA corresponded to a sediment accretion of 70/450 mm kyr−1. Using this potential carbon storage by coralline algae, the global production of free-living algae/CCA was 0.4/1.2 × 109 t C yr−1 suggesting a total potential carbon sink of 1.6 × 109 t C yr−1. Coralline algae therefore have production rates similar to mangroves, saltmarshes and seagrasses representing an as yet unquantified but significant carbon store, however, further empirical investigations are needed to determine the dynamics and stability of that store.

  11. Biomethanation of Red Algae from the Eutrophied Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Rajib

    2009-01-01

    In the semi-enclosed Baltic Sea, excessive filamentous macro-algal biomass growth as a result of eutrophication is an increasing environmental problem. Drifting huge masses of red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium accumulate on the open shore, up to five tones of algae per meter beach. During the aerobic decomposition of these algal bodies, large quantities of red colored effluents leak into the water what are toxic for the marine environment. In this study, feasibilit...

  12. Lipid constituents of the red alga Acantophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De; Govenkar, M.B.

    solitary reference on the pollution of marine alga Stoechospermum marginatum \\[13\\] by the esters. Ortho-phthalic esters are being reported here for the first time as pollutants of marine red alga Acantophora spic(\\['era. The presence of para... compounds in the order designated as 1 2, 3 and 4. All these compounds were purified by repeated chromatography over silica gel. Acknowledgements--The authors wish to thank Dr. E. DeSa, Director, National Institute of Ocean- ography, for his keen...

  13. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Hossain, A.B.M.; Aishah Salleh; Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce; Partha chowdhury; Mohd Naqiuddin

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO...

  14. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  15. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  16. Study on Algae Removal by Immobilized Biosystem on Sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Haiyan; HU Wenrong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake's water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae,organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively.The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans.Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  17. Outflow of radiocaesium from the Baltic Sea detected in brown algae along the southern Norwegian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straelberg, E.; Christensen, G.C. [Inst. for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)

    2002-12-01

    Our calculations, based on measurements of {sup 137}Cs in Fucus vesiculosus, show that at present the major source of radiocaesium in the seaweed at the coast of southern Norway is the Chernobyl fallout. The major part of this activity is due to the outflow from the Baltic Sea. A maximum of 25 % of the radiocaesium in the seaweed may originate from Norwegian rivers. (au)

  18. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Roy-Lachapelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF, anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  19. Coccolithophorid algae culture in closed photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheimani, Navid R; Isdepsky, Andreas; Lisec, Jan; Raes, Eric; Borowitzka, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    The feasibility of growth, calcium carbonate and lipid production of the coccolithophorid algae (Prymnesiophyceae), Pleurochrysis carterae, Emiliania huxleyi, and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, was investigated in plate, carboy, airlift, and tubular photobioreactors. The plate photobioreactor was the most promising closed cultivation system. All species could be grown in the carboy photobioreactor. However, P. carterae was the only species which grew in an airlift photobioreactor. Despite several attempts to grow these coccolithophorid species in the tubular photobioreactor (Biocoil), including modification of the airlift and sparger design, no net growth could be achieved. The shear produced by turbulence and bubble effects are the most likely reasons for this failure to grow in the Biocoil. The highest total dry weight, lipid and calcium carbonate productivities achieved by P. carterae in the plate photobioreactors were 0.54, 0.12, and 0.06 g L(-1) day(-1) respectively. Irrespective of the type of photobioreactor, the productivities were P. carterae > E. huxleyi > G. oceanica. Pleurochrysis carterae lipid (20-25% of dry weight) and calcium carbonate (11-12% of dry weight) contents were also the highest of all species tested.

  20. SOIL ALGAE OF BLADE OF COIL IN DONETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva I.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On territory of Donbass for more than 200 years the underground coal mining has produced, accompanied by the formation of the mine dumps. Finding ways to reduce their negative impact on the environment should be based on their comprehensive study. The soil algae are active participants in the syngenetic processes in industrial dumps of different origin. The purpose of this paper is to identify the species composition and dominant algae groups in dump mine SH/U5 “Western” in the western part of Donetsk.The test blade is covered with vegetation to the middle from all sides, and on the north side of 20-25 m to the top. The vegetation cover of the lower and middle tiers of all the exposures range in 70-80%. Projective vegetation cover of upper tiers of the northern, north-eastern and north-western exposures are in the range of 20-40%, other – 5-10%. We revealed some 38 algae species as a result of our research in southern, northern, western, and eastern slopes of the blade “Western”. The highest species diversity has Chlorophyta - 14 species (36.8% of the total number of species, then Cyanophyta - 9 (23,7%, Bacillariophyta - 7 (18,4%, Xantophyta - 5 (13.2%, and Eustigmatophyta - 3 (7.9%. The dominants are represented by Hantzschia amphyoxys (Ehrenberg Grunow in Cleve et Grunow, Bracteacoccus aerius, Klebsormidium flaccidum (Kützing Silva et al., Phormidium autumnale, Pinnularia borealis Ehrenberg, Planothidium lanceolatum (Brebisson in Kützing Bukhtiyarova, Xanthonema exile (Klebs Silva.It should be noted that the species composition of algae groups in different slopes of the blade was significantly different. Jacquard coefficient was calculated for algae communities varied in the range of 15,4-39,1%. The smallest number of algae species was observed on the southern slope of the blade (14 species, maximum was registered in the areas of north and west slopes. Differences in the species composition of algae were also observed in three

  1. Two-Step Evolution of Endosymbiosis between Hydra and Algae

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-07-09

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  2. Plasticity predicts evolution in a marine alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, C Elisa; Collins, Sinéad

    2014-10-22

    Under global change, populations have four possible responses: 'migrate, acclimate, adapt or die' (Gienapp et al. 2008 Climate change and evolution: disentangling environmental and genetic response. Mol. Ecol. 17, 167-178. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03413.x)). The challenge is to predict how much migration, acclimatization or adaptation populations are capable of. We have previously shown that populations from more variable environments are more plastic (Schaum et al. 2013 Variation in plastic responses of a globally distributed picoplankton species to ocean acidification. Nature 3, 298-230. (doi:10.1038/nclimate1774)), and here we use experimental evolution with a marine microbe to learn that plastic responses predict the extent of adaptation in the face of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Specifically, plastic populations evolve more, and plastic responses in traits other than growth can predict changes in growth in a marine microbe. The relationship between plasticity and evolution is strongest when populations evolve in fluctuating environments, which favour the evolution and maintenance of plasticity. Strikingly, plasticity predicts the extent, but not direction of phenotypic evolution. The plastic response to elevated pCO2 in green algae is to increase cell division rates, but the evolutionary response here is to decrease cell division rates over 400 generations until cells are dividing at the same rate their ancestors did in ambient CO2. Slow-growing cells have higher mitochondrial potential and withstand further environmental change better than faster growing cells. Based on this, we hypothesize that slow growth is adaptive under CO2 enrichment when associated with the production of higher quality daughter cells.

  3. Comparing the relative importance of water-borne cues and direct grazing for the induction of defenses in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöthe, Carla R; John, Uwe; Molis, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Some seaweed species have been shown to release water-borne cues after herbivore attack, for example, to attract natural enemies of the herbivore. These cues may also be sensed by neighboring seaweeds and used to adjust their defenses in anticipation of a possible herbivore attack. Several studies indicated information transfer between seaweed individuals in the past, including the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Previous work showed induction of defenses in F. vesiculosus in response to water-borne cues released by isopod-grazed conspecifics. In contrast, another study on induced responses after exposure to cues from isopod-grazed neighbors using the same seaweed species yielded contradictory results. This study reassessed the ability of F. vesiculosus individuals to sense water-borne cues released by isopod-grazed neighbors in a series of experiments that monitored F. vesiculosus palatability in response to direct grazing by Idotea baltica and water-borne cues from isopod-grazed neighbors relative to unmanipulated seaweed pieces. Two-choice feeding assays were conducted with both fresh and reconstituted seaweed pieces. Direct grazing by I. baltica induced a chemical defense in F. vesiculosus, confirming results of previous studies. In contrast, evidence for increased herbivore resistance in seaweed pieces that were located downstream of isopod-grazed F. vesiculosus could not be provided. The lack of defense induction in response to grazing of conspecific neighbors may be explained by the environmental conditions and the scattered distribution of F. vesiculosus individuals in the intertidal zone of Helgoland, which may render resource investment in the emission and/or response to water-borne cues at this site unprofitable.

  4. Influence of releases of (129)I and (137)Cs from European reprocessing facilities in Fucus vesiculosus and seawater from the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Niagolova, N; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Pinto-Gómez, A R; Abril, J A; García-León, M

    2014-08-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T1/2=15.7×10(6) years) that is present in the environment because of natural and anthropogenic sources. Compared to the pre-nuclear era, large amounts of (129)I have been released to the marine environment, especially as liquid and gaseous discharges from two European reprocessing facilities located at Sellafield (England) and La Hague (France). The marine environment, i.e., the oceans, is the major source of iodine. Brown seaweed accumulates iodine at high levels up to 1.0% of dry weigh, and therefore they are ideal bioindicators for studying levels of (129)I. In this work, (129)I concentrations have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and seawater collected in the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas in July 2007. The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (44-575)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seaweed and (5.4-51)×10(9) atoms g(-1) in seawater, with an enhancement in the Skagerrak area in comparison to the Kattegat area. Iodine-129 concentrations in both seaweed and seawater were used to determine the concentration factor of iodine in brown seaweed F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios in the Skagerrak area and their gradually decreasing trend to the Kattegat indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in those areas comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants.

  5. Restructuring of epibacterial communities on Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili in response to elevated pCO2 and increased temperature levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte eMensch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine multicellular organisms in composition with their associated microbiota – representing metaorganisms – are confronted with constantly changing environmental conditions. In 2110, the seawater temperature is predicted to be increased by approximately 5 °C, and the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2 is expected to reach approximately 1,000 ppm. In order to assess the response of marine metaorganisms to global changes, e.g. by effects on host-microbe interactions, we evaluated the response of epibacterial communities associated with Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili (F. mytili to future climate conditions. During an 11-week lasting mesocosm experiment on the island of Sylt (Germany in spring 2014, North Sea F. mytili individuals were exposed to elevated pCO2 (1,000 ppm and increased temperature levels (∆+5 °C. Both abiotic factors were tested for single and combined effects on the epibacterial community composition over time, with three replicates per treatment. The respective community structures of bacterial consortia associated to the surface of F. mytili were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing after 0, 4, 8 and 11 weeks of treatment (in total 96 samples. The results demonstrated that the epibacterial community structure was strongly affected by temperature, but only weakly by elevated pCO2. No interaction effect of both factors was observed in the combined treatment. We identified several indicator operational taxonomic units (iOTUs that were strongly influenced by the respective experimental factors. An OTU association network analysis revealed that relationships between OTUs were mainly governed by habitat. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of how epibacterial communities associated with F. mytili may adapt to future changes in seawater acidity and temperature, ultimately with potential consequences for host-microbe interactions.

  6. Pre- and post-Chernobyl accident levels of 129I and 137Cs in the Southern Baltic Sea by brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; Holm, E; Enamorado-Báez, S M; Abril, J A; Pinto-Gómez, A R; López-Gutiérrez, J M; García-León, M

    2013-01-01

    (129)I is a very long-lived radionuclide (T(1/2) = 15.7 × 10(6) years) that is present in the environment both because of natural and anthropogenic sources. In this work (129)I concentration and (129)I/(127)I ratio have been determined in seaweed Fucus vesiculosus collected in the Southern Baltic Sea during 1982 and 1986 (post-Chernobyl accident). The resulting data were evaluated in terms of (129)I concentrations, (129)I/(127)I and (129)I/(137)Cs ratios. (129)I concentrations were found to be in the order of (0.82-5.89) × 10(9) atoms g(-1) in 1982 and (1.33-38.83) × 10(9) atoms g(-1) in 1986. The (129)I/(127)I ratios ranged from (22.7-87.8) × 10(-10) for seaweed collected in 1982 and from (26.1-305.5) × 10(-10) for seaweed collected in 1986. Also a linear relationship was established for (127)I concentrations in seawater and salinity in this area, enabling the estimation of concentration factors for (127)I in F. vesiculosus. The high levels of (129)I and (129)I/(127)I in the Kattegat and their gradually decreasing trend to the Baltic Sea indicates that the most important contribution to the (129)I inventory in the Baltic Sea area comes from Sellafield and La Hague reprocessing plants. With respect to Chernobyl accident, (129)I concentrations in samples collected in 1986 were not much higher than those expected in less contaminated samples from 1982. This supports the view that the contribution of the Chernobyl accident to (129)I in the Baltic region was not significant.

  7. Induced resistance to periwinkle grazing in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae): molecular insights and seaweed-mediated effects on herbivore interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöthe, Carla R; Molis, Markus; John, Uwe

    2014-06-01

    Herbivory is a key factor for controlling seaweed biomass and community structure. To cope with grazers, constitutive and inducible defenses have evolved in macroalgae. Inducible chemical defenses show grazer-specificity and, at the same time, have the potential to mediate interactions among different herbivores. Furthermore, temporal variations in defense patterns, which may adjust antiherbivory responses to grazing pressure, were reported in two brown seaweeds. However, underlying cellular processes are only rudimentarily characterized. To investigate the response of Fucus vesiculosus (L.) to periwinkle (Littorina obtusata) grazing, feeding assays were conducted at several times during a 33 d induction experiment. Underlying cellular processes were analyzed through gene expression profiling. Furthermore, direct processes driving the antiherbivory response to periwinkle grazing and indirect effects on another herbivore, the isopod Idotea baltica, were elucidated. F. vesiculosus showed multiple defense pulses in response to periwinkle grazing, suggesting a high level of temporal variability in antiherbivory traits. Defense induction was accompanied by extensive transcriptome changes. Approximately 400 genes were significantly up-/down-regulated relative to controls, including genes relevant for translation and the cytoskeleton. Genes involved in photosynthesis were mostly down-regulated, while genes related to the respiratory chain were up-regulated, indicating alterations in resource allocation. The comparison of genes regulated in response to isopod (previous study) and periwinkle grazing suggests specific induction of several genes by each herbivore. However, grazing by both herbivores induced similar metabolic processes in F. vesiculosus. These common defense-related processes reflected in strong indirect effects as isopods were also repelled after previous grazing by L. obtusata.

  8. Comparing the relative importance of water-borne cues and direct grazing for the induction of defenses in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R Flöthe

    Full Text Available Some seaweed species have been shown to release water-borne cues after herbivore attack, for example, to attract natural enemies of the herbivore. These cues may also be sensed by neighboring seaweeds and used to adjust their defenses in anticipation of a possible herbivore attack. Several studies indicated information transfer between seaweed individuals in the past, including the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Previous work showed induction of defenses in F. vesiculosus in response to water-borne cues released by isopod-grazed conspecifics. In contrast, another study on induced responses after exposure to cues from isopod-grazed neighbors using the same seaweed species yielded contradictory results. This study reassessed the ability of F. vesiculosus individuals to sense water-borne cues released by isopod-grazed neighbors in a series of experiments that monitored F. vesiculosus palatability in response to direct grazing by Idotea baltica and water-borne cues from isopod-grazed neighbors relative to unmanipulated seaweed pieces. Two-choice feeding assays were conducted with both fresh and reconstituted seaweed pieces. Direct grazing by I. baltica induced a chemical defense in F. vesiculosus, confirming results of previous studies. In contrast, evidence for increased herbivore resistance in seaweed pieces that were located downstream of isopod-grazed F. vesiculosus could not be provided. The lack of defense induction in response to grazing of conspecific neighbors may be explained by the environmental conditions and the scattered distribution of F. vesiculosus individuals in the intertidal zone of Helgoland, which may render resource investment in the emission and/or response to water-borne cues at this site unprofitable.

  9. Restructuring of Epibacterial Communities on Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili in Response to Elevated pCO2 and Increased Temperature Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensch, Birte; Neulinger, Sven C; Graiff, Angelika; Pansch, Andreas; Künzel, Sven; Fischer, Martin A; Schmitz, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    Marine multicellular organisms in composition with their associated microbiota-representing metaorganisms-are confronted with constantly changing environmental conditions. In 2110, the seawater temperature is predicted to be increased by ~5°C, and the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) is expected to reach approximately 1000 ppm. In order to assess the response of marine metaorganisms to global changes, e.g., by effects on host-microbe interactions, we evaluated the response of epibacterial communities associated with Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili (F. mytili) to future climate conditions. During an 11-week lasting mesocosm experiment on the island of Sylt (Germany) in spring 2014, North Sea F. mytili individuals were exposed to elevated pCO2 (1000 ppm) and increased temperature levels (Δ+5°C). Both abiotic factors were tested for single and combined effects on the epibacterial community composition over time, with three replicates per treatment. The respective community structures of bacterial consortia associated to the surface of F. mytili were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing after 0, 4, 8, and 11 weeks of treatment (in total 96 samples). The results demonstrated that the epibacterial community structure was strongly affected by temperature, but only weakly by elevated pCO2. No interaction effect of both factors was observed in the combined treatment. We identified several indicator operational taxonomic units (iOTUs) that were strongly influenced by the respective experimental factors. An OTU association network analysis revealed that relationships between OTUs were mainly governed by habitat. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of how epibacterial communities associated with F. mytili may adapt to future changes in seawater acidity and temperature, ultimately with potential consequences for host-microbe interactions.

  10. Protective effect of fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus on liver fibrosis via the TGF-β1/Smad pathway-mediated inhibition of extracellular matrix and autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jingjing Li,1 Kan Chen,1 Sainan Li,1 Jiao Feng,1 Tong Liu,1 Fan Wang,1 Rong Zhang,1,2 Shizan Xu,1,2 Yuqing Zhou,1,3 Shunfeng Zhou,1,3 Yujing Xia,1 Jie Lu,1 Yingqun Zhou,1 Chuanyong Guo1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2The First Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 3Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Liver fibrosis is a dynamic reversible pathological process in the development of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis. However, the current treatments are not administered for a long term due to their various side effects. Autophagy is initiated to decompose damaged or excess organelles, which had been found to alter the progression of liver fibrosis. In this article, we hypothesized that fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus may attenuate liver fibrosis in mice by inhibition of the extracellular matrix and autophagy in carbon tetrachloride- and bile duct ligation-induced animal models of liver fibrosis. The results were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Fucoidan from F. vesiculosus could inhibit the activation of hepatic stellate cells and the formation of extracellular matrix and autophagosomes, and its effect may be associated with the downregulation of transforming growth factor beta 1/Smads pathways. Fucoidan, as an autophagy and transforming growth factor beta 1 inhibitor, could be a promising potential therapeutic agent for liver fibrosis. Keywords: liver cirrhosis, hepatic stellate cells, bile duct ligation

  11. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  12. Application of algae-biosensor for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Lazuardi; Alexander, Frank A; Wiest, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Environmental problems including water and air pollution, over fertilization, insufficient wastewater treatment and even ecological disaster are receiving greater attention in the technical and scientific area. In this paper, a method for water quality monitoring using living green algae (Chlorella Kessleri) with the help of the intelligent mobile lab (IMOLA) is presented. This measurement used two IMOLA systems for measurement and reference simultaneously to verify changes due to pollution inside the measurement system. The IMOLA includes light emitting diodes to stimulate photosynthesis of the living algae immobilized on a biochip containing a dissolved oxygen microsensor. A fluid system is used to transport algae culture medium in a stop and go mode; 600s ON, 300s OFF, while the oxygen concentration of the water probe is measured. When the pump stops, the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration due to photosynthesis is detected. In case of a pollutant being transported toward the algae, this can be detected by monitoring the photosynthetic activity. Monitoring pollution is shown by adding emulsion of 0,5mL of Indonesian crude palm oil and 10mL algae medium to the water probe in the biosensor.

  13. THE FAMILY CALCIFOLIACEAE EMEND.,MISSISSIPPIAN-EARLY PENNSYLVANIAN ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL VACHARD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Fasciellaceae was created as a group of red algae. It was emended as a tribe Fascielleae of incertae sedis algae, and related to the tribe Calcifolieae Shuysky emend. Vachard & Cózar. The tribes Fascielleae and Calcifolieae both constitute the family Calcifoliaceae emend. This family is actually a homogeneous group, and could be more or less closely related with some questionable Moravamminales and Aoujgaliales: Claracrustaceae, Labyrinthoconaceae and Donezellaceae. All these microfossils were successively considered as green algae, red algae, "phylloid" algae, or fibres of calcispongia. The genera included in Fascielleae are: Fasciella, Praedonezella, and ?Kulikaella. The genera Calcifolium, Falsocalcifolium and Frustulata are included in the Calcifolieae. The phylogeny of the Calcifoliaceae is reconstructed. Thus, the family appears to be ancestrally linked, in the early Mississippian and even earlier in the Devonian, to Kulikaella, Stacheoidella, Pseudostacheoides, Pokorninella and Precorninella. The Calcifoliaceae are important for the zonation of the Late Mississippian-earliest Pennsylvanian (early Bashkirian interval (Asbian to Siuransky in the carbonate platform facies from western Palaeotethys and Ural Oceans.

  14. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman; Roessler, Paul G.; Jarvis, Eric E.

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  15. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  16. Ocean acidification weakens the structural integrity of coralline algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzola, Federica; Foster, Laura C; Form, Armin; Anderson, Philip S L; Hansteen, Thor H; Fietzke, Jan

    2012-09-01

    The uptake of anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide is resulting in a lowering of the carbonate saturation state and a drop in ocean pH. Understanding how marine calcifying organisms such as coralline algae may acclimatize to ocean acidification is important to understand their survival over the coming century. We present the first long-term perturbation experiment on the cold-water coralline algae, which are important marine calcifiers in the benthic ecosystems particularly at the higher latitudes. Lithothamnion glaciale, after three months incubation, continued to calcify even in undersaturated conditions with a significant trend towards lower growth rates with increasing pCO2 . However, the major changes in the ultra-structure occur by 589 μatm (i.e. in saturated waters). Finite element models of the algae grown at these heightened levels show an increase in the total strain energy of nearly an order of magnitude and an uneven distribution of the stress inside the skeleton when subjected to similar loads as algae grown at ambient levels. This weakening of the structure is likely to reduce the ability of the alga to resist boring by predators and wave energy with severe consequences to the benthic community structure in the immediate future (50 years).

  17. Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em

  18. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality.

  19. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xinping; ZHU Xiaobin; DENG Liping; DENG Zhiwei; LIN Wenhan

    2006-01-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2).cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5).cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  20. Benefits of using algae as natural sources of functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2013-03-15

    Algae have been suggested as a potential source of bioactive compounds to be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. With the strong development of functional foods as a method to improve or maintain health, the exploration of new compounds with real health effects is now an intense field of research. The potential use of algae as source of functional food ingredients, such as lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, phenolics, carotenoids, etc., is presented, together with the different possibilities of improving valuable metabolites production either using the tools and the knowledge provided by marine biotechnology or improving the different factors involved in the production on a large scale of such metabolites. The bio-refinery concept is also presented as a way to improve the efficient use of algae biomass while favouring process sustainability.

  1. [Nutritive value of the spirulina algae (Spirulina maxima)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada de Hernández, I; Shimada, A S

    1978-06-01

    Nine experiments were conducted, five of them in vivo to determine the limiting amino acids and digestibility of spiruline algae for the rat, and four in vitro to determine the digestibility of the product in pepsin and ruminal liquid. None of the amino acids studied (lysine, methionine, histidine) added alone or in combination to 10% protein (either crude or true) diets provided exclusively by spiruline, seems to be limiting although the results could be masked by the low palatability and acceptability of the product by the rats. The apparent digestibility of the algae was 67.4%. For the in vitro tests, the algae were subjected to several physical or chemical treatments, and the digestibility of the resulting product determined by four different techniques. In no case did the tested treatments have any effect on its digestibility.

  2. GROWTH-REGULATORY ACTIVITY OF THE ALGAE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Кyrychenkо

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth-regulatory activity of the complex algae extract from Spirogira sp. at pre-so wing treatment of soybean seeds was studied in green-house and field experiments. It was shown that phytoextract has stimulated seeds germination on 12%, plants growth on 11–37%, soybean productivity increased on 6–27% as well as activated the development and functional ability of rhizospheric nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. The quantity of oligoazotrophes increased in 1,5–6,3 times, nitrogenase activity in 1,5–1,7 times. The possibility aspects of growth-regulatory activity of the algae extract in both plants and rhizospheric microorganisms is under discussion. Our results have confirmed the perspectives of practical use of the biological activity substances from the algae at soybean growing in order to increase plants productivity and improve microbiological indexes of soil.

  3. A look at diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jit Ern; Smith, Alison G

    2012-11-30

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) from algae are considered to be a potentially viable source of biodiesel and thereby renewable energy, but at the moment very little is known about the biosynthetic pathway in these organisms. Here we compare what is currently known in eukaryotic algal species, in particular the characteristics of algal diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), the last enzyme of de novo TAG biosynthesis. Several studies in plants and mammals have shown that there are two DGAT isoforms, DGAT1 and DGAT2, which catalyse the same reaction but have no clear sequence similarities. Instead, they have differences in functionality and spatial and temporal expression patterns. Bioinformatic searches of sequenced algal genomes reveal that most algae have multiple copies of putative DGAT2s, whereas other eukaryotes have single genes. Investigating whether these putative isoforms are indeed functional and whether they confer significantly different phenotypes to algal cells will be vital for future efforts to genetically modify algae for biofuel production.

  4. Extremophilic micro-algae and their potential contribution in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Prachi; Mikulic, Paulina; Vonshak, Avigad; Beardall, John; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2015-05-01

    Micro-algae have potential as sustainable sources of energy and products and alternative mode of agriculture. However, their mass cultivation is challenging due to low survival under harsh outdoor conditions and competition from other, undesired, species. Extremophilic micro-algae have a role to play by virtue of their ability to grow under acidic or alkaline pH, high temperature, light, CO2 level and metal concentration. In this review, we provide several examples of potential biotechnological applications of extremophilic micro-algae and the ranges of tolerated extremes. We also discuss the adaptive mechanisms of tolerance to these extremes. Analysis of phylogenetic relationship of the reported extremophiles suggests certain groups of the Kingdom Protista to be more tolerant to extremophilic conditions than other taxa. While extremophilic microalgae are beginning to be explored, much needs to be done in terms of the physiology, molecular biology, metabolic engineering and outdoor cultivation trials before their true potential is realized.

  5. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  6. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  7. Importance of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Algae have a great potential source of biofuels and also have unique importance to reduce gaseous emissions, greenhouse gases, climatic changes, global warming receding of glaciers, rising sea levels and loss of biodiversity. The microalgae, like Scenedesmus obliquus, Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp., Chlorella emersonii, and Dunaliella tertiolecta have high oil content. Among the known algae, Scenedesmus obliquus is one of the most potential sources for biodiesel as it has adequate fatty acid (linolenic acid) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bio—ethanol is already in the market of United States of America and Europe as an additive in gasoline. Bio—hydrogen is the cleanest biofuel and extensive efforts are going on to bring it to market at economical price. This review highlights recent development and progress in the field of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

  8. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

  9. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, H.M.; Gerner-Smidt, P.;

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random...... amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection....

  10. Value of crops: Quantity, quality and cost price. [algae as a nutritional supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.

    1979-01-01

    Possibilities of using algae as a nutritional supplement are examined. The nutritional value and protein content of spirulines of blue algae are discussed. A cost analysis of growing them artificially is presented.

  11. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska; Teresa Mrozińska

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland), in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances). The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epili...

  12. Research of Influence of Aniline on the Growth of Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Haiyuan; WANG Xian

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of aniline and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. It is showed by experimental results that aniline has pretty toxic effects on algae. Suspended substances in water can offset some effects of aniline. It also discusses the dynamic constant of first order degradation reaction rate of algae on aniline from the point of view of chemical dynamics.

  13. Where Have All the Algae Gone, or, How Many Kingdoms Are There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Will H.; Powell, Martha J.

    1995-01-01

    Examined 10 introductory college-level, general biology survey textbooks for the coverage of algae to assess the efficacy of coverage. Describes a proposal of seven kingdoms and discusses the disposition of algae among five of these kingdoms. Contends that textbooks should highlight the concept of algae across the five kingdoms. Contains 59…

  14. A review of the taxonomical and ecological studies on Netherlands’ Algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1939-01-01

    The earliest account of the Netherlands’ Algae appeared in 1781 in D. de Gorter, Flora VII Prov. Belgii foederati indigen. Here, however, in the Algae lichens and liverworts have been incorporated. The true Algae, of which 35 are enumerated, are principally marine, though also aërophytical and fresh

  15. Food and feed products from micro-algae: Market opportunities and challenges for the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigani, M.; Parisi, C.; Rodriguez-Cerezo, E.; Barbosa, M.J.; Sijtsma, L.; Ploeg, M.; Enzing, C.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-algae are a new and promising source of nutrients. The main products obtainable are dried algae with high nutrients content and high-value compounds such as fatty acids, pigments and anti-oxidants. This paper analyses the market and the economic opportunities of micro-algae-based food and feed

  16. Critical conditions for ferric chloride-induced flocculation of freshwater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Nicholas B; Gloe, Lindsey M; Brady, Patrick V; Hewson, John C; Grillet, Anne M; Hankins, Matthew G; Pohl, Phillip I

    2012-02-01

    The effects of algae concentration, ferric chloride dose, and pH on the flocculation efficiency of the freshwater algae Chlorella zofingiensis can be understood by considering the nature of the electrostatic charges on the algae and precipitate surfaces. Two critical conditions are identified which, when met, result in flocculation efficiencies in excess of 90% for freshwater algae. First, a minimum concentration of ferric chloride is required to overcome the electrostatic stabilization of the algae and promote bridging of algae cells by hydroxide precipitates. At low algae concentrations, the minimum amount of ferric chloride required increases linearly with algae concentration, characteristic of flocculation primarily through electrostatic bridging by hydroxide precipitates. At higher algae concentrations, the minimum required concentration of ferric chloride for flocculation is independent of algae concentration, suggesting a change in the primary flocculation mechanism from bridging to sweep flocculation. Second, the algae must have a negative surface charge. Experiments and surface complexation modeling show that the surface charge of C. zofingiensis is negative above a pH of 4.0 ± 0.3 which agrees well with the minimum pH required for effective flocculation. These critical flocculation criteria can be extended to other freshwater algae to design effective flocculation systems.

  17. New methodologies for the integration of power plants with algae ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, K.; Gijp, S. van der; Stel, R.W van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally recognized that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fee

  18. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  19. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Protein Bioaktif Alga Merah Eucheuma cottonii serta Potensinya Sebagai Antikanker

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Ayu Indayanti

    2014-01-01

    Isolasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Protein Bioaktif dari Alga Merah Eucheuma cottoni dari Teluk Laikang Kabupaten Takalar Sulawesi Selatan telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi dan mengidentifikasi senyawa protein bioaktif dari alga merah Eucheuma cottonii serta potensinya sebagai antikanker. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimental dengan tahapan perlakuan yaitu isolasi senyawa protein bioaktif dari alga merah Eucheuma cottonii melalui proses lisis, ...

  20. Effect of sonication frequency on the disruption of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Masaki; King, Patrick M; Wu, Xiaoge; Joyce, Eadaoin M; Mason, Timothy J; Yamamoto, Ken

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the efficiency of ultrasonic disruption of Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp. was investigated by applying ultrasonic waves of 0.02, 0.4, 1.0, 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3 MHz to algal suspensions. The results showed that reduction in the number of algae was frequency dependent and that the highest efficiency was achieved at 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3MHz for C. gracilis, C. calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp., respectively. A review of the literature suggested that cavitation, rather than direct effects of ultrasonication, are required for ultrasonic algae disruption, and that chemical effects are likely not the main mechanism for algal cell disruption. The mechanical resonance frequencies estimated by a shell model, taking into account elastic properties, demonstrated that suitable disruption frequencies for each alga were associated with the cell's mechanical properties. Taken together, we consider here that physical effects of ultrasonication were responsible for algae disruption.

  1. Free Sterols of the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    The free sterols of the red alga, Chondria armata have been identified by means of NMR, EIMS and GCMS analyses. The mixture contained besides cholesterol, C sub(28) and C sub(29) saturated as well as unsaturated components. The major component...

  2. Photo-producing Hydrogen with Marine Green Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Hydrogen is often hailed as a potential source of unlimited clean power.It can be produced with green algae from water and solar energy through a process called "photobiological hydrogen production."Although its efficiency is rather low at present, scientists believe,an increase to 10% would make this process economically feasible.

  3. Alga-lysing bioreactor and the dominant bacteria strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Hai-yan; HU Wen-rong; MU Rui-min; LI Xiao-cai

    2007-01-01

    Alga-lysing bacteria have been paid much attention to in recent years. In this study, the alga-lysing strain P05 which was isolated from an immobilizing biosystem was immobilized by coke and elastic filler, forming two biological reactors. The removal efficiencies of algae, NH3-N and organic matter using the two reactors were studied. The results showed that strain P05 was an ideal algal-lysing bacteria strain because it was easy to be immobilized by coke and elastic filler which are of cheap, low biodegradability and the simple immobilization procedure. After 7 d filming, the biological film could be formed and the reactors were used to treat the eutrophic water. These two reactors were of stability and high effect with low cost and easy operation. The optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each reactor was 4 h. The algae removal rates were 80.38% and 82.1% (in term of Chl-a) of coke reactor and filler reactor, respectively. And that of NH3-N were 52.3% and 52.7%. The removal rates of CODMn were 39.03% and 39.64%. The strain P05 was identified as Bacillus sp. by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, BLAST analysis, and comparison with sequences in the GenBank nucleotide database.

  4. A REVIEW OF HEAVY METAL ADSORPTION BY MARINE ALGAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  5. A Novel Lanostanoid Lactone From the Alga Hypnea cerricornis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Xiao-Hua; CHEN, Xiao; LU, Jian-Hua; YAO, Guang-Min; LI, Yah-Ming; ZE NG, Long-Mei

    2001-01-01

    A novel lanntanoid lactone (1) was first isolated fron the Alga Hypnen cerriconis collected from the Xisha Islands in theSouth China Sea. The structure of 1 was determined on spectral evidence as 5a-tansta-8-en-3β,22ζ-dihydroxy-22 (R), 24(S)-lactone.

  6. Fuzzy Pattern Recognition System for Detection of Alga Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To realize the on-line measurement and make analysis on the density of algae and their cluster distribution, the fluorescent detection and fuzzy pattern recognition techniques are used. The principle of fluorescent fiber-optic detection is given as well as the method of fuzzy feature extraction using a class of neural network.

  7. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  8. New bromotriterpene polyethers from the Indian alga Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; De; Scognamiglio, G.; Cimino, G.

    Six new bromotriterpene polyethers, armatol A-F (1-6), with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from the Indian Ocean red alga Chondria armata. The structures were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, in particular 1D- and 2D-NMR...

  9. Meteorological effects on variation of airborne algae in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Roy-Ocotla, Guadalupe; Mosiño, Pedro

    1989-09-01

    Sixteen species of algae were collected from 73.8 m3 of air. Eleven were obtained in Minatitlán and eleven in México City. The data show that similar diversity occurred between the two localities, in spite of the difference in altitude. This suggests that cosmopolitan airborne microorganisms might have been released from different sources. Three major algal divisions (Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Chrysophyta) formed the airborne algal group. Also, a large concentration of 2220 algae m-3 was found near sea-level, while lower amounts were recorded at the high altitude of México City. The genera Scenedesmus, Chlorella and Chlorococcum dominated. Striking relationships were noted between the concentration of airborne green and blue-green algae, and meteorological conditions such as rain, vapour pressure, temperature and winds for different altitudes. In Minatitlán a linear relationship was established between concentration of algae and both vapour pressure (mbar) and temperature (° C), while in México City the wind (m s-1) was associated with variations in the algal count.

  10. [Phycobiliproteins of blue-green, red and cryptophytic algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnichuk, I N; Gusev, M V

    1979-04-01

    The present-day concepts on phycobiliproteins, the protein pigments of blue-green, red and cryptophyte algae are reviewed. The functions, distribution, localization, physico-chemical, spectral and immunochemical properties of phycobiliproteins are described. The properties of the polypeptide protein subunits and the composition and chemical structure of chromophores as well as their binding to the apoprotein molecules are discussed.

  11. Algas vene kirjanduse nädal / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    22. septembril algas Tartu Linnaraamatukogus vene kirjanduse nädal Inga Ivanova raamatu "Kadunud koerte saladus" esitlusega; 24. sept. toimub Igor Kotjuhi autoriõhtu; 26.-28. toimub Tartu Ülikoolis vene kirjandusele pühendatud rahvusvaheline teaduskonverents. Raamatukogust saab osta ka venekeelseid raamatuid

  12. Emulsion properties of algae soluble protein isolate from Tetraselmis sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenzfeier, A.; Helbig, A.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    To study possible applications of microalgae proteins in foods, a colourless, protein-rich fraction was isolated from Tetraselmis sp. In the present study the emulsion properties of this algae soluble protein isolate (ASPI) were investigated. Droplet size and droplet aggregation of ASPI stabilized o

  13. A New Bromophenol from the Brown Alga Leathesia nana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Li XU; Xiao FAN; Fu Hang SONG; Jie Lu ZHAO; Li Jun HAN; Jian Gong SHI

    2004-01-01

    A novel bromophenol was isolated from ethanolic extract of the brown alga Leathesia nana S.et G. The structure was elucidated as (E)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl- propenal by spectroscopic methods including IR, HREIMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

  14. Study of ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles using algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustov, L. M.; Abramenko, N. B.

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been prepared and tested for their ecotoxicity using Chlorella vulgaris Beijer. algae as a hydrobiotic test organism and a photometric method of control. The toxicity was supposed to originate from Ag+ ions released into the aqueous solution. Also, the toxicity of the stabilizing agent was found to be comparable to that of silver nanoparticles.

  15. Controlled artificial upwelling in a fjord to combat toxic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimans, T. A.; Hansen, A. H.; Fredheim, A.; Lien, E.; Reitan, K. I.

    2003-04-01

    During the summer, primary production in the surface layers of some fjords depletes the nutrients to the degree that some arts of toxic algae dominate the flora. We describe an experiment employing a bubble curtain to lift significant amounts of nutrient-rich seawater to the light zone and provide an environment in which useful algae can survive. The motivation for the experiment is to provide a local region in which mussels can be cleansed from the effects of toxic algae. Three 100-m long, perforated pipes were suspended at 40 m depth in the Arnafjord, a side arm of the Sognefjord. Large amounts of compressed air were supplied during a period of three weeks. The deeper water mixed with the surface water and flowed from the mixing region at 5 to 15 m depth. Within a few days, the mixture of nutrient-rich water covered most of the inner portion of Arnafjord. Within 10 days, the plankton samples showed that the artificial upwelling produced the desired type of algae and excluded the toxic blooms that were occurring outside the manipulated fjord arm. The project (DETOX) is supported by the Norwegian ministries of Fisheries, Agriculture and Public Administration.

  16. A review of heavy metal adsorption by marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jin-Fen; Lin, Rong-Gen; Ma, Li

    2000-09-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  17. Ecological assessments with algae: a review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Algae have been used for a century in environmental assessments of water bodies and are now used in countries around the world. This review synthesizes recent advances in the field around a framework for environmental assessment and management that can guide design of assessments, applications of phycology in assessments, and refinements of those applications to better support management decisions. Algae are critical parts of aquatic ecosystems that power food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Algae are also major sources of problems that threaten many ecosystems goods and services when abundances of nuisance and toxic taxa are high. Thus, algae can be used to indicate ecosystem goods and services, which complements how algal indicators are also used to assess levels of contaminants and habitat alterations (stressors). Understanding environmental managers' use of algal ecology, taxonomy, and physiology can guide our research and improve its application. Environmental assessments involve characterizing ecological condition and diagnosing causes and threats to ecosystems goods and services. Recent advances in characterizing condition include site-specific models that account for natural variability among habitats to better estimate effects of humans. Relationships between algal assemblages and stressors caused by humans help diagnose stressors and establish targets for protection and restoration. Many algal responses to stressors have thresholds that are particularly important for developing stakeholder consensus for stressor management targets. Future research on the regional-scale resilience of algal assemblages, the ecosystem goods and services they provide, and methods for monitoring and forecasting change will improve water resource management.

  18. Fine-scale genetic breaks driven by historical range dynamics and ongoing density-barrier effects in the estuarine seaweed Fucus ceranoides L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva João

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors promoting the emergence of sharp phylogeographic breaks include restricted dispersal, habitat discontinuity, physical barriers, disruptive selection, mating incompatibility, genetic surfing and secondary contact. Disentangling the role of each in any particular system can be difficult, especially when species are evenly distributed across transition zones and dispersal barriers are not evident. The estuarine seaweed Fucus ceranoides provides a good example of highly differentiated populations along its most persistent distributional range at the present rear edge of the species distribution, in NW Iberia. Intrinsic dispersal restrictions are obvious in this species, but have not prevented F. ceranoides from vastly expanding its range northwards following the last glaciation, implying that additional factors are responsible for the lack of connectivity between neighbouring southern populations. In this study we analyze 22 consecutive populations of F. ceranoides along NW Iberia to investigate the processes generating and maintaining the observed high levels of regional genetic divergence. Results Variation at seven microsatellite loci and at mtDNA spacer sequences was concordant in revealing that Iberian F. ceranoides is composed of three divergent genetic clusters displaying nearly disjunct geographical distributions. Structure and AFC analyses detected two populations with an admixed nuclear background. Haplotypic diversity was high in the W sector and very low in the N sector. Within each genetic cluster, population structure was also pervasive, although shallower. Conclusions The deep divergence between sectors coupled with the lack of support for a role of oceanographic barriers in defining the location of breaks suggested 1 that the parapatric genetic sectors result from the regional reassembly of formerly vicariant sub-populations, and 2 that the genetic discontinuities at secondary contact zones (and elsewhere

  19. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skibola Christine F

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of estrogen-dependent cancers are among the highest in Western countries and lower in the East. These variations may be attributable to differences in dietary exposures such as higher seaweed consumption among Asian populations. The edible brown kelp, Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack, as well as other brown kelp species, lower plasma cholesterol levels. Since cholesterol is a precursor to sex hormone biosynthesis, kelp consumption may alter circulating sex hormone levels and menstrual cycling patterns. In particular, dietary kelp may be beneficial to women with or at high risk for estrogen-dependent diseases. To test this, bladderwrack was administered to three pre-menopausal women with abnormal menstrual cycling patterns and/or menstrual-related disease histories. Case Presentation Intake of bladderwrack was associated with significant increases in menstrual cycle lengths, ranging from an increase of 5.5 to 14 days. In addition, hormone measurements ascertained for one woman revealed significant anti-estrogenic and progestagenic effects following kelp administration. Mean baseline 17β-estradiol levels were reduced from 626 ± 91 to 164 ± 30 pg/ml (P = 0.04 following 700 mg/d, which decreased further to 92.5.0 ± 3.5pg/ml (P = 0.03 with the1.4 g/d dose. Mean baseline progesterone levels rose from 0.58 ± 0.14 to 8.4 ± 2.6 ng/ml with the 700 mg/d dose (P = 0.1, which increased further to 16.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml with the 1.4 g/d dose (P = 0.002. Conclusions These pilot data suggest that dietary bladderwrack may prolong the length of the menstrual cycle and exert anti-estrogenic effects in pre-menopausal women. Further, these studies also suggest that seaweed may be another important dietary component apart from soy that is responsible for the reduced risk of estrogen-related cancers observed in Japanese populations. However, these studies will need to be performed in well-controlled clinical trials to confirm these

  20. Study on the concentration and seasonal variation of inorganic elements in 35 species of marine algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Yan, X.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of five major and 28 trace elements in 35 marine algae collected along the coast of China were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of halogens, rare earth elements and many transition metal elements in marine algae are remarkably higher than...... those in terrestrial plants. The concentration factors for 31 elements in all collected algae were calculated, those for tri- and tetra-valent elements were higher than those of the mono- and di-valent elements in marine algae. The biogeochemical characteristics of inorganic elements in marine algae...

  1. Determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the alga Himanthalia elongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2004-02-01

    The algae considered new foods according to Regulation CE 258/97 need a guarantee of their healthfulness before being in the European market. In this work ten samples of the brown alga Himanthalia elongata have been analyzed with the aim of verifying the absence of aliphatic hydrocarbons, due to the ability of the macroalgae to capture lipophilic organic compounds of the marine water coming from accidental or continuous leaks of raw oil and refined products, which happen each year with the growth of the industrialization and the demand of energy. The fat of the samples were Soxhlet extracted using hexane:dichloromethane (1:1) for 7h. The organic fractions were purified using silica microcolumns. The identification and quantification of the aliphatic hydrocarbons have been carried out using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID). The total hydrocarbon content was between 14.8 and 40.2 microg g(-1) dry weight.

  2. Sodium, potassium-atpases in algae and oomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero-Gil, Javier; Garciadeblás, Blanca; Benito, Begoña

    2005-08-01

    We have investigated the presence of K(+)-transporting ATPases that belong to the phylogenetic group of animal Na(+),K(+)-ATPases in the Pythium aphanidermatum Stramenopile oomycete, the Porphyra yezoensis red alga, and the Udotea petiolata green alga, by molecular cloning and expression in heterologous systems. PCR amplification and search in EST databases allowed one gene to be identified in each species that could encode ATPases of this type. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of these ATPases revealed that they cluster with ATPases of animal origin, and that the algal ATPases are closer to animal ATPases than the oomycete ATPase is. The P. yezoensis and P. aphanidermatum ATPases were functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli alkali cation transport mutants. The aforementioned cloning and complementary searches in silicio for H(+)- and Na(+),K(+)-ATPases revealed a great diversity of strategies for plasma membrane energization in eukaryotic cells different from typical animal, plant, and fungal cells.

  3. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae.

  4. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  5. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Barbosa-Filho; Maria de Fátima V. de Souza; Rodrigues, Luis C.; Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Lira, Narlize S.; Camila De A. Montenegro; Gedson R. De M. Lima; Batista,Leônia M.; Heloina de S. Falcão; Cynthia Layse F. De Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested fo...

  6. Enhanced Genetic Tools for Engineering Multigene Traits into Green Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Rasala, Beth A; Syh-Shiuan Chao; Matthew Pier; Daniel J Barrera; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes withi...

  7. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    9, 1985. Toxic peptides of freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) from two European Hicr tis aegi and one Canadian &nAnbaflo s- agua were...8217Algal toxin from Potable Water Supplies: A Pilot Plant Investi- gation. p. 26 In Technical papers presented at the Tenth Federal Convention of the...W.H. Watson. Studies on aphantoxin from A12han izomenon flos- aguae in New Hampshire. In: Carmichael, W.W. (ed.) The Water Envir’onment: Algal Toxins and

  8. Toxicity of Fluoranthene and Its Biodegradation by Cyclotella caspia Alga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fluoranthene is one of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with four benzene rings. Because of its toxicity,mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, fluoranthene is on the black lists of 129 and 68 priority pollutants established by US Environmental Protection Agency and the People's Republic of China, respectively. In recent years, the amount of fluoranthene in the aquatic environment has been increasing with increases in anthropogenic discharge. Based on the biological investigation of tidal water in the Futian mangrove, Cyclotella caspia was selected as the dominant algal species to determine the toxicity of fluoranthene towards C. caspia alga and to investigate the biodegradation of fluoranthene by C. caspia under pure culture. The toxicity experiment showed that the 96-h EC50 vaiue for fluoranthene was 0.2 mg/mL. Four parameters, namely C. caspia algal growth rate,chlorophyll (Chi) a content, cell morphology, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, were chosen as indices of toxicity and were measured at 6 d (144 h). The results showed that: (i) the toxicity of fluoranthene towards C.caspia alga was obvious; (ii) C. caspia algal growth rate and Chi a content decreased with increasing concentrations of fluoranthene; and (iii) the rate of cell deformation and SOD activity increased with increasing concentrations of fluoranthene. The biodegradation experiment showed that: (i) the rate of physical degradation of fluoranthene was only 5.86%; (ii) the rate of biodegradation of fluoranthene on the 1st and 6th days (i.e. at 24 and 144 h) was approximately 35% and 85%, respectively; and (iii) the biodegradation capability of C. caspia alga towards fluoranthene was high. It is suggested that further investigations on the toxicity of fluoranthene towards algae, as well as on algal biodegradation mechanisms, are of great importance to use C. caspia as a biological treatment species in an organic wastewater treatment system.

  9. Subunit structure of the phycobiliproteins of blue-green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, A N; Cohen-Bazire, G

    1971-07-01

    The phycobiliproteins of the blue-green algae Synechococcus sp. and Aphanocapsu sp. were characterized with respect to homogeneity, isoelectric point, and subunit composition. Each of the biliproteins consisted of two different noncovalently associated subunits, with molecular weights of about 20,000 and 16,000 for phycocyanin, 17,500 and 15,500 for allophycocyanin, and 22,000 and 20,000 for phycoerythrin. Covalently bound chromophore was associated with each subunit.

  10. Rare species of fungi parasitizing on algae. IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The following parasites of the genera Spirogyra Link, Mougeotia Agardh and Oedogonium Link are desribed: Myzocyutium irregulare, Woroninu glomerata, Harpochytrium tenuissimum, Woronina polycystis, Chytridium acuminatu, Myzocytium irregulare and Chytridumm acuminatum are new to Poland. Also, the first information on Woronina polycystis as a parasite on algae is presented. The figure of cystosori in a cell of Mougeotia mysorensis is the first graphic documentation of this species.

  11. Unveiling privacy: advances in microtomography of coralline algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrano-Silva, Beatriz N; Ferreira, Simone Gomes; Oliveira, Mariana C

    2015-05-01

    Marine calcareous algae are widespread in oceans of the world and known for their calcified cell walls and the generation of rhodolith beds that turn sandy bottoms into a complex structured ecosystem with high biodiversity. Rhodoliths are unattached, branching, crustose benthic marine red algae; they provide habitat for a rich variety of marine invertebrates. The resultant excavation is relevant to sediment production, while is common that the fragments or the whole specimens result in vast fossil deposits formed by rich material that can be "mined" for biological and geological data. Accordingly, microtomography (μCT) may enable a detailed investigation of biological and geological signatures preserved within the rhodolith structure in a non-destructive approach that is especially relevant when analyzing herbaria collections or rare samples. Therefore, we prepared coralline algae samples and submitted them to a range of capabilities provided by the SkyScan1176 micro-CT scanner, including reconstruction, virtual slicing, and pinpointing biological and geological signatures. To this end, polychaetes and mollusk shells, or their excavations, coral nucleation, sediment deposits and conceptacles were all observed. Although a similar technique has been applied previously to samples of living rhodoliths in Brazil, we show, for the first time, its successful application to fossil rhodoliths. We also provide a detailed working protocol and discuss the advantages and limitations of the microtomography within the rhodoliths.

  12. Multi-centennial reconstruction of Aleutian climate from coralline algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.; Halfar, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Smith, E.; Steneck, R.; Lebednik, P.; Jacob, D. E.; Fietzke, J.; Moore, K.

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived encrusting coralline algae yield robust reconstructions of mid-to-high latitude environmental change from their annually-banded high-magnesium calcite skeleton. The magnesium to calcium ratio measured in their skeleton reflects ambient seawater temperature at the time of formation. Thus, reconstructions from these algae are important to understanding the role of natural modes of climate variability versus that of external carbon dioxide in controlling climate in data sparse regions such as the northern North Pacific Ocean/southern Bering Sea. Here, we reconstruct regional seawater temperature from the skeletons of nine algae specimens from two islands in the Aleutian Archipelago. We find that seawater temperature increased ~1.4°C degrees over the past 350 years. The detrended seawater reconstruction correlates with storminess because storms moving across the North Pacific Ocean bring warmer water to the archipelago. Comparison of the algal seawater temperature reconstruction with instrumental and terrestrial proxy reconstructions reveals that atmospheric teleconnections to North America via the North Pacific storm tracks are not robust before the 20th century. This indicates that North Pacific climate processes inferred from the instrumental records should be cautiously extrapolated when describing earlier non-analogous climates or future climate change.

  13. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Dunck

    Full Text Available The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments.

  14. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments.

  15. Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis of natural algae from water blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Linling; Tong, Dongmei; Hu, Changwei

    2016-07-01

    Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis (MEP) of natural algae under different reaction conditions was carried out. The optimal conditions for bio-oil production were the following: algae particle size of 20-5 mesh, microwave power of 600W, and 10% of activated carbon as microwave absorber and catalyst. The maximum liquid yield obtained under N2, 10% H2/Ar, and CO2 atmosphere was 49.1%, 51.7%, and 54.3% respectively. The energy yield of bio-products was 216.7%, 236.9% and 208.7% respectively. More long chain fatty acids were converted into hydrocarbons by hydrodeoxygenation under 10% H2/Ar atmosphere assisted by microwave over activated carbon containing small amounts of metals. Under CO2 atmosphere, carboxylic acids (66.6%) were the main products in bio-oil because the existence of CO2 vastly inhibited the decarboxylation. The MEP of algae was quick and efficient for bio-oil production, which provided a way to not only ameliorate the environment but also obtain fuel or chemicals at the same time.

  16. Extraction, Purification, and NMR Analysis of Terpenes from Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysinski, Marc; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Thomas, Olivier P; Culioli, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Algal terpenes constitute a wide and well-documented group of marine natural products with structures differing from their terrestrial plant biosynthetic analogues. Amongst macroalgae, brown seaweeds are considered as one of the richest source of biologically and ecologically relevant terpenoids. These metabolites, mostly encountered in algae of the class Phaeophyceae, are mainly diterpenes and meroditerpenes (metabolites of mixed biogenesis characterized by a toluquinol or a toluquinone nucleus linked to a diterpene moiety).In this chapter, we describe analytical processes commonly employed for the isolation and structural characterization of the main terpenoid constituents obtained from organic extracts of brown algae. The successive steps include (1) extraction of lipidic content from algal samples; (2) purification of terpenes by column chromatography and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography; and (3) structure elucidation of the isolated terpenes by means of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More precisely, we propose a representative methodology which allows the isolation and structural determination of the monocyclic meroditerpene methoxybifurcarenone (MBFC) from the Mediterranean brown alga Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. This methodology has a large field of applications and can then be extended to terpenes isolated from other species of the family Sargassaceae.

  17. Towards tradable permits for filamentous green algae pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, W J; Botha, A M; Oberholster, P J

    2016-09-01

    Water pollution permit systems are challenging to design and implement. Operational systems that has maintained functionality remains few and far between, particularly in developing countries. We present current progress towards developing such a system for nutrient enrichment based water pollution, mainly from commercial agriculture. We applied a production function approach to first estimate the monetary value of the impact of the pollution, which is then used as reference point for establishing a reserve price for pollution permits. The subsequent market making process is explained according to five steps including permit design, terms, conditions and transactional protocol, the monitoring system, piloting and implementation. The monetary value of the impact of pollution was estimated at R1887 per hectare per year, which not only provide a "management budget" for filamentous green algae mitigation strategies in the study area, but also enabled the calculation of a reserve price for filamentous green algae pollution permits, which was estimated between R2.25 and R111 per gram filamentous algae and R8.99 per gram at the preferred state.

  18. Bio sorption of copper ions with biomass of algae and dehydrated waste of olives; Biosorcion de iones cobre con biomasa de algas y orujos deshidratados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia, P.; Santander, M.; Pavez, O.; Valderrama, L.; Guzman, D.; Romero, L.

    2011-07-01

    They were carried out experiments of biosorption batch and in continuous to remove copper from aqueous solutions using as adsorbents green algae and olive residues under virgins conditions and chemically activated. The results of batch bio sorption indicate that the algae present mayor elimination capacities than the waste of olives, with uptakes of copper of the order of 96 % using activated algae with dissolution of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under the optimum conditions. The results of the columns tests show that the virgin algae permits the removal of more copper ions than the activate algae, with removal efficiency of 98 % during the firth 20 min, a breakthrough time of 240 min and a saturation at time of 600 min. In the second cycle the regenerated biomass showed a best performance indicating that they can be used for another bio sorption cycle. (Author) 42 refs.

  19. Arsenic and selenium interactive effect on alga Desmodesmus quadricauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramárová, Zuzana; Fargašová, Agáta; Molnárová, Marianna; Bujdoš, Marek

    2012-12-01

    Substances known to be toxic in one-component solutions often exhibit unexpected effects when present in mixtures. Only a few efforts have been made to assess the effect of As-Se mixture in algae or plants in general. Due to the lack of information on this topic, the aim of this study was to examine the As-Se interactive effect in the alga species Desmodesmus quadricauda. The initial density of algal cells was 1.9×10(4), cultures were permanently illuminated (70μEm(-2)s(-1)) and As and Se adverse effect was expressed as EC (effective concentration) value. For all experiments three EC (EC(10), EC(20), EC(50)) values for both metalloids were used: for As 26.20, 29.05, 35.38mg L(-1) and for Se 1.93, 3.65, 12.24mg L(-1), respectively. During this study algal biomass growth, lipid peroxidation and protein-bound thiol content parameters were used to assess the As-Se interactions. The reciprocal effect of the elements on their uptake by the alga was also determined. The As-treated algae supplemented with Se exhibited impaired growth indicating a synergistic interaction between the two elements. In samples treated with As-Se mixture, the total algal As content showed marked increase depending on the Se concentration in the mixture. Se uptake was also positively affected by rising As concentrations in the mixture. Consequently, the As-Se-treated algae experienced greater damage to membranes, evidenced by marked elevation of the TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) content. The TBARS content increased to a maximum level by 29.05mg L(-1) of As and 3.65mg L(-1) of Se, which was around 70 percent higher than that of the control. The thiol content was very close to that of the control treatment over the entire concentration range and for all As and Se combinations tested. Possible explanation for the synergism observed in D. quadricauda, is that the elevated uptake of As and Se upon their interaction and impaired antioxidant system, has added to the toxicity of the

  20. The Effects of Environmental Factors on the Growth and Competition of Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; WANG; Jiazhang; CHEN; Shunlong; MENG

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of environmental factors on the algae growth and competition,the author summarized overseas and domestic related researches in recent years.Most of the researches are about the influence of single factor on growth of algae.However,there is insufficient investment on the interaction of different factors and the competition between algae growth.This paper briefly introduced the classification of algae and the role they played in ecological system and focused on the influence which included temperature,illumination,nitrogen,phosphorus and pH on the growth and competition of algal.In the end,the author proposed key questions which were still needed to be studied in order to know more about the relationship between environment effects and growth and competition of algae.Therefore,people could better improve the community structure of algae and water ecological environment,and improve water primary productivity.

  1. Enhancement of Taihu blue algae anaerobic digestion efficiency by natural storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hengfeng; Lu, Minfeng; Zhao, Mingxing; Huang, Zhenxing; Ren, Hongyan; Yan, Qun; Ruan, Wenquan

    2013-12-01

    Taihu blue algae after different storage time from 0 to 60 d were anaerobic fermented to evaluate their digestibility and process stability. Results showed that anaerobic digestion (AD) of blue algae under 15 d natural storage led to the highest CH4 production of 287.6 mL g(-1) VS at inoculum substrate ratio 2.0, demonstrating 36.69% improvement comparing with that from fresh algae. Storage of blue algae led to cell death, microcystins (MCs) release and VS reduction by spontaneous fermentation. However, it also played an important role in removing algal cell wall barrier, pre-hydrolysis and pre-acidification, leading to the improvement in CH4 yield. Closer examination of volatile fatty acids (VFA) variation, VS removal rates and key enzymes change during AD proved short storage time (≤ 15 d) of blue algae had higher efficiencies in biodegradation and methanation. Furthermore, AD presented significant biodegradation potential for MCs released from Taihu blue algae.

  2. Recomendations concerning technical research and development with the purpose to industrially exploit marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1980-10-01

    This report formulates a proposal for a program for technical research and development concerning use of Marine algae.The report is based on a retrospective literature search, an inquiry to potential algae users and producers in Sweden, visits to and correspondence with scientists and industries in Sweden and abroad. Technical research and development concerning marine algae is needed within the following fields: -Development of new sorts of algae offering resistance to parasite and disease adoptation to cultivation and har- vesting systems,and high-yielding concerning technically interesting components. -Development of suitable cultivation systems for Swedish conditions. -Co-cultivation of fish, mussels, oysters and crustaceans with algae. -Development of harvesting systems. -Methane rotting. -Fatty acid/hydrocarbon production as an alternative to methane rotting. -Physical-chemical properties of marine polysaccharides in relation to their technical properties. -Marine algae as fodder supplement.

  3. Anti-diabetic effects of brown algae derived phlorotannins, marine polyphenols through diverse mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hong; Jeon, You-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Marine algae are popular and abundant food ingredients mainly in Asian countries, and also well known for their health beneficial effects due to the presence of biologically active components. The marine algae have been studied for biologically active components and phlorotannins, marine polyphenols are among them. Among marine algae, brown algae have extensively studied for their potential anti-diabetic activities. Majority of the investigations on phlorotannins derived from brown algae have exhibited their various anti-diabetic mechanisms such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effect, glucose uptake effect in skeletal muscle, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP 1B) enzyme inhibition, improvement of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic db/db mice, and protective effect against diabetes complication. In this review, we have made an attempt to discuss the various anti-diabetic mechanisms associated with phlorotannins from brown algae that are confined to in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Extraction of alginate biopolymer present in marine alga sargassum filipendula and bioadsorption of metallic ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Jaiana Kleinübing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the bioadsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions by marine alga Sargassum filipendula and by the alginate biopolymer extracted from this alga. The objective is to evaluate the importance of this biopolymer in removing different metallic ions by the marine alga S. filipendula. In the equilibrium study, the same affinity order was observed for both bioadsorbents: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+. For Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions when the alginate is isolated and acting as bioadsorbents, adsorption capacities greater than those found for the alga were observed, indicating that it is the main component responsible for the removal of metallic ions. For Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, greater bioadsorption capacities were observed for the alga, indicating that other functional groups of the alga, such as sulfates and amino, are also important in the bioadsorption of these ions.

  5. Toxic Algae and Early Warning Management in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song; Lun; Song; Guangjun; Song; Yonggang; Xu; Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The research status of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are reviewed from the aspects of toxicity characteristics,toxic mechanism and early warning management,and the existing toxic algae and their toxicity in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are analyzed in the paper. The early warning level of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China is put forward,and the research direction of shellfish poisoning in future is summarized.

  6. Crustose coralline algae can suppress macroalgal growth and recruitment on Hawaiian coral reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Dailer, M.L.; Smith, C M

    2011-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae are important components of tropical reef communities because they promote successful settlement by corals and contribute to solidification of the reef framework. We show experimentally that crustose coralline algae are also capable of suppressing the growth and recruitment potential of an abundant Hawaiian reef macroalga, Ulva fasciata. When mixed communities of crustose coralline algae were absent, relative growth rates of U. fasciata increased by 54.6%. When experi...

  7. Red coralline algae assessed as marine pH proxies using 11B MAS NMR

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cusack; Kamenos, N. A.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Tricot, G

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing pH from biogenic carbonates using boron isotopic compositions relies on the assumption that only borate, and no boric acid, is present. Red coralline algae are frequently used in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction due to their widespread distribution and regular banding frequency. Prior to undertaking pH reconstructions using red coralline algae we tested the boron composition of the red coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale using high field NMR. In bulk analysed samples, thirt...

  8. Soil algae and mesofauna communities in biotopes of forest rehabilitation in zhovti vody (Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Posrednikova

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of soil algae was studied on areas of revegetation and without it in the Zhovti Vody. The systematic and ecological structure of algal flora and algae dominant species were indicated. We counted 28 species of soil algae on the dumps of uranium mining: Chlorophyta – 11 species (39.5 %, Cyanophyta – 11 (39.5 %, Xanthophyta – 2 (7 %, Bacillariophyta – 2 (7 %, Eustigmatohyta – 2 (7 %.

  9. How-to-Do-It: Diatoms: The Ignored Alga in High School Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, James J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides historical background, descriptions, uses and basis for identification of diatoms. Explains collection, dry-mount cleaning, and preparation procedures of the algae. Cites additional resources. (RT)

  10. Multispectral sorter for rapid, nondestructive optical bioprospecting for algae biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan W.; Wu, Hauwen; Singh, Seema

    2014-03-01

    Microalgal biotechnology is a nascent yet burgeoning field for developing the next generation of sustainable feeds, fuels, and specialty chemicals. Among the issues facing the algae bioproducts industry, the lack of efficient means of cultivar screening and phenotype selection represents a critical hurdle for rapid development and diversification. To address this challenge, we have developed a multi-modal and label-free optical tool which simultaneously assesses the photosynthetic productivity and biochemical composition of single microalgal cells, and provides a means for actively sorting attractive specimen (bioprospecting) based on the spectral readout. The device integrates laser-trapping micro-Raman spectroscopy and pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry of microalgal cells in a flow cell. Specifically, the instrument employs a dual-purpose epi-configured IR laser for single-cell trapping and Raman spectroscopy, and a high-intensity VISNIR trans-illumination LED bank for detection of variable photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence. Micro-Raman scatter of single algae cells revealed vibrational modes corresponding to the speciation and total lipid content, as well as other major biochemical pools, including total protein, carbohydrates, and carotenoids. PSII fluorescence dynamics provide a quantitative estimate of maximum photosynthetic efficiency and regulated and non-regulated non-photochemical quenching processes. The combined spectroscopic readouts provide a set of metrics for subsequent optical sorting of the cells by the laser trap for desirable biomass properties, e.g. the combination of high lipid productivity and high photosynthetic yield. Thus the device provides means for rapid evaluation and sorting of algae cultures and environmental samples for biofuels development.

  11. The ecology of viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M

    2012-09-01

    Because viruses of eukaryotic algae are incredibly diverse, sweeping generalizations about their ecology are rare. These obligate parasites infect a range of algae and their diversity can be illustrated by considering that isolates range from small particles with ssRNA genomes to much larger particles with 560 kb dsDNA genomes. Molecular research has also provided clues about the extent of their diversity especially considering that genetic signatures of algal viruses in the environment rarely match cultivated viruses. One general concept in algal virus ecology that has emerged is that algal viruses are very host specific and most infect only certain strains of their hosts; with the exception of viruses of brown algae, evidence for interspecies infectivity is lacking. Although some host-virus systems behave with boom-bust oscillations, complex patterns of intraspecies infectivity can lead to host-virus coexistence obfuscating the role of viruses in host population dynamics. Within the framework of population dynamics, host density dependence is an important phenomenon that influences virus abundances in nature. Variable burst sizes of different viruses also influence their abundances and permit speculations about different life strategies, but as exceptions are common in algal virus ecology, life strategy generalizations may not be broadly applicable. Gaps in knowledge of virus seasonality and persistence are beginning to close and investigations of environmental reservoirs and virus resilience may answer questions about virus inter-annual recurrences. Studies of algal mortality have shown that viruses are often important agents of mortality reinforcing notions about their ecological relevance, while observations of the surprising ways viruses interact with their hosts highlight the immaturity of our understanding. Considering that just two decades ago algal viruses were hardly acknowledged, recent progress affords the optimistic perspective that future studies

  12. Reclamation with blue-green algae: changes in nucleic acids, protein and nitrogen content of algae exposed to solid waste of a chlor-alkali factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, B.B.; Nanda, D.R.; Misra, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    During an attempt at the possible reclamation of solid waste from a chlor-alkali factory by blue-green algae, the effects of the solid waste on biochemical variables were studied. DNA, RNA, protein, and algal nitrogen content of the algal material showed a significant decrease with increase in time and also solid waste concentration. An increase in RNA/DNA ratio and a decrease in protein/RNA ratio were also observed. Algae accumulated appreciable amounts of mercury from the waste, showing dependence on both concentration and time. Significant correlations were obtained between mercury uptake and concentrations of the waste and between different combinations of algae and mercury uptake.

  13. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Cynthia Layse F.; Falcão, Heloina de S.; Lima, Gedson R. de M.; Montenegro, Camila de A.; Lira, Narlize S.; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Rodrigues, Luis C.; de Souza, Maria de Fátima V.; Barbosa-Filho, José M.; Batista, Leônia M.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted. PMID:21845096

  14. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Barbosa-Filho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS, inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted.

  15. Measuring Oscillatory Velocity Fields Due to Swimming Algae

    CERN Document Server

    Guasto, Jeffrey S; Gollub, J P

    2010-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video, we present the first time-resolved measurements of the oscillatory velocity field induced by swimming unicellular microorganisms. Confinement of the green alga C. reinhardtii in stabilized thin liquid films allows simultaneous tracking of cells and tracer particles. The measured velocity field reveals complex time-dependent flow structures, and scales inversely with distance. The instantaneous mechanical power generated by the cells is measured from the velocity fields and peaks at 15 fW. The dissipation per cycle is more than four times what steady swimming would require.

  16. The auxin concentration in sixteen Chinese marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijun

    2006-09-01

    The author determined the occurrence of indole-3-acetic acid in sixteen Chinese marine algae collected from the east coast of China with fluorescence spectrophotometry (FS) and wheat coleoptile bioanalysis methods (WCB). The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) presented was from 1.1 46.9 ng/g Fw (fresh weight) with FS and 5.3 110.2 ng/g Fw with WCB. The results by the two methods were in the orders of 10-3 103 ng/g Fw reported previously from multiple references.

  17. Multi-scale Characterization of Improved Algae Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Taraka T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report relays the important role biofuels such as algae could have in the energy market. The report cites that problem of crude oil becoming less abundant while the demand for energy continues to rise. There are many benefits of producing energy with biofuels such as fewer carbon emissions as well as less land area to produce the same amount of energy compared to other sources of renewable fuels. One challenge that faces biofuels right now is the cost to produce it is high.

  18. Study on sterols from brown algae (Sargassum muticum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peirong; XU Guanjun; BIAN Lizeng; ZHANG Shuichang; SONG Fuqing

    2006-01-01

    Various △5-3β-sterenols, whose carbon numbers range from C19-C23 to C26-C30and some compounds have many stereomers maximal up to six,have been detected out from the extract of brown algae (Sargassum muticum), which means that steranes with lower carbon numbers are likely different in the origin, and some corresponding sterol stereoisomers may have already existed in their precursor organisms. This provides some experimental evidence for supplementing and amending the traditional interpretation of the sterol stereoisomer transformation during the deposition and diagenesis of organic matter.

  19. Microsatellite Primers in the Lichen Symbiotic Alga Trebouxia decolorans (Trebouxiophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Dal Grande

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the symbiotic green alga Trebouxia decolorans to study fine-scale population structure and clonal diversity. Methods and Results: Using Illumina pyrosequencing, 20 microsatellite primer sets were developed for T. decolorans. The primer sets were tested on 43 individuals sampled from four subpopulations in Germany. The primers amplified di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats with three to 15 alleles per locus, and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.636 to 0.821. Conclusions: The identified microsatellite markers will be useful to study the genetic diversity, dispersal, and reproductive mode of this common lichen photobiont.

  20. [Epiphytic algae from Bajo Pepito, Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan-Young, L I; Díaz-Martín, M A; Espinoza-Avalos, J

    2006-06-01

    A total of 96 epiphytic algae species were identified from Bajo Pepito, Quintana Roo, México. 60.4% (58) belonged to the Rhodophyta, 19.79% (19) to the Phaeophyta, 16.6% (16) to the Chlorophyta and 3.1% (3) to the Cyanophyta; 49 species (50.5%) were found only in one month, while Heterosiphonia crispella was found in all of the sampled months. That species provided the largest contribution to the biomass of epiphytes. During January we registered the greater biommass and richness of epiphytes species, coincidently with high values of host species cover and rainfall.

  1. The auxin concentration in sixteen Chinese marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lijun

    2006-01-01

    The author determined the occurrence of indole-3-acetic acid in sixteen Chinese marine algae collected from the east coast of China with fluorescence spectrophotometry (FS) and wheat coleoptile bioanalysis methods (WCB). The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) presented was from 1.1-46.9 ng/g Fw (fresh weight) with FS and 5.3-110.2 ng/g Fw with WCB. The results by the two methods were in the orders of 10-3-103 ng/g Fw reported previously from multiple references.

  2. Sulfur utilization of corals is enhanced by endosymbiotic algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Yuyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-containing compounds are important components of all organisms, but few studies have explored sulfate utilization in corals. Our previous study found that the expression of a sulfur transporter (SLC26A11 was upregulated in the presence of Symbiodinium cells in juveniles of the reef-building coral Acropora tenuis. In this study, we performed autoradiography using 35S-labeled sulfate ions (35SO4 2− to examine the localization and amount of incorporated radioactive sulfate in the coral tissues and symbiotic algae. Incorporated 35SO4 2− was detected in symbiotic algal cells, nematocysts, ectodermal cells and calicoblast cells. The combined results of 35S autoradiography and Alcian Blue staining showed that incorporated 35S accumulated as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs in the ectodermal cell layer. We also compared the relative incorporation of 35SO4 2− into coral tissues and endosymbiotic algae, and their chemical fractions in dark versus light (photosynthetic conditions. The amount of sulfur compounds, such as GAGs and lipids, generated from 35SO4 2− was higher under photosynthetic conditions. Together with the upregulation of sulfate transporters by symbiosis, our results suggest that photosynthesis of algal endosymbionts contributes to the synthesis and utilization of sulfur compounds in corals.

  3. Solar-driven hydrogen production in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Steven J; Tamburic, Bojan; Zemichael, Fessehaye; Hellgardt, Klaus; Nixon, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The twin problems of energy security and global warming make hydrogen an attractive alternative to traditional fossil fuels with its combustion resulting only in the release of water vapor. Biological hydrogen production represents a renewable source of the gas and can be performed by a diverse range of microorganisms from strict anaerobic bacteria to eukaryotic green algae. Compared to conventional methods for generating H(2), biological systems can operate at ambient temperatures and pressures without the need for rare metals and could potentially be coupled to a variety of biotechnological processes ranging from desalination and waste water treatment to pharmaceutical production. Photobiological hydrogen production by microalgae is particularly attractive as the main inputs for the process (water and solar energy) are plentiful. This chapter focuses on recent developments in solar-driven H(2) production in green algae with emphasis on the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We review the current methods used to achieve sustained H(2) evolution and discuss possible approaches to improve H(2) yields, including the optimization of culturing conditions, reducing light-harvesting antennae and targeting auxiliary electron transport and fermentative pathways that compete with the hydrogenase for reductant. Finally, industrial scale-up is discussed in the context of photobioreactor design and the future prospects of the field are considered within the broader context of a biorefinery concept.

  4. Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomaterials on algae, fungi and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Elena V; Ochoa-Olmos, Omar E; De la Mora-Estrada, León F

    2011-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanomateriales (CNMs), namely fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, on algae, fungi and plants are analyzed. In different toxicity tests, both direct and indirect effects were found. The direct effects are determined by nanomaterial chemical composition and surface reactivity, which might catalyze redox reactions in contact with organic molecules and affect respiratory processes. Some indirect effects of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are physical restraints or release of toxic ions. Accumulation of CNPs in photosynthetic organs provokes obstruction in stomata, foliar heating and alteration in physiological processes. The phytotoxicity studies of CNMs should be focused on determining phytotoxicity mechanisms, size distribution of CNPs in solution, uptake and translocation of nanoparticles by plants, on characterization of their physical and chemical properties in rhizosphere and on root surfaces. More studies on plants and algae, as a part of food chain, are needed to understand profoundly the toxicity and health risks of CNMs as ecotoxicological stressors. Correct and detailed physical and chemical characterization of CNMs is very important to establish the exposure conditions matching the realistic ones. Ecotoxicity experiments should include examinations of both short and long-term effects. One must take into account that real carbon nanomaterials are complex mixtures of carbon forms and metal residues of variable chemistry and particle size, and the toxicity reported may reflect these byproducts/residues/impurities rather than the primary material structure. One more recommendation is not only to focus on the inherent toxicity of nanoparticles, but also consider their possible interactions with existing environmental contaminants.

  5. ALGAE PROLIFERATION ON SUBSTRATES IMMERSED IN BIOLOGICALLY TREATED SEWAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due fast biomass production, high affinity for N and P and possibilities to CO2 sequestration microalgae are currently in the spotlight, especially in renewable energy technologies sector. The majority of studies focus their attention on microalgae cultivation with respect to biomass production. Fuel produced from algal biomass can contribute to reducing consumption of conventional fossil fuels and be a remedy for a rising energy crisis and global warming induced by air pollution. Some authors opt for possibilities of using sewage as a nutrient medium in algae cultivation. Other scientists go one step further and present concepts to introduce microalgal systems as an integral part of wastewater treatment plants. High costs of different microalgal harvesting methods caused introduction of the idea of algae immobilization in a form of periphyton on artificial substrates. In the present study the attention has focused on possibilities of using waste materials as substrates to proliferation of periphyton in biologically treated sewage that contained certain amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus.

  6. SULFOGLYCOLIPID FROM THE MARINE BROWN ALGA SARGASSUM HEMIPHYLLUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG CUI; YU-SHAN LI; HONG-BING LIU; DAN YUAN; BAO-REN LU

    2001-01-01

    One kinds of glycolipid (SBI) have been isolated from the marine brown alga Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turn.) Ag. The structures of SBI have been determined as the sodium salt of 1-0-acyl-3-0-(6′-sulfo-c-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol (acyl: tetradecanoyl, pentadecanoyl, 11-hexadecenoyl, hexadecanoyl, 10,13-octadecadienoyl, 9-octade cenoyl, 15-metylheptadecanoyl and 11-eicosenoyl 17:1.5:19:153:1: 19:1:2) on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence and GC-MS analysis, respectively. Four constituents of the SBI were new compounds [the sodium salt of 1-0-(ll″-hexadecenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol, the sodium salt of 1-0-(10",13"-octadecadienoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl) glycerol,and the sodium salt of 1-0-(15"-metylhexadecenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-c-D-quinovopyrannosyl)glycerol, and the sodium salt of 1-0-(ll"-eicosenoyl)-3-0-(6′-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyrannosyl)glycerol]. All compounds were isolated from marine brown alga for the first time.

  7. [Food value of the spiruline algae to man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautier, C; Tremolieres, J

    1975-01-01

    The acceptability of various culinary products based on the algae spirulina was tested by questionaire: formulas rich in proteins, soups, omelets, desserts. Spirulina are little appreciated in France due to offensive color, smell and taste. Tomato and chocolate are the most acceptable flavors. Lyophilisation is preferable to atomisation, and discoloration using alcohol is preferable to the acetone method. The hydrolysate obtained, having neither the smell nor the taste of algae, is excellent. Nitrogen, sodium and potassium balances were recorded in 5 undernourished subjects fed via a gastric tube. The spirulina provided respectively 15 p. 100 (1 subject), 30 p. 100 (2 subjects), and 50 p. 100 (2 subjects) of the protein ration. There were no intestinal problems. The spirulina did not modify the investigated balances. However, faecal nitrogen increased to 2.08 g (compared to control period values, 1.33 g and 1.51 g). The various coefficients: digestibility, nitrogen retention and protein utilization did not vary. In man as in animals, nitrogen retention is satisfactory, but digestibility is diminished. Uric acid did not vary in the urine, but serum values increased slightly. Ingestion of spirulina in small doses even over a long period should be tolerable in the normal subject.

  8. Indefatigable: an erect coralline alga is highly resistant to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark; Mach, Katharine; Tepler, Sarah; Martone, Patrick

    2013-10-15

    Intertidal organisms are subjected to intense hydrodynamic forces as waves break on the shore. These repeated insults can cause a plant or animal's structural materials to fatigue and fail, even though no single force would be sufficient to break the organism. Indeed, the survivorship and maximum size of at least one species of seaweed is set by the accumulated effects of small forces rather than the catastrophic imposition of a single lethal force. One might suppose that fatigue would be especially potent in articulated coralline algae, in which the strain of the entire structure is concentrated in localized joints, the genicula. However, previous studies of joint morphology suggest an alternative hypothesis. Each geniculum is composed of a single tier of cells, which are attached at their ends to the calcified segments of the plant (the intergenicula) but have minimal connection to each other along their lengths. This lack of neighborly attachment potentially allows the weak interfaces between cells to act as 'crack stoppers', inhibiting the growth of fatigue cracks. We tested this possibility by repeatedly loading fronds of Calliarthron cheilosporioides, a coralline alga common on wave-washed shores in California. When repeatedly loaded to 50-80% of its breaking strength, C. cheilosporioides commonly survives more than a million stress cycles, with a record of 51 million. We show how this extraordinary fatigue resistance interacts with the distribution of wave-induced water velocities to set the limits to size in this species.

  9. Chemical mediation of coral larval settlement by crustose coralline algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebben, J; Motti, C A; Siboni, Nahshon; Tapiolas, D M; Negri, A P; Schupp, P J; Kitamura, Makoto; Hatta, Masayuki; Steinberg, P D; Harder, T

    2015-06-04

    The majority of marine invertebrates produce dispersive larvae which, in order to complete their life cycles, must attach and metamorphose into benthic forms. This process, collectively referred to as settlement, is often guided by habitat-specific cues. While the sources of such cues are well known, the links between their biological activity, chemical identity, presence and quantification in situ are largely missing. Previous work on coral larval settlement in vitro has shown widespread induction by crustose coralline algae (CCA) and in particular their associated bacteria. However, we found that bacterial biofilms on CCA did not initiate ecologically realistic settlement responses in larvae of 11 hard coral species from Australia, Guam, Singapore and Japan. We instead found that algal chemical cues induce identical behavioral responses of larvae as per live CCA. We identified two classes of CCA cell wall-associated compounds--glycoglycerolipids and polysaccharides--as the main constituents of settlement inducing fractions. These algae-derived fractions induce settlement and metamorphosis at equivalent concentrations as present in CCA, both in small scale laboratory assays and under flow-through conditions, suggesting their ability to act in an ecologically relevant fashion to steer larval settlement of corals. Both compound classes were readily detected in natural samples.

  10. Halophytes, Algae, and Bacteria Food and Fuel Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The constant, increasing demand for energy, freshwater, and food stresses our ability to meet these demands within reasonable cost and impact on climate while sustaining quality of life. This environmental Triangle of Conflicts between energy, food, and water--while provoked by anthropogenic monetary and power struggles--can be resolved through an anthropogenic paradigm shift in how we produce and use energy, water, and food. With world population (6.6 billion) projected to increase 40 percent in 40 to 60 yr, proper development of saline agriculture and aquaculture is required, as 43 percent of the Earth's landmass is arid or semi-arid and 97 percent of the Earth's water is seawater. In light of this, we seek fuel alternatives in plants that thrive in brackish and saltwater with the ability to survive in arid lands. The development and application of these plants (halophytes) become the primary focus. Herein we introduce some not-so-familiar halophytes and present a few of their benefits, cite a few research projects (including some on the alternatives algae and bacteria), and then set theoretical limits on biomass production followed by projections in terms of world energy demands. Based on diverse arid lands with a total size equivalent to the Sahara Desert (8.6(exp 8) ha, or 2.1(exp 9) acres), these projections show that halophyte agriculture and algae systems can provide for the projected world energy demand.

  11. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO2-enriched air can be converted to oily substances. Such an approach can contribute to solve major problems of air pollution resulting from CO2 evolution and future crisis due to a shortage of energy sources. This study was undertaken to know the proper transesterification, amount of biodiesel production (ester and physical properties of biodiesel. In this study we used common species Oedogonium and Spirogyra to compare the amount of biodiesel production. Algal oil and biodiesel (ester production was higher in Oedogonium than Spirogyra sp. However, biomass (after oil extraction was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. Sediments (glycerine, water and pigments was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. There was no difference of pH between Spirogyra and Oedogonium sp. These results indicate that biodiesel can be produced from both species and Oedogonium is better source than Spirogyra sp.

  12. Photosynthetic Hydrogen and Oxygen Production by Green Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1999-08-22

    Photosynthesis research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is focused on hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable fuel and chemical feed stock. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are: (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of hotosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance-including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transpor;t and (3) constructing real-world bioreactors, including the generation of hydrogen and oxygen against workable back pressures of the photoproduced gases.

  13. Short-term uptake of heavy metals by periphyton algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vymazal, J.

    1984-12-31

    The utilization of periphyton for the removal of heavy metals from enriched small streams has been examined. By means of short-term batch laboratory experiments the courses of metal uptake have been studied. For uptake study naturally growing periphyton community and periphytic filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata and Oedogonium rivulare have been used. Uptakes of nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn) have been determined during four hours exposure. In addition the influence of humic substances on heavy metals uptake has been determined. Uptake of all metals increased during four hours exposure but not in the same way. Some metals were removed continuously (Ni, Cr, Fe and Mn), other metals were removed more rapidly during the first hour or first two hours of exposure and then only slight removal continued (Cu, Pb, Cd, Co). Uptake of Zn was rather unambiguous. Results of these experiments suggest that the course of uptake for individual metals could be similar for most periphyton algae. It was established that humic substances significantly reduce heavy metals uptake. The highest decrease of uptake was observed in Cu, Cr, Co and Cd. The results of model experiments are being tested in a pilot scale with respect to the demands of engineering practice. (J.R.)

  14. Predicting toxicity of aromatic ternary mixtures to algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU GuangHua; WANG Chao; WANG PeiFang; YANG ChengZhi

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are often polluted with more than one type of contaminant, and information on the combined toxic effects of mixed pollutants on aquatic organisms is scarce at present. Acute toxicity of aromatic compounds and their ternary mixtures to the alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) was determined by the algae growth inhibition test. The median effective concentration (EC_(50)) value for a single aromatic compound and EC_(50mix) values for mixtures were obtained, the logarithm of n-octanol/water partition coefficient (logP_(mix)) and the frontier orbital energy gap (△E_(mix) for mixtures were calculated. Based on the quantitative structure-activity relationship model for single chemical toxicity log(1/EC_(50)) =0.426logP-1.150△E+12.61 (n=15, R~2=0.917 and Q~2=0.878), the following two-descriptor model was developed for the ternary mixture toxicity of aromatic compounds: log(1/EC_(50mix))=O.68210gP_(mix)-O.367△E_(mix)+ 4.971 (n=44, R~2-0.869 and Q~2=0.843). This model can be used to predict the combined toxicity of mixtures containing toxicants with different mechanisms of action.

  15. Identifying vital effects in Halimeda algae with Ca isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Blättler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical records of biogenic carbonates provide some of the most valuable records of the geological past, but are often difficult to interpret without a mechanistic understanding of growth processes. In this experimental study, Halimeda algae are used as a test organism to untangle some of the specific factors that influence their skeletal composition, in particular their Ca-isotope composition. Algae were stimulated to precipitate both calcite and aragonite by growth in artificial Cretaceous seawater, resulting in experimental samples with somewhat malformed skeletons. The Ca-isotope fractionation of the algal calcite (−0.6‰ appears to be much smaller than that for the algal aragonite (−1.4‰, similar to the behaviour observed in inorganic precipitates. However, the carbonate from Halimeda has higher Ca-isotope ratios than inorganic forms by approximately 0.25‰, likely because of Rayleigh distillation within the algal intercellular space. In identifying specific vital effects and the magnitude of their influence on Ca-isotope ratios, this study suggests that mineralogy has a first-order control on the marine Ca-isotope cycle.

  16. Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of photosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance--including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transport and (3) the minimum number of light reactions that are required to split water to elemental hydrogen and oxygen. Each of these research topics is being actively addressed by the photobiological hydrogen research community.

  17. Algas: da economia nos ambientes aquáticos à bioremediação e à química analítica Algae: from aquatic environment economy to bioremediation and analytical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Vidotti

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae constitute a large group of many different organisms, essentially aquatic and able to live in all systems giving them sufficient light and humidity. Some algae species have been used in the evaluation or in the bioremediation of aquatic systems. More recently algae have been suggested as interesting tools in the field of analytical chemistry. In this work the most important aspects related to the different uses of algae are presented with a brief discussion.

  18. Salinity dependent hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by coastal and open ocean haptophyte algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'boule, D.; Chivall, D.; Sinke-Schoen, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; van der Meer, M.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope fractionation in alkenones produced by haptophyte algae is a promising new proxy for paleosalinity reconstructions. To constrain and further develop this proxy the coastal haptophyte Isochrysis galbana and the open ocean haptophyte alga Emiliania huxleyi were cultured at differe

  19. Closed and continuous algae cultivation system for food production and gas exchange in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Shigeo; Koyano, Takashi; Miki, Keizaburo

    In CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System), utilization of photosynthetic algae is an effective means for obtaining food and oxygen at the same time. We have chosen Spirulina, a blue-green alga, and have studied possibilities of algae utilization. We have developed an advanced algae cultivation system, which is able to produce algae continuously in a closed condition. Major features of the new system are as follows. o (1)In order to maintain homogeneous culture conditions, the cultivator was designed so as to cause a swirl on medium circulation. (2)Oxygen gas separation and carbon dioxide supply are conducted by a newly designed membrane module. (3)Algae mass and medium are separated by a specially designed harvester. (4)Cultivation conditions, such as pH, temperature, algae growth rate, light intensity and quanlity of generated oxygen gas are controlled by a computer system and the data are automatically recorded. This equipment is a primary model for ground experiments in order to obtain some design data for space use. A feasibility of algae cultivation in a closed condition is discussed on the basis of data obtained by use of this new system.

  20. Possible future effects of large-scale algae cultivation for biofuels on coastal eutrophication in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaas, H.; Kroeze, C.

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is increasingly considered as an alternative for fossil diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from rapeseed, palm, sunflower, soybean and algae. In this study, the consequences of large-scale production of biodiesel from micro-algae for eutrophication in four large European seas are analysed.

  1. The current potential of algae biofuels in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In spite of future uncertainties about industrial algae biofuel production, the UAE is planning to become "a world leader in biofuels from the algae industry by 2020;" thus joining major countries which have already started producing renewable energy and biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from rene...

  2. Microbial to reef scale interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and benthic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, Katie L; Rodriguez-Mueller, Beltran; Youle, Merry; Marhaver, Kristen L; Vermeij, Mark J A; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest L

    2012-04-22

    Competition between reef-building corals and benthic algae is of key importance for reef dynamics. These interactions occur on many spatial scales, ranging from chemical to regional. Using microprobes, 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and underwater surveys, we examined the interactions between the reef-building coral Montastraea annularis and four types of benthic algae. The macroalgae Dictyota bartayresiana and Halimeda opuntia, as well as a mixed consortium of turf algae, caused hypoxia on the adjacent coral tissue. Turf algae were also associated with major shifts in the bacterial communities at the interaction zones, including more pathogens and virulence genes. In contrast to turf algae, interactions with crustose coralline algae (CCA) and M. annularis did not appear to be antagonistic at any scale. These zones were not hypoxic, the microbes were not pathogen-like and the abundance of coral-CCA interactions was positively correlated with per cent coral cover. We propose a model in which fleshy algae (i.e. some species of turf and fleshy macroalgae) alter benthic competition dynamics by stimulating bacterial respiration and promoting invasion of virulent bacteria on corals. This gives fleshy algae a competitive advantage over corals when human activities, such as overfishing and eutrophication, remove controls on algal abundance. Together, these results demonstrate the intricate connections and mechanisms that structure coral reefs.

  3. The blue water footprint and land use of biofuels from algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Xu, L.; De Vries, G. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels from microalgae are potentially important sources of liquid renewable energy. Algae are not yet produced on a large scale, but research shows promising results. This study assesses the blue water footprint (WF) and land use of algae-based biofuels. It combines the WF concept with an energy

  4. DYNAMICS OF ALGAE NUMBER AND BIOMASS OF STEPPE BIOGEOCOENOSES AND AGROCOENOSES IN KHERSON REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbina V.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of daily dynamics of seaweeds abundance and biomass were determined for steppe biogeocoenosis and agrocoenosis of Biosphere reserve “Askaniya-Nova” in spring of 2011. Fluctuation ranges in seaweeds abundance and biomass have been registered.Analyzing the indices of total number and algae biomass in studied biogeocoenoses it should be noted that the maximal values of alga number in virgin soil steppe exceeded minimal in 3,3 times; biomasses - in 2,1. For virgin soil steppe of post-fire-induced development the relation between maximum and minimal value of total number of algae was up to 2,1; biomass - 2,4. For agrocoenosis we noted the largest ranges in variation of number and biomass. In conditions of dry-land arable land the maximum values of total number of alga exceeded minimal in 21,9 times; biomasses - in 8,7; for irrigated arable land - in 12,5 and 5,6 respectively.In soil samples, selected within the limits of virgin soil biogeocoenoses of biosphere reserve “Askania-Nova” and agrocoenosis of dry-land and irrigated arable land in biosphere reserve by direct count, the algae species of Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Xanthophyta and Eustigmatophyta have been found. The largest contribution to number and biomass of algae belonged to Bacillariophyta. The number and biomass of agrocoenosis algae is more dynamic feature, than for algae of virgin soil biogeocoenoses.

  5. Turf algae-mediated coral damage in coastal reefs of Belize, Central America

    KAUST Repository

    Wild, Christian

    2014-09-16

    Many coral reefs in the Caribbean experienced substantial changes in their benthic community composition during the last decades. This often resulted in phase shifts from scleractinian coral dominance to that by other benthic invertebrate or algae. However, knowledge about how the related role of coral-algae contacts may negatively affect corals is scarce. Therefore, benthic community composition, abundance of algae grazers, and the abundance and character of coral-algae contacts were assessed in situ at 13 Belizean reef sites distributed along a distance gradient to the Belizean mainland (12–70 km): Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (inshore), Turneffe Atoll (inner and outer midshore), and Lighthouse Reef (offshore). In situ surveys revealed significantly higher benthic cover by scleractinian corals at the remote Lighthouse Reef (26–29%) when compared to the other sites (4–19%). The abundance of herbivorous fish and the sea urchin Diadema antillarum significantly increased towards the offshore reef sites, while the occurrence of direct coral-algae contacts consequently increased significantly with decreasing distance to shore. About 60% of these algae contacts were harmful (exhibiting coral tissue damage, pigmentation change, or overgrowth) for corals (mainly genera Orbicella and Agaricia), particularly when filamentous turf algae were involved. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that (turf) algae-mediated coral damage occurs in Belizean coastal, near-shore coral reefs.

  6. Crustose coralline algae can suppress macroalgal growth and recruitment on Hawaiian coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Dailer, M.L.; Smith, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae are important components of tropical reef communities because they promote successful settlement by corals and contribute to solidification of the reef framework. We show experimentally that crustose coralline algae are also capable of suppressing the growth and recruitment

  7. All Fiber-optic Fluorescent Spectral Measurement and Analysis on Alga Chla/c Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fluorescent principle used for measuring alga characteristic parameters and the optimum structure design of the instrument are discussed. The fluorescent spectrum of Chla/c and the time-resolved different spectrum ΔA(λ,t) are given. The research provides an effective method for considering the density and the classification of algae, which will be helpful to monitor sea pollution.

  8. BEBERAPA MARGA ALGA BENANG DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEBERADAAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI BALI UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of filamentous algae and its relation to malaria vector control was conducted during the dry season in several lagoons at the north coast of Bali. Floating masses of these algae under the sunshine barricated the spread of solar-triton larvicide, reducing tremendously the effectiveness of the larvicide. Identification of the genera of these algae under the subphyllum of CYANOPHYTA (Blue Algae in the family of Cyanophyceae were Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Phormidium, Rivularia, Nostoc, and Anabaena; under the subphyllum of CHLOROPHYTA (Green Algae in the family of Chlorophyceae were Enteromorpha, Spirogyra, Mougeotia, Zygnema, and Oedogonium. The surface of water in between the floating masses of algae were an exellent breeding place of mosquitoes mainly Anopheles sundaicus. The density of Enteromorpha, the main attractant of An sundaicus compared to other filamantous algae, has no direct relation on the density of An. sundaicus larva. Hence Enteromorpha could only be considered as the indicator of the presence of larvae and not as the indicator of population densities of larvae Lagoons surrounded with mangrove plantations did not harbour filamentous algae and larvae of An. sundaicus were not found.

  9. Defined Media for Growth and Gamete Production by the Green Alga, Oedogonium cardiacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G J; Machlis, L

    1970-08-01

    Defined media consisting of inorganic salts and vitamin B(12) are described for the male and female filaments of the green alga, Oedogonium cardiacum. These media provide for a maximal growth rate and for the induction of oogonia and antheridia under the prescribed conditions. The maximal amounts of growth, based on dry weight measurements, compare favorably with other green algae.

  10. Spatiotemporal associations of reservoir nutrient characteristics and the invasive, harmful alga Prymnesium parvum in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a harmful alga that has caused ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems worldwide. In inland systems of North America, toxic blooms have nearly eliminated fish populations in some systems. Modifying nutrient profiles through alterations to land or water use may be a viable alternative for golden alga control in reservoirs. The main objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the nutrient dynamics that influence golden alga bloom formation and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs. We examined eight sites in the Upper Colorado River basin, Texas: three impacted reservoirs that have experienced repeated golden alga blooms; two reference reservoirs where golden alga is present but nontoxic; and three confluence sites downstream of the impacted and reference sites. Total, inorganic, and organic nitrogen and phosphorus and their ratios were quantified monthly along with golden alga abundance and ichthyotoxicity between December 2010 and July 2011. Blooms persisted for several months at the impacted sites, which were characterized by high organic nitrogen and low inorganic nitrogen. At impacted sites, abundance was positively associated with inorganic phosphorus and bloom termination coincided with increases in inorganic nitrogen and decreases in inorganic phosphorus in late spring. Management of both inorganic and organic forms of nutrients may create conditions in reservoirs unfavorable to golden alga.

  11. Fluorescence action spectra of algae and bean leaves at room and at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Fluorescence action spectra were determined, both at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature, with various blue-green, red and green algae, and greening bean leaves. The action spectra of algae were established with samples of low light absorption as well as dense samples. Fluorescence

  12. Uptake of caprolactam and its influence on growth and oxygen production of Desmodesmus quadricauda algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, Jana Pexová; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Novák, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The consumption of polyamides produced from caprolactam is increasing continuously, and for that reason the danger of environmental contamination by this lactam is also rising. This study's aim was to evaluate the influence of caprolactam on the growth and oxygen production of the green alga Desmodesmus quadricauda and on caprolactam uptake by this alga. The presence of caprolactam in water was observed to cause the algae significantly to increase its oxygen production. Caprolactam concentration of 5,000 mg/L stopped algae growth after 6 days and influenced coenobia structure (seen as disappearance of pyrenoids, deformation of cells) but did not decrease the number of cells in the coenobia. Caprolactam uptake is probably passive but relatively rapid. Maximum concentration in the algae was reached after 18-24 h.

  13. Cars will be fed on algae; Quand nos voitures rouleront aux algues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, G. [CEA-CNRS, Laboratoire de bioenergetique des bacteries et microalgues, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France)

    2012-02-15

    The development of the first and second generations of bio-fuels has led to a rise in food prices and the carbon balance sheet is less good than expected. Great hopes have been put on unicellular algae for they can synthesize oils, sugar and even hydrogen and the competition with food production is far less harsh than with actual bio-fuels. Moreover, when you grow micro-algae, the loss of water through evaporation is less important than in the case of intensive farm cultures. In 2009 10.000 tonnes of micro-algae were produced worldwide, they were mainly used for the production of fish food and of complements for humane food (fat acids and antioxidants). Different research programs concern unicellular algae: they aim at modifying micro-algae genetically in order to give them a higher productivity or to make them produce an oil more adapted for motor fuel or more easily recoverable. (A.C.)

  14. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions: In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  15. Paleoecology of Late Carboniferous Phylloid Algae in Southern Guizhou,SW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Phylloid algae are important reef-builders in the late Carboniferous. This paper focuses on the paleoecology of phylloid algae in the Late Carboniferous on well-exposed reefs in Ziyun County,Guizhou Province. Phylloid algae growing closely packed are attached via holdfast or similar structure to substrate. They were growing in environments such as shallow water, photic zone and below the wave base with medium energy currents. They have a variety of morphological forms, such as single cup-shaped, cabbage-shaped and clustering cup-shaped. The thalli are of certain tenacity and intensity. In the areas dominated by phylloid algae, other marine organisms are relatively scarce.Obviously, phylloid algae are stronger competitors for living space than other co-occurring organisms.

  16. The future viability of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbridge, George; Azadi, Pooya; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Taylor, Benjamin; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a techno-economic assessment of algae-derived biodiesel under economic and technical uncertainties associated with the development of algal biorefineries. A global sensitivity analysis was performed using a High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method. It was found that, considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the sensitivity of the biodiesel production cost to the key input parameters decreases in the following order: algae oil content>algae annual productivity per unit area>plant production capacity>carbon price increase rate. It was also found that the Return on Investment (ROI) is highly sensitive to the algae oil content, and to a lesser extent to the algae annual productivity, crude oil price and price increase rate, plant production capacity, and carbon price increase rate. For a large scale plant (100,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year) the production cost of biodiesel is likely to be £0.8-1.6 per kg.

  17. Cophylogenetics and biogeography reveal a coevolved relationship between sloths and their symbiont algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Emily D; Pauli, Jonathan N; Mendoza, Jorge E; Carlson, Jenna; Peery, M Zachariah

    2017-05-01

    Specialized species, like arboreal folivores, often develop beneficial relationships with symbionts to exploit ecologically constrained lifestyles. Although coevolution can drive speciation by specialization of a symbiont to a host, a symbiotic relationship is not indicative of coevolution between host and symbiont. We tested for coevolved relationships between highly specialized two- and three-toed sloths (Choloepus spp. and Bradypus spp., respectively) and their symbiotic algae using cophylogenies and phylogeography. Our phylogeographic analysis showed a biogeographic pattern for the sloth distribution that was not found in the algal phylogeny. We found support for congruence between the sloth and algae phylogenies, implying cospeciation, only in the Bradypus lineage. Algae host-switching occurred from Bradypus spp. to Choloepus spp. Our results support a previously hypothesized symbiotic relationship between sloths and the algae in their fur and indicate that coevolution may have played a role in algae diversification. More broadly, convergent evolution may facilitate host switching between deeply diverged host lineages.

  18. Benthic soft-bodied algae as bioindicators of stream water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stancheva R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the state-of-the-art of benthic soft-bodied algae as biondicators of stream and river water quality, with emphasis on bioassessments set by the legislation (e.g., European Water Framework Directive, USA Clean Water Act to promote the restoration and ensure ecological sustainability of water resources. The advantages and shortcomings of a variety of bioassessment field and laboratory methods for algae are discussed. The increasing use of soft-bodied algae in biotic indices to assess individual anthropogenic stressors, and in multimetric indices of biotic integrity to evaluate ecological condition in streams is summarized. Rapid microscopic and molecular approaches for inferring nutrient supply with heterocystous cyanobacteria and other sensitive algae are proposed. The need of better understanding of soft-bodied algae as bioindicators is discussed and suggestions are made for obtaining meaningful bioassessment information with cost-efficient efforts.

  19. [Hydrocarbons of the spiruline algae: nature, metabolism of heptadecane by rats and swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulliez, J; Bories, G; Boudene, C; Fevrier, C

    1975-01-01

    Hydrocarbons represent about half of the insaponifiable fraction of spirulina algae (0.1 to 0.3 p. 100 of the dry alga); n-heptadecane is the major component (65 p. 100). The retention of this paraffin has been measured in animals receiving these algae as the main or partial protein source. Rats fed with a diet containing 280 ppm n-heptadecane (25 p. 100 alga meal) from weaning show an accumulation of this hydrocarbon in the carcass the retention levels off after 4 months and seems related to the lipid content; preferential fixation occurs in adipose tissue. Sows receiving a diet with 52 ppm heptadecane (5p. 100 alga meal) during growth, pregnancy and lactation retain comparatively much less hydrocarbon; nevertheless n-heptadecane is excreted in the milk.

  20. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Tejada; Antoni Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma) epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands) by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands). Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions:In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  1. Red coralline algae assessed as marine pH proxies using 11B MAS NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, M.; Kamenos, N. A.; Rollion-Bard, C.; Tricot, G.

    2015-02-01

    Reconstructing pH from biogenic carbonates using boron isotopic compositions relies on the assumption that only borate, and no boric acid, is present. Red coralline algae are frequently used in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction due to their widespread distribution and regular banding frequency. Prior to undertaking pH reconstructions using red coralline algae we tested the boron composition of the red coralline alga Lithothamnion glaciale using high field NMR. In bulk analysed samples, thirty percent of boron was present as boric acid. We suggest that prior to reconstructing pH using coralline algae 1) species-specific boron compositions and 2) within-skeleton special distributions of boron are determined for multiple species. This will enable site selective boron analyses to be conducted validating coralline algae as palaeo-pH proxies based on boron isotopic compositions.

  2. Adsorption Studies of Lead by Enteromorpha Algae and Its Silicates Bonded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan H. Hammud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead adsorption by green Enteromorpha algae was studied. Adsorption capacity was 83.8 mg/g at pH 3.0 with algae (E and 1433.5 mg/g for silicates modified algae (EM. FTIR and thermal analysis of algae materials were studied. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson column model were best for adsorbent (E and algae after reflux (ER and Yan model for (EM with capacity 76.2, 71.1, and 982.5 mg/g, respectively. (ER and (EM show less swelling and better flow rate control than (E. Nonlinear methods are more appropriate technique. Error function calculations proved valuable for predicting the best adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and column models.

  3. Computational Visual Stress Level Analysis of Calcareous Algae Exposed to Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilssen, Ingunn; Eide, Ingvar; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Marcia Abreu; de Souza Tâmega, Frederico Tapajós; Nattkemper, Tim W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a machine learning based approach for analyses of photos collected from laboratory experiments conducted to assess the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water rhodolith-forming calcareous algae. This pilot study uses imaging technology to quantify and monitor the stress levels of the calcareous algae Mesophyllum engelhartii (Foslie) Adey caused by various degrees of light exposure, flow intensity and amount of sediment. A machine learning based algorithm was applied to assess the temporal variation of the calcareous algae size (∼ mass) and color automatically. Measured size and color were correlated to the photosynthetic efficiency (maximum quantum yield of charge separation in photosystem II, ΦPSIImax) and degree of sediment coverage using multivariate regression. The multivariate regression showed correlations between time and calcareous algae sizes, as well as correlations between fluorescence and calcareous algae colors. PMID:27285611

  4. Ecotoxicological evaluation of marine sediments using free and immobilized phytoplanktonic algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Giacco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sediments play an important role in the accumulation-storage and/or release of contaminants in seawaters; sedimets bioassays provide for general information on pollutant bioavailability. This work points out the importance to utilize free and immobilised (Na-alginate marine algae for the ecotoxicological evaluation of metals (Cd, Zn, Cu as well as of elutriates and whole sediment samples collected in harbour sites. The bioassay was carried out with the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica; algal growth inhibition was determined after 24 and 48 hours as percent growth in comparison to controls. After 24 hours a lower toxicity of metals for the immobilised algae than for free algae was observed; this trend decreased in time. Algae exposed to whole sediment ahowed a greater reduction of growth than algae exposed to the relative elutriate. This result emphasizes that the whole sediments seem to be suitable to detect the toxicity of such complex environmental matrix.

  5. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal;

    2016-01-01

    concentrations of the ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect the susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). During exposure to sublethal algal concentrations, the fish increased production of mucus on their gills. When fish were exposed to the algae...... for 12 h prior to the addition of virus, a marginal decrease in the susceptibility to VHSV was observed compared to fish exposed to VHSV without algae. If virus and algae were added simultaneously, inclusion of the algae increased mortality by 50% compared to fish exposed to virus only, depending...... on the experimental setup. We concluded that depending on the local exposure conditions, sublethal concentrations of P. parvum could affect susceptibility of fish to infectious agents such as VHSV....

  6. Algae of economic importance that accumulate cadmium and lead: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila O. Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, algae and algae products are extensively applied in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Algae are the main organisms that take up and store heavy metals. Therefore, the use of compounds derived from algae by the pharmaceutical industry should be closely monitored for possible contamination. The pollution generated by heavy metals released by industrial and domestic sources causes serious changes in the aquatic ecosystem, resulting in a loss of biological diversity and a magnification and bioaccumulation of toxic agents in the food chain. Since algae are at the bottom of the aquatic food chain, they are the most important vector for transfer of pollution to upper levels of the trophic chain in aquatic environments. Moreover, microalgae are also used for the bioremediation of wastewater, a process that does not produce secondary pollution, that enables efficient recycling of nutrients and that generates biomass useful for the production of bioactive compounds and biofuel.

  7. Relative roles of endolithic algae and carbonate chemistry variability in the skeletal dissolution of crustose coralline algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Nivia, C.; Diaz-Pulido, G.; Dove, S.

    2014-09-01

    The susceptibility of crustose coralline algae (CCA) skeletons to dissolution is predicted to increase as oceans warm and acidify. Skeletal dissolution is caused by bioerosion from endolithic microorganisms and by chemical processes associated with undersaturation of carbonate minerals in seawater. Yet, the relative contribution of algal microborers and seawater carbonate chemistry to the dissolution of organisms that cement reefs under projected pCO2 and temperature (pCO2-T) scenarios have not been quantified. We exposed CCA skeletons (Porolithon onkodes) to four pCO2-T treatments (pre-industrial, present-day, SRES-B1 "reduced" pCO2, and SRES-A1FI "business-as-usual" pCO2 emission scenarios) under natural light cycles vs. constant dark conditions for 8 weeks. Dissolution rates of skeletons without photo-endoliths were dramatically higher (200%) than those colonized by endolithic algae across all pCO2-T scenarios. This suggests that daytime photosynthesis by microborers counteract dissolution by reduced saturation states resulting in lower net erosion rates over day-night cycles. Regardless of the presence or absence of phototrophic microborers, skeletal dissolution increased significantly under the spring A1FI "business-as-usual" scenario, confirming the CCA sensitivity to future oceans. Projected ocean acidity and temperature may significantly disturb the stability of reef frameworks cemented by CCA, but surficial substrates harbouring photosynthetic microborers will be less impacted than those without algal endoliths.

  8. Relative roles of endolithic algae and carbonate chemistry variability in the skeletal dissolution of crustose coralline algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Reyes-Nivia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of crustose coralline algae (CCA skeletons to dissolution is predicted to increase as oceans warm and acidify. Skeletal dissolution is caused by bioerosion from endolithic microorganisms and by chemical processes associated with undersaturation of carbonate minerals in seawater. Yet, the relative contribution of algal microborers and seawater carbonate chemistry to the dissolution of organisms that cement reefs under projected CO2 and temperature (CO2-T scenarios have not been quantified. We exposed CCA skeletons (Porolithon onkodes to four CO2-T treatments (pre-industrial, present-day, SRES-B1 reduced CO2 emission scenario, SRES-A1FI business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario under natural light cycles vs. constant dark conditions for 8 weeks. Dissolution rates of skeletons without photo-endoliths were dramatically higher (200% than those colonized by endolithic algae across all CO2-T scenarios. This suggests that daytime photosynthesis by microborers counteract dissolution by reduced saturation states resulting in lower net erosion rates over day-night cycles. Regardless of the presence or absence of phototrophic microborers, skeletal dissolution increased significantly under the spring A1FI "business-as-usual" scenario, confirming the CCA sensitivity to future oceans. Projected ocean acidity and temperature may significantly disturb the stability of reef frameworks cemented by CCA, but surficial substrates harboring photosynthetic microborers will be less impacted than those without algal endoliths.

  9. A randomised crossover placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) on postchallenge plasma glucose and insulin levels in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Marie-Eve; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the impact of brown seaweed on post-load plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in men and women. Twenty-three participants (11 men, 12 women) aged 19-59 years were recruited in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. The test product consisted of a commercially available blend of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) with known inhibitory action on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities (InSea²). Two 250 mg seaweed capsules and 2 placebo capsules were consumed on each occasion 30 min prior to the consumption of 50 g of carbohydrates from bread. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured over a period of 3 h postcarbohydrate ingestion at predetermined time points. Both treatments were separated by a 1-week washout period. Data were analysed using mixed models for repeated measures. Compared with placebo, consumption of seaweed was associated with a 12.1% reduction in the insulin incremental area under the curve (p = 0.04, adjusted for baseline) and a 7.9% increase in the Cederholm index of insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05). The single ingestion of 500 mg of brown seaweed had no significant effect on the glucose response (p = 0.24, adjusted for baseline). Glucose and insulin responses were similar between men and women. Consumption of the seaweed capsules was not associated with any adverse event. These data suggest that brown seaweed may alter the insulin homeostasis in response to carbohydrate ingestion.

  10. Comparison of a static and a dynamic in vitro model to estimate the bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Pb and Hg from food reference materials Fucus sp. (IAEA-140/TM) and Lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Escribano, Silvia [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Denis, Sylvain; Blanquet-Diot, Stephanie [Clermont Universite, Universite d' Auvergne, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Auvergne, ERT 18, Conception ingenierie et developpement de l' aliment et du medicament, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Calatayud, Marta [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Barrios, Laura [Departamento de Informatica Cientifica (SGAI-CSIC), C/ Pinar 19, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velez, Dinoraz, E-mail: deni@iata.csic.es [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Alric, Monique [Clermont Universite, Universite d' Auvergne, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Auvergne, ERT 18, Conception ingenierie et developpement de l' aliment et du medicament, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Montoro, Rosa [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccessibility, the fraction of an element solubilized during gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption, is a factor that should be considered when evaluating the health risk of contaminants from food. Static and dynamic models that mimic human physiological conditions have been used to evaluate bioaccessibility. This preliminary study compares the bioaccessibility of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in two food certified reference materials (CRMs) (seaweed: Fucus sp., IAEA-140/TM; Lobster hepatopancreas: TORT-2), using two in vitro gastrointestinal digestion methods: a static method (SM) and a dynamic multicompartment method (TIM-1). There are significant differences (p < 0.05) between the bioaccessible values of As, Cd, Pb and Hg obtained by SM and TIM-1 in the two CRMs. The specific form in which the elements studied are present in the CRM may help to explain the bioaccessibility values obtained. - Research Highlights: {yields}Data are reported for As, Cd, Pb and Hg bioaccessibility from food CRMs. {yields}The static and TIM-1 methods give significantly different bioaccessibility values. {yields}The possible influence of speciation on bioaccessibility is discussed. {yields}To improve bioaccessibility quality data, food reference materials are needed.

  11. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (Pdiet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected.

  12. Self-deconstructing algae biomass as feedstock for transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Biomass Science and Conversion Technologies

    2014-09-01

    The potential for producing biofuels from algae has generated much excitement based on projections of large oil yields with relatively little land use. However, numerous technical challenges remain for achieving market parity with conventional non-renewable liquid fuel sources. Among these challenges, the energy intensive requirements of traditional cell rupture, lipid extraction, and residuals fractioning of microalgae biomass have posed significant challenges to the nascent field of algal biotechnology. Our novel approach to address these problems was to employ low cost solution-state methods and biochemical engineering to eliminate the need for extensive hardware and energy intensive methods for cell rupture, carbohydrate and protein solubilization and hydrolysis, and fuel product recovery using consolidated bioprocessing strategies. The outcome of the biochemical deconstruction and conversion process consists of an emulsion of algal lipids and mixed alcohol products from carbohydrate and protein fermentation for co-extraction or in situ transesterification.

  13. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  14. Antithrombotic effects of bromophenol, an alga-derived thrombin inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dayong; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Jing; Guo, Shuju; Su, Hua; Fan, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Thrombin, the ultimate proteinase of the coagulation cascade, is an attractive target for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. A bromophenol derivative named (+)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4, 5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-4-bromo-5,6-dihydroxy-1,3-dihydroiso-benzofuran 1, isolated from the brown alga Leathesia nana exhibited significant thrombin inhibitory activity. In this study, we investigated the inhibition of human thrombin in vitro with this bromophenol derivative, and its antithrombotic efficacy in vivo using the arteriovenous shunt model and the ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombosis model in rats. The results show that the bromophenol derivative is a potential inhibitor of thrombin (IC50=1.03 nmol/L). In antithrombotic experiments in vivo, the bromophenol derivative also shows good effect comparing with the control group. These data indicate that the bromophenol derivative is a potential drug for prophylaxis and the treatment of thrombotic diseases.

  15. Convergence of joint mechanics in independently evolving, articulated coralline algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Kyra; Martone, Patrick T

    2016-02-01

    Flexible joints are a key innovation in the evolution of upright coralline algae. These structures have evolved in parallel at least three separate times, allowing the otherwise rigid, calcified thalli of upright corallines to achieve flexibility when subjected to hydrodynamic stress. As all bending occurs at the joints, stress is amplified, which necessitates that joints be made of material that is both extensible and strong. Data presented here indicate that coralline joints are in fact often stronger and more extensible, as well as tougher, than fleshy seaweed tissues. Corallinoids are particularly strong and tough, which is largely due to the presence of secondary cell walls that strengthen the joint tissue without adding bulk to the joint itself. Cell wall thickness is shown to be a large contributing factor to strength across all groups, with the exception of the corallinoid Cheilosporum sagittatum, which likely possesses distinct chemical composition in its walls to increase strength beyond that of all other species tested.

  16. Effects of the insecticide Zectran (Mexacarbate) on several algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, R P; Simms, M A

    1975-05-01

    Field samples of freshwater algae were examined to determine the effect of the insecticide Zectran on photosynthesis rate. Concentrations of Zectran between 10 and 10(3) parts per billion (ppb) affected neither O2 production nor NaH14CO3 uptake in any of the seven genera tested. However, Zectran at a concentration of 10(4) ppb after 1 hour effected a reduction in photosynthesis of Chroococcus, Oedogonium and in a mixed sample composed of Zygnema,Mougeotia and Spirogyra. Mougeotia, Spirogyra and Schizogonium were not affected by exposure to 10(4) ppb Zectran after 1 hour, but O2 production was significantly reduced after 24 hours of exposure to this same concentration.

  17. [Gamma-radiation action on cells of algae Euglena gracilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkova, E; Zhuchkina, N I; Koltovoĭ, N A; Koltovaia, N A

    2012-01-01

    Considering the potentials of algae Euglena to constitute a part of biological systems of human life support, effects of low radiation doses on algal cells and radiosensitivity dependence on their genotype were studied. In experiments with gamma-irradiation (60Co) of Euglena gracilis, the highest radioresistance was demonstrated by strain Z. OFL; the chloroplasts lacking Z-derived strain showed hypersensitivity to radiation. E. bacillaris and derived chlorophyll-lacking strains W3 and W10 had intermediate radiosensitivity. Irradiation with the doses of up to 10 Gy produced a hormetic effect in the stock strains. Cells death was observed only after irradiation by doses above 100 Gy. The stimulating effect was exerted both on radioresistance and growth rate. Dyes made possible rapid evaluation of the proportion of living and dead cells. Comparison of two survival tests showed that the classic medium inoculation overestimates cell deaths as it disregards the living non-proliferating cells.

  18. A method to extract algae toxin of microcystin-LR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-ming; PAN Gang; YAN Hai; CHEN Hao

    2004-01-01

    A simple and Iow-cost method to obtain cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR(MC-LR) was developed. A new strain of Microcystis aeruginosa, named DC-1, producing microcystin-LR but not microcystin-RR, was separated from the field blooming algae samples of Dianchi Lake, in southwest of China. Following three times'freeze and thaw treatment, the cultivated DC-1 cells were extracted with 40% methanol in water. The extract was centrifuged and the supernatant applied to a Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance(HLB) SPE cartridge. Eluted impurities with a certain gradient from 30% to 50% methanol in water, MC-LR was finally eluted from the HLB cartridge with 60 % methanol in water, and samples containing 3.85 % to 14.8 % of MC-LR were obtained. These MC-LR samples may be used in adsorption and biodegradation experiments instead of using expensive standard reagents.

  19. The cellulose synthase superfamily in fully sequenced plants and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ying

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cellulose synthase superfamily has been classified into nine cellulose synthase-like (Csl families and one cellulose synthase (CesA family. The Csl families have been proposed to be involved in the synthesis of the backbones of hemicelluloses of plant cell walls. With 17 plant and algal genomes fully sequenced, we sought to conduct a genome-wide and systematic investigation of this superfamily through in-depth phylogenetic analyses. Results A single-copy gene is found in the six chlorophyte green algae, which is most closely related to the CslA and CslC families that are present in the seven land plants investigated in our analyses. Six proteins from poplar, grape and sorghum form a distinct family (CslJ, providing further support for the conclusions from two recent studies. CslB/E/G/H/J families have evolved significantly more rapidly than their widely distributed relatives, and tend to have intragenomic duplications, in particular in the grape genome. Conclusion Our data suggest that the CslA and CslC families originated through an ancient gene duplication event in land plants. We speculate that the single-copy Csl gene in green algae may encode a mannan synthase. We confirm that the rest of the Csl families have a different evolutionary origin than CslA and CslC, and have proposed a model for the divergence order among them. Our study provides new insights about the evolution of this important gene family in plants.

  20. Evidence for methane production by the marine algae Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Katharina; Klintzsch, Thomas; Langer, Gerald; Nehrke, Gernot; Bunge, Michael; Schnell, Sylvia; Keppler, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas that affects radiation balance and consequently the earth's climate, still has uncertainties in its sinks and sources. The world's oceans are considered to be a source of CH4 to the atmosphere, although the biogeochemical processes involved in its formation are not fully understood. Several recent studies provided strong evidence of CH4 production in oxic marine and freshwaters, but its source is still a topic of debate. Studies of CH4 dynamics in surface waters of oceans and large lakes have concluded that pelagic CH4 supersaturation cannot be sustained either by lateral inputs from littoral or benthic inputs alone. However, regional and temporal oversaturation of surface waters occurs frequently. This comprises the observation of a CH4 oversaturating state within the surface mixed layer, sometimes also termed the "oceanic methane paradox". In this study we considered marine algae as a possible direct source of CH4. Therefore, the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi was grown under controlled laboratory conditions and supplemented with two 13C-labeled carbon substrates, namely bicarbonate and a position-specific 13C-labeled methionine (R-S-13CH3). The CH4 production was 0.7 µg particular organic carbon (POC) g-1 d-1, or 30 ng g-1 POC h-1. After supplementation of the cultures with the 13C-labeled substrate, the isotope label was observed in headspace CH4. Moreover, the absence of methanogenic archaea within the algal culture and the oxic conditions during CH4 formation suggest that the widespread marine algae Emiliania huxleyi might contribute to the observed spatially and temporally restricted CH4 oversaturation in ocean surface waters.

  1. Developing a Forward Model of Encrusting Coralline Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, J.; Williams, B.; Thompson, D. M.; Halfar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate proxy data has traditionally been interpreted through inverse models, which extract physical climate variables from proxy variables. This approach assumes stationarity of the proxy-climate relationship, typically reduces climate signal to a single variable, and requires extensive observational records. In contrast, forward models reverse the relationship, simulating proxy variables from physical climate variables for comparison to observed proxy variables. Since this approach accounts for multiple climate variables and avoids stationarity issues, forward models have been developed for several climate proxies, including tree ring width and oxygen stable isotopes (δ18O) of corals. Here we develop a basic forward model for the climate archive coralline alga Clathromorphum sp.This long-lived alga grows in mid-to-high latitude regions and forms a solid calcite skeleton with annual growth bands similar to those of trees and tropical corals. Sub-annually resolved δ18O in annual growth bands (δ18Ospec) provide a record of local environmental and climatic factors, notably sea surface temperature (SST) and sea water oxygen stable isotopes (δ18Osw). We model Clathromorphum δ18Ospec in the Aleutian islands from gridded SST and δ18Osw of the growing season from 1960 to 2004. The strongest climate signal is observed in July, likely due to suppressed growth in other months. Initial results suggest no influence of growth rate on the fractionation of oxygen isotopes and indicate that δ18Ospec anomalies are significantly correlated with summer SST anomalies. We run this forward model with observed SST and δ18Osw and compare the resulting simulated δ18Ospec with that measured in live-collected specimens. This foundational model may be adapted to other regions and modified to include other variables influencing coralline isotope records, such as light availability and ice coverage.

  2. Cytofluorometric determination of nuclear DNA in living and preserved algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, H M; Hoshaw, R W; Wang, J C

    1982-09-01

    Three DNA-localizing fluorochromes used in conjunction with epi (incident) UV illumination were examined for sensitivity and selectivity for the cytofluorometric determination of nuclear DNA in ten species of six algal genera: Mougeotia, Oedogonium, Sirogonium, Spirogyra and Zygnema among the green algae, and the marine red alga Polysiphonia boldii. In comparison with absorption photometry for the determination of nuclear DNA, the cytofluorometric procedure proved to be simpler and considerably more sensitive. Following staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), nuclei fluoresce blue-white, the fluorescence intensity of the DNA-DAPI complex being considerably greater than that of the unbound dye molecule. Algal strains stained with 2,5-bis[4'-aminophenyl(1')]-1,3,4-oxadiazole (BAO) also showed brilliant blue-white nuclear fluorescence. Although the BAO schedule requires the use of freshly prepared dye and sulfite water, and careful control of hydrolysis, nuclear fluorescence of the stained specimens does not fade under irradiation of the UV beam as rapidly as it does with certain other fluorochrome procedures. A more useful fluorochrome was the fungal antibiotic mithramycin. Its staining schedule is simple and the bright orange-yellow fluorescence of the nuclei is associated with an exceptional degree of sensitivity and specificity for DNA. Forty-eight-year-old preserved filaments of Spirogyra jatobae, stained with either BAO or mithramycin, exhibited a fluorescence brilliance of nuclear and chloroplast DNA equal to that of fresh specimens of this species. The three schedules, but particularly the one with mithramycin, have proven useful in providing indirect evidence for variation in ploidy level in several of the above algal genera, and in verifying the assumed ploidy level of the gametophyte (haploid) and tetrasporophyte (diploid) of Polysiphonia boldii.

  3. Effect of Alexandrium tamarense on three bloom-forming algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Juan; Xie, Jin; Yang, Weidong; Li, Hongye; Liu, Jiesheng

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the allelopathic properties of Alexandrium tamarense (Laboar) Balech on the growth of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu, Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara and Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada in a laboratory experiment. We examined the growth of A. tamarense, C. marina, P. donghaiense and H. Akashiwo in co-cultures and the effect of filtrates from A. tamarense cultures in various growth phases, on the three harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming algae. In co-cultures with A. tamarense, both C. marina and H. akashiwo were dramatically suppressed at high cell densities; in contrast, the growth of P. donghaiense varied in different inoculative ratios of A. tamarense and P. donghaiense. When the ratio was 1:1 ( P. donghaiense: A. tamarense), growth of P. donghaiense was inhibited considerably, while the growth of P. donghaiense was almost the same as that of the control when the ratio was 9:1. The growth difference of P. donghaiense, C. marina and H. akashiwo when co-cultured with A. tamarense indicated that the allelopathic effect may be one of the important factors in algal competition and phytoplankton succession involving A. tamarense. In addition, the filtrate from A. tamarense culture had negative impacts on these three HAB algae, and such inhibition varied with different growth phases of A. tamarense in parallel with reported values of PSP toxin content in Alexandrium cells. This implied that PSP toxin was possibly involved in allelopathy of A. tamarense. However, the rapid decomposition and inactivation of PSP toxin above pH 7 weakened this possibility. Further studies on the allelochemicals responsible for the allelopathy of A. tamarense need to be carried out in future.

  4. Natural impacted freshwaters: in situ use of alginate immobilized algae to the assessment of algal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A X R; Tamanaha, M S; Horita, C O; Radetski, M R; Corrêa, R; Radetski, C M

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an in situ phytotoxicity test using alginate-immobilized algae for 60 days, in the assessment of water quality in an impacted small peri-urban stream. After laboratory optimization of algae immobilization/de-immobilization processes, the performance of immobilized/de-immobilized algae was compared to the performance of free algae in terms of specific algal growth and sensitivity. This was done by comparing 72 h EC50 values obtained with zinc and the pesticides clomazone and carbofuran. The results showed a similar performance, which allow us to conclude that immobilization for 60 days do not cause any significant alteration in algae physiology. In the field, immobilized algae were exposed at different times (2, 4 and 7 days) to water samples in both disturbed and undisturbed sites. Both laboratory and field experiments indicated that alginate-immobilized algae for 60 days were sufficiently sensitive for use in the in situ assessment of water quality.

  5. Landfill leachate--a water and nutrient resource for algae-based biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Scott J; Wilkie, Ann C

    2013-01-01

    There is a pressing need for sustainable renewable fuels that do not negatively impact food and water resources. Algae have great potential for the production of renewable biofuels but require significant water and fertilizer resources for large-scale production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate (LL) was evaluated as a cultivation medium to reduce both water and elemental fertilizer demands of algae cultivation. Daily growth rate and cell yield of two isolated species of algae (Scenedesmus cf. rubescens and Chlorella cf. ellipsoidea) were cultivated in MSW LL and compared with Bold's Basal Medium (BBM). Results suggest that LL can be used as a nutrient resource and medium for the cultivation of algae biomass. S. cf. rubescens grew well in 100% LL, when pH was regulated, with a mean growth rate and cell yield 91.2% and 92.8% of those observed in BBM, respectively. S. cf. rubescens was more adaptable than C. cf. ellipsoidea to the LL tested. The LL used in this study supported a maximum volumetric productivity of 0.55 g/L/day of S. cf. rubescens biomass. The leachate had sufficient nitrogen to supply 17.8 g/L of algae biomass, but was limited by total phosphorus. Cultivation of algae on LL offsets both water and fertilizer consumption, reducing the environmental footprint and increasing the potential sustainability of algae-based biofuels.

  6. Changes of Cellular Superficial Configuration of Symbiotic Algae During Cultivation from Two Anemones Found in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Symbiotic algae from two anemones, Radianthus macrodactylus and Stichodactyla mertensii, found in the South China Sea, were cultivated in ASP-8A medium in this study. Changes of superficial configuration of symbiotic algae during the cultivation were studied by means of a microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A number of small cavities appeared on the surfaces of symbiotic algae after they were cultivated for 10 h. The cavities enlarged and the cell contents were lost with extended cultivation. Our data suggested that the presence of cavities on symbiotic algae surfaces may be one of the main reasons for failure to culture symbiotic algae in an artificial medium.

  7. Platinum anniversary: virus and lichen alga together more than 70 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Petrzik

    Full Text Available Trebouxia aggregata (Archibald Gärtner (phylum Chlorophyta, family Trebouxiaceae, a lichen symbiotic alga, has been identified as host of the well-known herbaceous plant virus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV, family Caulimoviridae. The alga had been isolated from Xanthoria parietina more than 70 years ago and has been maintained in a collection since that time. The CaMV detected in this collection entry has now been completely sequenced. The virus from T. aggregata is mechanically transmissible to a herbaceous host and induces disease symptoms there. Its genome differs by 173 nt from the closest European CaMV-D/H isolate from cauliflower. No site under positive selection was found on the CaMV genome from T. aggregata. We therefore assume that the virus's presence in this alga was not sufficiently long to fix any specific changes in its genome. Apart from this symbiotic alga, CaMV capsid protein sequences were amplified from many other non-symbiotic algae species maintained in a collection (e.g., Oonephris obesa, Elliptochloris sp., Microthamnion kuetzingianum, Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudococcomyxa sp.. CaMV-free Chlorella vulgaris was treated with CaMV to establish virus infection. The virus was still detected there after five passages. The virus infection is morphologically symptomless on Chlorella algae and the photosynthesis activity is slightly decreased in comparison to CaMV-free alga culture. This is the first proof as to the natural presence of CaMV in algae and the first demonstration of algae being artificially infected with this virus.

  8. Energy Productivity of the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attalah, Said; Waller, Peter M.; Khawam, George; Ryan, Randy D.; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2015-06-03

    The original Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) raceway was an effective method to increase algae culture temperature in open raceways. However, the energy input was high and flow mixing was poor. Thus, the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV) raceway was developed to reduce energy input requirements and improve flow mixing in a serpentine flow path. A prototype ARID-HV system was installed in Tucson, Arizona. Based on algae growth simulation and hydraulic analysis, an optimal ARID-HV raceway was designed, and the electrical energy input requirement (kWh ha-1 d-1) was calculated. An algae growth model was used to compare the productivity of ARIDHV and conventional raceways. The model uses a pond surface energy balance to calculate water temperature as a function of environmental parameters. Algae growth and biomass loss are calculated based on rate constants during day and night, respectively. A 10 year simulation of DOE strain 1412 (Chlorella sorokiniana) showed that the ARID-HV raceway had significantly higher production than a conventional raceway for all months of the year in Tucson, Arizona. It should be noted that this difference is species and climate specific and is not observed in other climates and with other algae species. The algae growth model results and electrical energy input evaluation were used to compare the energy productivity (algae production rate/energy input) of the ARID-HV and conventional raceways for Chlorella sorokiniana in Tucson, Arizona. The energy productivity of the ARID-HV raceway was significantly greater than the energy productivity of a conventional raceway for all months of the year.

  9. Propriedades bioativas dos polissacarídeos sulfatados da alga comestível Gracilaria birdiae

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Letícia Castelo Branco Peroba de

    2014-01-01

    As algas marinhas vermelhas do gênero gracilaria sintetizam polissacarídeos sulfatados (PS) bioativos. Porém muitos destes PS ainda não foram devidamente avaliados, como é caso dos PS sintetizados pela alga comestível Gracilaria birdiae. Estudos anteriores mostraram que galactanas sulfatadas dessa alga tem efeito antiinflamatorio. Neste trabalho uma galactana (GB) de G. birdiae foi obtida e avaliada por diferentes testes. GB apresentou atividade anticoagulante no teste de APTT. Gb não apresen...

  10. Studies on Biquaternary Ammonium Salt Algaecide for Removing Red Tide Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁生; 张珩; 杨维东; 高洁; 柯琼

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the removal and control of red tide algae, Phaeoecystis globosa and Alexandrium tamarense by biquaternary ammonium salt algaecide. The results show that the efficient concentration of biquaternary ammonium salt to control the two algaes in 96 h is 0.8 mg · L-1 and 0.4 mg · L-1, respectively. It is found that biquaternary ammonium salt has high efficiency and longer duration of action in the removal and control of algae.Biquaternary ammonium salt might be an excellent algaecide to control HAB.

  11. Study on the Adsorption of Metal Ions by Immobilized Marine Algae with the Existence of Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The process of adsorption of metal ions by immobilized marine algae with the existence of clay was investigated. It can be noted from the results that, after mixing with clay,the adsorption rate increases rapidly with the increasing amount of the marine algae. When pH=5, the best ratio between the clay and the marine algae is 1:4 for Pb2+. The result of in situ handling of the waste water containing heavy metals shows that the average adsorption rates of heavy metal irons Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ and Ni2+ are all over 70 %.

  12. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP from Three Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Ukai

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  13. Aquaculture: Algae. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the commercial cultivation of algae as a facet of aquaculture. Topics include descriptions and characteristics of algal species, environmental variables affecting productivity, nutritional aspects, infestation and disease, genetic manipulation, and production technology. End product applications examine algae as biomass for energy production, food source for humans, animal feed source, and a source for chemical by-products such as chlorophylls. Harvesting of algae as a source of single-celled protein is referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 171 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Effect of Feeding with Algae on Fatty Acid Profile of Goat’S Milk

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether the inclusion of algae Chlorella vulgaris in dairy goats’ diets would change the fatty acid profile and increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in goat’s milk. White short-haired dairy goats on 2nd and 3rd lactations were fed 5 and 10 g of dried algae supplementation for six weeks. The fatty acids profile of milk was analyzed using gass chromatography (flame ionization detector (FID)). The addition of dried algae caused changes of the pr...

  15. BIOSORPTION OF Cr(III) ION ON ALGAE Eucheuma spinosum BIOMASSA

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiarta, I. Wayan; Diantariani, Ni Putu

    2010-01-01

    Studies on biosorption and desorption of Cr(III) on algae (Eucheuma spinosum) adsorbent have been carried out. These studies included determination of biosorbent acidity, optimum pH, contact time of biosorption, isoterm and biosorption capacity, and mechanisms of interaction between Cr(III) and algae (E. spinosum) biosorben. Mechanisms of interaction were evaluated by sequential desorption of Cr(III) on algae biosorben by using aquadest, 1 M HCl and 0.05 M Na2EDTA. The result showed that the ...

  16. Use of Copper to Selectively Inhibit Brachionus calyciflorus (Predator Growth in Chlorella kessleri (Prey Mass Cultures for Algae Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnupriya Pradeep

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A single Brachionus rotifer can consume thousands of algae cells per hour causing an algae pond to crash within days of infection. Thus, there is a great need to reduce rotifers in order for algal biofuel production to become reality. Copper can selectively inhibit rotifers in algae ponds, thereby protecting the algae crop. Differential toxicity tests were conducted to compare the copper sensitivity of a model rotifer—B. calyciflorus and an alga, C. kessleri. The rotifer LC50 was <0.1 ppm while the alga was not affected up to 5 ppm Cu(II. The low pH of the rotifer stomach may make it more sensitive to copper. However, when these cultures were combined, a copper concentration of 1.5 ppm was needed to inhibit the rotifer as the alga bound the copper, decreasing its bioavailability. Copper (X ppm had no effect on downstream fatty acid methyl ester extraction.

  17. Effects of extreme seasonality on community structure and functional group dynamics of coral reef algae in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M.; Bruggemann, J. H.; Breeman, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in the biomass of four functional groups of coral reef algae (canopy algae, foliose algae, turf algae and crustose corallines) was investigated in the southern Red Sea. This region is characterised by extremely high summer temperatures (ca. 35 degrees C). Strong season

  18. Enhancement of biodiesel production from different species of algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moneim M. R. Afify, Abd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight algal species (4 Rhodo, 1 chloro and 1 phaeophycean macroalgae, 1 cyanobacterium and 1 green microalga were used for the production of biodiesel using two extraction solvent systems (Hexane/ether (1:1, v/v and (Chloroform/ methanol (2:1, v/v. Biochemical evaluations of algal species were carried out by estimating biomass, lipid, biodiesel and sediment (glycerin and pigments percentages. Hexane/ ether (1:1, v/v extraction solvent system resulted in low lipid recoveries (2.3-3.5% dry weight while; chloroform/methanol (2: 1, v/v extraction solvent system was proved to be more efficient for lipid and biodiesel extraction (2.5 – 12.5% dry weight depending on algal species. The green microalga Dictyochloropsis splendida extract produced the highest lipid and biodiesel yield (12.5 and 8.75% respectively followed by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (9.2 and 7.5 % respectively. On the other hand, the macroalgae (red, brown and green produced the lowest biodiesel yield. The fatty acids of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler biodiesel were determined using gas liquid chromatography. Lipids, biodiesel and glycerol production of Dictyochloropsis splendida Geitler (the promising alga were markedly enhanced by either increasing salt concentration or by nitrogen deficiency with maximum production of (26.8, 18.9 and 7.9 % respectively at nitrogen starvation condition.

    Ocho especies de algas (4 Rhodo, 1 cloro y 1 macroalgas phaeophycean, 1 cianobacteria y 1 microalga verde fueron utilizados para la producción de biodiesel utilizando dos sistemas de extracción con disolventes (hexano/éter (1:1, v/v y (Cloroformo / metanol (2:1, v/v. La evaluación bioquímica de las especies de algas se llevó a cabo mediante la estimación de los porcentajes de biomasa, de lípidos, de biodiesel y de sedimento (glicerina y pigmentos. El sistema extracción con el disolvente hexano/éter (1:1, v

  19. Time trends of anthropogenic radionuclides at Utsira[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, G.C.; Straelberg, E. [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Holm, E. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Lund (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Institute for Energy Technology has annually collected the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus at several sampling locations along the Norwegian coast since 1980, mainly in August and September. At the south-western location Utsira, monthly samples have been collected regularly since January 1986. Time series for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs in Fucus samples from Utsira are presented in this study. (au)

  20. The alga Bryothamnion seaforthii contains carbohydrates with antinociceptive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.P. Vieira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Bryothamnion seaforthii, a red alga common to the Northeastern coast of Brazil, was used to prepare the protein fraction F0/60 by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The chromatography of F0/60 on DEAE-Sephadel column resulted in two lectin fractions, PI and PII, which have antinociceptive properties in rodents. We determined the antinociceptive activity of the PII fraction and of a carbohydrate-containing fraction (CF in mice. The CF was prepared from the dried algae, after digestion with 100 mM sodium acetate, pH 6.0, containing 5 mM cysteine, EDTA and 0.4% papain, at 60ºC. A 10% cetylpyridinium chloride was added to the filtrate, and the precipitate was dissolved with 2 M NaCl:ethanol (100:15, v/v followed by the carbohydrate precipitation with ethanol. The final precipitate, in acetone, was dried at 25ºC. The PII fraction markedly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing after ip administration (control: 27.1 ± 2.20; PII 0.1 mg/kg: 5.5 ± 1.85; 1 mg/kg: 1.6 ± 0.72 writhes/20 min and after oral administration (control: 32.0 ± 3.32; PII 0.1 mg/kg: 13.1 ± 2.50; 1 mg/kg: 9.4 ± 3.96 writhes/20 min. PII was also effective against both phases of pain induced by 1% formalin (control, ip: 48.2 ± 2.40 and 27.7 ± 2.56 s; PII: 1 mg/kg, ip: 34.3 ± 5.13 and 5.6 ± 2.14 s; control, po: 44.5 ± 3.52 and 25.6 ± 2.39 s; PII 5 mg/kg, po: 26.5 ± 4.67 and 15.3 ± 3.54 s for the 1st and 2nd phases, respectively and in the hot-plate test. The CF (ip also displayed significant antinociceptive properties in all tests but at higher doses (1 and 5 mg/kg, ip and po. Thus, CF at the dose of 5 mg/kg significantly inhibited writhes (ip: 7.1 ± 2.47 and po: 14.5 ± 2.40 writhes/20 min as well as the 1st (po: 19.6 ± 1.74 s and 2nd (po: 7.1 ± 2.24 s phases of the formalin test compared to controls ip and po. The antinociceptive effects of both the PII and CF in the formalin and hot-plate tests were prevented at least partially by pretreatment with the

  1. Biological activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis from Persian Gulf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saeidnia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among marine organisms, algae are a large and diverse group of organisms from which a wide range of secondary metabolites have been isolated. A number of these compounds possess biological activity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, collected from Persian Gulf. Ethyl acetate extracts of both algae showed a potent cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina nauplii (LC50 = 3 and 4 μg.ml−1, respectively. Aqueous methanol (50% extracts were also effective. None of the methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of the algae showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by the Broth-dilution method. Only the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited antibacterial activity (MIC = 2 μg.ml−1 on S. aureus. In conclusion, G. salicornia and H. flagelliformis could be a promising source of cytotoxic components.

  2. Study on contrast test of PPC pre-oxidation and coagulation for algae removal and deodorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The effect of treating algae-bearing water and induced odor by use of permanganate potassium composite (PPC) pre-oxidation was investigated, and was compared with the effect of treatments by pre-chlorination, permanganate potassium pre-oxidation and simple coagulation. The results showed that simple coagulation and pre-chlorination were less effective in removing algae and its odor, whereas PPC pre-oxidation was the most effective in algae removal and deodorization. Upon oxidation with PPC, the cells of Oscillatoria agardhic were inactivated and some intra-cellular and extra-cellular components were released into the water, which may help the coagulation by their bridging effect. The efficient removal of algae by PPC pre-oxidation is believed to be the joint contribution of several mechanisms.

  3. Characteristic and mechanism of inactivating algae with O3 and ClO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Both O3 and ClO2 have a high effect on inacti- vating-algae in source water with no forming THMs which do harm to human in producing drinking water, so they will be favorably substituted for Cl2. In order to make certain of the mechanism of inactivating algae with O3 and ClO2, the algal cell number change and its different characteristics of figures and structures in treated and untreated water have been studied by the microscopy and SEM and the mode of inactivating algae has been inferred. The results show that the mechanism of inactivating algae by O3 is not completely identical with that by ClO2. The actual reaction process and efficiency have been controlled by many factors, such as the different characteristics of oxidants and algal cells.

  4. Preliminary observations on the benthic marine algae of the Gorringe seabank (northeast Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittley, Ian; da Silva Vaz Álvaro, Nuno Miguel; de Melo Azevedo Neto, Ana Isabel

    2014-06-01

    Examination of marine samples collected in 2006 from the Gettysburg and Ormonde seamounts on the Gorringe seabank southwest of Portugal has revealed 29 benthic Chlorophyta, Phaeophyceae (Ochrophyta), and Rhodophyta that were identified provisionally to genus and to species. Combining lists for the present and a previous expedition brings the total of algae thus far recorded to 48. The brown alga Zonaria tournefourtii and the red alga Cryptopleura ramosa were the most abundant species in the present collections. The kelp Laminaria ochroleuca was present only in the Gettysburg samples while Saccorhiza polyschides was observed only on the Ormonde seamount. Comparisons with the benthic marine algae recorded on seamounts in the mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago show features in common, notably kelp forests of L. ochroleuca at depths below 30 m and Z. tournefortii dominance in shallower waters.

  5. Method and apparatus for detecting phycocyanin-pigmented algae and bacteria from reflected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting phycocyanin algae or bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  6. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  7. A new index to assess chemicals increasing the greenhouse effect based on their toxicity to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Tian, Dayong; Gao, Ya; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingyun

    2015-11-01

    CO2, as the typical greenhouse gas causing the greenhouse effect, is a major global environmental problem and has attracted increasing attention from governments. Using algae to eliminate CO2, which has been proposed as an effective way to reduce the greenhouse effect in the past decades, can be disturbed by a growing number of artificial chemicals. Thus, seven types of chemicals and Selenastrum capricornutum (algae) were examined in this study, and the good consistency between the toxicity of artificial chemicals to algae and the disturbance of carbon fixation by the chemicals was revealed. This consistency showed that the disturbance of an increasing number of artificial chemicals to the carbon fixation of algae might be a "malware" worsening the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, this study proposes an original, promising index to assess the risk of deepening the greenhouse effect by artificial chemicals before they are produced and marketed.

  8. The effect of temporal variability in salinity on the invasive red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejrup, Lars Brammer; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2012-01-01

    become abundant in many shallow, soft-bottom estuaries. Salinity is important for the local and regional distribution of algae. The distribution of G. vermiculophylla in Europe suggests that it thrives well in hyposaline environments and that it may be more fit than some native algae under...... such conditions. Little, however, is known about the ecophysiology of G. vermiculophylla and it is therefore difficult to predict its spread and future distribution. Laboratory experiments with G. vermiculophylla showed that steady-state salinity above 15 psu was optimal for growth and that the growth rate...... was reduced at salinities below 15 psu. Variable salinity reduced the growth rate and larger oscillations were more stressful than small ones. Exposure to very low salinity (0–5 psu) was stressful for the alga and algae exposed to these low levels for 2–4 days were unable to recover fully. Gracilaria...

  9. Evidence for a photoprotective function for secondary carotenoids of snow algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidigare, R.R.; Ondrusek, M.E. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)); Kennicutt, M.C. II (Geochemical Environmental Research Group, College Station, TX (United States)); Iturriaga, R. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Harvey, H.R. (Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States)); Hoham, R.W. (Colgate Univ., Hamilton, NY (United States)); Macko, S.A. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Snow algae occupy a unique habitat in high altitude and polar environments. These algae are often subject to extremes in nutrient availability, acidity, solar irradiance, desiccation, and ambient temperature. This report documents the accumulation of secondary carotenoids by snow algae in response to the availability of nitrogenous nutrients. Unusually large accumulations of astaxanthin esters in extra-chloroplastic lipid globules produce the characteristic red pigmentation typical of some snow algae (e.g., Chlamydomonas nivalis (Bauer) Wille). Consequently, these compounds greatly reduce the amount of light available for absorption by the light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes, thus potentially limiting photoinhibition and photodamage caused by intense solar radiation. The esterification of astaxanthin with fatty acids represents a possible mechanism by which this chromophore can be concentrated within cytoplasmic globules to maximize its photoprotective efficiency. 53 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Numerical prediction of algae cell mixing feature in raceway ponds using particle tracing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Haider; Cheema, Taqi A; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Do, Younghae; Park, Cheol W

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, a novel technique, which involves numerical computation of the mixing length of algae particles in raceway ponds, was used to evaluate the mixing process. A value of mixing length that is higher than the maximum streamwise distance (MSD) of algae cells indicates that the cells experienced an adequate turbulent mixing in the pond. A coupling methodology was adapted to map the pulsating effects of a 2D paddle wheel on a 3D raceway pond in this study. The turbulent mixing was examined based on the computations of mixing length, residence time, and algae cell distribution in the pond. The results revealed that the use of particle tracing methodology is an improved approach to define the mixing phenomenon more effectively. Moreover, the algae cell distribution aided in identifying the degree of mixing in terms of mixing length and residence time.

  11. Statistical significance of biomonitoring of marine algae for trace metal levels in a coral environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinath, A.; Muraleedharan, N.S.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    the ability of algae to accumulate a particular metal from among the metals studied. To show the similarity between species and metal uptake, a group linkage clustering technique was used and the results were depicted using dendrogram. The marked similarities...

  12. LIPID BIOMARKER CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOOM-RELATED DINOFLAGELLATES AND OTHER EUKARYOTIC ALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine eukaryotic algae synthesize an array of lipids of chemotaxonomic utility that are potentially valuable in characterizing phytoplankton communities. Sterols and photopigments characteristic of dinoflagellates are rarely found in other algal classes. Long chain (C28) highly ...

  13. NOTES ON INDONESIAN FRESHWATER ALGAE II*Ichthyodontum, a new desmid genus from Sumatra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR M. SCOTT

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Described and figured are Ichthyodontum, a new genus belongingto the desmidiaceous algae, with I.sachlanii, a new species with its newvariety parorthium, showing a peculiar bipolarity. From souther Sumatra.

  14. Algae biodiesel life cycle assessment using current commercial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passell, Howard; Dhaliwal, Harnoor; Reno, Marissa; Wu, Ben; Ben Amotz, Ami; Ivry, Etai; Gay, Marcus; Czartoski, Tom; Laurin, Lise; Ayer, Nathan

    2013-11-15

    Autotrophic microalgae represent a potential feedstock for transportation fuels, but life cycle assessment (LCA) studies based on laboratory-scale or theoretical data have shown mixed results. We attempt to bridge the gap between laboratory-scale and larger scale biodiesel production by using cultivation and harvesting data from a commercial algae producer with ∼1000 m(2) production area (the base case), and compare that with a hypothetical scaled up facility of 101,000 m(2) (the future case). Extraction and separation data are from Solution Recovery Services, Inc. Conversion and combustion data are from the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET). The LCA boundaries are defined as "pond-to-wheels". Environmental impacts are quantified as NER (energy in/energy out), global warming potential, photochemical oxidation potential, water depletion, particulate matter, and total NOx and SOx. The functional unit is 1 MJ of energy produced in a passenger car. Results for the base case and the future case show an NER of 33.4 and 1.37, respectively and GWP of 2.9 and 0.18 kg CO2-equivalent, respectively. In comparison, petroleum diesel and soy diesel show an NER of 0.18 and 0.80, respectively and GWP of 0.12 and 0.025, respectively. A critical feature in this work is the low algal productivity (3 g/m(2)/day) reported by the commercial producer, relative to the much higher productivities (20-30 g/m(2)/day) reported by other sources. Notable results include a sensitivity analysis showing that algae with an oil yield of 0.75 kg oil/kg dry biomass in the future case can bring the NER down to 0.64, more comparable with petroleum diesel and soy biodiesel. An important assumption in this work is that all processes are fully co-located and that no transport of intermediate or final products from processing stage to stage is required.

  15. Re-utilization of Industrial CO2 for Algae Production Using a Phase Change Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Brian

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report of a 36-month Phase II cooperative agreement. Under this project, Touchstone Research Laboratory (Touchstone) investigated the merits of incorporating a Phase Change Material (PCM) into an open-pond algae production system that can capture and re-use the CO2 from a coal-fired flue gas source located in Wooster, OH. The primary objective of the project was to design, construct, and operate a series of open algae ponds that accept a slipstream of flue gas from a coal-fired source and convert a significant portion of the CO2 to liquid biofuels, electricity, and specialty products, while demonstrating the merits of the PCM technology. Construction of the pilot facility and shakedown of the facility in Wooster, OH, was completed during the first two years, and the focus of the last year was on operations and the cultivation of algae. During this Phase II effort a large-scale algae concentration unit from OpenAlgae was installed and utilized to continuously harvest algae from indoor raceways. An Algae Lysing Unit and Oil Recovery Unit were also received and installed. Initial parameters for lysing nanochloropsis were tested. Conditions were established that showed the lysing operation was effective at killing the algae cells. Continuous harvesting activities yielded over 200 kg algae dry weight for Ponds 1, 2 and 4. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source and the resulting lipid productivity of the algae. Lipid content and total fatty acids were unaffected by culture system and nutrient source, indicating that open raceway ponds fed diluted anaerobic digestion effluent can obtain similar lipid productivities to open raceway ponds using commercial nutrients. Data were also collected with respect to the performance of the PCM material on the pilot-scale raceway ponds. Parameters such as evaporative water loss, temperature differences, and growth/productivity were tracked. The pond with the

  16. [Response of the algae Gymnodinium kovalevskii (Dinophyta) to exposure to synthetic detergents and distillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aĭzdaĭcher, N A

    2000-01-01

    The effects of synthetic detergents and combined effects of synthetic detergents and water freshening on growth characteristics of the alga Gymnodinium kovalevskii (Dinophyta) were studied. Low concentrations of synthetic detergents (0.1 and 1.0 mg/l) stimulated the algal growth. Elevated concentrations inhibited cell division, affected their motility and induced morphological changes. Contamination with synthetic detergents adversely affected the adaptation plasticity of algae with respect to salinity.

  17. Effect of selenium on the lipids of two unicellular marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennity, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The incorporation of selenium into the lipids of two unicellar marine algae has been investigated. Axenic cultures of the green algae Dunaliella primolecta and the red algae Porphyridium cruentum were grown in the presence of sublethal quantities of selenium (10 ppm) as selenite. Both algae were found to contain selenium bound to all purified lipids, except for saturated hydrocarbons. Of the lipids which contain selenium, carotenoid pigments show the greatest selenium concentration (..beta..-carotene: 1.3..mu..gSe/mg lipid; zeaxanthin: 1.1..mu..gSe/mg lipid) in both algae. P. cruentum contains about ten times as much lipid-associated selenium as D. primolecta, even though the lipids of both algae were very similar. This selenium has been shown to be incorporated non-metabolically into the lipid molecule. The lipid-associated selenium is probably non-covalently bound to the lipid molecule and may interact with double bonds. Selenite does not affect the lipid composition of D. primolecta, as compared with algae grown in the absence of added selenium. A selenium-induced 40% decrease in the cell content of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and 20% decrease in arachidonic acid (20:4omega6) in polar lipids (glycolipids plus phospholipids) was observed in P. cruentum. A 25% decrease in the chlorophyll a content of this red algae also occurred. The cell content of other fatty acids, phospholipids and glycolipids was unaltered by selenium. These results are consistent with a selenite-induced oxidation of P. cruentum lipids. Selenium is able to increase the antioxidant potential of algal cells. However, no in vivo selenium-induced protection of algal lipids from oxidation was apparent.

  18. Endolithic algae and micrite envelope formation in Bahamian oolites as revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, S.; Rex, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of Holocene Bahamian ooelites by scanning electron and light microscopy has revealed the morphology and orientation of aragonite crystals in the lamellar ooelitic envelope, and their modification by the boring activities of endolithic algae. The voids produced by these algae are found in progressive stages of being lined and filled with precipitated microcrystalline aragonite, which is similar to the process of micrite envelope formation in molluscan and other skeletal carbonate grains.

  19. [Determination of 3, 4-benzopyrene in spiruline algae produced and treated by various procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bories, G; Tulliez, J

    1975-01-01

    Spirulina algae grow in highly salted natural lakes. Artificial cultivation in tanks with addition of carbon dioxide (natural gas, burned gases) has been studied in order to improve the biosynthesis. A possible 3, 4-benzopyrene (BaP) contamination must be then considered. Several BaP determinations have been performed in batches of algae from bath origins, prepared following different processes (filtration, spray, cylinder drying). BaP contents are very low (2 to 3 ppb) and comparable between batches.

  20. Coralline Algae from the Neoegne and Pleistocene Sequence of Mersa Alam, Red Sea, Egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa, H; Boukhary, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Ten speciecs of family Corallinaceae (Coralline Algae) are herein recorded and described for the first time from the stratigraphic sequence of Mersa Alam, Red Sea, Egypt. Of these, Amphiroa knolli, Jania johnsoni and Archaeolithothamnium alamensis are described as new. The studied sequence is subdivided according to its coralline algae and larger foraminiferal content into three biozones; which are from top to bottom: 3. Amphiroa knolli Zone, 2. Amphiroa prefragilissima Zone and 1. Borelis...

  1. Reviews and syntheses: Calculating the global contribution of coralline algae to total carbon burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, L. H.; Kamenos, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    The ongoing increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is changing the global marine environment and is causing warming and acidification of the oceans. Reduction of CO2 to a sustainable level is required to avoid further marine change. Many studies investigate the potential of marine carbon sinks (e.g. seagrass) to mitigate anthropogenic emissions, however, information on storage by coralline algae and the beds they create is scant. Calcifying photosynthetic organisms, including coralline algae, can act as a CO2 sink via photosynthesis and CaCO3 dissolution and act as a CO2 source during respiration and CaCO3 production on short-term timescales. Long-term carbon storage potential might come from the accumulation of coralline algae deposits over geological timescales. Here, the carbon storage potential of coralline algae is assessed using meta-analysis of their global organic and inorganic carbon production and the processes involved in this metabolism. Net organic and inorganic production were estimated at 330 g C m-2 yr-1 and 900 g CaCO3 m-2 yr-1 respectively giving global organic/inorganic C production of 0.7/1.8 × 109 t C yr-1. Calcium carbonate production by free-living/crustose coralline algae (CCA) corresponded to a sediment accretion of 70/450 mm kyr-1. Using this potential carbon storage for coralline algae, the global production of free-living algae/CCA was 0.4/1.2 × 109 t C yr-1 suggesting a total potential carbon sink of 1.6 × 109 tonnes per year. Coralline algae therefore have production rates similar to mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses representing an as yet unquantified but significant carbon store, however, further empirical investigations are needed to determine the dynamics and stability of that store.

  2. Drifting algae and fish: Implications of tropical Sargassum invasion due to ocean warming in western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Mami; Aono, Mikina; Ogawa, Naoto; Tanaka, Koichiro; Imoto, Zenji; Nakamura, Yohei

    2014-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the invasion and extinction of habitat-forming seaweed species alters coastal community structure and ecological services, but their effects on the pelagic environment have been largely ignored. Thus, we examined the seasonal occurrence patterns of indigenous temperate and invasive tropical drifting algae and associated fish species every month for 2 years (2009-2011) in western Japan (Tosa Bay), where a rapid shift from temperate to tropical Sargassum species has been occurring in the coastal area since the late 1980s due to rising seawater temperatures. Of the 19 Sargassum species (31.6%) in drifting algae, we found that six were tropical species, whereas a study in the early 1980s found only one tropical species among 12 species (8.3%), thereby suggesting an increase in the proportion of tropical Sargassum species in drifting algae during the last 30 years. Drifting temperate algae were abundantly present from late winter to summer, whereas tropical algal clumps occurred primarily during summer. In the warm season, fish assemblages did not differ significantly between drifting temperate and tropical algae, suggesting the low host-algal specificity of most fishes. We also found that yellowtail juveniles frequently aggregated with drifting temperate algae from late winter to spring when drifting tropical algae were unavailable. Local fishermen collect these juveniles for use as aquaculture seed stock; therefore, the occurrence of drifting temperate algae in early spring is important for local fisheries. These results suggest that the further extinction of temperate Sargassum spp. may have negative impacts on the pelagic ecosystem and associated regional fisheries.

  3. Astaxanthin Accumulation in the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis: Effects of Cultivation Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping He; James Duncan; James Barber

    2007-01-01

    The green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow is used as a source of the ketocarotenoid astaxanthin for application in fish aquaculture, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Cells of the green alga were induced by the application of different light and starvation conditions to evaluate the effect in astaxanthin accumulate. The condiphosphate starvation. The results show that stresses applied in culture, which interfere with cell division, trigger the accumulation of astaxanthin. Notably, sulfur starvation results in a massive accumulation of this commercially important carotenoid.

  4. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland, in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances. The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epilithic species and tolerant of low light intensities. The largest group was formed by representatives of the division Chlorophyta (24 species, and then the division Chrysophyta (Heterokontophyta - 17 species, with 9 species belonging to the class Bacillariophyceae, 7 species - Xanthophyceae and 1 species representing the class Eustigmatophyceae. Dinophyta (2 species constituted the last and the smallest group. Among the collected algae, the following species deserve special attention: Thelesphaera alpina, Bracteacoccus minor, Trachychloron simplex, Tetracystis intermedia and T. cf. isobilateralis. The last species was not earlier found in Europe. Identification of species was greatly aided by examination of cell ultrastructure, which provided an array of further features, increasing chances of correct species identification. Furthermore, the studies focused that algae, although usually remaining under dominance of cyanobacteria, excellently differentiate this special area and even enrich it.

  5. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN OCEAN ACIDIFICATION AND WARMING ON THE MORTALITY AND DISSOLUTION OF CORALLINE ALGAE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Anthony, Kenneth R N; Kline, David I; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2012-02-01

    Coralline algae are among the most sensitive calcifying organisms to ocean acidification as a result of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2 ). Little is known, however, about the combined impacts of increased pCO2 , ocean acidification, and sea surface temperature on tissue mortality and skeletal dissolution of coralline algae. To address this issue, we conducted factorial manipulative experiments of elevated CO2 and temperature and examined the consequences on tissue survival and skeletal dissolution of the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Porolithon (=Hydrolithon) onkodes (Heydr.) Foslie (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) on the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. We observed that warming amplified the negative effects of high pCO2 on the health of the algae: rates of advanced partial mortality of CCA increased from ocean acidification under warm conditions, suggesting that previous experiments focused on ocean acidification alone have underestimated the impact of future conditions on coralline algae. Given the central role that coralline algae play within coral reefs, these conclusions have serious ramifications for the integrity of coral-reef ecosystems.

  6. The Selective Use of Hypochlorite to Prevent Pond Crashes for Algae-Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sichoon; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Pradeep, Priya; Igou, Thomas; Yi, Christine; Snell, Terry; Chen, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Although algae-biofuels have many advantages including high areal productivity, algae can be preyed upon by amoebas, protozoans, ciliates, and rotifers, particularly in open pond systems. Thus, these higher organisms need to be controlled. In this study, Chlorella kessleri was used as the algal culture and Brachionus calyciflorus as the source of predation. The effect of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) was tested with the goal of totally inhibiting the rotifer while causing minor inhibition to the alga. The 24-hr LC(50) for B. calyciflorus in spring water was 0.198 mg Cl/L while the 24-hr LC(50) for C. kessleri was 0.321 mg Cl/L. However, chlorine dissipates rapidly as the algae serves as reductant. Results showed a chlorine dosage between 0.45 to 0.6 mg Cl/L and a dosing interval of two hours created the necessary chlorine concentrations to inhibit predation while letting the algae grow; thus giving algae farmers a tool to prevent pond crashes.

  7. The cell walls of green algae: a journey through evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eDomozych

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The green algae represent a large group of morphologically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy virtually every photic habitat on the planet. The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight concerning these coverings. For example, the late divergent taxa of the Charophycean Green Algae possess cell walls containing assemblages of polymers with notable similarity to the cellulose, pectins, hemicelluloses, arabinogalactan proteins, extensin and lignin present in embryophyte walls. Ulvophycean seaweeds have cell wall components whose most abundant fibrillar constituents may change from cellulose to β-mannans to β-xylans and during different life cycle phases. Likewise, these algae produce complex sulfated polysaccharides, arabinogalactan proteins and extensin. Chlorophycean green algae produce a wide array of walls ranging from cellulose-pectin complexes to ones made of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Larger and more detailed surveys of the green algal taxa including incorporation of emerging genomic and transcriptomic data are required in order to more fully resolve evolutionary trends within the green algae and in relationship with higher plants as well as potential applications of wall components in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. SOME FACTORS IN THE COMPETITION OR ANTAGONISM AMONG BACTERIA, ALGAE, AND AQUATIC WEEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filzgerald, G P

    1969-12-01

    Field observations of changes in the populations of aquatic weeds and phytoplankton have confirmed that aquatic weeds have antagonistic activity toward phytoplankton. Nutritional studies in the laboratory indicate that cultures of the aquatic weeds, Myriophyllum sp., Ceratophyllum sp., and duckweed (Lemma minor L.); liquid cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., Dickson variety); and cultures of the filamentous green algae, Cladophora sp. and Pithophora oedogonium (Mont.) Withrock, will remain relatively free of epiphytes or competing phytoplankton if the cultures are nitrogen-limited. Field observations of Cladophora sp. have confirmed that the growth of epiphytes on the Cladophora is related to conditions of surplus available nitrogen compounds. It is proposed that this antagonistic activity may be due to a "nitrogen sink" effect in which the aquatic weeds or filamentous green algae prevent the growth of contaminating algae by competition for the limited nitrogen compounds available. However, the presence of bacteria-sized organisms which have selective toxicity to certain algae indicates that perhaps multiple factors exist. Discussed are the ecological implications of associations of certain algae with bacteria that have selective toxicities for other species of algae under certain environmental conditions such as nitrogen-limited growth.

  9. Predicting the risk of toxic blooms of golden alga from cell abundance and environmental covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Denny, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a toxic haptophyte that has caused considerable ecological damage to marine and inland aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Studies focused primarily on laboratory cultures have indicated that toxicity is poorly correlated with the abundance of golden alga cells. This relationship, however, has not been rigorously evaluated in the field where environmental conditions are much different. The ability to predict toxicity using readily measured environmental variables and golden alga abundance would allow managers rapid assessments of ichthyotoxicity potential without laboratory bioassay confirmation, which requires additional resources to accomplish. To assess the potential utility of these relationships, several a priori models relating lethal levels of golden alga ichthyotoxicity to golden alga abundance and environmental covariates were constructed. Model parameters were estimated using archived data from four river basins in Texas and New Mexico (Colorado, Brazos, Red, Pecos). Model predictive ability was quantified using cross-validation, sensitivity, and specificity, and the relative ranking of environmental covariate models was determined by Akaike Information Criterion values and Akaike weights. Overall, abundance was a generally good predictor of ichthyotoxicity as cross validation of golden alga abundance-only models ranged from ∼ 80% to ∼ 90% (leave-one-out cross-validation). Environmental covariates improved predictions, especially the ability to predict lethally toxic events (i.e., increased sensitivity), and top-ranked environmental covariate models differed among the four basins. These associations may be useful for monitoring as well as understanding the abiotic factors that influence toxicity during blooms.

  10. Transcriptome-wide evolutionary analysis on essential brown algae (Phaeophyceae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jing; LIU Tao; YU Jun; WANG Liang; WU Shuangxiu; WANG Xumin; XIAO Jingfa; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; REN Lufeng; ZHAO Yuhui

    2014-01-01

    Brown algae (Chromista, Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae) are a large group of multicellular algae that play im-portant roles in the ocean's ecosystem and biodiversity. However, poor molecular bases for studying their phylogenetic evolutions and novel metabolic characteristics have hampered progress in the field. In this study, we sequenced the de novo transcriptome of 18 major species of brown algae in China, covering six orders and seven families, using the high-throughput sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq 2000. From the transcriptome data of these 18 species and publicly available genome data of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we identified 108 nuclear-generated orthologous genes and clarified the phy-logenetic relationships among these brown algae based on a multigene method. These brown algae could be separated into two clades:Clade Ishigeales-Dictyotales and Clade Ectocarpales-Laminariales-Desmares-tiale-Fucales. The former was at the base of the phylogenetic tree, indicating its early divergence, while the latter was divided into two branches, with Order Fucales diverging from Orders Ectocarpales, Laminariales, and Desmarestiale. In our analysis of taxonomy-contentious species, Sargassum fusiforme and Saccharina sculpera were found to be closely related to genera Sargassum and Saccharina, respectively, while Petalonia fascia showed possible relation to genus Scytosiphon. The study provided molecular evidence for the phylo-genetic taxonomy of brown algae.

  11. FRESH-WATER GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA AS A NATURAL PIGMENT FOR MOJOSARI DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4 according to a commercial standard diet asa control, and three other dietary treatments with 2, 4 or 8% of green algae were included. Fresh watergreen algae had a significant effect on the feed uptake, egg production, and feed conversion ratio (FCR(p<0.05. Egg production and FCR improved at added 2 and 4% green algae. No differences wereobserved in egg yolk index, albumen index, Haugh Unit, and egg shell thickness (P>0.05 except eggyolk color. The yolk color increased within 7 days after feeding with the test diets. The present studyindicated that fresh-water green algae could be used as a natural coloring agent in laying ducks and at8% of green algae showed the highest score of (Roche Yellow Color-15.

  12. Growth characteristics of algae during early stages of phytoplankton bloom in Lake Taihu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong Jia; Johnson Dan; Min Zhang; Fanxiang Kong

    2013-01-01

    Three treatments,sediment plus lake water (S+W),sterilized sediment plus lake water (SS+W),and sediment plus filtered lake water (S+FW),were recruited to investigate the growth characteristics of algae during pre-bloom and the importance of algal inocula in the water column and sediment.The results showed that in the water column,biomass of all algae increased in all treatments when recruitment was initiated,whereas this tendency differed among treatments with further increment of temperature.The process of algal growth consisted of two stages:Stage Ⅰ,the onset of recruitment and Stage Ⅱ,the subsequent growth of algae.Compared with S+W,in Stage Ⅰ,SS+W significantly increased the biomass of cyanophytes by 178.70%,and decreased the biomass of non-cyanophytes by 43.40%; In Stage Ⅱ,SS+W notably stimulated the growth of all algae,thus incurring the occurrence of phytoplankton bloom.Further analyses revealed that both metabolic activity and photochemical activity of algae were enhanced in SS+W,which resulted from the releasing of nutrients from sediment.These results suggest that algal growth in Stage Ⅱ and algal inocula in the water column can be important factors for the formation of phytoplankton bloom.In addition,possible mechanisms promoting algal recruitment and subsequent growth of algae were explored.

  13. The blue water footprint and land use of biofuels from algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Xu, L.; Vries, G. J.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2014-11-01

    Biofuels from microalgae are potentially important sources of liquid renewable energy. Algae are not yet produced on a large scale, but research shows promising results. This study assesses the blue water footprint (WF) and land use of algae-based biofuels. It combines the WF concept with an energy balance approach to determine the blue WF of net energy. The study considers open ponds and closed photobioreactors (PBRs). All systems have a positive energy balance, with output-input ratios ranging between 1.13 and 1.98. This study shows that the WF of algae-based biofuels lies between 8 and 193 m3/GJ net energy provided. The land use of microalgal biofuels ranges from 20 to 200 m2/GJ net energy. For a scenario in which algae-based biofuels provide 3.5% of the transportation fuels in the European Union in 2030, the system with the highest land productivity needs 17,000 km2 to produce the 850 PJ/yr. Producing all algae-based biofuels through the system with the highest water productivity would lead to a blue WF of 7 Gm3/yr, which is equivalent to 15% of the present blue WF in the EU28. A transition to algae-based transportation fuels will substantially increase competition over water and land resources.

  14. Time course transcriptome changes in Shewanella algae in response to salt stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Fu

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae, which produces tetrodotoxin and exists in various seafoods, can cause human diseases, such as spondylodiscitis and bloody diarrhea. In the present study, we focused on the temporal, dynamic process in salt-stressed S. algae by monitoring the gene transcript levels at different time points after high salt exposure. Transcript changes in amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, membrane transport, regulatory functions, and cellular signaling were found to be important for the high salt response in S. algae. The most common strategies used by bacteria to survive and grow in high salt environments, such as Na+ efflux, K+ uptake, glutamate transport and biosynthesis, and the accumulation of compatible solutes, were also observed in S. algae. In particular, genes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and DNA repair were highly and steadily up-regulated, accompanied by rapid and instantaneous enhancement of the transcription of large- and small-ribosome subunits, which suggested that the structural changes in the cell wall and some stressful responses occurred in S. algae. Furthermore, the transcription of genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and the glycolytic pathway was decreased, whereas the transcription of genes involved in anaerobic respiration was increased. These results, demonstrating the multi-pathway reactions of S. algae in response to salt stress, increase our understanding of the microbial stress response mechanisms.

  15. Rapid Evolution of microRNA Loci in the Brown Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuli; Duan, Delin; Bourdareau, Simon; Lipinska, Agnieszka P.; Coelho, Susana M.; Tarver, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Stringent searches for microRNAs (miRNAs) have so far only identified these molecules in animals, land plants, chlorophyte green algae, slime molds and brown algae. The identification of miRNAs in brown algae was based on the analysis of a single species, the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus sp. Here, we have used deep sequencing of small RNAs and a recently published genome sequence to identify miRNAs in a second brown alga, the kelp Saccharina japonica. S. japonica possesses a large number of miRNAs (117) and these miRNAs are highly diverse, falling into 98 different families. Surprisingly, none of the S. japonica miRNAs share significant sequence similarity with the Ectocarpus sp. miRNAs. However, the miRNA repertoires of the two species share a number of structural and genomic features indicating that they were generated by similar evolutionary processes and therefore probably evolved within the context of a common, ancestral miRNA system. This lack of sequence similarity suggests that miRNAs evolve rapidly in the brown algae (the two species are separated by ∼95 Myr of evolution). The sets of predicted targets of miRNAs in the two species were also very different suggesting that the divergence of the miRNAs may have had significant consequences for miRNA function. PMID:28338896

  16. Floristic account of the marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, Line Islands, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vroom, P.S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine benthic algae from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef were identified from collections obtained from the Whippoorwill Expedition in 1924, the Itasca Expedition in 1935, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Taney in 1938, the Smithsonian Institution’s Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program in 1964 and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 and 2006. A total of 124 species, representing 8 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, 82 Rhodophyta (red algae, 6 Heterokontophyta (brown algae and 28 Chlorophyta (green algae, are reported from both islands. Seventy-nine and 95 species of marine benthic algae are recorded from Jarvis Island and Kingman Reef, respectively. Of the 124 species, 77 species or 62% (4 blue-green algae, 57 red algae, 2 brown algae and 14 green algae have never before been reported from the 11 remote reefs, atolls and low islands comprising the Line Islands in the Central Pacific.

  17. Iron encrustations on filamentous algae colonized by Gallionella-related bacteria in a metal-polluted freshwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J. F.; Neu, T. R.; Lu, S.; Händel, M.; Totsche, K. U.; Küsel, K.

    2015-09-01

    Filamentous macroscopic algae were observed in slightly acidic to circumneutral (pH 5.9-6.5), metal-rich stream water that leaked out from a former uranium mining district (Ronneburg, Germany). These algae differed in color and morphology and were encrusted with Fe-deposits. To elucidate their potential interaction with Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB), we collected algal samples at three time points during summer 2013 and studied the algae-bacteria-mineral compositions via confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and a 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based bacterial and algae community analysis. Surprisingly, sequencing analysis of 18S rRNA gene regions of green and brown algae revealed high homologies with the freshwater algae Tribonema (99.9-100 %). CLSM imaging indicated a loss of active chloroplasts in the algae cells, which may be responsible for the change in color in gene-targeted studies revealed that Gallionella-related FeOB dominated the bacterial RNA and DNA communities (70-97 and 63-96 %, respectively), suggesting their capacity to compete with the abiotic Fe-oxidation under the putative oxygen-saturated conditions that occur in association with photosynthetic algae. Quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) revealed even higher Gallionella-related 16S rRNA gene copy numbers on the surface of green algae compared to the brown algae. The latter harbored a higher microbial diversity, including some putative predators of algae. A loss of chloroplasts in the brown algae could have led to lower photosynthetic activities and reduced EPS production, which is known to affect predator colonization. Collectively, our results suggest the coexistence of oxygen-generating algae Tribonema sp. and strictly microaerophilic neutrophilic FeOB in a heavy metal-rich environment.

  18. Plant based phosphorus recovery from wastewater via algae and macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Andrew N; Powell, Nicola; Guieysse, Benoit

    2012-12-01

    At present, resource recovery by irrigation of wastewater to plants is usually driven by the value of the water resource rather than phosphorus recovery. Expanded irrigation for increased phosphorus recovery may be expected as the scarcity and price of phosphorus increases, but providing the necessary treatment, storage and conveyance comes at significant expense. An alternative to taking the wastewater to the plants is instead to take the plants to the wastewater. Algal ponds and macrophyte wetlands are already in widespread use for wastewater treatment and if harvested, would require less than one-tenth of the area to recover phosphorus compared to terrestrial crops/pastures. This area could be further decreased if the phosphorus content of the macrophytes and algae biomass was tripled from 1% to 3% via luxury uptake. While this and many other opportunities for plant based recovery of phosphorus exist, e.g. offshore cultivation, much of this technology development is still in its infancy. Research that enhances our understanding of how to maximise phosphorus uptake and harvest yields; and further add value to the biomass for reuse would see the recovery of phosphorus via plants become an important solution in the future.

  19. Sesquiterpenes from the Brazilian Red Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lacerda da Silva Machado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new chamigrane sesquiterpenes 1–2 and three known compounds 3–5 were isolated from a lipophilic extract of the red alga Laurencia dendroidea collected from the Southeastern Brazilian coast. Dendroidone (1 and dendroidiol (2 were isolated from samples collected at Biscaia Inlet, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro and at Manguinhos Beach, Serra, Espírito Santo, respectively. Debromoelatol (3, obtusane (4 and (1S*,2S*,3S*,5S*,8S*,9S*-2,3,5,9-tetramethyltricyclo[6.3.0.01.5]undecan-2-ol (5 were obtained from specimens collected at Vermelha Beach, Parati, Rio de Janeiro. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR (1H-, 13C-, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY and high resolution mass spectrometry analysis. Additionally, the absolute configuration of compound 2 was assigned by X-ray analysis. Full spectroscopic data is described for the first time for compound 3. Anti-inflammatory and antimycobacterial activities of compounds 2–5 were evaluated. Compounds 3–5 inhibited the release of inflammatory mediator NO while TNF-α levels were only affected by 3. All compounds tested displayed moderate antimycobacterial action.

  20. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobler, C J; Grigoriev, I V; Berry, D L; Dyhrman, S T; Wilhelm, S W; Salamov, A; Lobanov, A V; Zhang, Y; Collier, J L; Wurch, L L; Kustka, A B; Dill, B D; Shah, M; VerBerkomes, N C; Kuo, A; Terry, A; Pangilinan, J; Lindquist, E A; Lucas, S; Paulsen, I; Hattenrath-Lehmann, T K; Talmage, S; Walker, E A; Koch, F; Burson, A M; Marcoval, M A; Tang, Y; LeCleir, G R; Coyne, K J; Berg, G M; Bertrand, E M; Saito, M A; Gladyshev, V N

    2011-03-02

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements demonstrated that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the first HAB genome (A. anophagefferens) and compared its gene complement to those of six competing phytoplankton species identified via metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on the gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 mbp) and more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen utilization, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.