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Sample records for alga prymnesium parvum

  1. Spatiotemporal associations of reservoir nutrient characteristics and the invasive, harmful alga Prymnesium parvum in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a harmful alga that has caused ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems worldwide. In inland systems of North America, toxic blooms have nearly eliminated fish populations in some systems. Modifying nutrient profiles through alterations to land or water use may be a viable alternative for golden alga control in reservoirs. The main objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the nutrient dynamics that influence golden alga bloom formation and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs. We examined eight sites in the Upper Colorado River basin, Texas: three impacted reservoirs that have experienced repeated golden alga blooms; two reference reservoirs where golden alga is present but nontoxic; and three confluence sites downstream of the impacted and reference sites. Total, inorganic, and organic nitrogen and phosphorus and their ratios were quantified monthly along with golden alga abundance and ichthyotoxicity between December 2010 and July 2011. Blooms persisted for several months at the impacted sites, which were characterized by high organic nitrogen and low inorganic nitrogen. At impacted sites, abundance was positively associated with inorganic phosphorus and bloom termination coincided with increases in inorganic nitrogen and decreases in inorganic phosphorus in late spring. Management of both inorganic and organic forms of nutrients may create conditions in reservoirs unfavorable to golden alga.

  2. Prymnesins: Toxic Metabolites of the Golden Alga, Prymnesium parvum Carter (Haptophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. La Claire

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly over the past century, seasonal fish kills associated with toxic blooms of Prymnesium parvum have devastated aquaculture and native fish, shellfish, and mollusk populations worldwide. Protracted blooms of P. parvum can result in major disturbances to the local ecology and extensive monetary losses. Toxicity of this alga is attributed to a collection of compounds known as prymnesins, which exhibit potent cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic and ichthyotoxic effects. These secondary metabolites are especially damaging to gill-breathing organisms and they are believed to interact directly with plasma membranes, compromising integrity by permitting ion leakage. Several factors appear to function in the activation and potency of prymnesins including salinity, pH, ion availability, and growth phase. Prymnesins may function as defense compounds to prevent herbivory and some investigations suggest that they have allelopathic roles. Since the last extensive review was published, two prymnesins have been chemically characterized and ongoing investigations are aimed at the purification and analysis of numerous other toxic metabolites from this alga. More information is needed to unravel the mechanisms of prymnesin synthesis and the significance of these metabolites. Such work should greatly improve our limited understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of P. parvum and how to mitigate its blooms.

  3. Reassessing the ichthyotoxin profile of cultured Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) and comparing it to samples collected from recent freshwater bloom and fish kill events in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrikson, Jon C; Gharfeh, Majed S; Easton, Anne C; Easton, James D; Glenn, Karen L; Shadfan, Miriam; Mooberry, Susan L; Hambright, K David; Cichewicz, Robert H

    2010-06-15

    Within the last two decades, Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) has rapidly spread into inland waterways across the southern portion of North America and this organism has now appeared in more northerly distributed watersheds. In its wake, golden algae blooms have left an alarming trail of ecological devastation, namely massive fish kills, which are threatening the economic and recreational value of freshwater systems throughout the United States. To further understand the nature of this emerging crisis, our group investigated the chemical nature of the toxin(s) produced by P. parvum. We approached the problem using a two-pronged strategy that included analyzing both laboratory-grown golden algae and field-collected samples of P. parvum. Our results demonstrate that there is a striking difference in the toxin profiles for these two systems. An assemblage of potently ichthyotoxic fatty acids consisting primarily of stearidonic acid was identified in P. parvum cultures. While the concentration of the fatty acids alone was sufficient to account for the rapid-onset ichthyotoxic properties of cultured P. parvum, we also detected a second type of highly labile ichthyotoxic substance(s) in laboratory-grown golden algae that remains uncharacterized. In contrast, the amounts of stearidonic acid and its related congeners present in samples from recent bloom and fish kill sites fell well below the limits necessary to induce acute toxicity in fish. However, a highly labile ichthyotoxic substance, which is similar to the one found in laboratory-grown P. parvum cultures, was also detected. We propose that the uncharacterized labile metabolite produced by P. parvum is responsible for golden algae's devastating fish killing effects. Moreover, we have determined that the biologically-relevant ichthyotoxins produced by P. parvum are not the prymnesins as is widely believed. Our results suggest that further intensive efforts will be required to chemically define P. parvum

  4. A chronicle of a killer alga in the west: ecology, assessment, and management of Prymnesium parvum blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelke, D.L.; Barkoh, Aaron; Brooks, B.W.; Grover, J.P.; Hambright, K.D.; LaClaire, John W.; Moeller, Peter D.R.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, fish-killing blooms ofPrymnesium parvum spread throughout the USA. In the south central USA, P. parvum blooms have commonly spanned hundreds of kilometers. There is much evidence that physiological stress brought on by inorganic nutrient limitation enhances toxicity. Other factors influence toxin production as well, such as stress experienced at low salinity and temperature. A better understanding of toxin production by P. parvum remains elusive and the identities and functions of chemicals produced are unclear. This limits our understanding of factors that facilitated the spread of P. parvum blooms. In the south central USA, not only is there evidence that the spread of blooms was controlled, in part, by migration limitation. But there are also observations that suggest changed environmental conditions, primarily salinity, facilitated the spread of blooms. Other factors that might have played a role include altered hydrology and nutrient loading. Changes in water hardness, herbicide use, system pH, and the presence of toxin-resistant and/or P. parvum-inhibiting plankton may also have played a role. Management of P. parvum in natural systems has yet to be attempted, but may be guided by successes achieved in small impoundments and mesocosm experiments that employed various chemical and hydraulic control approaches.

  5. Impacts of golden alga Prymnesium parvum on fish populations in reservoirs of the upper Colorado River and Brazos River basins, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Farquhar, B.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    Several reservoirs in the upper Colorado River and Brazos River basins in Texas have experienced toxic blooms of golden alga Prymnesium parvum and associated fish kills since 2001. There is a paucity of information, however, regarding the population-level effects of such kills in large reservoirs, species-specific resistance to or recovery from kills, or potential differences in the patterns of impacts among basins. We used multiple before-after, control-impact analysis to determine whether repeated golden alga blooms have led to declines in the relative abundance and size structure of fish populations. Sustained declines were noted for 9 of 12 fish species surveyed in the upper Colorado River, whereas only one of eight species was impacted by golden alga in the Brazos River. In the upper Colorado River, White Bass Morone chrysops, White Crappie Pomoxis annularis, Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, River Carpsucker Carpiodes carpio, Freshwater Drum Aplodinotus grunniens, Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus, Flathead Catfish Pylodictis olivaris, and Blue Catfish I. furcatus exhibited sustained declines in relative abundance, size structure, or both; Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum, Longnose Gar Lepisosteus osseus, and Common Carp Cyprinus carpio did not exhibit those declines. In the Brazos River, only the relative abundance of Blue Catfish was impacted. Overall, toxic golden alga blooms can negatively impact fish populations over the long-term, but the patterns of impact can vary considerably among river basins and species. In the Brazos River, populations of most fish species appear to be healthy, suggesting a positive angling outlook for this basin. In the upper Colorado River, fish populations have been severely impacted, and angling opportunities have been reduced. Basin-specific management plans aimed at improving water quality and quantity will likely reduce bloom intensity and allow recovery of fish populations to the

  6. Growth-suppressing and algicidal properties of an extract from Arundo donax, an invasive riparian plant, against Prymnesium parvum, an invasive harmful alga

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    Patino, Reynaldo; Rashel, Rakib H.; Rubio, Amede; Longing, Scott

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the ability of acidic and neutral/alkaline fractions of a methanolic extract from giant reed (Arundo donax) and of two of its constituents, gramine and skatole, to inhibit growth of the ichthyotoxic golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) in batch culture. For this study, growth suppression was defined as inhibition of maximum cell density, algicidal activity as early occurrence of negative growth, and algistatic activity as lack of net growth. The acidic fraction did not affect algal growth. The neutral/alkaline fraction showed growth-suppressing and algicidal activities but no signs of algistatic activity – namely, cells in cultures surviving a partial-algicidal exposure concentration (causing transient negative growth) were later able to initiate positive growth but at higher concentrations, algicidal activity was full and irreversible. Gramine suppressed growth more effectively than skatole and at the highest concentration tested, gramine also showed partial-algicidal and algistatic activity. While the partial-algicidal activities of the neutral/alkaline fraction and of gramine were short-lived (≤6 days) and thus may share similar mechanisms, algistatic activity was unique to gramine and persisted for >3 weeks. Given gramine’s reported concentration in the neutral/alkaline fraction, its corresponding level of algicidal activity is much lower than the fraction’s suggesting the latter contains additional potent algicides. Inhibition of maximum cell density by all test compounds was associated with reductions in exponential growth rate, and in the case of the neutral/alkaline fraction and gramine also reductions in early (pre-exponential) growth. These results indicate that giant reed is a potential source of natural products to control golden alga blooms. Giant reed is an invasive species in North America, thus also providing incentive for research into strategies to couple management efforts for both species.

  7. Chemodiversity of Ladder-Frame Prymnesin Polyethers in Prymnesium parvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Meier, Sebastian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted

    2016-01-01

    Blooms of the microalga Prymnesium parvum cause devastating fish kills worldwide, which are suspected to be caused by the supersized ladder-frame polyether toxins prymnesin-1 and -2. These toxins have, however, only been detected from P. parvum in rare cases since they were originally described two...

  8. Retrospective analysis of associations between water quality and toxic blooms of golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) in Texas reservoirs: Implications for understanding dispersal mechanisms and impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Dawson, D.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Toxic blooms of golden alga (GA, Prymnesium parvum) in Texas typically occur in winter or early spring. In North America, they were first reported in Texas in the 1980s, and a marked range expansion occurred in 2001. Although there is concern about the influence of climate change on the future distribution of GA, factors responsible for past dispersals remain uncertain. To better understand the factors that influence toxic bloom dispersal in reservoirs, this study characterized reservoir water quality associated with toxic GA blooms since 2001, and examined trends in water quality during a 20-year period bracketing the 2001 expansion. Archived data were analyzed for six impacted and six nonimpacted reservoirs from two major Texas basins: Brazos River and Colorado River. Data were simplified for analysis by pooling spatially (across sampling stations) and temporally (winter, December-February) within reservoirs and generating depth-corrected (1 m) monthly values. Classification tree analysis [period of record (POR), 2001-2010] using salinity-associated variables (specific conductance, chloride, sulfate), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, temperature, total hardness, potassium, nitrate+nitrite, and total phosphorus indicated that salinity best predicts the toxic bloom occurrence. Minimum estimated salinities for toxic bloom formation were 0.59 and 1.02 psu in Brazos and Colorado River reservoirs, respectively. Principal component analysis (POR, 2001-2010) indicated that GA habitat is best defined by higher salinity relative to nonimpacted reservoirs, with winter DO and pH also being slightly higher and winter temperature slightly lower in impacted reservoirs. Trend analysis, however, did not reveal monotonic changes in winter water quality of GA-impacted reservoirs during the 20-year period (1991-2010) bracketing the 2001 dispersal. Therefore, whereas minimum levels of salinity are required for GA establishment and toxic blooms in Texas reservoirs, the lack of trends in

  9. Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Fish: Insights from Prymnesium parvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Thougaard; Andersen, Nikolaj Reducha; Hansen, Per

    2018-01-01

    of ventilation frequency and oxygen consumption, the per breath oxygen consumption decreased throughout exposure. Behavioral results determined that short-term P. parvum exposure subsequently caused the exposed fish to seek flow refuge immediately and to a greater extent than unexposed fish. The adverse outcome......Blooms of the planktonic alga Prymnesium parvum pose a global threat, causing fish kills worldwide. Early studies on the exposure of fish to P. parvum indicate that toxic effects are related to gill damage. The more strictly defined concept of adverse outcome pathways has been suggested...... as a replacement for the mode of action in toxicology studies. In this study, rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) were exposed to P. parvum. During exposure, oxygen consumption was determined by respirometry, and ventilation and coughing rate were determined via video surveillance. Per breath oxygen consumption...

  10. Rapid Quantification of the Toxic Alga Prymnesium parvum in Natural Samples by Use of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody and Solid-Phase Cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, N. J.; Bacchieri, R.; Hansen, Gert

    2006-01-01

    The increasing incidence of harmful algal blooms around the world and their associated health and economic effects require the development of methods to rapidly and accurately detect and enumerate the target species. Here we describe use of a solid-phase cytometer to detect and enumerate the toxi......-phase cytometer can be used to rapidly enumerate natural P. parvum cells and that it could be used to detect other toxic algae, with an appropriate antibody or DNA probe....

  11. Prymnesium parvum revisited: relationship between allelopathy, ichthyotoxicity, and chemical profiles in 5 strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blossom, Hannah E.; Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted

    2014-01-01

    used forbioassay guided purification of new ichthyotoxins. Here we tested the hypothesis that allelopathy isrelated to ichthyotoxicity and thus that a microalgal bioassay can be used as a proxy for ichthyotoxicityby comparing the toxicity of five strains of Prymnesium parvum toward rainbow trout...... to P.parvum with EC50s ranging from 6 × 103to 40 × 103cells ml−1, compared to the test alga where LC50sranged from 30 × 103to nearly non-toxic at 500 × 103cells ml−1. In addition, the cellular concentrationsof two recently suggested ichthyotoxins produced by P. parvum, the “golden algae toxins”, GAT...... of the five P. parvum strains above the limit of detection, nor was it found in a13C-labeled strain. Instead we document thatoleamide can easily be extracted from plastic materials, which may have been the source of oleamidereported previously....

  12. Associations between water physicochemistry and Prymnesium parvum presence, abundance, and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Toxic blooms of golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) have caused substantial ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems throughout the world. In North America, toxic blooms have impacted freshwater systems including large reservoirs. Management of water chemistry is one proposed option for golden alga control in these systems. The main objective of this study was to assess physicochemical characteristics of water that influence golden alga presence, abundance, and toxicity in the Upper Colorado River basin (UCR) in Texas. The UCR contains reservoirs that have experienced repeated blooms and other reservoirs where golden alga is present but has not been toxic. We quantified golden alga abundance (hemocytometer counts), ichthyotoxicity (bioassay), and water chemistry (surface grab samples) at three impacted reservoirs on the Colorado River; two reference reservoirs on the Concho River; and three sites at the confluence of these rivers. Sampling occurred monthly from January 2010 to July 2011. Impacted sites were characterized by higher specific conductance, calcium and magnesium hardness, and fluoride than reference and confluence sites. At impacted sites, golden alga abundance and toxicity were positively associated with salinity-related variables and blooms peaked at ~10°C and generally did not occur above 20°C. Overall, these findings suggest management of land and water use to reduce hardness or salinity could produce unfavorable conditions for golden alga.

  13. Prymnesium parvum revisited: Relationship between allelopathy, ichthyotoxicity, and chemical profiles in 5 strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blossom, Hannah E., E-mail: hblossom@bio.ku.dk [Marine Biological Section, University of Copenhagen, Strandpromenaden 5, 3000 Helsingør (Denmark); Rasmussen, Silas A. [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads, Building 221, 2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Andersen, Nikolaj G. [Marine Biological Section, University of Copenhagen, Strandpromenaden 5, 3000 Helsingør (Denmark); Larsen, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Kristian F. [Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads, Building 221, 2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Hansen, Per J. [Marine Biological Section, University of Copenhagen, Strandpromenaden 5, 3000 Helsingør (Denmark)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Five strains of P. parvum were tested for toxicity towards rainbow trout and microalgae. • Toxicity towards microalgae was not correlated to toxicity towards fish. • A microalgal bioassay cannot be used as a reliable proxy for ichthyotoxicity. • Concentrations of GATs were low and not correlated to effects on fish or on algae. • P. parvum does not produce oleamide based on {sup 13}C labeling and extraction in glass. - Abstract: Bioassay-guided discovery of ichthyotoxic algal compounds using in vivo fish assays is labor intensive, costly, and highly regulated. Since the mode of action of most known algal-mediated fish-killing toxins is damage to the cell membranes in the gills, various types of cell-based bioassays are often used for bioassay guided purification of new ichthyotoxins. Here we tested the hypothesis that allelopathy is related to ichthyotoxicity and thus that a microalgal bioassay can be used as a proxy for ichthyotoxicity by comparing the toxicity of five strains of Prymnesium parvum toward rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, 10 g) and the microalga Teleaulax acuta. No relationship between median effective concentrations (EC{sub 50}s) on fish and median lethal concentrations (LC{sub 50}s) on algae was observed in the 5 strains showing that a microalgal bioassay cannot be used as a proxy for ichthyotoxicity. Fish were more sensitive to P. parvum with EC{sub 50}s ranging from 6 × 10{sup 3} to 40 × 10{sup 3} cells ml{sup −1}, compared to the test alga where LC{sub 50}s ranged from 30 × 10{sup 3} to nearly non-toxic at 500 × 10{sup 3} cells ml{sup −1}. In addition, the cellular concentrations of two recently suggested ichthyotoxins produced by P. parvum, the “golden algae toxins”, GAT 512 and a novel GAT 510, did not show any relationship to either ichthyotoxicity or allelopathy, and are not the biologically relevant toxins, but are simply lipids found in algal chloroplasts. Finally, we demonstrate that the recently

  14. Prymnesium parvum exotoxins affect the grazing and viability of the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sopanen, S.; Koski, Marja; Uronen, P.

    2008-01-01

    The calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis from the northern Baltic Sea was exposed to cell-free filtrates of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum as well as to cell mixtures of P. parvum and Rhodomonas salina. To test the effects of P. parvum exudates and allelopathy on selective grazers, copepods...... cultures were grown in nutrient-balanced (+NP) or limited (-N or -P) media to obtain different levels of toxicity. Survival, ingestion, faecal pellet production rates and egg production were measured over 3 d, together with measurements of P. parvum toxicity (hemolytic activity) (HA). Most of the copepods...... on grazers, and these effects are stronger under nutrient-depleted conditions; however, the presence of good-quality food lowers harmful effects for copepods. The negative effects caused either by direct intoxication or by food limitation following from strong allelopathic effects of P. parvum on other...

  15. Insights into toxic Prymnesium parvum blooms: the role of sugars and algal viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Ben A; Hems, Edward S; Rejzek, Martin; Pratscher, Jennifer; Brooks, Elliot; Kuhaudomlarp, Sakonwan; O'Neill, Ellis C; Donaldson, Matthew I; Lane, Steven; Currie, John; Hindes, Andrew M; Malin, Gill; Murrell, J Colin; Field, Robert A

    2018-04-17

    Prymnesium parvum is a toxin-producing microalga that causes harmful algal blooms globally, which often result in large-scale fish kills that have severe ecological and economic implications. Although many toxins have previously been isolated from P. parvum , ambiguity still surrounds the responsible ichthyotoxins in P. parvum blooms and the biotic and abiotic factors that promote bloom toxicity. A major fish kill attributed to P. parvum occurred in Spring 2015 on the Norfolk Broads, a low-lying set of channels and lakes (Broads) found on the East of England. Here, we discuss how water samples taken during this bloom have led to diverse scientific advances ranging from toxin analysis to discovery of a new lytic virus of P. parvum , P. parvum DNA virus (PpDNAV-BW1). Taking recent literature into account, we propose key roles for sialic acids in this type of viral infection. Finally, we discuss recent practical detection and management strategies for controlling these devastating blooms. © 2018 The Author(s).

  16. Isolation and Characterization of a Double Stranded DNA Megavirus Infecting the Toxin-Producing Haptophyte Prymnesium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben A. Wagstaff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prymnesium parvum is a toxin-producing haptophyte that causes harmful algal blooms globally, leading to large-scale fish kills that have severe ecological and economic implications. For the model haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, it has been shown that large dsDNA viruses play an important role in regulating blooms and therefore biogeochemical cycling, but much less work has been done looking at viruses that infect P. parvum, or the role that these viruses may play in regulating harmful algal blooms. In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of a lytic nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV collected from the site of a harmful P. parvum bloom. In subsequent experiments, this virus was shown to infect cultures of Prymnesium sp. and showed phylogenetic similarity to the extended Megaviridae family of algal viruses.

  17. Chemodiversity of Ladder-Frame Prymnesin Polyethers in Prymnesium parvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Meier, Sebastian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted

    2016-01-01

    -HRMS) of 10 strains of P. parvum collected worldwide showed that only one strain produced the original prymnesin-1 and -2, whereas four strains produced the novel B-type prymnesin. In total 13 further prymnesin analogues differing in their core backbone and chlorination and glycosylation patterns could...

  18. Stability of the intra- and extracellular toxins of Prymnesium parvum using a microalgal bioassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blossom, Hannah Eva; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Rasmussen, Silas Anselm

    2014-01-01

    easily maintained. Reducing oxidation by storing the supernatant with no headspace in the vials significantly slowed loss of activity when stored at 4°C. We show that the lytic activity of the intracellular toxins, when released by sonication, is not as high as the extracellular toxins, however...... of P. parvum toxins before attempting to isolate and characterize them. The extracellular toxin in the supernatant is highly unstable, and it loses significant lytic effects after 3 days despite storage at −20°C and after only 24h stored at 4°C. However, when stored at −80°C, lytic activity is more...... the stability of the intracellular toxins when kept as a cell pellet at −20°C is excellent, which proves this is a sufficient storage method for less than 3 months. Our results provide an ecologically appropriate algal bioassay to quantify lytic activity of P. parvum toxins and we have advanced our knowledge...

  19. Growth rates of three geographically separated strains of the ichthyotoxic Prymnesium parvum (Prymnesiophyceae) in response to six different pH levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysgaard, Maria L.; Eckford-Soper, Lisa; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2018-05-01

    Continued anthropogenic carbon emissions are expected to cause a decline in global average pH of the oceans to a projected value of 7.8 by the end of the century. Understanding how harmful algal bloom (HAB) species will respond to lowered pH levels will be important when predicting future HAB events and their ecological consequences. In this study, we examined how manipulated pH levels affected the growth rate of three strains of Prymnesium parvum from North America, Denmark and Japan. Triplicate strains were grown under pH conditions ranging from 6.6 to 9.1 to simulate plausible future levels. Different tolerances were evident for all strains. Significantly higher growth rates were observed at pH 6.6-8.1 compared to growth rates at pH 8.6-9.1 and a lower pH limit was not observed. The Japanese strain (NIES-1017) had the highest maximum growth rate of 0.39 divisions day-1 at pH 6.6 but a low tolerance (0.22 divisions day-1) to high levels (pH 9.1) with growth declining markedly after pH 7.6. The Danish (SCCAP K-0081) and North American (UTEX LB 2797) strains had maximum growth rates of 0.26 and 0.35 divisions day-1, respectively between pH 6.6-8.1. Compared to the other two strains the Danish strain had a statistically lower growth rate across all pH treatments. Strain differences were either attributed to their provenance or the length of time the strain had been in culture.

  20. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyotoxic algal blooms are normally considered a threat to maricultured fish only when blooms reach lethal cell concentrations. The degree to which sublethal algal concentrations challenge the health of the fish during blooms is practically unknown. In this study, we analysed whether sublethal...

  1. An experimental analysis of harmful algae-zooplankton interactions and the ultimate defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmel, E.J.; Kohmescher, N.; Larson, J.H.; Hambright, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined effects of the invasive, toxigenic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum on grazing rates, feeding behaviors, and life-history characteristics of clonal lineages of three daphniid zooplankton species. Grazing experiments revealed similar clearance rates for P. parvum and a common green alga. Behavioral observations revealed no significant effects of P. parvum on daphniid feeding behaviors after 30 min, but major declines in appendage beat rates after 1 h. Chronic exposure (10 d) to P. parvum resulted in severe reductions in daphniid growth rates, age at first reproduction, fecundity, and survivorship at densities as low as 7750 cells mL-1. Thus, in addition to direct fish mortality during P. parvum blooms of 50,000-200,000 cells mL-1, the entire food web of an invaded system may be subjected to potentially severe negative consequences even at nonbloom densities of P. parvum. ?? 2011, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  2. Effect of salinity on the fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of five haptophyte algae from the genera Coccolithophora, Isochrysis and Prymnesium determined by LC-MS/APCI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedbalová, L.; Střížek, A.; Sigler, Karel; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 130, October (2016), s. 64-76 ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Haptophyte algae * Coccolithophyceae * Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.205, year: 2016

  3. Predicting the risk of toxic blooms of golden alga from cell abundance and environmental covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Denny, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a toxic haptophyte that has caused considerable ecological damage to marine and inland aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Studies focused primarily on laboratory cultures have indicated that toxicity is poorly correlated with the abundance of golden alga cells. This relationship, however, has not been rigorously evaluated in the field where environmental conditions are much different. The ability to predict toxicity using readily measured environmental variables and golden alga abundance would allow managers rapid assessments of ichthyotoxicity potential without laboratory bioassay confirmation, which requires additional resources to accomplish. To assess the potential utility of these relationships, several a priori models relating lethal levels of golden alga ichthyotoxicity to golden alga abundance and environmental covariates were constructed. Model parameters were estimated using archived data from four river basins in Texas and New Mexico (Colorado, Brazos, Red, Pecos). Model predictive ability was quantified using cross-validation, sensitivity, and specificity, and the relative ranking of environmental covariate models was determined by Akaike Information Criterion values and Akaike weights. Overall, abundance was a generally good predictor of ichthyotoxicity as cross validation of golden alga abundance-only models ranged from ∼ 80% to ∼ 90% (leave-one-out cross-validation). Environmental covariates improved predictions, especially the ability to predict lethally toxic events (i.e., increased sensitivity), and top-ranked environmental covariate models differed among the four basins. These associations may be useful for monitoring as well as understanding the abiotic factors that influence toxicity during blooms.

  4. Algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raven, John A.; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 13 (2014), s. 590-595 ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : algae * life cycle * evolution Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.571, year: 2014

  5. Golden alga presence and abundance are inversely related to salinity in a high-salinity river ecosystem, Pecos River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israël, Natascha M.D.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Denny, Shawn; Ingle, John; Patino, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Prymnesium parvum (golden alga, GA) is a toxigenic harmful alga native to marine ecosystems that has also affected brackish inland waters. The first toxic bloom of GA in the western hemisphere occurred in the Pecos River, one of the saltiest rivers in North America. Environmental factors (water quality) associated with GA occurrence in this basin, however, have not been examined. Water quality and GA presence and abundance were determined at eight sites in the Pecos River basin with or without prior history of toxic blooms. Sampling was conducted monthly from January 2012 to July 2013. Specific conductance (salinity) varied spatiotemporally between 4408 and 73,786 mS/cm. Results of graphical, principal component (PCA), and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression analyses indicated that the incidence and abundance of GA are reduced as salinity increases spatiotemporally. LOWESS regression and correlation analyses of archived data for specific conductance and GA abundance at one of the study sites retrospectively confirmed the negative association between these variables. Results of PCA also suggested that at <15,000 mS/cm, GA was present at a relatively wide range of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations whereas at higher salinity, GA was observed only at mid-to-high nutrient levels. Generally consistent with earlier studies, results of ZIP regression indicated that GA presence is positively associated with organic phosphorus and in samples where GA is present, GA abundance is positively associated with organic nitrogen and negatively associated with inorganic nitrogen. This is the first report of an inverse relation between salinity and GA presence and abundance in riverine waters and of interaction effects of salinity and nutrients in the field. These observations contribute to a more complete understanding of environmental conditions that influence GA distribution in inland waters.

  6. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  7. Diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum in immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study is to search for Cryptosporidium parvum in Sudanese immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients presenting with diarrhea. Methods: Two hundred and thirteen stool specimens were collected from different groups of patients presenting with diarrhea and healthy control ...

  8. Crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum pyruvate kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Cook

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase plays a critical role in cellular metabolism of glucose by serving as a major regulator of glycolysis. This tetrameric enzyme is allosterically regulated by different effector molecules, mainly phosphosugars. In response to binding of effector molecules and substrates, significant structural changes have been identified in various pyruvate kinase structures. Pyruvate kinase of Cryptosporidium parvum is exceptional among known enzymes of protozoan origin in that it exhibits no allosteric property in the presence of commonly known effector molecules. The crystal structure of pyruvate kinase from C. parvum has been solved by molecular replacement techniques and refined to 2.5 Å resolution. In the active site a glycerol molecule is located near the γ-phosphate site of ATP, and the protein structure displays a partially closed active site. However, unlike other structures where the active site is closed, the α6' helix in C. parvum pyruvate kinase unwinds and assumes an extended conformation. In the crystal structure a sulfate ion is found at a site that is occupied by a phosphate of the effector molecule in many pyruvate kinase structures. A new feature of the C. parvum pyruvate kinase structure is the presence of a disulfide bond cross-linking the two monomers in the asymmetric unit. The disulfide bond is formed between cysteine residue 26 in the short N-helix of one monomer with cysteine residue 312 in a long helix (residues 303-320 of the second monomer at the interface of these monomers. Both cysteine residues are unique to C. parvum, and the disulfide bond remained intact in a reduced environment. However, the significance of this bond, if any, remains unknown at this time.

  9. Soil algae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Also, the importance of algae in soil formation and soil fertility improvement cannot be over ... The presence of nitrogen fixing microalgae (Nostoc azollae) in the top soil of both vegetable ..... dung, fish food and dirty water from fish ponds on.

  10. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  11. A Study of Cryptosporidium parvum Genotypes and Population Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Widmer

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic evidence for the occurrence of two Cryptosporidium parvum subgroups is presented. This evidence is based on restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of several independent loci. Sequence analysis of the b -tubulin intron revealed additional polymorphism. The stability of the genetic profiles following passage of C. parvum isolates between different hosts was investigated.

  12. Intracellular fate of Ureaplasma parvum entrapped by host cellular autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiumi, Fumiko; Ogawa, Michinaga; Nakura, Yukiko; Hamada, Yusuke; Nakayama, Masahiro; Mitobe, Jiro; Hiraide, Atsushi; Sakai, Norio; Takeuchi, Makoto; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2017-06-01

    Genital mycoplasmas, including Ureaplasma spp., are among the smallest human pathogenic bacteria and are associated with preterm birth. Electron microscopic observation of U. parvum showed that these prokaryotes have a regular, spherical shape with a mean diameter of 146 nm. U. parvum was internalized into HeLa cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and survived for at least 14 days around the perinuclear region. Intracellular U. parvum reached endosomes in HeLa cells labeled with EEA1, Rab7, and LAMP-1 within 1 to 3 hr. After 3 hr of infection, U. parvum induced the cytosolic accumulation of galectin-3 and was subsequently entrapped by the autophagy marker LC3. However, when using atg7 -/- MEF cells, autophagy was inadequate for the complete elimination of U. parvum in HeLa cells. U. parvum also colocalized with the recycling endosome marker Rab11. Furthermore, the exosomes purified from infected HeLa cell culture medium included U. parvum. In these purified exosomes ureaplasma lipoprotein multiple banded antigen, host cellular annexin A2, CD9, and CD63 were detected. This research has successfully shown that Ureaplasma spp. utilize the host cellular membrane compartments possibly to evade the host immune system. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Water stress exacerbates the severity of Botryosphaeria dieback in grapevines infected by Neofusicoccum parvum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botryosphaeria dieback (causal fungus Neofusicoccum parvum) is a detrimental grapevine trunk disease, causing internal wood degradation, killing shoots, and reducing yields. We examined the interactive effects of drought and N. parvum infection, common vineyard stresses, on wood-lesion development. ...

  14. Gamma irradiation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts affects intracelluar levels of the viral symbiont CPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown a dose-dependent effect of gamma irradiation on Cryptosporidium parvum development in neonatal mice and newborn calves. In mice, C. parvum oocysts exposed to 200 Gy showed nearly complete inability to develop as measured by C. parvum-specific quantitative PCR of ileal ti...

  15. Ureaplasma parvum prosthetic joint infection detected by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, John J; Larson, Joshua A; Akeson, Jeffrey W; Lowery, Kristin S; Rounds, Megan A; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A; Patel, Robin

    2014-06-01

    We describe the first reported case of Ureaplasma parvum prosthetic joint infection (PJI) detected by PCR. Ureaplasma species do not possess a cell wall and are usually associated with colonization and infection of mucosal surfaces (not prosthetic material). U. parvum is a relatively new species name for certain serovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum, and PCR is useful for species determination. Our patient presented with late infection of his right total knee arthroplasty. Intraoperative fluid and tissue cultures and pre- and postoperative synovial fluid cultures were all negative. To discern the pathogen, we employed PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). Our patient's failure to respond to empirical antimicrobial treatment and our previous experience with PCR/ESI-MS in culture-negative cases of infection prompted us to use this approach over other diagnostic modalities. PCR/ESI-MS detected U. parvum in all samples. U. parvum-specific PCR testing was performed on all synovial fluid samples to confirm the U. parvum detection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Review of Cervi Cornu Parvum Pharmacopuncture in Korean Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Dong-Jin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The endpoint of this review is to investigate existing studies of Cervi cornu parvum (CCP pharmacopuncture within Korean medicine journals in order to present a better research method in the future. Methods: We searched all the papers through six Korean electrical databases that included the title of "Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture" or "Cervi cornu parvum aqua-acupuncture". Articles that had been published until December 2012 were largely divided into experimental studies and clinical studies. Results: Fifty-three (53 experimental studies and six clinical studies were found. The number of published articles has been constantly increasing. Many of the experimental studies demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects for arthritis, and most of the clinical studies dealt with musculoskeletal problems. Conclusion: Various therapeutically significant effects of the CCP pharmacopuncture have been found through this review; however, more systematic clinical studies on the CCP pharmacopuncture seem to be necessary to substantially support its clinical effects.

  17. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  18. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  19. Statistical comparison of excystation methods in Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecková, R.; Stuart, P. D.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kváč, Martin; Foitová, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 230, OCT 30 (2016), s. 1-5 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium parvum * excystation methods * in vitro cultivation * sodium hypochlorite * tlypsin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.356, year: 2016

  20. Cryptosporidium parvum and Isopora belli infections among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the importance of Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli infections as a cause of diarrhoea among patients admitted to the Medical Wards in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi. Design: Prospective case control study. Subjects: One hundred and twenty one patients with ...

  1. Cryptosporidium parvum, a potential cause of colic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinon Anthony

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem. This infection has been reported worldwide as a frequent cause of diarrhoea. Particularly, it remains a clinically significant opportunistic infection among immunocompromised patients, causing potentially life-threatening diarrhoea in HIV-infected persons. However, the understanding about different aspects of this infection such as invasion, transmission and pathogenesis is problematic. Additionally, it has been difficult to find suitable animal models for propagation of this parasite. Efforts are needed to develop reproducible animal models allowing both the routine passage of different species and approaching unclear aspects of Cryptosporidium infection, especially in the pathophysiology field. Results We developed a model using adult severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium muris while treated or not with Dexamethasone (Dex in order to investigate divergences in prepatent period, oocyst shedding or clinical and histopathological manifestations. C. muris-infected mice showed high levels of oocysts excretion, whatever the chemical immunosuppression status. Pre-patent periods were 11 days and 9.7 days in average in Dex treated and untreated mice, respectively. Parasite infection was restricted to the stomach, and had a clear preferential colonization for fundic area in both groups. Among C. parvum-infected mice, Dex-treated SCID mice became chronic shedders with a prepatent period of 6.2 days in average. C. parvum-inoculated mice treated with Dex developed glandular cystic polyps with areas of intraepithelial neoplasia, and also with the presence of intramucosal adenocarcinoma. Conclusion For the first time C. parvum is associated with the formation of polyps and adenocarcinoma lesions in the gut of Dex-treated SCID mice. Additionally, we have developed a model to compare chronic muris and parvum

  2. Ureaplasma parvum causes hyperammonemia in a pharmacologically immunocompromised murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Greenwood-Quaintance, K E; Karau, M J; Block, D R; Mandrekar, J N; Cunningham, S A; Mallea, J M; Patel, R

    2017-03-01

    A relationship between hyperammonemia and Ureaplasma infection has been shown in lung transplant recipients. We have demonstrated that Ureaplasma urealyticum causes hyperammonemia in a novel immunocompromised murine model. Herein, we determined whether Ureaplasma parvum can do the same. Male C3H mice were given mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and prednisone for 7 days, and then challenged with U. parvum intratracheally (IT) and/or intraperitoneally (IP), while continuing immunosuppression over 6 days. Plasma ammonia concentrations were determined and compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Plasma ammonia concentrations of immunosuppressed mice challenged IT/IP with spent broth (median, 188 μmol/L; range, 102-340 μmol/L) were similar to those of normal (median, 226 μmol/L; range, 154-284 μmol/L, p > 0.05), uninfected immunosuppressed (median, 231 μmol/L; range, 122-340 μmol/L, p > 0.05), and U. parvum IT/IP challenged immunocompetent (median, 226 μmol/L; range, 130-330 μmol/L, p > 0.05) mice. Immunosuppressed mice challenged with U. parvum IT/IP (median 343 μmol/L; range 136-1,000 μmol/L) or IP (median 307 μmol/L; range 132-692 μmol/L) had higher plasma ammonia concentrations than those challenged IT/IP with spent broth (p < 0.001). U. parvum can cause hyperammonemia in pharmacologically immunocompromised mice.

  3. Ureaplasma parvum infection alters filamin a dynamics in host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Mary B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureaplasmas are among the most common bacteria isolated from the human urogenital tract. Ureaplasmas can produce asymptomatic infections or disease characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory response. Most investigations have focused on elucidating the pathogenic potential of Ureaplasma species, but little attention has been paid to understanding the mechanisms by which these organisms are capable of establishing asymptomatic infection. Methods We employed differential proteome profiling of bladder tissues from rats experimentally infected with U. parvum in order to identify host cell processes perturbed by colonization with the microbe. Tissues were grouped into four categories: sham inoculated controls, animals that spontaneously cleared infection, asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI, and complicated UTI. One protein that was perturbed by infection (filamin A was used to further elucidate the mechanism of U. parvum-induced disruption in human benign prostate cells (BPH-1. BPH-1 cells were evaluated by confocal microscopy, immunoblotting and ELISA. Results Bladder tissue from animals actively colonized with U. parvum displayed significant alterations in actin binding proteins (profilin 1, vinculin, α actinin, and filamin A that regulate both actin polymerization and cell cytoskeletal function pertaining to focal adhesion formation and signal transduction (Fisher's exact test, P U. parvum perturbed the regulation of filamin A. Specifically, infected BPH-1 cells exhibited a significant increase in filamin A phosphorylated at serine2152 (P ≤ 0.01, which correlated with impaired proteolysis of the protein and its normal intracellular distribution. Conclusion Filamin A dynamics were perturbed in both models of infection. Phosphorylation of filamin A occurs in response to various cell signaling cascades that regulate cell motility, differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. Thus, this phenomenon may be a useful

  4. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  6. Effects of Surfactants on Cryptosporidium parvum Mobility in Agricultural Soils from Illinois and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnault, C. J.; Koken, E.; Jacobson, A. R.; Powelson, D.

    2011-12-01

    The occurence of the parasitic protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum in rural and agricultural watersheds due to agricultural activities and wildlife is inevitable. Understanding the behavior of C. parvum oocysts in the environment is critical for the protection of public health and the environment. To better understand the mechanisms by which the pathogen moves through soils and contaminates water resources, we study their mobility under conditions representative of real-world scenarios, where both C. parvum and chemicals that affect their fate are present in soils. Surfactants occur widely in soils due to agricultural practices such as wastewater irrigation and the application of pesticides or soil wetting agents. They affect water tension and, consequently, soil infiltration processes and the air-water interfaces in soil pores where C. parvum may be retained. We investigate the effects of surfactants on the mobility of C. parvum oocysts in agricultural soils from Illinois and Utah under unsaturated flow conditions. As it is critical to examine C. parvum in natural settings, we also developed a quantification method using RT-PCR for monitoring C. parvum oocysts in environmental soil and water samples. We optimized physico-chemical parameters to disrupt C. parvum oocysts and extract their DNA, and developed isolation methods to separate C. parvum oocysts from colloids in natural soil samples. The results of this research will lead to the development of an accurate and sensitive molecular method for the monitoring of C. parvum oocysts in environmental soil and water samples, and will further our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the behavior of C. parvum oocysts in soils, in particular the role of vadose zone processes, sorption to soil and surfactants.

  7. Biofuels and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-fuels based on micro-algae are promising, their licensing for being used in plane fuels in a mix containing 50% of fossil kerosene is expected in the coming months. In United-States research on bio-fuels has been made more important since 2006 when 2 policies were launched: 'Advanced energy initiative' and 'Twenty-in-ten', the latter aiming to develop alternative fuels. In Europe less investment has been made concerning micro-algae fuels but research programs were launched in Spain, United-Kingdom and France. In France 3 important projects were launched: SHAMASH (2006-2010) whose aim is to produce lipidic fuels from micro-algae, ALGOHUB (2008-2013) whose aim is to use micro-algae as a raw material for humane and animal food, medicine and cosmetics, SYMBIOSE (2009-2011) whose aim is the optimization of the production of methane through the anaerobic digestion of micro-algae, SALINALGUE (2010-2016) whose aim is to grow micro-algae for the production of bio-energies and bio-products. (A.C.)

  8. First description of Cryptosporidium parvum in carrier pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; Ferrari, Elis Domingos; da Cruz Panegossi, Mariele Fernanda; Nakamura, Alex Akira; Corbucci, Flávio Sader; Nagata, Walter Bertequini; Dos Santos, Bianca Martins; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Widmer, Giovanni; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2017-08-30

    The carrier pigeon and the domestic pigeon are different breeds of the species Columba livia. Carrier pigeons are used for recreational activities such as bird contests and exhibitions. Due to the close contact with humans, these birds may potentially represent a public health risk, since they can host and disseminate zoonotic parasites, such as those belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium (phylum Apicomplexa). The purpose of this work was the detection by microscopic and molecular techniques of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in fecal samples of carrier pigeons, and subsequently to sequence the 18S ribosomal RNA marker of positive samples to identify the species. A total of 100 fecal samples were collected individually in two pigeon breeding facilities from Formiga and Araçatuba, cities located in Minas Gerais state and São Paulo state, Brazil, respectively. The age of the birds ranged from one to 12 years; 56 were females and 44 males. Fecal smears were stained with negative malachite green, whereas the molecular characterization was based on the sequence of a ∼800bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Microscopic examination of fecal smears revealed 4% (4/100) oocyst positivity. On the other hand, 7% (7/100) of positivity were found using nested PCR. Three samples were 99% to 100% similar to Cryptosporidium parvum 18S rDNA type A (Genbank AH006572) and the other three samples had 99% to 100% similarity to C. parvum 18S rDNA type B (Genbank AF308600). To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. parvum oocysts in carrier pigeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of fenbendazole for treatment of Giardia infection in cats concurrently infected with Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Carey L; Radecki, Steven V; Lappin, Michael R

    2003-08-01

    To determine whether fenbendazole effectively eliminates Giardia organisms from chronically infected cats that have a concurrent Cryptosporidium parvum infection. 16 clinically normal cats. Eight cats with chronic concurrent Giardia and C parvum infections received fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 5 days (treatment-group cats). Feces from each cat were collected and processed 3 days weekly for 23 days after treatment. By use of an immunofluorescent assay for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts and C parvum oocysts, organism numbers were counted and scored. Fecal results from treatment-group cats were compared with those of 8 untreated cats with Giardia infection but no C parvum infection (control-group cats). Four of 8 treatment-group cats had consistently negative results for Giardia infection after treatment. These 4 cats had consistently positive results for C parvum oocysts prior to treatment and consistently negative results after treatment. One treatment-group cat had positive results for cysts on all fecal samples, and 3 treatment-group cats had 1 to 3 negative results and then resumed shedding large numbers of cysts; each of these cats had consistently positive results for C parvum oocysts. When compared with control-group cats, treatment-group cats shed less Giardia cysts during week 1 after treatment but not during week 2. Administration of fenbendazole decreases Giardia cyst shedding to less than detectable numbers in some cats. In our study, persistent C parvum infection may have been associated with failure of fenbendazole to eliminate Giardia infection.

  10. Interactions between Cryptosporidium parvum and the Intestinal Ecosystem

    KAUST Repository

    Douvropoulou, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite commonly causing diarrhea, particularly in infants in developing countries. The research challenges faced in the development of therapies against Cryptosporidium slow down the process of drug discovery. However, advancement of knowledge towards the interactions of the intestinal ecosystem and the parasite could provide alternative approaches to tackle the disease. Under this perspective, the primary focus of this work was to study interactions between Cryptosporidium parvum and the intestinal ecosystem in a mouse model. Mice were treated with antibiotics with different activity spectra and the resulted perturbation of the native gut microbiota was identified by microbiome studies. In particular, 16S amplicon sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) were used to determine the bacterial composition and the genetic repertoire of the fecal microbial communities in the mouse gut. Following alteration of the microbial communities of mice by application of antibiotic treatment, Cryptosporidium parasites were propagated in mice with perturbed microbiota and the severity of the infection was quantified. This approach enabled the prediction of the functional capacity of the microbial communities in the mouse gut and led to the identification of bacterial taxa that positively or negatively correlate in abundance with Cryptosporidium proliferation.

  11. MOLECULAR CLONING AND ANALYSIS OF THE CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM AMINOPEPTIDASE N GENE. (R829180)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum proteases have been associated with release of infective sporozoites from oocysts, and their specific inhibition blocks parasite excystation in vitro. Additionally, proteases have been implicated in the processing of parasite adhesion molecules fo...

  12. MOLECULAR CLONING AND ANALYSIS OF THE CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM AMINOPEPTIDASE N GENE. (R828035)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum proteases have been associated with release of infective sporozoites from oocysts, and their specific inhibition blocks parasite excystation in vitro. Additionally, proteases have been implicated in the processing of parasite adhesion molecules fo...

  13. Cloning and expression of gene encoding P23 protein from Cryptosporidium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Thi Bich Lan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We cloned the cp23 gene coding P23 (glycoprotein from Cryptosporidium parvum isolated from Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam. The coding region of cp23 gene from C. parvum is 99% similar with cp23 gene deposited in NCBI (accession number: U34390. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the cp23 gene in E. coli BL21 StarTM (DE3 produced polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 37, 40 and 49 kDa. These molecules may be non-glycosylated or glycosylated P23 fusion polypeptides. Recombinant P23 protein purified by GST (glutathione S-transferase affinity chromatography can be used as an antigen for C. parvum antibody production as well as to develop diagnostic kit for C. parvum.

  14. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts on Fresh Produce Using DNA Aptamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Iqbal

    Full Text Available There are currently no standard methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp., or other protozoan parasites, in foods, and existing methods are often inadequate, with low and variable recovery efficiencies. Food testing is difficult due to the low concentrations of parasites, the difficulty in eluting parasites from some foods, the lack of enrichment methods, and the presence of PCR inhibitors. The main objectives of the present study were to obtain DNA aptamers binding to the oocyst wall of C. parvum, and to use the aptamers to detect the presence of this parasite in foods. DNA aptamers were selected against C. parvum oocysts using SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment. Ten rounds of selection led to the discovery of 14 aptamer clones with high affinities for C. parvum oocysts. For detecting parasite-bound aptamers, a simple electrochemical sensor was employed, which used a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode. This aptasensor was fabricated by self-assembling a hybrid of a thiolated ssDNA primer and the anti- C. parvum aptamer. Square wave voltammetry was employed to quantitate C. parvum in the range of 150 to 800 oocysts, with a detection limit of approximately 100 oocysts. The high sensitivity and specificity of the developed aptasensor suggests that this novel method is very promising for the detection and identification of C. parvum oocysts on spiked fresh fruits, as compared to conventional methods such as microscopy and PCR.

  15. Inactivation of oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.T.; Robertson, L.J.; Snowball, M.R.; Smith, H.V.

    1995-01-01

    Inactivation of oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum in clean water using a novel design of an ultraviolet disinfection system was assessed by a vital dye assay and by in vitro excystation. The disinfection unit system is designed to expose the oocysts to ultraviolet radiation on two filters, providing a maximum total exposure to ultraviolet radiation of 8748 mW s cm −2 . Results revealed a reduction in oocyst viability of over two logs, indicating that this treatment has exciting potential as an additional treatment for water already treated by conventional methods. However, these data are only preliminary results using one isolate of oocysts and further trials must be conducted before this system could be recommended for use

  16. Pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium parvum - evaluation of an animal infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Lind, Peter

    2003-01-01

    and rectum. The unintended presence of rotavirus in some of the experimental animals revealed an additive or synergistic effect between rotavirus and C. parvum as indicated by prolonged diarrhoea, increased oocyst shedding, decreased weight gain and elevated levels of serum haptoglobin and serum amyloid...... A (SAA) in piglets infected simultaneously with both pathogens. The difference in daily weight gain between infected and control animals was significant only for piglets co-infected with rotavirus. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and SAA was characterised by a large individual variation....... In piglets, co-infected with rotavirus, the levels of serum haptoglobin were 3.5 and 4.6 times higher in the infected versus the controls 6 and 9 dpi, respectively (mean values: 2411 mug/ml +/- S.D. 2023 and 1840 mug/ml +/- S.D. 1697). In the controls infected with rotavirus, peak haptoglobin concentration...

  17. Genomics of Volvocine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umen, James G.; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Volvocine algae are a group of chlorophytes that together comprise a unique model for evolutionary and developmental biology. The species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri represent extremes in morphological diversity within the Volvocine clade. Chlamydomonas is unicellular and reflects the ancestral state of the group, while Volvox is multicellular and has evolved numerous innovations including germ-soma differentiation, sexual dimorphism, and complex morphogenetic patterning. The Chlamydomonas genome sequence has shed light on several areas of eukaryotic cell biology, metabolism and evolution, while the Volvox genome sequence has enabled a comparison with Chlamydomonas that reveals some of the underlying changes that enabled its transition to multicellularity, but also underscores the subtlety of this transition. Many of the tools and resources are in place to further develop Volvocine algae as a model for evolutionary genomics. PMID:25883411

  18. Bacterial loads of Ureaplasma parvum contribute to the development of inflammatory responses in the male urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Takashi; Shimada, Yasushi; Horie, Kengo; Mizutani, Kohsuke; Seike, Kensaku; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ito, Shin

    2015-12-01

    Ureaplasma parvum, which has been recognised as a coloniser in the male urethra, is detected in some men with non-gonococcal urethritis. In this study, we quantified the 16 S rRNA genes of U. parvum by a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay in first-voided urine from 15 symptomatic and 38 asymptomatic men who were positive only for U. parvum. We also determined the leukocyte counts by automated quantitative urine particle analysis in their first-voided urine. Positive correlations were observed between copies of the 16 S rRNA genes of U. parvum/ml and the leukocyte counts/µl in first-voided urine (p = 0.0019). The loads of ≥10(4) copies of the 16 S rRNA gene/ml, corresponding to ≥5 × 10(3) cells of U. parvum/ml, were significantly associated with the presence of ≥12.5 leukocytes/µl in first-voided urine that might document the presence of inflammatory responses in the urethra. However, a large portion of the subjects (83.0%) had bacterial loads of <5 × 10(3) cells of U. parvum/ml, and 79.5% of them showed <12.5 leukocytes/µl. The ambiguity of the pathogenic role of U. parvum in non-gonococcal urethritis could, in part, be due to its low bacterial loads, which might not give rise to inflammatory responses in the male urethra. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum in sexually active women attending public health clinics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobão, T N; Campos, G B; Selis, N N; Amorim, A T; Souza, S G; Mafra, S S; Pereira, L S; Dos Santos, D B; Figueiredo, T B; Marques, L M; Timenetsky, J

    2017-08-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum have been associated with genital infections. The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of ureaplasmas and other sexually transmitted infections in sexually active women from Brazil and relate these data to demographic and sexual health, and cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β. Samples of cervical swab of 302 women were examined at the Family Health Units in Vitória da Conquista. The frequency of detection by conventional PCR was 76·2% for Mollicutes. In qPCR, the frequency found was 16·6% for U. urealyticum and 60·6% U. parvum and the bacterial load of these microorganisms was not significantly associated with signs and symptoms of genital infection. The frequency found for Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis was 3·0%, 21·5%, 42·4% and 1·7%, respectively. Higher levels of IL-1β were associated with control women colonized by U. urealyticum and U. parvum. Increased levels of IL-6 were associated with women who exhibited U. parvum. Sexually active women, with more than one sexual partner in the last 3 months, living in a rural area were associated with increased odds of certain U. parvum serovar infection.

  20. Occurrence of two newly named oral treponemes - Treponema parvum and Treponema putidum - in primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, I N; Siqueira, J F

    2005-12-01

    Recent evidence from molecular genetic studies has revealed that oral Treponema species are involved in infections of endodontic origin. This study assessed the occurrence of two newly named oral treponemes - Treponema parvum and Treponema putidum - in primary endodontic infections using a culture-independent identification technique. Genomic DNA was isolated directly from clinical samples, and a 16S rRNA gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to determine the presence of T. parvum and T. putidum. Species-specific primer pairs were developed by aligning closely related 16S rRNA gene sequences. The specificity for each primer pair was validated by running PCR against a panel of oral bacteria and by sequence analysis of PCR products from positive clinical samples. T. parvum was detected in 52% of the root canals associated with chronic apical periodontitis, in 20% of the cases diagnosed as acute apical periodontitis, and in no abscessed case. In general, T. parvum was detected in 26% of the samples from primary endodontic infections. T. putidum was found in only one case of acute apical periodontitis (2% of the total number of cases investigated). The devised nested PCR protocol was able to identify both T. parvum and T. putidum directly in clinical samples and demonstrated that these two treponemes can take part in endodontic infections.

  1. Infection by Cryptosporidium parvum in renal patients submitted to renal transplant or hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieffi Pedro Paulo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum was determined in two groups of renal patients submitted to immunosuppression. One group consisted of 23 renal transplanted individuals, and the other consisted of 32 patients with chronic renal insufficiency, periodically submitted to hemodialysis. A third group of 27 patients with systemic arterial hypertension, not immunosuppressed, was used as control. During a period of 18 months all the patients were submitted to faecal examination to detect C. parvum oocysts, for a total of 1 to 6 tests per patient. The results showed frequencies of C. parvum infection of 34.8%, 25% and 17.4%, respectively, for the renal transplanted group, the patients submitted to hemodialysis and the control group. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences among the three groups even though the frequency of C. parvum infection was higher in the transplanted group. However, when the number of fecal samples containing C. parvum oocysts was taken in account, a significantly higher frequency was found in the renal transplanted group.

  2. Molecular evidence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum colonization in preterm infants during respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germani Rossella

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum have been associated with respiratory diseases in premature newborns, but their role in the pathogenesis of the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS is unclear. The aim of this study was to detect, using molecular techniques, the role of Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma spp. in respiratory secretion and blood specimens of preterm newborns with or without RDS and to evaluate the prevalence of perinatal U. urealyticum or U. parvum infection. The influence of chemotherapy on the clinical course was also evaluated. Methods Tracheal aspirate or nasopharingeal fluid samples from 50 preterm babies with (24 or without RDS (26 were analysed for detection of U. urealyticum and U. parvum by culture identification assay and PCR. Sequencing analysis of amplicons allowed us to verify the specificity of methods. Clarithromycin (10 mg kg-1 twice a day was administered in ureaplasma-positive patients who presented clinical signs of RDS. Results 15/24 neonates with RDS (p U. urealyticum or U. parvum. Culture identification assay was positive in 5/50 newborns, three of which with RDS. Sequencing analyses confirmed the specificity of these methods. Association of patent ductus arteriosus with ureaplasma colonization was more statistically significant (p = 0.0004 in patients with RDS than in those without RDS. Conclusion Colonization of the lower respiratory tract by Ureaplasma spp. and particularly by U. parvum in preterm newborns was related to RDS. The routine use of molecular methods could be useful to screen candidate babies for etiologic therapy.

  3. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in a Silicon Micromodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Changyong; Hilpert, Markus; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B.; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2012-02-01

    Effective removal of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by granular filtration requires the knowledge of oocyst transport and deposition mechanisms, which can be obtained based on real time microscopic observation of oocyst transport in porous media. Attachment of oocysts to silica surface in a radial stagnation point flow (RSPF) cell and in a micromodel, which has 2-dimensional (2-D) microscopic pore structures consisting of an array of cylindrical collectors, was studied and compared. Real time transport of oocysts in the micromodel was recorded to determine the attached oocyst distributions in transversal and longitudinal directions. In the micromodel, oocysts attached to the forward portion of clean collectors, where the flow velocity was lowest. After initial attachment, oocysts attached onto already attached oocysts. As a result, the collectors ripened and the region available for flow was reduced. Results of attachment and detachment experiments suggest that surface charge heterogeneity allowed for oocyst attachment. In addition to experiments, Lattice-Boltzmann simulations helped understanding the slightly non-uniform flow field and explained differences in the removal efficiency in the transversal direction. However, the hydrodynamic modeling could not explain differences in attachment in the longitudinal direction.

  4. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunjak, Blaženka; Sabol, Ivan; Vojnović, Gordana; Fistonić, Ivan; Erceg, Andrea Babić; Peršić, Zdenka; Grce, Magdalena

    2014-02-01

    To determine the incidence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in symptomatic and asymptomatic women of reproductive age and to estimate antibiotic susceptibility of ureaplasma isolates. This study included 424 ureaplasma positive women of 1,370 tested women who visited gynecological practices during 2010. Cervicovaginal or urethral swab specimens from each patient were obtained for cultivation and molecular typing by RT-PCR. Ureaplasma spp. was identified by cultivation in 424 (34.4 %) cases, of which 79.0 % were from women with symptoms and 21.0 % from women without symptoms. Among ureaplasma positive women, 121 (28.5 %) were pregnant. Genotyping was successful in 244 strains, and the majority of samples were identified as UP (92.6 %). Among genotyped isolates, there were 79.5 % from symptomatic and 20.5 % from asymptomatic women; 29.9 % from pregnant and 70.1 % from non-pregnant women. There was no difference in the incidence of ureaplasma type regarding symptoms. Antibiotic susceptibility of 424 ureaplasma isolates identified by cultivation showed that all strains were susceptible to doxycycline, josamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, clarithromycin and pristinamycin, but there was lower susceptibility to quinolone antibiotics, i.e., 42.9 and 24.5 % isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. This study shows that UP was the most frequent isolated ureaplasma species (92.6 %). Regarding antibiotic susceptibility, quinolones are not the best choice for the treatment of ureaplasma infections, while macrolides and tetracyclines are still effective.

  5. Cryptosporidium parvum-induced ileo-caecal adenocarcinoma and Wnt signaling in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Benamrouz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium species are apicomplexan protozoans that are found worldwide. These parasites constitute a large risk to human and animal health. They cause self-limited diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts and a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised hosts. Interestingly, Cryptosporidium parvum has been related to digestive carcinogenesis in humans. Consistent with a potential tumorigenic role of this parasite, in an original reproducible animal model of chronic cryptosporidiosis based on dexamethasone-treated or untreated adult SCID mice, we formerly reported that C. parvum (strains of animal and human origin is able to induce digestive adenocarcinoma even in infections induced with very low inoculum. The aim of this study was to further characterize this animal model and to explore metabolic pathways potentially involved in the development of C. parvum-induced ileo-caecal oncogenesis. We searched for alterations in genes or proteins commonly involved in cell cycle, differentiation or cell migration, such as β-catenin, Apc, E-cadherin, Kras and p53. After infection of animals with C. parvum we demonstrated immunohistochemical abnormal localization of Wnt signaling pathway components and p53. Mutations in the selected loci of studied genes were not found after high-throughput sequencing. Furthermore, alterations in the ultrastructure of adherens junctions of the ileo-caecal neoplastic epithelia of C. parvum-infected mice were recorded using transmission electron microscopy. In conclusion, we found for the first time that the Wnt signaling pathway, and particularly the cytoskeleton network, seems to be pivotal for the development of the C. parvum-induced neoplastic process and cell migration of transformed cells. Furthermore, this model is a valuable tool in understanding the host-pathogen interactions associated with the intricate infection process of this parasite, which is able to modulate host cytoskeleton activities and several host

  6. High-resolution melt PCR analysis for genotyping of Ureaplasma parvum isolates directly from clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Matthew S; Tabone, Tania; Kemp, Matthew W; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Spiller, O Brad; Newnham, John P

    2014-02-01

    Ureaplasma sp. infection in neonates and adults underlies a variety of disease pathologies. Of the two human Ureaplasma spp., Ureaplasma parvum is clinically the most common. We have developed a high-resolution melt (HRM) PCR assay for the differentiation of the four serovars of U. parvum in a single step. Currently U. parvum strains are separated into four serovars by sequencing the promoter and coding region of the multiple-banded antigen (MBA) gene. We designed primers to conserved sequences within this region for PCR amplification and HRM analysis to generate reproducible and distinct melt profiles that distinguish clonal representatives of serovars 1, 3, 6, and 14. Furthermore, our HRM PCR assay could classify DNA extracted from 74 known (MBA-sequenced) test strains with 100% accuracy. Importantly, HRM PCR was also able to identify U. parvum serovars directly from 16 clinical swabs. HRM PCR performed with DNA consisting of mixtures of combined known serovars yielded profiles that were easily distinguished from those for single-serovar controls. These profiles mirrored clinical samples that contained mixed serovars. Unfortunately, melt curve analysis software is not yet robust enough to identify the composition of mixed serovar samples, only that more than one serovar is present. HRM PCR provides a single-step, rapid, cost-effective means to differentiate the four serovars of U. parvum that did not amplify any of the known 10 serovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum tested in parallel. Choice of reaction reagents was found to be crucial to allow sufficient sensitivity to differentiate U. parvum serovars directly from clinical swabs rather than requiring cell enrichment using microbial culture techniques.

  7. Antibody responses to a Cryptosporidium parvum rCP15/60 vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra J. Burton; Daryl V. Nydam; Gary Jones; Jennifer Zambriski; Thomas C. Linden; Graham Cox; Randy Davis; Alicia Brown; Dwight D. Bowman

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic apicomplexa-protozoan pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in mammals worldwide. The organism is transmitted by ingestion of oocysts, which are shed in faeces, and completes its lifecycle in a single host.^1^ C. parvum is ubiquitous on dairy operations worldwide and is one of the leading causes of diarrhoea in calves on these farms.^2,3^ Here, for the first time, we describe the antibody response in a large group of cows to a recombinant C. p...

  8. Shewanella algae in acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. Previously reported cases of S. algae have mainly been associated with direct contact with seawater. Here we report the isolation of S. algae as the sole etiological agent from a patient suffering from acute gastroenteritis with bloody diarrhoea. The bacterium was identified by automated identification system and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Our report highlights the importance of looking for the relatively rare aetiological agents in clinical samples that does not yield common pathogens. It also underscores the usefulness of automated systems in identification of rare pathogens.

  9. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  10. Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum detected with the same frequency among women with and without symptoms of urogenital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marovt, M; Keše, D; Kotar, T; Kmet, N; Miljković, J; Šoba, B; Matičič, M

    2015-06-01

    There is mounting evidence stating that Ureaplasma urealyticum causes non-gonococcal urethritis in males, whereas Ureaplasma parvum does not seem to be of clinical significance. However, the clinical role of U. parvum and U. urealyticum in lower urogenital tract infections in females remains unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of U. parvum and U. urealyticum among 145 Ureaplasma spp. culture-positive women with symptoms of lower urogenital tract infection (n = 75) and those without (n = 70), and to determine possible associations between the detection of U. parvum and U. urealyticum with selected characteristics. Endocervical, urethral, and vaginal swabs, and first voided urine were obtained. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to differentiate ureaplasmas. No significant association between the detection of U. parvum or U. urealyticum and symptom status was found. Significantly more women aged 25 years and younger were infected with U. urealyticum (23.4 %) compared to those aged above 25 years (9.2 %) [odds ratio (OR) 3.0 (1.1; 8.1); p = 0.03] and significantly less women aged 25 years and younger (83.5 %) were infected with U. parvum compared to those aged above 25 years (95.5 %) [OR 0.2 (0.1; 0.9); p = 0.03]. The detection of Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly associated to both U. parvum and U. urealyticum (p = 0.021), and to U. parvum alone with borderline significance (p = 0.063). Although neither U. parvum nor U. urealyticum seem to cause symptoms in females, their role in the female urogenital tract remains unknown, taking into account their ubiquity, possible augmentation of the urogenital microenvironment, and ascending capability to the sterile upper reproductive tract.

  11. BLIND TRIALS EVALUATING IN VITRO INFECTIVITY OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS USING CELL CULTURE IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optimized cell culture-immunofluorescence (IFA) procedure, using the HCT-8 cell line, was evaluated in 'blind' trials to determine the sensitivity and reproducibility for measuring infectivity of flow cytometry prepared inocula of C. parvum oocysts. In separate trials, suspens...

  12. Characterization of an immunogenic glycocalyx on the surfaces of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and sporozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, J; Williams, S; Aji, T; Flanigan, T P

    1999-04-01

    Ruthenium red staining of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts revealed the presence of a carbohydrate matrix on their outer bilayers that is characteristic of a glycocalyx. Surface labeling of intact oocysts identified material of high molecular weight (>10(6)) that reacted positively with sera from cryptosporidium-infected patients and with immunoglobulin A monoclonal antibodies.

  13. Characterization of an Immunogenic Glycocalyx on the Surfaces of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts and Sporozoites

    OpenAIRE

    Nanduri, Jayasri; Williams, Selvi; Aji, Toshiki; Flanigan, Timothy P.

    1999-01-01

    Ruthenium red staining of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts revealed the presence of a carbohydrate matrix on their outer bilayers that is characteristic of a glycocalyx. Surface labeling of intact oocysts identified material of high molecular weight (>106) that reacted positively with sera from cryptosporidium-infected patients and with immunoglobulin A monoclonal antibodies.

  14. Long-Term Storage of Cryptosporidium parvum for In Vitro Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paziewska-Harris, A.; Schoone, G.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.

    2018-01-01

    The long-term storage of Cryptosporidium life-cycle stages is a prerequisite for in vitro culture of the parasite. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, sporozoites, and intracellular forms inside infected host cells were stored for 6-12 mo in liquid nitrogen utilizing different cryoprotectants (dimethyl

  15. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues REINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment.

  16. Quantitative assessment of viable Cryptosporidium parvum load in commercial oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Lewis, Earl J; Glass, Gregory; Dasilva, Alexandre J; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Curriero, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of increasing reports worldwide on Cryptosporidium contamination of oysters remains unknown in relation to foodborne cryptosporidiosis. Thirty market-size oysters (Crassostrea virginica), collected from each of 53 commercial harvesting sites in Chesapeake Bay, MD, were quantitatively tested in groups of six for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA). After IFA analysis, the samples were retrospectively retested for viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and IFA. The mean cumulative numbers of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in six oysters (overall, 42.1+/-4.1) were significantly higher than in the numbers of viable C. parvum oocysts (overall, 28.0+/-2.9). Of 265 oyster groups, 221 (83.4%) contained viable C. parvum oocysts, and overall, from 10-32% (mean, 23%) of the total viable oocysts were identified in the hemolymph as distinct from gill washings. The amount of viable C. parvum oocysts was not related to oyster size or to the level of fecal coliforms at the sampling site. This study demonstrated that, although oysters are frequently contaminated with oocysts, the levels of viable oocysts may be too low to cause infection in healthy individuals. FISH assay for identification can be retrospectively applied to properly stored samples.

  17. Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in low quality water using Moringa oleifera seed extract as coagulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Petersen, T. B.; Enemark, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    was carried out to investigate the effect of a coagulant produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater and stream water. Glass jars (n = 60) containing 500 mL wastewater obtained from the inlet to the primary settling tanks from...

  18. Batch solar disinfection inactivates oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, K G; Méndez-Hermida, F; Castro-Hermida, J A; Ares-Mazás, E; Kehoe, S C; Boyle, M; Sichel, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Meyer, B P; Ramalingham, S; Meyer, E A

    2006-08-01

    To determine whether batch solar disinfection (SODIS) can be used to inactivate oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in experimentally contaminated water. Suspensions of oocysts and cysts were exposed to simulated global solar irradiation of 830 W m(-2) for different exposure times at a constant temperature of 40 degrees C. Infectivity tests were carried out using CD-1 suckling mice in the Cryptosporidium experiments and newly weaned CD-1 mice in the Giardia experiments. Exposure times of > or =10 h (total optical dose c. 30 kJ) rendered C. parvum oocysts noninfective. Giardia muris cysts were rendered completely noninfective within 4 h (total optical dose >12 kJ). Scanning electron microscopy and viability (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole/propidium iodide fluorogenic dyes and excystation) studies on oocysts of C. parvum suggest that inactivation is caused by damage to the oocyst wall. Results show that cysts of G. muris and oocysts of C. parvum are rendered completely noninfective after batch SODIS exposures of 4 and 10 h (respectively) and is also likely to be effective against waterborne cysts of Giardia lamblia. These results demonstrate that SODIS is an appropriate household water treatment technology for use as an emergency intervention in aftermath of natural or man-made disasters against not only bacterial but also protozoan pathogens.

  19. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract: Impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Woolsey, Ian; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  20. Algae biotechnology: products and processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bux, F; Chisti, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    This book examines the utilization of algae for the development of useful products and processes with the emphasis towards green technologies and processes, and the requirements to make these viable...

  1. Algae: America's Pathway to Independence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Custer, James

    2007-01-01

    .... Oil dependency is an unacceptable risk to U.S. national strategy. This paper advocates independence from foreign oil by converting the national transportation fleet to biodiesel derived from algae...

  2. Scenario studies for algae production

    OpenAIRE

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass productivity and energy consumption, while considering the uncertainty and complexity in such large-scale systems. In this thesis frameworks are developed to assess 1) the productivity during algae culti...

  3. Phthalate esters in marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Gezgin, Tuncay; Güven, Kasim Cemal; Akçin, Göksel

    2001-01-01

    Abstract o-Phthalate esters as diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate were identified at surface and inner part of algae collected in the Bosphorus, as Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha linza, Cystoseria barbata, Pterocladia capillaceaeand Ceramium rubrum. The same esters were also detected in seawater samples taken from the same area. Thus parallelism in pollution was noted between the algae and the surrounding seawater,

  4. The Association of Cryptosporidium parvum With Suspended Sediments: Implications for Transport in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, K. E.; Packman, A. I.; Atwill, E. R.; Harter, T.

    2003-12-01

    Understanding the transport and fate of microorganisms in surface waters is of vital concern in protecting the integrity and safety of municipal water supply systems. The human pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a particular public health interest, as it is ubiquitous in the surface waters of the United States, it can persist for long periods in the environment, and it is difficult to disinfect in water treatment plants. Due to its small size (5 um), low specific gravity (1.05 g/cm3), and negative surface charge, C. parvum oocysts are generally considered to move through watersheds from their source to drinking water reservoirs with little attenuation. However, the transport of the oocysts in surface waters may be mediated by interactions with suspended sediments. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the extent of C. parvum oocyst attachment to several inorganic and organic sediments under varying water chemical conditions, and settling column experiments were performed to demonstrate how these associations influence the effective settling velocity of C. parvum oocysts. Results from these experiments showed that C. parvum oocysts do associate with inorganic and organic sediments and often settle at the rate of the suspended sediment. The size and surface charge of the host suspended sediment influenced the extent of oocyst attachment as oocysts preferentially associated with particles greater than 3 um, and fewer oocysts associated with particles having a highly negative surface charge. Background water chemical conditions including ionic strength, ion composition, and pH did not have a significant effect on oocyst attachment to suspended sediments.

  5. Identification of putative cis-regulatory elements in Cryptosporidium parvum by de novo pattern finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissinger Jessica C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidium parvum is a unicellular eukaryote in the phylum Apicomplexa. It is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes diarrhea and is a significant AIDS-related pathogen. Cryptosporidium parvum is not amenable to long-term laboratory cultivation or classical molecular genetic analysis. The parasite exhibits a complex life cycle, a broad host range, and fundamental mechanisms of gene regulation remain unknown. We have used data from the recently sequenced genome of this organism to uncover clues about gene regulation in C. parvum. We have applied two pattern finding algorithms MEME and AlignACE to identify conserved, over-represented motifs in the 5' upstream regions of genes in C. parvum. To support our findings, we have established comparative real-time -PCR expression profiles for the groups of genes examined computationally. Results We find that groups of genes that share a function or belong to a common pathway share upstream motifs. Different motifs are conserved upstream of different groups of genes. Comparative real-time PCR studies show co-expression of genes within each group (in sub-sets during the life cycle of the parasite, suggesting co-regulation of these genes may be driven by the use of conserved upstream motifs. Conclusion This is one of the first attempts to characterize cis-regulatory elements in the absence of any previously characterized elements and with very limited expression data (seven genes only. Using de novo pattern finding algorithms, we have identified specific DNA motifs that are conserved upstream of genes belonging to the same metabolic pathway or gene family. We have demonstrated the co-expression of these genes (often in subsets using comparative real-time-PCR experiments thus establishing evidence for these conserved motifs as putative cis-regulatory elements. Given the lack of prior information concerning expression patterns and organization of promoters in C. parvum we

  6. Effect of halofuginone lactate on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum and growth of neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, B D; Trotz-Williams, L A; McKnight, D R; Leslie, K E; Wallace, M M; Todd, C G; Sharpe, P H; Peregrine, A S

    2005-05-01

    Thirty-one Holstein bull calves were purchased at birth from 3 dairy farms in Eastern Ontario. Each calf was assigned at random to oral treatment with either 5 mg of halofuginone lactate in 10.0 mL of aqueous carrier solution (Halocur, base comprised 10 mg of benzoic acid, 100 mg of lactic acid, and 0.3 mg of tartrazine) or 10 mL of placebo (Halocur base minus the active ingredient, halofuginone lactate) administered 15 to 30 min after morning milk feeding for the first 7 d of life. Intakes of milk, calf starter, and water, and fecal consistency score were recorded daily for 56 d. Calf weights were recorded weekly for 56 d. Fecal samples were taken from all calves at approximately 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d of age for isolation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to assess the effect of treatment on the incidence of diarrhea and C. parvum infection status. The odds of C. parvum shedding among calves in the halofuginone lactate-treated group was 70% lower than the odds of shedding among calves in the placebo group. In calves treated with halofuginone lactate, no oocyst shedding occurred until 2 wk of age, whereas 12.5% of calves in the placebo group began shedding oocysts during wk 1. From all ages of placebo-treated calves, 31 of 73 samples (42.5%) were positive for C. parvum, whereas only 15 of 67 samples (22.4%) from all ages of halofuginone lactate-treated calves tested positive. The largest number of C. parvum-positive samples occurred in the third week of life. There was a significant delay of 3.1 d in the incidence of diarrhea among calves treated with halofuginone lactate. Intake of milk and starter, body weight gains, and age at weaning were not significantly different between treatment groups.

  7. Algae-Based Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haoyang, Cai

    2018-03-01

    Our civilization is facing a series of environmental problems, including global warming and climate change, which are caused by the accumulation of green house gases in the atmosphere. This article will briefly analyze the current global warming problem and propose a method that we apply algae cultivation to absorb carbon and use shellfish to sequestrate it. Despite the importance of decreasing CO2 emissions or developing carbon-free energy sources, carbon sequestration should be a key issue, since the amount of carbon dioxide that already exists in the atmosphere is great enough to cause global warming. Algae cultivation would be a good choice because they have high metabolism rates and provides shellfish with abundant food that contains carbon. Shellfish’s shells, which are difficult to be decomposed, are reliable storage of carbon, compared to dead organisms like trees and algae. The amount of carbon that can be sequestrated by shellfish is considerable. However, the sequestrating rate of algae and shellfish is not high enough to affect the global climate. Research on algae and shellfish cultivation, including gene technology that aims to create “super plants” and “super shellfish”, is decisive to the solution. Perhaps the baton of history will shift to gene technology, from nuclear physics that has lost appropriate international environment after the end of the Cold War. Gene technology is vital to human survival.

  8. Movement of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts through Soils without Preferential Pathways: Exploratory Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe J. G. Darnault

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contamination by oocysts of the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is a significant cause of animal and human disease worldwide. Although research has been undertaken in the past to determine how specific physical and chemical properties of soils affect the risk of groundwater contamination by C. parvum, there is as yet no clear conclusion concerning the range of mobility of C. parvum that one should expect in field soils. In this context, the key objective of this research was to determine the magnitude of C. parvum transport in a number of soils, under conditions in which fast and preferential transport has been successfully prevented. C. parvum oocysts were applied at the surface of different soils and subjected to artificial rainfall. Apparently for the first time, quantitative PCR was used to detect and enumerate oocysts in the soil columns and in the leachates. The transport of oocysts by infiltrating water, and the considerable retention of oocysts in soil was demonstrated for all soils, although differences in the degree of transport were observed with soils of different types. More oocysts were found in leachates from sandy loam soils than in leachates from loamy sand soils and the retention of oocysts in different soils did not significantly differ. The interaction of various processes of the hydrologic system and biogeochemical mechanisms contributed to the transport of oocysts through the soil matrix. Results suggest that the interplay of clay, organic matter, and Ca2+ facilitates and mediates the transfer of organic matter from mineral surfaces to oocysts surface, resulting in the enhanced breakthrough of oocysts through matrices of sandy loam soils compared to those of loamy sand soils. Although the number of occysts that penetrate the soil matrix account for only a small percentage of initial inputs, they still pose a significant threat to human health, especially in groundwater systems with a water table not

  9. Host genetic background impacts disease outcome during intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma parvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria von Chamier

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma parvum, an opportunistic pathogen of the human urogenital tract, has been implicated in contributing to chorioamnionitis, fetal morbidity, and fetal mortality. It has been proposed that the host genetic background is a critical factor in adverse pregnancy outcome as sequela to U. parvum intra-amniotic infection. To test this hypothesis we assessed the impact of intrauterine U. parvum infection in the prototypical TH1/M1 C57BL/6 and TH2/M2 BALB/c mouse strain. Sterile medium or U. parvum was inoculated into each uterine horn and animals were evaluated for intra-amniotic infection, fetal infection, chorioamnionitis and fetal pathology at 72 hours post-inoculation. Disease outcome was assessed by microbial culture, in situ detection of U. parvum in fetal and utero-placental tissues, grading of chorioamnionitis, and placental gene expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, S100A8, and S100A9. Placental infection and colonization rates were equivalent in both strains. The in situ distribution of U. parvum in placental tissues was also similar. However, a significantly greater proportion of BALB/c fetuses were infected (P<0.02. C57BL/6 infected animals predominantly exhibited mild to moderate chorioamnionitis (P<0.0001, and a significant reduction in placental expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, S100A8, and S100A9 compared to sham controls (P<0.02. Conversely, severe protracted chorioamnionitis with cellular necrosis was the predominant lesion phenotype in BALB/c mice, which also exhibited a significant increase in placental expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, S100A8, and S100A9 (P<0.01. Fetal pathology in BALB/c was multi-organ and included brain, lung, heart, liver, and intestine, whereas fetal pathology in C57BL/6 was only detected in the liver and intestines. These results confirm that the host genetic background is a major determinant in ureaplasmal induced chorioamnionitis with fetal infection and fetal inflammatory

  10. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  11. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica Louise.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  12. Indigenous algae: Potential factories for biodiesel production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharajh, Dheepak M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available advantages. Approximately 30% of South African environments favourable for isolating algae have been sampled. Samples were enriched, purified and assessed for lipid content, resulting in a database of indigenous algae. Positive isolates were grown under...

  13. Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

  14. Seven years' experience with Cryptosporidium parvum in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S

    2001-01-01

    In community-based studies conducted from 1991 to 1997 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, stool specimens from children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoea were routinely examined for enteric parasites. Cryptosporidium parvum, found in 7.7% of 4,922 samples, was the second most common parasite......, exceeded only by Giardia lamblia which was found in 14.8% of the samples. The highest prevalence of cryptosporidium was found in children aged 6-11 months, whereas the prevalence of other enteric parasites increased with age. Cryptosporidiosis showed a marked seasonal variation, with peak prevalences found...... consistently at the beginning of or just before the rainy seasons, May through July. By contrast, no seasonality was found for the enteric parasites Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica. We conclude that Cryptosporidium parvum is an important pathogen in children with diarrhoea....

  15. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Aparecida Nieri-Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63 and 66.7% (2/3 of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  16. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for ground water contamination as compared to application of raw slurry.......The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period......, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method although recovery rates were low (liquid slurry leached 73% and 90% more oocysts compared with columns with injected and surface applied raw slurry, respectively...

  17. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

  18. Effects of Ureaplasma parvum lipoprotein multiple-banded antigen on pregnancy outcome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kaoru; Nakahira, Kumiko; Mimura, Kazuya; Shimizu, Takashi; De Seta, Francesco; Wakimoto, Tetsu; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Nomiyama, Makoto; Kuwano, Koichi; Guaschino, Secondo; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2013-12-01

    Ureaplasma spp. are members of the family Mycoplasmataceae and have been considered to be associated with chorioamnionitis and preterm delivery. However, it is unclear whether Ureaplasma spp. have virulence factors related to these manifestations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the immunogenic protein multiple-banded antigen (MBA) from Ureaplasma parvum is a virulence factor for preterm delivery. We partially purified MBA from a type strain and clinical isolates of U. parvum, and also synthesized a diacylated lipopeptide derived from U. parvum, UPM-1. Using luciferase assays, both MBA-rich fraction MRF and UPM-1 activated the NF-κB pathway via TLR2. UPM-1 upregulated IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p35, TNF-α, MIP2, LIX, and iNOS in mouse peritoneal macrophage. MRF or UPM-1 was injected into uteri on day 15 of gestation on pregnant C3H/HeN mice. The intrauterine MRF injection group had a significantly higher incidence of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD; 38.5%) than the control group (14.0%). Interestingly, intrauterine injection of UPM-1 caused preterm deliveries at high concentration (80.0%). In contrast, a low concentration of UPM-1 induced a significantly higher rate of fetal deaths (55.2%) than the control group (14.0%). The placentas of the UPM-1 injection group showed neutrophil infiltration and increased iNOS protein expression. Our data indicate that MBA from the clinical isolate of U. parvum is a potential virulence factor for IUFD and preterm delivery in mice and that the N-terminal diacylated lipopeptide is essential for the initiation of inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The common vaginal commensal bacterium Ureaplasma parvum is associated with chorioamnionitis in extreme preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ciara; Saxena, Nita; Watt, Alison P; Gannon, Caroline; McKenna, James P; Fairley, Derek J; Sweet, David; Shields, Michael D; L Cosby, Sara; Coyle, Peter V

    2016-11-01

    To assess the association of vaginal commensal and low-grade pathogenic bacteria including Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Group B streptococcus (GBS), and Gardnerella vaginalis, in women who delivered preterm at less than 37-week gestation in the presence or absence of inflammation of the chorioamnionitic membranes. A case control study involving women who delivered before 37-week gestation with and without inflammation of chorioamnionitic membranes. A total of 57 placental samples were histologically examined for polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration of placental tissue for evidence of chorioamnionitis, and by type-specific nucleic acid amplification for evidence of infection with one or more of the target bacteria. Demographic data were collected for each mother. Among the 57 placental samples, 42.1% had chorioamnionitis and 24.6% delivered in the second trimester of pregnancy; U. parvum, U. urealyticum, G. vaginalis, and GBS were all detected in the study with respective prevalence of 19.3%, 3.5%, 17.5%, and 15.8%; M. genitalium and M. hominis were not detected. U. parvum was significantly associated with chorioamnionitis (p = 0.02; OR 5.0; (95% CI 1.2-21.5) and was more common in women who delivered in the second (35.7%) compared to the third trimester of pregnancy (13.9%). None of the other bacteria were associated with chorioamnionitis or earlier delivery, and all G. vaginalis-positive women delivered in the third trimester of pregnancy (p = 0.04). The detection of U. parvum in placental tissue was significantly associated with acute chorioamnionitis in women presenting in extreme preterm labor.

  20. Rapid PCR Detection of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum

    OpenAIRE

    Scott A. Cunningham; Jayawant N. Mandrekar; Jon E. Rosenblatt; Robin Patel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We compared laboratory developed real-time PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma hominis and for detection and differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and parvum to culture using genitourinary specimens submitted for M. hominis and Ureaplasma culture. Methods. 283 genitourinary specimens received in the clinical bacteriology laboratory for M. hominis and Ureaplasma species culture were evaluated. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Kit on the MagNA Pure 2.0...

  1. Virulence of geographically different Cryptosporidium parvum isolates in experimental animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Fatma G.; Hamza, Amany I.; Galal, Lamia A.; Sayed, Douaa M.; Gaber, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian parasite which causes gastrointestinal disease in humans and a variety of other mammalian species. Several studies have reported different degrees of pathogenicity and virulence among Cryptosporidium species and isolates of the same species as well as evidence of variation in host susceptibility to infection. The study aimed to investigate infectivity and virulence of two Cryptosporidium parvum “Iowa isolate” (CpI) and a “local water isolate” (CpW). Thirty-three Swiss albino mice have been divided into three groups: Negative control Group (C), the CpI group infected with “Iowa isolate “and the CpW group infected with C. parvum oocysts isolated from a local water supply. Infectivity and virulence have been measured by evaluating clinical, parasitological and histological aspects of infection. Significant differences were detected regarding oocysts shedding rate, clinical outcomes, and the histopathological picture of the intestine, lung, and brain. It was concluded that the local water isolate is significantly more virulent than the exported one.

  2. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium andersoni infection in naturally infected cattle of northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mirzai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium commonly infects cattle throughout the world and Iran. The present study was undertaken to determine the abundance and associated risk factors of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle herds of northwestern Iran. A total number of 246 fecal samples from 138 (56.1% diarrheic (D and 108 (43.9% non-diarrheic (ND cattle were randomly collected and examined by fecal smears stained with Ziehl-Neelsen. For molecular specification, DNA was extracted from collected Cryptosporidium oocysts and a fragment of 1325 bp in size from 18S rRNA gene was amplified. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was 22.3% (55/246. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in examined calves less than 6 month-old was significantly higher than adult cattle. C. parvum and C. andersoni were identified in 20.3% (50/246 and 2.03% (5/246 of examined cattle, respectively. The highest prevalence of C. parvum infection was found in D calves < 6 month-old (13.4%, 33/246, while C. andersoni was only detected in ND cattle (8.9%, 22/246. There was significant difference in the prevalence between male than female cattle. There was no significant difference between prevalence and seasons of investigation. It was concluded that C. parvum was the prevalent species in younger animals compared to older ones as a potentially zoonotic agent in the region.

  3. Fate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts within soil, water, and plant environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Stephen J; Kalita, Prasanta K; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S

    2013-12-15

    Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS) have long been used to control the movement of agricultural nutrients and prevent them from reaching receiving waters. Earlier studies have shown that VFS also dramatically reduce both the kinetics and extent of Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) oocysts overland transport. In this study, we investigated possible mechanisms responsible for the ability of VFS to reduce oocyst overland transport. Measurement of the kinetics of C. parvum adhesion to individual sand, silt, and clay soil particles revealed that oocysts associate over time, albeit relatively slow, with clay but not silt or sand particles. Measurement of oocyst overland transport kinetics, soil infiltration depth, distance of travel, and adhesion to vegetation on bare and vegetated soil surfaces indicate that oocysts move more slowly, and penetrate the soil profile to a greater extent on a vegetated surface than on a bare soil surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate a small fraction of the oocysts become attached to vegetation at the soil-vegetation interface on VFS. These results suggest VFS function to reduce oocyst overland transport by primarily decreasing oocyst surface flow enough to allow penetration within the soil profile followed by subsequent adhesion to or entrapment within clay particle aggregates, and to a lesser extent, adhesion to the surface vegetation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-derived by-products against Cryptosporidium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of organic plant wastes and by-products from the food or pharmaceutical industries usually involves high costs. In the present study, 42 samples derived from such by-products were screened in vitro against Cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite that may contaminate drinking water and cause diarrhoea. The novel bioassay was previously established in the microtitre plate format. Human ileocaecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8 cell cultures were seeded with C. parvum oocysts and parasite development was monitored by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT and microscopic assessment for clusters of secondary infection (CSI. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and potential detrimental effects on the host cells were determined. An ethanolic extract from olive (Olea europaea pomace, after oil pressing and phenol recovery, reproducibly inhibited C. parvum development (MIC = 250–500 μg mL−1, IC50 = 361 (279–438 μg mL−1, IC90 = 467 (398–615 μg mL−1. Accordingly, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, trans-coniferyl alcohol and oleuropein were selected as reference test compounds, but their contributions to the observed activity of the olive pomace extract were insignificant. The established test system proved to be a fast and efficient assay for identifying anti-cryptosporidial activities in biological waste material and comparison with selected reference compounds.

  5. Different inflammatory responses are associated with Ureaplasma parvum-induced UTI and urolith formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Leticia; Reinhard, Mary; Brown, Mary B

    2009-01-26

    Epidemiologic studies show a strong association between Ureaplasmas and urogenital tract disease in humans. Since healthy humans can be colonized with Ureaplasmas, its role as a pathogen remains controversial. In order to begin to define the role of the host in disease, we developed a rodent model of urinary tract infection (UTI) using Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Animals were inoculated with sterile broth, 10(1), 10(3), 10(5), 10(7), or 10(9) log CFU of a rat-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum. Infected animals exhibited two distinct profiles, asymptomatic UTI and UTI complicated with struvite urolithiasis. Inoculum dose of U. parvum affected the incidence of UTI, and 50% to 57% of animals inoculated with >or= 10(7) CFU of U. parvum remained infected (p UTI was characterized by a minimal immune response that was predominantly monocytic and lymphocytic, with limited lesions, and elevated urinary levels of IFN-gamma, IL-18 and MCP-1 (P UTI complicated with struvite formation was characterized by an exaggerated immune response that was mostly neutrophilic (P UTI also had a significantly high rate of kidney infection (P UTI and disease.

  6. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  7. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass

  8. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  9. Alternate phase variation in expression of two major surface membrane proteins (MBA and UU376) of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Stiedl, Thomas; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum are commensals and pathogens of the human urogenital tract and of newborn infants. There are four distinct U. parvum serovars and 10 distinct U. urealyticum serovars. Both species possess a distinct immunodominant variable surface protein, the multiple banded antigen (MBA), which shows size variability among isolates as a result of changes in the number of C-terminal repeating units. Adjacent to the MBA gene (UU375) lies UU376, which was annotated as 'Ureaplasma-specific conserved hypothetical gene'. In four different strains of U. parvum serovar 3, we demonstrated expression of UU376 by Western blot analysis and phase variation between UU376, here designated Upvmp376 (Ureaplasma phase-variable membrane protein 376), and MBA after application of selective pressure with hyperimmune antisera directed against either protein. By Southern blot analysis, we found that the switch between MBA and Upvmp376 expression is associated with a DNA inversion event in which the nonrepetitive region of the MBA gene and its putative promoter region are opposed to either the repetitive region of MBA or UU376. We propose that in U. parvum serovar 3, and presumably in all U. parvum and U. urealyticum, an inversion event at specific sites effects an alternate ON/OFF switching of the genes UU375 and UU376.

  10. Intra-amniotic Ureaplasma parvum-Induced Maternal and Fetal Inflammation and Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamaraikannan, Paranthaman; Presicce, Pietro; Rueda, Cesar M; Maneenil, Gunlawadee; Schmidt, Augusto F; Miller, Lisa A; Waites, Ken B; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Chougnet, Claire A

    2016-11-15

     Although Ureaplasma species are the most common organisms associated with prematurity, their effects on the maternal and fetal immune system remain poorly characterized.  Rhesus macaque dams at approximately 80% gestation were injected intra-amniotically with 10 7 colony-forming units of Ureaplasma parvum or saline (control). Fetuses were delivered surgically 3 or 7 days later. We performed comprehensive assessments of inflammation and immune effects in multiple fetal and maternal tissues.  Although U. parvum grew well in amniotic fluid, there was minimal chorioamnionitis. U. parvum colonized the fetal lung, but fetal systemic microbial invasion was limited. Fetal lung inflammation was mild, with elevations in CXCL8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, and CCL2 levels in alveolar washes at day 7. Inflammation was not detected in the fetal brain. Significantly, U. parvum decreased regulatory T cells (Tregs) and activated interferon γ production in these Tregs in the fetus. It was detected in uterine tissue by day 7 and induced mild inflammation and increased expression of connexin 43, a gap junction protein involved with labor.  U. parvum colonized the amniotic fluid and caused uterine inflammation, but without overt chorioamnionitis. It caused mild fetal lung inflammation but had a more profound effect on the fetal immune system, decreasing Tregs and polarizing them toward a T-helper 1 phenotype. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Bioethanol Production from Indigenous Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuka Roy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120  

  12. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khola, G.; Ghazala, B.

    2011-01-01

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  13. Approaches to Golden Algae Control: In-Lake Mesocosm Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    taxonomic groups from concentrations of pigment biomarkers (Mackey et al. 1997, Wright et al. 1996). The program uses a steepest descent algorithm to...treatments proved effective against P. parvum accumulation and onset of toxicity (with the exception of the low NH4 dosage ). All three flushing...Addition of NH4 showed mixed results. The high dosage was lethal to P. parvum, while the lower dosage showed no effect on the accumulation of cells

  14. Repeated maternal intramuscular or intraamniotic erythromycin incompletely resolves intrauterine Ureaplasma parvum infection in a sheep model of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S; Watts, Rory; Megharaj, Smruthi; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Saito, Masatoshi; Spiller, O Brad; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P

    2014-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp are the most commonly isolated microorganisms in association with preterm birth. Maternal erythromycin administration is a standard treatment for preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. There is little evidence of its effectiveness in eradicating Ureaplasma spp from the intrauterine cavity and fetus. We used a sheep model of intrauterine Ureaplasma spp infection to investigate the efficacy of repeated maternal intramuscular and intraamniotic erythromycin treatment to eradicate such an infection. Thirty ewes with singleton pregnancies received an intraamniotic injection of 10(7) color change units of erythromycin-sensitive Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 at 55 days' gestation. At 116 days' gestation, 28 ewes with viable fetuses were randomized to receive (1) intraamniotic and maternal intramuscular saline solution treatment (n = 8), (2) single intraamniotic and repeated maternal intramuscular erythromycin treatment (n = 10), or (3) single maternal intramuscular and repeated intraamniotic erythromycin treatment (n = 10). Fetuses were surgically delivered at 125 days' gestation. Treatment efficacy was assessed by culture, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and histopathologic evaluation. Animals treated with intraamniotic erythromycin had significantly less viable U parvum serovar 3 in the amniotic fluid at delivery. However, neither combination of maternal intramuscular and intraamniotic erythromycin treatment successfully cleared U parvum serovar 3 from the amniotic fluid or fetal tissues. Three de novo erythromycin-resistant U parvum isolates were identified in erythromycin-treated animals. Erythromycin treatment, given both to the ewe and into the amniotic cavity, fails to eradicate intrauterine and fetal U parvum serovar 3 infection and may lead to development of erythromycin resistant U parvum. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis infections among people living in a slum area in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachan, Balkrishna; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadhur; Tandukar, Sarmila; Dhoubhadel, Bhim Gopal; Gauchan, Leesa; Rai, Ganesh

    2017-09-07

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium parvum infections among people living a slum in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Ten different parasites were detected in the stool samples; the prevalence of any parasite was in 27.1% (71/262). The prevalence of C. cayetanensis and C. parvum were 14.1% (10/71) and 5.6% (4/71), respectively. This study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections along with the coccidian parasites in the slum area of Kathmandu Valley.

  16. Transport and survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Enemark, Heidi; Olsen, Annette

    The widespread waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated drinking and recreational water. Nearly all drinking water in Denmark is groundwater, which can be contaminated with oocysts e.g. from application of contaminated manure to the field...... in the leachates from soil columns to which Cryptosporidium positive slurry had been injected. Although recovery rates were low, regardless of slurry type, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns. Variations in the leachate patterns were recorded between soil columns added raw and liquid slurry...

  17. Transport and survival of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts in Soil Columns Following Applications of Raw and Separated Liquid Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.H.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, A.

    The widespread waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum is primarily transmitted to humans via contaminated drinking and recreational water. Nearly all drinking water in Denmark is groundwater, but this can be contaminated with oocysts from application of contaminated manure to the field. Oocysts...... in the leachates from soil columns to which Cryptosporidium positive slurry had been injected. Although recovery rates were low, regardless of slurry type, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns. Variations in the leachate patterns were recorded between soil columns added raw and liquid slurry...

  18. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolomic profiling of faecal extracts from Cryptosporidium parvum infection in experimental mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine S Y Ng Hublin

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. In healthy individuals, the disease manifests mainly as acute self-limiting diarrhoea, but may be chronic and life threatening for those with compromised immune systems. Control and treatment of the disease is challenged by the lack of sensitive diagnostic tools and broad-spectrum chemotherapy. Metabolomics, or metabolite profiling, is an emerging field of study, which enables characterisation of the end products of regulatory processes in a biological system. Analysis of changes in metabolite patterns reflects changes in biochemical regulation, production and control, and may contribute to understanding the effects of Cryptosporidium infection in the host environment. In the present study, metabolomic analysis of faecal samples from experimentally infected mice was carried out to assess metabolite profiles pertaining to the infection. Gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS carried out on faecal samples from a group of C. parvum infected mice and a group of uninfected control mice detected a mean total of 220 compounds. Multivariate analyses showed distinct differences between the profiles of C. parvum infected mice and uninfected control mice,identifying a total of 40 compounds, or metabolites that contributed most to the variance between the two groups. These metabolites consisted of amino acids (n = 17, carbohydrates (n = 8, lipids (n = 7, organic acids (n = 3 and other various metabolites (n = 5, which showed significant differences in levels of metabolite abundance between the infected and uninfected mice groups (p < 0.05. The metabolites detected in this study as well as the differences in abundance between the C. parvum infected and the uninfected control mice, highlights the effects of the infection on intestinal permeability and the fate of the metabolites as a result of nutrient scavenging by the

  20. Role of Wall Shear Stress in Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Attachment to Environmental Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xia; Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Jellison, Kristen L

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst deposition onto biofilms as a function of shear stress under laminar or turbulent flow. Annular rotating bioreactors were used to grow stabilized stream biofilms at shear stresses ranging from 0.038 to 0.46 Pa. These steady-state biofilms were then used to assess the impact of hydrodynamic conditions on C. parvum oocyst attachment. C. parvum deposition onto biofilms followed a pseudo-second-order model under both laminar (after a lag phase) and turbulent flows. The total number of oocysts attached to the biofilm at steady state decreased as the hydrodynamic wall shear stress increased. The oocyst deposition rate constant increased with shear stress but decreased at high shear, suggesting that increasing wall shear stress results in faster attachment of Cryptosporidium due to higher mass transport until the shear forces exceed a critical limit that prevents oocyst attachment. These data show that oocyst attachment in the short and long term are impacted differently by shear: higher shear (to a certain limit) may be associated with faster initial oocyst attachment, but lower shear is associated with greater numbers of oocysts attached at equilibrium. IMPORTANCE This research provides experimental evidence to demonstrate that shear stress plays a critical role in protozoan-pathogen transport and deposition in environmental waters. The data presented in this work expand scientific understanding of Cryptosporidium attachment and fate, which will further influence the development of timely and accurate sampling strategies, as well as advanced water treatment technologies, to target protozoan pathogens in surface waters that serve as municipal drinking water sources. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. The Role of Progesterone and a Novel Progesterone Receptor, Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1, in the Inflammatory Response of Fetal Membranes to Ureaplasma parvum Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Feng

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma parvum (U. parvum is gaining recognition as an important pathogen for chorioamnionitis and preterm premature rupture of membranes. We aimed to investigate the roles of progesterone (P4 and a novel progesterone receptor, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, in the response of fetal membranes to U. parvum. Fetal membrane cells (amnion, chorion and decidua were isolated and confirmed to be free of Mycoplasmataceae. Cells were treated with U. parvum (5x106 CFU, and adherence was quantified by qPCR. Amnion and chorion cells were transfected with scrambled siRNA or validated PGRMC1 siRNA for 72h. Cells were then treated with U. parvum for 4h with or without pretreatment with P4 (10-7 M or ethanol for 1h. Interleukin-8 (IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 mRNA expression were quantified by qRT-PCR. Culture medium was harvested and analyzed for IL-8 and prostaglandin (PGE2 secretion by ELISA and MMP9 activity by zymography. U. parvum had a mean adherence of 15.0±0.6%, 16.9± 3.7% and 4.7±0.3% in cultured amnion, chorion and decidua cells, respectively. Exposure to U. parvum elicited significant inflammatory responses including induction of IL-8, COX-2, PGE2 and MMP9. A possible role of PGRMC1 was identified in the inhibition of U. parvum-stimulated COX-2 and MMP9 mRNA expression in chorion cells and MMP9 activity in amnion cells. On the other hand, it might enhance the U. parvum-stimulated IL-8 protein secretion in amnion cells. P4, mediated through PGRMC1, significantly inhibited U. Parvum-induced MMP9 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA expression in chorion cells. P4 appeared to attenuate U. parvum induced IL-8 mRNA expression in chorion cells, but this P4 effect might not mediated through PGRMC1. In summary, U. parvum preferentially adheres to and induces inflammatory responses in chorion and amnion cells. P4 and PGRMC1 appear to differentially modulate the inflammatory responses induced by U. parvum among

  2. Cellulose powder from Cladophora sp. algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, R; Gustafsson, C; Nutt, A; Iversen, T; Nyström, C

    1998-01-01

    The surface are and crystallinity was measured on a cellulose powder made from Cladophora sp. algae. The algae cellulose powder was found to have a very high surface area (63.4 m2/g, N2 gas adsorption) and build up of cellulose with a high crystallinity (approximately 100%, solid state NMR). The high surface area was confirmed by calculations from atomic force microscope imaging of microfibrils from Cladophora sp. algae.

  3. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is effective in a murine model of experimental Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mathal, Ebtisam M; Alsalem, Afaf M

    2012-07-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, a major health issue for neonatal calves, is caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, which is highly resistant to drug treatments. To date, many anti-parasitic drugs have been tested, but only a few have been shown to be partially effective in treating cryptosporidiosis. Previous studies have indicated that pomegranate (Punica granatum) possesses anti-plasmodium, anti-cestode, and anti-nematode activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. granatum peel on suckling mice infected with experimental C. parvum. At 4days of age, 72 neonatal albino mice were randomly divided into five groups: G1: healthy controls, G2: infected/untreated controls, G3: uninfected/distilled water-treated, G4: uninfected/P. granatum peel-treated, and G5: infected/P. granatum peel-treated. Mice were experimentally-infected by oral administration of 1×10(3)C. parvum oocysts per animal. On day 7 post-inoculation (pi), treated mice received an aqueous suspension of P. granatum peel orally (3g/kg body weight). The presence of diarrhea, oocyst shedding, and weight gain/loss, and the histopathology of ileal sections were examined. Infected mice treated with the P. granatum peel suspension showed improvement in all parameters examined. Additionally, these mice did not exhibit any clinical symptoms and no deaths occurred. Oocyst shedding was very significantly reduced in the P. granatum-treated mice by day 14 pi (Pgranatum-treated mice was significantly higher than that of the infected/untreated controls throughout the study (Pgranatum-treated mice on day 14 pi showed visible improvement in comparison with the infected/untreated controls, including renewed brush borders, reduced numbers of C. parvum trophozoites, and reduced lymphatic infiltration. On day 28 pi, tissues of the P. granatum-treated mice were very similar to those of healthy control mice. These results suggest that P. granatum peel is a promising anti-coccidial therapeutic

  4. Biosynthesis of 3-Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Marine Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, David

    2000-01-01

    ...) in marine algae, including identification of intermediates and enzymes of the pathway in the macroalgae Enteromorpha Intestinalis, and three diverse marine phytoplankton species; Tetraselmis sp...

  5. Algae-production in the desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, H.

    1988-11-01

    The company Koor Food Ltd. (Israel) developed in co-operation with the Weizmann-Institute (Israel) a production-plant for the industrial cultivation of algae in the desert area of Elat. For almost a year now, they succeed in harvesting large amounts of algae material with the help of the intensive sun and the Red Sea water. The alga Dunaliella with the natural US -carotine, as well as the alga Spirulina with the high content of protein find their market in the food-, cosmetic- and pharma-industry. This article will give a survey of a yet here unusual project.

  6. Colonization of the lower urogenital tract with Ureaplasma parvum can cause asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzykowska, Urszula; Elias, Joanna; Elias, Marek; Mączyńska, Beata; Sobieszczańska, Beata Magdalena

    2014-05-01

    Genital ureaplasmas are considered opportunistic pathogens of human genitourinary tract involved in adverse pregnancy sequelae and infertility. While association of Ureaplasma urealyticum with urogenital tract infections is well established, the role of Ureaplasma parvum in these infections is still insufficient. In the study, we compared how often cervicovaginal colonization with U. parvum is associated with the presence of these microorganisms in the upper genitourinary tract of fertile and infertile women. We used PCR assay to determine the prevalence of U. parvum and U. urealyticum in pairs of specimens, i.e., vaginal swabs and Douglas' pouch fluid samples from consecutive 40 women with no symptoms of genital tract infection. In total, 19 (47.5 %) of the 40 samples were positive for ureaplasmas. U. parvum was simultaneously detected in pairs of samples in five (55.5 %) of the nine (47.4 %) women positive in PCR assay. As many as 5 (18.5 %) of the 27 infertile women and 1 (7.7 %) of the 13 fertile women showed infection of the upper genital tract with U. parvum. The results of the study demonstrated that colonization of the lower genital tract with U. parvum can produce asymptomatic infection of the upper reproductive system in women. These findings also imply that U. parvum may be present in the upper genital tract at the time of conception and might be involved in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced chorioamnionitis by Ureaplasma parvum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Candice C; Wolfe, Katherine B; Gisslen, Tate; Knox, Christine L; Kemp, Matthew W; Kramer, Boris W; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G

    2013-05-01

    Ureaplasma colonization in the setting of polymicrobial flora is common in women with chorioamnionitis, and is a risk factor for preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity. We hypothesized that Ureaplasma colonization of amniotic fluid would modulate chorioamnionitis induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sheep received intraamniotic (IA) injections of media (control) or live Ureaplasma either 7 or 70 days before delivery. Another group received IA LPS 2 days before delivery. To test for interactions, U parvum-exposed animals were challenged with IA LPS, and delivered 2 days later. All animals were delivered preterm at 125 ± 1 day of gestation. Both IA Ureaplasma and LPS induced leukocyte infiltration of chorioamnion. LPS greatly increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase in leukocytes, while Ureaplasma alone caused modest responses. Interestingly, 7-day but not 70-day Ureaplasma exposure significantly down-regulated LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase expression in the chorioamnion. Acute (7-day) U parvum exposure can suppress LPS-induced chorioamnionitis. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunolocalization of an enterotoxic glycoprotein exoantigen on the secretory organelles of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shewy K.A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fine ultrastructures of the secretory organelles of C. parvum sporozoites were demonstrated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Meanwhile, a previously identified enterotoxic 18-20 kDa copro-antigen (18-20 kDa CCA, associated with cryptosporidiosis in both human and calves, was isolated and immunolocalized on C. parvum sporozoites. Using immunoelectron microscopy and anti-18-20 kDa monospecific antibody demonstrated marked existence of the 18-20 kDa CCA on the apical organelles and at the trilaminar pellicles. An anterior extrusion of this protein was demonstrated around the excysted and released sporozoites. However, non excysted sporozoites did not show this protein. Affinity blotting, with biotinylated jacalin, demonstrated the O-linked oligosaccharide moiety of this protein. The potential role of this protein in the host cell invasion and/or gliding motility remains unelucidated. However, its enterotoxicity, location and secretory nature suggest that it may be a target for neutralization or invasion inhibition of Cryptosporidium.

  9. Detection and genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum by oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J; Stenger, David A

    2004-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most frequently identified protozoan parasites causing waterborne disease outbreaks. The morbidity and mortality associated with these intestinal parasitic infections warrant the development of rapid and accurate detection and genotyping methods to aid public health efforts aimed at preventing and controlling outbreaks. In this study, we describe the development of an oligonucleotide microarray capable of detecting and discriminating between E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, G. lamblia assemblages A and B, and C. parvum types 1 and 2 in a single assay. Unique hybridization patterns for each selected protozoan were generated by amplifying six to eight diagnostic sequences/organism by multiplex PCR; fluorescent labeling of the amplicons via primer extension; and subsequent hybridization to a set of genus-, species-, and subtype-specific covalently immobilized oligonucleotide probes. The profile-based specificity of this methodology not only permitted for the unequivocal identification of the six targeted species and subtypes, but also demonstrated its potential in identifying related species such as Cryptosporidium meleagridis and Cryptosporidium muris. In addition, sensitivity assays demonstrated lower detection limits of five trophozoites of G. lamblia. Taken together, the specificity and sensitivity of the microarray-based approach suggest that this methodology may provide a promising tool to detect and genotype protozoa from clinical and environmental samples.

  10. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-11-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry wt/m/sup 2/.day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs only when the plants are in a suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day, which is not cost-effective. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet wt/m/sup 2/, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two weeks' growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing and CO/sub 2/, eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can grow at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce a high-temperature tolerant strain.

  11. Viability Assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts by Vital Dyes: Dry Mounts Overestimate the Number of “Ghost” Oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2017-01-01

    Viability assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts is crucial for evaluation of the public health significance of this important zoonotic protozoon. Viability is commonly assessed in wet mounts after acid pretreatmentand staining with fluorogenic vital dyes. However, in some studies, oocyst v...

  12. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract and impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Woolsey, Ian David; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  13. Effect of Cryptosporidium parvum infection on the absorptive capacity and paracellular permeability of the small intestine in neonatal calves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klein, P.; Kleinová, T.; Volek, Z.; Šimůnek, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 152, 1-2 (2008), s. 53-59 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : calves * cryptosporidium parvum * intestinal absorption Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.039, year: 2008

  14. Modeling and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Bokhove, Onno; Zhang, Bowen; van der Sar, Dick M.; Kumar, Kundan; Pisarenco, Maxim; Rudnaya, Maria; Savcenco, Valeriu; Rademacher, Jens; Zijlstra, Julia; Szabelska, Alicja; Zyprych, Joanna; van der Schans, Martin; Timperio, Vincent; Veerman, Frits

    2010-01-01

    The wastewater from greenhouses has a high amount of mineral contamination and an environmentally-friendly method of removal is to use algae to clean this runoff water. The algae consume the minerals as part of their growth process. In addition to cleaning the water, the created algal bio-mass has a

  15. Algae commensal community in Genlisea traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Wołowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The community of algae occurring in Genlisea traps and on the external traps surface in laboratory conditions were studied. A total of 29 taxa were found inside the traps, with abundant diatoms, green algae (Chlamydophyceae and four morphotypes of chrysophytes stomatocysts. One morphotype is described as new for science. There are two ways of algae getting into Genlisea traps. The majority of those recorded inside the traps, are mobile; swimming freely by flagella or moving exuding mucilage like diatoms being ablate to colonize the traps themselves. Another possibility is transport of algae by invertebrates such as mites and crustaceans. In any case algae in the Genlisea traps come from the surrounding environment. Two dominant groups of algae (Chladymonas div. and diatoms in the trap environment, show ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoseters. We suggest that algae in carnivorous plant traps can compete with plant (host for organic phosphate (phosphomonoseters. From the spectrum and ecological requirements of algal species found in the traps, environment inside the traps seems to be acidic. However, further studies are needed to test the relations between algae and carnivorous plants both in laboratory conditions and in the natural environment. All the reported taxa are described briefly and documented with 74 LM and SEM micrographs.

  16. Potential biomedical applications of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Li, Xiao-Chun; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-11-01

    Functional components extracted from algal biomass are widely used as dietary and health supplements with a variety of applications in food science and technology. In contrast, the applications of algae in dermal-related products have received much less attention, despite that algae also possess high potential for the uses in anti-infection, anti-aging, skin-whitening, and skin tumor treatments. This review, therefore, focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to human skin care, health and therapy. The active compounds in algae related to human skin treatments are mentioned and the possible mechanisms involved are described. The main purpose of this review is to identify serviceable algae functions in skin treatments to facilitate practical applications in this high-potential area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cars will be fed on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, G.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the first and second generations of bio-fuels has led to a rise in food prices and the carbon balance sheet is less good than expected. Great hopes have been put on unicellular algae for they can synthesize oils, sugar and even hydrogen and the competition with food production is far less harsh than with actual bio-fuels. Moreover, when you grow micro-algae, the loss of water through evaporation is less important than in the case of intensive farm cultures. In 2009 10.000 tonnes of micro-algae were produced worldwide, they were mainly used for the production of fish food and of complements for humane food (fat acids and antioxidants). Different research programs concern unicellular algae: they aim at modifying micro-algae genetically in order to give them a higher productivity or to make them produce an oil more adapted for motor fuel or more easily recoverable. (A.C.)

  18. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prospects of using algae in biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Maltsev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture and the transport sector is associated with the use of various energy sources. Renewable energy sources, including biofuels, are highly promising in this respect. As shown by a number of scientific studies, a promising source for biofuel production that would meet modern requirements may be algal biomass. After activation of the third generation biodiesel production it was assumed that the algae would become the most advantageous source, because it is not only able to accumulate significant amounts of lipids, but could reduce the of agricultural land involved in biofuel production and improve air quality by sequestering CO2. However, a major problem is presented by the cost of algae biomass cultivation and its processing compared to the production of biodiesel from agricultural crops. In this regard, there are several directions of increasing the efficiency of biodiesel production from algae biomass. The first direction is to increase lipid content in algae cells by means of genetic engineering. The second direction is connected with the stimulation of increased accumulation of lipids by stressing algae. The third direction involves the search for new, promising strains of algae that will be characterized by faster biomass accumulation rate, higher content of TAG and the optimal proportions of accumulated saturated and unsaturated fatty acids compared to the already known strains. Recently, a new approach in the search for biotechnologically valuable strains of algae has been formed on the basis of predictions of capacity for sufficient accumulation of lipids by clarifying the evolutionary relationships within the major taxonomic groups of algae. The outcome of these studies is the rapid cost reduction of biofuel production based on algae biomass. All this emphasizes the priority of any research aimed at both improving the process of production of biofuels from algae, and the search for new sources for

  20. Cryptosporidium species and Cryptosporidium parvum subtypes in dairy calves and goat kids reared under traditional farming systems in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul; Yasa-Duru, Sibel; Usluca, Selma; Lysen, Colleen; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn M; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-11-01

    Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in ruminants reared under traditional animal management systems are scarce and studies conducted thus far have revealed largely an absence of the pathogenic and zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum in pre-weaned animals. In this study, we examined Cryptosporidium species and subtype distribution in free-range pre-weaned dairy calves and goat kids with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium-positive specimens from pre-weaned calves on 10 farms and goat kids on 4 farms in Ankara, Balikesir, Corum, Kirikkale, and Kirsehir Provinces, Turkey were genotyped by PCR-restriction length polymorphism analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, which identified C. parvum in 27 calves and 9 goat kids and Cryptosporidium ryanae in 1 calf. Among the C. parvum isolates successfully subtyped by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene, three subtypes were detected in calves, including IIaA13G2R1 (20/23), IIdA18G1 (2/23), and IIdA20G1b (1/23), and four subtypes were detected in goat kids, including IIaA13G2R1 (3/8), IIaA15G1R1 (2/8), IIdA22G1 (2/8), and IIdA18G1 (1/8). Data of the study suggest that dairy calves reared in a traditional cow-calf system in Turkey are mainly infected with a C. parvum subtype rarely seen elsewhere, whereas goat kids are infected with diverse subtypes. As all five C. parvum subtypes found in this study are known human pathogens, pre-weaned farm animals could play a potential role in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential recognition of the multiple banded antigen isoforms across Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum species by monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboklaish, Ali F; Ahmed, Shatha; McAllister, Douglas; Cassell, Gail; Zheng, Xiaotian T; Spiller, Owen B

    2016-08-01

    Two separate species of Ureaplasma have been identified that infect humans: Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Most notably, these bacteria lack a cell wall and are the leading infectious organism associated with infection-related induction of preterm birth. Fourteen separate representative prototype bacterial strains, called serovars, are largely differentiated by the sequence of repeating units in the C-terminus of the major surface protein: multiple-banded antigen (MBA). Monoclonal antibodies that recognise single or small groups of serovars have been previously reported, but these reagents remain sequestered in individual research laboratories. Here we characterise a panel of commercially available monoclonal antibodies raised against the MBA and describe the first monoclonal antibody that cross-reacts by immunoblot with all serovars of U. parvum and U. urealyticum species. We also describe a recombinant MBA expressed by Escherichia coli which facilitated further characterisation by immunoblot and demonstrate immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded antigens. Immunoblot reactivity was validated against well characterised previously published monoclonal antibodies and individual commercial antibodies were found to recognise all U. parvum strains, only serovars 3 and 14 or only serovars 1 and 6, or all strains belonging to U. parvum and U. urealyticum. MBA mass was highly variable between strains, consistent with variation in the number of C-terminal repeats between strains. Antibody characterisation will enable future investigations to correlate severity of pathogenicity to MBA isoform number or mass, in addition to development of antibody-based diagnostics that will detect infection by all Ureaplasma species or alternately be able to differentiate between U. parvum, U. urealyticum or mixed infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inflammatory Response of Human Gestational Membranes to Ureaplasma parvum Using a Novel Dual-Chamber Tissue Explant System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Lauren C; Feng, Liping; Seed, Patrick C; Jayes, Friederike L; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Antczak, Brian; Nazzal, Matthew K; Murtha, Amy P

    2016-05-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is often associated with intra-amniotic inflammation and infection. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of PPROM includes activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and proteolytic enzymes leading to compromise of membrane integrity. The impact of exposure to bacterial pathogens, including Ureaplasma parvum, on gestational membranes is poorly understood. Our objective was to develop a dual-chamber system to characterize the inflammatory response of gestational membranes to U. parvum in a directional nature. Full-thickness human gestational membrane explants, with either choriodecidua or amnion oriented superiorly, were suspended between two washers in a cylindrical device, creating two distinct compartments. Brilliant green dye was introduced into the top chamber to assess the integrity of the system. Tissue viability was evaluated after 72 h using a colorimetric cell proliferation assay. Choriodecidua or amnion was exposed to three doses of U. parvum and incubated for 24 h. Following treatment, media from each compartment were used for quantification of U. parvum (quantitative PCR), interleukin (IL)-8 (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity (zymography). We observed that system integrity and explant viability were maintained over 72 h. Dose-dependent increases in recovered U. parvum, IL-8 concentration, and MMP-2 activity were detected in both compartments. Significant differences in IL-8 concentration and MMP-9 activity were found between the choriodecidua and amnion. This tissue explant system can be used to investigate the inflammatory consequences of directional bacterial exposure for gestational membranes and provides insight into the pathogenesis of PPROM and infectious complications of pregnancy. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  3. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  4. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yihe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model.

  5. Investigating Attachment Behaviors of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts Using Collision Efficiency in Laboratory Column Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.; Hou, L.; Atwill, R.; Packman, A. I.; Harter, T.

    2009-12-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most common enteric parasites of humans and domestic animals, and a number of outbreaks of Cryprosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium have been reported worldwide. Natural porous media has been demonstrated to be an effective filter for removing Cryptosporidium parvum from contaminated water and the amount of Cryptosporidium filtered is known to be highly dependent on physical and chemical conditions of the porous media and the water. Cryptosporidium deposition in saturated porous media involves two main steps: approach and attachment. In contrast to the approach mechanisms, attachment processes have not been systematically described to predict a priori because theories that represent attachment behavior (colloid stability) such as DLVO are insufficient to explain experimental data. For this reason, attachment efficiency is calculated based on empirical data, typically experimental breakthrough curves in laboratory columns or field experiments. In this study, collision (attachment) efficiencies (α) of C. parvum oocyst were calculated to test the effect of chemical property changes on the association of oocysts with sand grains. The breakthrough curve data obtained from twelve column experiments and three models were employed to calculate single collector efficiency (η) and α. The first ten experiments were conducted by changing ionic strength and pH, and mixing with natural sediments under the same physical properties (same η). Our experiment results show that iron coating or clay/suspended solids mixture drastically enhanced oocyst deposition. The experiments also showed that increase in ionic strength and decrease in pH enhanced the attachment efficiency. However, the experiment with 100mM NaCl resulted in low attachment efficiency and the experiment with pH 8.5 showed similar attachment efficiency to the one at pH 7. Based on the results from two additional experiments with different flow velocities, it

  6. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  7. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  8. Polymerase chain reaction-hybridization method using urease gene sequences for high-throughput Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum detection and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Nan; Huo, Qianyu; Chen, Minghui; Wang, Rengfeng; Liu, Zhili; Li, Xue; Liu, Yunde; Bao, Huijing

    2016-04-15

    In this article, we discuss the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-hybridization assay that we developed for high-throughput simultaneous detection and differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum using one set of primers and two specific DNA probes based on urease gene nucleotide sequence differences. First, U. urealyticum and U. parvum DNA samples were specifically amplified using one set of biotin-labeled primers. Furthermore, amine-modified DNA probes, which can specifically react with U. urealyticum or U. parvum DNA, were covalently immobilized to a DNA-BIND plate surface. The plate was then incubated with the PCR products to facilitate sequence-specific DNA binding. Horseradish peroxidase-streptavidin conjugation and a colorimetric assay were used. Based on the results, the PCR-hybridization assay we developed can specifically differentiate U. urealyticum and U. parvum with high sensitivity (95%) compared with cultivation (72.5%). Hence, this study demonstrates a new method for high-throughput simultaneous differentiation and detection of U. urealyticum and U. parvum with high sensitivity. Based on these observations, the PCR-hybridization assay developed in this study is ideal for detecting and discriminating U. urealyticum and U. parvum in clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth...

  10. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis GP60 subtypes worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Avendaño V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic parasite very important in animal health as well as in public health. It is because this is one of the main causes of diarrhea in children, calves, lambs and other variety of youth mammalians in a lot of countries. The globalization has enabled the exchange of biological material in different regions worldwide, encouraging the spread of diseases and exposure to these biological agents to different environmental conditions, inducing adaptation through genetic changes. Based in the polymorphism of the gene for GP60, this review intended to present the distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in humans and calves worldwide. The subtype that affects cattle more frequently corresponds to IIaA15G2R; while the subtype most frequently isolated from human samples is IaA19G2.

  11. Parasites and malignancies, a review, with emphasis on digestive cancer induced by Cryptosporidium parvum (Alveolata: Apicomplexa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamrouz, S; Conseil, V; Creusy, C; Calderon, E; Dei-Cas, E; Certad, G

    2012-05-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) identifies ten infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites) able to induce cancer disease in humans. Among parasites, a carcinogenic role is currently recognized to the digenetic trematodes Schistosoma haematobium, leading to bladder cancer, and to Clonorchis sinensis or Opisthorchis viverrini, which cause cholangiocarcinoma. Furthermore, several reports suspected the potential association of other parasitic infections (due to Protozoan or Metazoan parasites) with the development of neoplastic changes in the host tissues. The present work shortly reviewed available data on the involvement of parasites in neoplastic processes in humans or animals, and especially focused on the carcinogenic power of Cryptosporidium parvum infection. On the whole, infection seems to play a crucial role in the etiology of cancer.

  12. Parasites and malignancies, a review, with emphasis on digestive cancer induced by Cryptosporidium parvum (Alveolata: Apicomplexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benamrouz S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC identifies ten infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites able to induce cancer disease in humans. Among parasites, a carcinogenic role is currently recognized to the digenetic trematodes Schistosoma haematobium, leading to bladder cancer, and to Clonorchis sinensis or Opisthorchis viverrini, which cause cholangiocarcinoma. Furthermore, several reports suspected the potential association of other parasitic infections (due to Protozoan or Metazoan parasites with the development of neoplastic changes in the host tissues. The present work shortly reviewed available data on the involvement of parasites in neoplastic processes in humans or animals, and especially focused on the carcinogenic power of Cryptosporidium parvum infection. On the whole, infection seems to play a crucial role in the etiology of cancer.

  13. Influence of Corynebacterium parvum on the phagocytosis of /sup 198/Au colloids in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Bianchin, A.M.; Caro, R.A.; Ihlo, J.E.; Rivera, E.S. (Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica)

    1982-07-01

    The kinetics of the phagocytosis of gelatin-protected /sup 198/Au colloids in Wistar rats treated with Corynebacterium Parvum (CBP), was studied in order to explain its mechanism of immunomodulation. A previously developed extracorporeal blood circulation technique was used. The changes in the rate of phagocytosis, v, after the administration of CBP, for a dose of the /sup 198/Au colloid smaller or higher than the substratum constant, were studied. In the first case, no significant changes of v were observed; in the second case, significant increases of v were determined, which reached a maximum 6 days after the CBP administration. The kinetic analysis of the obtained data indicates that the action of CBP is exerted on the stage of the entrance of the colloidal particle into the reticuloendothelial cell.

  14. Functional Expression of a DNA-Topoisomerase IB from Cryptosporidium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ordóñez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum, one of the most important causative organisms of human diarrheas during childhood, contains a monomeric DNA-topoisomerase IB (CpTopIB in chromosome 7. Heterologous expression of CpTopIB gene in a budding yeast strain lacking this activity proves that the cryptosporidial enzyme is functional in vivo. The enzymatic activity is comprised in a single polypeptide, which contains all the structural features defining a fully active TopIB. Relaxation activity of the yeast extracts was detected only when CpTopIB ORF was expressed in a yeast expression system showing time and protein dependence under steady state kinetic conditions. The susceptibility of CpTopIB-transformed yeast to the irreversible inhibitor camptothecin and its water-soluble derivatives (topotecan and SN-38 was assessed.

  15. Influence of Corynebacterium parvum on the phagocytosis of 198Au colloids in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Bianchin, A.M.; Caro, R.A.; Ihlo, J.E.; Rivera, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The kinetics of the phagocytosis of gelatin-protected 198 Au colloids in Wistar rats treated with Corynebacterium Parvum (CBP), was studied in order to explain its mechanism of immunomodulation. A previously developed extracorporeal blood circulation technique was used. The changes in the rate of phagocytosis, v, after the administration of CBP, for a dose of the 198 Au colloid smaller or higher than the substratum constant, were studied. In the first case, no significant changes of v were observed; in the second case, significant increases of v were determined, which reached a maximum 6 days after the CBP administration. The kinetic analysis of the obtained data indicates that the action of CBP is exerted on the stage of the entrance of the colloidal particle into the reticuloendothelial cell. (author) [es

  16. Canker and decline caused by Neofusiccocum parvum on Acacia melanoxylon in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidoti A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2012, in reforested areas of Peloritani Mountains (Sicily, Italy a severe dieback of Acacia melanoxylon R. Brown was observed. The main symptoms on both young and adults plants consisted of elongated cankers on the trunks and epicormic shoots, wilt of the canopy and dieback interested mostly aged trees. The woody tissues showed browning beyond the cankers. Sapwood and heartwood appeared decayed with a brown to gray-greenish discoloration. One fungal species was consistently isolated from infected woody tissues, which was morphologically attributed to Neofusiccocum sp. The sequencing of the ITS regions of a representative isolate allowed to identify (99% similarity the species Neofusiccocum parvum (Pennycook & Samuels Crous, Slippers and Phillips, teleomorph Botryosphaeria parva Pennycook & Samuels. The pathogenicity tests have reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in the field. N. parvum is the aetiologic agent of mortality of australian blackwood observed in Sicily and to our knowledge this is the first report of this fungus on Acacia melanoxylon. It is a generalist pathogen, cosmopolitan, present in many temperate areas, Mediterranean and subtropical. The older Peloritani Mountains populations of australian blackwood seem particularly susceptible to the pathogen, the latter favored by the lack of silvicultural interventions that generate interspecific and intraspecific competition, as well as the increase and spread of the fungus. To minimize the consequential damage is necessary to adopt sanitation measures that would lower the fungal inoculum and program substitutions of this exotic species with others that have multiple functions suited to environments (e.g., Chestnut or encouraging the establishment and development of native species, such as the holm oak and shrub.

  17. The Biology of blue-green algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carr, Nicholas G; Whitton, B. A

    1973-01-01

    .... Their important environmental roles, their part in nitrogen fixation and the biochemistry of phototrophic metabolism are some of the attractions of blue-geen algae to an increasing number of biologists...

  18. Diatom algae of the Guni river (Pamir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbonova, P.A.; Hisoriev, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    There are presented the dates of the results of diatom algae (Bacillariophyta) of the Gunt river. There was found 107 species and 9 subspecies which belong to 3 classics, 12 ordos, 13 families and 28 genus

  19. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  20. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  1. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    OpenAIRE

    Baliga, Rudras; Powers, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA) are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a ...

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  3. Ureaplasma parvum genotype, combined vaginal colonisation with Candida albicans, and spontaneous preterm birth in an Australian cohort of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Matthew S; Ireland, Demelza J; Watts, Rory; Nathan, Elizabeth A; Furfaro, Lucy L; Kemp, Matthew W; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P

    2016-10-18

    Detection of Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma and Candida spp. in the vagina during pregnancy has previously been associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, the prevalence of these microorganisms and the associated obstetric risks (likely to be population-specific) have not been determined in Australian women; furthermore, in the case of Ureaplasma spp., very few studies have attempted characterisation at the species level and none have examined genotype/serovar status to further refine risk assessment. In order to address these issues we sampled the vaginal fluid of 191 pregnant Australian women at three time points in pregnancy. Culture methods were used for detection of Ureaplasma spp. and Candida spp., and real-time PCR was used for speciation of U. parvum and U. urealyticum, non-albicans Candida spp., Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium. High-resolution melt PCR was used to genotype U. parvum. Data on various lifestyle factors (including sex during pregnancy and smoking), antimicrobial use and pregnancy outcome were collected on all participants. Chi-square tests were used to assess the association of vaginal microorganisms with PTB. Detection of Ureaplasma spp. was higher among spontaneous PTB cases, specifically in the presence of U. parvum [77 % preterm (95 % confidence interval (CI) 50-100 %) vs. 36 % term (CI: 29-43 %), p = 0.004], but not U. urealyticum. The association with PTB strengthened when U. parvum genotype SV6 was detected (54 % preterm (CI: 22-85 %) vs. 15 % term (CI: 10-20 %), p = 0.002); this genotype was also present in 80 % (4/5) of cases of PTB Ureaplasma spp. in the vagina confers an increased risk of spontaneous PTB, findings which may be useful in risk assessment for identifying women who would benefit from antimicrobial treatment.

  4. Random insertion and gene disruption via transposon mutagenesis of Ureaplasma parvum using a mini-transposon plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboklaish, Ali F; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Citti, Christine; Toleman, Mark A; Glass, John I; Spiller, O Brad

    2014-11-01

    While transposon mutagenesis has been successfully used for Mycoplasma spp. to disrupt and determine non-essential genes, previous attempts with Ureaplasma spp. have been unsuccessful. Using a polyethylene glycol-transformation enhancing protocol, we were able to transform three separate serovars of Ureaplasma parvum with a Tn4001-based mini-transposon plasmid containing a gentamicin resistance selection marker. Despite the large degree of homology between Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, all attempts to transform the latter in parallel failed, with the exception of a single clinical U. urealyticum isolate. PCR probing and sequencing were used to confirm transposon insertion into the bacterial genome and identify disrupted genes. Transformation of prototype serovar 3 consistently resulted in transfer only of sequence between the mini-transposon inverted repeats, but some strains showed additional sequence transfer. Transposon insertion occurred randomly in the genome resulting in unique disruption of genes UU047, UU390, UU440, UU450, UU520, UU526, UU582 for single clones from a panel of screened clones. An intergenic insertion between genes UU187 and UU188 was also characterised. Two phenotypic alterations were observed in the mutated strains: Disruption of a DEAD-box RNA helicase (UU582) altered growth kinetics, while the U. urealyticum strain lost resistance to serum attack coincident with disruption of gene UUR10_137 and loss of expression of a 41 kDa protein. Transposon mutagenesis was used successfully to insert single copies of a mini-transposon into the genome and disrupt genes leading to phenotypic changes in Ureaplasma parvum strains. This method can now be used to deliver exogenous genes for expression and determine essential genes for Ureaplasma parvum replication in culture and experimental models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung Chull An; Jae-Sung Kim; Seung Sik Lee; Shyamkumar Barampuram; Eun Mi Lee; Byung Yeoup Chung

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  7. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  8. Comparative genomic analysis reveals occurrence of genetic recombination in virulent Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes and telomeric gene duplications in Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaqiong; Tang, Kevin; Rowe, Lori A; Li, Na; Roellig, Dawn M; Knipe, Kristine; Frace, Michael; Yang, Chunfu; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-04-18

    Cryptosporidium hominis is a dominant species for human cryptosporidiosis. Within the species, IbA10G2 is the most virulent subtype responsible for all C. hominis-associated outbreaks in Europe and Australia, and is a dominant outbreak subtype in the United States. In recent yearsIaA28R4 is becoming a major new subtype in the United States. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of two field specimens from each of the two subtypes and conducted a comparative genomic analysis of the obtained sequences with those from the only fully sequenced Cryptosporidium parvum genome. Altogether, 8.59-9.05 Mb of Cryptosporidium sequences in 45-767 assembled contigs were obtained from the four specimens, representing 94.36-99.47% coverage of the expected genome. These genomes had complete synteny in gene organization and 96.86-97.0% and 99.72-99.83% nucleotide sequence similarities to the published genomes of C. parvum and C. hominis, respectively. Several major insertions and deletions were seen between C. hominis and C. parvum genomes, involving mostly members of multicopy gene families near telomeres. The four C. hominis genomes were highly similar to each other and divergent from the reference IaA25R3 genome in some highly polymorphic regions. Major sequence differences among the four specimens sequenced in this study were in the 5' and 3' ends of chromosome 6 and the gp60 region, largely the result of genetic recombination. The sequence similarity among specimens of the two dominant outbreak subtypes and genetic recombination in chromosome 6, especially around the putative virulence determinant gp60 region, suggest that genetic recombination plays a potential role in the emergence of hyper-transmissible C. hominis subtypes. The high sequence conservation between C. parvum and C. hominis genomes and significant differences in copy numbers of MEDLE family secreted proteins and insulinase-like proteases indicate that telomeric gene duplications could potentially contribute to

  9. Effect of ferrate on green algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiňáková, Emília; Híveš, Ján; Gál, Miroslav; Fašková, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Green algae Cladophora aegagropila, present in cooling water of thermal power plants, causes many problems and complications, especially during summer. However, algae and its metabolites are rarely eliminated by common removal methods. In this work, the elimination efficiency of electrochemically prepared potassium ferrate(VI) on algae from cooling water was investigated. The influence of experimental parameters, such as Fe(VI) dosage, application time, pH of the system, temperature and hydrodynamics of the solution on removal efficiency, was optimized. This study demonstrates that algae C. aegagropila can be effectively removed from cooling water by ferrate. Application of ferrate(VI) at the optimized dosage and under the suitable conditions (temperature, pH) leads to 100% removal of green algae Cladophora from the system. Environmentally friendly reduction products (Fe(III)) and coagulation properties favour the application of ferrate for the treatment of water contaminated with studied microorganisms compared to other methods such as chlorination and use of permanganate, where harmful products are produced.

  10. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  11. Radiation effects on algae and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation on algae have been summarized in this article. Today, algae are being considered to have the great potential to fulfill the demand of food, fodder, fuel and various pharmaceutical products. Red algae are particularly rich in the content of polysaccharides present in their cell wall. For isolation of these polysaccharides, separation of cells cemented together by middle lamella is essential. The gamma rays are known to bring about biochemical changes in the cell wall and cause the breakdown of the middle lamella. These rays ate also known to speed up the starch sugar inter-conversion in the cells which is very useful for the tapping the potential of algae to be used as biofuel as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Cyanobacteria, among algae and other plants are more resistant to the radiation. In some cyanobacteria the radiation treatment is known to enhance the resistance against the antibiotics. Radiation treatment is also known to enhance the diameter of cell and size of the nitrogen fixing heterocyst. (author)

  12. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  13. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative efficacy of curcumin and paromomycin against Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a BALB/c model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour, Mohammad; Namazi, Fatemeh; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2018-01-30

    Cryptosporidium is a ubiquitous protozoan parasite causing gastrointestinal disorder in various hosts worldwide. The disease is self-limiting in the immunocompetent but life-threatening in immunodeficient individuals. Investigations to find an effective drug for the complete elimination of the Cryptosporidium infection are ongoing and urgently needed. The current study was undertaken to examine the anti-cryptosporidial efficacy of curcumin in experimentally infected mice compared with that of paromomycin. Oocysts were isolated from a pre-weaned dairy calf and identified as Cryptosporidium parvum using a nested- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on Small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene and sequencing analysis. One hundred and ten female BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. Group 1 was infected and treated with curcumin; Group 2 infected and treated with paromomycin; Group 3 infected without treatment; Group 4 included uninfected mice treated with curcumin, and Group 5 included uninfected mice treated with distilled water for 11 successive days, starting on the first day of oocyst shedding. The oocyst shedding was recorded daily. At days 0, 3, 7, and 11 of post treatments, five mice from each group were killed humanly; jejunum and ileum tissue samples were processed for histopathological evaluation and counting of oocyst on villi, simultaneously. Furthermore, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in affected tissues were also measured in different groups. By treatments, tissue lesions and the number of oocyst on villi of both jejunum and ileum were decreased with a time-dependent manner. In comparison with Group 3, oocyst shedding was stopped at the end of treatment period in both groups 1 and 2 without recurrence at 10days after drug withdrawal. Also, TAC was increased and the MDA concentrations were decreased in Group 1. Moreover, paromomycin showed acceptable treatment outcomes during experiment and its

  15. Genes expressed in grapevine leaves reveal latent wood infection by the fungal pathogen Neofusicoccum parvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Czemmel

    Full Text Available Some pathogenic species of the Botryosphaeriaceae have a latent phase, colonizing woody tissues while perennial hosts show no apparent symptoms until conditions for disease development become favorable. Detection of these pathogens is often limited to the later pathogenic phase. The latent phase is poorly characterized, despite the need for non-destructive detection tools and effective quarantine strategies, which would benefit from identification of host-based markers in leaves. Neofusicoccum parvum infects the wood of grapevines and other horticultural crops, killing the fruit-bearing shoots. We used light microscopy and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT to examine the spatio-temporal relationship between pathogen colonization and anatomical changes in stem sections. To identify differentially-expressed grape genes, leaves from inoculated and non-inoculated plants were examined using RNA-Seq. The latent phase occurred between 0 and 1.5 months post-inoculation (MPI, during which time the pathogen did not spread significantly beyond the inoculation site nor were there differences in lesion lengths between inoculated and non-inoculated plants. The pathogenic phase occurred between 1.5 and 2 MPI, when recovery beyond the inoculation site increased and lesion lengths of inoculated plants tripled. By 2 MPI, inoculated plants also had decreased starch content in xylem fibers and rays, and increased levels of gel-occluded xylem vessels, the latter of which HRCT revealed at a higher frequency than microscopy. RNA-Seq and screening of 21 grape expression datasets identified 20 candidate genes that were transcriptionally-activated by infection during the latent phase, and confirmed that the four best candidates (galactinol synthase, abscisic acid-induced wheat plasma membrane polypeptide-19 ortholog, embryonic cell protein 63, BURP domain-containing protein were not affected by a range of common foliar and wood pathogens or abiotic stresses

  16. Trans-suppression of defense DEFB1 gene in intestinal epithelial cells following Cryptosporidium parvum infection is associated with host delivery of parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Zhenping; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Li, Min; Dolata, Courtney E; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2018-03-01

    To counteract host immunity, Cryptosporidium parvum has evolved multiple strategies to suppress host antimicrobial defense. One such strategy is to reduce the production of the antimicrobial peptide beta-defensin 1 (DEFB1) by host epithelial cells but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts of low protein-coding potential are delivered into infected host cells and may modulate host gene transcription. Using in vitro models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, in this study, we analyzed the expression profile of host beta-defensin genes in host cells following infection. We found that C. parvum infection caused a significant downregulation of the DEFB1 gene. Interestingly, downregulation of DEFB1 gene was associated with host delivery of Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA transcript, a C. parvum RNA that has previously demonstrated to be delivered into the nuclei of infected host cells. Knockdown of Cdg7_FLc_1000 in host cells could attenuate the trans-suppression of host DEFB1 gene and decreased the parasite burden. Therefore, our data suggest that trans-suppression of DEFB1 gene in intestinal epithelial cells following C. parvum infection involves host delivery of parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA, a process that may be relevant to the epithelial defense evasion by C. parvum at the early stage of infection.

  17. Prevalência do Cryptosporidium parvum em crianças abaixo de 5 anos, residentes na zona urbana de Campo Grande, MS, Brasil, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshiro Elisa Teruya

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visou estabelecer a prevalência de Cryptosporidium parvum em crianças abaixo de 5 anos, residentes na zona urbana de Campo Grande, MS, 1996/97, através de exames coprológicos e avaliar epidemiologicamente os casos diagnosticados. Tratou-se de um estudo transversal com inquérito domiciliar, onde foram examinadas 1051 amostras fecais, processadas segundo a técnica de Blagg, utilizando-se a coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen modificada para a pesquisa de oocistos de C. parvum. Concluiu-se que: a prevalência de C. parvum (1,1% observada não foi estatisticamente significativa; foi relatado diarréia em 58,3% das crianças com diagnóstico positivo, supondo-se associação entre diarréia e a presença do parasita; o C. parvum foi mais freqüente em crianças com idade de 25 a 36 meses (50%, porém sem diferença estatisticamente significativa; o sexo não teve papel diferencial em relação ao parasitismo por C. parvum; entre as 12 crianças com criptosporidiose, 83,3% tiveram contato com animais domésticos (cão e ou gato.

  18. Point-of-Use Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum from Water: Independent Effects of Disinfection by Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Ions and by Physical Filtration in Ceramic Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Lydia S; Su, Yi-Hsuan; Guerrant, Richard L; Swami, Nathan S; Smith, James A

    2015-11-03

    Ceramic water filters (CWFs) impregnated with silver nanoparticles are a means of household-level water treatment. CWFs remove/deactivate microbial pathogens by employing two mechanisms: metallic disinfection and physical filtration. Herein we report on the independent effects of silver salt and nanoparticles on Cryptosporidium parvum and the removal of C. parvum by physical filtration in porous ceramic filter media. Using a murine (mouse) model, we observed that treatment of oocysts with silver nitrate and proteinate-capped silver nanoparticles resulted in decreased infection relative to untreated oocysts. Microscopy and excystation experiments were conducted to support the disinfection investigation. Heat and proteinate-capped silver-nanoparticle treatment of oocysts resulted in morphological modifications and decreased excystation rates of sporozoites. Subsequently, disk-shaped ceramic filters were produced to investigate the transport of C. parvum. Two factors were varied: sawdust size and clay-to-sawdust ratio. Five disks were prepared with combinations of 10, 16, and 20 mesh sawdust and sawdust percentage that ranged from 9 to 11%. C. parvum removal efficiencies ranged from 1.5 log (96.4%) to 2.1 log (99.2%). The 16-mesh/10% sawdust had the greatest mean reduction of 2.1-log (99.2%), though there was no statistically significant difference in removal efficiency. Based on our findings, physical filtration and silver nanoparticle disinfection likely contribute to treatment of C. parvum for silver impregnated ceramic water filters, although the contribution of physical filtration is likely greater than silver disinfection.

  19. Behaviour of technetium in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Baelen, J.; Hurtger, C.; Cogneau, M.; Van der Ben, D.; Verthe, C.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Uptake and distribution of technetium were studied in several green (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, Ulva lactuca) and brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus) marine algae. Technetium was supplied to the algae as Tc-95m-pertechnetate. Under laboratory conditions, the algae were capable of accumulating technetium, with the exception, however, of Boergesenia, which showed concentration factors (C.F.) comprised between 0.28 and 0.71. The concentration of technetium-99 in Fucus spiralis, collected along the Belgian coast, was measured by a radiochemical procedure. The intracellular distribution of technetium was studied by differential centrifugation in Acetabularia and by the puncturing technique in Boergesenia. The chemical forms of technetium penetrated into the cells were investigated by selective chemical extractions, molecular sieving and thin layer chromatography

  20. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1979-06-01

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs

  1. Behaviour of technetium in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Baelen, J. van; Hurtgen, C.; Cogneau, M.; Ben, D. van der; Verthe, C.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Uptake and distribution of technetium were studied in several green (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, Ulva lactuca) and brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus) marine algae. Technetium was supplied to the algae as Tc-95-pertechnetate. Under laboratory conditions, the algae were capable of accumulating technetium, with the exception, however, of Boergesenia, which showed concentration factors (C.F.) comprised between 0.28 and 0.71. The concentration of technetium-99 in Fucus spiralis, collected along the Belgian coast, was measured by a radiochemical procedure. The intracellular distribution of technetium was studied by differential centrifugation in Acetabularia and by the puncturing technique in Boergesenia. The chemical forms of technetium penetrated into the cells were investigated by selective chemical extractions, molecular sieving and thin layer chromatography. (author)

  2. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-01-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation

  3. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  4. Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laura; Blázquez, María Luisa; Muñoz, Jesus Angel; González, Felisa; Ballester, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The increasing demand and limited natural resources of noble metals make its recovery from dilute industrial wastes attractive, especially when using environmentally friendly methods. Nowadays, the high impact that nanotechnology is having in both science and society offers new research possibilities. Gold and silver nanoparticles were biosynthesised by a simple method using different algae as reducing agent. The authors explored the application of dead algae in an eco-friendly procedure. The nanoparticle formation was followed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The functional groups involved in the bioreduction were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  5. P-32 uptake in lentic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, J.R.; Williamson, G.D.; Fletcher, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    A study of the Flat Creek Embayment of Lake Sidney Lanier near Gainesville, Georgia revealed three genera of algae, Chlorococcum, Fragillaria and Nostoc, to be prominent in this eutrophic region of the lake. The algae was grown in phosphate-rich media and subsequently labelled with P-32. All species incorporated luxury amounts of phosphorus as determined by the uptake of P-32. The results indicate that the P-32 uptake is proportional to the surface-per-volume ratio. The higher surface-per-volume ratio resulted in greater uptake of P-32

  6. Bioremediation of Heavy Metal by Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Dwivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Instead of using mainly bacteria, it is also possible to use mainly algae to clean wastewater because many of the pollutant sources in wastewater are also food sources for algae. Nitrates and phosphates are common components of plant fertilizers for plants. Like plants, algae need large quantities of nitrates and phosphates to support their fast cell cycles. Certain heavy metals are also important for the normal functioning of algae. These include iron (for photosynthesis, and chromium (for metabolism. Because marine environments are normally scarce in these metals, some marine algae especially have developed efficient mechanisms to gather these heavy metals from the environment and take them up. These natural processes can also be used to remove certain heavy metals from the environment. The use of algae has several advantages over normal bacteria-based bioremediation processes. One major advantage in the removal of pollutants is that this is a process that under light conditions does not need oxygen. Instead, as pollutants are taken up and digested, oxygen is added while carbon dioxide is removed. Hence, phytoremediation could potentially be coupled with carbon sequestration. Additionally, because phytoremediation does not rely on fouling processes, odors are much less a problem. Microalgae, in particular, have been recognized as suitable vectors for detoxification and have emerged as a potential low-cost alternative to physicochemical treatments. Uptake of metals by living microalgae occurs in two steps: one takes place rapidly and is essentially independent of cell metabolism – “adsorption” onto the cell surface. The other one is lengthy and relies on cell metabolism – “absorption” or “intracellular uptake.” Nonviable cells have also been successfully used in metal removal from contaminated sites. Some of the technologies in heavy metal removals, such as High Rate Algal Ponds and Algal Turf Scrubber, have been justified for

  7. Algas: cosmética y salud

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Patricia Marta; Guayta, Silvina L.

    1998-01-01

    El uso de las algas con fines estéticos y terapéuticos tiene su origen en tiempos muy antiguos. El auge de la utilización de “productos naturales” ha llevado a sobrevalorar las propiedades de los vegetales en general y de las algas en particular. Por tal razón, las mismas gozan de un elevado prestigio, incluso cuando las propiedades reales son en gran medida superadas por las popularmente atribuidas. De allí que surja la necesidad de abordar estudios interdisciplinarios y de naturaleza aplica...

  8. Growth acceleration and photosynthesis of the scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae in deuterium water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Wang Wenqing

    1998-01-01

    In order to find new way to treat the radioactive tritium waste water, scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae are cultured in medium which contains 30% (w) deuterium water. During different time, activities of photosymthesis, absorption spectrum, growth rate and low-temperature fluorescence spectrum are measured. Accelerated growth is found in the deuterium water compared to the normal water. Activities of photosynthesis show the similar result (F v /F m ) to the growth data. It is also concluded from low-temperature fluorescence spectra that algae activities in the deuterium water, which are expressed by PS I/PS II, are more sensitive than those in the normal water

  9. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  10. Accumulation of polycyclic arenes in Baltic Sea algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldre, I.A.; Itra, A.R.; Paal' me, L.P.; Kukk, Kh.A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents data on the level of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and some other polycyclic arenes in alga and phanerogam specimens from different gulfs of the Baltic Sea. Algae were shown to absorb BP from sea water. The mean concentration of BP in sea water was under 0.004 microgram/1, while in algae it ranged 0.1-21.2 micrograms/kg dry weight. Algae accumulate BP to a higher degree than phanerogams. The highest concentrations of BP were found in algae Enteromorpha while the lowest ones in Furcellaria. In annual green algae, BP level was higher in autumn, i. e. at the end of vegetation period, than in spring. Brown algae Fucus vesiculosus is recommended for monitoring polycyclic arene pollution in the area from Vormsi Island to Kaesmu and green algae Cladophora or Enteromorpha in the eastern part of the Finnish Gulf.

  11. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  12. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    only in C. clavulatum, Sargassum cinereum and Padina tetrastromatica whilst mycelial fungi occurred in all. Growth experiments in the laboratory indicated that the growth of thraustochytrids was inhibited on live algae, whereas killed algae supported...

  13. Confirmed detection of Cyclospora cayetanesis, Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum in water used for drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Scot E; John, David; Eliopolus, James; Gerba, Charles P; Naranjo, Jaime; Klein, Robert; López, Beatriz; de Mejía, Maricruz; Mendoza, Carlos E; Pepper, Ian L

    2003-09-01

    Human enteropathogenic microsporidia (HEM), Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, and Giardia lamblia are associated with gastrointestinal disease in humans. To date, the mode of transmission and environmental occurrence of HEM (Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi) and Cyclospora cayetanesis have not been fully elucidated due to lack of sensitive and specific environmental screening methods. The present study was undertaken with recently developed methods, to screen various water sources used for public consumption in rural areas around the city of Guatemala. Water concentrates collected in these areas were subjected to community DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification, PCR sequencing and computer database homology comparison (CDHC). All water samples screened in this study had been previously confirmed positive for Giardia spp. by immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Of the 12 water concentrates screened, 6 showed amplification of microsporidial SSU-rDNA and were subsequently confirmed to be Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Five of the samples allowed for amplification of Cyclospora 18S-rDNA; three of these were confirmed to be Cyclospora cayetanesis while two could not be identified because of inadequate sequence information. Thus, this study represents the first confirmed identification of Cyclospora cayetanesis and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in source water used for consumption. The fact that the waters tested may be used for human consumption indicates that these emerging protozoa may be transmitted by ingestion of contaminated water.

  14. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Charge Heterogeneous Porous Media: Microfluidics Experiment and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Meng, X.; Guo, Z.; Zhang, C.; Nguyen, T. H.; Hu, D.; Ji, J.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Colloidal attachment on charge heterogeneous grains has significant environmental implications for transport of hazardous colloids, such as pathogens, in the aquifer, where iron, manganese, and aluminium oxide minerals are the major source of surface charge heterogeneity of the aquifer grains. A patchwise surface charge model is often used to describe the surface charge heterogeneity of the grains. In the patchwise model, the colloidal attachment efficiency is linearly correlated with the fraction of the favorable patches (θ=λ(θf - θu)+θu). However, our previous microfluidic study showed that the attachment efficiency of oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum, a waterborne protozoan parasite, was not linear correlated with the fraction of the favorable patches (λ). In this study, we developed a pore scale model to simulate colloidal transport and attachment on charge heterogeneous grains. The flow field was simulated using the LBM method and colloidal transport and attachment were simulated using the Lagrange particle tracking method. The pore scale model was calibrated with experimental results of colloidal and oocyst transport in microfluidic devices and was then used to simulate oocyst transport in charge heterogeneous porous media under a variety of environmental relative conditions, i.e. the fraction of favorable patchwise, ionic strength, and pH. The results of the pore scale simulations were used to evaluate the effect of surface charge heterogeneity on upscaling of oocyst transport from pore to continuum scale and to develop an applicable correlation between colloidal attachment efficiency and the fraction of the favorable patches.

  15. Effectiveness of standard UV depuration at inactivating Cryptosporidium parvum recovered from spiked Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnotel, O; Snelling, W J; McDonough, N; Browne, L; Moore, J E; Dooley, J S G; Lowery, C J

    2007-08-01

    When filter-feeding shellfish are consumed raw, because of their ability to concentrate and store waterborne pathogens, they are being increasingly associated with human gastroenteritis and have become recognized as important pathogen vectors. In the shellfish industry, UV depuration procedures are mandatory to reduce pathogen levels prior to human consumption. However, these guidelines are based around more susceptible fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. and do not consider Cryptosporidium spp., which have significant resistance to environmental stresses. Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate the efficiency of standard UV depuration against the survival of Cryptosporidium recovered from shellfish. Our study found that in industrial-scale shellfish depuration treatment tanks, standard UV treatment resulted in a 13-fold inactivation of recovered, viable C. parvum oocysts from spiked (1 x 10(6) oocysts liter (-1)) Pacific oysters. Depuration at half power also significantly reduced (P oysters. While UV treatment resulted in significant reductions of recovered viable oocysts, low numbers of viable oocysts were still recovered from oysters after depuration, making their consumption when raw a public health risk. Our study highlights the need for increased periodic monitoring programs for shellfish harvesting sites, improved depuration procedures, and revised microbial quality control parameters, including Cryptosporidium assessment, to minimize the risk of cryptosporidiosis.

  16. T cell cytokine responses to stimulation with Ureaplasma parvum in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Yael D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey F; Nathan, Elizabeth A; Watts, Rory; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Payne, Matthew S; Ireland, Demelza J

    2016-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp. are a common vaginal microorganism causally linked to inflammation-driven preterm birth (PTB). The nature of the immune response to Ureaplasma spp. may influence PTB risk. This study sought to define maternal T cell cytokine responses to in vitro stimulation with Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 (UpSV3) in vaginally colonised (UP+) and non-colonised (UP-) pregnant women. Whole blood flow cytometry demonstrated an increase (p=0.027) in the baseline frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(-)(CD8(+)) T cells in UP+ women. UpSV3 stimulation resulted in a significant and specific increase (p=0.001) in the frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(-)(CD8(+)) T cells, regardless of vaginal colonisation status. UpSV3 stimulation also increased the frequency of IFNγ-positive CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells, particularly in the UP+ group (p=0.003). This is the first published study to examine T cell responses to Ureaplasma spp. Future appropriately-powered studies are needed to assess whether insufficient priming or a loss of tolerance to Ureaplasma spp. is occurring in UP+ women at risk of PTB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ureaplasma parvum causing life-threatening disease in a susceptible patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytny, Alexander; Nasser, Roni; Geffen, Yuval; Friedman, Tom; Paul, Mical; Ghanem-Zoubi, Nesrin

    2017-08-16

    A 56-year-old man with lymphoma developed orchitis followed by septic arthritis of his right glenohumeral joint. Synovial fluid cultures were negative but PCR amplification test was positive for Ureaplasmaparvum. The patient was treated with doxycycline. Two and a half years later, the patient presented with shortness of breath and grade III/IV diastolic murmur on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed severely dilated left heart chambers, severe aortic regurgitation and several mobile masses on the aortic valve cusps suspected to be vegetations. He underwent valve replacement; valve tissue culture was negative but the 16S rRNA gene amplification test was positive for U. parvum He was treated again with doxycycline. In an outpatient follow-up 1 year and 3 months later, the patient was doing well. Repeated echocardiography showed normal aortic prosthesis function. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Source water assessment and nonpoint sources of acutely toxic contaminants: A review of research related to survival and transport of Cryptosporidium parvum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark J.; Montemagno, Carlo D.; Jenkins, Michael B.

    1998-12-01

    Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-930123) in 1996 required that public water supply managers identify potential sources of contamination within contributing areas. Nonpoint sources of acutely toxic microbial contaminants, such as Cryptosporidium parvum, challenge current approaches to source identification and management as a first step toward developing management plans for public water supply protection. Little may be known about survival and transport in the field environment, prescribed practices may not be designed to manage such substances, and infective stages may be present in vast numbers and may resist water treatment and disinfection processes. This review summarizes research related to survival and transport of C. parvum oocysts, as an example of an acutely toxic contaminant with nonpoint sources in animal agriculture. It discusses ∥1) significance of infected domesticated animals as potential sources of C. parvum, (2) laboratory and field studies of survival and transport, and (3) approaches to source control in the context of public health protection.

  19. Studies on the resistance/reactivation of Giardia muris cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts exposed to medium-pressure ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosevic, M; Craik, S A; Stafford, J L; Neumann, N F; Kruithof, J; Smith, D W

    2001-10-16

    The ex vivo and in vivo reactivation of Giardia muris cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts after exposure to different doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation was determined using animal infectivity. The infectivity of UV-treated parasites stored for 1-4 days (G. muris) or 1-17 days (C. parvum) at room temperature in the dark was similar to that of organisms administered immediately after UV treatment, indicating that the parasites did not reactivate ex vivo. In contrast, we observed in vivo reactivation of G. muris in three of seven independent animal infectivity experiments, when parasites were treated with relatively low doses of medium-pressure UV (muris cysts and C. parvum oocysts exposed to medium-pressure UV doses of 60 mJ/cm(2) or higher did not exhibit resistance to and/or reactivation following treatment. This suggests that when appropriate doses of UV are used, significant and permanent inactivation of these parasites may be achieved.

  20. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  1. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  2. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient

  3. KAROTENOID PADA ALGAE: KAJIAN TENTANG BIOSINTESIS, DISTRIBUSI SERTA FUNGSI KAROTENOID

    OpenAIRE

    Merdekawati, Windu; Karwur, Ferry F.; Susanto, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRAK   Karotenoid terdistribusi pada archaea, bakteri, jamur, tumbuhan, hewan serta algae. Karotenoid dihasilkan dari komponen isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) yang mengalami proses secara bertahap untuk membentuk beragam jenis karotenoid. Terdapat dua kelompok karotenoid yaitu karoten dan xantofil dengan berbagai jenis turunannya. Struktur kimia pada karotenoid algae yaitu allene, acetylene serta acetylated carotenoids. Algae mempunyai karotenoid spesifik yang menarik untuk dipe...

  4. Composition of phytoplankton algae in Gubi Reservoir, Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the distribution, abundance and taxonomic composition of phytoplankton algae in Gubi reservoir were carried out for 12 months (from January to December 1995). Of the 26 algal taxa identified, 14 taxa belonged to the diatoms, 8 taxa were green algae while 4 taxa belonged to the blue-green algae. Higher cell ...

  5. Can the primary algae production be measured precisely?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, M.; Lundsgaard, C.

    1996-01-01

    Algae production in seawater is extremely important as a basic link in marine food chains. Evaluation of the algae quantity is based on 14CO 2 tracer techniques while natural circulation and light absorption in seawater is taken insufficiently into account. Algae production can vary by 500% in similar nourishment conditions, but varying water mixing conditions. (EG)

  6. Agricultural importance of algae | Abdel-Raouf | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algae are a large and diverse group of microorganisms that can carry out photosynthesis since they capture energy from sunlight. Algae play an important role in agriculture where they are used as biofertilizer and soil stabilizers. Algae, particularly the seaweeds, are used as fertilizers, resulting in less nitrogen and ...

  7. Prevalence of Giardia sp. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium andersoni (syn. C. muris) [correction of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium muris (C. andersoni)] in 109 dairy herds in five counties of southeastern New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, S E; Mohammed, H O; Schaaf, S L

    2000-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Giardia sp. (G. duodenalis group), Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium andersoni (C. muris) [corrected] in dairy cattle in three different age groups, and to evaluate the association of age and season with prevalence. One hundred and nine dairy farms, from a total of 212 farms, in five counties of southeastern New York volunteered to participate. On these farms, 2943 fecal samples were collected from three defined age groups. The farms were randomly assigned for sampling within the four seasons of the year. Each farm was visited once during the study period from March 1993 to June 1994 to collect fecal samples. Demographic data on the study population was collected at the time of sampling by interviewing the farm owner or manager. At collection, fecal samples were scored as diarrheic or non-diarrheic, and each condition was later related to positive or negative infection with these parasites. Fecal samples were processed using a quantitative centrifugation concentration flotation technique and enumerated using bright field and phase contrast microscopy. In this study, the overall population prevalence for Giardia sp. was 8.9%; C. parvum, 0.9%; and C. muris, 1.1%. When considering animals most at the risk of infection (those younger than 6 months of age) Giardia sp. and C. parvum was found in 20.1 and 2.4% of the animals, respectively. Giardia sp. and C. muris were found in all age groups. There was no significant seasonal pattern of infection for any of these parasites.

  8. UV effects on bottom ice algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, K.; Buckley, B.

    1993-01-01

    Antarctic sea ice can be surprisingly transparent to UV radiation, particularly during spring when ozone depletion reaches a maximum. A 5% reduction in photosynthetic production was observed in laboratory experiments for UVB levels expected under the ice at this time. In situ studies modifying the UVB radiation falling onto algae were inconclusive. (author). 5 refs

  9. Analysis, numerics, and optimization of algae growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, K.; Pisarenco, M.; Rudnaya, M.; Savcenco, V.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the mathematical model for algae growth as described in [11] to include new effects. The roles of light, nutrients and acidity of the water body are taken into account. Important properties of the model such as existence and uniqueness of solution, as well as boundedness and positivity are

  10. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  11. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...

  12. Selenium accumulation and metabolism in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Ertani, Andrea; Parrasia, Sofia; Vecchia, Francesca Dalla

    2017-08-01

    Selenium (Se) is an intriguing element because it is metabolically required by a variety of organisms, but it may induce toxicity at high doses. Algae primarily absorb selenium in the form of selenate or selenite using mechanisms similar to those reported in plants. However, while Se is needed by several species of microalgae, the essentiality of this element for plants has not been established yet. The study of Se uptake and accumulation strategies in micro- and macro-algae is of pivotal importance, as they represent potential vectors for Se movement in aquatic environments and Se at high levels may affect their growth causing a reduction in primary production. Some microalgae exhibit the capacity of efficiently converting Se to less harmful volatile compounds as a strategy to cope with Se toxicity. Therefore, they play a crucial role in Se-cycling through the ecosystem. On the other side, micro- or macro-algae enriched in Se may be used in Se biofortification programs aimed to improve Se content in human diet via supplementation of valuable food. Indeed, some organic forms of selenium (selenomethionine and methylselenocysteine) are known to act as anticarcinogenic compounds and exert a broad spectrum of beneficial effects in humans and other mammals. Here, we want to give an overview of the developments in the current understanding of Se uptake, accumulation and metabolism in algae, discussing potential ecotoxicological implications and nutritional aspects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Research for Developing Renewable Biofuels from Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Paul N. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Task A. Expansion of knowledge related to lipid production and secretion in algae A.1 Lipid biosynthesis in target algal species; Systems biology approaches are being used in combination with recent advances in Chlorella and Chlamydomonas genomics to address lipid accumulation in response to defined nutrient regimes. The UNL Algal Group continues screening additional species of Chlorella and other naturally occurring algae for those with optimal triglyceride production; Of the strains examined by the DOE's Aquatic Species Program, green algae, several species of Chlorella represent the largest group from which oleaginous candidates have been identified; A.1.1. Lipid profiling; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by Nile red and BODIPY staining using high throughput strategies to screen for naturally occurring algae that accumulate triglyceride. These strategies complement those using spectrofluorometry to quantify lipid accumulation; Neutral lipid accumulation is routinely monitored by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lipid extracts in conjunction with; Carbon portioning experiments have been completed and the data currently are being analyzed and prepared for publication; Methods in the Black lab were developed to identify and quantify triacylglycerol (TAG), major membrane lipids [diacylglycerol trimethylhomoserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and chloroplast glycolipids], biosynthetic intermediates such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids and different species of acyl-coenzyme A (acyl CoA).

  14. Taxonomic Challenges and Distribution of Gracilarioid Algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the taxonomical literature of the gracilarioid algae from Tanzania, and provides information about their ecology and distribution based on an intensive regime of local collection. Its aim was to provide names, even if on a preliminary basis, for local gracilarioid taxa. Our revision shows that species ...

  15. Washington State University Algae Biofuels Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    chen, Shulin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; McCormick, Margaret [Targeted Growth, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sutterlin, Rusty [Inventure Renewables, Inc., Gig Harbor, WA (United States)

    2012-12-29

    The goal of this project was to advance algal technologies for the production of biofuels and biochemicals by establishing the Washington State Algae Alliance, a collaboration partnership among two private companies (Targeted Growth, Inc. (TGI), Inventure Chemicals (Inventure) Inc (now Inventure Renewables Inc) and Washington State University (WSU). This project included three major components. The first one was strain development at TGI by genetically engineering cyanobacteria to yield high levels of lipid and other specialty chemicals. The second component was developing an algal culture system at WSU to produce algal biomass as biofuel feedstock year-round in the northern states of the United States. This system included two cultivation modes, the first one was a phototrophic process and the second a heterotrophic process. The phototrophic process would be used for algae production in open ponds during warm seasons; the heterotrophic process would be used in cold seasons so that year-round production of algal lipid would be possible. In warm seasons the heterotrophic process would also produce algal seeds to be used in the phototrophic culture process. Selected strains of green algae and cyanobacteria developed by TGI were tested in the system. The third component was downstream algal biomass processing by Inventure that included efficiently harvesting the usable fuel fractions from the algae mass and effectively isolating and separating the usable components into specific fractions, and converting isolated fractions into green chemicals.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used in food only within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... within the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  18. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvíderová, Jana; Hájek, J.; Worland, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2013), s. 137-148 ISSN 0143-2044 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601630808; GA AV ČR KJB600050708 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Ice nucleation * snow algae * lichen photobionts Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2013

  19. Photoprotection strategies of the alga Nannochloropsis gaditana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukhutsina, Volha U.; Fristedt, Rikard; Morosinotto, Tomas; Croce, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Nannochloropsis spp. are algae with high potential for biotechnological applications due to their capacity to accumulate lipids. However, little is known about their photosynthetic apparatus and acclimation/photoprotective strategies. In this work, we studied the mechanisms of non-photochemical

  20. Usos industriales de las algas diatomeas.

    OpenAIRE

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Las diatomeas son algas microscópicas que habitan tanto en aguas dulces como marinas. Aparte de su destacado papel en la cadena trófica de los ecosistemas acuáticos, con el tiempo forman depósitos a los que el hombre ha encontrado abundantes aplicaciones prácticas.

  1. Heterotrophic bacteria associated with the green alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, A.; Ktari, L.; Ahmed, M.; Bolhuis, H.; Bouhaouala-Zahar, B.; Stal, L.J.; Boudabbous, A.; El Bour, M.

    2018-01-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria associated with the green alga Ulva rigida, collected from the coast of Tunisia, were isolated andsubsequently identified by their 16S rRNA gene sequences and by phylogenetic analysis. The 71 isolates belong to four phyla:Proteobacteria (Alpha-and Gamma- subclasses),

  2. Trans-suppression of host CDH3 and LOXL4 genes during Cryptosporidium parvum infection involves nuclear delivery of parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Zhenping; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Li, Min; Li, Yao; Pang, Jing; Dong, Stephanie; Strauss-Soukup, Juliane K; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Intestinal infection by Cryptosporidium parvum causes significant alterations in the gene expression profile in host epithelial cells. Previous studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts of low protein-coding potential are delivered into infected host cells and may modulate host gene transcription. Using in vitro models of human intestinal cryptosporidiosis, we report here that trans-suppression of the cadherin 3 (CDH3) and lysyl oxidase like 4 (LOXL4) genes in human intestinal epithelial cells following C. parvum infection involves host delivery of the Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA, a C. parvum RNA that has been previously demonstrated to be delivered into the nuclei of infected host cells. Downregulation of CDH3 and LOXL4 genes was detected in host epithelial cells following C. parvum infection or in cells expressing the parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA. Knockdown of Cdg7_FLc_1000 attenuated the trans-suppression of CDH3 and LOXL4 genes in host cells induced by infection. Interestingly, Cdg7_FLc_1000 was detected to be recruited to the promoter regions of both CDH3 and LOXL4 gene loci in host cells following C. parvum infection. Host delivery of Cdg7_FLc_1000 promoted the PH domain zinc finger protein 1 (PRDM1)-mediated H3K9 methylation associated with trans-suppression in the CDH3 gene locus, but not the LOXL4 gene. Therefore, our data suggest that host delivery of Cdg7_FLc_1000 causes CDH3 trans-suppression in human intestinal epithelial cells following C. parvum infection through PRDM1-mediated H3K9 methylation in the CDH3 gene locus, whereas Cdg7_FLc_1000 induces trans-suppression of the host LOXL4 gene through H3K9/H3K27 methylation-independent mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth and extracellular laccase production in liquid cultures of Minimidochium parvum LPSC # 548 Strain Crecimiento y producción de lacasa extracelular en cultivos líquidos de Minimidochium parvum cepa LPSC # 548

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario C. N. Saparrat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Minimidochium parvum LPSC # 548, a fungus isolated from litter floating on waters of Río Santiago (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina polluted with industrial effluents and crude-oil, was grown as a shaking culture on a C-limited medium to evaluate its ability to produce extracellular laccase. The effect of anthracene, CuSO4 · 5H2O, ethanol, guaiacol, humic acids, Kraft lignin, MnSO4· H2O, Tween 20 and veratryl alcohol on its growth and extracellular laccase activity levels was also analyzed. The cultures grown on basal medium produced maximum biomass (over 420 mg/100 ml and maximum extracellular laccase activity (351.7 ±53.3 pkat/ml after 5 days of incubation. Among the different factors tested, only the humic acids at 0.1 % (w/v were found to stimulate the growth of M. parvum . However, Tween 20 (0.1 %, v/v was the only one that produced an increase of laccase activity levels up to 2.5-fold compared to the control.Minimidochium parvum LPSC # 548, un hongo aislado de materia orgánica colectada en aguas de Río Santiago (Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina contaminadas con efluentes industriales y crudo de petróleo, se cultivó en un medio líquido limitante en carbono bajo agitación para evaluar su habilidad para producir lacasa extracelular. Se analizó también el efecto de ácidos húmicos, alcohol veratrílico, antraceno, CuSO4 · 5H2O, etanol, guaiacol, lignina Kraft, MnSO4· H2O y Tween 20 sobre el crecimiento fúngico y los niveles de actividad lacasa extracelular. Los cultivos sobre medio basal produjeron máximos niveles de biomasa (superior a 420 mg/100 ml y actividad lacasa extracelular (351,7 ±53,3 pkat/ml después de 5 días de incubación. Entre los diferentes agentes químicos testeados, sólo los ácidos húmicos al 0,1 % (p/v estimularon el crecimiento de M. parvum . No obstante, sólo el Tween 20 (0,1 %, v/v produjo un incremento de los niveles de actividad lacasa (2,5 veces comparado a cultivos control.

  4. Is chloroplastic class IIA aldolase a marine enzyme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Ogata, Takeru; Tanaka, Satoshi; Ohama, Takeshi; Kano, Sanae; Kazuhiro, Fujiwara; Hayashi, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Shinjiro; Takahashi, Hiro; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    Expressed sequence tag analyses revealed that two marine Chlorophyceae green algae, Chlamydomonas sp. W80 and Chlamydomonas sp. HS5, contain genes coding for chloroplastic class IIA aldolase (fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase: FBA). These genes show robust monophyly with those of the marine Prasinophyceae algae genera Micromonas, Ostreococcus and Bathycoccus, indicating that the acquisition of this gene through horizontal gene transfer by an ancestor of the green algal lineage occurred prior to the divergence of the core chlorophytes (Chlorophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae) and the prasinophytes. The absence of this gene in some freshwater chlorophytes, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella variabilis and Coccomyxa subellipsoidea, can therefore be explained by the loss of this gene somewhere in the evolutionary process. Our survey on the distribution of this gene in genomic and transcriptome databases suggests that this gene occurs almost exclusively in marine algae, with a few exceptions, and as such, we propose that chloroplastic class IIA FBA is a marine environment-adapted enzyme. This hypothesis was also experimentally tested using Chlamydomonas W80, for which we found that the transcript levels of this gene to be significantly lower under low-salt (that is, simulated terrestrial) conditions. Expression analyses of transcriptome data for two algae, Prymnesium parvum and Emiliania huxleyi, taken from the Sequence Read Archive database also indicated that the expression of this gene under terrestrial conditions (low NaCl and low sulfate) is significantly downregulated. Thus, these experimental and transcriptome data provide support for our hypothesis. PMID:27058504

  5. Co-infections with Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis in a human immunodeficiency virus positive woman with vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Dhawan, Benu

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected woman presented with vaginal discharge and associated vulval irritation. The vaginal swabs tested positive for Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The specimen also tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by cryptic plasmid and omp1 gene PCR assays. The patient was successfully treated with azithromycin based on the antibiotic susceptibility testing results of U. parvum and M. hominis by microbroth dilution. Since sexually transmitted infections enhance the transmission of HIV, HIV-positive patients should be screened routinely for these pathogens.

  6. One-step simultaneous detection of Ureaplasma parvum and genotypes SV1, SV3 and SV6 from clinical samples using PlexPCR technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, M S; Furfaro, L L; Tucker, R; Tan, L Y; Mokany, E

    2017-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp. are associated with preterm birth. In recent times, it has become apparent that Ureaplasma parvum, but not Ureaplasma urealyticum, is of most relevance. We recently demonstrated this in Australian pregnant women and using high-resolution melt (HRM) PCR, further showed that U. parvum genotype SV6 was of particular significance. However, our assay was unable to identify multiple genotypes in the same sample, required a separate species-level qPCR for low titre samples and was not ideal for diagnostic laboratories due to the nature of HRM PCR result interpretation. Consequently, our current study developed a novel, one-step PlexPCR assay capable of detecting U. parvum and genotypes SV1, SV3 and SV6 in a single reaction directly from clinical samples. We then validated this using vaginal swab DNA from our Australian cohort of pregnant women. The PlexPCR was highly sensitive, detecting all targets to between 0.4 × 10 -5  ng DNA (SV3) and 0.4 × 10 -6  ng DNA (U. parvum, SV1 and SV6). Compared to our HRM PCR, the PlexPCR defined genotype distribution in all seven cases previously reported as 'mixed', and detected another eight cases where multiple genotypes (two) were present in samples previously reported as single genotypes using HRM PCR. Ureaplasma spp. have been associated with prematurity for decades, however, only a minority of studies have examined this beyond the genus level. In those that have, Ureaplasma parvum has been strongly associated with preterm birth. We recently demonstrated this in Australian women and further showed that U. parvum genotype SV6 was of particular significance. Our PlexPCR assay allows rapid detection and concurrent genotyping of U. parvum in clinical samples and may be of particular interest to obstetricians, particularly those caring for women at a high risk of preterm birth, and any other disease phenotypes where U. parvum is of interest. © 2017 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology published by John

  7. Neofusicoccum eucalyptorum (=Botryosphaeria eucalyptorum Y N. parvum: PATÓGENOS EN PLANTACIONES DE EUCALIPTO EN MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús G. De la Mora-Castañeda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el oriente de Michoacán, la muerte regresiva en plantaciones comerciales de eucalipto se presentó en árboles con daños por heladas y sequías en el 2013. En Eucalyptus nitens se aisló al patógeno Neofusicoccum eucalyptorum encontrando a su teleomorfo Botryosphaeria eucalypto - rum en los cancros, mientras que N. parvum se aisló de E. nitens y E. globulus. Ambas especies de Neofusicoccum se identificaron por morfología y se caracterizaron molecularmente mediante PCR- ITS. Las secuencias de N. eucalyptorum (números de acceso: KC479184 y KC4799188 y N. parvum (KC479185, KC479186 y KC479187 se depositaron en el Banco de Genes del NCBI. En campo, los eucaliptos enfermos presentaron muerte regresiva, cancros fusiformes en fuste que inducen hincha - mientos, flujo de resina y brotes epicórmicos. Los hongos inoculados in vitro en varetas de E. nitens y E. globulus causaron lesiones necróticas y abundantes picnidios inmaduros a 10 días después de la inocu - lación (ddi. En los árboles de E. nitens de tres años de edad se formó un cancro de apariencia hundida con forma fusiforme, de color café oscuro y de 13 a 21.9 cm a los 48 ddi. Este trabajo es el primer reporte de N. eucalyptorum y N. parvum en México causando enfermedad en plantaciones de eucalipto.

  8. PCR-Múltiple para el diagnóstico de Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum y Ureaplasma urealyticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Rodríguez-Preval

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum y Ureaplasma urealyticum son especies relacionadas con enfermedades del tracto genitourinario, y particularmente con la uretritis no gonocócica (UNG en el hombre. Los cultivos de estos microorganismos resultan complicados, por lo que las técnicas moleculares, principalmente la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, se han convertido en el principal método de detección de estos organismos. Objetivo: Implementar un método molecular basado en tecnología de genes para el diagnóstico de estas cuatro especies de micoplasmas genitales, aplicándolo en muestras clínicas de pacientes con UNG. Material y métodos: Se crearon las condiciones para un PCR-Múltiple para identificar estas especies empleando como muestra ADN de referencia, utilizando los juegos de cebadores complementarios a fragmentos de los genes de la proteína adhesiva de M. genitalium (MgPa, ARN ribosomal 16S de M. hominis, región espaciadora entre los genes del ARN ribosomal 16S y 23S de U. parvum, y de la región espaciadora adyacente al gen de la ureasa y específico para U. urealyticum, siendo un método específico y sensible. Resultados: Al analizar 34 muestras de exudado uretral, 27 correspondieron a la clase Mollicutes, obteniéndose 14,8% de positividad a M. genitalium, 18,5% a M. hominis, 11,1% a U. urealyticum y 3,7%. a U. parvum. Con este trabajo se realizó por primera vez el diagnóstico de M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. parvum y U. urealyticum en muestras uretrales de pacientes cubanos. Conclusión: Se recomienda incluir el diagnóstico de estas especies en un mayor número de pacientes cubanos con síntomas uretrales, para validar el método propuesto y conocer la relación de estos microorganismos con la UNG.

  9. Rickettsia rickettsii isolation from naturally infected Amblyomma parvum ticks by centrifugation in a 24-well culture plate technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dzul-Rosado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an acute illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii (R. rickettsii and is transmitted by the bite of ticks of the genera Dermacentor, Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus. The illness results in a high mortality rate and may be easily confused with other febrile syndromes. In Yucatan State, Mexico, childhood cases with a high mortality have been reported. In this work we report the isolation of a Mexican R. rickettsii strain from a tick egg mass using an alternative method for Rickettsia isolation with 24-well plates. We also identified a potential vector of R. rickettsii in the southeast of Mexico, which is Amblyomma parvum.

  10. Effect of tillage and rainfall on transport of manure-applied Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Norma E; Wang, Ping; Lejeune, Jeff; Shipitalo, Martin J; Ward, Lucy A; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Dick, Warren A

    2009-01-01

    Most waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been attributed to agricultural sources due to the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal wastes and manure spreading on farmlands. No-till, an effective conservation practice, often results in soil having higher water infiltration and percolation rates than conventional tillage. We treated six undisturbed no-till and six tilled soil blocks (30 by 30 by 30 cm) with 1 L liquid dairy manure containing 10(5) C. parvum oocysts per milliliter to test the effect of tillage and rainfall on oocyst transport. The blocks were subjected to rainfall treatments consisting of 5 mm or 30 mm in 30 min. Leachate was collected from the base of the blocks in 35-mL increments using a 64-cell grid lysimeter. Even before any rain was applied, approximately 300 mL of water from the liquid manure (30% of that applied) was transported through the no-till soil, but none through the tilled blocks. After rain was applied, a greater number and percentage of first leachate samples from the no-till soil blocks compared to the tilled blocks tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In contrast to leachate, greater numbers of oocysts were recovered from the tilled soil, itself, than from the no-till soil. Although tillage was the most important factor affecting oocyst transport, rainfall timing and intensity were also important. To minimize transport of Cryptosporidium in no-till fields, manure should be applied at least 48 h before heavy rainfall is anticipated or methods of disrupting the direct linkage of surface soil to drains, via macropores, need to be used.

  11. Monoclonal Antibodies to Intracellular Stages of Cryptosporidium parvum Define Life Cycle Progression In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Georgia; Ravindran, Soumya; Funkhouser-Jones, Lisa; Barks, Jennifer; Wang, Qiuling; VanDussen, Kelli L; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Sibley, L David

    2018-06-27

    Among the obstacles hindering Cryptosporidium research is the lack of an in vitro culture system that supports complete life development and propagation. This major barrier has led to a shortage of widely available anti- Cryptosporidium antibodies and a lack of markers for staging developmental progression. Previously developed antibodies against Cryptosporidium were raised against extracellular stages or recombinant proteins, leading to antibodies with limited reactivity across the parasite life cycle. Here we sought to create antibodies that recognize novel epitopes that could be used to define intracellular development. We identified a mouse epithelial cell line that supported C. parvum growth, enabling immunization of mice with infected cells to create a bank of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intracellular parasite stages while avoiding the development of host-specific antibodies. From this bank, we identified 12 antibodies with a range of reactivities across the parasite life cycle. Importantly, we identified specific MAbs that can distinguish different life cycle stages, such as trophozoites, merozoites, type I versus II meronts, and macrogamonts. These MAbs provide valuable tools for the Cryptosporidium research community and will facilitate future investigation into parasite biology. IMPORTANCE Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that causes gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals. Currently, there is a limited array of antibodies available against the parasite, which hinders imaging studies and makes it difficult to visualize the parasite life cycle in different culture systems. In order to alleviate this reagent gap, we created a library of novel antibodies against the intracellular life cycle stages of Cryptosporidium We identified antibodies that recognize specific life cycle stages in distinctive ways, enabling unambiguous description of the parasite life cycle. These MAbs will aid future investigation into Cryptosporidium biology and

  12. Biofuels from algae for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, M. Fatih

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and useful chemicals. Two algae samples (Cladophora fracta and Chlorella protothecoid) were studied for biofuel production. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil, biohydrogen and biomethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 liters per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. Algal oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. The effect of temperature on the yield of hydrogen from two algae (C. fracta and C. protothecoid) by pyrolysis and steam gasification were investigated in this study. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO 2 , CO, H 2 , and CH 4 .The yields of hydrogen by pyrolysis and steam gasification processes of the samples increased with temperature. The yields of gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 8.2% to 39.2% and 9.5% to 40.6% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 575 to 925 K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 25.8% to 44.4% and 27.6% to 48.7% by volume

  13. Radiokinetic study in betony marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo Gouvea, V. de.

    1981-01-01

    The influx and outflux kinetics of some radionuclides in algae of the Rio de Janeiro coastline, were studied in order to select bioindicators for radioactive contamination in aquatic media, due to the presence of Nuclear Power Stations. Bioassays of the concentration and loss of radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 51 Cr, 60 Co and 131 I were performed in 1000cm 3 aquarium under controlled laboratory conditions, using a single channel gamma counting system, to study the species of algae most frequently found in the region. The concentration and loss parameters for all the species and radionuclides studied were obtained from the normalized results. The loss parameters were computerwise adjusted using Powell's multiparametric method. (author)

  14. Hyperaccumulation of radioactive isotopes by marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Hirano, Shigeki; Watabe, Teruhisa

    2003-01-01

    Hyperaccumlators are effective indicator organisms for monitoring marine pollution by heavy metals and artificial radionuclides. We found a green algae, Bryopsis maxima that hyperaccumulate a stable and radioactive isotopes such as Sr-90, Tc-99, Ba-138, Re-187, and Ra-226. B. maxima showed high concentration factors for heavy alkali earth metals like Ba and Ra, compared with other marine algae in Japan. Furthermore, this species had the highest concentrations for Tc-99 and Re-187. The accumulation and excretion patterns of Sr-85 and Tc-95m were examined by tracer experiments. The chemical states of Sr and Re in living B. maxima were analyzed by HPLC-ICP/MS, LC/MS, and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis using synchrotron radiation. (author)

  15. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  16. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  17. Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Sweet

    Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is

  18. Hydrologic and Vegetative Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate Microspheres in Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type (“pure” versus “environmental”) on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality. PMID:23315738

  19. Comparison between culture and a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay detecting Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frølund, Maria; Björnelius, Eva; Lidbrink, Peter; Ahrens, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Skov

    2014-01-01

    A novel multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for simultaneous detection of U. urealyticum and U. parvum was developed and compared with quantitative culture in Shepard's 10 C medium for ureaplasmas in urethral swabs from 129 men and 66 women, and cervical swabs from 61 women. Using culture as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the qPCR was 96% and 95% for female urethral and cervical swabs, respectively. In male urethral swabs the sensitivity was 89%. The corresponding specificities were 100%, 87% and 99%. The qPCR showed a linear increasing DNA copy number with increasing colour-changing units. Although slightly less sensitive than culture, this multiplex qPCR assay detecting U. urealyticum and U. parvum constitutes a simple and fast alternative to the traditional methods for identification of ureaplasmas and allows simultaneous species differentiation and quantitation in clinical samples. Furthermore, specimens overgrown by other bacteria using the culture method can be evaluated in the qPCR.

  20. Comparison between culture and a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay detecting Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Frølund

    Full Text Available A novel multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR for simultaneous detection of U. urealyticum and U. parvum was developed and compared with quantitative culture in Shepard's 10 C medium for ureaplasmas in urethral swabs from 129 men and 66 women, and cervical swabs from 61 women. Using culture as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the qPCR was 96% and 95% for female urethral and cervical swabs, respectively. In male urethral swabs the sensitivity was 89%. The corresponding specificities were 100%, 87% and 99%. The qPCR showed a linear increasing DNA copy number with increasing colour-changing units. Although slightly less sensitive than culture, this multiplex qPCR assay detecting U. urealyticum and U. parvum constitutes a simple and fast alternative to the traditional methods for identification of ureaplasmas and allows simultaneous species differentiation and quantitation in clinical samples. Furthermore, specimens overgrown by other bacteria using the culture method can be evaluated in the qPCR.

  1. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS: GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM. I-IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; EL-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidisis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells causing a major health problem for man and animals. Experimentally the immunologic mediated elimination of C. parvum requires CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma. But, the innate immune responses also have a significant protective role in both man and animals. the mucosal immune response to C. parvum in C57BL/6 neonatal and GKO mice shows a concomitant Thl and Th2 cytokine mRNA expression, with a crucial role for IFN-gamma in the resolution of the infection. NK cells and IFN-gamma have been shown to be important components in immunity in T and B cell-deficient mice, but IFN-gamma-dependent resistance is demonstrated in alymphocytic mice. Epithelial cells may play a vital role in immunity as once infected these cells have increased expression of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines and demonstrate anti-infection killing mechanisms. C. parvum immunological response was used to evaluate the efficacy of anti-cryptosporidisis agents of Garlic, Ginger, Mirazid and Metronidazole in experimentally infected mice.

  2. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum infection of dairy cows in three northern provinces of Thailand determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant antigen CpP23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpankaew, T; Jittapalapong, S; Phasuk, J; Pinyopanuwut, N; Chimnoi, W; Kengradomkit, C; Sunanta, C; Zhang, G; Aboge, G O; Nishikawa, Y; Igarashi, I; Xuan, X

    2009-06-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is the most frequent parasitic agent that causes diarrhoea in AIDS patients in Thailand. Cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in humans may be attributed to contamination of their drinking water from infected dairy pastures. A 23-kDa glycoprotein of C. parvum (CpP23) is a sporozoite surface protein that is geographically conserved among C. parvum isolates. This glycoprotein is a potentially useful candidate antigen for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Therefore, we investigated the seroprevalence of C. parvum infection in dairy cows in northern Thailand using an ELISA based on recombinant CpP23 antigen. Sera were randomly collected from 642 dairy cows of 42 small-holder farmers, which had the top three highest number of the dairy cows' population in Northern Thailand, that included Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai and Lumpang provinces. The overall seroprevalence of the infection was 4.4%, and the seropositive rates for the three provinces were 3.3% in Chiang Mai, 5.1% in Chiang Rai and 3% in Lumpang. These results suggest that cattle could play a role in zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in Thailand.

  3. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae.

  4. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  5. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shanshan; Yang Jixian; Tian Jiayu; Ma Fang; Tu Gang; Du Maoan

    2010-01-01

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm 2 , pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 10 9 -1.55 x 10 9 cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m 3 . The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  6. RNA-Seq analysis during the life cycle of Cryptosporidium parvum reveals significant differential gene expression between proliferating stages in the intestine and infectious sporozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Christoph; Ramakrishnan, Chandra; Basso, Walter U; Schmid, Marc W; Okoniewski, Michal; Smith, Nicholas C; Hässig, Michael; Deplazes, Peter; Hehl, Adrian B

    2018-05-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrhoea in humans and animals. There are no vaccines and few drugs available to control C. parvum. In this study, we used RNA-Seq to compare gene expression in sporozoites and intracellular stages of C. parvum to identify genes likely to be important for successful completion of the parasite's life cycle and, thereby, possible targets for drugs or vaccines. We identified 3774 protein-encoding transcripts in C. parvum. Applying a stringent cut-off of eight fold for determination of differential expression, we identified 173 genes (26 coding for predicted secreted proteins) upregulated in sporozoites. On the other hand, expression of 1259 genes was upregulated in intestinal stages (merozoites/gamonts) with a gene ontology enrichment for 63 biological processes and upregulation of 117 genes in 23 metabolic pathways. There was no clear stage specificity of expression of AP2-domain containing transcription factors, although sporozoites had a relatively small repertoire of these important regulators. Our RNA-Seq analysis revealed a new calcium-dependent protein kinase, bringing the total number of known calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in C. parvum to 11. One of these, CDPK1, was expressed in all stages, strengthening the notion that it is a valid drug target. By comparing parasites grown in vivo (which produce bona fide thick-walled oocysts) and in vitro (which are arrested in sexual development prior to oocyst generation) we were able to confirm that genes encoding oocyst wall proteins are expressed in gametocytes and that the proteins are stockpiled rather than generated de novo in zygotes. RNA-Seq analysis of C. parvum revealed genes expressed in a stage-specific manner and others whose expression is required at all stages of development. The functional significance of these can now be addressed through recent advances in transgenics for C. parvum, and may lead to the identification of viable drug and vaccine

  7. Discovery of ebselen as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI by high-throughput screening of existing drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Eltahan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum is a water-borne and food-borne apicomplexan pathogen. It is one of the top four diarrheal-causing pathogens in children under the age of five in developing countries, and an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Unlike other apicomplexans, C. parvum lacks Kreb's cycle and cytochrome-based respiration, thus relying mainly on glycolysis to produce ATP. In this study, we characterized the primary biochemical features of the C. parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI and determined its Michaelis constant towards fructose-6-phosphate (Km = 0.309 mM, Vmax = 31.72 nmol/μg/min. We also discovered that ebselen, an organoselenium drug, was a selective inhibitor of CpGPI by high-throughput screening of 1200 known drugs. Ebselen acted on CpGPI as an allosteric noncompetitive inhibitor (IC50 = 8.33 μM; Ki = 36.33 μM, while complete inhibition of CpGPI activity was not achieved. Ebselen could also inhibit the growth of C. parvum in vitro (EC50 = 165 μM at concentrations nontoxic to host cells, albeit with a relatively small in vitro safety window of 4.2 (cytotoxicity TC50 on HCT-8 cells = 700 μM. Additionally, ebselen might also target other enzymes in the parasite, leading to the parasite growth reduction. Therefore, although ebselen is useful in studying the inhibition of CpGPI enzyme activity, further proof is needed to chemically and/or genetically validate CpGPI as a drug target. Keywords: Apicomplexan, Cryptosporidium parvum, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI, Ebselen

  8. Biotin- and Glycoprotein-Coated Microspheres as Surrogates for Studying Filtration Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum in a Granular Limestone Aquifer Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M E; Blaschke, A P; Toze, S; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; van Driezum, I H; Sommer, R; Kirschner, A K T; Cervero-Aragó, S; Farnleitner, A H; Pang, L

    2015-07-01

    Members of the genus Cryptosporidium are waterborne protozoa of great health concern. Many studies have attempted to find appropriate surrogates for assessing Cryptosporidium filtration removal in porous media. In this study, we evaluated the filtration of Cryptosporidium parvum in granular limestone medium by the use of biotin- and glycoprotein-coated carboxylated polystyrene microspheres (CPMs) as surrogates. Column experiments were carried out with core material taken from a managed aquifer recharge site in Adelaide, Australia. For the experiments with injection of a single type of particle, we observed the total removal of the oocysts and glycoprotein-coated CPMs, a 4.6- to 6.3-log10 reduction of biotin-coated CPMs, and a 2.6-log10 reduction of unmodified CPMs. When two different types of particles were simultaneously injected, glycoprotein-coated CPMs showed a 5.3-log10 reduction, while the uncoated CPMs displayed a 3.7-log10 reduction, probably due to particle-particle interactions. Our results confirm that glycoprotein-coated CPMs are the most accurate surrogates for C. parvum; biotin-coated CPMs are slightly more conservative, while unmodified CPMs are markedly overly conservative for predicting C. parvum removal in granular limestone medium. The total removal of C. parvum observed in our study suggests that granular limestone medium is very effective for the filtration removal of C. parvum and could potentially be used for the pretreatment of drinking water and aquifer storage recovery of recycled water. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Algae to Economically Viable Low-Carbon-Footprint Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhujade, Ramesh; Chidambaram, Mandan; Kumar, Avnish; Sapre, Ajit

    2017-06-07

    Algal oil as an alternative to fossil fuel has attracted attention since the 1940s, when it was discovered that many microalgae species can produce large amounts of lipids. Economics and energy security were the motivational factors for a spurt in algae research during the 1970s, 1990s, and early 2000s. Whenever crude prices declined, research on algae stopped. The scenario today is different. Even given low and volatile crude prices ($30-$50/barrel), interest in algae continues all over the world. Algae, with their cure-all characteristics, have the potential to provide sustainable solutions to problems in the energy-food-climate nexus. However, after years of effort, there are no signs of algae-to-biofuel technology being commercialized. This article critically reviews past work; summarizes the current status of the technology; and based on the lessons learned, provides a balanced perspective on a potential path toward commercialization of algae-to-oil technology.

  10. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  11. Comparative genome analysis of 19 Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralanov, Vanya; Lu, Jin; Duffy, Lynn B; Crabb, Donna M; Shrivastava, Susmita; Methé, Barbara A; Inman, Jason; Yooseph, Shibu; Xiao, Li; Cassell, Gail H; Waites, Ken B; Glass, John I

    2012-05-30

    Ureaplasma urealyticum (UUR) and Ureaplasma parvum (UPA) are sexually transmitted bacteria among humans implicated in a variety of disease states including but not limited to: nongonococcal urethritis, infertility, adverse pregnancy outcomes, chorioamnionitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates. There are 10 distinct serotypes of UUR and 4 of UPA. Efforts to determine whether difference in pathogenic potential exists at the ureaplasma serovar level have been hampered by limitations of antibody-based typing methods, multiple cross-reactions and poor discriminating capacity in clinical samples containing two or more serovars. We determined the genome sequences of the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strains of all UUR and UPA serovars as well as four clinical isolates of UUR for which we were not able to determine serovar designation. UPA serovars had 0.75-0.78 Mbp genomes and UUR serovars were 0.84-0.95 Mbp. The original classification of ureaplasma isolates into distinct serovars was largely based on differences in the major ureaplasma surface antigen called the multiple banded antigen (MBA) and reactions of human and animal sera to the organisms. Whole genome analysis of the 14 serovars and the 4 clinical isolates showed the mba gene was part of a large superfamily, which is a phase variable gene system, and that some serovars have identical sets of mba genes. Most of the differences among serovars are hypothetical genes, and in general the two species and 14 serovars are extremely similar at the genome level. Comparative genome analysis suggests UUR is more capable of acquiring genes horizontally, which may contribute to its greater virulence for some conditions. The overwhelming evidence of extensive horizontal gene transfer among these organisms from our previous studies combined with our comparative analysis indicates that ureaplasmas exist as quasi-species rather than as stable serovars in their native environment. Therefore, differential

  12. Genome Annotation and Transcriptomics of Oil-Producing Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-16

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0103 GENOME ANNOTATION AND TRANSCRIPTOMICS OF OIL-PRODUCING ALGAE Sabeeha Merchant UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES Final...2010 To 12-31-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GENOME ANNOTATION AND TRANSCRIPTOMICS OF OIL-PRODUCING ALGAE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0095 5b...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Most algae accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) when they are starved for essential nutrients like N, S, P (or Si in the case of some

  13. Production and characterization of algae extract from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weston Kightlinger

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that algae extract derived from C. reinhardtii is similar, if not superior, to commercially available yeast extract in nutrient content and effects on the growth and metabolism of E. coli and S. cerevisiae. Bacto™ yeast extract is valued at USD $0.15–0.35 per gram, if algae extract was sold at similar prices, it would serve as a high-value co-product in algae-based fuel processes.

  14. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  15. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  16. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan; Fatih Demirbas, M.

    2011-01-01

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops.

  17. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouvea, R.C.; Branco, M.E.C.; Santos, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of polonium 210 Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210 Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210 Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  18. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  19. Economic evaluation of algae biodiesel based on meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli; Liu, Xiaowei; White, Mark A.; Colosi, Lisa M.

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to elucidate the economic viability of algae-to-energy systems at a large scale, by developing a meta-analysis of five previously published economic evaluations of systems producing algae biodiesel. Data from original studies were harmonised into a standardised framework using financial and technical assumptions. Results suggest that the selling price of algae biodiesel under the base case would be 5.00-10.31/gal, higher than the selected benchmarks: 3.77/gal for petroleum diesel, and 4.21/gal for commercial biodiesel (B100) from conventional vegetable oil or animal fat. However, the projected selling price of algal biodiesel (2.76-4.92/gal), following anticipated improvements, would be competitive. A scenario-based sensitivity analysis reveals that the price of algae biodiesel is most sensitive to algae biomass productivity, algae oil content, and algae cultivation cost. This indicates that the improvements in the yield, quality, and cost of algae feedstock could be the key factors to make algae-derived biodiesel economically viable.

  20. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  1. Ammonium removal using algae-bacteria consortia: the effect of ammonium concentration, algae biomass, and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Huijun; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effects of ammonium nitrogen concentration, algae biomass concentration, and light conditions (wavelength and intensity) on the ammonium removal efficiency of algae-bacteria consortia from wastewater were investigated. The results indicated that ammonium concentration and light intensity had a significant impact on nitrification. It was found that the highest ammonia concentration (430 mg N/L) in the influent resulted in the highest ammonia removal rate of 108 ± 3.6 mg N/L/days, which was two times higher than the influent with low ammonia concentration (40 mg N/L). At the lowest light intensity of 1000 Lux, algae biomass concentration, light wavelength, and light cycle did not show a significant effect on the performance of algal-bacterial consortium. Furthermore, the ammonia removal rate was approximately 83 ± 1.0 mg N/L/days, which was up to 40% faster than at the light intensity of 2500 Lux. It was concluded that the algae-bacteria consortia can effectively remove nitrogen from wastewater and the removal performance can be stabilized and enhanced using the low light intensity of 1000 Lux that is also a cost-effective strategy.

  2. Snow algae and lichen algae differ in their resistance to freezing temperature: An ice nucleation study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajek, J.; Kvíderová, Jana; Worland, R.; Barták, M.; Elster, Josef; Vaczi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2009), s. 37-38 ISSN 0031-8884. [International Phycological Congress /9./. 02.08.2009-08.08.2009, Tokyo] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050702; GA AV ČR KJB601630808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ice nucleation * algae * freezing Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  3. Role of marine algae in organic farming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Division of Publication and Information, Indian Council of Medical Research, V. Ramalingaswami Bhawan, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India e - mail: encejain@yahoo.co.in Role of marine algae in organic far m ing As rightly outlined.... The Indi an Ocean, including its adjacent seas, extends over an area of about 73.44 ? 10 6 km 2 and the potential harvest of seaweeds from the Indian Ocean is about 870 thousand tonnes (wet weight) 3 . India could draw benefits from this marine...

  4. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, S.; Sengar, R.M.S.; Mittal, S.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    1992-01-01

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae

  5. Foetal Ureaplasma parvum bacteraemia as a function of gestation-dependent complement insufficiency: Evidence from a sheep model of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Matthew W; Ahmed, Shatha; Beeton, Michael L; Payne, Matthew S; Saito, Masatoshi; Miura, Yuichiro; Usuda, Haruo; Kallapur, Suhas G; Kramer, Boris W; Stock, Sarah J; Jobe, Alan H; Newnham, John P; Spiller, Owen B

    2017-01-01

    Complement is a central defence against sepsis, and increasing complement insufficiency in neonates of greater prematurity may predispose to increased sepsis. Ureaplasma spp. are the most frequently cultured bacteria from preterm blood samples. A sheep model of intrauterine Ureaplasma parvum infection was used to examine in vivo Ureaplasma bacteraemia at early and late gestational ages. Complement function and Ureaplasma killing assays were used to determine the correlation between complement potency and bactericidal activity of sera ex vivo. Ureaplasma was cultured from 50% of 95-day gestation lamb cord blood samples compared to 10% of 125-day gestation lambs. Bactericidal activity increased with increased gestational age, and a direct correlation between functional complement activity and bactericidal activity (R 2 =.86; PUreaplasma bacteraemia in vivo was confined to early preterm lambs with low complement function, but Ureaplasma infection itself did not diminish complement levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) arrests Cryptosporidium parvum growth in vitro and prevents lethal infection in interferon gamma receptor knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonzogni-Desautels, Karine; Renteria, Axel E; Camargo, Fabio V; Di Lenardo, Thomas Z; Mikhail, Alexandre; Arrowood, Michael J; Fortin, Anny; Ndao, Momar

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a species of protozoa that causes cryptosporidiosis, an intestinal disease affecting many mammals including humans. Typically, in healthy individuals, cryptosporidiosis is a self-limiting disease. However, C. parvum can cause a severe and persistent infection that can be life-threatening for immunocompromised individuals, such as AIDS patients. As there are no available treatments for these patients that can cure the disease, there is an urgent need to identify treatment options. We tested the anti-parasitic activity of the alkylphosphocholine oleylphosphocholine (OlPC), an analog of miltefosine, against C. parvum in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro experiments using C. parvum infected human ileocecal adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-8 cells) showed that OlPC has an EC50 of 18.84 nM. Moreover, no cell toxicity has been seen at concentrations ≤50 μM. C57BL/6 interferon gamma receptor knock-out mice, were infected by gavage with 4000 C. parvum oocysts on Day 0. Oral treatments, with OlPC, miltefosine, paromomycin or PBS, began on Day 3 post-infection for 10 days. Treatment with OlPC, at 40 mg/kg/day resulted in 100% survival, complete clearance of parasite in stools and a 99.9% parasite burden reduction in the intestines at Day 30. Doses of 30 and 20 mg/kg/day also demonstrated an increased survival rate and a dose-dependent parasite burden reduction. Mice treated with 10 mg/kg/day of miltefosine resulted in 50% survival at Day 30. In contrast, control mice, treated with PBS or 100 mg/kg/day of paromomycin, died or had to be euthanized between Days 6 and 13 due to severe illness. Results of parasite burden were obtained by qPCR and cross-validated by both flow cytometry of stool oocysts and histological sections of the ileum. Together, our results strongly support that OlPC represents a potential candidate for the treatment of C. parvum infections in immunocompromised patients.

  7. Oleylphosphocholine (OlPC arrests Cryptosporidium parvum growth in vitro and prevents lethal infection in interferon gamma receptor knock-out mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine eSonzogni-Desautels

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum is a species of protozoa that causes cryptosporidiosis, an intestinal disease affecting many mammals including humans. Typically, in healthy individuals, cryptosporidiosis is a self-limiting disease. However, C. parvum can cause a severe and persistent infection that can be life-threatening for immunocompromised individuals, such as AIDS patients. As there are no available treatments for these patients that can cure the disease, there is an urgent need to identify treatment options. We tested the anti-parasitic activity of the alkylphosphocholine oleylphosphocholine (OlPC, an analog of miltefosine, against C. parvum in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro experiments using C. parvum infected human ileocecal adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-8 cells showed that OlPC has an EC50 of 18.84 nM. Moreover, no cell toxicity has been seen at concentrations ≤50 µM. C57BL/6 interferon gamma receptor knock-out mice, were infected by gavage with 4000 C. parvum oocysts on Day 0. Oral treatments, with OlPC, miltefosine, paromomycin or PBS, began on Day 3 post-infection for 10 days. Treatment with OlPC, at 40 mg/kg/day resulted in 100% survival, complete clearance of parasite in stools and a 99.9% parasite burden reduction in the intestines at Day 30. Doses of 30 mg/kg/day and 20 mg/kg/day also demonstrated an increased survival rate and a dose-dependent parasite burden reduction. Mice treated with 10 mg/kg/day of miltefosine resulted in 50% survival at Day 30. In contrast, control mice, treated with PBS or 100 mg/kg/day of paromomycin, died or had to be euthanized between Days 6 and 13 due to severe illness. Results of parasite burden were obtained by qPCR and cross-validated by both flow cytometry of stool oocysts and histological sections of the ileum. Together, our results strongly support that OlPC represents a potential candidate for the treatment of C. parvum infections in immunocompromised patients.

  8. Maternal intravenous treatment with either azithromycin or solithromycin clears Ureaplasma parvum from the amniotic fluid in an ovine model of intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Noe, Andres; Carter, Sean; Watts, Rory; Spiller, Owen B; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J; Newnham, John P; Kemp, Matthew W

    2014-09-01

    Intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma spp. is strongly associated with preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcomes. We assessed whether combined intraamniotic (IA) and maternal intravenous (IV) treatment with one of two candidate antibiotics, azithromycin (AZ) or solithromycin (SOLI), would eradicate intrauterine Ureaplasma parvum infection in a sheep model of pregnancy. Sheep with singleton pregnancies received an IA injection of U. parvum serovar 3 at 85 days of gestational age (GA). At 120 days of GA, animals (n=5 to 8/group) received one of the following treatments: (i) maternal IV SOLI with a single IA injection of vehicle (IV SOLI only); (ii) maternal IV SOLI with a single IA injection of SOLI (IV+IA SOLI); (iii) maternal IV AZ and a single IA injection of vehicle (IV AZ only); (iv) maternal IV AZ and a single IA injection of AZ (IV+IA AZ); or (v) maternal IV and single IA injection of vehicle (control). Lambs were surgically delivered at 125 days of GA. Treatment efficacies were assessed by U. parvum culture, quantitative PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and histopathology. Amniotic fluid (AF) from all control animals contained culturable U. parvum. AF, lung, and chorioamnion from all AZ- or SOLI-treated animals (IV only or IV plus IA) were negative for culturable U. parvum. Relative to the results for the control, the levels of expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2) in fetal skin were significantly decreased in the IV SOLI-only group, the MCP-1 protein concentration in the amniotic fluid was significantly increased in the IV+IA SOLI group, and there was no significant difference in the histological inflammation scoring of lung or chorioamnion among the five groups. In the present study, treatment with either AZ or SOLI (IV only or IV+IA) effectively eradicated macrolide-sensitive U. parvum from the AF. There was no discernible difference in antibiotic therapy efficacy between IV-only and IV

  9. Cloning and Characterization of the Acidic Ribosomal Protein P2 of Cryptosporidium parvum, a New 17-Kilodalton Antigen▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Jeffrey W.; Kwon, James P.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Bern, Caryn; Moss, Delynn M.; Freeman, Amanda R.; Jones, Cara C.; Arrowood, Michael J.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Gilman, Robert H.; Mead, Jan R.

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium infection is commonly observed among children and immunocompromised individuals in developing countries, but large-scale outbreaks of disease among adults have not been reported. In contrast, outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in the United States and Canada are increasingly common among patients of all ages. Thus, it seems likely that residents of regions where Cryptosporidium is highly endemic acquire some level of immunity, while residents of the developed world do not. A new immunodominant Cryptosporidium parvum antigen in the 15- to 17-kDa size range was identified as the Cryptosporidium parvum 60S acidic ribosomal protein P2 (CpP2). We developed a recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serologic population surveillance for antibodies that was 89% sensitive and 92% specific relative to the results of the large-format Western blot assay. The human IgG response is directed almost exclusively toward the highly conserved, carboxy-terminal 15 amino acids of the protein. Although IgG antibody cross-reactivity was documented with sera from patients with acute babesiosis, the development of an anti-CpP2 antibody response in our Peru study population correlated better with Cryptosporidium infection than with infection by any other parasitic protozoan. In Haiti, the prevalence of antibodies to CpP2 plateaus at 11 to 20 years of age. Because anti-CpP2 IgG antibodies were found only among residents of countries in the developing world where Cryptosporidium infection occurs early and often, we propose that this response may be a proxy for the intensity of infection and for acquired immunity. PMID:20410328

  10. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 multiple banded antigen size variation after chronic intra-amniotic infection/colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James W; Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Newnham, John; Polglase, Graeme R; Kallapur, Suhas G; Pillow, J Jane; Kramer, Boris W; Jobe, Alan H; Payton, Diane; Knox, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    Ureaplasma species are the microorganisms most frequently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The multiple banded antigen (MBA), a surface-exposed lipoprotein, is a key virulence factor of ureaplasmas. The MBA demonstrates size variation, which we have shown previously to be correlated with the severity of chorioamnion inflammation. We aimed to investigate U. parvum serovar 3 pathogenesis in vivo, using a sheep model, by investigating: MBA variation after long term (chronic) and short term (acute) durations of in utero ureaplasma infections, and the severity of chorioamnionitis and inflammation in other fetal tissues. Inocula of 2 × 10(7) colony-forming-units (CFU) of U. parvum serovar 3 (Up) or media controls (C) were injected intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at one of three time points: day 55 (69d Up, n = 8; C69, n = 4); day 117 (7d Up, n = 8; C7, n = 2); and day 121 (3d Up, n = 8; C3, n = 2) of gestation (term = 145-150d). At day 124, preterm fetuses were delivered surgically. Samples of chorioamnion, fetal lung, and umbilical cord were: (i) snap frozen for subsequent ureaplasma culture, and (ii) fixed, embedded, sectioned and stained by haematoxylin and eosin stain for histological analysis. Selected fetal lung clinical ureaplasma isolates were cloned and filtered to obtain cultures from a single CFU. Passage 1 and clone 2 ureaplasma cultures were tested by western blot to demonstrate MBA variation. In acute durations of ureaplasma infection no MBA variants (3d Up) or very few MBA variants (7d Up) were present when compared to the original inoculum. However, numerous MBA size variants were generated in vivo (alike within contiguous tissues, amniotic fluid and fetal lung, but different variants were present within chorioamnion), during chronic, 69d exposure to ureaplasma infection. For the first time we have shown that the degree of ureaplasma MBA variation in vivo increased with the duration of gestation.

  11. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 multiple banded antigen size variation after chronic intra-amniotic infection/colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Robinson

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma species are the microorganisms most frequently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The multiple banded antigen (MBA, a surface-exposed lipoprotein, is a key virulence factor of ureaplasmas. The MBA demonstrates size variation, which we have shown previously to be correlated with the severity of chorioamnion inflammation. We aimed to investigate U. parvum serovar 3 pathogenesis in vivo, using a sheep model, by investigating: MBA variation after long term (chronic and short term (acute durations of in utero ureaplasma infections, and the severity of chorioamnionitis and inflammation in other fetal tissues. Inocula of 2 × 10(7 colony-forming-units (CFU of U. parvum serovar 3 (Up or media controls (C were injected intra-amniotically into pregnant ewes at one of three time points: day 55 (69d Up, n = 8; C69, n = 4; day 117 (7d Up, n = 8; C7, n = 2; and day 121 (3d Up, n = 8; C3, n = 2 of gestation (term = 145-150d. At day 124, preterm fetuses were delivered surgically. Samples of chorioamnion, fetal lung, and umbilical cord were: (i snap frozen for subsequent ureaplasma culture, and (ii fixed, embedded, sectioned and stained by haematoxylin and eosin stain for histological analysis. Selected fetal lung clinical ureaplasma isolates were cloned and filtered to obtain cultures from a single CFU. Passage 1 and clone 2 ureaplasma cultures were tested by western blot to demonstrate MBA variation. In acute durations of ureaplasma infection no MBA variants (3d Up or very few MBA variants (7d Up were present when compared to the original inoculum. However, numerous MBA size variants were generated in vivo (alike within contiguous tissues, amniotic fluid and fetal lung, but different variants were present within chorioamnion, during chronic, 69d exposure to ureaplasma infection. For the first time we have shown that the degree of ureaplasma MBA variation in vivo increased with the duration of gestation.

  12. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity. PMID:24596570

  13. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.; Curtis, Tom P.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  16. Management of autotrophic mass cultures of micro-algae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Toerien, DF

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the mass cultivation of micro-algae as feed and foodstuff has existed since the turn of the century (Robinson and Toerien, 1962). Experiments using algae in photosynthetic research (Warburg, 1919) also led to an appreciation...

  17. EnAlgae Decision Support Toolset: model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenny, Philip; Visser, de Chris; Skarka, Johannes; Sternberg, Kirstin; Schipperus, Roelof; Silkina, Alla; Ginnever, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    One of the drivers behind the EnAlgae project is recognising and addressing the need for increased availability of information about developments in applications of algae biotechnology for energy, particularly in the NW Europe area, where activity has been less intense than in other areas of the

  18. Evaluation of the activated carbon prepared from the algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the activated carbon prepared from the algae Gracilaria for the biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... This study shows the benefit of using activated carbon from marine red algae as a low cost sorbent for the removal of copper from aqueous solution wastewater.

  19. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995 parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  20. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-01-01

    The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995) parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  1. Persistence and proliferation of some unicellular algae in drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking water systems have a complex structure and are characterised by the absence of light, the presence of disinfectants and by low levels of nutrients. Several kinds of bacteria, protozoa, algae and fungi can be found in tap water. Little is known about the ecology of algae in drinking water systems, although their ...

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Blue Green Algae from Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meldemellawy

    2014-02-20

    Feb 20, 2014 ... aminotransferase (AMT) domains of the mycE and ndaF genes (Jungblut et al., 2006) allowing detection of microcystin and nodularin-producing cyanobacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Isolation and cultivation of blue green algae. Blue green algae had been isolated from soil of Rice field in river.

  3. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stabilized color additive mixture. Color additive mixtures for fish feed use made with haematococcus algae... in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Specifications. Haematococcus algae meal shall... salmonid fish in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (1) The color additive is used to...

  4. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Kim, Jae Hun

    2010-06-01

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  5. Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    The Algae Cultivation for Carbon Capture and Utilization Workshop Summary Report summarizes a workshop hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office on May 23–24, 2017, in Orlando, Florida. The event gathered stakeholder input through facilitated discussions focused on innovative technologies and business strategies for growing algae on waste carbon dioxide resources.

  6. Efficiency of using green algae as biological controllers against toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency of using green algae as biological controllers against toxic algal taxa in cultured ... of two green algal species as biological control of the growth of toxic blue-green algae. ... African Journal of Aquatic Science 2014, 39(4): 443–450 ...

  7. Recent Advances in Marine Algae Polysaccharides: Isolation, Structure, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Ying; Huang, Xuesong; Cheong, Kit-Leong

    2017-12-13

    Marine algae have attracted a great deal of interest as excellent sources of nutrients. Polysaccharides are the main components in marine algae, hence a great deal of attention has been directed at isolation and characterization of marine algae polysaccharides because of their numerous health benefits. In this review, extraction and purification approaches and chemico-physical properties of marine algae polysaccharides (MAPs) are summarized. The biological activities, which include immunomodulatory, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic, are also discussed. Additionally, structure-function relationships are analyzed and summarized. MAPs' biological activities are closely correlated with their monosaccharide composition, molecular weights, linkage types, and chain conformation. In order to promote further exploitation and utilization of polysaccharides from marine algae for functional food and pharmaceutical areas, high efficiency, and low-cost polysaccharide extraction and purification methods, quality control, structure-function activity relationships, and specific mechanisms of MAPs activation need to be extensively investigated.

  8. Uptake of americium-241 by algae and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisy, J P; Paine, D

    1978-01-01

    Algae and bacteria are important factors in the transport and mobilization of elements in the biosphere. These factors may be involved in trophic biomagnification, resulting in a potential human hazard or environmental degradation. Although americium, one of the most toxic elements known, is not required for plant growth, it may be concentrated by algae and bacteria. Therefore, the availability of americium-241 to algae and bacteria was studied to determine their role in the ultimate fate of this element released into the environment. Both algae and bacteria concentrated americium-241 to a high degree, making them important parts of the biomagnification process. The ability to concentrate americium-241 makes algae and bacteria potentially significant factors in cycling this element in the water column. (4 graphs, numerous references, 3 tables)

  9. Investigation about Role of Algae in Kazeroon Sasan Spring Odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hamzeian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As odor for potable water is unpleasant for costumers, it needs to do researches for finding the reasons of odorous water. Sasan spring that is located in, near kazeroon city, Fars, Iran, is potable water resource for Kazeroon and Booshehr city and many other villages. Water in Sasan spring has the odor problem. With regards to important   role of algae on ado r problems in this study the role of algae on   odor was investigated. Methods: After regular sampling, the TON (threshold odor number was indicated and algae species was distinguished and the number of total algae and any species  of algae was numbers by microscopic direct numbering method .as the algae mass  is related to nitrogen and phosphor concentration, results of concentration Of nitrogen and phosphor in this spring that was examined regularity by water company was investigated and compared to concentration of these component that are need for algae growing.   Results: results shows that TON was in range  of 4.477 to 6.2 that indicated  oderous limit . Regression and diagram between TON and number of total algae showed the linear relationship. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphor, showed adequate condition for algal grow. Result of determination of algae species showed high population of Oscilatoria and Microcystis species, which are known as essential case of mold odor in water resources. Investigation on geological maps in the region around the Sasan spring, show alluvium source and is effected by surface part of it’s around land. Conclusion: because of the algae was determined as the essential cause of odor   in the spring, and algal growth is related to nutrients, and because of the surface pollution can penetrate in the alluvium lands around the spring, and effect the water in spring, so nutrient control and management is the essential way for odor control in the spring.

  10. Cryptosporidium parvum infection in SCID mice infected with only one oocyst: qPCR assessment of parasite replication in tissues and development of digestive cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Benamrouz

    Full Text Available Dexamethasone (Dex treated Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID mice were previously described as developing digestive adenocarcinoma after massive infection with Cryptosporidium parvum as soon as 45 days post-infection (P.I.. We aimed to determine the minimum number of oocysts capable of inducing infection and thereby gastrointestinal tumors in this model. Mice were challenged with calibrated oocyst suspensions containing intended doses of: 1, 10, 100 or 10(5 oocysts of C. parvum Iowa strain. All administered doses were infective for animals but increasing the oocyst challenge lead to an increase in mice infectivity (P = 0.01. Oocyst shedding was detected at 7 days P.I. after inoculation with more than 10 oocysts, and after 15 days in mice challenged with one oocyst. In groups challenged with lower inocula, parasite growth phase was significantly higher (P = 0.005 compared to mice inoculated with higher doses. After 45 days P.I. all groups of mice had a mean of oocyst shedding superior to 10,000 oocyst/g of feces. The most impressive observation of this study was the demonstration that C. parvum-induced digestive adenocarcinoma could be caused by infection with low doses of Cryptosporidium, even with only one oocyst: in mice inoculated with low doses, neoplastic lesions were detected as early as 45 days P.I. both in the stomach and ileo-caecal region, and these lesions could evolve in an invasive adenocarcinoma. These findings show a great amplification effect of parasites in mouse tissues after challenge with low doses as confirmed by quantitative PCR. The ability of C. parvum to infect mice with one oocyst and to develop digestive adenocarcinoma suggests that other mammalian species including humans could be also susceptible to this process, especially when they are severely immunocompromised.

  11. Cryptosporidium parvum infection in SCID mice infected with only one oocyst: qPCR assessment of parasite replication in tissues and development of digestive cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamrouz, Sadia; Guyot, Karine; Gazzola, Sophie; Mouray, Anthony; Chassat, Thierry; Delaire, Baptiste; Chabé, Magali; Gosset, Pierre; Viscogliosi, Eric; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Creusy, Colette; Conseil, Valerie; Certad, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) treated Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were previously described as developing digestive adenocarcinoma after massive infection with Cryptosporidium parvum as soon as 45 days post-infection (P.I.). We aimed to determine the minimum number of oocysts capable of inducing infection and thereby gastrointestinal tumors in this model. Mice were challenged with calibrated oocyst suspensions containing intended doses of: 1, 10, 100 or 10(5) oocysts of C. parvum Iowa strain. All administered doses were infective for animals but increasing the oocyst challenge lead to an increase in mice infectivity (P = 0.01). Oocyst shedding was detected at 7 days P.I. after inoculation with more than 10 oocysts, and after 15 days in mice challenged with one oocyst. In groups challenged with lower inocula, parasite growth phase was significantly higher (P = 0.005) compared to mice inoculated with higher doses. After 45 days P.I. all groups of mice had a mean of oocyst shedding superior to 10,000 oocyst/g of feces. The most impressive observation of this study was the demonstration that C. parvum-induced digestive adenocarcinoma could be caused by infection with low doses of Cryptosporidium, even with only one oocyst: in mice inoculated with low doses, neoplastic lesions were detected as early as 45 days P.I. both in the stomach and ileo-caecal region, and these lesions could evolve in an invasive adenocarcinoma. These findings show a great amplification effect of parasites in mouse tissues after challenge with low doses as confirmed by quantitative PCR. The ability of C. parvum to infect mice with one oocyst and to develop digestive adenocarcinoma suggests that other mammalian species including humans could be also susceptible to this process, especially when they are severely immunocompromised.

  12. Clinical role of Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum presence in female lower urogenital tract: Is there a place for routine screening and treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruška Marovt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections represent major health problem in females all over the world if remained undiagnosed and untreated. They can have adverse influence on reproduction and health of a mother and a newborn. The development of molecular methods has permitted the detection of an array of microbes whose pathologic roles in urogenital infections need to be further studied. Ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma spp., being originally found in 1954 from male urogenital tract, are prokaryotic cells without a cell wall, ranging from 0.1 to 1 μm in length. Fourteen known Ureaplasma serovars have been divided in two species based on their phenotypic and genotypic features, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum detected and identified separately using polymerase chain reaction assays. Both are generally considered as genital tract commensals. U. urealyticum is most probably associated with male urethritis which has not been found for U. parvum. Recent studies with supposedly healthy women reported their detection rate between 18-87 % for U. parvum and 6-10 % for U. urealyticum. Even though they have been found to be associated with chorioamnionitis, preterm birth and perinatal complications more commonly then other commensals in this region the rising question regarding their pathogenic role in females remains unsolved and the guidelines regarding the diagnostic screening and treatment are inconsistent. The aim of our paper is to review the microbiological characteristics, diagnostic methods and epidemiology of newly differentiated U. parvum and U. urealyticum, and to assess evidence speaking pro and contra their clinical role in causing lower urogenital tract infection in women. Since both bacteria are susceptible to antimicrobials it is of utmost importance for clinicians to decide whether or not to search for one or both of them routinely and treat accordingly in order to prevent ascending upper genital tract infection as well as complications in

  13. Discovery of ebselen as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) by high-throughput screening of existing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahan, Rana; Guo, Fengguang; Zhang, Haili; Xiang, Lixin; Zhu, Guan

    2018-04-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a water-borne and food-borne apicomplexan pathogen. It is one of the top four diarrheal-causing pathogens in children under the age of five in developing countries, and an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Unlike other apicomplexans, C. parvum lacks Kreb's cycle and cytochrome-based respiration, thus relying mainly on glycolysis to produce ATP. In this study, we characterized the primary biochemical features of the C. parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) and determined its Michaelis constant towards fructose-6-phosphate (K m  = 0.309 mM, V max  = 31.72 nmol/μg/min). We also discovered that ebselen, an organoselenium drug, was a selective inhibitor of CpGPI by high-throughput screening of 1200 known drugs. Ebselen acted on CpGPI as an allosteric noncompetitive inhibitor (IC 50  = 8.33 μM; K i  = 36.33 μM), while complete inhibition of CpGPI activity was not achieved. Ebselen could also inhibit the growth of C. parvum in vitro (EC 50  = 165 μM) at concentrations nontoxic to host cells, albeit with a relatively small in vitro safety window of 4.2 (cytotoxicity TC 50 on HCT-8 cells = 700 μM). Additionally, ebselen might also target other enzymes in the parasite, leading to the parasite growth reduction. Therefore, although ebselen is useful in studying the inhibition of CpGPI enzyme activity, further proof is needed to chemically and/or genetically validate CpGPI as a drug target. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Phycobiliproteins: A Novel Green Tool from Marine Origin Blue-Green Algae and Red Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rashmi; Parra, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine species are comprising about a half of the whole global biodiversity; the sea offers an enormous resource for novel bioactive compounds. Several of the marine origin species show multifunctional bioactivities and characteristics that are useful for a discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active compounds. For millennia, marine species that includes cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and red algae have been targeted to explore their enormous potential candidature status along with a wider spectrum of novel applications in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Among them, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes, phylogenetically a primitive group of Gramnegative prokaryotes, ranging from Arctic to Antarctic regions, capable of carrying out photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. In the recent decade, a great deal of research attention has been paid on the pronouncement of bio-functional proteins along with novel peptides, vitamins, fine chemicals, renewable fuel and bioactive compounds, e.g., phycobiliproteins from marine species, cyanobacteria and red algae. Interestingly, they are extensively commercialized for natural colorants in food and cosmetics, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective agents and fluorescent neo-glycoproteins as probes for single particle fluorescence imaging fluorescent applications in clinical and immunological analysis. However, a comprehensive knowledge and technological base for augmenting their commercial utilities are lacking. Therefore, this paper will provide an overview of the phycobiliproteins-based research literature from marine cyanobacteria and red algae. This review is also focused towards analyzing global and commercial activities with application oriented-based research. Towards the end, the information is also given on the potential biotechnological and biomedical applications of phycobiliproteins. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please

  15. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. L. [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Roelke, Daniel [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Grover, James [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-10-11

    A team of Texas AgriLife Research, Baylor University and University of Texas at Arlington researchers studied the biology and ecology of Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) in Texas lakes using a three-fold approach that involved system-wide monitoring, experimentation at the microcosm and mesocosm scales, and mathematical modeling. The following are conclusions, to date, regarding this organism's ecology and potential strategies for mitigation of blooms by this organism. In-lake monitoring revealed that golden algae are present throughout the year, even in lakes where blooms do not occur. Compilation of our field monitoring data with data collected by Texas Parks and Wildlife and Brazos River Authority (a period spanning a decade) revealed that inflow and salinity variables affect bloom formations. Thresholds for algae populations vary per lake, likely due to adaptations to local conditions, and also to variations in lake-basin morphometry, especially the presence of coves that may serve as hydraulic storage zones for P. parvum populations. More specifically, our in-lake monitoring showed that the highly toxic bloom that occurred in Lake Granbury in the winter of 2006/2007 was eliminated by increased river inflow events. The bloom was flushed from the system. The lower salinities that resulted contributed to golden algae not blooming in the following years. However, flushing is not an absolute requirement for bloom termination. Laboratory experiments have shown that growth of golden algae can occur at salinities ~1-2 psu but only when temperatures are also low. This helps to explain why blooms are possible during winter months in Texas lakes. Our in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco, as well as our laboratory experiments, revealed that cyanobacteria, or some other bacteria capable of producing algicides, were able to prevent golden algae from blooming. Identification of this organism is a high priority as it may be a key to managing golden algae

  16. Antibiotic Algae by Chemical Surface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschgens, Isabel P; Gademann, Karl

    2018-03-02

    Chemical cell-surface engineering is a tool for modifying and altering cellular functions. Herein, we report the introduction of an antibiotic phenotype to the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by chemically modifying its cell surface. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies demonstrated that a hybrid of the antibiotic vancomycin and a 4-hydroxyproline oligomer binds reversibly to the cell wall without affecting the viability or motility of the cells. The modified cells were used to inhibit bacterial growth of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis cultures. Delivery of the antibiotic from the microalgae to the bacterial cells was verified by microscopy. Our studies provide compelling evidence that 1) chemical surface engineering constitutes a useful tool for the introduction of new, previously unknown functionality, and 2) living microalgae can serve as new platforms for drug delivery. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Brian J. [Ecotonics Environmental Scientists, 1801 Century Park East, Suite 2400, Los Angeles, CA 90067 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  18. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  19. The role of free-ranging, captive, and domestic birds of Western Poland in environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna C; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Tamang, Leena; Jedrzejewski, Szymon; Zduniak, Piotr; Solarczyk, Piotr; Nowosad, Andrzej; Nowosad, Piotr

    2009-04-01

    As Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia can be disseminated in the environment by avian hosts, a total of 499 fecal dropping from 308 free-ranging, 90 captive, and 101 domestic birds were tested by conventional, immunological, and molecular techniques for these human enteropathogens. Twenty-six (5.2%) tested positive for G. lamblia cysts and 19 (3.8%) for C. parvum oocysts. A bird total of 23 (7.5%) free-ranging, two (2.2%) captive, and one (0.1%) domestic tested positive for cysts, whereas 18 (5.8%) free-ranging, one (1.1%) captive, and zero livestock birds tested positive for oocysts. G. lamblia cysts and C. parvum oocysts were found significantly more frequently in fecal droppings of free-ranging aquatic birds than in birds not normally associated with water. No specimen tested positive for both pathogens simultaneously. Aquatic birds represent an important epidemiologic link in water-associated transmission cycles of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and play a significant role in environmental contamination of aquatic habitats with these anthropozoonotic pathogens.

  20. Second outbreak of infection with a rare Cryptosporidium parvum genotype in schoolchildren associated with contact with lambs/goat kids at a holiday farm in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, H; Johansen, O H; Vold, L; Robertson, L J; Anthonisen, I L; Nygard, K

    2014-10-01

    In March 2012, a second outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum affected children following a stay at a holiday farm in Norway; the first outbreak occurred in 2009. We studied a cohort of 145 schoolchildren who had visited the farm, of which 40 (28%) were cases. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in faecal samples from humans, goat kids and lambs. Molecular studies revealed C. parvum subtype IIa A19G1R1 in all samples including human samples from the 2009 outbreak. A dose-response relationship was found between the number of optional sessions with animals and illness, increasing from two sessions [risk ratio (RR) 2·7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·6-11·5] to six sessions (RR 8·0, 95% CI 1·7-37·7). The occurrence of two outbreaks 3 years apart, with the same subtype of C. parvum, suggests that the parasite is established in the farm's environment. We recommend greater emphasis on hand hygiene and routines related to animal contact.

  1. Comparison of Assays for Sensitive and Reproducible Detection of Cell Culture-Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, George D.; Rochelle, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the three most commonly used assays for detecting Cryptosporidium sp. infections in cell culture: immunofluorescent antibody and microscopy assay (IFA), PCR targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific DNA, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific mRNA. Monolayers of HCT-8 cells, grown in 8-well chamber slides or 96-well plates, were inoculated with a variety of viable and inactivated oocysts to assess assay performance. All assays detected infection with low doses of flow cytometry-enumerated Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, including infection with one oocyst and three oocysts. All methods also detected infection with Cryptosporidium hominis. The RT-PCR assay, IFA, and PCR assay detected infection in 23%, 25%, and 51% of monolayers inoculated with three C. parvum oocysts and 10%, 9%, and 16% of monolayers inoculated with one oocyst, respectively. The PCR assay was the most sensitive, but it had the highest frequency of false positives with mock-infected cells and inactivated oocysts. IFA was the only infection detection assay that did not produce false positives with mock-infected monolayers. IFA was also the only assay that detected infections in all experiments with spiked oocysts recovered from Envirochek capsules following filtration of 1,000 liters of treated water. Consequently, cell culture with IFA detection is the most appropriate method for routine and sensitive detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in drinking water. PMID:22038611

  2. Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma genitalium are found to be significantly associated with microscopy-confirmed urethritis in a routine genitourinary medicine setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ciara; McKenna, James P; Watt, Alison P; Coyle, Peter V

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation of the urethra defined by an excess of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the absence of sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is called non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU). Although Mycoplasma genitalium is now recognised as causing a sexually transmitted infection, the clinical significance of the other Mollicute species is less clear. This study used specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays to detect and quantify four Mollicute species, M. genitalium, M. hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum, in urine specimens from men with and without NCNGU. A total of 165 urine specimens from male patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic were eligible for the study, with microscopy-confirmed (≥5 polymorphonuclear leukocytes in urethral swab) NCNGU in 75 (45.5%) and non-confirmed NCNGU in 90 (54.5%). Chi-squared statistical analysis indicated a significantly higher prevalence of U. parvum (17.3% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.03) and M. genitalium (12% vs. 0%; p < 0.001) in NCNGU. In a subset analysis, M. genitalium was also significantly (p = 0.03) higher in men who have sex with men (MSM; 13.5%) compared to non-MSM (3.1%). No significant associations were reported for U. urealyticum and M. hominis In conclusion, this study supports a clinically significant role in NGNCU for both U. parvum and M. genitalium. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A quantitative analysis of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum compared with host immune response in preterm neonates at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Matthew S; Goss, Kevin C W; Connett, Gary J; Legg, Julian P; Bruce, Ken D; Chalker, Vicki

    2012-03-01

    Multiplex, real-time PCR for the identification of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum was performed on nucleic acids extracted from sequential endotracheal aspirates obtained from preterm neonates born at Ureaplasma spp. were identified in 5 of 13 neonates studied. In most cases, the DNA load of the detected Ureaplasma species was low and decreased over time. In addition, changes in detectable Ureaplasma species DNA did not relate to changes in the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) or respiratory status. All but two blood samples obtained at times of suspected sepsis were culture positive for other microorganisms; the species cultured were typically coagulase-negative staphylococci and were associated with increased levels of CRP (>10 mg/liter). This study was limited by the small number of patients examined and does not have the power to support or contradict the hypothesis that postnatal lung infection with Ureaplasma parvum is causally related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or adverse respiratory outcomes after preterm birth. However, in this study, increases in CRP levels were not associated with patients in whom Ureaplasma parvum was detected, in contrast to the detection of other bacterial species.

  4. A screening method for cardiovascular active compounds in marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Kustrin, E; Angove, M J; Morton, D W

    2018-05-18

    The interaction of bioactive compounds from ethanolic extracts of selected marine algae samples, separated on chromatographic plates, with nitric/nitrous acid was investigated. The nature of bioactive compounds in the marine algae extracts was characterised using UV absorption spectra before and after reaction with diluted nitric acid, and from the characteristic colour reaction after derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that diterpenes from Dictyota dichotoma, an edible brown algae, and sterols from green algae Caulerpa brachypus, bind nitric oxide and may act as a nitric oxide carrier. Although the carotenoid fucoxanthin, found in all brown marine algae also binds nitric oxide, the bonds between nitrogen and the fucoxanthin molecule are much stronger. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of diterpenes from Dictyota dichotoma and sterols from green algae Caulerpa brachypus to see if they have beneficial cardiovascular effects. The method reported here should prove useful in screening large numbers of algae species for compounds with cardiovascular activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  6. Photophysiology and cellular composition of sea ice algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizotte, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The productivity of sea ice algae depends on their physiological capabilities and the environmental conditions within various microhabitats. Pack ice is the dominant form of sea ice, but the photosynthetic activity of associated algae has rarely been studied. Biomass and photosynthetic rates of ice algae of the Weddell-Scotia Sea were investigated during autumn and winter, the period when ice cover grows from its minimum to maximum. Biomass-specific photosynthetic rates typically ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 μg C · μg chl -1 · h -1 higher than land-fast ice algae but similar to Antarctic phytoplankton. Primary production in the pack ice during winter may be minor compared to annual phytoplankton production, but could represent a vital seasonal contribution to the Antarctic ecosystem. Nutrient supply may limit the productivity of ice algae. In McMurdo Sound, congelation ice algae appeared to be more nutrient deficient than underlying platelet ice algae based on: lower nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, and protein:carbohydrate; and 14 C-photosynthate distribution to proteins and phospholipids was lower, while distribution to polysaccharides and neutral lipids was higher. Depletion of nitrate led to decreased nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, protein:carbohydrate, and 14 C-photosynthate to proteins. Studied were conducted during the spring bloom; therefore, nutrient limitation may only apply to dense ice algal communities. Growth limiting conditions may be alleviated when algae are released into seawater during the seasonal recession of the ice cover. To continue growth, algae must adapt to the variable light field encountered in a mixed water column. Photoadaptation was studied in surface ice communities and in bottom ice communities

  7. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  8. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13 N, 24 Na and 22 Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N 2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  9. Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.P.J.; Vulsteke, E.; Visser, de C.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these

  10. The effect of pH on the toxicity of fatty acids and fatty acid amides to rainbow trout gill cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Matthew J; Voronca, Delia C; Chapman, Robert W; Moeller, Peter D R

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) expose aquatic organisms to multiple physical and chemical stressors during an acute time period. Algal toxins themselves may be altered by water chemistry parameters affecting their bioavailability and resultant toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two abiotic parameters (pH, inorganic metal salts) on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids, two classes of lipids produced by harmful algae, including the golden alga, Prymnesium parvum, that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout gill cells were used as a model of the fish gill and exposed to single compounds and mixtures of compounds along with variations in pH level and concentration of inorganic metal salts. We employed artificial neural networks (ANNs) and standard ANOVA statistical analysis to examine and predict the effects of these abiotic parameters on the toxicity of fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Our results demonstrate that increasing pH levels increases the toxicity of fatty acid amides and inhibits the toxicity of fatty acids. This phenomenon is reversed at lower pH levels. Exposing gill cells to complex mixtures of chemical factors resulted in dramatic increases in toxicity compared to tests of single compounds for both the fatty acid amides and fatty acids. These findings highlight the potential of physicochemical factors to affect the toxicity of chemicals released during algal blooms and demonstrate drastic differences in the effect of pH on fatty acid amides and fatty acids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Scenario analysis of large scale algae production in tubular photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Beveren, van P.J.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae productivity in tubular photobioreactors depends on algae species, location, tube diameter, biomass concentration, distance between tubes and for vertically stacked systems, the number of horizontal tubes per stack. A simulation model for horizontal and vertically stacked horizontal

  12. Kalaärimeeste kohus algas venitamisega / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2007-01-01

    Harju maakohtus algas kohtuprotsess veterinaar- ja toiduameti endise asejuhi Vladimir Razumovski väidetava altkäemaksuvõtmise üle, kus on süüdistavaid eraisikuid ja ettevõtjaid. Lisa: Kes on kohtu all?

  13. The role of algae in agriculture: a mathematical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, P K; Misra, A K; Venturino, Ezio

    2017-06-01

    Synthetic fertilizers and livestock manure are nowadays widely used in agriculture to improve crop yield but nitrogen and phosphorous runoff resulting from their use compromises water quality and contributes to eutrophication phenomena in waterbeds within the countryside and ultimately in the ocean. Alternatively, algae could play an important role in agriculture where they can be used as biofertilizers and soil stabilizers. To examine the possible reuse of the detritus generated by dead algae as fertilizer for crops, we develop three mathematical models building upon each other. A system is proposed in which algae recover waste nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) for reuse in agricultural production. The results of our study show that in so doing, the crop yield may be increased and simultaneously the density of algae in the lake may be reduced. This could be a way to mitigate and possibly solve the environmental and economic issues nowadays facing agriculture.

  14. Modelization of tritium transfer into the organic compartments of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Arapis, G.; Kirchmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    Uptake of tritium oxide and its conversion into organic tritium was studied in four different types of algae with widely varying size and growth characteristics (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, two strains of Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella bioculata). Water in the cell and the vacuales equilibrates rapidly with external tritium water. Tritium is actively incorporated into organically bound form as the organisms grow. During the stationary phase, incorporation of tritium is slow. There exists a discrimination against the incorporation of tritium into organically bound form. A model has been elaborated taking in account these different factors. It appears that transfer of organic tritium by algae growing near the sites of release would be significant only for actively growing algae. Algae growing slowly may, however, be useful as cumulative indicators of discontinuous tritium release. (author)

  15. Studies on allergenic algae of Delhi area: botanical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, A; Agarwal, M K; Shivpuri, D N

    1979-04-01

    To study distribution of algae in and around Delhi aerobiological surveys were undertaken for two consecutive years (September, 1972, to August, 1974). The surveys were accomplished by (a) slide exposure method and (b) culture plate exposure method. A total of 850 slides were exposed using Durham's gravity sampling device. Of these, 560 slides were exposed during 1973 (272 slides at two meter and 288 at ten meter height) and the rest (290 slides) were exposed during 1974 at ten meter height. A total of 858 culture plates were exposed (276 for one hour and 282 for two hours) during 1973 and the rest (300 culture plates) were exposed during 1974 at ten meter height for two hours duration only. Air was found to be rich in algae flora during the months of September to November. The dominant forms of algae present were all blue greens. This might be due to the relative greater resistance of blue green algae to unfavorable conditions.

  16. Extreme Low Light Requirement for Algae Growth Underneath Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Lamare, Maxim L.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae colonizing the underside of sea ice in spring are a key component of the Arctic foodweb as they drive early primary production and transport of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean interior. Onset of the spring bloom of ice algae is typically limited by the availability of light......, and the current consensus is that a few tens-of-centimeters of snow is enough to prevent sufficient solar radiation to reach underneath the sea ice. We challenge this consensus, and investigated the onset and the light requirement of an ice algae spring bloom, and the importance of snow optical properties...... for light penetration. Colonization by ice algae began in May under >1 m of first-year sea ice with approximate to 1 m thick snow cover on top, in NE Greenland. The initial growth of ice algae began at extremely low irradiance (...

  17. Composition, Occurrences and Checklist of Periphyton Algae of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    The periphyton is also an important indicator of water quality (Azim et al, 2006). Attached algae are primitive plants that get their nutrients from water passing over them. ... rung in the aquatic food chain depend directly ... influence of sea water.

  18. Planktonic algae and cyanoprokaryotes as indicators of ecosystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planktonic algae and cyanoprokaryotes as indicators of ecosystem quality in the Mooi River system in the North-West Province, South Africa. ... is important for maintaining the quality of potable water of Potchefstroom and surrounding areas.

  19. Chemical examination of the brown alga Stoechospermum marginatum (C. Agardh)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    The crude methalonic extract of marine algae Stoechospermum marginatum from west coast of India was found to have spasmolytic activity. Search for the pharmacologically active compounds led to the isolation of steroids, fatty acids and an ester...

  20. The Belmont Valley integrated algae pond system in retrospect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... ness amongst all stakeholders including the public at large, the three spheres of ...... (2011) Algae biofuel from wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds. .... and OELMÜLLER R (2002) Photosynthetic electron transport.

  1. Diterpenes from the Marine Algae of the Genus Dictyota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayun; Li, Hong; Zhao, Zishuo; Xia, Xue; Li, Bo; Zhang, Jinrong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2018-05-11

    Species of the brown algae of the genus Dictyota are rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites with diverse structural features. Excellent progress has been made in the discovery of diterpenes possessing broad chemical defensive activities from this genus. Most of these diterpenes exhibit significant biological activities, such as antiviral, cytotoxic and chemical defensive activities. In the present review, we summarized diterpenes isolated from the brown algae of the genus.

  2. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  3. Thermal algae in certain radioactive springs in Japan, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mifune, Masaaki; Hirose, Hiroyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Shikano Hot Springs are located at five km to the south of Hamamura Station on the Sanin Line in Tottori Prefecture. The water temperature and the pH of the springs are 40.2 - 61.2 0 C, and 7.5 - 7.8, respectively. They belong to simple thermals. Hamamura Hot Springs are located in the neighbourhood of Hamamura Station. The highest radon content of the hot springs is 175.1 x 10 -10 Ci/l, and the great part of the springs belong to radioactive ones. From the viewpoint of the major ionic constituents, they are also classified under weak salt springs, sulfated salt springs, and simple thermals. Regarding the habitates of the algal flora, the water temperature and the pH of the springs are 28.0 - 68.0 0 C, and 6.8 - 7.4, respectively. The thermal algae found by Ikoma and Doi at Hamamura Hot Springs were two species of Cyanophyceae. By the authors, nine species and one variety of Cyanophyceae including Ikoma and Doi's two species were newly found at Shikano and Hamamura Hot Springs. Chlorophyceous alga was not found. The dominant thermal algae of these hot springs were Mastigocladus laminosus, and the other algae which mainly consist of Oscillatoriaceous algae. From these points, it seems that the thermal algae of Shikano and Hamamura Hot Springs belong to the normal type of thermal algae, and they are different from the thermal algae of Ikeda Mineral Springs and Masutomi Hot Springs which belong to strongly radioactive springs. (author)

  4. Using the marine unicellular algae in biological monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kapkov V. I.; Shoshina E. V.; Belenikina O. A.

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of using marine unicellular algae from natural plankton community in biomonitoring of pollution by heavy metals has been investigated. Algae of different taxa from the Mediterranean Sea have been allocated to culture. In the laboratory the culture conditions – i. e. growth medium, temperature, photoperiod, level of artificial light and initial density – have been selected for every species. The impact of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb) in the form of chloride salts on the growth...

  5. Micro-algae: French players discuss the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouveret, T.

    2013-01-01

    About 75000 species of algae have been reported so far, the domains of application are huge and investment are increasing all around the world. One of the difficulties is to find the most appropriate algae to a specific application. Some development programs have failed scientifically or economically for instance the production of protein for animal food from the chlorella algae or the production of bio-fuel from C14-C18 chains, from zeaxanthine and from phycoerytrine. On the other side some research programs have led to promising industrial applications such as the production of food for fish and farm animals. Some research fields are completely innovative such as the use of micro-algae for the construction of bio-walls for buildings. Micro-algae are diverse and fragile. Photo-bioreactors have been designed to breed fragile algae like some types of chlorophycees used in bio-fuel and in cosmetics, a prototype has been tested for 15 months and its production is about 2 kg of dry matter a day. (A.C.)

  6. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mamish, S.; Budier, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that 137 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg -1 dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 210 Po and 210 Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 210 Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate 210 Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br

  7. Combining of radionuclides with constituent materials of marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki; Ueda, Taishi; Shimizu, Chiaki.

    1979-01-01

    The relations between the accumulation-elimination of radionuclides and the constituent materials of marine algae were studied to determine more precisely the mechanism of the radioactive contamination of marine organisms. This will increase the information about the behavior of radionuclides in marine organisms in relation to the environmental conditions (temperature, physico-chemical state of radioisotope, and so on) and the biological conditions (feeding habits, species, and so on). Eisenia contaminated by 137 Cs and 106 Ru- 106 Rh was fractionated by solvent extraction into 6 fractions. The largest portion of 137 Cs was in the boiling water fraction; 106 Ru- 106 Rh was most extracted by 24% KOH solution. Elution patterns by Sephadex G-100 gel-filtration of samples differed largely from each other, both among the 3 kinds of radionuclides and between the 2 species of the algae. Therefore, the accumulation of the radionuclides by the marine algae was proved to be not only due to a physical absorption to the surface of the algae but also to the biological combining of the radionuclides with the constituents of the algae. Furthermore, it was found that radionuclides which combine with a few constituents of alga are not eliminated equally. This is considered to be useful for the physiological analysis of elimination curves. (author)

  8. Algae as a Biofuel: Renewable Source for Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kant Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels produced by algae may provide a feasible alternative to fossil fuels like petroleum sourced fuels. However, looking to limited fossil fuel associated with problems, intensive efforts have been given to search for alternative biofuels like biodiesel. Algae are ubiquitous on earth, have potential to produce biofuel. However, technology of biofuel from algae facing a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly organized. Different challenges include strain identification and improvement of algal biomass, both in terms of biofuel productivity and the production of other products to improve the economics of the entire system. Algal biofuels could be made more cost effective by extracting other valuable products from algae and algal strains. Algal oil can be prepared by culture of algae on municipal and industrial wastewaters. Photobioreactors methods provide a controlled environment that can be tailored to the specific demands of high production of algae to attain a consistently good yield of biofuel. The algal biomass has been reported to yield high oil contents and have good amount of the biodiesel production capacity. In this article, it has been attempted to review to elucidate the approaches for making algal biodiesel economically competitive with respect to petrodiesel. Consequently, R & D work has been carried out for the growth, harvesting, oil extraction and conversion to biodiesel from algal sources.

  9. Biodiesel Production From Algae to Overcome the Energy Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of energy sources has reached at the level that whole world is relying on it. Being the major source of energy, fuels are considered the most important. The fear of diminishing the available sources thirst towards biofuel production has increased during last decades. Considering the food problems, algae gain the most attention to be used as biofuel producers. The use of crop and food-producing plants will never be a best fit into the priorities for biofuel production as they will disturb the food needs. Different types of algae having the different production abilities. Normally algae have 20%–80% oil contents that could be converted into different types of fuels such as kerosene oil and biodiesel. The diesel production from algae is economical and easy. Different species such as tribonema, ulothrix and euglena have good potential for biodiesel production. Gene technology can be used to enhance the production of oil and biodiesel contents and stability of algae. By increasing the genetic expressions, we can find the ways to achieve the required biofuel amounts easily and continuously to overcome the fuels deficiency. The present review article focusses on the role of algae as a possible substitute for fossil fuel as an ideal biofuel reactant.

  10. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  11. Is the Future Really in Algae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we "cultivate" enerm without competing with agriculture for land, freshwater, or fertilizer? Can we develop an "ecology of technology" that optimizes our use of limited resources? Is human activity compatible with improved conditions in the world's oceans? Will our ingenuity prevail in time to make a difference for our children and the children of all species? With support from NASA ARMD and the California Energy Commission, a group of dedicated scientists and engineers are working on a project called OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae), to provide practical answers to these critical questions and to leave a legacy of hope for the oceans and for the future.

  12. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Bouchard, Maryse F; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2017-02-25

    Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF), anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae . Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer's awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  13. Detection of Cyanotoxins in Algae Dietary Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Roy-Lachapelle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae dietary supplements are marketed worldwide as natural health products. Although their proprieties have been claimed as beneficial to improve overall health, there have been several previous reports of contamination by cyanotoxins. These products generally contain non-toxic cyanobacteria, but the methods of cultivation in natural waters without appropriate quality controls allow contamination by toxin producer species present in the natural environment. In this study, we investigated the presence of total microcystins, seven individual microcystins (RR, YR, LR, LA, LY, LW, LF, anatoxin-a, dihydroanatoxin-a, epoxyanatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine in 18 different commercially available products containing Spirulina or Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Total microcystins analysis was accomplished using a Lemieux oxidation and a chemical derivatization using dansyl chloride was needed for the simultaneous analysis of cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and β-methylamino-l-alanine. Moreover, the use of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC both coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS enabled high performance detection and quantitation. Out of the 18 products analyzed, 8 contained some cyanotoxins at levels exceeding the tolerable daily intake values. The presence of cyanotoxins in these algal dietary supplements reinforces the need for a better quality control as well as consumer’s awareness on the potential risks associated with the consumption of these supplements.

  14. [The effects of blue algae on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, A J H P; Schets, F M; Meulenbelt, J

    2007-08-04

    Cyanobacteria (blue algae) regularly cause recreational waters to become murky and smelly. Skin irritation and mild gastrointestinal disorders have regularly been reported following recreational activities in water suspected of being contaminated with cyanobacteria. The exact cause of these effects on health is not clear. Severe effects are not to be expected from recreational exposure to water contaminated with cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria can produce hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins and irritants. In Brazil lethal intoxications have occurred due to the occurrence of toxins in drinking water and in dialysis fluid. The Dutch policy is based on the Commissie Integraal Waterbeheer (Commission Integral Water Management) guidelines for recreational waters. It is not clear to what extent the other cyanotoxins occur in the Netherlands. However, several genera ofcyanobacteria capable of producing these other cyanotoxins have been found in the Netherlands. For a good risk assessment in the Netherlands, more information is needed on the effects on health of cyanobacteria. There is also a need for more data on the prevalence of different cyanobacteria and toxins in Dutch recreational waters.

  15. Rat strains differ in susceptibility to Ureaplasma parvum-induced urinary tract infection and struvite stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Leticia; Reinhard, Mary; O'donell, L J; Stevens, Janet; Brown, Mary B

    2006-12-01

    Individuals with struvite uroliths are susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and renal disease. Unfortunately, little is known about the host-specific factors that predispose to this disease. In order to develop a rodent model that can address this problem, we inoculated female Fischer 344 (F344), Lewis (LEW), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Wistar (WIS) rats with a host-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum. Animals were necropsied at 2 weeks postinoculation; 100% of F344, 42% of SD, 10% of LEW, and 10% of WIS rats remained infected. Severe bladder lesions and struvite calculi were seen in 64% of F344 rats; in other rat strains, bladder lesions were mild or absent. F344 rats with struvite uroliths had the highest urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GRO/KC, interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), and IL-1beta. F344 rats without struvite stones at necropsy had milder bladder lesions and significantly lower urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines but a more prominent inflammatory response than did other rat strains. Based on our results, struvite stone formation is linked to a robust inflammatory response that does not resolve UTI but instead promotes damage to surrounding tissues.

  16. Rat Strains Differ in Susceptibility to Ureaplasma parvum-Induced Urinary Tract Infection and Struvite Stone Formation▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Leticia; Reinhard, Mary; O'Donell, L. J.; Stevens, Janet; Brown, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with struvite uroliths are susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI), sepsis, and renal disease. Unfortunately, little is known about the host-specific factors that predispose to this disease. In order to develop a rodent model that can address this problem, we inoculated female Fischer 344 (F344), Lewis (LEW), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Wistar (WIS) rats with a host-adapted strain of Ureaplasma parvum. Animals were necropsied at 2 weeks postinoculation; 100% of F344, 42% of SD, 10% of LEW, and 10% of WIS rats remained infected. Severe bladder lesions and struvite calculi were seen in 64% of F344 rats; in other rat strains, bladder lesions were mild or absent. F344 rats with struvite uroliths had the highest urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GRO/KC, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), and IL-1β. F344 rats without struvite stones at necropsy had milder bladder lesions and significantly lower urinary levels of proinflammatory cytokines but a more prominent inflammatory response than did other rat strains. Based on our results, struvite stone formation is linked to a robust inflammatory response that does not resolve UTI but instead promotes damage to surrounding tissues. PMID:16982825

  17. Effectiveness of Standard UV Depuration at Inactivating Cryptosporidium parvum Recovered from Spiked Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnotel, O.; Snelling, W. J.; McDonough, N.; Browne, L.; Moore, J. E.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Lowery, C. J.

    2007-01-01

    When filter-feeding shellfish are consumed raw, because of their ability to concentrate and store waterborne pathogens, they are being increasingly associated with human gastroenteritis and have become recognized as important pathogen vectors. In the shellfish industry, UV depuration procedures are mandatory to reduce pathogen levels prior to human consumption. However, these guidelines are based around more susceptible fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. and do not consider Cryptosporidium spp., which have significant resistance to environmental stresses. Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate the efficiency of standard UV depuration against the survival of Cryptosporidium recovered from shellfish. Our study found that in industrial-scale shellfish depuration treatment tanks, standard UV treatment resulted in a 13-fold inactivation of recovered, viable C. parvum oocysts from spiked (1 × 106 oocysts liter −1) Pacific oysters. Depuration at half power also significantly reduced (P oysters. While UV treatment resulted in significant reductions of recovered viable oocysts, low numbers of viable oocysts were still recovered from oysters after depuration, making their consumption when raw a public health risk. Our study highlights the need for increased periodic monitoring programs for shellfish harvesting sites, improved depuration procedures, and revised microbial quality control parameters, including Cryptosporidium assessment, to minimize the risk of cryptosporidiosis. PMID:17574996

  18. Fluorescent microspheres as surrogates in evaluating the efficacy of riverbank filtration for removing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and other pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ronald W.; Metge, David W.; Sheets, Rodney A.; Jasperse, Jay

    2011-01-01

    A major benefit of riverbank filtration (RBF) is that it provides a relatively effective means for pathogen removal. There is a need to conduct more injection-and-recovery transport studies at operating RBF sites in order to properly assess the combined effects of the site heterogeneities and ambient physicochemical conditions, which are difficult to replicate in the lab. For field transport studies involving pathogens, there is considerable interest in using fluorescent carboxylated microspheres (FCM) as surrogates, because they are chemically inert, negatively charged, easy to detect, available in a wide variety of sizes, and have been found to be nonhazardous in tracer applications. Although there have been a number of in-situ studies comparing the subsurface transport behaviors of FCM to those of bacteria and viruses, much less is known about their suitability for investigations of protozoa. Oocysts of the intestinal protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium spp are of particular concern for many RBF operations because of their ubiquity and persistence in rivers and high resistance to chlorine disinfection. Although microspheres often have proven to be less-than-ideal analogs for capturing the abiotic transport behavior of viruses and bacteria, there is encouraging recent evidence regarding use of FCM as surrogates for C. parvum oocysts. This chapter discusses the potential of fluorescent microspheres as safe and easy-to-detect surrogates for evaluating the efficacy of RBF operations for removing pathogens, particularly Cryptosporidium, from source waters at different points along the flow path.

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of surface water quality and ichthyotoxicity in urban and rural river basins in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Meyer, Matthew D.; Cox, Stephen B.; Sharma, Bibek; Patino, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    The Double Mountain Fork Brazos River (Texas, USA) consists of North (NF) and South Forks (SF). The NF receives urban runoff and twice-reclaimed wastewater effluent, whereas the SF flows through primarily rural areas. The objective of this study was to determine and compare associations between standard water quality variables and ichthyotoxicity at a landscape scale that included urban (NF) and rural (SF) sites. Five NF and three SF sites were sampled quarterly from March 2008 to March 2009 for specific conductance, salinity, hardness, pH, temperature, and turbidity; and a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo bioassay was used to determine ichthyotoxicity. Metal and nutrient concentrations at all sites were also measured in addition to standard water quality variables in spring 2009. Principal component analyses identified hardness, specific conductance, and salinity as the water variables that best differentiate the urban NF (higher levels) from rural SF habitat. Nutrient levels were also higher in the NF, but no landscape scale patterns in metal concentrations were observed. Ichthyotoxicity was generally higher in NF water especially in winter, and multiple regression analyses suggested a positive association between water hardness and ichthyotoxicity. To test for the potential influence of the toxic golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) on overall ichthyotoxicity, a cofactor known to enhance golden alga toxin activity was used in the bioassays. Golden alga ichthyotoxicity was detected in the NF but not the SF, suggesting golden alga may have contributed to overall ichthyotoxicity in the urban but not in the rural system. In conclusion, the physicochemistry of the urban-influenced NF water was conducive to the expression of ichthyotoxicity and also point to water hardness as a novel factor influencing golden alga ichthyotoxicity in surface waters.

  20. Lipid oxidation in base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion: Impact of natural antioxidants and emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingcan; Rao, Jiajia; Ding, Yangping; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The impact of natural hydrophilic antioxidants, metal chelators, and hydrophilic antioxidant/metal chelator mixture on the oxidative stability of base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion was investigated. The results showed that green tea extract and ascorbic acid had greatest protective effect against algae oil oxidation and generated four day lag phase, whereas rosmarinic acid, grape seed extract, grape seed extract polymer, deferoxamine (DFO), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) had no significant protective effect. Besides, there was no synergistic effect observed between natural antioxidants and ascorbic acid. The emulsifiers are critical to the physicochemical stability of water-in-algae oil emulsions. Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) promoted the oxidation of emulsion. Conversely, the protective effect on algae oil oxidation was appreciated when defatted soybean lecithin (PC 75) or defatted lyso-lecithin (Lyso-PC) was added. The role of hydrophilic antioxidants in emulsion was similar to that in algae oil except EDTA which demonstrated strong antioxidative effect in emulsion. The results could provide information to build up stable food products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SOIL ALGAE OF BLADE OF COIL IN DONETSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltseva I.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On territory of Donbass for more than 200 years the underground coal mining has produced, accompanied by the formation of the mine dumps. Finding ways to reduce their negative impact on the environment should be based on their comprehensive study. The soil algae are active participants in the syngenetic processes in industrial dumps of different origin. The purpose of this paper is to identify the species composition and dominant algae groups in dump mine SH/U5 “Western” in the western part of Donetsk.The test blade is covered with vegetation to the middle from all sides, and on the north side of 20-25 m to the top. The vegetation cover of the lower and middle tiers of all the exposures range in 70-80%. Projective vegetation cover of upper tiers of the northern, north-eastern and north-western exposures are in the range of 20-40%, other – 5-10%. We revealed some 38 algae species as a result of our research in southern, northern, western, and eastern slopes of the blade “Western”. The highest species diversity has Chlorophyta - 14 species (36.8% of the total number of species, then Cyanophyta - 9 (23,7%, Bacillariophyta - 7 (18,4%, Xantophyta - 5 (13.2%, and Eustigmatophyta - 3 (7.9%. The dominants are represented by Hantzschia amphyoxys (Ehrenberg Grunow in Cleve et Grunow, Bracteacoccus aerius, Klebsormidium flaccidum (Kützing Silva et al., Phormidium autumnale, Pinnularia borealis Ehrenberg, Planothidium lanceolatum (Brebisson in Kützing Bukhtiyarova, Xanthonema exile (Klebs Silva.It should be noted that the species composition of algae groups in different slopes of the blade was significantly different. Jacquard coefficient was calculated for algae communities varied in the range of 15,4-39,1%. The smallest number of algae species was observed on the southern slope of the blade (14 species, maximum was registered in the areas of north and west slopes. Differences in the species composition of algae were also observed in three

  2. Bacterial community changes in an industrial algae production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Scott P; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Knight, Rob; Reardon, Kenneth F; Chisholm, Stephen T

    2018-04-01

    While microalgae are a promising feedstock for production of fuels and other chemicals, a challenge for the algal bioproducts industry is obtaining consistent, robust algae growth. Algal cultures include complex bacterial communities and can be difficult to manage because specific bacteria can promote or reduce algae growth. To overcome bacterial contamination, algae growers may use closed photobioreactors designed to reduce the number of contaminant organisms. Even with closed systems, bacteria are known to enter and cohabitate, but little is known about these communities. Therefore, the richness, structure, and composition of bacterial communities were characterized in closed photobioreactor cultivations of Nannochloropsis salina in F/2 medium at different scales, across nine months spanning late summer-early spring, and during a sequence of serially inoculated cultivations. Using 16S rRNA sequence data from 275 samples, bacterial communities in small, medium, and large cultures were shown to be significantly different. Larger systems contained richer bacterial communities compared to smaller systems. Relationships between bacterial communities and algae growth were complex. On one hand, blooms of a specific bacterial type were observed in three abnormal, poorly performing replicate cultivations, while on the other, notable changes in the bacterial community structures were observed in a series of serial large-scale batch cultivations that had similar growth rates. Bacteria common to the majority of samples were identified, including a single OTU within the class Saprospirae that was found in all samples. This study contributes important information for crop protection in algae systems, and demonstrates the complex ecosystems that need to be understood for consistent, successful industrial algae cultivation. This is the first study to profile bacterial communities during the scale-up process of industrial algae systems.

  3. Two-step evolution of endosymbiosis between hydra and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Two-Step Evolution of Endosymbiosis between Hydra and Algae

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-07-09

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  5. DISTRIBUTIONAND DIVERSITY OF MACRO ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN THE AMBON BAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Litaay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water conditions affected by natural and anthropogenic parameters such as sedimentation and solid waste disposal can influence the growth and distribution of macro algae. Sustainable management efforts can reduce damage on the Gulf coast of Ambon due to human activities and land clearing. This study was conducted in October 2008 using the transect method with 3 replicates in five locations i.e., Tantui, Air Salobar, Hative Besar, Halong, and Lateri. The interior and exterior waters of Ambon Bay contained different habitat conditions due to  sedimentation processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and diversity of macro algae communities in the Ambon Bay. The results found 21 species of macro- algae consisting of 10 species of Rhodhophyceae, 6 species of Chlorophyceae, and 5 species of Phaeophyceae. The highest density value of seaweed in Tantui was 389.0 g/m² of Chlorophyceae of Halimeda genus. In Air Salobar and Halong, the highest density value was Rhodophyceae of Gracilaria genus of 172.0 g/m² and 155.0 g/m², respectively. For the other genus in the Tantui and Lateri regions were dominated by Ulva at 92.10 gr/m2 and Padina of 20.0 gr/m2, respectively. The highest dominance of macro algae in the Hative Besar was found Chlorophyceae of Halimeda genus of 2.93 %, in the Air Salobar of Phaeophyceae of Turbinaria genus of 1.43 %. The difference values in density and the dominance of macro algae indicated an influence of habitat and environment due to seasons, sediment, and solid waste disposal to the diversity of macro algae. Keywords: Diversity, macro algae, Ambon Bay.

  6. The effects of mutagens on some algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranez, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    Pure cultures of Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp.) Breb. and chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick were subjected to 0.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 Kr gamma radiation ( 60 Co source) from the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. Untreated cells were used as control. Dose of 0.5 Kr increased the growth rate of Scenedesmus by 3.12%, 15.27% and 20.48% during the first, third and fourth week respectively. Doses of 6, 9 and 12 decreased the growth rate by 86.33%, 70.7% and 58.2% respectively during the first week. The stimulating effect of low dose (0.5 Kr) was recovered after the fourth week while the inhibiting effect on growth by higher doses was recovered after the first week. Gamma radiation produced morphological changes in the Scenedesmus in the form of enlarged cells, cells with kidney-shape chloroplast, cells in chain, and coenobia with cells that were not in perfect alignment with each other. In chlorella, gamma radiation produced enlarged cells, cells with wrinkled surface and cells that were colourless. Ethyl methanesulfate of 0.1%, 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.25% in phosphate buffer solution was another mutagen used. Algae in distilled water and phosphate buffer were used as control. Treatment with EMS produced coenobia of Scenedesmus with cells that were twice and thrice the normal cells, cells that were rounded or oval in outline, with wavy instead of smooth margin, cells with pseudopodia-like protrusions and coenobia with abnormal number of cells. In Chlorella, EMS produced cells that were twice the size of the normal size of the normal ones, cells that were wavy in outline, abnormal in shape, and cells with no chlorophyll. Scenedesmus was more sensitive to gamma radiation and EMS than chlorella. Of the morphological changes observed, only Scenedesmus with cells around twice the size of the normal ones produced by treatment with either gamma radiation of EMS were successfully propagated. (author)

  7. Neofusicoccum parvum Colonization of the Grapevine Woody Stem Triggers Asynchronous Host Responses at the Site of Infection and in the Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Massonnet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine trunk diseases cause important economic losses in vineyards worldwide. Neofusicoccum parvum, one of the most aggressive causal agents of the trunk disease Botryosphaeria dieback, colonizes cells and tissues of the grapevine wood, leading to the formation of an internal canker. Symptoms then extend to distal shoots, with wilting of leaves and bud mortality. Our aim was to characterize the transcriptional dynamics of grapevine genes in the woody stem and in the leaves during Neofusicoccum parvum colonization. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling at seven distinct time points (0, 3, and 24 hours; 2, 6, 8, and 12 weeks showed that both stems and leaves undergo extensive transcriptomic reprogramming in response to infection of the stem. While most intense transcriptional responses were detected in the stems at 24 hours, strong responses were not detected in the leaves until the next sampling point at 2 weeks post-inoculation. Network co-expression analysis identified modules of co-expressed genes common to both organs and showed most of these genes were asynchronously modulated. The temporal shift between stem vs. leaf responses affected transcriptional modulation of genes involved in both signal perception and transduction, as well as downstream biological processes, including oxidative stress, cell wall rearrangement and cell death. Promoter analysis of the genes asynchronously modulated in stem and leaves during N. parvum colonization suggests that the temporal shift of transcriptional reprogramming between the two organs might be due to asynchronous co-regulation by common transcriptional regulators. Topology analysis of stem and leaf co-expression networks pointed to specific transcription factor-encoding genes, including WRKY and MYB, which may be associated with the observed transcriptional responses in the two organs.

  8. Disinfection and toxicological assessments of pulsed UV and pulsed-plasma gas-discharge treated-water containing the waterborne protozoan enteroparasite Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jennifer; Kirf, Dominik; Garvey, Mary; Rowan, Neil

    2013-09-01

    We report for the first time on the comparative use of pulsed-plasma gas-discharge (PPGD) and pulsed UV light (PUV) for the novel destruction of the waterborne enteroparasite Cryptosporidium parvum. It also describes the first cyto-, geno- and ecotoxicological assays undertaken to assess the safety of water decontaminated using PPGD and PUV. During PPGD treatments, the application of high voltage pulses (16 kV, 10 pps) to gas-injected water (N2 or O2, flow rate 2.5L/min) resulted in the formation of a plasma that generated free radicals, ultraviolet light, acoustic shock waves and electric fields that killed ca. 4 log C. parvum oocysts in 32 min exposure. Findings showed that PPGD-treated water produced significant cytotoxic properties (as determined by MTT and neutral red assays), genotoxic properties (as determined by comet and Ames assays), and ecotoxic properties (as determined by Microtox™, Thamnotox™ and Daphnotox™ assays) that are representative of different trophic levels in aquatic environment (pozone (0.8 mg/L) and/or dissociated nitric and nitrous acid that contributed to the observed disinfection and toxicity. Chemical analysis of PPGD-treated water revealed increasing levels of electrode metals that were present at ≤ 30 times the tolerated respective values for EU drinking water. PUV-treated water did not exhibit any toxicity and was shown to be far superior to that of PPGD for killing C. parvum oocysts taking only 90 s of pulsing [UV dose of 6.29 μJ/cm(2)] to produce a 4-log reduction compared to a similar reduction level achieved after 32min PPGD treatment as determined by combined in vitro CaCo-2 cell culture-qPCR. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Manuka honey against antibiotic-resistant strains of the cell wall-free bacteria Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillitt, K L; Jenkins, R E; Spiller, O B; Beeton, M L

    2017-03-01

    The susceptibility of the cell wall-free bacterial pathogens Ureaplasma spp. to Manuka honey was examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Manuka honey for four Ureaplasma urealyticum and four Ureaplasma parvum isolates was determined. Sensitivity to honey was also compared to clinical isolates with resistance to tetracycline, macrolide and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Finally step-wise resistance training was utilized in an attempt to induce increased tolerance to honey. The MIC was dependent on the initial bacterial load with 7·5 and 18·0% w/v honey required to inhibit U. urealyticum at 1 and 10 6 colour changing units (CCU), respectively, and 4·8 and 15·3% w/v required to inhibit U. parvum at 1 and 10 6  CCU respectively. MIC values were consistently lower for U. parvum compared with U. urealyticum. Antimicrobial activity was seen against tetracycline-resistant, erythromycin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates at 10 5  CCU. No resistance to honey was observed with 50 consecutive challenges at increasing concentrations of honey. This is the first report of the antimicrobial activity of Manuka honey against a cell wall-free bacterial pathogen. The antimicrobial activity was retained against antibiotic-resistant strains and it was not possible to generate resistant mutants. Manuka honey is known to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, with the bacterial cell wall being suggested as a predominant site of action. This study has demonstrated that Manuka honey has activity against Ureaplasma spp., a genus of cell wall-free bacteria which are intrinsically resistant to many available antibiotics making treatment inherently difficult. This is the first report of the antimicrobial activity of Manuka honey against a bacterial pathogen, in the absence of a cell well and opens scope for the use of components of Manuka honey as a therapeutic among Ureaplasma infections. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  12. Optimal control of algae growth by controlling CO 2 and nutrition flow using Pontryagin Maximum Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardlijah; Jamil, Ahmad; Hanafi, Lukman; Sanjaya, Suharmadi

    2017-09-01

    There are so many benefit of algae. One of them is using for renewable energy and sustainable in the future. The greater growth of algae will increasing biodiesel production and the increase of algae growth is influenced by glucose, nutrients and photosynthesis process. In this paper, the optimal control problem of the growth of algae is discussed. The objective function is to maximize the concentration of dry algae while the control is the flow of carbon dioxide and the nutrition. The solution is obtained by applying the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. and the result show that the concentration of algae increased more than 15 %.

  13. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Metzler; Ayca Erdem; Chin Pao Huang

    2018-01-01

    This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure) and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3−4.2 × 106 ...

  14. Evaluation of the solar water disinfection process (SODIS) against Cryptosporidium parvum using a 25-L static solar reactor fitted with a compound parabolic collector (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontán-Sainz, María; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Ares-Mazás, Elvira

    2012-02-01

    Water samples of 0, 5, and 30 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) spiked with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to natural sunlight using a 25-L static solar reactor fitted with a compound parabolic collector (CPC). The global oocyst viability was calculated by the evaluation of the inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide and the spontaneous excystation. After an exposure time of 8 hours, the global oocyst viabilities were 21.8 ± 3.1%, 31.3 ± 12.9%, and 45.0 ± 10.0% for turbidity levels of 0, 5, and 30 NTU, respectively, and these values were significantly lower (P 10 times).

  15. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Bulos, A.; Whitehead, N.E.; Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131 I, 129 Te m , and 110 Ag m and lowest for radiocesium and 140 Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242 Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  16. Acute toxicity and associated mechanisms of four strobilurins in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Yu; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Junli; Wang, Chengju; Li, Xuefeng; Pang, Sen

    2018-04-03

    Strobilurins have been reported highly toxic to non-target aquatic organisms but few illustrated how they cause toxic effects on algae. This study investigated the acute toxicity of Kresoxim-methy (KRE), Pyraclostrobin (PYR), Trifloxystrobin (TRI) and Picoxystrobin (PIC) on two algae and their toxicity mechanisms. Four strobilurins showed lower toxic effects on Chlorella pyrenoidsa but higher on Chlorella vulgaris. bc1 complex activities in C. vulgaris were significantly inhibited by all strobilurins, suggesting bc 1 complex might be the target of strobilurin toxicity in algae. Moreover, SOD, CAT and POD activities were significantly up-regulated by all doses of KRE, PYR and PIC. In contrast, low concentrations of TRI stimulated SOD and POD activities but highest concentration significantly inhibited those activities. Comet assays showed damaged DNA in C. vulgaris by four strobulirins, suggesting their potential genotoxic threats to algae. The results illustrated acute toxicity by strobulirins on algae and their possible toxicity mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Algae Production from Wastewater Resources: An Engineering and Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan [Longitude 122 West, Inc.; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL

    2018-03-01

    Co-locating algae cultivation ponds near municipal wastewater (MWW) facilities provides the opportunity to make use of the nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in the wastewater as nutrient sources for the algae. This use benefits MWW facilities, the algae biomass and biofuel or bioproduct industry, and the users of streams where treated or untreated waste would be discharged. Nutrient compounds can lead to eutrophication, hypoxia, and adverse effects to some organisms if released downstream. This analysis presents an estimate of the cost savings made possible to cultivation facilities by using the nutrients from wastewater for algae growth rather than purchase of the nutrients. The analysis takes into consideration the cost of pipe transport from the wastewater facility to the algae ponds, a cost factor that has not been publicly documented in the past. The results show that the savings in nutrient costs can support a wastewater transport distance up to 10 miles for a 1000-acre-pond facility, with potential adjustments for different operating assumptions.

  18. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ramírez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.

  19. Algae-bacteria interactions: Evolution, ecology and emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Rishiram; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Algae and bacteria have coexisted ever since the early stages of evolution. This coevolution has revolutionized life on earth in many aspects. Algae and bacteria together influence ecosystems as varied as deep seas to lichens and represent all conceivable modes of interactions - from mutualism to parasitism. Several studies have shown that algae and bacteria synergistically affect each other's physiology and metabolism, a classic case being algae-roseobacter interaction. These interactions are ubiquitous and define the primary productivity in most ecosystems. In recent years, algae have received much attention for industrial exploitation but their interaction with bacteria is often considered a contamination during commercialization. A few recent studies have shown that bacteria not only enhance algal growth but also help in flocculation, both essential processes in algal biotechnology. Hence, there is a need to understand these interactions from an evolutionary and ecological standpoint, and integrate this understanding for industrial use. Here we reflect on the diversity of such relationships and their associated mechanisms, as well as the habitats that they mutually influence. This review also outlines the role of these interactions in key evolutionary events such as endosymbiosis, besides their ecological role in biogeochemical cycles. Finally, we focus on extending such studies on algal-bacterial interactions to various environmental and bio-technological applications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mg-lattice associations in red coralline algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenos, N. A.; Cusack, M.; Huthwelker, T.; Lagarde, P.; Scheibling, R. E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations have shown red coralline algae to record ambient temperature in their calcite skeletons. Temperature recorded by variation in Mg concentrations within algal growth bands has sub-annual resolution and high accuracy. The conversion of Mg concentration to temperature is based on the assumption of Ca replacement by Mg within the algal calcite skeleton at higher temperatures. While Mg-temperature relationships in coralline algae have been calibrated for some species, the location of Mg within the calcite lattice remains unknown. Critically, if Mg is not a lattice component but associated with organic components this could lead to erroneous temperature records. Before coralline algae are used in large scale climate reconstructions it is therefore important to determine the location of Mg. Synchrotron Mg-X-ray absorbance near edge structure (XANES) indicates that Mg is associated with the calcite lattice in Lithothamnion glaciale (contemporary free-living, contemporary encrusting and sub-fossil free-living) and Phymatolithon calcareum (contemporary free-living) coralline algae. Mg is deposited within the calcite lattice in all seasons ( L. glaciale & P. calcareum) and thallus areas ( P. calcareum). These results suggest L. glaciale and P. calcareum are robust Mg-palaeotemperature proxies. We suggest that similar confirmation be obtained for Mg associations in other species of red coralline algae aiding our understanding of their role in climate reconstruction at large spatial scales.

  1. Role of collector alternating charged patches on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst in a patchwise charged heterogeneous micromodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Changyong; Hu, Dehong; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B.; Mylon, Steven E.; Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2013-02-04

    The role of collector surface charge heterogeneity on transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst and carboxylate microsphere in 2-dimensional micromodels was studied. The cylindrical silica collectors within the micromodels were coated with 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100% Fe2O3 patches. The experimental values of average single collector removal efficiencies (η) of the Fe2O3 patches and on the entire collectors were determined. In the presence of significant (>3500 kT) Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) energy barrier between the microspheres and the silica collectors at pH 5.8 and 8.1, the values of η determined for Fe2O3 patches were significantly less (p < 0.05, t-test) than that obtained for collectors coated entirely with Fe2O3. However, η on Fe2O3 patches for microspheres at pH 4.4 and for oocysts at pH 5.8 and 8.1, where the DLVO energy barrier was relatively small (ca. 200-360 kT), were significantly greater (p < 0.05, t-test) than that on the collectors coated entirely with Fe2O3. The dependence of η determined for Fe2O3 patches on the DLVO energy barrier indicated the importance of periodic favorable and unfavorable electrostatic interactions between colloids and collectors with alternating Fe2O3 and silica patches. Differences between experimentally determined η and that predicted by a patchwise geochemical heterogeneous model was observed, but can be explained by the model’s lack of consideration for the spatial distribution of charge heterogeneity on the collector surface and colloid migration on patchwise heterogeneous collectors.

  2. Serum killing of Ureaplasma parvum shows serovar-determined susceptibility for normal individuals and common variable immuno-deficiency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Michael L; Daha, Mohamed R; El-Shanawany, Tariq; Jolles, Stephen R; Kotecha, Sailesh; Spiller, O Brad

    2012-02-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria, unlike Gram-positive, are directly lysed by complement. Ureaplasma can cause septic arthritis and meningitis in immunocompromised individuals and induce premature birth. Ureaplasma has no cell wall, cannot be Gram-stain classified and its serum susceptibility is unknown. Survival of Ureaplasma serovars (SV) 1, 3, 6 and 14 (collectively Ureaplasma parvum) were measured following incubation with normal or immunoglobulin-deficient patient serum (relative to heat-inactivated controls). Blocking monoclonal anti-C1q antibody and depletion of calcium, immunoglobulins, or lectins were used to determine the complement pathway responsible for killing. Eighty-three percent of normal sera killed SV1, 67% killed SV6 and 25% killed SV14; greater killing correlating to strong immunoblot identification of anti-Ureaplasma antibodies; killing was abrogated following ProteinA removal of IgG1. All normal sera killed SV3 in a C1q-dependent fashion, irrespective of immunoblot identification of anti-Ureaplasma antibodies; SV3 killing was unaffected by total IgG removal by ProteinG, where complement activity was retained. Only one of four common variable immunodeficient (CVID) patient sera failed to kill SV3, despite profound IgM and IgG deficiency for all; however, killing of SV3 and SV1 was restored with therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Only the classical complement pathway mediated Ureaplasma-cidal activity, sometimes in the absence of observable immunoblot reactive bands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Ureaplasma parvum undergoes selection in utero resulting in genetically diverse isolates colonizing the chorioamnion of fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Polglase, Graeme R; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Knox, Christine L

    2014-02-01

    Ureaplasmas are the microorganisms most frequently isolated from the amniotic fluid of pregnant women and can cause chronic intrauterine infections. These tiny bacteria are thought to undergo rapid evolution and exhibit a hypermutatable phenotype; however, little is known about how ureaplasmas respond to selective pressures in utero. Using an ovine model of chronic intraamniotic infection, we investigated if exposure of ureaplasmas to subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin could induce phenotypic or genetic indicators of macrolide resistance. At 55 days gestation, 12 pregnant ewes received an intraamniotic injection of a nonclonal, clinical Ureaplasma parvum strain followed by (i) erythromycin treatment (intramuscularly, 30 mg/kg/day, n = 6) or (ii) saline (intramuscularly, n = 6) at 100 days gestation. Fetuses were then delivered surgically at 125 days gestation. Despite injecting the same inoculum into all the ewes, significant differences between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas were detected following chronic intraamniotic infection. Numerous polymorphisms were observed in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of ureaplasmas isolated from the chorioamnion (but not the amniotic fluid), resulting in a mosaiclike sequence. Chorioamnion isolates also harbored the macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and msr(D) and were associated with variable roxithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations. Remarkably, this variability occurred independently of exposure of ureaplasmas to erythromycin, suggesting that low-level erythromycin exposure does not induce ureaplasmal macrolide resistance in utero. Rather, the significant differences observed between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas suggest that different anatomical sites may select for ureaplasma subtypes within nonclonal, clinical strains. This may have implications for the treatment of intrauterine ureaplasma infections.

  4. Analysis of mutations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum serovars resistant to fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Giorgio; Gargiulo, Franco; Biscaro, Valeria; Caccuri, Francesca; Caruso, Arnaldo; De Francesco, Maria Antonia

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance of Ureaplasma biovars and serovars isolated from urogenital clinical samples and determine the underlying molecular mechanism for quinolone resistance for all resistant isolates. Of 105 samples confirmed as positive for U. urealyticum/U. parvum, 85 were resistant to quinolones by the Mycoplasma-IST2 kit. However, only 43 out of 85 quinolone resistant isolates had amino acid substitutions in GyrA, GyrB, ParC and ParE proteins underlining that this assay have mis-identified as fluoroquinolone resistant 42 isolates. The known ParC E87K and ParC S83L mutations were found in 1 and 10 isolates, respectively. An original mutation of ureaplasmal ParC (E87Q, 1 isolate) was found. Furthermore, we found a ParE R448K mutation in one isolate, already described. Among the additional alterations detected, the most prevalent mutation found was L176F in GyrA protein in 18 isolates with single infection and in 3 isolates with mixed ureaplasma infections. Mutations in GyrB (E502Q, 4 isolates), ParE (Q412K, Q412P, Q412T, 3 independent isolates), whose role is unknown, were also found. Other sporadic mutations in the four genes were identified. This investigation is the result of monitoring the data for molecular fluoroquinone resistance in Ureaplasma spp. in Italy. Resulting that this acquired resistance is high and that continued local epidemiological studies are essential to monitor and document their antimicrobial resistance trends. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  6. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  7. Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em

  8. Stream Level Stabilization by Algae of the Genus Cladophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman J.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations in the Pryský brook experimental catchment revealed that the vegetation of the stream channel stabilizes water level depth in the measured profile. The explored brook has been heavily overgrown by algae of the genus Cladophora due to a strong pollution by nitrates. It seems that if the algae average length exceeds the midsize of the stones paving the bed (ca. 30 ± 7 cm in diameter, escribed circle to pentagon or heptagon, the water level stagnates in the flowrate range of 60–180 l s−1. This totally blocks the streamflow daily oscillation (in summer months in a purely stone bed reaching up to 15%, along with tidal phenomena. The article analyzes one of possible explanations of this effect due to the dependence of the algae thickness layer modifying the channel bed cross-section on the speed of flowing water.

  9. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinping; Zhu, Xiaobin; Deng, Liping; Deng, Zhiwei; Lin, Wenhan

    2006-12-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2). cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5). cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, ID and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  10. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

  11. Inorganic carbon addition stimulates snow algae primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. L.; Havig, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Earth has experienced glacial/interglacial oscillations throughout its history. Today over 15 million square kilometers (5.8 million square miles) of Earth's land surface is covered in ice including glaciers, ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, most of which are retreating as a consequence of increased atmospheric CO2. Glaciers are teeming with life and supraglacial snow and ice surfaces are often red due to blooms of photoautotrophic algae. Recent evidence suggests the red pigmentation, secondary carotenoids produced in part to thrive under high irradiation, lowers albedo and accelerates melt. However, there are relatively few studies that report the productivity of snow algae communities and the parameters that constrain their growth on snow and ice surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that snow algae primary productivity can be stimulated by the addition of inorganic carbon. We found an increase in light-dependent carbon assimilation in snow algae microcosms amended with increasing amounts of inorganic carbon. Our snow algae communities were dominated by typical cosmopolitan snow algae species recovered from Alpine and Arctic environments. The climate feedbacks necessary to enter and exit glacial/interglacial oscillations are poorly understood. Evidence and models agree that global Snowball events are accompanied by changes in atmospheric CO2 with increasing CO2 necessary for entering periods of interglacial time. Our results demonstrate a positive feedback between increased CO2 and snow algal productivity and presumably growth. With the recent call for bio-albedo effects to be considered in climate models, our results underscore the need for robust climate models to include feedbacks between supraglacial primary productivity, albedo, and atmospheric CO2.

  12. Using the marine unicellular algae in biological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapkov V. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using marine unicellular algae from natural plankton community in biomonitoring of pollution by heavy metals has been investigated. Algae of different taxa from the Mediterranean Sea have been allocated to culture. In the laboratory the culture conditions – i. e. growth medium, temperature, photoperiod, level of artificial light and initial density – have been selected for every species. The impact of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb in the form of chloride salts on the growth of axenic algae culture has been studied in the modelling experiments. The unicellular marine algae have a very short life cycle, therefore it is possible to use them in the experiments of studying the effect of anthropogenic factors at cellular and population levels on the test-object. With biomonitoring pollution of marine environment by heavy metals and others dangerous toxicants, the major indicators of algae community condition are the cellular cycle and the condition of the photosynthetic apparatus of the cell. The subsequent lysis of cells under the influence of heavy metals leads to the excretion of secondary metabolites which can essentially affect the metal toxicity. The established scales of threshold and lethal concentration of heavy metals for algae of different taxon make it possible to use the ratio of sensitive and resistant species to heavy metals as biological markers when forecasting ecological consequences of pollution of the marine environment by heavy metals. Distinctions in the resistance of different taxon to heavy metals can result in implementing the strategy of selection of test-objects depending on the purposes of the research.

  13. Uptake of americium-241 by algae and bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesy, Jr, J P; Paine, D [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, S.C. (USA)

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of americium by three algae, Scenedesmus obliguus, Selenastrum capricomutum and Chlorella pyrenosdosa and a bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila was studied. Live and fixed cells of each algal species and live bacterial cells were used. It is shown that algae and bacteria concentrate americium 241 to a high degree which makes them important links in the biomagnification phenomenon which may ultimately lead to a human hazard and be potentially important in recycling Am /sup 241/ in the water column and mobilization from sediments. Chemical fixation of algal cells caused increased uptake which indicated that uptake is by passive diffusion and probably due to chemical alteration of surface binding sites.

  14. The attached algae community near Pickering GS: III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between attached algae and macro-invertebrates in the nearshore zone of Lake Ontario was investigated in the vicinity of the Pickering 'A' NGS. Measures of faunal density, richness, evenness, and biomass were generally higher from areas which supported attached algae. Gammarus fasciatus, Cricotopus bicinctus, Dicrotendipes spp., Orthocladius obumbratus, Cladotanytarsus spp., Orthocladius spp., and Parakiefferiella spp., were significantly correlated with algal standing crop. All of the above dominant invertebrates ingested epiphytes associated with Cladophora glomerata. Attempts to explain the distribution of the zoobenthic assemblages using the physical/biological characteristics of the study area indicated algal cover, substrate size, wind velocity and water temperature were most important

  15. Synthetic algae and cyanobacteria: Great potential but what is the exposure risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green algae and cyanobacteria (hereafter, algae) have the attractive properties of relatively simple genomes, rapid growth rates, and an ability to synthesize useful compounds using solar energy and carbon dioxide. They are attractive targets for applications of synthetic biology...

  16. Bioecology of an articulated coralline alga Amphiroa fragilissima from Anjuna, Goa, Central Western Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ambiye, V.; Untawale, A.G

    An articulated coralline alga Amphiroa fragilissima L. Lam. was found to exhibit spasmogenic and hypotensive activities due to the presence of a biogenic amine. This biologically active alga was studied for its bioecology. Its thallus is multiaxial...

  17. Involvement of Cryptosporidium parvum Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA in the Attenuation of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Migration via Trans-Suppression of Host Cell SMPD3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Zhenping; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Li, Min; Mathy, Nicholas W; Strauss-Soukup, Juliane K; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2017-12-27

    Intestinal infection by Cryptosporidium parvum causes inhibition of epithelial turnover, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. Previous studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts of low protein-coding potential are delivered into infected epithelial cells. Using in vitro and in vivo models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, we report here that host delivery of parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA results in inhibition of epithelial cell migration through suppression of the gene encoding sphingomyelinase 3 (SMPD3). Delivery of Cdg7_FLc_1000 into infected cells promotes the histone methyltransferase G9a-mediated H3K9 methylation in the SMPD3 locus. The DNA-binding transcriptional repressor, PR domain zinc finger protein 1, is required for the assembly of Cdg7_FLc_1000 into the G9a complex and associated with the enrichment of H3K9 methylation at the gene locus. Pathologically, nuclear transfer of Cryptosporidium parvum Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA is involved in the attenuation of intestinal epithelial cell migration via trans-suppression of host cell SMPD3. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Synergic activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/6 and 9 in response to Ureaplasma parvum & urealyticum in human amniotic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafilou, Martha; De Glanville, Benjamin; Aboklaish, Ali F; Spiller, O Brad; Kotecha, Sailesh; Triantafilou, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Ureaplasma species are the most frequently isolated microorganisms inside the amniotic cavity and have been associated with spontaneous abortion, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), preterm labour (PL) pneumonia in neonates and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates. The mechanisms by which Ureaplasmas cause such diseases remain unclear, but it is believed that inappropriate induction of inflammatory responses is involved, triggered by the innate immune system. As part of its mechanism of activation, the innate immune system employs germ-lined encoded receptors, called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in order to "sense" pathogens. One such family of PRRs are the Toll like receptor family (TLR). In the current study we aimed to elucidate the role of TLRs in Ureaplasma-induced inflammation in human amniotic epithelial cells. Using silencing, as well as human embryonic kidney (HEK) transfected cell lines, we demonstrate that TLR2, TLR6 and TLR9 are involved in the inflammatory responses against Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum serovars. Ureaplasma lipoproteins, such as Multiple Banded antigen (MBA), trigger responses via TLR2/TLR6, whereas the whole bacterium is required for TLR9 activation. No major differences were observed between the different serovars. Cell activation by Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum seem to require lipid raft function and formation of heterotypic receptor complexes comprising of TLR2 and TLR6 on the cell surface and TLR9 intracellularly.

  19. Synergic activation of toll-like receptor (TLR 2/6 and 9 in response to Ureaplasma parvum & urealyticum in human amniotic epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Triantafilou

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma species are the most frequently isolated microorganisms inside the amniotic cavity and have been associated with spontaneous abortion, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of the membranes (PROM, preterm labour (PL pneumonia in neonates and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates. The mechanisms by which Ureaplasmas cause such diseases remain unclear, but it is believed that inappropriate induction of inflammatory responses is involved, triggered by the innate immune system. As part of its mechanism of activation, the innate immune system employs germ-lined encoded receptors, called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs in order to "sense" pathogens. One such family of PRRs are the Toll like receptor family (TLR. In the current study we aimed to elucidate the role of TLRs in Ureaplasma-induced inflammation in human amniotic epithelial cells. Using silencing, as well as human embryonic kidney (HEK transfected cell lines, we demonstrate that TLR2, TLR6 and TLR9 are involved in the inflammatory responses against Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum serovars. Ureaplasma lipoproteins, such as Multiple Banded antigen (MBA, trigger responses via TLR2/TLR6, whereas the whole bacterium is required for TLR9 activation. No major differences were observed between the different serovars. Cell activation by Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum seem to require lipid raft function and formation of heterotypic receptor complexes comprising of TLR2 and TLR6 on the cell surface and TLR9 intracellularly.

  20. Cultivation Strategy for Freshwater Macro- and Micro-Algae as Biomass Stock for Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Verawaty, Marieska; Melwita, Elda; Apsari, Putri; Mayumi, Mayumi

    2017-01-01

    In this research, an algae cultivation strategy was studied. Integrating algae cultivation with wastewater treatment is currently seen as one of the most economical ways of producing algae biomass. A combination of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and a constructed wetland (CW) was applied for treating domestic wastewater with an additional collection tank for improving effluent quality. The effluent produced from the three stages was used as algae cultivation media and suplemented with 10%...

  1. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned dairy calves in the Czech Republic: Absence of C. ryanae and management-associated distribution of C. andersoni, C. bovis and C. parvum subtypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Hromadová, N.; Květoňová, Dana; Rost, M.; Sak, Bohumil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 177, 3/4 (2011), s. 378-382 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Calves * Cryptosporidium andersoni * C. bovis * C. parvum * GP60 * SSU Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  2. Stimulation of innate immunity in newborn kids against Cryptosporidium parvum infection-challenge by intranasal/per-oral administration of liposomal formulation of N-L 18-norAbu-GMDP adjuvant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turánek, J.; Kašná, A.; Koudela, Břetislav; Ledvina, Miroslav; Miller, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 5 (2005), s. 601-608 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Cryptosporidium parvum * immunomodulation * liposomes Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.703, year: 2005

  3. Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Swierczewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can detect E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum simultaneously using fresh or frozen stool. The present study evaluated the Triage Micro Parasite Panel in detecting E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum compared to O&P examination in 266 stool samples collected at medical facilities in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity results for the Triage Micro Parasite Panel were: for E. histolytica/E. dispar: 100%, 100%, G. lamblia: 100%, 100% and C. parvum: 73%, 100%. There was no evidence of cross reactivity using the kit with other parasites identified in the stool specimens. These results indicate that the Triage Micro Parasite Panel is a highly sensitive kit that can be used for screening purposes in large scale studies or outbreak investigations or as a possible alternative to O&P examination.

  4. New methodologies for the integration of power plants with algae ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, K.; Gijp, S. van der; Stel, R.W van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally recognized that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient

  5. Treatment Failure Due to Emergence of Resistance to Carbapenem during Therapy for Shewanella algae Bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Min; Kang, Cheol-In; Lee, Chang Seop; Kim, Hong-Bin; Kim, Eui-Chong; Kim, Nam Joong; Oh, Myoung-don; Choe, Kang-Won

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of bacteremia due to imipenem-susceptible Shewanella algae. Despite treatment with imipenem, the patient developed a spinal epidural abscess, from which imipenem-resistant S. algae was isolated. The development of resistance should be monitored when S. algae infection is treated with imipenem, even though the strain is initially susceptible to imipenem.

  6. A review of the taxonomical and ecological studies on Netherlands’ Algae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Joséphine Th.

    1939-01-01

    The earliest account of the Netherlands’ Algae appeared in 1781 in D. de Gorter, Flora VII Prov. Belgii foederati indigen. Here, however, in the Algae lichens and liverworts have been incorporated. The true Algae, of which 35 are enumerated, are principally marine, though also aërophytical and

  7. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  8. Biological removal of algae in an integrated pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meiring, PGJ

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A system of oxidation ponds in series with a biological trickling filter is described. It was known that this arrangement was incapable of reducing effectively the levels of algae present in the pond liquid even though nitrification was effected...

  9. The alga Trachydiscus minutus (Pseudostaurastrum minutum): growth and composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iliev, I.; Petkov, G.; Lukavský, Jaromír; Furnadzhieva, S.; Andreeva, R.; Bankova, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, 3-4 (2011), 222-231 ISSN 1312-8183 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : algae, * fatty acids * pilot plant cultivation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  10. Algas vene kirjanduse nädal / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    22. septembril algas Tartu Linnaraamatukogus vene kirjanduse nädal Inga Ivanova raamatu "Kadunud koerte saladus" esitlusega; 24. sept. toimub Igor Kotjuhi autoriõhtu; 26.-28. toimub Tartu Ülikoolis vene kirjandusele pühendatud rahvusvaheline teaduskonverents. Raamatukogust saab osta ka venekeelseid raamatuid

  11. Evaluation of the activated carbon prepared from the algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... algae Gracilaria for the biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous ... adsorbent dose, and metal ions concentration, were considered. ... precipitation, membrane separation, adsorption and ion exchange processes which are being used to remove copper ... Copper solutions of different concentration (50-180 ppm).

  12. Lab on a chip technologies for algae detection : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, A.M.; Rohrlack, T.; Bellouard, Y.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, lab on a chip technologies have emerged as powerful tools for high-accuracy diagnosis with minute quantities of liquid and as tools for exploring cell properties in general. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of this technology in the context of algae

  13. Experimental analysis of the competition between algae and duckweed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijackers, R.M.M.; Szabo, S.; Scheffer, M.

    2004-01-01

    We performed indoor competition experiments between algae and Lemna gibba L. in order to unravel mechanisms of competition. To separate effects of shading and physical interference from nutrient competition we grew the two groups physically separated while sharing the same water. A multifactorial

  14. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  15. Rainfall changes affect the algae dominance in tank bromeliad ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Aliny Patricia Flauzino; Leal, Juliana da Silva; Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and biodiversity loss have been reported as major disturbances in the biosphere which can trigger changes in the structure and functioning of natural ecosystems. Nonetheless, empirical studies demonstrating how both factors interact to affect shifts in aquatic ecosystems are still unexplored. Here, we experimentally test how changes in rainfall distribution and litter diversity affect the occurrence of the algae-dominated condition in tank bromeliad ecosystems. Tank bromeliads are miniature aquatic ecosystems shaped by the rainwater and allochthonous detritus accumulated in the bases of their leaves. Here, we demonstrated that changes in the rainfall distribution were able to reduce the chlorophyll-a concentration in the water of bromeliad tanks affecting significantly the occurrence of algae-dominated conditions. On the other hand, litter diversity did not affect the algae dominance irrespective to the rainfall scenario. We suggest that rainfall changes may compromise important self-reinforcing mechanisms responsible for maintaining high levels of algae on tank bromeliads ecosystems. We summarized these results into a theoretical model which suggests that tank bromeliads may show two different regimes, determined by the bromeliad ability in taking up nutrients from the water and by the total amount of light entering the tank. We concluded that predicted climate changes might promote regime shifts in tropical aquatic ecosystems by shaping their structure and the relative importance of other regulating factors. PMID:28422988

  16. New bromotriterpene polyethers from the Indian alga Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Scognamiglio, G.; Cimino, G.

    Six new bromotriterpene polyethers, armatol A-F (1-6), with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from the Indian Ocean red alga Chondria armata. The structures were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, in particular 1D- and 2D-NMR...

  17. Meteorological effects on variation of airborne algae in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Roy-Ocotla, Guadalupe; Mosiño, Pedro

    1989-09-01

    Sixteen species of algae were collected from 73.8 m3 of air. Eleven were obtained in Minatitlán and eleven in México City. The data show that similar diversity occurred between the two localities, in spite of the difference in altitude. This suggests that cosmopolitan airborne microorganisms might have been released from different sources. Three major algal divisions (Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Chrysophyta) formed the airborne algal group. Also, a large concentration of 2220 algae m-3 was found near sea-level, while lower amounts were recorded at the high altitude of México City. The genera Scenedesmus, Chlorella and Chlorococcum dominated. Striking relationships were noted between the concentration of airborne green and blue-green algae, and meteorological conditions such as rain, vapour pressure, temperature and winds for different altitudes. In Minatitlán a linear relationship was established between concentration of algae and both vapour pressure (mbar) and temperature (° C), while in México City the wind (m s-1) was associated with variations in the algal count.

  18. EFFECT OF BLUE GREEN ALGAE ON SOIL NITROGEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yagya Prasad Paudel

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... associated with soil dessication at the end of the cultivation cycle and algal growth ... blue-green algae (BGA) on soil nitrogen was carried out from June to December 2005. .... Nitrogen fixation by free living Micro-organisms.

  19. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%).

  20. Enhanced high energy efficient steam drying of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology (HC) were proposed. • HC was developed on exergy recovery through exergy elevation and heat pairing. • The energy efficiency of the proposed drying processes was evaluated. • Significant reduction of energy input and CO 2 emission in drying is readily achieved. - Abstract: State-of-the-art brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology were proposed, and their performance with respect to energy consumption was evaluated. Heat circulation technology was developed using the principle of exergy recovery performed through exergy elevation and effective heat pairing for both sensible and latent heat. Two steam drying processes based on heat circulation technology for algae drying were proposed, involving heat circulation with or without steam recirculation. The proposed processes were compared with the conventional heat recovery system employing heat cascade technology. Brown algae Laminaria japonica was selected as the test sample. From the results, it is very clear that both proposed drying processes can reduce the required drying energy significantly by up to 90% of that required in conventional heat recovery drying. Furthermore, the temperature–enthalpy diagram for each process shows that in heat circulation technology based drying, the curves of both hot and cold streams are almost parallel, resulting in the minimization of exergy losses

  1. Uptake of tritiated lysine by fresh water alga, Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogate, S.S.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium uptake by fresh water alga. S.obliquus was studied using tritium labelled lysine, and a sequential solvent extraction procedure was used to study the distribution of tritium in different organic constituents of the algal cells. The accumulation of tritium in the algal cells was found to be 3-4 orders of magnitude more than that obtained for tritiated water. (author)

  2. Seasonal abundance of epipelic algae and sediment parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amadi-Ama creek is located close to sources of wastes which are introduced into the creek thus altering the physico-chemical parameters and the aquatic biota of the creek due to variation in nutrient load of the water. The seasonal abundance of epipelic algae and sediment parameters of Amadi-Ama Creek were ...

  3. Evaluation of Algae from the effluent of Dandot cement company ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty genera and fifty species of algae have been reported from the effluent water of Dandot Cement Company. They include thirteen genera and thirty five species from Chlorophyceae; three genera and six species from Cyanophyceae and four genera and nine species from Bacillariophyceae. Camera Lucida drawings ...

  4. Preliminary Studies on the Occurrence of Freshwater Epipelic Algae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence and composition of the freshwater algae in the epipelon were determined at three sites, namely Machigeni, Manhean and Weija, located in the coastal savanna thicket and grassland vegetation zone of the River Densu basin in southern Ghana. Samples of sediments from the water-substratum interface ...

  5. Prospective effect of red algae, Actinotrichia fragilis, against some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the current treatment strategies for OA are effective for symptoms relief but are accompanied with adverse side effect. Thus, the present investigation aims to evaluate the potential influence of red algae, Actinotrichia fragilis, in the dry powder form (AFP) or gel form (AFG) on some relevant factors of OA progression as ...

  6. Effects of UV-B irradiated algae on zooplankton grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the effects of UV-B stressed algae on grazing rates of zooplankton. Four algal species ( Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Cryptomonas sp., Scenedesmus obliquus and Microcystis aeruginosa) were used as food and fed to three zooplankton species ( Daphnia galeata, Bosmina longirostris and

  7. Epiphytic Algae study from pool of Ammiq (Bekaa, Lebanon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.

    1984-01-01

    In this particular place which constitutes the pool of Ammiq, 104 species and varieties have been collected. The diatoms constitute in themselves 85% of the algae population. This is an epiphytic microflora which is attached to the immerged macrophytics on this above mentioned place . (author)

  8. The occurrence of hormesis in plants and algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedergreen, Nina; Streibig, Jens Carl; Kudsk, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the frequency, magnitude and dose/concentration range of hormesis in four species: The aquatic plant Lemna minor, the micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the two terrestrial plants Tripleurospermum inodorum and Stellaria media exposed to nine herbicides and one...

  9. Chemical constituents of the red alga @iAcanthophora spicifera@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analysis of the petroleum-wither and chloroform extracts of the marine red alga @iAcanthophora spicifera@@ led to the isolation of a sterol, cholesterol, fatty acids, stearic, palmitic, behenic (C@d22@@) and arachidic acids (C@d20@@) and a fatty...

  10. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  11. Bioremediation of acid mine drainage using algae strains: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Bwapwa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD causes massive environmental concerns worldwide. It is highly acidic and contains high levels of heavy metals causing environmental damage. Conventional treatment methods may not be effective for AMD. The need for environmental remediation requires cost effective technologies for efficient removal of heavy metals. In this study, algae based systems were reviewed and analyzed to point out the potentials and gaps for future studies. Algae strains such as Spirulina sp., Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Cladophora, Oscillatoria, Anabaena, Phaeodactylum tricornutum have showed the capacity to remove a considerable volume of heavy metals from AMD. They act as “hyper-accumulators” and “hyper-adsorbents” with a high selectivity for different elements. In addition, they generate high alkalinity which is essential for precipitation of heavy metals during treatment. However, algae based methods of abating AMD are not the ultimate solution to the problem and there is room for more studies. : The bioremediation of acid mine drainage is achievable with the use of microalgae. Keywords: Acid mine drainage, Algae strains, Contamination, Heavy metals, Bioremediation

  12. Exchange of certain radionuclides between environment and freshwater algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, E. D.P.

    1978-01-01

    Data on the dynamics and levels of accumulation of strontium, cesium, cerium and ruthenium radionuclides by Charophyta and Cladophora fresh-water algae are presented. An attempt has been made to investigate some processes that accompany the accumulation of radionuclides by plants. Under experimental conditions, the intensity and levels of radionuclide accumulation can be presented in the following order: 144 Ce> 106 Ru> 90 Sr> 137 Cs. The dynamics of radionuclide accumulation varied greatly with the radionuclide and the algae species studied. The 144 Ce accumulation coefficients (AC) in the course of experiment (from 3 hours to 16 days) increased 8-, 9-, 23.4-, 27-, 14.3- and 20.4-fold for Cladophora glomerata, Nitella syncarpa, Nitellopsis obtusa, Chara vulgaris, Ch. rudis, and Ch. aspera, respectively. In the case of 106 Ru, AC for C.glomerata, N. syncarapa, Ch. vulgaris and Ch. rudis increased 34-, 18-,24- and 23-fold, respectively. In all algae species studied the equilibrium of radionuclide accumulation was attained after 2-4 days of experiment. Levels of accumulated 90 Sr and 137 Cs in most species depended on the season while that of 144 Cs and 106 Ru remained constant throughout the vegetation period. The levels of radionuclide elimination, like the accumulation levels, are shown to depend on both isotopes and algae species

  13. Biochar production from freshwater algae by slow pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the feasibility of biochar production from 3 kinds of freshwateralgae, viz. Spirulina, Spirogyra and Cladophora, was undertaken. Using a slow pyrolysis process in a specially designed reactor, biochar could be generated at 550oC under nitrogen atmosphere. The yields of biochar were between 28-31% of the dry algae.

  14. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, H.M.; Gerner-Smidt, P.

    2000-01-01

    amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection....

  15. Two-Step Evolution of Endosymbiosis between Hydra and Algae

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor

  16. Phytotoxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of isoproturon in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yan Fang; Miao, Shan Shan; Lu, Yi Chen; Qiu, Chong Bin; Zhou, You; Yang, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Isoproturon (IPU) is a pesticide used for protection of land crops from weed or pathogen attack. Recent survey shows that IPU has been detected as a contaminant in aquatic systems and may have negative impact on aquatic organisms. To understand the phytotoxicity and potential accumulation and degradation of IPU in algae, a comprehensive study was performed with the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae exposed to 5-50 μg L(-1) IPU for 3d displayed progressive inhibition of cell growth and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence. Time-course experiments with 25 μg L(-1) IPU for 6d showed similar growth responses. The 72 h EC50 value for IPU was 43.25 μg L(-1), NOEC was 5 μg L(-1) and LOEC was 15 μg L(-1). Treatment with IPU induced oxidative stress. This was validated by a group of antioxidant enzymes, whose activities were promoted by IPU exposure. The up-regulation of several genes coding for the enzymes confirmed the observation. IPU was shown to be readily accumulated by C. reinhardtii. However, the alga showed a weak ability to degrade IPU accumulated in its cells, which was best presented at the lower concentration (5 μg L(-1)) of IPU in the medium. The imbalance of accumulation and degradation of IPU may be the cause that resulted in the detrimental growth and cellular damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential of wastewater grown algae for biodiesel production and CO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algae have been proposed as a potential renewable fuel source. Photosynthetic CO2 fixation to substrates that can be converted to biodiesel by microalgae is thought to be a feasible technology with energy-saving and environment-friendly approach. In the present study, potential of microalgae, from wastewater ...

  18. Evaluation of filamentous green algae as feedstocks for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yonggang; Cui, Binjie; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-11-01

    Compared with unicellular microalgae, filamentous algae have high resistance to grazer-predation and low-cost recovery in large-scale production. Green algae, as the most diverse group of algae, included numerous filamentous genera and species. In this study, records of filamentous genera and species in green algae were firstly censused and classified. Then, seven filamentous strains subordinated in different genera were cultivated in bubbled-column to investigate their growth rate and energy molecular (lipid and starch) capacity. Four strains including Stigeoclonium sp., Oedogonium nodulosum, Hormidium sp. and Zygnema extenue were screened out due to their robust growth. And they all could accumulate triacylglycerols and starch in their biomass, but with different capacity. After nitrogen starvation, Hormidium sp. and Oedogonium nodulosum respectively exhibited high capacity of lipid (45.38% in dry weight) and starch (46.19% in dry weight) accumulation, which could be of high potential as feedstocks for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon Partitioning in Green Algae (Chlorophyta and the Enolase Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen E. W. Polle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The exact mechanisms underlying the distribution of fixed carbon within photoautotrophic cells, also referred to as carbon partitioning, and the subcellular localization of many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism are still unknown. In contrast to the majority of investigated green algae, higher plants have multiple isoforms of the glycolytic enolase enzyme, which are differentially regulated in higher plants. Here we report on the number of gene copies coding for the enolase in several genomes of species spanning the major classes of green algae. Our genomic analysis of several green algae revealed the presence of only one gene coding for a glycolytic enolase [EC 4.2.1.11]. Our predicted cytosolic localization would require export of organic carbon from the plastid to provide substrate for the enolase and subsequent re-import of organic carbon back into the plastids. Further, our comparative sequence study of the enolase and its 3D-structure prediction may suggest that the N-terminal extension found in green algal enolases could be involved in regulation of the enolase activity. In summary, we propose that the enolase represents one of the crucial regulatory bottlenecks in carbon partitioning in green algae.

  20. Oxytocic principle of red alga @iAmphiroa fragilissima@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; De; Das, B.; Patnaik, G.K.

    The crude aqueous methanolic extract of the marine red alga @iAmphiroa fragilissima@@ has been reported as exhibiting oxytocic and spasmogenic activity at a dose of 50 ~kg/ml. The activity is located in the water soluble fraction and has been found...

  1. Halogenated terpenoids from the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (HAUCK)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Bhat, K.L.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.; Harnos, S.

    ranging from 14:0 to 22:0 with palmitic acid (16:0, 67.4%) and oleic acid (18:1, 17.1%) being the major constituents, have been isolated from the pet, ether soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the brown alga Padina tetrastromatica...

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  3. Biodegradation of an oily bilge waste using algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A mixed community of microogranisms was collected from the harbor at the North Island Navy Base and was monitored in a test ecosystem containing an oily bilge waste obtained from off-loading ships. Cultures were examined in the presence and absence of the algae. It was thought that the algae might enhance the degradation of the oil waste by providing oxygen and possibly a nutrient source from dying phytoplankton for the bacterial community. The change in community structure was monitored by isolating the various groups of organisms and determining the biomass change over time for the algae, bacteria and yeasts/fungi subjected to the bilge waste. The biomass (i.e., colony forming units) of the yeasts and fungi increased 100 fold in a 6 week test period. The community containing only the bacteria and fungi/yeasts lost the fungal component of the population, although active bacteria biomass increased more than 10 fold during exposure to the waste. The test ecosystem was subjected to a radiolabeled compound (/sup 14/C-phenol) and bilge waste mixture to ascertain the ability of the communities to mineralize the phenol and/or assimilate the labeled hydrocarbon. The community containing the algae started mineralizing the phenol (measure by /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production) 24 hours after exposure to the waste/phenol mixture. The bacteria/yeast-fungi community had a lag period of 384 hours before extensive catabolism of the labeled compound occurred. Current data indicate algae may enhance the biodegradation rate of oil bilge waste in a mixed microbial community.

  4. Algae viability over time in a ballast water sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollasch, Stephan; David, Matej

    2018-03-01

    The biology of vessels' ballast water needs to be analysed for several reasons, one of these being performance tests of ballast water management systems. This analysis includes a viability assessment of phytoplankton. To overcome logistical problems to get algae sample processing gear on board of a vessel to document algae viability, samples may be transported to land-based laboratories. Concerns were raised how the storage conditions of the sample may impact algae viability over time and what the most appropriate storage conditions were. Here we answer these questions with a long-term algae viability study with daily sample analysis using Pulse-Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry. The sample was analysed over 79 days. We tested different storage conditions: fridge and room temperature with and without light. It seems that during the first two weeks of the experiment the viability remains almost unchanged with a slight downwards trend. In the continuing period, before the sample was split, a slightly stronger downwards viability trend was observed, which occurred at a similar rate towards the end of the experiment. After the sample was split, the strongest viability reduction was measured for the sample stored without light at room temperature. We concluded that the storage conditions, especially regarding temperature and light exposure, have a stronger impact on algae viability compared to the storage duration and that inappropriate storage conditions reduce algal viability. A sample storage time of up to two weeks in a dark and cool environment has little influence on the organism viability. This indicates that a two week time duration between sample taking on board a vessel and the viability measurement in a land-based laboratory may not be very critical.

  5. The Role of the Multiple Banded Antigen of Ureaplasma parvum in Intra-Amniotic Infection: Major Virulence Factor or Decoy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J.; Nitsos, Ilias; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Newnham, John P.; Polglase, Graeme R.; Pillow, J. Jane; Jobe, Alan H.; Timms, Peter; Knox, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    The multiple banded antigen (MBA) is a predicted virulence factor of Ureaplasma species. Antigenic variation of the MBA is a potential mechanism by which ureaplasmas avoid immune recognition and cause chronic infections of the upper genital tract of pregnant women. We tested whether the MBA is involved in the pathogenesis of intra-amniotic infection and chorioamnionitis by injecting virulent or avirulent-derived ureaplasma clones (expressing single MBA variants) into the amniotic fluid of pregnant sheep. At 55 days of gestation pregnant ewes (n = 20) received intra-amniotic injections of virulent-derived or avirulent-derived U. parvum serovar 6 strains (2×104 CFU), or 10B medium (n = 5). Amniotic fluid was collected every two weeks post-infection and fetal tissues were collected at the time of surgical delivery of the fetus (140 days of gestation). Whilst chronic colonisation was established in the amniotic fluid of animals infected with avirulent-derived and virulent-derived ureaplasmas, the severity of chorioamnionitis and fetal inflammation was not different between these groups (p>0.05). MBA size variants (32–170 kDa) were generated in vivo in amniotic fluid samples from both the avirulent and virulent groups, whereas in vitro antibody selection experiments led to the emergence of MBA-negative escape variants in both strains. Anti-ureaplasma IgG antibodies were detected in the maternal serum of animals from the avirulent (40%) and virulent (55%) groups, and these antibodies correlated with increased IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 expression in chorioamnion tissue (pureaplasmas are capable of MBA phase variation in vitro; however, ureaplasmas undergo MBA size variation in vivo, to potentially prevent eradication by the immune response. Size variation of the MBA did not correlate with the severity of chorioamnionitis. Nonetheless, the correlation between a maternal humoral response and the expression of chorioamnion cytokines is a novel finding. This host

  6. An 8-month history of meningitis in an extremely low birth weight infant? - Long-lasting Infection with Ureaplasma parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, K; Wohlleben, M; Speer, C P

    2015-02-01

    Ureaplasma spp. have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both preterm labor and neonatal morbidity including pneumonia and sepsis and the development of chronic lung disease of prematurity. Data on Ureaplasma meningitis are limited and partly controversially discussed. We report the unique case of a 9-month-old infant with progressive internal hydrocephalus of unknown origin and developmental delay due to a history of>200 days of inflammation of the central nervous system. The female extremely low birth weight infant had been referred to our hospital for ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation. She had been born at 26+3 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 940 g. With the exception of a moderate respiratory distress syndrome, postnatal period had been reported uneventful. However, internal hydrocephalus had become manifest at 4 weeks of postnatal age. Intraventricular hemorrhage had not been documented by cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis had repetitively revealed pronounced inflammation reflected by pleocytosis (50-86 leukocytes/μL, 60% lymphocytes), CSF protein levels of 578-1,026 mg/dL and undetectable CSF glucose. Although suggesting bacterial meningitis, microbial diagnostics had not been indicative, and empirical antibiotics had not affected the CSF findings. On admission to our hospital, CSF analysis still documented significant inflammation (125 leukocytes/μL, CSF protein 565 mg/dL, CSF glucoseUreaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis. U. parvum was detected in CSF by culture and PCR, no other pathogens were isolated. On intravenous treatment with chloramphenicol, CSF profile continuously normalized, and cultures and PCR became negative. Treatment was continued for 3 weeks, and the infant was discharged after uncomplicated ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. During a 12-month observation period she has shown encouraging recovery. In preterm infants, in particular, internal hydrocephalus of

  7. Study on the concentration and seasonal variation of inorganic elements in 35 species of marine algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Yan, X.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of five major and 28 trace elements in 35 marine algae collected along the coast of China were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of halogens, rare earth elements and many transition metal elements in marine algae are remarkably higher than...... those in terrestrial plants. The concentration factors for 31 elements in all collected algae were calculated, those for tri- and tetra-valent elements were higher than those of the mono- and di-valent elements in marine algae. The biogeochemical characteristics of inorganic elements in marine algae...

  8. An Artificial Neural Network Based Short-term Dynamic Prediction of Algae Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Junyang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of short-term prediction of algae bloom based on artificial neural network. Firstly, principal component analysis is applied to water environmental factors in algae bloom raceway ponds to get main factors that influence the formation of algae blooms. Then, a model of short-term dynamic prediction based on neural network is built with the current chlorophyll_a values as input and the chlorophyll_a values in the next moment as output to realize short-term dynamic prediction of algae bloom. Simulation results show that the model can realize short-term prediction of algae bloom effectively.

  9. The effects of ProAlgaZyme novel algae infusion on metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildreth DeWall J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome, or Syndrome X, is characterized by a set of metabolic and lipid imbalances that greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The syndrome is highly prevalent in the United States and worldwide, and treatments are in high demand. ProAlgaZyme, a novel and proprietary freshwater algae infusion in purified water, has been the subject of several animal studies and has demonstrated low toxicity even with chronic administration at elevated doses. The infusion has been used historically for the treatment of several inflammatory and immune disorders in humans and is considered well-tolerated. Here, the infusion is evaluated for its effects on the cardiovascular risk factors present in metabolic syndrome in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 60 overweight and obese persons, ages 25–60. All participants received four daily oral doses (1 fl oz of ProAlgaZyme (N = 22 or water placebo (N = 30 for a total of 10 weeks, and were encouraged to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Blood sampling and anthropometric measurements were taken at the beginning of the study period and after 4, 8 and 10 weeks of treatment. Eight participants did not complete the study. Results ProAlgaZyme brought about statistically significant (p Conclusion ProAlgaZyme (4 fl oz daily consumption resulted in significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while significantly improving serum lipid profiles and reducing markers of inflammation, thus improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects over a course of 10 weeks with an absence of adverse side effects. Trial Registration US ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00489333

  10. Photoreduction of chromium(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Lin; Wang Hongli; Deng Nansheng

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the photochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated under the irradiation of metal halide lamps (λ=365nm, 250W). The affecting factors of photochemical reduction were studied in detail, such as exposure time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, initial algae concentration and pH. The rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction increased with algae concentration increasing, exposure time increasing, initial Cr(VI) concentration decreasing and the decrease of pH. When pH increased to 6, the rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction nearly vanished. When initial Cr(VI) concentration ranged from 0.4 to 1.0mgL -1 and initial algae concentration ranged from ABS algae (the absorbency of algae)=0.025 to ABS algae =0.180, According to the results of kinetic analyses, the kinetic equation of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction in aqueous solution with algae under 250W metal halide lamps was V 0 =kC 0 0.1718 A algae 0.5235 (C 0 was initial concentration of Cr(VI); A algae was initial concentration of algae) under the condition of pH 4

  11. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO₂ Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, David M; Erdem, Ayca; Huang, Chin Pao

    2018-03-25

    This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure) and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO₂ NPs). The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3-4.2 × 10⁶ cells/mL) at a constant NP concentration (100 mg/L) caused a decline in the growth of algae. With increased initial algae population, the lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll both initially decreased and then increased. Lipid peroxidation had 4× the amount of the control at high and low initial population but, at mid-ranged initial population, had approximately half the control value. Chlorophyll a results also showed a similar trend. These results indicate that the physiological state of the algae is important for the toxicological effect of TiO₂ NPs. The condition of algae and exposure regime must be considered in detail when assessing the toxicological response of NPs to algae.

  12. Photoreduction of chromium(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Lin [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang Hongli [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: nsdengwhu@163.com

    2006-11-16

    In this thesis, the photochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated under the irradiation of metal halide lamps ({lambda}=365nm, 250W). The affecting factors of photochemical reduction were studied in detail, such as exposure time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, initial algae concentration and pH. The rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction increased with algae concentration increasing, exposure time increasing, initial Cr(VI) concentration decreasing and the decrease of pH. When pH increased to 6, the rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction nearly vanished. When initial Cr(VI) concentration ranged from 0.4 to 1.0mgL{sup -1} and initial algae concentration ranged from ABS{sub algae} (the absorbency of algae)=0.025 to ABS{sub algae}=0.180, According to the results of kinetic analyses, the kinetic equation of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction in aqueous solution with algae under 250W metal halide lamps was V{sub 0}=kC{sub 0}{sup 0.1718}A{sub algae}{sup 0.5235} (C{sub 0} was initial concentration of Cr(VI); A{sub algae} was initial concentration of algae) under the condition of pH 4.

  13. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Metzler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs. The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3−4.2 × 106 cells/mL at a constant NP concentration (100 mg/L caused a decline in the growth of algae. With increased initial algae population, the lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll both initially decreased and then increased. Lipid peroxidation had 4× the amount of the control at high and low initial population but, at mid-ranged initial population, had approximately half the control value. Chlorophyll a results also showed a similar trend. These results indicate that the physiological state of the algae is important for the toxicological effect of TiO2 NPs. The condition of algae and exposure regime must be considered in detail when assessing the toxicological response of NPs to algae.

  14. Influence of Algae Age and Population on the Response to TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, David M.; Erdem, Ayca; Huang, Chin Pao

    2018-01-01

    This work shows the influence of algae age (at the time of the exposure) and the initial algae population on the response of green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). The different algae age was obtained by changes in flow rate of continually stirred tank reactors prior to NP exposure. Increased algae age led to a decreased growth, variations in chlorophyll content, and an increased lipid peroxidation. Increased initial algae population (0.3−4.2 × 106 cells/mL) at a constant NP concentration (100 mg/L) caused a decline in the growth of algae. With increased initial algae population, the lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll both initially decreased and then increased. Lipid peroxidation had 4× the amount of the control at high and low initial population but, at mid-ranged initial population, had approximately half the control value. Chlorophyll a results also showed a similar trend. These results indicate that the physiological state of the algae is important for the toxicological effect of TiO2 NPs. The condition of algae and exposure regime must be considered in detail when assessing the toxicological response of NPs to algae. PMID:29587381

  15. Cultivation Strategy for Freshwater Macro- and Micro-Algae as Biomass Stock for Lipid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieska Verawaty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an algae cultivation strategy was studied. Integrating algae cultivation with wastewater treatment is currently seen as one of the most economical ways of producing algae biomass. A combination of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR and a constructed wetland (CW was applied for treating domestic wastewater with an additional collection tank for improving effluent quality. The effluent produced from the three stages was used as algae cultivation media and suplemented with 10% bold basal medium (BBM. The results showed both micro- and macro-algae growth and their lipid contents were higher when they were grown in effluent-BBM (9:1 v/v media. The lipid content of the micro-algae mixed culture was 16.5% while for macro-algae Oedogonium sp and Cladophora sp it was 6.90% and 6.75% respectively.

  16. Comparison of transport and attachment behaviors of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and oocyst-sized microspheres being advected through three minerologically different granular porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanram, Arvind; Ray, Chittaranjan; Harvey, Ronald W; Metge, David W; Ryan, Joseph N; Chorover, Jon; Eberl, D D

    2010-10-01

    In order to gain more information about the fate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in tropical volcanic soils, the transport and attachment behaviors of oocysts and oocyst-sized polystyrene microspheres were studied in the presence of two soils. These soils were chosen because of their differing chemical and physical properties, i.e., an organic-rich (43-46% by mass) volcanic ash-derived soil from the island of Hawaii, and a red, iron (22-29% by mass), aluminum (29-45% by mass), and clay-rich (68-76% by mass) volcanic soil from the island of Oahu. A third agricultural soil, an organic- (13% by mass) and quartz-rich (40% by mass) soil from Illinois, was included for reference. In 10-cm long flow-through columns, oocysts and microspheres advecting through the red volcanic soil were almost completely (98% and 99%) immobilized. The modest breakthrough resulted from preferential flow-path structure inadvertently created by soil-particle aggregation during the re-wetting process. Although a high (99%) removal of oocysts and microsphere within the volcanic ash soil occurred initially, further examination revealed that transport was merely retarded because of highly reversible interactions with grain surfaces. Judging from the slope of the substantive and protracted tail of the breakthrough curve for the 1.8-μm microspheres, almost all (>99%) predictably would be recovered within ∼4000 pore volumes. This suggests that once contaminated, the volcanic ash soil could serve as a reservoir for subsequent contamination of groundwater, at least for pathogens of similar size or smaller. Because of the highly reversible nature of organic colloid immobilization in this soil type, C. parvum could contaminate surface water should overland flow during heavy precipitation events pick up near-surface grains to which they are attached. Surprisingly, oocyst and microsphere attachment to the reference soil from Illinois appeared to be at least as sensitive to changes in pH as was

  17. An unexpected phosphate binding site in Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Crystal structures of apo, holo and ternary complex of Cryptosporidium parvum enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Debasish

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure, function and reaction mechanism of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH have been extensively studied. Based on these studies, three anion binding sites have been identified, one 'Ps' site (for binding the C-3 phosphate of the substrate and two sites, 'Pi' and 'new Pi', for inorganic phosphate. According to the original flip-flop model, the substrate phosphate group switches from the 'Pi' to the 'Ps' site during the multistep reaction. In light of the discovery of the 'new Pi' site, a modified flip-flop mechanism, in which the C-3 phosphate of the substrate binds to the 'new Pi' site and flips to the 'Ps' site before the hydride transfer, was proposed. An alternative model based on a number of structures of B. stearothermophilus GAPDH ternary complexes (non-covalent and thioacyl intermediate proposes that in the ternary Michaelis complex the C-3 phosphate binds to the 'Ps' site and flips from the 'Ps' to the 'new Pi' site during or after the redox step. Results We determined the crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum GAPDH in the apo and holo (enzyme + NAD state and the structure of the ternary enzyme-cofactor-substrate complex using an active site mutant enzyme. The C. parvum GAPDH complex was prepared by pre-incubating the enzyme with substrate and cofactor, thereby allowing free movement of the protein structure and substrate molecules during their initial encounter. Sulfate and phosphate ions were excluded from purification and crystallization steps. The quality of the electron density map at 2Å resolution allowed unambiguous positioning of the substrate. In three subunits of the homotetramer the C-3 phosphate group of the non-covalently bound substrate is in the 'new Pi' site. A concomitant movement of the phosphate binding loop is observed in these three subunits. In the fourth subunit the C-3 phosphate occupies an unexpected site not seen before and the phosphate binding loop remains in

  18. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit G Tellevik

    Full Text Available Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection.We performed an unmatched case-control study among children 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5-7.8. Among children aged 7-12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012.Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea, particularly those living with HIV, and infection is more frequent during the rainy season. G. lamblia is frequently implicated in asymptomatic infections, but rarely causes overt diarrheal illness, and its prevalence increases with age.

  19. Effect of algae and water on water color shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengguang; Xia, Daying; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Jun

    1991-03-01

    This study showed that the combined effect of absorption of planktonic algae and water on water color shift can be simulated approximately by the exponential function: Log( E {100cm/ W }+ E {100cm/ Xch1})=0.002λ-2.5 where E {100/cm W }, E {100cm/ Xchl} are, respectively, extinction coefficients of seawater and chlorophyll—a (concentration is equal to X mg/m3), and λ (nm) is wavelength. This empirical regression equation is very useful for forecasting the relation between water color and biomass in water not affected by terrigenous material. The main factor affecting water color shift in the ocean should be the absorption of blue light by planktonic algae.

  20. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimeters), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured, and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  1. Accumulation and loss of technetium by macrophytic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benco, C.; Cannarsa, S.; Ceppodomo, I.; Zattera, A.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a study of the accumulation of Tc by four species of brown algae (Sargassum vulgare, Cystoseira complexa, Dictyopteris membranacea, Dictyota dichotama implexa) and one species of green algae (Chlorophyta, Ulva rigida). With the exception of Cystoseira complexa, the accumulation was very rapid, and concentration factors decreased from Sargassum vulgare to Ulva rigida. Young stipes of Cystoseira complexa concentrated twice as much more Tc than cylindrical main axes. Attempts were made to understand the mechanism of Tc accumulation by brown seaweed. Fucoidan, a pool of high molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from Fucus sp. was put with sup(95m)Tc in seawater for 48 h and then dialysed, but no activity was retained by Fucoidan. (UK)

  2. Immunoregulation of antitumor response; differential secretion of arachidonic acid metabolites by macrophages during stimulation ''in vitro'' with BCG and ''Corynebacterium parvum''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomecki, Jaroslaw; Sukiennik, Jadwiga; Kordowiak, Anna

    1993-01-01

    The level of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in the supernatants of cultures peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) were studied under various conditions using BCG and ''Corynebacterium parvum'' as stimulators. The metabolite levels were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The degree of macrophage cytotoxic/cytostatic activity was dependent on the dose and character of stimulators used and the source of macrophages. The application of micro cytotoxicity assay for the evaluation of tumor cell lysis (lung sarcoma SaL-1) ''in vitro'' revealed that peritoneal macrophages from healthy and tumor bearing BALB/c mice may affect the degree of antitumor response. In the supernatants of cultured PEC from tumor bearing mice AA level increased (by 10-fold) in comparison with PEC from healthy mice. Stimulation with BCG induced over a double level of AA in PEC isolated from tumor bearing mice non-stimulated or stimulated with ''C.parvum''. A lower level of prostaglandins (PGs) was found in the supernatants of cultured PEC isolated from healthy mice (stimulated and non-stimulated), but the highest level of PGs was observed in the supernatants of cultured PEC isolated from tumor bearing mice stimulated with BCG. The unique metabolite of AA was found only in the supernatants form non-stimulated PEC from tumor bearing mice. PEC from tumor bearing mice produced metabolites of AA which were not detected in control group. These results suggest that macrophages also play a regulatory role by secretion of AA. This process can be modified by bacterial antigens. (author). 21 refs, 7 figs

  3. Algae as nutritional and functional food sources: revisiting our understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Mark L.; Potin, Philippe; Craigie, James S.; Raven, John A.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Helliwell, Katherine E.; Smith, Alison G.; Camire, Mary Ellen; Brawley, Susan H.

    2016-01-01

    Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, ...

  4. Rare species of fungi parasitizing on algae. IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The following parasites of the genera Spirogyra Link, Mougeotia Agardh and Oedogonium Link are desribed: Myzocyutium irregulare, Woroninu glomerata, Harpochytrium tenuissimum, Woronina polycystis, Chytridium acuminatu, Myzocytium irregulare and Chytridumm acuminatum are new to Poland. Also, the first information on Woronina polycystis as a parasite on algae is presented. The figure of cystosori in a cell of Mougeotia mysorensis is the first graphic documentation of this species.

  5. Use of Unicellular Algae for Evaluation of Potential Aquatic Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    well as long term effects on specific water bodies such as lakes and groundwater basins. Both the hydrazine propellants and the alternative jet fuels... freshwater bioassays was S. capricornutum. Initial investigations of marine waters used Dunaliella tertiolecta as the test organism but the differences in...AFAMRL-TR-80-85 USE OF UNICELLUAR ALGAE FOR EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL AQUATIC CONTAMINANTS JAN SCHERFIG PETER S. DIXON CAROL A. JUSTICE ALBERTO ACEVEDO

  6. DNA barcode of coastal alga ( Chlorella sorokiniana ) from Ago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five different loci 18S, UPA, rbcl, ITS and tufA were tested for their use as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcode in this study. Although the UPA primers were designed to amplify all phototrophic algae and cyanobacteria, UPA and 18S did not amplified at all for the genus Chlorella while ITS1, ITS2 rDNA and rbcL markers ...

  7. Adsorption of copper onto char derived macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hye Jung; Ko, Jeong Huy; Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hye Jin; BAe, Yoon Ju; Kim, Jung Hwan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A release of heavy metals into the environment by industrial activities raises much environmental problems because they tend to remain indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain. Copper is essential to human life and health but, like all heavy metals, is potentially toxic as well. The excessive intakes of copper result in its accumulation in the liver and produce gastrointestinal problems, kidney damage, anemia, and continued inhalation of copper-containing sprays is linked with an increase in lung cancer among exposed people. Consequently, we need to eliminate the copper in drinking water. Also, growth rates of marine macro algae far exceed those of terrestrial biomass, without water limitations, so annual primary production rates are higher for the major marine macro algae than for most terrestrial biomass. According to these reasons, we try to use the macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida. Adsorption of heavy metals is one of the possible technologies involved in the removal of toxic metals from industrial waste streams and mining waste water using low-cost adsorbents. In recent years, many low-cost adsorbents such as seaweeds, activated carbon, etc. have been investigated, but the char by macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida, have not proven to be the most effective and promising substrates. The aim of this study is to remove copper from its aqueous solution by Undaria pinnatifida char for various parameters like pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) by Undaria pinnatifida char was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration at room temperature. And it was verified using equilibrium studies. (author)

  8. Evidence of ancient genome reduction in red algae (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan; Price, Dana C; Yang, Eun Chan; Yoon, Hwan Su; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2015-08-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) comprise a monophyletic eukaryotic lineage of ~6,500 species with a fossil record that extends back 1.2 billion years. A surprising aspect of red algal evolution is that sequenced genomes encode a relatively limited gene inventory (~5-10 thousand genes) when compared with other free-living algae or to other eukaryotes. This suggests that the common ancestor of red algae may have undergone extensive genome reduction, which can result from lineage specialization to a symbiotic or parasitic lifestyle or adaptation to an extreme or oligotrophic environment. We gathered genome and transcriptome data from a total of 14 red algal genera that represent the major branches of this phylum to study genome evolution in Rhodophyta. Analysis of orthologous gene gains and losses identifies two putative major phases of genome reduction: (i) in the stem lineage leading to all red algae resulting in the loss of major functions such as flagellae and basal bodies, the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis pathway, and the autophagy regulation pathway; and (ii) in the common ancestor of the extremophilic Cyanidiophytina. Red algal genomes are also characterized by the recruitment of hundreds of bacterial genes through horizontal gene transfer that have taken on multiple functions in shared pathways and have replaced eukaryotic gene homologs. Our results suggest that Rhodophyta may trace their origin to a gene depauperate ancestor. Unlike plants, it appears that a limited gene inventory is sufficient to support the diversification of a major eukaryote lineage that possesses sophisticated multicellular reproductive structures and an elaborate triphasic sexual cycle. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Techno-Economic Assessment of Micro-Algae Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Global oil consumption is rising at an unprecedented rate renewing interest in alternative fuels. Micro-algae represents a promising feedstock due to inherent advantages such as high solar energy efficiencies, large lipid fractions, and utilization of various waste streams including industrial flue gas. Current technological challenges have limited the commercial viability of microalgae based biofuel production systems. This study directly evaluates and compares the economic viability of biom...

  10. Nitrogen and sulfur assimilation in plants and algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giordano, Mario; Raven, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 2 (2014), s. 45-61 ISSN 0304-3770 Grant - others:University of Dundee(GB) SC 015096; Italian Ministry for Agriculture(IT) MIPAF, Bioforme project; Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs(IT) MAE. Joint Italian-Israel Cooperation Program Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : nitrogen * sulfur * assimilation * algae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2014

  11. Distributionand Diversity of Macro Algae Communities in the Ambon Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Litaay, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Water conditions affected by natural and anthropogenic parameters such as sedimentation and solid waste disposal can influence the growth and distribution of macro algae. Sustainable management efforts can reduce damage on the Gulf coast of Ambon due to human activities and land clearing. This study was conducted in October 2008 using the transect method with 3 replicates in five locations i.e., Tantui, Air Salobar, Hative Besar, Halong, and Lateri. The interior and exterior waters of Ambon B...

  12. Trentepohlia algae biofilms as bioindicator of atmospheric metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; Marcaida, Iker; Salcedo, Isabel; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a reddish biocolonization composed mainly by Trentepohlia algae affecting a synthetic building material from a modern building from the 90s located in the Bizkaia Science and Technology Park (Zamudio, North of Spain) was characterized and its ability to accumulate metals coming from the surrounding atmosphere was evaluated. To asses if these biofilms can act as bioindicators of the surrounding metal pollution, a fast non-invasive in situ methodology based on the use of hand-held energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (HH-ED-XRF) was used. In order to corroborate the in situ obtained conclusions, some fragments from the affected material were taken to analyze the metal distribution by means of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-ED-XRF) and to confirm the presence of metal particles deposited on it using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). In order to confirm if Trentepohlia algae biofilms growing on the surface of building materials could be a fast way to in situ provide information about the surrounding metal pollution, a second Trentepohlia algae biofilm growing on a different kind of material (sandstone) was analyzed from an older historical building, La Galea Fortress (Getxo, North of Spain). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Boron-containing organic pigments from a Jurassic red alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenstein, Klaus; Gross, Jürgen H; Falk, Heinz

    2010-11-09

    Organic biomolecules that have retained their basic chemical structures over geological periods (molecular fossils) occur in a wide range of geological samples and provide valuable paleobiological, paleoenvironmental, and geochemical information not attainable from other sources. In rare cases, such compounds are even preserved with their specific functional groups and still occur within the organisms that produced them, providing direct information on the biochemical inventory of extinct organisms and their possible evolutionary relationships. Here we report the discovery of an exceptional group of boron-containing compounds, the borolithochromes, causing the distinct pink coloration of well-preserved specimens of the Jurassic red alga Solenopora jurassica. The borolithochromes are characterized as complicated spiroborates (boric acid esters) with two phenolic moieties as boron ligands, representing a unique class of fossil organic pigments. The chiroptical properties of the pigments unequivocally demonstrate a biogenic origin, at least of their ligands. However, although the borolithochromes originated from a fossil red alga, no analogy with hitherto known present-day red algal pigments was found. The occurrence of the borolithochromes or their possible diagenetic products in the fossil record may provide additional information on the classification and phylogeny of fossil calcareous algae.

  14. Study of algae's adsorption to uranium ion in water solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yang; Qiu Yongmei; Dan Guiping; Zhang Dong; Lei Jiarong

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption efficiencies of the algae to uranium ion were determined at various pH, uranium ion concentrations, adsorption temperatures and the species of coexisted metal ions, and the effect of coexisted metal ion on the adsorption efficiency was researched. The experimental results at pH= 5-8 are as follows. 1) the adsorption capacity is a constant to be about 1.40 μg/g for the Yantai red alga and the sea spinach, and is changeable in the range of 1.03-2.23 μg/g with pH for the sea edible fungus; 2) for the algae the adsorption efficiency and adsorption capacity are related to uranium ion concentration, and the maximum adsorption efficiency and capacity is 95.8% and 65.4 μg/g, respectively; 3) the adsorption process for 24 h is not dependent on the temperature; 4) the effect of the species of coexisted metal ions on the adsorption capacity of uranium ion is various with the time during adsorption process. (authors)

  15. Ecology of planktonic foraminifera and their symbiotic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrich, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of symbiotic algae occurred abundantly and persistently in the cytoplasm of several species of planktonic Foraminifera over a ten year period in different tropical and subtropical areas of the North Atlantic Ocean. These planktonic Foraminifera host species consistently harbored either dinoflagellates or a newly described minute coccoid algal type. There appeared to be a specific host-symbiont relationship in these species regardless of year, season or geographic locality. The larger ovoid dinoflagellates (Pyrrhophycophyta) occur in the spinose species Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer, G. conglobatus and Orbulina universa. The smaller alga, from 1.5 to 3.5 um in diameter, occurs in one spinose species Globigerinella aequilateralis and also in the non-spinose species Globigerinita glutinata, Globoquadrina dutertrei, Globorotalia menardii, Globorotalia cristata, Globorotalia inflata, Candeina nitida, in various juvenile specimens and at all seasons except the winter months in Pulleniatina obliquiloculata and Globorotalial hirsuta. Controlled laboratory studies indicated a significant C incorporation into the host cytoplasm and inorganic calcium carbonate test of Globigerinoides ruber. During incubation for up to two hours, the 14 C uptake into the cytoplasm and test in the light was significantly greater than uptake in the dark by living specimens or by dead foraminifers. There appears to be light-enhanced uptake of 14 C into the test with dinoflagellate photosynthesis contributing to host calcification. In culture, symbiotic algae were observed to survive for the duration of the lifespan of their hosts

  16. Controlling harmful algae blooms using aluminum-modified clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Qiu, Lixia

    2016-02-15

    The performances of aluminum chloride modified clay (AC-MC), aluminum sulfate modified clay (AS-MC) and polyaluminum chloride modified clay (PAC-MC) in the removal of Aureococcus anophagefferens were compared, and the potential mechanisms were analyzed according to the dispersion medium, suspension pH and clay surface charges. The results showed that AC-MC and AS-MC had better efficiencies in removing A.anophagefferens than PAC-MC. The removal mechanisms of the three modified clays varied. At optimal coagulation conditions, the hydrolysates of AC and AS were mainly monomers, and they transformed into Al(OH)3(am) upon their addition to algae culture, with the primary mechanism being sweep flocculation. The PAC mainly hydrolyzed to the polyaluminum compounds, which remained stable when added to the algae culture, and the flocculation mainly occurred through polyaluminum compounds. The suspension pH significantly influenced the aluminum hydrolysate and affected the flocculation between the modified clay and algae cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extremophilic micro-algae and their potential contribution in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Prachi; Mikulic, Paulina; Vonshak, Avigad; Beardall, John; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2015-05-01

    Micro-algae have potential as sustainable sources of energy and products and alternative mode of agriculture. However, their mass cultivation is challenging due to low survival under harsh outdoor conditions and competition from other, undesired, species. Extremophilic micro-algae have a role to play by virtue of their ability to grow under acidic or alkaline pH, high temperature, light, CO2 level and metal concentration. In this review, we provide several examples of potential biotechnological applications of extremophilic micro-algae and the ranges of tolerated extremes. We also discuss the adaptive mechanisms of tolerance to these extremes. Analysis of phylogenetic relationship of the reported extremophiles suggests certain groups of the Kingdom Protista to be more tolerant to extremophilic conditions than other taxa. While extremophilic microalgae are beginning to be explored, much needs to be done in terms of the physiology, molecular biology, metabolic engineering and outdoor cultivation trials before their true potential is realized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Cytotoxic Hydroperoxy Sterol from the Brown Alga, Nizamuddinia Zanardinii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Rustaiyan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:The marine environment is a unique source of bioactive natural products, of which Nizamuddinia zanardinii is an important brown algae distributed in Oman Sea. Literature revealed that there is no report on phytochemistry and pharmacology of this valuable algae.Methods:Bioguided fractionation of the methanolic extract of Nizamuddinia zanardinii, collected from Oman Sea, led to the isolation of a hydroperoxy sterol. Its structure was determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data as 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl cholesterol (HVC. In vitro cytotoxic activity of this compound was evaluated against HT29, MCF7, A549, HepG2 and MDBK cell lines.Results:Although 24(R-hydroproxy-24-vinylcholesterol has been previously reported from Sargassum and Padina species, it is the first report on the presence of this compound from N. zanardinii. This compound exhibited cytotoxicity in all cell lines (IC50, 3.62, 9.09, 17.96, 32.31 and 37.31 μg/mL respectively. HVC was also evaluated for apoptotic activity and demonstrated positive results in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End labeling (TUNEL assay suggesting it a candidate for further apoptotic studies.Conclusions:Nizamuddinia zanardinii, a remarkable brown algae of Oman Sea, is a good source of hydroproxy sterols with promising cytotoxic on various cell lines particularly human colon adenocarcinoma.

  19. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Partitioning of monomethylmercury between freshwater algae and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C J; Moye, H A; Phlips, E J; Sargent, B

    2001-11-01

    Phytoplankton-water monomethylmercury (MeHg) partition constants (KpI) have been determined in the laboratory for two green algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Cosmarium botrytis, the blue-green algae Schizothrix calcicola, and the diatom Thallasiosira spp., algal species that are commonly found in natural surface waters. Two methods were used to determine KpI, the Freundlich isotherm method and the flow-through/dialysis bag method. Both methods yielded KpI values of about 10(6.6) for S. capricornutum and were not significantly different. The KpI for the four algae studied were similar except for Schizothrix, which was significantly lower than S. capricornutum. The KpI for MeHg and S. capricornutum (exponential growth) was not significantly different in systems with predominantly MeHgOH or MeHgCl species. This is consistent with other studies that show metal speciation controls uptake kinetics, but the reactivity with intracellular components controls steady-state concentrations. Partitioning constants determined with exponential and stationary phase S. capricornutum cells at the same conditions were not significantly different, while the partitioning constant for exponential phase, phosphorus-limited cells was significantly lower, suggesting that P-limitation alters the ecophysiology of S. capricornutum sufficiently to impact partitioning, which may then ultimately affect mercury levels in higher trophic species.

  1. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1978-01-01

    Fluorescence emission spectra at 77K of isolated heterocysts of Anabaena L-31 do not show F685-695 but rather F715-730, thus confirming the absence of photosystem II and the presence of photosystem I. Recent work using radioactive nitrogen has been collated and a tentative scheme is outlined indicating the location of the enzymes and the pathways involved in the initial assimilation of nitrogen in blue-green algae. Glutamine synthetase extracted from heterocysts of Anabaena L-31 does not exhibit the adenylylation/deadenylylation phenomenon characteristic of the enzyme from bacteria. Our recent experiments suggest that nitrogenase in Anabaena is under dual control by glutamic acid and aspartic acid, the former inhibiting the enzyme synthesis and the latter relieving the inhibition. Two extracellular polypeptides have been obtained from this alga, one of which inhibits heterocyst formation whereas the other enhances heterocyst formation and partially relieves the inhibitory effect of the former. An extracellular substance, possibly a glycopeptide, has been obtained from A. torulosa, which stimulates sporulation. Studies with 24 Na and 22 Na indicate that A. torulosa, an alga from saline habitats, has an active photosynthesis-linked mechanism for the extrusion of sodium. Sodium is essential for optimum nitrogenase activity and growth. In field experiments inoculation with Nostoc 4 resulted in substantial increase in soil nitrogen. Paddy yield was comparable to those plots where 80kg N/ha of urea was used. (author)

  2. Algae as test organisms of harmful effects of various radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The report describes a complex biotest in which algae serve as the test organisms and where a variety of algal characteristics are employed as indicators of the effects of harmful radiations on the cultures and single organisms. Rules for a successful choice of a suitable algal organism are discussed and the preparation of the latter for the test as well as the growth and morphogenic tests and some physiological responses of algae to harmful radiation are described. The survival and lethality are related to the interpretation of the test results particularly from the physiological and genetic points of view. The complex biotest concerns not only toxic but also mutagenic effects of the factors tested. Some easily detectable mutations in algae are mentioned and their spectra are recommended. The stability of the mutations and the possibility of their delayed manifestation are considered. The possibility of occurrence of teratogenic effects is also dealt with and the negative role of phenocopies in the correct evaluation of the mutation effects is mentioned. Advice for the breeding and laboratory maintenance of suitable algal strains for the biotest is given. Practical use of the biotest is demonstrated on the results of a test using modified samples of waste water from uranium industries. It is recommended that biotests confined to the evaluation of single characteristics of the test organism be replaced by this complex biotest whose results can be interpreted more extensively and exhibit a higher reliability. (author). 268 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  3. Influence of thermal loading on the ecology of intertidal algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadas, R.L.; Keser, M.; Rusanowski, P.c.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal effluents from the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (operating intermittently from October 1972 to December 1974) increased water temperatures in the discharge area by 7 to 15 0 C. Plant operation and the removal of a causeway increased mixing and salinities in Montsweag Bay. Four small red algae immigrated into the area, but no species were lost from the system. Distribution and abundance patterns of the dominant algae, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, were altered by the thermal discharge. The cover of F. vesiculosus decreased, whereas that of A. nodosum increased in 1973 but declined significantly in 1974. Reductions in biomass and percent cover were accompanied by changes in the growth dynamics of A. nodosum. Growth and survival in the discharge area were enhanced in 1973 but reduced in 1974. Growth was initiated earlier at all sites affected by the warm water. Plants at experimental sites not directly in the discharge channel grew at accelerated rates during the two years, but stressed plants in the discharge produced few or no viable apexes in 1974. The net effect has been a compression and reduction of intertidal algae into a narrower and less dense band

  4. Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis of natural algae from water blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Linling; Tong, Dongmei; Hu, Changwei

    2016-07-01

    Microwave-enhanced pyrolysis (MEP) of natural algae under different reaction conditions was carried out. The optimal conditions for bio-oil production were the following: algae particle size of 20-5 mesh, microwave power of 600W, and 10% of activated carbon as microwave absorber and catalyst. The maximum liquid yield obtained under N2, 10% H2/Ar, and CO2 atmosphere was 49.1%, 51.7%, and 54.3% respectively. The energy yield of bio-products was 216.7%, 236.9% and 208.7% respectively. More long chain fatty acids were converted into hydrocarbons by hydrodeoxygenation under 10% H2/Ar atmosphere assisted by microwave over activated carbon containing small amounts of metals. Under CO2 atmosphere, carboxylic acids (66.6%) were the main products in bio-oil because the existence of CO2 vastly inhibited the decarboxylation. The MEP of algae was quick and efficient for bio-oil production, which provided a way to not only ameliorate the environment but also obtain fuel or chemicals at the same time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative phycoremediation of sewage water by various species of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Khan, A.U.; Yasar, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study sewage water treatment efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris, Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum And mixed algae culture (Microspora sp., Navicula sp., Lyngbya sp.,Cladophora sp.,Spirogyra sp. and Rhizoclonium sp.) was compared. Sampled wastewater was analyzed for various parameters (i.e., COD, BOD, TS, TSS, TDS, TC, FC, TKN, TP, NO/sub 3/-N, PO/sub 4/,SO/sub 4/and Cl-) and concentrations of all these parameters in the untreated water were above the permissible limits of National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan (2000). Various algal species were used to treat sewage water by varying pond size, treatment duration, seasonal variation and growth rate of algae to arrive at the optimum outcome. Maximum percent reductions of various parameters, attained with C. vulgaris, were: chemical oxygen demand (98.3%), biochemical oxygen demand (98.7%), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (93.1%), total phosphorus (98.0%), nitrate (98.3%), phosphate (98.6%), chloride (94.2%), total coliforms (99.0%), faecal coliforms (99.0%) and total dissolved solids (98.2%) while maximum reduction in total suspended solids (92.0%) was obtained with a mixed algae culture and maximum increase in biomass by R. hieroglyphicum (0.75 g L/sup -1/day/sup -1/). Reduction in the concentration of pollutants in sewage water was to such a low level that it can be thrown in water bodies without any further treatment. (author)

  6. Uptake and distribution of technetium in several marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Gerber, G.B.; Garten, C.T. Jr.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Myttenaere, C.; Van Baelen, J.; Cogneau, M.; van der Ben, D.

    1983-01-01

    The uptake or chemical form of technetium in different marine algae (Acetabularia, Cystoseira, Fucus) has been examined and a simple model to explain the uptake of technetium in the unicellular alga, Acetabularia, has been conceptualized. At low concentrations in the external medium, Acetabularia can rapidly concentrate technetium. Concentration factors in excess of 400 can be attained after a time of about 3 weeks. At higher mass concentrations in the medium, uptake of technetium by Acetabularia becomes saturated resulting in a decreased concentration factor (approximately 10 after 4 weeks). Approximately 69% of the total radioactivity present in /sup 95m/Tc labelled Acetabularia is found in the cell cytosol. In Fucus vesiculosus, labelled with /sup 95m/Tc, a high percentage of technetium is present in soluble ionic forms while approximately 40% is bound, in this brown alga, in proteins and polysaccharides associated with cell walls. In the algal cytosol of Fucus vesiculosus, about 45% of the /sup 95m/Tc appears to be present as anionic TcO - 4 and the remainder is bound to small molecules. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  7. Antitumor effects of Marginisporum crassissimum (Rhodophyceae), a marine red alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroishi, S; Sugie, K; Yoshida, T; Morimoto, J; Taniguchi, Y; Imai, S; Kurebayashi, J

    2001-06-26

    Marginisporum crassissimum (Yendo) Ganesan, a marine red alga found in the ordinal coastal sea around Japan, revealed antitumor (antimetastatic) effects in vitro and in vivo. In in vitro experiments, extracts of this alga inhibited not only the growth of several tumor cell lines, such as B16-BL6 (a mouse melanoma cell line), JYG-B (a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line) and KPL-1 (a human mammary carcinoma cell line), but also invasion of B16-BL6 cells in a culture system. In in vivo experiments, the lung metastasis of B16-BL6 cells inoculated to the tail vein of B57BL/6J mice was inhibited by intraperitoneal administration of an extract from the alga. In addition, life prolongation of B57BL/6J mice inoculated with B16-BL6 cells was also observed by the intraperitoneal administration of the extract. An effective substance showing B16-BL6 growth inhibition in vitro was partially purified by filtration and hydrophobic column chromatography, and was revealed to be sensitive to trypsin-digestion and heat-treatment. The molecular weight of the substance was greater than 100 kDa. This is the first study demonstrating antitumor (antimetastatic) effects of M. crassissimum.

  8. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged.

  9. Prokaryotic community profiling of local algae wastewaters using advanced 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limayem, Alya; Micciche, Andrew; Nayak, Bina; Mohapatra, Shyam

    2018-01-01

    Algae biomass-fed wastewaters are a promising source of lipid and bioenergy manufacture, revealing substantial end-product investment returns. However, wastewaters would contain lytic pathogens carrying drug resistance detrimental to algae yield and environmental safety. This study was conducted to simultaneously decipher through high-throughput advanced Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial community profile found in a single sample that was directly recovered from the local wastewater systems. Samples were collected from two previously documented sources including anaerobically digested (AD) municipal wastewater and swine wastewater with algae namely Chlorella spp. in addition to control samples, swine wastewater, and municipal wastewater without algae. Results indicated the presence of a significant level of Bacteria in all samples with an average of approximately 95.49% followed by Archaea 2.34%, in local wastewaters designed for algae cultivation. Taxonomic genus identification indicated the presence of Calothrix, Pseudomonas, and Clostridium as the most prevalent strains in both local municipal and swine wastewater samples containing algae with an average of 17.37, 12.19, and 7.84%, respectively. Interestingly, swine wastewater without algae displayed the lowest level of Pseudomonas strains algae indicates potential coexistence between these strains and algae microenvironment, suggesting further investigations. This finding was particularly relevant for the earlier documented adverse effects of some nosocomial Pseudomonas strains on algae growth and their multidrug resistance potential, requiring the development of targeted bioremediation with regard to the beneficial flora.

  10. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R.; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged. PMID:27119147

  11. Bio sorption of copper ions with biomass of algae and dehydrated waste of olives; Biosorcion de iones cobre con biomasa de algas y orujos deshidratados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia, P.; Santander, M.; Pavez, O.; Valderrama, L.; Guzman, D.; Romero, L.

    2011-07-01

    They were carried out experiments of biosorption batch and in continuous to remove copper from aqueous solutions using as adsorbents green algae and olive residues under virgins conditions and chemically activated. The results of batch bio sorption indicate that the algae present mayor elimination capacities than the waste of olives, with uptakes of copper of the order of 96 % using activated algae with dissolution of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under the optimum conditions. The results of the columns tests show that the virgin algae permits the removal of more copper ions than the activate algae, with removal efficiency of 98 % during the firth 20 min, a breakthrough time of 240 min and a saturation at time of 600 min. In the second cycle the regenerated biomass showed a best performance indicating that they can be used for another bio sorption cycle. (Author) 42 refs.

  12. Green Algae and the Origins of Multicellularity in the Plant Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umen, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity. PMID:25324214

  13. Recomendations concerning technical research and development with the purpose to industrially exploit marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1980-10-01

    This report formulates a proposal for a program for technical research and development concerning use of Marine algae.The report is based on a retrospective literature search, an inquiry to potential algae users and producers in Sweden, visits to and correspondence with scientists and industries in Sweden and abroad. Technical research and development concerning marine algae is needed within the following fields: -Development of new sorts of algae offering resistance to parasite and disease adoptation to cultivation and har- vesting systems,and high-yielding concerning technically interesting components. -Development of suitable cultivation systems for Swedish conditions. -Co-cultivation of fish, mussels, oysters and crustaceans with algae. -Development of harvesting systems. -Methane rotting. -Fatty acid/hydrocarbon production as an alternative to methane rotting. -Physical-chemical properties of marine polysaccharides in relation to their technical properties. -Marine algae as fodder supplement.

  14. Photodegradation of bisphenol A in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and ferric ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhang'e; Wu Feng; Deng Nansheng

    2006-01-01

    The photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected endocrine disruptor (ED), in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and Fe 3+ ions was investigated. Algae, humic acid and Fe 3+ ions enhanced the photodegradation of BPA. Photodegradation efficiency of BPA was 36% after 4 h irradiation in the presence of 6.5 x 10 9 cells L -1 raw Chlorella vulgaris, 4 mg L -1 humic acid and 20 μmol L -1 Fe 3+ . The photodegradation efficiency of BPA was higher in the presence of algae treated with ultrasonic than that without ultrasonic. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA in the water only containing algae treated with ultrasonic was 37% after 4 h irradiation. The algae treated with heating can also enhance the photodegradation of BPA. This work helps environmental scientists to understand the photochemical behavior of BPA in lake water. - Algae, humic acid and ferric ions can induce the photodegradation of bisphenol A in an aqueous environment

  15. Chemical and radioactivity study of sea alga distribution along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S.; Budeir, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied from the chemical and radioactivity point of view. Results have shown the metals that red alga contains the highest levels of Ca and Mg while brown alga were found to contain relatively high concentrations of other elements and non metals such as Cl, I and Br. In addition, 137 Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were low while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as 210 Po, 210 Pb and radium isotopes were found to be high in red alga which indicates their selectivity to these isotopes. On the other hand, brown alga and especially Cysteseira has shown a clear selectivity for some trace elements such as As, Cr, Cd, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage the use of brown alga as biological indicator for trace elements pollution. (author)

  16. Extraction of alginate biopolymer present in marine alga sargassum filipendula and bioadsorption of metallic ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Jaiana Kleinübing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the bioadsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions by marine alga Sargassum filipendula and by the alginate biopolymer extracted from this alga. The objective is to evaluate the importance of this biopolymer in removing different metallic ions by the marine alga S. filipendula. In the equilibrium study, the same affinity order was observed for both bioadsorbents: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+. For Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions when the alginate is isolated and acting as bioadsorbents, adsorption capacities greater than those found for the alga were observed, indicating that it is the main component responsible for the removal of metallic ions. For Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, greater bioadsorption capacities were observed for the alga, indicating that other functional groups of the alga, such as sulfates and amino, are also important in the bioadsorption of these ions.

  17. Physical characteristic of brown algae (Phaeophyta) from madura strait as irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

    OpenAIRE

    Prihartini Widiyanti; Siswanto Siswanto

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brown algae is a raw material for producing natrium alginates. One type of brown algae is Sargassum sp, a member of Phaeophyta division. Sargassum sp could be found in Madura strait Indonesia. Natrium alginate can be extracted from Sargassum sp. The demand of alginate in Indonesia is mainly fulfilled from abroad, meanwhile Sargassum sp is abundantly available. Purpose: The purpose of study were to explore the potency of brown alga Sargassum sp from Madura strait as hydrocolloid im...

  18. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the green alga Tetraselmis indica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Arora, M.; Anil, A.C.; Burgess, K.; Delany, J.E.; Mesbahi, E.

    is a mechanism to ensure survival upon exposure to stress. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 78 19-30 De Smet I and Beeckman T 2011 Asymmetric cell division in land plants and algae: the driving force for differentiation. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 12 177... of Prasinophytes, but are as evolved as any other green alga or land plant. These organisms share several ultrastructural features with the other core Chlorophytes (Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae). However, the role of Chlorodendrophycean algae...

  19. Screening of Various Herbicide Modes of Action for Selective Control of Algae Responsible for Harmful Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    included, Scenedesmus quadricauda and Selenastrum sp. After a two-week exposure period, all flasks were filtered. The planktonic algae were measured...activity against the various algal species tested (Figures 1 through 7). Aside from the reduction in biomass of the green alga Scenedesmus by...controls (Figures 1 through 7). Penoxsulam was highly active against the blue-greens Cylindrospermopsis and Anabaena, and the green alga Scenedesmus

  20. Gain and loss of polyadenylation signals during evolution of green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Wodniok, Sabina; Simon, Andreas; Glöckner, Gernot; Becker, Burkhard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants) consist of two monophyletic lineages: the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta. Most green algae belong to the Chlorophyta, while the Streptophyta include all land plants and a small group of freshwater algae known as Charophyceae. Eukaryotes attach a poly-A tail to the 3' ends of most nuclear-encoded mRNAs. In embryophytes, animals and fungi, the signal for polyadenylation contains an A-rich sequence (often AAUAAA or related seq...

  1. Quantification of silver nanoparticle toxicity to algae in soil via photosynthetic and flow-cytometric analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Il Kwak, Jin; An, Youn-Joo

    2018-01-01

    Soil algae, which have received attention for their use in a novel bioassay to evaluate soil toxicity, expand the range of terrestrial test species. However, there is no information regarding the toxicity of nanomaterials to soil algae. Thus, we evaluated the effects of silver nanoparticles (0–50 mg AgNPs/kg dry weight soil) on the soil alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after six days, and assessed changes in biomass, photosynthetic activity, cellular morphology, membrane permeability, esterase ...

  2. Propiedades nutritivas y saludables de algas marinas y su potencialidad como ingrediente funcional

    OpenAIRE

    Quitral R, Vilma; Morales G, Carla; Sepúlveda L, Marcela; Schwartz M, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Las algas marinas se han consumido en Asia desde tiempos remotos, mientras que en países occidentales su principal aplicación ha sido como agente gelificante y coloide para la industria de alimentos, farmacéutica y cosmética. Las algas son buena fuente de nutrientes como proteínas, vitaminas, minerales y fibra dietética, al respecto, la fibra dietética de algas es particularmente rica en fracción soluble. Si se comparan las algas con vegetales terrestres, se encuentran más componentes benefic...

  3. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Results Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Conclusions Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of

  4. Ion and metabolite transport in the chloroplast of algae: lessons from land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Justine; Heydarizadeh, Parisa; Schoefs, Benoît; Spetea, Cornelia

    2018-06-01

    Chloroplasts are endosymbiotic organelles and play crucial roles in energy supply and metabolism of eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms (algae and land plants). They harbor channels and transporters in the envelope and thylakoid membranes, mediating the exchange of ions and metabolites with the cytosol and the chloroplast stroma and between the different chloroplast subcompartments. In secondarily evolved algae, three or four envelope membranes surround the chloroplast, making more complex the exchange of ions and metabolites. Despite the importance of transport proteins for the optimal functioning of the chloroplast in algae, and that many land plant homologues have been predicted, experimental evidence and molecular characterization are missing in most cases. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about ion and metabolite transport in the chloroplast from algae. The main aspects reviewed are localization and activity of the transport proteins from algae and/or of homologues from other organisms including land plants. Most chloroplast transporters were identified in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, reside in the envelope and participate in carbon acquisition and metabolism. Only a few identified algal transporters are located in the thylakoid membrane and play role in ion transport. The presence of genes for putative transporters in green algae, red algae, diatoms, glaucophytes and cryptophytes is discussed, and roles in the chloroplast are suggested. A deep knowledge in this field is required because algae represent a potential source of biomass and valuable metabolites for industry, medicine and agriculture.

  5. Role of algae in water quality regulation in NPP water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klenus, V.G.; Kuz'menko, M.I.; Nasvit, O.I.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations, carried out in Chernobyl NPP water reservoir, show that sewage water inflow, being not sufficiently purified, enriched by mineral and organic substances, is accompanied by a considerable increase of algae productivity. The algae play a determining role in accumulation of radionuclides and their transformation into bottom depositions. Comparative investigation of accumulation intensity in alga cells 12 C and 14 C gives evidence that the rate of radioactive nuclide inclusions is practically adequate to the rate of inclusions of their stable analogues. Bacterial destruction of organic contaminations occurs more intensively under aerobic conditions, which are mainly provided due to photosynthetizing activity of algae

  6. Biogas performance from co-digestion of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Ming-Xing; Ruan, Wen-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-digestion mode improves the biogas yield of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes. • Neutral protease enzyme reached maximum in algae only group. • The activity of dehydrogenase enzyme in mixed substrate groups was higher than that of algae and kitchen wastes only group. - Abstract: Co-digestion of Taihu algae with high carbon content substrate can balance the nutrients in the fermentation process. In this study, optimal mixing ratio for co-digestion of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes were investigated in order to improve biogas production potential. The results indicated that the biogas yield reached 388.6 mL/gTS at C/N15:1 group, which was 1.29 and 1.18 times of algae and kitchen wastes only. The maximum concentration of VFA reached 4239 mg/L on 8th day in kitchen wastes group, which was 1.21 times of algae group. Neutral protease enzyme activity in algae group reached maximum of 904.2 μg/(gTS h), while dehydrogenase enzyme at C/N 15:1 group reached maximum of 3402.2 μgTF/(gTS h). The feasibility of adjusting the C/N with co-digestion of Taihu algae and kitchen wastes to increase biogas production was demonstrated. Remarkably, the C/N of 15:1 was found to be the most appropriate ratio

  7. Application of Algae as Cosubstrate To Enhance the Processability of Willow Wood for Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Zhao, Xueli

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a novel strategy to improve the continuous processing of wood slurries in hydrothermal liquefaction systems by coprocessing with algae. Of all algae tested, brown seaweeds and microalgae perform best in preventing slurries dewatering, the main reason for pumpability issues...... with wood slurries. Rheological tests (viscosity–shear rate profile) indicate that the addition of these two algae to the wood slurry causes the highest increase in viscosity, which coincides with improved wood slurries stability and pumpability. Hydrothermal liquefaction of wood-algae slurries at 400 °C...

  8. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongli; Yu, Xiaona; Wang, Yan; Cui, Yulin; Li, Xueqin; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

    2013-07-08

    Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of green algae and higher plants

  9. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria Luísa; Sousa, Maria C; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 were studied by FISH and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated MAbs. Eighteen percent of the fecal samples parasitologically positive for G. lamblia presented viable and nonviable cysts, and 5% of those positive for Cryptosporidium spp. presented viable and nonviable oocysts. Of the 18 water supply samples analyzed, 6 (33%) presented Giardia spp. viable and nonviable cysts and 2 (11%) presented viable and nonviable Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. G. lamblia identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the beta-giardin gene in the fecal and water samples found positive by FISH and FITC-conjugated MAbs. C. parvum and Cryptosporidium muris were identified, by PCR and sequencing of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene, in seven and one water samples, respectively. Our results confirm that this technique enables simultaneous visualization, species-specific identification, and viability determination of the organisms present in human fecal and water supply samples.

  10. Bio-reduction of plutonyl and neptunyl by Shewanella alga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Lucchini, J.F; Rittmann, B.E.; Songkasiri, W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The results of a concurrent experimental and modeling study to investigate the bio-reduction of higher-valent plutonium and neptunium by Shewanella alga strain BrY are presented. S. Alga, as a facultative metal reducer, is representative of bacteria that will be important in defining the mobility of plutonium and neptunium species as they migrate from oxic to anoxic zones. This is also an important consideration in defining the long-term stability of bio-precipitated 'immobilized' plutonium phases under changing redox conditions in biologically active systems and subsequently the effectiveness of remediation/containment approaches used for bio-remediation. Neptunium (VI) is readily reduced in groundwaters by many organics. In biologically active systems, it is unlikely, for this reason, that this oxidation state of neptunium will be important. Under all conditions investigated, neptunium (V) was reduced to neptunium (IV) when anaerobic conditions were established for a wide variety of electron donors. This was evidences by 3-4 orders of magnitude reduction in solution concentration and confirmed by XANES analysis. This led to high bio-association and/or precipitation of the neptunium. Plutonium (VI), as was the case with neptunium (VI) was reduced by the organics typically present in biologically active systems. Analogous bio-reduction experiments with plutonium (V) and plutonium (VI) are in progress and are expected to show that bio-reduction will predominate under anaerobic conditions, as was the case with neptunium. These results for neptunium and plutonium show S. Alga to be an effective microbe for the bio-reduction, and consequently the immobilization, of these important actinide contaminants. (authors)

  11. Biodiesel production from algae grown on food industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureed, Khadija; Kanwal, Shamsa; Hussain, Azhar; Noureen, Shamaila; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Waqas, Rashid

    2018-04-10

    Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater. This study was conducted to optimize the growth of microalgal strains and to assess biodiesel production potential of algae using untreated food industry wastewater as a source of nutrients. The food industry wastewater was collected and analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics. Different dilutions (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100%) of this wastewater were made with distilled water, and growth of two microalgal strains (Cladophora sp. and Spyrogyra sp.) was recorded. Each type of wastewater was inoculated with microalgae, and biomass was harvested after 7 days. The growth of both strains was also evaluated at varying temperatures, pH and light periods to optimize the algal growth for enhanced biodiesel production. After optimization, biodiesel production by Spyrogyra sp. was recorded in real food industry wastewater. The algal biomass increased with increasing level of food industry wastewater and was at maximum with 100% wastewater. Moreover, statistically similar results were found with algal growth on 100% wastewater and also on Bristol's media. The Cladophora sp. produced higher biomass than Spyrogyra sp. while growing on food industry wastewater. The optimal growth of both microalgal strains was observed at temperature 30 °C, pH: 8, light 24 h. Cladophora sp. was further evaluated for biodiesel production while growing on 100% wastewater and found that this strain produced high level of oil and biodiesel. Algae have an ample potential to produce biodiesel from spent wash of food industry. In addition, it is cheaper and presents an environment friendly way to handle food industry wastewater.

  12. Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, H.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone

    1996-01-01

    of infection. Both patients survived; however, one of them had extensive myonecrosis, while the other patient had an uncomplicated course. The strains were initially believed to be Shewanella putrefaciens on the basis of key characteristics and results of the API 20NE identification system (bioMerieux, Marcy l......The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source...

  13. Cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, M.W.; Williamson, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis L. in culture are reported. The time course of uptake under various light conditions shows that cadmium is concentrated as the result of an on-going anabolic process and not as a consequence of a pH gradient as provided by photosynthesis. The effect of cycloheximide is in agreement with de novo protein synthesis being a prerequisite for cadmium accumulation. Autoradiography suggests a specific intracellular location for bound cadmium--apparently the nucleus.

  14. [Epiphytic algae from Bajo Pepito, Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan-Young, L I; Díaz-Martín, M A; Espinoza-Avalos, J

    2006-06-01

    A total of 96 epiphytic algae species were identified from Bajo Pepito, Quintana Roo, México. 60.4% (58) belonged to the Rhodophyta, 19.79% (19) to the Phaeophyta, 16.6% (16) to the Chlorophyta and 3.1% (3) to the Cyanophyta; 49 species (50.5%) were found only in one month, while Heterosiphonia crispella was found in all of the sampled months. That species provided the largest contribution to the biomass of epiphytes. During January we registered the greater biommass and richness of epiphytes species, coincidently with high values of host species cover and rainfall.

  15. Plutonium sorption by the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus (Tuerp) Kuetz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkacik, M.F.; Giesy, J.P.; Corey, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the continuing study of the possible impact of released radioisotopes to the Savannah River Plant (SRP) environment, the interaction between a biological system and plutonium was investigated. Specifically, an algal culture, Scenedesmus obliquus, was exposed to the +4 and +6 oxidation states of 238 Pu and 239-240 Pu at three plutonium concentration levels. There was no significant different (p 3) 0.05) between 238 Pu and 239-240 Pu accumulation by the algae at equivalent concentrations or at different oxidation states

  16. Multi-scale Characterization of Improved Algae Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Taraka T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report relays the important role biofuels such as algae could have in the energy market. The report cites that problem of crude oil becoming less abundant while the demand for energy continues to rise. There are many benefits of producing energy with biofuels such as fewer carbon emissions as well as less land area to produce the same amount of energy compared to other sources of renewable fuels. One challenge that faces biofuels right now is the cost to produce it is high.

  17. A Fluorescence Based Miniaturized Detection Module for Toxin Producing Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, S. E.; Mistlberger, G.; Troi, L.; Lang, A.; Holly, C.; Klimant, I.

    2016-12-01

    Algal blooms are sensitive to external environmental conditions and may pose a serious threat to marine and human life having an adverse effect on the ecosystem. Harmful algal blooms can produce different toxins, which can lead to massive fish kills or to human disorders. Facing these problems, miniaturized and low-cost instrumentation for an early detection and identification of harmful algae classes has become more important over the last years. 1,2Based on the characteristic pigment pattern of different algae classes, we developed a miniaturized detection module, which is able to detect and identify algae classes after analyzing their spectral behavior. Our device combines features of a flow-cytometer and fluorimeter and is build up as a miniaturized and low-cost device of modular design. Similar to a fluorimeter, it excites cells in the capillary with up to 8 different excitation wavelengths recording the emitted fluorescence at 4 different emission channels. Furthermore, the device operates in a flow-through mode similar to a flow-cytometer, however, using only low-cost elements such as LEDs and photodiodes. Due to its miniaturized design, the sensitivity and selectivity increase, whereas background effects are reduced. With a sampling frequency of 140 Hz, we try to detect and count particular cell events even at a concentration of 2 cells / 7.3 µL illuminated volume. Using a self-learning multivariate algorithm, the data are evaluated autonomously on the device enabling an in-situ analysis. The flexibility in choosing excitation and emission wavelengths as well as the high sampling rate enables laboratory applications such as measuring induction kinetics. However, in its first application, the device is part of an open and modular monitoring system enabling the sensing of chemical compounds such as toxic and essential Hg, Cd, Pb, As and Cu trace metal species, nutrients and species related to the carbon cycle, VOCs and potentially toxic algae classes (FP7

  18. Microsatellite Primers in the Lichen Symbiotic Alga Trebouxia decolorans (Trebouxiophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Dal Grande

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the symbiotic green alga Trebouxia decolorans to study fine-scale population structure and clonal diversity. Methods and Results: Using Illumina pyrosequencing, 20 microsatellite primer sets were developed for T. decolorans. The primer sets were tested on 43 individuals sampled from four subpopulations in Germany. The primers amplified di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats with three to 15 alleles per locus, and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.636 to 0.821. Conclusions: The identified microsatellite markers will be useful to study the genetic diversity, dispersal, and reproductive mode of this common lichen photobiont.

  19. Estudio de los galactanos del alga roja pterocladiella Capillacea

    OpenAIRE

    Errea, María Inés

    2001-01-01

    Existen dos familias de polisacáridos sintetizados por algas rojas, los carragenanos y el ágar, que, debido a sus propiedades reológicas, que les permiten estabilizar soluciones o emulsiones acuosas, son utilizados en la industria farmacéutica y alimentaria de todo el mundo. Este Trabajo de Tesis comprende los tópicos que se indican a continuación: a) Estudio de la estructura de los galactanos que componen el sistema de polisacáridos de la agarofita Plerocladíella capillacea (Gelidiales, Geli...

  20. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of algae. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyns, E.J.; Naveau, H.P.

    Methane is produced experimentally by anaerobic fermentation of algae, principally of species Hydrodictyon and Cladophora, grown in cooling water from nuclear power plants. The accumulation of fatty acids, by-products of fermentation, is found to have an inhibitory effect on methane production. Methods to remove fatty acids and stabilise the reaction are investigated. An economic analysis is presented using a financial model processor based on data from experimental digesters. The experimental work is described and the results are presented in an Appendix (in French). Seven relevant papers, of which two are in French are also annexed.