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Sample records for alga nostoc commune

  1. In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Cassada, David A.; Snow, Daniel D; Rogers, Douglas G.; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-01-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) have been consumed as food and herbal medicine for centuries. However, safety for their consumption has not been well investigated. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro and in vivo toxicity of cultivated Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP). Neither NO nor SP contained detectable levels of microcystin (MC)-LA, MC-RR, MC-LW and MC-LR by LC/MS/MS. Cell viability remained ~70-80% when HepG2 cells were incubated with 0-500 μg/m...

  2. In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Cassada, David A; Snow, Daniel D; Rogers, Douglas G; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-07-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) have been consumed as food and herbal medicine for centuries. However, safety for their consumption has not been well investigated. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro and in vivo toxicity of cultivated Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP). Neither NO nor SP contained detectable levels of microcystin (MC)-LA, MC-RR, MC-LW and MC-LR by LC/MS/MS. Cell viability remained ∼70-80% when HepG2 cells were incubated with 0-500 μg/ml of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water-extractable fractions of NO and SP. Four-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 0%, 2.5% or 5% of NO and SP (wt/wt) for 6 months. For both genders, BGA-rich diets did not induce noticeable abnormality in weight gain and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations except a significant increase in plasma ALT levels by 2.5% NO supplementation in male mice at 6 month. Histopathological analysis of livers, however, indicated that BGA did not cause significant liver damage compared with controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that NO and SP are free of MC and the long-term dietary supplementation of up to 5% of the BGA may be consumed without evident toxic side-effects. PMID:21473896

  3. Hypolipidemic Effect of a Blue-Green Alga (Nostoc commune) Is Attributed to Its Nonlipid Fraction by Decreasing Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Weller, Curtis L; Carr, Timothy P; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that Nostoc commune var. sphaeroids Kützing (NO), a blue-green alga (BGA), exerts a hypolipidemic effect in vivo and its lipid extract regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the hypolipidemic effect of NO is attributed to an algal lipid or a delipidated fraction in vivo compared with Spirulina platensis (SP). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93M diet containing 2.5% or 5% of BGA (w/w) or a lipid extract equivalent to 5% of BGA for 4 weeks to measure plasma and liver lipids, hepatic gene expression, intestinal cholesterol absorption, and fecal sterol excretion. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in 2.5% and 5% NO-fed groups, while plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased in the 5% NO group compared with controls. However, neither NO organic extract (NOE) nor SP-fed groups altered plasma lipids. Hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 were induced in 5% NO-fed mice, while there were no significant changes in hepatic lipogenic gene expression between groups. NO, but not NOE and SP groups, significantly decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption. When HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with NOE and SP organic extract (SPE), there were marked decreases in protein levels of HMGR, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and fatty acid synthase. In conclusion, the nonlipid fraction of NO exerts TC and TG-lowering effects primarily by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and by increasing hepatic fatty acid oxidation, respectively. PMID:26161942

  4. Migration Suppression of Small Cell Lung Cancer by Polysaccharides from Nostoc commune Vaucher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Ding, Guo-Bin; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Lichao; Wu, Haili; Li, Hanqing; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-08-17

    Nostoc commune Vauch., classified into cyanobacteria, has been always well appreciated as a healthy food and medicine worldwide owing to its rich nutrition and potent bioactivities. Nevertheless, the inhibitory effect of polysaccharides from N. commune Vauch. (NVPS) against cancer cell progression and metastasis is still being unraveled. The results in this study showed that NVPS remarkably suppressed cell migration through blocking the epithelial-mesenchymal transition program in NCI-H446 and NCI-H1688 human small cell lung cancer cells. The inhibitory effects were attributed to the suppression of integrin β1/FAK signaling through regulating cell-matrix adhesion. Furthermore, NVPS treatment could increase E-cadherin expression, but down-regulate N-cadherin, Vimentin, and MMP-9 expression, which resulted in the blockage of STAT3 nuclear translocation and JAK1 signaling. These findings suggest that NVPS may be a good candidate for development as a possible antitumor agent against small cell lung cancer. PMID:27465400

  5. Provision of water by halite deliquescence for Nostoc commune biofilms under Mars relevant surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänchen, Jochen; Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by findings of new mineral related water sources for organisms under extremely dry conditions on Earth we studied in an interdisciplinary approach the water sorption behaviour of halite, soil component and terrestrial Nostoc commune biofilm under Mars relevant environmental conditions. Physicochemical methods served for the determination of water sorption equilibrium data and survival of heterotrophic bacteria in biofilm samples with different water contents was assured by recultivation. Deliquescence of halite provides liquid water at temperatures microbiota associated to N. commune is very desiccation tolerant and water uptake from saturated NaCl solutions (either by direct uptake of brine or adsorption of humidity) did not enhance recultivability in long-time desiccated samples. Still, a minor part can grow under highly saline conditions. However, the salinity level, although unfavourable for the host organism, might be for parts of the heterotrophic microbiota no serious hindrance for growing in salty Mars-like environments.

  6. Biosorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) by nostoc commune: isotherm and kinetics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, Fatthy M. [Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Hassan, Sedky H.A. [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Koutb, Mostafa [Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Applied Science, Biology Department, Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-15

    In this study, Nostoc commune (cyanobacterium) was used as an inexpensive and efficient biosorbent for Cd(II) and Zn(II) removal from aqueous solutions. The effect of various physicochemical factors on Cd(II) and Zn(II) biosorption such as pH 2.0-7.0, initial metal concentration 0.0-300 mg/L and contact time 0-120 min were studied. Optimum pH for removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was 6.0, while the contact time was 30 min at room temperature. The nature of biosorbent and metal ion interaction was evaluated by infrared (IR) technique. IR analysis of bacterial biomass revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for biosorption of Cd(II) and Zn (II). The maximum biosorption capacities for Cd(II) and Zn(II) biosorption by N. commune calculated from Langmuir biosorption isotherm were 126.32 and 115.41 mg/g, respectively. The biosorption isotherm for two biosorbents fitted well with Freundlich isotherm than Langmuir model with correlation coefficient (r{sup 2} < 0.99). The biosorption kinetic data were fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thus, this study indicated that the N. commune is an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the γ-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Daniela; De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Carginale, Vincenzo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-04-15

    A carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the γ-class has been cloned, purified and characterized from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. The enzyme showed a good catalytic activity for the physiologic reaction (hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and a proton) with the following kinetic parameters, kcat of 9.5×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/KM of 8.3×10(7)M(-1)s(-1), being the γ-CA with the highest catalytic activity described so far. A range of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides and one sulfamate were investigated as inhibitors of the new enzyme, denominated here NcoCA. The best NcoCA inhibitors were some sulfonylated sulfanilamide derivatives possessing elongated molecules, aminobenzolamide, acetazolamide, benzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide and topiramate, which showed inhibition constants in the range of 40.3-92.3nM. As 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) and γ-CAs are closely associated in carboxysomes of cyanobacteria for enhancing the affinity of RubisCO for CO2 and the efficiency of photosynthesis, investigation of this new enzyme and its affinity for modulators of its activity may bring new insights in these crucial processes. PMID:25773015

  8. Short Communication: Effects of temperature on growth, pigment composition and protein content of an Antarctic Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANJANA TRIPATHI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tripathi R, Dhuldhaj UP, Singh S. 2012. Short Communication: Effects of temperature on growth, pigment composition and protein content of an Antarctic Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 134-137. Effect of temperature variation on biomass accumulation, pigment composition and protein content were studied for the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune, isolated from Antarctica. Results confirmed the psychrotrophic behavior (optimum growth temperature 25◦C of the cyanobacterium. Low temperature increased the duration of lag phase and exponential growth phase. Maximum increase in biomass was recorded on 24th day at 25◦C and on 12th day at 50C. The downshift from 25 to 5◦C had almost negligible effect on chl a content. Maximal protein content was recorded for cultures growing at 50C on 12th day. The carotenoids/chl a ratio was maximum (2.48 at 50C on 9th day. It remained almost constant for cultures growing at 5 and 350C. There was an induction in protein synthesis following downshift in temperature from 25 to 5◦C.

  9. Cloning of nifHD from Nostoc commune UTEX 584 and of a flanking region homologous to part of the Azotobacter vinelandii nifU gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Defrancesco, N; Potts, M

    1988-01-01

    The heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 contains two nifH-like sequences (nifH1 and nifH2) in addition to nifHD. A region of DNA 1 kilobase upstream from the 5' end of nifH showed considerable sequence similarity to part of the published nifU sequences of Azotobacter vinelandii and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  10. Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Resistant Substances in Nostoc commune%增强的UV-B辐射对地木耳中抗逆性物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王弋博; 曲颖; 杨亚军

    2011-01-01

    The contents of photosynthetic pigment (Chla,carotenoid and phycobilin),free proline,soluble polysaccharide and trehalose in Nostoc commune and terrestrial blue alga were studied in glasshouse condition irradiated with biological effective UV-B radiation of 2.54 kJ·m-2·d-1 (T1),4.25 kJ m-2·d-1 (T2) and 8.35 kJ·m-2·d-1 (T3)(stimulating 12%,20%and 40% attenuation in stratospheric ozone at Lanzhou in summer,respectively).The results indicated that the contents of photosynthetic pigment accumulated under low dosage and short time treatment with UV-B radiation,but they would reduce under high dosage and long time treatment.The content of free proline and trehalose accumulated with T1,T2 and T3 UV-B radiation treatment.Comparing the increasing rate of the three treatments,one can see that the increasing rate was the maximum for T3,followed by that for T2,and the minimum was for T1.The accumulation of free proline and trehalose showed a positive correlation with UV-B radiation dosage.With the degradation of soluble poIysaccharide in Nostoc commune,trehalose increased under UV-Bradiation.One of the reasons of the adaption of Nostoc commune to enhanced UV-B radiation is the effective accumulation of resistant substances.%实验室条件下模拟兰州地区夏至臭氧层衰减12%、20%和40%时增强的UV-B辐射2.54kJ·m-2·d-1(T1)、4.25 kJ·m-2· d-1 (T2)和8.35 kJ·m-2·d-1(T3),研究了不同强度的UV-B辐射对陆生蓝藻地木耳(Nostoc commune)中的的抗逆性物质光合色素(叶绿素a、类胡萝卜素和藻胆素)、游离脯氨酸、可溶性粗多糖和海藻糖含量变化的影响.结果表明:低剂量、短时间的UV-B辐射增加地木耳中光合色素的积累,高强度、长时间的辐射使光合色素含量减少;T1、T2、T3处理均能引起脯氨酸和海藻糖的积累,且增长率是T1<T2<T3,表明脯氨酸和海藻糖的积累与UV-B辐射的剂量呈正相关.在UV-B辐射下,海藻糖的积累是伴随着地

  11. Colony development and physiological characterization of the edible blue-green alga, Nostoc sphaeroides (Nostocaceae, Cyanophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyang Deng; Qiang Hu; Fan Lu; Guoxiang Liu; Zhengyu Hu

    2008-01-01

    The edible blue-green alga,Nostoc sphaeroides Kützing,is able to form microcolorties and spherical macrocolonies.It has been used as a potent herbal medicine and dietary supplement for centuries because of its nutraceutical and pharmacological benefits.However,lim-ited information is available on the development of the spherical macrocolonies and the environmental factors that affect their structure.This report described the morphogenesis of N.Sphaeroides from single trichomes to macrocolonies.During the process,most structural features of macrocolonies of various sizes were dense maculas,rings,the compact core and the formation of liquid core;and the filaments within the macrocolonies showed different lengths and arrays depending on the sizes of macrocolonies.Meanwhile temperature and light intensity also strongly affected the internal structure of macrocolonies.As microcolonies further increased in size to form 30 mm mac-rocolonies,the colonies differentiated into distinct outer,middle and inner layers.The filaments of the outer layer showed higher max-imum photosynthetic rates,higher light saturation point,and higher photosynthetic efficiency than those of the inner layer;whereas the filaments of the inner layer had a higher content of chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins than those of the outer layer.The results obtained in this study were important for the mass cultivation of N.Sphaeroides as a nutraceutical product.

  12. 地木耳护肤品的配制及性能检验和功效测试%Preparation,Performance Examination and Efficacy Test of Skin Care Products of Nostoc commune

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑芳; 康苗苗; 冯佳; 吕俊平; 刘琪; 谢树莲

    2016-01-01

    为探索天然植物资源在护肤美容方面的功效,以地木耳(Nostoc commune Vauch.)提取物为原料,配制了护肤霜、润肤露、化妆水和面膜等护肤品,对其性能和功效进行了研究。结果表明,配制的护肤品外观均匀、细腻,色泽自然,分散均一,易涂展,肤感清爽,且具有良好的稳定性;外界温度变化和振摇均不影响其状态和功效;对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽胞杆菌和大肠杆菌均有明显的抑制作用,具有广谱抗菌性;同时,涂敷后清爽滋润,无不适,安全无毒无副作用。地木耳护肤品对自由基具有较强的清除作用,保湿性好,紫外吸收能力强,对酪氨酸酶的抑制率较大,具有抗皱抗衰、保湿、防晒、美白的多重功效。%In order to explore the effects of natural plant resources in skin care,the performance and ef-ficacy of skin care products,such as skin cream,skin lotion,toning lotion and facial mask,prepared with Nostoc commune extracts,were studied.The results showed that the skin care products had uniform and deli-cate appearance,genuine luster,uniform dispersion,easy applying exhibition,skin feeling fresh and good stability.Their status and efficacy were not affected by external temperature change and vibration.They also possessed obvious inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli,so they had broad -spectrum antimicrobial resistance.It was refreshing and moisturizing without uncomfortable feeling after coated,so they were safe without toxic and side effects.They had strong scavenging effects on free radi-cals,good moisture retention,strong ultraviolet absorption ability and great inhibition rate of tyrosinase,thus they owned multiple functions such as anti -wrinkling,anti -aging,moisture keeping,sun protection and whitening.

  13. Effects of Long-Term Supplementation of Blue-Green Algae on Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Young Lee

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term supplementation of two blue-green algae (BGA) species, i.e., Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP), on lipid metabolism in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 2.5 or 5% (wt/wt) NO or SP for 6 months. Mice fed NO and SP showed lower plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations than co...

  14. Observations on aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae from ten caves in the Ojców National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, carried out in 2010–11, focuses on species composition and distribution of cyanobacterial and algal communities colonizing ten caves (Biała, Ciemna, Koziarnia, Krakowska, Łokietka, Okopy Wielka Dolna, Sąspowska, Sypialnia, Zbójecka and Złodziejska Caves in the Ojców National Park (South Poland. A total of 85 taxa were identified, 35 of them belonging to cyanobacteria, 30 chlorophytes, and 20 belonging to other groups of algae. Aerophytic cyanobacteria dominated in these calcareous habitats. Nine species, Gloeocapsa alpina, Nostoc commune, Chlorella vulgaris, Dilabifilum arthopyreniae, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Muriella decolor, Neocystis subglobosa, and Orthoseira roseana, were the most abundant taxa in all the caves. The investigated microhabitats offer relatively stable microclimatic conditions and are likely to be responsible for the observed vertical distribution of aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae.

  15. Algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raven, John A.; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 13 (2014), s. 590-595. ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : algae * life cycle * evolution Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.571, year: 2014

  16. Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  17. Formation of hybrid phycobilisomes by association of phycobiliproteins from Nostoc and Fremyella

    OpenAIRE

    Canaani, Ora; Gantt, Elisabeth

    1982-01-01

    Formation of phycobilisomes has been accomplished in vitro from isolated phycobiliprotein fractions obtained from the same blue-green alga (intrageneric) and from different blue-green algae (intergeneric). Phycobilisomes, which are supra-molecular complexes of phycobiliproteins, serve as major light-harvesting antennae for photosynthesis in blue-green and red algae. Intrageneric association into energetically functional phycobilisomes, previously reported to occur with Nostoc sp. allophycocya...

  18. Bioactive substances of cyanobacteria (Nostoc muscorum: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi Rimsha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria is one of the most important organism (algae due to its different classical activities like nitrogen fixation, which is most prevailing function of cyanobacteria. But, recent reports are demonstrating their pharmaceutical importance also. Nostoc muscorum is a species of cyanobacterium belonging to the family Nostocaceae. Which contains different bioactive components like phenolics, phycocyanin, triterpenoids amino acids, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, sulphates polysaccharides and carotenoids. These components are specific for antimicrobial, antioxidant and antibacterial activity. However, Different chemical compounds make it incredible and highly significant algae.

  19. Iminolactones from Schizophyllum commune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xuemei; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Liu, Huizhen;

    2015-01-01

    Schizine A (1) and B (2) the first naturally occurring iminolactones (3,6-dihydro-2H-1,4-oxazin-2-one derivatives) to be reported have been isolated from the fruiting bodies of Schizophyllym commune. In principle the 2-oxazinone moiety might have been formed by a reaction between the amino acids...... phenylalanine or tryptophan and an α-hydroxyketomniopetal. The alkaloids are unusual in that the carboxyl group of the amino acid precursor is preserved during the biosynthesis. The compounds showed some inhibition of the growth of cancer cells....

  20. Formation of hybrid phycobilisomes by association of phycobiliproteins from Nostoc and Fremyella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaani, O.; Gantt, E.

    1982-09-01

    Formation of phycobilisomes has been accomplished in vitro from isolated phycobiliprotein fraction obtained from the same blue-green alga (intrageneric) and from different blue-green algae (intergeneric). Phycobilisomes, which are supramolecular complexes of phycobiliproteins, serve as major light-harvesting antennae for photosynthesis in blue-green and red algae. Intrageneric association into energetically functional phycobilisomes, previously reported to occur with Nostoc sp. allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin-phycocyanin complexes has been obtained with Fremyella diplosiphon. By their spectral propeties (absorption, fluorescence excitation, and emission) and electron microscopic images, the native and in vitro-associated phycobilisomes were virtually indistinguishable. Intergeneic phycobilisomes have been produced from allophycocyanin of Nostoc sp. strain Mac, and phycoerythrin-phycocyanin of F. diplosiphon, as well as from the reverse mixtures. Phycobilisomes of Nostoc and Fremyella, analyzed by NaDodSO/sub 4//polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, possessed a number of polypeptides having similar molecular weights: the usual ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-phycobilin-containing polypeptides of M/sub r/ 15,000-22,000, a faint band at M/sub r/ ca. 95,000, and a prominent band at M/sub r/ ca. 31,000. The M/sub r/ 31,000 polypeptide is assumed to provide the recognition site for attachment of the phycoerythrin-phycocyanin complexes with the allophycocyanin core. In vitro association was not obtained between allophycocyanin from Nostoc and phycoerythrin-phycocyanin complexes from Phormidium persicinum or Porphyridium sordidum.

  1. Real revolution in Kana commune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skardhamar, Laura Perez

    2008-01-01

    Embarking from a case study of the Danish commune Kana, this article focuses on an overlooked aspect of the youth rebellion that was an intrinsic part of the self-articulation of the commune movement: namely, the re-addressing of the relationship between the private and the public, the personal and...

  2. Bioactive compounds of the genus nostoc (cyanobacteria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Jiří

    Lublin, 2004, s. 58. [International Symposium on Chromatography of Natural Products /4./. Lublin (PL), 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cp * nostoc taxa Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  3. Nostoc sphaeroides Kützing, an excellent candidate producer for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zongjie; Li, Dunhai; Li, Yanhui; Wang, Zhicong; Xiao, Yuan; Wang, Gaohong; Liu, Yongding; Hu, Chunxiang; Liu, Qifang

    2011-11-01

    Some phytoplankton can be regarded as possible candidates in the establishment of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for some intrinsic characteristics, the first characteristic is that they should grow rapidly, secondly, they should be able to endure some stress factors and develop some corresponding adaptive strategies; also it is very important that they could provide food rich in nutritious protein and vitamins for the crew; the last but not the least is they can also fulfill the other main functions of CELSS, including supplying oxygen, removing carbon dioxide and recycling the metabolic waste. According to these characteristics, Nostoc sphaeroides, a potential healthy food in China, was selected as the potential producer in CELSS. It was found that the oxygen average evolution rate of this algae is about 150 μmol O 2 mg -1 h -1, and the size of them are ranged from 2 to 20 mm. Also it can be cultured with high population density, which indicated that the potential productivity of Nostoc sphaeroides is higher than other algae in limited volume. We measured the nutrient contents of the cyanobacterium and concluded it was a good food for the crew. Based on above advantages, Nostoc sphaeroides was assumed to a suitable phytoplankton for the establishment of Controlled Ecological Life Support System. We plan to develop suitable bioreactor with the cyanobacterium for supplying oxygen and food in future space missions.

  4. Enhancement of soybean (Glycine max L.) growth by bio-fertilizers of Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study the nitrogenase activity of Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare was evaluated in vitro; the test showed that Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare have the ability to fix nitrogen. In a pot experiment under field conditions, the results of the present study showed that inoculation of the soybean plant with Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare, either alone or in combination with N-fertilizer at 50 and 100 kg N/ha, caused a significant increase in the growth of these plants, as reflected in plant height, leaf area, weight of plant as well as the legume weight of soybeans. The combination of biofertilization and N-fertilization, especially at 100 kg N/ha, had more effect on both the growth of soybeans and nitrogenase activity compared to biofertilization alone. Nostoc muscorum and Nostoc rivulare are a promising biofertilizers for achieving an efficient association between N2 fixing cyanobacteria and soybeans; and thus enhancement of the growth. (author)

  5. BEBERAPA MARGA ALGA BENANG DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEBERADAAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI BALI UTARA

    OpenAIRE

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-01-01

    A study of filamentous algae and its relation to malaria vector control was conducted during the dry season in several lagoons at the north coast of Bali. Floating masses of these algae under the sunshine barricated the spread of solar-triton larvicide, reducing tremendously the effectiveness of the larvicide. Identification of the genera of these algae under the subphyllum of CYANOPHYTA (Blue Algae) in the family of Cyanophyceae were Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Phormidium, Rivularia, Nostoc, an...

  6. John Dewey, Une foi commune

    OpenAIRE

    Lafargue de Grangeneuve, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    Longtemps méconnu en France, le philosophe pragmatiste américain John Dewey figure aujourd’hui en bonne place parmi les théoriciens du politique, notamment en raison de sa conception du public. La parution d’Une foi commune s’inscrit donc dans ce contexte de découverte tardive et encore inachevée d’une œuvre importante, qui interroge les fondements du politique. Ce livre est en fait un ensemble de trois textes dont l’origine est une série de conférences prononcées par Dewey à l’université de ...

  7. Evolution of the tRNALeu (UAA) Intron and Congruence of Genetic Markers in Lichen-Symbiotic Nostoc

    OpenAIRE

    Ulla Kaasalainen; Sanna Olsson; Jouko Rikkinen

    2015-01-01

    The group I intron interrupting the tRNALeu UAA gene (trnL) is present in most cyanobacterial genomes as well as in the plastids of many eukaryotic algae and all green plants. In lichen symbiotic Nostoc, the P6b stem-loop of trnL intron always involves one of two different repeat motifs, either Class I or Class II, both with unresolved evolutionary histories. Here we attempt to resolve the complex evolution of the two different trnL P6b region types. Our analysis indicates that the Class II r...

  8. Blue-Green Algae Inhibit the Development of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Wegner, Casey J; Park, Young-Ki; Balunas, Marcy; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-12-01

    Hyperlipidemia and inflammation contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Our objective was to determine antiatherogenic effect of edible blue-green algae (BGA) species, that is, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP), in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice, a well-established mouse model of atherosclerosis. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC, 15% fat and 0.2% cholesterol by wt) control diet or a HF/HC diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) of NO or SP powder for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured, and livers were analyzed for histology and gene expression. Morphometric analysis for lesions and immunohistochemical analysis for CD68 were conducted in the aorta and the aortic root. NO supplementation significantly decreased plasma TC and TG, and liver TC, compared to control and SP groups. In the livers of NO-fed mice, less lipid droplets were present with a concomitant decrease in fatty acid synthase protein levels than the other groups. There was a significant increase in hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor protein levels in SP-supplemented mice than in control and NO groups. Quantification of aortic lesions by en face analysis demonstrated that both NO and SP decreased aortic lesion development to a similar degree compared with control. While lesions in the aortic root were not significantly different between groups, the CD68-stained area in the aortic root was significantly lowered in BGA-fed mice than controls. In conclusion, both NO and SP supplementation decreased the development of atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that they may be used as a natural product for atheroprotection. PMID:26566121

  9. Eloi Valat, Le Journal de la Commune

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Cet ouvrage rend compte de l’exposition des dessins inédits d’Éloi Valat, qui s’est tenue à la Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris en mars 2007. La même institution avait déjà, peu de temps auparavant, célébré la Commune de Paris par une remarquable exposition consacrée au Regard d’un Parisien sur la Commune , qui avait révélé les étonnants clichés d’Hippolyte Blancard, dont certains constituent des documents exceptionnels sur les incendies de la Semaine sanglante. Le projet d’Éloi V...

  10. In situ response of Nostoc commune s.l. colonies to desiccation in Central Svalbard, Norwegian High Arctic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvíderová, Jana; Elster, Josef; Šimek, Miloslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 87-97. ISSN 1802-5439 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 934; GA MŠk LA341; GA MŠk LC06066; GA AV ČR IAA600660605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : desiccation * cyanobacteria * Arctic Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.327, year: 2011

  11. Effects of Long-Term Supplementation of Blue-Green Algae on Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term supplementation of two blue-green algae (BGA species, i.e., Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO and Spirulina platensis (SP, on lipid metabolism in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 2.5 or 5% (wt/wt NO or SP for 6 months. Mice fed NO and SP showed lower plasma total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG concentrations than control at certain months during 6 month experimental period. Both BGA supplementation for 6 months significantly increased hepatic TC contents whereas SP-fed groups had significantly less TG levels in the liver compared with control and NO groups. None of BGA-fed animals showed significantly different mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR expression was higher in NO groups than the other groups in the liver. Furthermore, NO supplementation increased the hepatic expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 but SP did not elicit any significant changes in mRNA levels of the genes compared with control. LDLR protein level was significantly higher in NO 2.5% and SP 5%, as compared to the control and NO 5% groups; while the level of fatty acid synthase protein in the liver was significantly higher in NO 5% and SP 5%, than that in the control group. (removing "," between "liver" and "was". In conclusion, our results suggest that long-term supplementation of NO and SP decreased plasma TC and TG concentrations. Therefore, supplementation of NO and SP may be potentially beneficial for preventing dyslipidemia-associated chronic diseases.

  12. Impacts of varying light regimes on phycobiliproteins of Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 and Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 isolated from diverse habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaujiya, Vinod K; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2015-11-01

    The adaptability of cyanobacteria in diverse habitats is an important factor to withstand harsh conditions. In the present investigation, the impacts of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-315 nm), and PAR + UV-B radiations on two cyanobacteria viz., Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 and Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 inhabiting diverse habitats such as hot springs and rice fields, respectively, were studied. Cell viability was about 14 % in Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 and phycocyanin (C-PC) and phycoerythrin (C-PE) subunits of phycobiliproteins (PBPs). Remarkable bleaching effect of C-PE and C-PC was not only observed with UV-B or PAR + UV-B radiation, but longer period (24-48 h) of exposure with PAR alone also showed noticeable negative impact. The C-PE and C-PC subunits of the rice field isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 were severely damaged in comparison to the hot spring isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 with rapid wavelength shifting toward shorter wavelengths denoting the bleaching of both the accessory light harvesting pigments. The results indicate that PBPs of the hot spring isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-2 were more stable under various light regimes in comparison to the rice field isolate Nostoc sp. HKAR-11 that could serve as a good source of valuable pigments to be used in various biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:25772678

  13. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  14. Regulation of Nostoc sp. phycobilisome structure by light and temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, L K; Rayner, M C; Sweet, R M; Eiserling, F A

    1983-01-01

    Nostoc sp. strain MAC cyanobacteria were green in color when grown in white light at 30 degrees C and contained phycobilisomes that had phycoerythrin and phycocyanin in a molar ratio of 1:1. Cells grown for 4 to 5 days in green light at 30 degrees C or white light at 39 degrees C turned brown and contained phycoerythrin and phycocyanin in a molar ratio of greater than 2:1. In addition to the change in pigment composition, phycobilisomes from brown cells were missing a 34.5-kilodalton, rod-ass...

  15. Molecular markers reveal cryptic species within Polytrichum commune (common hair-cap moss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, R; van der Velde, M; van de Zande, L; Boerema, AC; van Zanten, BO

    2000-01-01

    Based on morphological characters only, the taxonomy of the moss genus Polytrichum has still not been fully resolved. Application of molecular techniques might clarify some of these problems. Within P. commune s.l., the taxonomic status of several varieties, e.g., P. commune var. commune and P. comm

  16. Photo- and heterotrophic nitrogenase activity by the cyano-bacterium Nostoc in symbiosis with the bryophyte Anthoceros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In symbiosis with Anthoceros, Nostoc is thought to do little or no photosynthesis. However, light-dependent 14CO2 fixation by symbiotic Nostoc, freshly isolated from pure cultures of the reconstituted Anthoceros-Nostoc association, was 16% of that by free-living Nostoc. A DCMU-resistant mutant of Nostoc was isolated that fixed CO2 at rates comparable to wild-type in both symbiotic and free-living growth states. To determine if symbiotic Nostoc can use its photosynthate directly to fix nitrogen, acetylene reduction by Anthoceros associations reconstituted with wild-type Nostoc was compared to associations with the DCMU-resistant mutant. In wild-type Anthoceros-Nostoc acetylene reduction was inhibited 97% by 5 μM DCMU, while inhibition of the DCMU-resistant Nostoc association was only 63%. Additions of glucose, fructose, maltose or sucrose to wild-type associations completely restored DCMU-inhibited acetylene reduction in the light. Acetylene reduction in the dark was stimulated by glucose, attaining 84% of the uninhibited light-dependent value. The authors conclude that symbiotic Nostoc maintains a pool of photosynthate which supports nitrogenase activity. The pool can also be supplemented from plant sources

  17. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  18. Expression and characterization of a recombinant psychrophilic γ-carbonic anhydrase (NcoCA) identified in the genome of the Antarctic cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; Carginale, Vincenzo; Di Fonzo, Pietro; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2016-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the CO2 hydration/dehydration reversible reaction: CO2 + H2O ⇄ [Formula: see text] + H(+). Living organisms encode for at least six distinct genetic families of such catalyst, the α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ- and η-CAs. The main function of the CAs is to quickly process the CO2 derived by metabolic processes in order to regulate acid-base homeostasis, connected to the production of protons (H(+)) and bicarbonate. Few data are available in the literature on Antarctic CAs and most of the scientific information regards CAs isolated from mammals or prokaryotes (as well as other mesophilic sources). It is of great interest to study the biochemical behavior of such catalysts identified in organism living in the Antarctic sea where temperatures average -1.9 °C all year round. The enzymes isolated from Antarctic organisms represent a useful tool to study the relations among structure, stability and function of proteins in organisms adapted to living at constantly low temperatures. In the present paper, we report in detail the cloning, purification, and physico-chemical properties of NcoCA, a γ-CA isolated from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. This enzyme showed a higher catalytic efficiency at lower temperatures compared to mesophilic counterparts belonging to α-, β-, γ-classes, as well as a limited stability at moderate temperatures. PMID:26226178

  19. 青霉素处理检查和分离蓝藻细胞液泡%Determination and Isolation of Cell Vacuoles from Blue-green Algae by Penicillin Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭碧薇; 易平; 刘希玲; 郭厚良

    2003-01-01

    Growing in the liquid medium containing penicillin, the cells of the Cyanobacteria,Anabaena 7120, Nostoc flagelliforme, and Synechocystis 6803 were broken and vacuoles were released. Percentage of broken cells declined and percentage of broken cells increased with the growing days of the algae. The percentage of vacuoles to broken cells were respectively 0.7%, 0.8%, and 13.3% in the three types of algae Anabaena 7120, N.flagelliforme and Synechocystis 6803 which had grown for 3 days.

  20. The distribution of all French communes: A composite parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderín-Ojeda, Enrique

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of the size of all French settlements (communes) from 1962 to 2012 is examined by means of a three-parameter composite Lognormal-Pareto distribution. This model is based on a Lognormal density up to an unknown threshold value and a Pareto density thereafter. Recent findings have shown that the untruncated settlement size data is in excellent agreement with the Lognormal distribution in the lower and central parts of the empirical distribution, but it follows a power law in the upper tail. For that reason, this probabilistic family, that nests both models, seems appropriate to describe urban agglomeration in France. The outcomes of this paper reveal that for the early periods (1962-1975) the upper quartile of the commune size data adheres closely to a power law distribution, whereas for later periods (2006-2012) most of the city size dynamics is explained by a Lognormal model.

  1. ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIA AGAINST SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE FR. IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTARJO DIKIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune Fr., is one of the important fungi, causes brown germ and seed rot of oil palm. Biodiversity of antagonistic bacteria from oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia is expected to support in development of biopesticide. Isolation with liquid assay and screening antagonistic bacteria using dual culture assay were carried out in the bioexploration. A total of 265 bacterial isolates from plant parts of oil palm screened 52 antagonistic bacterial isolates against 5. commune. Bacterial isolates were identified by using Biolog* Identification System i.e. Bacillus macroccanus, B. thermoglucosidasius, Burkholderia cepacia, B. gladioli, B. multivorans, B pyrrocinia, B. spinosa, Corynebacterium agropyri, C. misitidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Microbacterium testaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. citronellolis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Serratia ficaria, Serratia sp., S. marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri, Sternotrophomonas maltophilia.

  2. Evolution of the tRNALeu (UAA Intron and Congruence of Genetic Markers in Lichen-Symbiotic Nostoc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Kaasalainen

    Full Text Available The group I intron interrupting the tRNALeu UAA gene (trnL is present in most cyanobacterial genomes as well as in the plastids of many eukaryotic algae and all green plants. In lichen symbiotic Nostoc, the P6b stem-loop of trnL intron always involves one of two different repeat motifs, either Class I or Class II, both with unresolved evolutionary histories. Here we attempt to resolve the complex evolution of the two different trnL P6b region types. Our analysis indicates that the Class II repeat motif most likely appeared first and that independent and unidirectional shifts to the Class I motif have since taken place repeatedly. In addition, we compare our results with those obtained with other genetic markers and find strong evidence of recombination in the 16S rRNA gene, a marker widely used in phylogenetic studies on Bacteria. The congruence of the different genetic markers is successfully evaluated with the recently published software Saguaro, which has not previously been utilized in comparable studies.

  3. Evolution of the tRNALeu (UAA) Intron and Congruence of Genetic Markers in Lichen-Symbiotic Nostoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Olsson, Sanna; Rikkinen, Jouko

    2015-01-01

    The group I intron interrupting the tRNALeu UAA gene (trnL) is present in most cyanobacterial genomes as well as in the plastids of many eukaryotic algae and all green plants. In lichen symbiotic Nostoc, the P6b stem-loop of trnL intron always involves one of two different repeat motifs, either Class I or Class II, both with unresolved evolutionary histories. Here we attempt to resolve the complex evolution of the two different trnL P6b region types. Our analysis indicates that the Class II repeat motif most likely appeared first and that independent and unidirectional shifts to the Class I motif have since taken place repeatedly. In addition, we compare our results with those obtained with other genetic markers and find strong evidence of recombination in the 16S rRNA gene, a marker widely used in phylogenetic studies on Bacteria. The congruence of the different genetic markers is successfully evaluated with the recently published software Saguaro, which has not previously been utilized in comparable studies. PMID:26098760

  4. Viability of dried filaments, survivability and reproduction under water stress, and survivability following heat and UV exposure in Lyngbya martensiana, Oscillatoria agardhii, Nostoc calcicola, Hormidium fluitans, Spirogyra sp. and Vaucheria geminata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to determine how long and to what extent Lyngbya martensiana, Oscillatoria agardhii, Nostoc calcicola, Hormidium fluitans and Vaucheria geminata tolerate dry storage at different temperatures, UV-light radiation and water stress imposed by growing them on media with a high agar content and/or in NaCl-containing liquid media. Dried vegetative filaments of Spirogyra sp., Vaucheria geminata and Nostoc calcicola died within 0,5, 1 and 4 h, respectively; those of Hormidium fluitans, Oscillatoria agardhii and Lyngbya martensiana retained viability for 3, 5 and 10 d, respectively. L. martensiana and O. agardhii tolerated 0.8 mol/L NaCl. The resistance to desiccation in L. martensiana and O. agardhii exhibited similar dependence as that to frost, to heat and UV light. The water stress imposed on growing algae either on high-agar solid media or in NaCl-containing liquid media reduced hormogonium formation in L. martensiana and O. agardhii; hetero-cyst and akinete formation in N. calcicola and fragmentation in H. fluitans. In all studied algae the stress reduced at various levels the survival of vegetative parts. Generally, algal body form and composition rather than habitats seem to decide primarily the level of resistance against various stress conditions

  5. BEBERAPA MARGA ALGA BENANG DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN KEBERADAAN VEKTOR MALARIA DI BALI UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Seregeg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of filamentous algae and its relation to malaria vector control was conducted during the dry season in several lagoons at the north coast of Bali. Floating masses of these algae under the sunshine barricated the spread of solar-triton larvicide, reducing tremendously the effectiveness of the larvicide. Identification of the genera of these algae under the subphyllum of CYANOPHYTA (Blue Algae in the family of Cyanophyceae were Oscillatoria, Spirulina, Phormidium, Rivularia, Nostoc, and Anabaena; under the subphyllum of CHLOROPHYTA (Green Algae in the family of Chlorophyceae were Enteromorpha, Spirogyra, Mougeotia, Zygnema, and Oedogonium. The surface of water in between the floating masses of algae were an exellent breeding place of mosquitoes mainly Anopheles sundaicus. The density of Enteromorpha, the main attractant of An sundaicus compared to other filamantous algae, has no direct relation on the density of An. sundaicus larva. Hence Enteromorpha could only be considered as the indicator of the presence of larvae and not as the indicator of population densities of larvae Lagoons surrounded with mangrove plantations did not harbour filamentous algae and larvae of An. sundaicus were not found.

  6. Phycobiliprotein accumulation in cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia and modification of antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana VALUTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with iron(III coordination compounds with Schiff bases as ligands and their impact on phycobiliprotein accumulation by cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia. Stimulatory effect depends on the applied dose and in case of three compounds, the concentration 20 mg/L was determined as one with moderate intensity. Lower concentrations resulted in an increase of the phycobiliprotein synthesis. There was found a significant positive correlation between phycobiliprotein content and ABTS (2.2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assay values displayed by aqueous extracts from Nostoc linckia biomass cultivated in nutrient medium with these coordination compounds. Hence, it is possible to modify the antioxidant activity of Nostoc biomass by applying low concentrations of chemical stimuli.

  7. Functional and Comparative Genomics of Lignocellulose Degradation by Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A.; Lee, Hanbyul; Park, Hongjae; Brewer, Heather M.; Carver, Akiko; Copeland, Alex; Grimwood, Jane; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Purvine, Samuel O.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Tegelaar, Martin; Tritt, Andrew; Baker, Scott; Choi, In-Geol; Lugones, Luis G.; Wosten, Han A. B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    The Basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune is a wood-decaying fungus and is used as a model system to study lignocellulose degradation. Version 3.0 of the genome assembly filled 269 of 316 sequence gaps and added 680 kb of sequence. This new assembly was reannotated using RNAseq transcriptomics data, and this resulted in 3110 (24percent) more genes. Two additional S. commune strains with different wood-decaying properties were sequenced, from Tattone (France) and Loenen (The Netherlands). Sequence comparison shows remarkably high sequence diversity between the strains. The overall SNP rate of > 100 SNPs/kb is among the highest rates of within-species polymorphisms in Basidiomycetes. Some well-described proteins like hydrophobins and transcription factors have less than 70percent sequence identity among the strains. Some chromosomes are better conserved than others and in some cases large parts of chromosomes are missing from one or more strains. Gene expression on glucose, cellulose and wood was analyzed in two S. commune strains. Overall, gene expression correlated between the two strains, but there were some notable exceptions. Of particular interest are CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes) that are regulated in different ways in the different strains. In both strains the transcription factor Fsp1 was strongly up-regulated during growth on cellulose and wood, when compared to glucose. Over-expression of Fsp1 using a constitutive promoter resulted in higher cellulose and xylose-degrading enzyme activity, which suggests that Fsp1 is involved in regulating CAZyme gene expression. Two CAZyme genes (of family GH61 and GH11) were shown to be strongly up-regulated during growth on cellulose, compared to glucose. Proteomics on the secreted proteins in the growth medium confirmed this. A promoter analysis revealed the shortest active promoters for these two genes, as well as putative transcription factor binding sites.

  8. The public and economic aspects of the functioning of protected areas within a commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaros Henryk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 2009 and 2013, research was conducted in the commune offices for the Podlaskie voivodeship which have large areas of protected Natura 2000 sites. The research is repeated every few years and widened to include new communes. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of the protected areas on the economic conditions of the communes. It is widely assumed that protected areas generate income for communes, however the communes claim that they incur large additional costs. The surveyed communes were critical of obligatory legal requirements in relation to the protected areas. It was argued that there are problems with obtaining natural resources and with the establishment of new summer resorts, residential and farm buildings and infrastructure; as well as the use and management of the site. The communes’ benefits incidental to the ownership of the protected area are not clear. As part of the benefits, the protected areas offer an opportunity for tourism development. According to the communes, protected areas generate losses in which the estimated losses are several times higher than the potential income. Studies indicate that the conservation cost factor should be considered in terms of financing the communes from the state budget.

  9. Distribution of blue-green algae (Cyanophyta in streams of Mt. Stara planina: Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Snežana B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of blue-green algae was studied at 14 sites along five streams in the Stara Planina mountains. Algological samples were taken from the community of benthos and periphyton in the spring (March-May 1991, summer (June-August 1991, August 1996, July 1997, and autumn (September-November 1991, September 1997. Algae of the classes Chamaesiphonophyceae (species of the genus Chamaesiphon and Hormogoniophyceae (species of the genera Symploca, Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Schizothrix, Nostoc, Rivularia Homoeothrix, Tolypothrix, and Plectonema were recorded. The species Chamaesiphon cylindricus, Symploca radians, Phormidium coutinhoi, Nostoc coeruleum, Homoeothrix janthina, Plectonema thomasinianum, and Tolypothrix distorta were registered herein first time in Serbia. Occurrence of blue-green algae in highland brooks and rivers of the Stara Planina mountains was monitored in relation to a large number of abiotic factors e.g. altitude above level, stream dimensions (width and depth, substrate bottom type (%, current flow rate, water temperature and pH oxygen concentration, concentrations of nitrates and phosphates, and BOD5, using Principal Coordinates analysis (PCX.

  10. Translocation in Polytrichum commune (Bryophyta). II. Clonal integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polytrichum commune is a perennial moss that grows by rhizomatous production of interconnected shoots. It possesses a well-developed internal system of food-conducting tissue. Liquid scintillation determinations following pulse-14CO2 treatment of a single shoot in rhizomatously connected groups indicate that tagged photoassimilates are transported into: (1) newly developing stems during the early growing season; (2) shared rhizomes (with an increase observed in rhizome allocation toward the end of the year, as well as a year-end percentage increase in starch reserves); and (3) mature neighboring shoots. Over the course of the growing season, photoassimilate export from pulse-labeled shoots ranges between 12.9% and 21.4% of total tagged. The amount of export is significantly influenced by defoliation, shading, stem tip removal, and 50 ppm indole-3-acetic acid treatments performed on rhizomatously connected neighbor shoots. Physiological integration within P. commune can be inferred from these results. Control is exerted by endogenous hormones or by changes in the activity of sources and sinks

  11. New aerophytic morphospecies of Nostoc (Cyanobacteria) from Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sant Anna, C. L.; Azevedo, M. T. P.; Branco, L.H.Z.; Komárek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2007), s. 95-101. ISSN 0073-2877 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005308; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Nostoc * new troical morphospecies * aerophytic habitats Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  12. Evaluation of Nostoc Strain ATCC 53789 as a Potential Source of Natural Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, Natascia; Piccardi, Raffaella; Margheri, M. Cristina; Rodolfi, Liliana; Smith, Geoffrey D.; Tredici, Mario R.

    2004-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc strain ATCC 53789, a known cryptophycin producer, was tested for its potential as a source of natural pesticides. The antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, nematocidal, and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extracts of the cyanobacterium were evaluated. Among the target organisms, nine fungi (Armillaria sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, Penicillium expansum, Phytophthora cambivora, P. cinnamomi, Rhizoctonia solani, Rosellinia, sp., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,...

  13. Cianobactérias e algas reduzem os sintomas causados por Tobacco vosaic virus (tmv em plantas de fumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André B. Beltrame

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As algas e as cianobactérias produzem uma grande diversidade de compostos com atividade biológica direta sobre microrganismos ou agem como ativadores de mecanismos de resistência em plantas. Em vista disso, foi investigada a manifestação dos sintomas causados pelo Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV em plantas de fumo previamente tratadas com cianobactérias ou algas. Quando as folhas plantas de fumo foram tratadas dois dias antes da inoculação, foi verificado que suspensões de células dos isolados de cianobactérias 004/02, 008/02, Anabaena sp. e Nostoc sp. 61; e do isolado de alga 061/02, bem como as preparações do conteúdo intracelular do isolado 004/02 (4 C e do filtrado do meio de cultivo do isolado 061/02 (61 M apresentaram efeito na redução do número de lesões locais provocadas por TMV em folhas de plantas fumo, cultivar TNN. Além disso, foi observado que os isolados Anabaena sp., Nostoc sp. 21 (cianobactéria, Nostoc sp. 61 e 090/02 (alga mostraram efeito direto sobre o vírus semi-purificado. Em vista disso, pode-se sugerir que os isolados estudados sintetizam compostos que agem diretamente sobre o TMV e/ou ativam o mecanismo de defesa de plantas contra fitopatógenos.

  14. Jean-Christophe Bureau, La politique agricole commune

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, Coline

    2007-01-01

    Ce petit précis sur la politique agricole commune (PAC) tombe à pic ! À l’heure où la politique agricole devient l’affaire de tous, discutée aussi bien dans le Grenelle de l’environnement que dans le dernier rapport sur le développement de la Banque mondiale, dénoncée comme trop dispendieuse des fonds publics ou défendue pour sa contribution à l’harmonie du territoire, il était temps de pouvoir se replonger dans l’analyse historique et économique du rôle qu’elle a joué en Europe. Jean-Christo...

  15. Agricultural activities in the Oleśnica commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Borkowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse and assess the agricultural activity in the Oleśnica commune. The representative rural property owner was a secondary-educated 43-year old man. Over 70% of respondents demonstrated their willingness to expand by purchasing or renting land and also to develop infrastructure. Agricultural activities within this area were focused mainly on plant-growing, which was preferable due to sustained tide of the market. Arable land was the dominating land type and the main products were: grains, potatoes and rape. Introduced in farms innovations were focused on increasing ef-fectiveness of plant-growing and improving the quality of work in rural properties. These innovations were expected to increase income and, in longer term, make the rural production more competitive on the European market.

  16. Microregion – A Regional Taxon Interposed between Commune and County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPEI COCEAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other countries belonging to the European Community, where the territorial grid was arranged in the matrix provided by the territorial units for statistics (NUTS on five distinct hierarchical levels: macro-regions, regions, departments (districts, intercommunity associations (microregions and communes, in Romania, we currently operate only with taxa 1, 3 and 5; regions and microregions are non-existent from the legal point of view. If regions are now put into question at various levels, microregions are still left at the will of ad-hoc initiatives. Hence, numerous confusions and distortions occur in the absence of their clearly defined status. The present paper reviews a series of situations in which the subject has been debated and the scientific framework in which it should be addressed.

  17. Une étiologie organique commune ?

    OpenAIRE

    Bolly, Cécile; Degryse, Jean-Marie; Vanwelde, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Lorsque le vent veut t’enlever au loin,Poursuis tes jeux et ne te défends pas,Laisse les choses advenir sans heurts,Laisse enfin le vent qui te détachaTe conduire jusqu’à ta demeure.Hermann Hesse, Eloge de la vieillesse Dépression et démence procèdent-elles d’une étiopathogénie organique commune chez la personne âgée ? Leur prévention en serait facilitée et deviendrait un des défis majeurs des prochaines décennies car leur prévalence ne cesse de croître dans notre société et représente désorm...

  18. Algas alimenticias para mejorar la calidad nutritiva de los productos cárnicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Anaya González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Mejorar la calidad nutritiva de los productos cárnicos a través de algas alimenticias. Métodos: Investigación básica experimental, con un diseño aleatorizado. La población estuvo constituida por diversos tipos de carne: res, cordero, cerdo y alpaca; y algas: Nostoc sp. conocido como nostoc, Gigartina chamissoi (qochayuyo y Ulva sp. (yuyo que llegan al mercado Nery García de la ciudad de Huamanga, capital del departamento de Ayacucho. La muestra comprendió 2 kg de cada tipo de carne y algas. La determinación de nutrientes fue sobre la base de los métodos de la AOAC (Official Methods of Analysis. Resultados: Al ser comparadas 5 mezclas de diferentes proporciones de carnes y algas, la diferencia encontrada fue significativa entre el contenido de valor calórico (P=0,000 y nutritivo (P=0,000. La mezcla A fue la ideal con un porcentaje de proteínas de 31,87 g%, las grasas con un valor de 12,95 g%, inferior a lo existente en las carnes lo que es favorable para una disminución de riesgos de enfermedades. El porcentaje de carbohidratos reportó 7,10 g% cantidad baja, pero con buen tenor de fibra 16,00 g% sumamente importante para el peristaltismo y buen funcionamiento del sistema digestivo. La cantidad de cenizas de 4,02 g%, significa que existe un buen aporte de minerales indispensables para el organismo. Conclusiones: Se mejoró la calidad nutritiva de los productos cárnicos al adicionar algas, con un valor calórico de 272,43 kcal/100g satisfactorio, y el valor nutritivo de 2,41 lo identifica como altamente nutritivo.

  19. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence emission spectra at 77K of isolated heterocysts of Anabaena L-31 do not show F685-695 but rather F715-730, thus confirming the absence of photosystem II and the presence of photosystem I. Recent work using radioactive nitrogen has been collated and a tentative scheme is outlined indicating the location of the enzymes and the pathways involved in the initial assimilation of nitrogen in blue-green algae. Glutamine synthetase extracted from heterocysts of Anabaena L-31 does not exhibit the adenylylation/deadenylylation phenomenon characteristic of the enzyme from bacteria. Our recent experiments suggest that nitrogenase in Anabaena is under dual control by glutamic acid and aspartic acid, the former inhibiting the enzyme synthesis and the latter relieving the inhibition. Two extracellular polypeptides have been obtained from this alga, one of which inhibits heterocyst formation whereas the other enhances heterocyst formation and partially relieves the inhibitory effect of the former. An extracellular substance, possibly a glycopeptide, has been obtained from A. torulosa, which stimulates sporulation. Studies with 24Na and 22Na indicate that A. torulosa, an alga from saline habitats, has an active photosynthesis-linked mechanism for the extrusion of sodium. Sodium is essential for optimum nitrogenase activity and growth. In field experiments inoculation with Nostoc 4 resulted in substantial increase in soil nitrogen. Paddy yield was comparable to those plots where 80kg N/ha of urea was used. (author)

  20. INFLUENCE OF NOSTOC VAUCHER EX BORNET ET FLAHAULT STRAINS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF PISUM SATIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Ye. I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the positive impact of cultures cyanobacteria genus Nostoc Vaucher ex Bornet et Flahault on growth and development of higher plants as an example Pisum sativum L. All the Nostoc species have a positive effect on the viability, germination energy, and biometric characteristics of Pisum sativum. The greatest positive influence was registered for N. entophytum Born. et. Flah. and N. linckia (Roth Bornetet Flahault f. linckia.

  1. Algae associated with mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The algae associated with mangroves is described. Substrate plays very important role in algal establishment in intertidal and subtidal areas. Algae colonising the mud surface are seasonal because of the unstable conditions causEd. by the erosion...

  2. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  3. Territorial Expansion of the Ragusan Commune/Republic and the Churches of Its Patron Saints

    OpenAIRE

    Marinković, Ana

    2009-01-01

    The churches of St Blaise and the earlier Ragusan patron saints (primarily St Pancras) on the territory of the Ragusan commune/Republic are analysed hagiotopographically from the oldest sources available up to the fifteenth century. Geographical distribution of the church buildings points to two major patterns of topographic expansion and the use of the patron cults in the course of Dubrovnik’s transformation from commune to republic—from a defensive act of marking the borders with temples to...

  4. Diversity and transcription of proteases involved in the maturation of hydrogenases in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last step in the maturation process of the large subunit of [NiFe]-hydrogenases is a proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminal by a hydrogenase specific protease. Contrary to other accessory proteins these hydrogenase proteases are believed to be specific whereby one type of hydrogenases specific protease only cleaves one type of hydrogenase. In cyanobacteria this is achieved by the gene product of either hupW or hoxW, specific for the uptake or the bidirectional hydrogenase respectively. The filamentous cyanobacteria Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and Nostoc sp strain PCC 7120 may contain a single uptake hydrogenase or both an uptake and a bidirectional hydrogenase respectively. Results In order to examine these proteases in cyanobacteria, transcriptional analyses were performed of hupW in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 and hupW and hoxW in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. These studies revealed numerous transcriptional start points together with putative binding sites for NtcA (hupW and LexA (hoxW. In order to investigate the diversity and specificity among hydrogeanse specific proteases we constructed a phylogenetic tree which revealed several subgroups that showed a striking resemblance to the subgroups previously described for [NiFe]-hydrogenases. Additionally the proteases specificity was also addressed by amino acid sequence analysis and protein-protein docking experiments with 3D-models derived from bioinformatic studies. These studies revealed a so called "HOXBOX"; an amino acid sequence specific for protease of Hox-type which might be involved in docking with the large subunit of the hydrogenase. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the hydrogenase specific proteases are under similar regulatory control as the hydrogenases they cleave. The result from the phylogenetic study also indicates that the hydrogenase and the protease have co-evolved since ancient time and suggests that at least one major horizontal gene transfer

  5. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira maxima, Arthrospira platensis, BGA, Blue Green Algae, Blue-Green Micro-Algae, Cyanobacteria, Cyanobactérie, Cyanophycée, Dihe, Espirulina, Hawaiian Spirulina, Klamath, Klamath Lake Algae, Lyngbya wollei, Microcystis aeruginosa, ...

  6. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of two species of the genus Nostoc (Cyanobacteria based on the cpcB-IGS-cpcA locus of the phycocyanin operon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANKA TENEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the taxonomy of the genus Nostoc is based on morphological and physiological characters. The extreme morphological variability of the Nostoc species, due to their life cycle and environmental conditions, hampers the correct identification of the individual species. This is also one of the reasons for the disputed taxonomic positions and relationships between the genera Anabaena–Aphanizomenon as well as between Anabaena–Nostoc. Therefore, it is necessary to use additional markers for development of a polyphasic classification system of order Nostocales. In light of this, we here present the first molecular and phy-logenetic characterization of two species of the genus Nostoc (Nostoc linckia and Nostoc punctiforme based on the cpcB-IGS-cpcA locus of the phycocyanin oper-on. The phylogenetic position of these two species within order Nostocales as well as within division Cyanobacteria has been determined. Our results indicate that genus Nostoc is heterogeneous. Analysis of the IGS region between cpcB and cpcA showed that Nostoc and Anabaena are distinct genera. Reported molecular and phylogenetic data will be useful to solve other problematic points in the tax-onomy of genera Aphanizomenon, Anabaena and Nostoc.

  7. Metabolism and resources of spherical colonies of Nostoc zetterstedtii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Borum, Jens

    2009-01-01

    three summer experiments with colonies collected from the bottom of oligotrophic lakes of low inorganic carbon concentrations (dissolved inorganic C, DIC), metabolism and pigment density of colonies were scaled to their surface area as most algal filaments were confined to a 2-mm-thick outer shell....... Nostoc absorbed 96% of incident light from the surface to the center because of high areal pigment density, but absorbed photons were used with low quantum efficiency (11- 38 mmol O2 mol21 photon) and photosynthesis was low relative to dark respiration (2.0-5.4). Therefore, N. zetterstedtii is threatened...... paths by active transport that could extract most external DIC, accumulate DIC in the colony 150-fold above external concentrations, and retain respiratory CO2. The energy cost of solute transport and gel formation in Nostoc colonies and extensive self shading restrict their potential growth, whereas...

  8. Role of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant in ameliorating salinity induced damage in nostoc muscorum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presence of high salt concentration in the growth medium adversely affected the plant growth and productivity by altering its metabolic activities. Experiments were conducted on cyanobacteriaum Nostoc muscorum grown in nitrogen free medium supplemented with 250 mM NaCl to evaluate the salt stress induced changes in growth, antioxidants and lipid composition. Salt stress significantly reduced the growth and physio-biochemical attributes. Salt stress increased malonaldehyde content thereby causing alterations in the lipid fraction. Significant reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids including phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS) was observed. Where as diacylglycerol, sterol ester and non-esterified fatty acids were increased. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants including glutathione enhanced due to salt stress. An increase in accumulation of proline was also observed. Hence increased activity of antioxidants and altered fatty acid composition was observed in salt stressed Nostoc muscorum. (author)

  9. Composition and occurrence of lipid droplets in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme

    OpenAIRE

    Peramuna, Anantha; Summers, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusions of neutral lipids termed lipid droplets (LDs) located throughout the cell were identified in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme by staining with lipophyllic fluorescent dyes. LDs increased in number upon entry into stationary phase and addition of exogenous fructose indicating a role for carbon storage, whereas high-light stress did not increase LD numbers. LD accumulation increased when nitrate was used as the nitrogen source during exponential growth as compared to added ammon...

  10. BMAA Inhibits Nitrogen Fixation in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120

    OpenAIRE

    Birgitta Bergman; Ulla Rasmussen; Johan Eriksson; Sven Erasmie; Narin Celepli; Lotta Berntzon

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. As for most cyanotoxins, the function of BMAA in cyanobacteria is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of BMAA on the physiology of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene red...

  11. Impact of warming on Nostoc colonies (Cyanobacteria) in a wet hummock meadow, Spitsbergen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elster, Josef; Kvíderová, Jana; Hájek, Tomáš; Láska, K.; Šimek, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2012), 395-420. ISSN 0138-0338 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 934; GA MŠk LA341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : global climate change * Nostoc * OTC Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2012

  12. Flavonoid-Induced Expression of a Symbiosis-Related Gene in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Michael F.; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    The flavonoid naringin was found to induce the expression of hrmA, a gene with a symbiotic phenotype in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. A comparative analysis of several flavonoids revealed the 7-O-neohesperidoside, 4′-OH, and C-2 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 C-3 double bond in naringin as structural determinants of its hrmA-inducing activity.

  13. The tourism resources and possibilities using of its for development of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Andrzej; Brzezińska-Wójcik, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Structural part of the resources of the tourism potential of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów was studied in this paper. In the study, the attractiveness of tourism resources of the communes was assessed based on 48 features grouped into four divisions: sightseeing assets, recreational and special assets, tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. A field survey (listing, query) and a quantitative evaluation of tourist resources, carried out by means of a multidimensional comparative analysis, indicated an appreciable difference in features between the commune of Nałęczów and commune of Wojciechów. The tourist attractiveness index determined for the commune of Nałęczów was 0.695, almost twice as high as the index for the commune of Wojciechów (0.349). In the light of carrying out of investigations, the tourist attractiveness of the commune of Nałęczów results primarily from its environmental (mineral springs, unique flora) and cultural assets (historic monuments) as well as recreational assets (bioclimate, forest complexes, ravines; more than half of the commune's territory is within the Kazimierz Landscape Park) and special assets (angling). The tourism potential of the commune of Wojciechów is primarily determined by its recreational assets (diverse land relief) and special assets (hunting). The commune of Nałęczów is superior with regard to tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. Owing to the diversity of tourist assets, different degrees of tourist infrastructure development and varying quality of the natural environment, various forms of tourism exist in the two communes, i.e. educational tourism (environmental, geotourism, ecotourism, cultural and festival tourism), recreational tourism (agritourism), adventure tourism (walking, cycling, skiing and cross-country skiing) as well as health tourism (health, spa and wellness tourism).

  14. Bifidobacterium commune sp. nov. isolated from the bumble bee gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praet, Jessy; Meeus, Ivan; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; Smagghe, Guy; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Bifidobacteria were isolated from the gut of Bombus lapidarius, Bombus terrestris and Bombus hypnorum bumble bees by direct isolation on modified trypticase phytone yeast extract agar. The MALDI-TOF MS profiles of four isolates (LMG 28292(T), R-53560, R-53124, LMG 28626) were found to be identical and did not cluster with the profiles of established Bifidobacterium species. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LMG 28292(T) revealed that LMG 28292(T) is most closely related to the Bifidobacterium bohemicum type strain (96.8%), which was also isolated from bumble bee gut specimens. The hsp60 gene of strain LMG 28292(T) shows 85.8% sequence similarity to that of the B. bohemicum type strain. The (GTG)5-PCR profiles and the hsp60 sequences of all four isolates were indistinguishable; however, three different phenotypes were observed among the four isolates by means of the API 50CHL microtest system. Based on the phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic data, we propose to classify the four isolates within the novel species Bifidobacterium commune sp. nov., with LMG 28292(T) (= DSM 28792(T)) as the type strain. PMID:25753540

  15. Diversity of endosymbiotic Nostoc in Gunnera magellanica from Tierra del Fuego, Chile [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, M A; de Los Ríos, A; Sancho, L G; Pérez-Ortega, S

    2013-08-01

    Global warming is causing ice retreat in glaciers worldwide, most visibly over the last few decades in some areas of the planet. One of the most affected areas is the region of Tierra del Fuego (southern South America). Vascular plant recolonisation of recently deglaciated areas in this region is initiated by Gunnera magellanica, which forms symbiotic associations with the cyanobacterial genus Nostoc, a trait that likely confers advantages in this colonisation process. This symbiotic association in the genus Gunnera is notable as it represents the only known symbiotic relationship between angiosperms and cyanobacteria. The aim of this work was to study the genetic diversity of the Nostoc symbionts in Gunnera at three different, nested scale levels: specimen, population and region. Three different genomic regions were examined in the study: a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S), the RuBisCO large subunit gene coupled with its promoter sequence and a chaperon-like protein (rbcLX) and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The identity of Nostoc as the symbiont was confirmed in all the infected rhizome tissue analysed. Strains isolated in the present study were closely related to strains known to form symbioses with other organisms, such as lichen-forming fungi or bryophytes. We found 12 unique haplotypes in the 16S rRNA (small subunit) region analysis, 19 unique haplotypes in the ITS region analysis and 57 in the RuBisCO proteins region (rbcLX). No genetic variability was found among Nostoc symbionts within a single host plant while Nostoc populations among different host plants within a given sampling site revealed major differences. Noteworthy, interpopulation variation was also shown between recently deglaciated soils and more ancient ones, between eastern and western sites and between northern and southern slopes of Cordillera Darwin. The cell structure of the symbiotic relationship was observed with low-temperature scanning

  16. Determination of the toxicity level of the fluoropolymers production wastes by reaction of soil microflora and cyanobacteria Nostoc paludosum Kütz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkina Tatyana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The environment is constantly receiving the substances that are artificially synthesized by human, hence, not inherent in nature, that are circulating in it. One of the most common wastes of fluoroelastomer SKF-26 production is the mother solution entering the environment together with the wastewater of chemical enterprises. Until now limits of allowable concentrations of these compounds have not been established, as they are considered practically safe. By determining the toxicity level of the waste of fluoropolymers production conducted by reaction of soil algae , cyanobacteria and micromycetes it was showed that the waste of fluorine rubber SKF-26 production are not safe or neutral for these groups of microorganisms. The toxicity of high concentrations of the mother solution SKF-26 was particularly evident in the damaging effects to the of the test organism Nostoc paludosum in aqueous medium. Field experiments confirmed that not only mother solutions, but also the possible products of their transformations are toxic. This fact clearly illustrates the change in the structure of mikocenoses where a progressive increase in populations with melanized mycelium takes place.

  17. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Sezik; Aline Percot; Kasım Cemal Güven

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review...

  18. Algae liquefaction / Hope Baloyi

    OpenAIRE

    Baloyi, Hope

    2012-01-01

    The liquefaction of algae for the recovery of bio–oil was studied. Algae oil is a non–edible feedstock and has minimal impact on food security and food prices; furthermore, it has been identified as a favourable feedstock for the production of biodiesel and this is attributed to its high oil yield per hectare. Algae oil can be potentially used for fuel blending for conventional diesel. The recovery step for algae oil for the production of biodiesel is costly and demands a lot of energy due to...

  19. A new anti-hypoxia functional agent Schizophyllum commune fermented broth and its biochemical mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Limin; Lu Jike; Wu Tianyi; Ba Jianming; Guo Changjiang; Qian Ping; Yu Jianyong

    2013-01-01

    In order to overcome hypoxia induced sickness,a stable source of anti-hypoxia functional agents,Schizophyllum commune fermented broth has been developed in this study.Animal experiments were conducted to examine its anti-hypoxia activities and possible mechanisms involved.The acute hypoxic experiment showed that Schizophyllum commune fermented broth could significantly prolong the survival time of mice.The underlying mechanisms were associated with improved energy metabolism based on a study carried out in rats exposed to a low pressure chamber simulating the low pressure environment of 8000 m altitude.It was concluded that the Schizophyllum commune fermented broth was an effective anti-hypoxia functional agent and could be greatly beneficial to those living and working at high altitudes,such as people who reside in the reconstruction regions of Yushu.

  20. The impact of local governments on their own revenue source efficiency. Review of communes in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Felis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current system of funding local governments in Poland requires changes; within tax revenues the changes should concern the system of property taxes. The reformed property tax should be a potential source of considerable additional commune revenues. The article is aimed at the analysis of how communes can affect the volume of revenues from property owned by other entities. The analyses concerning the role and place of property taxes in the system of revenues of Polish communes and the application of tax authority tools indicate that local authorities can develop to a slight degree the structure of property taxes to affect the volume of their revenues and the course of social and economic processes.

  1. Formation of mushrooms and lignocellulose degradation encoded in the genome sequence of Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt W.; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. Stephen; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han A.B.

    2010-07-12

    The wood degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is a model system for mushroom development. Here, we describe the 38.5 Mb assembled genome of this basidiomycete and application of whole genome expression analysis to study the 13,210 predicted genes. Comparative analyses of the S. commune genome revealed unique wood degrading machinery and mating type loci with the highest number of reported genes. Gene expression analyses revealed that one third of the 471 identified transcription factor genes were differentially expressed during sexual development. Two of these transcription factor genes were deleted. Inactivation of fst4 resulted in the inability to form mushrooms, whereas inactivation of fst3 resulted in more but smaller mushrooms than wild-type. These data illustrate that mechanisms underlying mushroom formation can be dissected using S. commune as a model. This will impact commercial production of mushrooms and the industrial use of these fruiting bodies to produce enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  2. The financial conditions of the rural and urban-rural communes of the Pomorskie Voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Ossowska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to classify the rural and urban-rural communes of the Pomorskie Voivodeship according to their financial condition. To classify the communes the synthetic coefficient based on simple indicators (total revenue per capita, the share of own revenue in the total budget revenue, the share of investment expenditures in the total budgets expenditures, UE funds per capita and the operating result of budget per capita was used. Five classes were received, from the class with the highest level of financial condition to the class with the lowest level of financial condition. The highest values of simple indicators were observed in the communes with the highest level of financial condition.

  3. Communes and Changing Family Norms: Marriage and Life-Style Choice among Former Members of Communal Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Angela A.

    1989-01-01

    Examined by follow-up interviews the attitudes and behavior about marriage, parenting, and lifestyle among former commune members (N=344) previously interviewed in 1974-76. Found ex-commune members: (l) less likely to have married, (2) more likely to live in multi-adult households and, (3) more receptive to possible collective living arrangements…

  4. EVALUATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF NOSTOC LINCKIA ISOLATED FROM KUKKARAHALLI LAKE, MYSORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala Chauhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Nostoc linckia which was isolated from Kukkarahalli lake, Mysore and maintained in BG-12 medium. The antioxidant potential of the N. linckia extract was investigated using 2,2- Diphenyl, 1- Picryl Hydrazyl and 2, 2´- Azino- bis-(3- ethylbenzothiazoline- 6- sulfonic acid radical scavenging assays and ferric reducing power assay. It expressed DPPH radical scavenging activity at 1.58 mMTrolox Equivalent/g extract, ABTS˙ radical scavenging activity at 3.8 mMTE/g extract and total ferric reducing power at 1.05mgButylated Hydroxy Anisole Equivalents/ g extract. The radical scavenging activity was compared with BHA as standard wherein it expressed DPPH and ABTS˙+ radical scavenging activity of 2.8 mMTE/g and 4.3 mMTE/g respectively. In vitro bactericidal screening of ethanol extract of Nostoc linckia was carried out against six species of bacteria namely Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus wherein B. cereus, B. subtilis and E.coli expressed minimum bactericidal concentration values more than 1 mg/ml while K. oxytoca, P. vulgaris and S. aureus expressed MBC values of 0.51, 0.77 and 0.79 mg/ml respectiviely. The study also revealed minimum algicidal concentration of the extract at 0.625 mg/ml against Nostoc sp., Spirullina sp. Synecocystis sp., and 1.25 mg/ml against Gleocapsia sp by the 6th day after inoculation. The antimicrobial assay was carried out using micro titre plate method.

  5. Programming of development of commune with utilization of analytic hierarchic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Łuczak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a trial of application of analytical hierarchy process to work out scenarios of development of rural commune of Wielkopolska province. In the proposed method consists in building a hierarchical scheme. The scheme covers the general goal which is ensure best by the multi-functional development in administrative district, specific (basic goals and within each goal, a package of a activities can be distinguished which were the basis to work out scenarios of the development of commune. It allowed to choose the best scenario for the administrative district.

  6. Le chauffage au bois-énergie pour les communes du Haut-Allier

    OpenAIRE

    Taverne, M.; Guerra, F.; Boittin, C.; Neuville, S.

    2010-01-01

    / En 2010, on compte dans les communes du Haut-Allier, 2 plateformes d’approvisionnement, 3 chaudières automatiques à bois-énergie en fonctionnement, 2 en construction et 4 études de faisabilité en cours de réalisation. Dans les années à venir dans le Haut-Allier : quels vont être les besoins en nouvelles chaudières ? Quelle pourrait être la place du bois-énergie ? Afin d’en savoir plus, toutes les communes du territoire ont été sollicitées pour une enquête en 2009. 51 commu...

  7. Distribution of Penicillium commune isolates in cheese dairies mapped using secondary metabolite profiles, morphotypes, RAPD and AFLP fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Nielsen, A.B.; Skouboe, P.

    2003-01-01

    using morphotypes (colony morphology and colours) and secondary metabolite profiles. Based on production of secondary metabolites the P. commune isolates were classified into 6 groups. The genetic diversity of the P. commune isolates was assessed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD......) and amplified fragment length polymorphism, (AFLP). For a sub-set of 272 P. commune isolates RAPD analysis generated 33 RAPD groups whereas AFLP profiling revealed 55 AFLP groups. This study conclusively showed that the discriminatory power of AFLP was high compared to RAPD and that AFLP fingerprinting matched......In an 8-year study of the diversity and distribution of Penicillium commune contaminants in two different cheese dairies, swab and air samples were taken from the production plants, the processing environment and contaminated cheeses. A total of 321 Penicillium commune isolates were characterized...

  8. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unresponsive to other treatments, taking 500 mg of spirulina blue-green algae by mouth 3 times daily for 6 months ... was seen in undernourished children who were given spirulina blue-green algae with a combination of millet, soy and peanut ...

  9. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  10. 葛仙米表层结构的扫描电子显微镜观察%Obsevation for Epidermal Ultrastructure of Nostoc sphaeroides Kutzing under Scanning Electron Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The experiment aimed to explore a new way for observing surface structure of Nostoc sphaeroides Kutzing. [Method] The scanning electron microscope was used to observe the epidermal ultrastructure of wild and cultured Nostoc sphaeroides Kutzing. [Result] The epidermis of wild and cultured Nostoc sphaeroides Kutzing showed mixture structure of fibril colloid which was reticular arranged. The difference between wild and cultured Nostoc sphaeroides Kutzing was that the outer epidermis of cultured Nostoc sphaeroides Kutzing had trichome distribution but the wild Nostoc sphaeroides Kutzing did not has such distribution. The obsevation results of under smaller than 10 μm by scanning electron microscope was touched thick and showed many folds and distortions.[Conclusion] The scanning electron microscope was an effective way to study development of Nostoc sphaeroides Kutzing colony and it was worth popularizing.

  11. Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz, a candidate producer par excellence for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Liu, Yongding

    A lot of aquatic organisms could be regarded as suitable candidates par excellence in the establishment of CELSS, since they are relatively easy and fast to grow and resistant to changes in environmental condition as well as providing nutritious, protein-and vitamin-rich foods for the crew, which can fulfill the main functions of CELSS, including supplying oxygen, water and food, removing carbon dioxide and making daily life waste reusable. Our labotory has developed mass culture of Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz, which is one of traditional healthy food in China and. The oxygen evolution rate of the cyanobacterium is about 150 molO2.mg-1.h-1, and it usually grows into colony with size between 2-20mm, which is easy to be harvested. It also can be cultured with high density, which show that the productivity of the cyanobacterium in limited volume is higher than other microalgae. We had measured the nutrient content of the cyanobacterium and developed some Chinese Dishes and Soups with Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz, which showed that it was a good food for crew. Using remote sensing technique, we also investigated its growth in Closed System under microgravity by SHENZHOU-2 spacecraft in January 2001. We plan to develop suitable bioreactor with the cyanobacterium for supplying oxygen and food to crew in future.

  12. Effects of Halide Ions on the Carbamidocyclophane Biosynthesis in Nostoc sp. CAVN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Preisitsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of halide ions on [7.7]paracyclophane biosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. CAVN2 was investigated. In contrast to KI and KF, supplementation of the culture medium with KCl or KBr resulted not only in an increase of growth but also in an up-regulation of carbamidocyclophane production. LC-MS analysis indicated the presence of chlorinated, brominated, but also non-halogenated derivatives. In addition to 22 known cylindrocyclophanes and carbamidocyclophanes, 27 putative congeners have been detected. Nine compounds, carbamidocyclophanes M−U, were isolated, and their structural elucidation by 1D and 2D NMR experiments in combination with HRMS and ECD analysis revealed that they are brominated analogues of chlorinated carbamidocyclophanes. Quantification of the carbamidocyclophanes showed that chloride is the preferably utilized halide, but incorporation is reduced in the presence of bromide. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of 30 [7.7]paracyclophanes and related derivatives against selected pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria exhibited remarkable effects especially against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant staphylococci and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For deeper insights into the mechanisms of biosynthesis, the carbamidocyclophane biosynthetic gene cluster in Nostoc sp. CAVN2 was studied. The gene putatively coding for the carbamoyltransferase has been identified. Based on bioinformatic analyses, a possible biosynthetic assembly is discussed.

  13. Learning From China. A Report on Agriculture and the Chinese People's Communes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…

  14. First isolation of Schizophyllum commune in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Yasuko; Hirano, Yuzo; Watabe, Hirofumi; Hosaka, Kentaro; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2016-07-01

    To date, Schizophyllum commune infection has been identified in only humans and dogs. A 7-year-old female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) died after exhibiting corneal opacity, anorexia, and labored respiration. At necropsy, phthisis of the left eyeball was detected, and multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions, especially in the lung, heart, and lymph nodes. Histopathologically, numerous hyphae were seen in granulomatous lesions in the eyes, lung, heart, and lymph nodules. An isolate on potato dextrose agar from the eyes, lung, and sputum yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mycelia with basidiocarps (fruiting bodies) at 37°C. A suitable temperature for mycelial growth was obtained at 25°C, although sustained growth also occurred at 37°C. The fungal isolate, KH-JPN15-011, had distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules and clamp connections, which were consistent with the characteristics of basidiomycete fungus. The sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA showed 99.67% (617 bp) similarity with those of S. commune Phylogenetic analysis showed that the present isolate is most closely related to the samples from the Old World. This is the first report of a fatal disease caused by S. commune in exotic animals. Previously reported human and canine infections have not included granulomatous endophthalmitis and myocarditis. After considering these and previous findings, there is a possibility that S. commune from the Old World may include numerous highly pathogenic strains. PMID:26933208

  15. OGM : vers une définition commune du contenu du problème ?

    OpenAIRE

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2001-01-01

    Les divergences croissantes depuis des années entre experts, responsables économiques, et acteurs sociaux et « citoyens » au sujet des OGM, ont pu être analysées à juste titre, comme exprimant la difficulté de dégager une « définition commune du contenu du problème »1.

  16. The biological soil crusts of the San Nicolas Island: Enigmatic algae from a geographically isolated ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechtner, V.R.; Johansen, J.R.; Belnap, J.

    2008-01-01

    Composite soil samples from 7 sites on San Nicolas Island were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively for the presence of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae. Combined data demonstrated a rich algal flora with 19 cyanobacterial and 19 eukaryotic microalgal genera being identified, for a total of 56 species. Nine new species were identified and described among the cyanobacteria and the eukaryotic microalgae that were isolated: Leibleinia edaphica, Aphanothece maritima, Chroococcidiopsis edaphica, Cyanosarcina atroveneta, Hassallia californica, Hassallia pseudoramosissima, Microchaete terrestre, Palmellopsis californiens, and Pseudotetracystis compactis. Distinct distributional patterns of algal taxa existed among sites on the island and among soil algal floras of western North America. Some algal taxa appeared to be widely distributed across many desert regions, including Microcoleus vaginatus, Nostoc punctiforme, Nostoc paludosum, and Tolypothrix distorta, Chlorella vulgaris, Diplosphaera cf. chodatii, Myrmecia astigmatica, Myrmecia biatorellae, Hantzschia amphioxys, and Luticola mutica. Some taxa share a distinctly southern distribution with soil algae from southern Arizona, southern California, and Baja California (e.g., Scenedesmus deserticola and Eustigmatos magnus). The data presented herein support the view that the cyanobacterial and microalgal floras of soil crusts possess significant biodiversity, much of it previously undescribed.

  17. Algae and blue-green algae as mosquito food

    OpenAIRE

    Rettich, František; Popovský, Jiří; Cepák, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Ten genera of cyanophytes and 73 genera of algae were found in the guts of Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Culiseta larvae collected in various breeding places of the Elbe-Lowland (Bohemia) and Prague. The quality and quantity of blue-green algae and algae found in mosquito guts depended on their presence in the water of mosquito breeding places and on the feeding type (filter fieders, scrapers) of mosquito larvae. Chlorophycean algae possesing cell wall with sporopollenin and algae with a mucila...

  18. Two-Step Separation of Nostotrebin 6 from Cultivated Soil Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) by High Performance Countercurrent Chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cheel, José; Kučerová, P.; Garrard, I.; Ignatova, S.; Hrouzek, Pavel; Kopecký, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2014), s. 8773-8787. ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : nostotrebin 6 * cyanobacterium * Nostoc * HPLC separation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2014

  19. Metals in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    Metals deposited into ecosystems are non-degradable and become one of the major toxic agents which accumulate in habitats. Thus, their concentration requires precise monitoring. To evaluate pollution around a chlor-alkali plant, a glass smelter, two power plants and a ceramic and porcelain factory, we selected terrestrial mosses with different life forms: the orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. Metal concentrations were determined in both species growing together at sites situated at various distances approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6 km from polluters. MARS analysis evaluated different tendencies of both species for Cd, Co and Pb accumulation depending on the distance from the emitter. In P. schreberi, the concentration of these metals diminished relatively rapidly with an increasing distance from the emitter up to 3000 m and then stabilised. For P. commune, a steady decrease could be observed with increasing the distance up to 6000 m. PCCA ordination explained that both species from the vicinity of the chlor-alkali plant were correlated with the highest Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb as well as Mn and Ni concentrations in their tissues. The mosses from sites closest to both power plants were correlated with the highest Cd and Zn concentrations. P. commune contained significantly higher Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations compared to P. schreberi. This may be caused by the lamellae found in the leaves of P. commune which increase the surface area of the possible aerial absorption of contaminants. Soil may also be an additional source of metals, and it affects the uptake in endohydric P. commune more than in ectohydric P. schreberi. However, the precise explanation of these relations needs further investigation. PMID:26910826

  20. Viruses Infecting a Freshwater Filamentous Cyanobacterium (Nostoc sp.) Encode a Functional CRISPR Array and a Proteobacterial DNA Polymerase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénard, Caroline; Wirth, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Here we present the first genomic characterization of viruses infecting Nostoc, a genus of ecologically important cyanobacteria that are widespread in freshwater. Cyanophages A-1 and N-1 were isolated in the 1970s and infect Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7210 but remained genomically uncharacterized. Their 68,304- and 64,960-bp genomes are strikingly different from those of other sequenced cyanophages. Many putative genes that code for proteins with known functions are similar to those found in filamentous cyanobacteria, showing a long evolutionary history in their host. Cyanophage N-1 encodes a CRISPR array that is transcribed during infection and is similar to the DR5 family of CRISPRs commonly found in cyanobacteria. The presence of a host-related CRISPR array in a cyanophage suggests that the phage can transfer the CRISPR among related cyanobacteria and thereby provide resistance to infection with competing phages. Both viruses also encode a distinct DNA polymerase B that is closely related to those found in plasmids of Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7424, Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120, and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. These polymerases form a distinct evolutionary group that is more closely related to DNA polymerases of proteobacteria than to those of other viruses. This suggests that the polymerase was acquired from a proteobacterium by an ancestral virus and transferred to the cyanobacterial plasmid. Many other open reading frames are similar to a prophage-like element in the genome of Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7524. The Nostoc cyanophages reveal a history of gene transfers between filamentous cyanobacteria and their viruses that have helped to forge the evolutionary trajectory of this previously unrecognized group of phages. PMID:27302758

  1. Wastewater treatment with algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong Yukshan [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Research Centre; Tam, N.F.Y. [eds.] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Biology and Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    Immobilized algal technology for wastewater treatment purposes. Removal of copper by free and immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. Biosorption of heavy metals by microalgae in batch and continuous systems. Microalgal removal of organic and inorganic metal species from aqueous solution. Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic, antimony and bismuth compounds by freshwater algae. Metal ion binding by biomass derived from nonliving algae, lichens, water hyacinth root and spagnum moss. Metal resistance and accumulation in cyanobacteria. (orig.)

  2. Transcription of the extended hyp-operon in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturation of hydrogenases into active enzymes is a complex process and e.g. a correctly assembled active site requires the involvement of at least seven proteins, encoded by hypABCDEF and a hydrogenase specific protease, encoded either by hupW or hoxW. The N2-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 may contain both an uptake and a bidirectional hydrogenase. The present study addresses the presence and expression of hyp-genes in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. Results RT-PCRs demonstrated that the six hyp-genes together with one ORF may be transcribed as a single operon. Transcriptional start points (TSPs were identified 280 bp upstream from hypF and 445 bp upstream of hypC, respectively, demonstrating the existence of several transcripts. In addition, five upstream ORFs located in between hupSL, encoding the small and large subunits of the uptake hydrogenase, and the hyp-operon, and two downstream ORFs from the hyp-genes were shown to be part of the same transcript unit. A third TSP was identified 45 bp upstream of asr0689, the first of five ORFs in this operon. The ORFs are annotated as encoding unknown proteins, with the exception of alr0692 which is identified as a NifU-like protein. Orthologues of the four ORFs asr0689-alr0692, with a highly conserved genomic arrangement positioned between hupSL, and the hyp genes are found in several other N2-fixing cyanobacteria, but are absent in non N2-fixing cyanobacteria with only the bidirectional hydrogenase. Short conserved sequences were found in six intergenic regions of the extended hyp-operon, appearing between 11 and 79 times in the genome. Conclusion This study demonstrated that five ORFs upstream of the hyp-gene cluster are co-transcribed with the hyp-genes, and identified three TSPs in the extended hyp-gene cluster in Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120. This may indicate a function related to the assembly of a functional uptake hydrogenase, hypothetically in the

  3. Differentiation of free-living Anabaena and Nostoc cyanobacteria on the basis of fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudales, R; Wells, J M

    1992-04-01

    The cellular fatty acids of free-living, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Anabaena and Nostoc were analyzed to differentiate the genera. The fatty acid compositions of 10 Anabaena strains and 10 Nostoc strains that were grown for 12 days on BG-11o medium were determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Of the 53 fatty acids detected, 17 were major components; the average level for each of these 17 fatty acids was at least 0.9% of the total fatty acids (in at least one of the genera). These fatty acids included (with mean percentages in the Anabaena and Nostoc strains, respectively) the saturated fatty acids 16:0 (30.55 and 23.23%) and 18:0 (0.77 and 1.27%); several unsaturated fatty acids, including 14:1 cis-7 (2.50 and 0.11%), 14:1 cis-9 (3.10 and 3.41%), a polyunsaturated 16-carbon (sites undetermined) fatty acid with an equivalent chain length of 15.30 (1.20 and 1.03%), 16:4 cis-4 (0.95 and 0.87%), 16:3 cis-6 (2.16 and 1.51%), 16:1 cis-7 (1.44 and 0.36%), 16:1 cis-9 (6.53 and 18.76%), 16:1 trans-9 (4.02 and 1.35%), 16:1 cis-11 (1.62 and 0.42%), 18:2 cis-9 (10.16 and 12.44%), 18:3 cis-9 (18.19 and 17.25%), 18:1 cis-9 (4.01 and 5.10%), and 18:1 trans-9 (0.92 and 1.94%); and the branched-chain fatty acids iso-16:0 (2.50 and 1.14%) and iso-15:1 (0.34 and 2.05%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1581185

  4. COMPARATIVE GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FOUR STRAINS OF Nostoc AND Anabaena (CYANOBACTERIA, NOSTOCALES IN RELATION TO SODIUM NITRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Rosales Loaiza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTNitrogen concentration is an essential parameter in cyanobacterial cultures to produce enriched biomass with biotechnological purposes. Growth and biochemical composition of Nostoc LAUN0015, Nostoc UAM206, Anabaena sp.1 and Anabaena sp.2 were compared at 0, 4.25, 8.5 and 17 mM NaNO3. Cultures under laboratory conditions were maintained for 30 days at a volume of 500 mL. Anabaena sp.1 yielded the highest value of dry mass of 0.26 ± 2.49 mg mL-1 at 8.5 mM NaNO3. For chlorophyll, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin, maximum values were achieved at 17 mM NaNO3 with 18.09 ± 1.74, 102.90 ± 6.73 and 53.47 ± 2.40 μg mL-1, respectively. Nostoc LAUN0015 produced its maximum value of protein 644.86 ± 19.77 μg mL-1, and 890 mg mL-1 of carbohydrates in the absence of nitrogen. This comparative study shows that the most efficient strain for the production of protein, carbohydrates and lipids in diazotrophic conditions corresponded to Nostoc LAUN0015. However, Anabaena sp.1 and Anabaena sp.2 required high nitrogen concentrations to achieve higher values of metabolites, comparing with Nostoc strains. Nitrogen dependence for the production of pigments and high protein production in strains of Anabaena and in diazotrophic conditions for Nostoc was demonstrated. Nostoc can be cultured under nitrogen deficiency and Anabaena in sufficiency, for biomass production enriched with proteins and carbohydrates.Comparación del crecimiento y Composición Bioquímica de cuatro cepas de Nostoc y Anabaena (Cyanobacteria, Nostocales en relación con el nitrato de sodioRESUMENLa concentración de nitrógeno constituye un parámetro esencial en cultivos de cianobacterias para la producción de biomasa enriquecida con fines biotecnológicos. Se comparó el crecimiento y composición bioquímica de las cepas Nostoc LAUN0015, Nostoc UAM206, Anabaena sp.1 y Anabaena sp.2 a 0, 4,25; 8,5 y 17 mM NaNO3. Los cultivos en condiciones de laboratorio fueron mantenidos durante 30 d

  5. Genetically modified cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum overproducing proline in response to salinity and osmotic stresses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Bhargava

    2006-06-01

    In the parent Nostoc muscorum an active proline oxidase enzyme is required to assimilate exogenous proline as a fixed nitrogen source. Cyanobacterial mutants, resistant to growth inhibitory action of proline analogue L-azetidine-2-carboxylate (Ac-R), were deficient in proline oxidase activity, and were over-accumulators of proline. Proline over-accumulation, resulting either from mutational acquisition of the Ac-R phenotype, or from salinity-induced uptake of exogenous proline, confirmed enhanced salinity/osmotic tolerance in the mutant strain. The nitrogenase activity and photosynthetic O2 evolution of the parent were sensitive to both salinity as well as osmotic stresses than of Ac-R mutant strain. In addition, the mutation to Ac-resistant phenotype showed no alteration in salinity inducible potassium transport system in the cyanobacterium

  6. Physicochemical parameters optimization, and purification of phycobiliproteins from the isolated Nostoc sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eldin M; Kumar, Kanhaiya; Das, Debabrata

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of several physicochemical parameters on the improvement of phycobiliproteins (especially phycocyanin) synthesis in a newly isolated species of Nostoc sp. Standard BG11₀ medium was modified to enhance the biomass productivity in different photobioreactors. The initial pH of 8, light intensity of 40 μmol m(-2)s(-1), temperature of 35 °C, diurnal cycle of 16:8 h (light:dark regime), 75.48 μM Na₂CO₃ and 17.65 mM NaNO₃ were found most suitable for the phycobiliproteins synthesis. Cyanobacteria exhibited chromatic adaptation, causing overexpression of phycocyanin in red and phycoerythrin in green light. The maximum phycobiliproteins yield of 0.13 gg(-1) dry cell weight was obtained in green light. Phycocyanin was further purified using thin layer chromatography (TLC), anion exchange chromatography and SDS-PAGE (denaturing gel) electrophoresis. PMID:24951941

  7. Composition and occurrence of lipid droplets in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peramuna, Anantha; Summers, Michael L

    2014-12-01

    Inclusions of neutral lipids termed lipid droplets (LDs) located throughout the cell were identified in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme by staining with lipophylic fluorescent dyes. LDs increased in number upon entry into stationary phase and addition of exogenous fructose indicating a role for carbon storage, whereas high-light stress did not increase LD numbers. LD accumulation increased when nitrate was used as the nitrogen source during exponential growth as compared to added ammonia or nitrogen-fixing conditions. Analysis of isolated LDs revealed enrichment of triacylglycerol (TAG), α-tocopherol, and C17 alkanes. LD TAG from exponential phase growth contained mainly saturated C16 and C18 fatty acids, whereas stationary phase LD TAG had additional unsaturated fatty acids characteristic of whole cells. This is the first characterization of cyanobacterial LD composition and conditions leading to their production. Based upon their abnormally large size and atypical location, these structures represent a novel sub-organelle in cyanobacteria. PMID:25135835

  8. BMAA inhibits nitrogen fixation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntzon, Lotta; Erasmie, Sven; Celepli, Narin; Eriksson, Johan; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

    2013-08-01

    Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. As for most cyanotoxins, the function of BMAA in cyanobacteria is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of BMAA on the physiology of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. BMAA also caused growth arrest and massive cellular glycogen accumulation, as observed by electron microscopy. With nitrogen fixation being a process highly sensitive to oxygen species we propose that the BMAA effects found here may be related to the production of reactive oxygen species, as reported for other organisms. PMID:23966039

  9. BMAA Inhibits Nitrogen Fixation in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Bergman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA, proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. As for most cyanotoxins, the function of BMAA in cyanobacteria is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of BMAA on the physiology of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay, even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. BMAA also caused growth arrest and massive cellular glycogen accumulation, as observed by electron microscopy. With nitrogen fixation being a process highly sensitive to oxygen species we propose that the BMAA effects found here may be related to the production of reactive oxygen species, as reported for other organisms.

  10. Effect of UV-B on enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in the cyanobacterium Nostoc calcicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280–315 nm) irradiation on nitrogenase and nitrate reductase (NR) activity have been studied in the filamentous and heterocystous N2-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc calcicola. Exposure of cultures to UV-B (5W/m2) for as little as 30 min caused complete inactivation of nitrogenase activity whereas nitrate reductase activity was stimulated twofold in comparison to one exposed to fluorescent white light. GS activity was also inhibited by UV-B treatment, but there was no total loss of activity even after 4 h. NR activity showed a gradual stimulation up to 4 h and thereafter it became constant. Stimulation was also obtained in reductant deficient cultures (12 h incubation in the dark) suggesting independence of NR of PS-II under UV-B. NR activity was also unaffected in the presence of DCMU, a known inhibitor of PS-II. However, both O2 evolution and 14CO2 uptake were completely abolished following 30 min of UV-B treatment. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol (25 μg/mL) to cultures did not show any inhibitory effect on NR activity. SDS-PAGE analysis of UV-B treated cultures elicited gradual loss of protein bands with increasing duration of exposure. Our findings suggest that UV-B irradiance has differential effects on the enzymes of the nitrogen metabolism in the cyanobacterium Nostoc calcicola. Further studies are needed to reveal the exact mechanism involved in the stimulation of NR activity by UV-B. Whether UV-B has a direct effect on NO2− accumulation in the cells needs detailed investigation. (author)

  11. Environmental Awareness Among the Rural Population in Natura 2000 Areas, with Bartoszyce and Sorkwity Communes as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Gotkiewicz Wojciech; Sternik Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn about environmental awareness among the inhabitants of communes in which Natura 2000 areas had been designated. Field study with the use of an interview questionnaire was conducted in 2013 in two communes of Warmińsko-Mazurskie province, namely Bartoszyce and Sorkwity. The study in-volved a total of 61 inhabitants. The obtained results demonstrated that despite the actual presence of various forms of environmental protection within the areas under study, the...

  12. Cancer mortality in the commune of Pargny sur Saulx in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive thorium wastes were found in April 1997 at the former industrial site of 'Orflam-Plast' in the commune of Pargny sur Saulx in the Northeast of France, where industrial activity began in 1934. On this site, between 1934 and 1970, cerium for lighter stones and thorium nitrate were extracted from imported monazite sand, a mineral containing elevated levels of natural radioactivity. We decided to study cancer mortality in the surrounding population. We found an excess of mortality due to lung and bladder cancer in the commune of Pargny sur Saulx and its neighbours, between 1968 and 1994. This excess did not seem to be linked to the river of Saulx which was a possible source of contamination. We conclude that a cancer incidence study of the former workers of this industrial site is necessary in order to investigate the role of natural radioactivity from monazite processing in the risk of cancer mortality among this workforce. (author)

  13. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luzmila Hernández; Martha Lucía Vásquez

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia. Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria. Findin...

  14. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Luzmila Hernández; Martha Lucía Vásquez

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia.Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria.Findings:...

  15. Research into the financial knowledge of employees of local government units at commune level in Podkarpacie

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyana Dzyuma; Jacek Rodzinka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the results of a study on the level of financial knowledge among staff at local public administration offices. The study was conducted using the technique of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI) on a representative sample of commune level offices in the Podkarpackie Province. Study participants described a definite strength of financial knowledge within the work tasks that they do, however they indicated that their actual knowledge level is inter...

  16. OGM : vers une définition commune du contenu du problème ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Les divergences croissantes depuis des années entre experts, responsables économiques, et acteurs sociaux et « citoyens » au sujet des OGM, ont pu être analysées à juste titre, comme exprimant la difficulté de dégager une « définition commune du contenu du problème »1.

  17. A Global Analysis of CYP51 Diversity and Azole Sensitivity in Rhynchosporium commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Patrick C; Stefansson, Tryggvi S; Fountaine, James; Richina, Veronica; McDonald, Bruce A

    2016-04-01

    CYP51 encodes the target site of the azole class of fungicides widely used in plant protection. Some ascomycete pathogens carry two CYP51 paralogs called CYP51A and CYP51B. A recent analysis of CYP51 sequences in 14 European isolates of the barley scald pathogen Rhynchosporium commune revealed three CYP51 paralogs, CYP51A, CYP51B, and a pseudogene called CYP51A-p. The same analysis showed that CYP51A exhibits a presence/absence polymorphism, with lower sensitivity to azole fungicides associated with the presence of a functional CYP51A. We analyzed a global collection of nearly 400 R. commune isolates to determine if these findings could be extended beyond Europe. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that CYP51A played a key role in the emergence of azole resistance globally and provide new evidence that the CYP51A gene in R. commune has further evolved, presumably in response to azole exposure. We also present evidence for recent long-distance movement of evolved CYP51A alleles, highlighting the risk associated with movement of fungicide resistance alleles among international trading partners. PMID:26623995

  18. Characterization and biological activities of extracellular melanin produced by Schizophyllum commune (Fries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, G; Eyini, M; Gunasekaran, P

    2015-06-01

    Melanins are enigmatic pigments produced by a wide variety of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Here, we have isolated and characterized extracellular melanin from mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune. The extracellular dark pigment produced by the broth culture of S. commune, after 21 days of incubation was recovered by hot acid-alkali treatment. The melanin nature of the pigment was characterized by biochemical tests and further, confirmed by UV, IR, EPR, NMR and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectra. Extracellular melanin, at 100 μg/ml, showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluorescens and antifungal activity against Trichophyton simii and T. rubrum. At a concentration of 50 μg/ml, melanin showed high free radical scavenging activity of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) indicating its antioxidant potential. It showed concentration dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of Human Epidermoid Larynx Carcinoma Cell Line (HEP-2). This study has demonstrated characterization of melanin from basidiomycetes mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune and its applications. PMID:26155678

  19. Microbubbles for algae cultivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    Santa Fe: ELSEVIER Global Conferences, 2014, 0120. [International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts /4./. Santa Fe (US), 15.06.2014-18.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : microbubbles * algae * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  20. Radionuclides in Bentic Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentic micro-algae (mainly consisting of diatoms) were taken from 4 sites in the discharge area of the Forsmark Nuclear Power Station (Sweden) and from 1 site in the cooling water intake channel of the power station. Samples were taken every third week during 1984. The micro-algae were brushed of a 0.1-0.15 m2 area on stones collected from the hydrolittoral zone. Radionuclide concentration was measured as gamma radiation with a Ge-detector. Fission products from the power plant cooling water can easily be detected in the micro-algae. We show that benthic diatom assemblages are good indicators for radionuclides; good correlations were found between radionuclide concentration in the algae and the discharge from the power plant. The best correlations were obtained if the accumulated discharge for the 15 days before sampling was used in the calculations. Of the investigated radionuclides, Co-60 and Zn-65 show significant relationships between concentration in the algae and discharge for 2 site, Ag-110m for 3 sites and Mn-54 for 1 site. No correlations were found for the site in the intake channel. The results show differences which depend on whether calculations were done for total, particulate or dissolved fractions of the radionuclides. There are indications that there is considerable recirculation of the radionuclides within the algal assemblages, and the recirculation from the outlet of the Biotest basin to the intake channel is of about 10%. In this report we also present a budget for the total amount of radionuclides in the Biotest Basin for 1984. The highest amounts of radionuclides in diatoms were found during late winter and early spring, associated with the large diatom blooms at that time of the year in the basin. (authors)

  1. Comparison on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Six Strains of Nostoc commune%6个不同品系地木耳抗氧化酶活性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯佳; 吴琴; 李砧; 谢树莲

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过对6个不同品系地木耳抗氧化酶活性的比较和分析,筛选抗逆性较高的品系.方法:采用紫外分光光度法测定过氧化氢酶(CAT),采用分光光度法测定抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX),采用DTNB染色法测定谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px).结果:山西宁武荷叶坪品系CAT活性最大,且与其他品系之间存在显著差异(P<0.05);山西宁武秋千沟品系GSH-Px、APX活性均明显大于其他品系(P<0.05).结论:从抗氧化酶体系来看,秋千沟品系的抗逆性优于其他品系抗逆性.

  2. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-10-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ max, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase. PMID:24235871

  3. Algae Review Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae-based biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) vision of a thriving and sustainable bioeconomy fueled by innovative technologies. The state of technology for producing algal biofuels continues to mature with ongoing investment by DOE and the private sector, but additional research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) is needed to achieve widespread deployment of affordable, scalable, and sustainable algal biofuels.

  4. Differential effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on certain metabolic processes in a chromatically adapting Nostoc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, R.; Srinivas, G.; Vyas, D.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, H.D. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1992-03-01

    The impact of UV-B radiation on growth, pigmentation and certain physiological processes was studied in a N{sub 2}-fixing chromatically adapting cyanobacterium, Nostoc spongiaeforme. A brownish form (phycoerythrin rich) was found to be more tolerant to UV-B than the blue-green (phycocyanin rich) form of N. spongiaeforme. Continuous exposure to UV-B (5.5 W m{sup -2}) for 90 min caused complete killing of the blue-green strain whereas the brown strain showed complete loss of survival after 180 min. Pigment content was more strongly inhibited in the blue-green strain than in the brown. Nitrogenase activity was completely abolished in both strains within 35 min of UV-B treatment. Restoration of nitrogenase occurred upon transfer to fluorescent or incandescent light after a lag of 5-6 h, suggesting fresh synthesis of nitrogenase. In vivo nitrate reductase activity was stimulated by UV-B treatment, the degree of enhancement being significantly higher in the blue-green strain. {sup 14}CO{sub 2} uptake was also completely abolished by UV-B treatment in both strains. (author).

  5. Differential effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on certain metabolic processes in a chromatically adapting Nostoc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of UV-B radiation on growth, pigmentation and certain physiological processes was studied in a N2-fixing chromatically adapting cyanobacterium, Nostoc spongiaeforme. A brownish form (phycoerythrin rich) was found to be more tolerant to UV-B than the blue-green (phycocyanin rich) form of N. spongiaeforme. Continuous exposure to UV-B (5.5 W m-2) for 90 min caused complete killing of the blue-green strain whereas the brown strain showed complete loss of survival after 180 min. Pigment content was more strongly inhibited in the blue-green strain than in the brown. Nitrogenase activity was completely abolished in both strains within 35 min of UV-B treatment. Restoration of nitrogenase occurred upon transfer to fluorescent or incandescent light after a lag of 5-6 h, suggesting fresh synthesis of nitrogenase. In vivo nitrate reductase activity was stimulated by UV-B treatment, the degree of enhancement being significantly higher in the blue-green strain. 14CO2 uptake was also completely abolished by UV-B treatment in both strains. (author)

  6. Near infrared fluorescent biliproteins generated from bacteriophytochrome AphB of Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Che; Li, Hui-Zhen; Tang, Kun; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Scheer, Hugo; Zhou, Ming; Zhao, Kai-Hong

    2016-04-13

    The genome of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 encodes a large number of putative bacteriophytochrome and cyanobacteriochrome photoreceptors that, due to their long-wavelength absorption and fluorescence emission, might serve as fluorescent tags in intracellular investigations. We show that the PAS-GAF domain of the bacteriophytochrome, AphB, binds biliverdin covalently and exhibits, besides its reversible photochemistry, a moderate fluorescence in the near infrared (NIR) spectral region. It was selected for further increasing the brightness while retaining the NIR fluorescence. In the first step, amino acids assumed to improve fluorescence were selectively mutated. The resulting variants were then subjected to several rounds of random mutagenesis and screened for enhanced fluorescence in the NIR. The brightness of optimized PAS-GAF variants increased more than threefold compared to that of wt AphB(1-321), with only insignificant spectral shifts (Amax around 695 nm, and Fmax around 720 nm). In general, the brightness increases with decreasing wavelengths, which allows for a selection of the fluorophore depending on the optical properties of the tissue. A spectral heterogeneity was observed when residue His260, located in close proximity to the chromophore, was mutated to Tyr, emphasizing the strong effects of the environment on the electronic properties of the bound biliverdin chromophore. PMID:27004456

  7. Molecular Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium commune Isolates from a Conifer Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jane E; Kim, Mee-Sook; James, Robert L; Dumroese, R Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species can cause severe root disease and damping-off in conifer nurseries. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Isolates of Fusarium spp. can differ in virulence; however, virulence and colony morphology are not correlated. Forty-one isolates of Fusarium spp., morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum, were collected from nursery samples (soils, healthy seedlings, and diseased seedlings). These isolates were characterized by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and DNA sequencing of nuclear rDNA (internal transcribed spacer including 5.8S rDNA), mitochon-drial rDNA (small subunit [mtSSU]), and nuclear translation elongation factor 1-alpha. Each isolate had a unique AFLP phenotype. Out of 121 loci, 111 (92%) were polymorphic; 30 alleles were unique to only highly virulent isolates and 33 alleles were unique to only isolates nonpathogenic on conifers. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences from all three regions and the combined data set showed that all highly virulent isolates clearly separated into a common clade that contained F. commune, which was recently distinguished from its sister taxon, F. oxysporum. Interestingly, all but one of the nonpathogenic isolates grouped into a common clade and were genetically similar to F. oxysporum. The AFLP cladograms had similar topologies when compared with the DNA-based phylograms. Although all tested isolates were morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum based on currently available monographs, some morphological traits can be plastic and unreliable for identification of Fusarium spp. We consider the highly virulent isolates to be F. commune based on strong genetic evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first reported evidence that shows F. commune is a cause of Fusarium disease (root rot and dampingoff) on Douglas-fir seedlings. Furthermore

  8. Gérer la communication numérique communale guide pratique 2.0 à destination des communes

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Pour une meilleure communication numérique des communes.La ville, la commune 2.0 existe bel et bien. Souvent, les sites-vitrines d''autrefois ont laissé la place à d''authentiques sites web pensés et conçus pour englober un maximum de fonctionnalités. En suivant l''évolution des comportements et usages des citoyens, la commune reste au plus proche de ceux-ci, et c''est bien là son intérêt.Une communication numérique beaucoup plus large, qui englobe notamment la gestion de la présence et de l''activité sur les réseaux sociaux, est un gage de démocratie.Chaque concept est introduit par une déf

  9. Impact of the activities of local government on the quality of life of households, in the opinion of the inhabitants, of the border commune, Hanna

    OpenAIRE

    Siedlecka Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The issue of quality of life is an interdisciplinary issue. Non-economic and economic factors influence its level. The aim of the study is a subjective assessment of the quality of life for residents of the border commune of Hanna and to assess the impact of investment in the commune on its level.

  10. Biological importance of marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. El Gamal

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological...

  11. Preincubation of Penicillium commune conidia under modified atmosphere conditions: Influence on growth potential as determined by an impedimetric method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    The combined effect of preincubation time, relative humidity (r.h.), headspace carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) on subsequent growth potential of conidia from Penicillium commune was studied using Response Surface Modelling (RSM). Native conidia were preincubated under modified atmosphere...... conditions in sealed vials for 14, 35 and 56 d. Lag time and growth rates were determined using impedance microbiology on a Bactometer. Conidia survived and some swelling was observed during all experimental preincubation conditions. Regression analysis of the subsequent growth responses showed that relative...... injury of the conidia from P. commune, retarding growth by increasing lag times and decelerating growth rates....

  12. Importance of Distributed Generation in the National Power System Based on the Example of Gierałtowice Commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Bargiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the location capabilities of non-renewable energy sources (natural gas as well as renewable energy (biogas, methane, solar and water in a selected community. An assessment of energy supply end user – large load municipal communities are presented. Implementation plans of the energy mini centres in the Gierałtowice commune are shown, which using biogas, methane from agricultural and wind, as well as the practical tests of working these mini centres. Problems that Gierałtowice commune encountered while working on the implementation of energy investments, the directions of the solutions and the prospect of further investment were discussed.

  13. Purification and biochemical characterization of a 17 kDa fibrinolytic enzyme from Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Suk; Park, Jeong Uck; Seo, Min Jeong; Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Hye Hyeon; Kim, Sung Ryeal; Kang, Byoung Won; Choi, Yung Hyun; Joo, Woo Hong; Jeong, Yong Kee

    2010-12-01

    A fibrinolytic enzyme of the mushroom, Schizophyllum commune was purified with chromatographic methods, including a DEAE-Sephadex A-50 ion-exchange column and gel filtrations with Sephadex G-75 and Sephadex G-50 columns. The analysis of fibrin-zymography and SDS-PAGE showed that the enzyme was a monomeric subunit that was estimated to be approximately 17 kDa in size. The fibrinolytic activity of the enzyme in plasminogen-rich and plasminogen-free fibrin plates was 1.25 and 0.44 U/ml, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was identified as HYNIXNSWSSFID, which was highly distinguished from known fibrinolytic enzymes. The relative activity of the purified enzyme with an addition of 5 mM EDTA, Phosphoramidon, and Bestatin was about 76, 64, and 52%, respectively, indicating that it is a metalloprotease. The optimum temperature for the purified enzyme was approximately 45°C, and over 87% of the enzymatic activity was maintained as a stable state in a pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. Therefore, our results suggest that the potential thrombolytic agent from S. commune is a unique type of fibrinolytic enzyme. PMID:21221943

  14. Isolation and Characterization of the Cytoplasmic Membrane from the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium -Nostoc flagelliforme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGHui; ZHONGZe-Pu; WANGKe-Bin; BAIKe-Zhi; LILiang-Bi; KUANGTing-Yun

    2004-01-01

    Cytoplasmic membrane of Nostoc flagelliforme Born. et Flah. was isolated for the first time with a new method, the unique feature of which is the combined use of French pressure cell and digitonin to disrupt cells. After passed twice through French pressure cell (at 80 MPa), cells in sample (20 mg of dry weight/mL) were disrupted effectively by digitonin (3 mg/mL), and then the cytoplasmic membrane was isolated by density gradient centrifugation. The membrane contained carotenoids with absorption peaks at 458, 487 and 524 nm and a precursor of chlorophyll a with a minor peak at 673 nm. The fluorescence emission peaks of the membrane were emitted from the precursor of chlorophyll a. More than 30 polypeptides were detected in the membrane, in which the most obvious corresponded to the polypeptides with molecular mass of 80,28,19 and 17 kD. The membrane contained four types of glycerolipids: MGDG(62.4%), DGDG (18.9%), SQDG (16.7%) and PG (2.0%). 16:0, 16:1 [9], 18:0, 18:1 [9], 18:2 [9, 12] and 18:3 [9,12,15] fatty acids were determined in the membrane, in which 16:1 and 18:3 fatty acids were the main components, representing 32.3% and 34.4% of the total fatty acids respectively. High proportion of 18:3 fatty acid in the cytoplasmic membrane may be an important factor of N. flagelliforme in its remarkable drought-tolerant ability.

  15. Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyun; van Duijn, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies.

  16. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE GENERAL URBANISM PLAN TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN NEGREŞTI COMMUNE, NEAMŢ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Mară

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The commune is placed in the central part of Neamţ county, has a surface of 3493 ha and a total population of 1941 inhabitants (2005. It extends on the eastern summits of Stânişoara Mts. and the Moldavian Subcarpathians, respectively the Cracău-Bistriţa Depression. The climate is continental with excessive trends, with a mean temperature of 8.6º C and average annual precipitations of 628.8 mm. The whole territory belongs to Horaiţa hydrographic basin, a tributary of Almaş. The existing land use categories evidence the dominant agricultural and subordinately forestry character of the commune. After the application of the General Urban Plan (GUP to 777.12 ha the inhabited surface and that designed for economic or social activities will be increased. The commune is provide with electric energy, communication network with optical fiber and asphalted access roads. The problems stand in the water alimentation from wells, the unregularization of Horaiţa’s floodplain, the lack of water and natural gasesalimentation and the collecting of sewage waters. The determinations regarding drinking water from July 2009 evidence the bacteriological pollution of the underground waters from the center of the commune. The existing dysfunctions thus make directions for future actions. Natural risks are given by floods in the inhabited area and landslides outside it, and the measures imply the improvement of the inhabiting conditions

  17. Tourist attractiveness of rural communes of natural values in the Warmińsko-mazurskie and Podlaskie voivodeships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The condition of the natural environment is seen as one of the most important factors shaping the size and structure of tourism in the commune. To protect the natural diversity of the most valuable areas, protected areas are created. They require specific treatments to reduce the negative impact of tourists on the natural environment. On the other hand, represent an opportunity for the community, to achieve economic results through the development of the supply of tourist services. Research was carried on communes located in the Warmia-Mazury and Podlasie carried area where a national / landscape park exists or a commune area of minimum 50% area included in the Natura 2000 program. To analyse the tourist attractiveness of respondents communes a set of three measures was used: Baretje and Defert’s indicator, Charvát’s and Schneider’s indicator. An opportunity for a comprehensive development of these communities is the proper management of valuable natural areas according to the concept of sustainable development.

  18. La politique agricole commune : des origines au 3ème millénaire

    OpenAIRE

    Ledent, Albert; Burny, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Lors de l'élaboration du traité instituant la Communauté économique européenne et dès son application, en 1958, l'agriculture n'a cessé de susciter d'âpres débats, renouvelés et renforcés par les élargissements successifs et à l'occasion des négociations commerciales multilatérales. Cependant, la politique agricole commune est restée longtemps la seule construction élaborée par les Etats membres et l'agriculture est toujours une activité importante dans l'Union européenne. Outre son rôle nour...

  19. Protohistoire de la commune de Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, Var

    OpenAIRE

    Bérato, Jacques; Borréani, Marc; Carrazé, Claudette; Carrazé, François; Krol, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Le potentiel archéologique de la commune de Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, qui se résumait pratiquement à quelques habitats groupés et fortifiés de hauteur de l’âge du Fer, n’a pu être évalué que grâce aux tranchées pratiquées pour l’installation de canalisations d’eau. Le schéma de la structuration spatiale de l’occupation des sols dans les plaines et de son évolution, doit donc tenir compte désormais de l’occultation des gisements par les dépôts alluvionnaires. Le territoire, objet de notre...

  20. Translocation in Polytrichum commune (Bryophyta) I. Conduction and allocation of photoassimilates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leafy stems and connecting underground rhizomes of Polytrichum commune Hedw. contain leptome tissues similar in structure to phloem. Isolated stems in clonal groupings were pulse labelled with 14CO2. Labelled sugar, mostly sucrose, glucose, and fructose, appeared in the pulse labelled stems 30 min after treatment. A small amount (3.3%) of labelled sugar was transported to neighboring stems. Silver grain deposition in microautoradiographs of interconnecting rhizomes occurred predominantly over leptome tissues. Increased amounts of translocated radioactivity appeared in starch and cell wall polysaccharide pools one week and six weeks after treatment. These results (1) indicate that transport of photoassimilate occurs through the leptome of perennating rhizomes, (2) demonstrate that translocated carbon is subsequently utilized or stored, and (3) raise important questions about the significance of long distance transport in the life strategy of this complex clonal moss

  1. The influence of canon law on ius commune in its formative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmeti Sami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Medieval period, Roman law and canon law formed ius commune or the common European law. The similarity between Roman and canon law was that they used the same methods and the difference was that they relied on different authoritative texts. In their works canonists and civilists combined the ancient Greek achievements in philosophy with the Roman achievements in the field of law. Canonists were the first who carried out research on the distinctions between various legal sources and systematized them according to a hierarchical order. The Medieval civilists sought solutions in canon law for a large number of problems that Justinian’s Codification did not hinge on or did it only superficially. Solutions offered by canon law were accepted not only in the civil law of Continental Europe, but also in the English law.

  2. Fuel From Algae: Scaling and Commercialization of Algae Harvesting Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Led by CEO Ross Youngs, AVS has patented a cost-effective dewatering technology that separates micro-solids (algae) from water. Separating micro-solids from water traditionally requires a centrifuge, which uses significant energy to spin the water mass and force materials of different densities to separate from one another. In a comparative analysis, dewatering 1 ton of algae in a centrifuge costs around $3,400. AVS’s Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) system is less energy-intensive and less expensive, costing $1.92 to process 1 ton of algae. The SLS technology uses capillary dewatering with filter media to gently facilitate water separation, leaving behind dewatered algae which can then be used as a source for biofuels and bio-products. The biomimicry of the SLS technology emulates the way plants absorb and spread water to their capillaries.

  3. [From algae to "functional foods"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, M; Palmieri, B

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, a growing interest for nutraceutical algae (tablets, capsules, drops) has been developed, due to their effective health benefits, as a potential alternative to the classic drugs. This review explores the use of cyanobacterium Spirulina, the microalgae Chlorella, Dunaliella, Haematococcus, and the macroalgae Klamath, Ascophyllum, Lithothamnion, Chondrus, Hundaria, Glacilaria, Laminaria, Asparagopsis, Eisenia, Sargassum as nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, in terms of production, nutritional components and evidence-based health benefits. Thus, our specific goals are: 1) Overview of the algae species currently used in nutraceuticals; 2) Description of their characteristics, action mechanisms, and possible side effects; 3) Perspective of specific algae clinical investigations development. PMID:26378764

  4. [Study of hygienic habits of children and youth in the commune of Horyniec].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieradko, Barbara; Swies, Zofia; Mazurkiewicz, Marta; Sieklucka-Dziuba, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Health behaviour of children and youth is being taught from the earliest years of their lives. Hygiene, dental care, hygiene of work and rest as well as proper nutritional habits determinate health condition of a child and, later on, of an adult. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hygienic habits of children and youth in the commune of Horyniec. An especially designed questionnaire was used as an examination tool. It consisted of 27 questions. 151 students of primary and grammar school were examined. The highest percentage of the interviewed students (37.1%) washed their hands 4-5 times a day. After using WC 78.1% of them washed hands, whereas the rest of them neglected that routine. Only 21.2% of the examined children brushed their teeth after every meal. An average student of the primary or grammar school spent daily 7 hours at school. They did homework or studied themselves usually 2 hours a day. Vast majority of them slept 8-9 hours every night. The most numerous group of the examined children watched TV about 2 hours a day. 57% of the students did physical activities more of ten than twice a week, 29.1% once a week and 13.3% less frequently. 85% of the kids regularly had three meals a day. The study of hygienic habits of children and youth in the commune of Horyniec shows that most of them have proper nutritional habits. Unfortunately, majority of them neglect brushing teeth after every meal and washing hands. Too many children don't do sports intensively enough. PMID:17474606

  5. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  6. Photosynthesis and photorespiration in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, N D; Canvin, D T; Culver, D A

    1977-05-01

    The CO(2) exchange of several species of fresh water and marine algae was measured in the laboratory to determine whether photorespiration occurs in these organisms. The algae were positioned as thin layers on filter paper and the CO(2) exchange determined in an open gas exchange system. In either 21 or 1% O(2) there was little difference between (14)CO(2) and (12)CO(2) uptake. Apparent photosynthesis was the same in 2, 21, or 50% O(2). The compensation points of all algae were less than 10 mul 1(-1). CO(2) or (14)CO(2) evolution into CO(2)-free air in the light was always less than the corresponding evolution in darkness. These observations are inconsistent with the proposal that photorespiration exists in these algae. PMID:16659972

  7. Cryopreservation of eukaryotic soil algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, Alena; Worland, M. R.; Hrouzek, Pavel

    Coimbra: Society for Cryobiology, 2003. s. 32. [Cryobiomol 2003 - Low Temperature Biology. 14.09.2003-18.09.2003, Coimbra] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : cryopreservation * eukaryotic soil algae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. MONOTERPENE BIOSYNTHESIS IN MARINE ALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine algae produce a variety of secondary metabolites involved in chemical defense. Among these the monoterpenes present several highly unusual characteristics relative to their terrestrial counterparts. The monoterpenes produced by these marine organisms are nearly always halogenated and posses...

  9. Carotenoids in Algae: Distributions, Biosyntheses and Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichi Takaichi

    2011-01-01

    For photosynthesis, phototrophic organisms necessarily synthesize not only chlorophylls but also carotenoids. Many kinds of carotenoids are found in algae and, recently, taxonomic studies of algae have been developed. In this review, the relationship between the distribution of carotenoids and the phylogeny of oxygenic phototrophs in sea and fresh water, including cyanobacteria, red algae, brown algae and green algae, is summarized. These phototrophs contain division- or class-specific carote...

  10. FUNCTIONAL VEGETABLE SALADS WITH ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    Козонова, Ю.О.; Авдєєва, А.А.

    2015-01-01

    Now on the Ukrainian market frozen vegetable salads are well represented. They contain a small amount of protein and have an unbalanced composition nutrientny. Adding algae to the vegetable salads composition allows to resolve this contradiction. In this paper the functional vegetable salads expanding assortment possibilities are represented. The product components composition was designed. It is advisable to add different types of algae (kelp, spirulina and fucus) to the quick-frozen functio...

  11. Scenario studies for algae production

    OpenAIRE

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass productivity and energy consumption, while considering the uncertainty and complexity in such large-scale systems. In this thesis frameworks are developed to assess 1) the productivity during algae cultiva...

  12. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Se-Kwon Kim; Ratih Pangestuti

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, choline...

  13. Measurement of photorespiration in algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, B C; Coleman, J R; Colman, B

    1982-01-01

    The rates of true and apparent photosynthesis of two unicellular green algae, one diatom and four blue-green algae were measured in buffer at pH 8.0 at subsaturating concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (13-27 micromolar). Initial rates of depletion from the medium of inorganic carbon and (14)C activity caused by the algae in a closed system were measured by gas chromatography and by liquid scintillation counting, respectively. The rate of photorespiration was calculated as the difference between the rates of apparent and true photosynthesis. The three eucaryotic algae and two blue-green algae had photorespiratory rates of 10 to 28% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2). Reduction of the O(2) level to 2% caused a 52 to 91% reduction in photorespiratory rate. Two other blue-green algae displayed low photorespiratory rates, 2.4 to 6.2% that of true photosynthesis at air levels of O(2), and reduction of the O(2) concentration had no effect on these rates. PMID:16662171

  14. Effect of Introns and AT-Rich Sequences on Expression of the Bacterial Hygromycin B Resistance Gene in the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    OpenAIRE

    Scholtmeijer, K.; Wosten, H.A.B.; Springer, J.; Wessels, J.G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that introns are required for efficient mRNA accumulation in Schizophyllum commune and that the presence of AT-rich sequences in the coding region of genes can result in truncation of transcripts in this homobasidiomycete. Here we show that intron-dependent mRNA accumulation and truncation of transcripts are two independent events that both affect expression of the bacterial hygromycin B resistance gene in S. commune.

  15. A Proposal on the Restoration of Nostoc flagelliforme for Sustainable Improvement in the Ecology of Arid Steppes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nostoc flagelliforme, a filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, is widely distributed in arid steppes of the west and northwestern parts of China. However, as a food delicacy this species has been overexploited from 1970 to 2000. Moreover, overgrazing, land reclamation and the removal of medicinal herbs have caused severely reduced vegetation coverage there. In this communication, a badly damaged but slowly rehabilitating N. flagelliforme-inhibiting steppe is described, and the rehabilitation of desertified steppes by the renewed growth of N. flagelliforme is proposed. The restoration of this dominant nitrogen supplier would be an ecologically sustainable solution for supplementing current measures already taken in the desertified regions. In addition, a goal of 50%–60% vegetation coverage is proposed by the N. flagelliforme restoration.

  16. Active accumulation of internal DIC pools reduces transport limitation in large colonies of Nostoc pruniforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Borum, Jens; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2009-01-01

    Nostoc pruniforme is a freshwater cyanobacterium forming large spherical colonies of up to several centimeters in diameter. The size and shape result in low surface area to volume (SA/V) ratios that potentially put severe constraints on resource acquisition. In the present study we have...... polysaccharides contains declining densities of trichomes with increasing colony size. N. pruniforme is a very efficient bicarbonate (HCO3-) user and, in addition, actively accumulates large pools of DIC that can support net photosynthesis for >22 h without a supply of external DIC. Both the efficient HCO3......- utilization and the large internal DIC pools greatly reduce N. pruniforme dependence on the immediate availability and species of external DIC. The location of the trichomes in the shell, the HCO3- utilization and the internal DIC pools mean that colony size only has a minor effect on photosynthetic rates as...

  17. Environmental Awareness Among the Rural Population in Natura 2000 Areas, with Bartoszyce and Sorkwity Communes as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotkiewicz Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to learn about environmental awareness among the inhabitants of communes in which Natura 2000 areas had been designated. Field study with the use of an interview questionnaire was conducted in 2013 in two communes of Warmińsko-Mazurskie province, namely Bartoszyce and Sorkwity. The study in-volved a total of 61 inhabitants. The obtained results demonstrated that despite the actual presence of various forms of environmental protection within the areas under study, the depth of knowledge in the subject concerned was relatively low among the local population. Research shows that the respondents perceive the need for pro-environmental measures; however, they rarely take those mea-sures themselves, unless they can see economic profits in it. Even though more than half of the respondents have heard the name Natura 2000, majority of them know nothing thereof.

  18. EVALUATION OF IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC FACTORS IN A RURAL COMMUNE WITH A UTILIZATION OF FUZZY ANALYTIC HIERARCHIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Łuczak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a trial of an application of fuzzy analytical hierarchy process to evaluation of importance of strategic factors in a rural commune. The proposed method consists in build-ing hierarchical scheme. It consists of: general goal, which is ensure the assurance of sus-tainable development in administrate district, basic goals and within each goal, a “package” of activities can be distinguished. On respective levels, elements are pairwise compared by experts. Next priorities of each element are estimated. The proposed procedure was em-ployed to evaluation of importance of strategic goals and activities of the rural commune of Tarnowo Podgórne in the Wielkopolska province.

  19. Cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in Fusarium commune transcriptome and functional characterization of three identified xylanases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuhong, Huang; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Specific enzymes from plant-pathogenic microbes demonstrate high effectiveness for natural lignocellulosic biomass degradation and utilization. The secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes of Fusarium species have not been investigated comprehensively, however. In this study we compared cellulose...... and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes of classical fungal enzyme producers with those of Fusarium species. The results indicated that Fusarium species are robust cellulose and hemicellulose degraders. Wheat bran, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan-based growth media induced a broad spectrum of lignocellulolytic enzymes...... in Fusarium commune. Prediction of the cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in the F. commune transcriptome using peptide pattern recognition revealed 147 genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and six genes encoding lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (AA9 and AA11), including all relevant cellulose...

  20. Schizophyllum commune: The main cause of dying trees of the Banja Luka arbored walks and parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of investigation of the main cause of dying trees of the main arbored walks (Mladena Stojanovića Aley and Park, the investigation of the presence and diversity of macrofungi in Banja Luka City were undertaken in the period 2006-2011. Relatively poor generic diversity of lignicolous (pathogenic or potentially pathogenic and saprotrophic macrofungi with only 16 species representing this group (13 basidiomycets: Schizophyllum commune, Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Pseudotrametes gibbosa, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, G. adspersum, Polyporus squamosus, Meripilus giganteus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Auricu­laria auricula-judae, and 3 ascomycets: Nectria cinnabarina, Xylaria hypoxylon, X. poly­morpha were recorded. Such a poor qualitative composition of this very important fungal group could be explained by the reduction in the number of plant species in arbored walks and alleys, as well as the reduction in the number of fungi resistant to heavy air pollution caused by nearby (1-5m fuel combustion in engines. Although only preliminary, our results pointed to the necessity of conservation and protection of the most beautiful features of Banja Luka and its alleys and arbored walks, by undertaking the measures of curing damaged trees and treating them with fungicides in order to wipe out the epiphytia caused in more than 95% of cases (dated May 2011 by Split-gill (Schizophyllum commune, present on dead wood but also on damaged trees of Aesculus hyppocastaneum (127 trees, Tilia cordata (124 trees, Tilia platyphyllos (36 trees, Tilia argentea (40 trees, Acer negundo (20 trees, Platanus acerifolia (2 trees, Robinia pseudoacacia (3 trees, Fraxinus ornus (1 tree, Betula pendula (1 tree, Catalpa sp. (2 trees, etc. Altogether, during the last decade, around 200 trees collapsed or were sanitary cut in Banja Luka arbored walk from the Malta site to the Green bridge, a total length around 5 km. The

  1. Living with typhoon and flood disasters : a case study in Huong Phong commune, Tam Giang lagoon area, central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thanh Duc; Tanaka, Ueru; Kobayashi, Hirohide

    2012-01-01

    Central Vietnam frequently suffers from typhoons and floods. Disaster preparedness for local residents is one of the major focuses of efforts to mitigate natural disasters. In Huong Phong commune, located beside the Tam Giang lagoon in Huong Tra district, Thua Thien Hue province, a research team focused on three specific objectives: 1) evaluating the impacts of typhoons and flooding on local residents over the past 25 years, 2) describing the activities of local authorities in responding to n...

  2. La croissance de la truite commune (Salmo trutta L. sur le bassin de Scorff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAGLINIÈRE J. L.

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available La croissance de la truite commune (Salmo trutta L. a été étudiée à partir du suivi de cinq cohortes âgées de 0 - à 2 - ans dans quatre milieux différents (Scorff aval et amont, affluent, sous-affluent. D'une manière générale, la taille destruites quelque soit leur âge diminue de l'aval vers l'amont du Scorff et de la rivière à l'affluent et au sous-affluent. Le taux mensuel de croissance G = 2,85 (LnL2 — LnL1/(T2 — T1 diminue de la première à la troisième année de vie quelque soit l'ordre de drainage. Ce taux de croissance varie suivant le milieu pour les deux premières classes d'âge (0 + et 1 +, cet effet milieu étant relié à la densité de population pour les individus 0 +. Le taux de croissance varie également suivant les années mais uniquement chez les plus jeunes truites et cet effet année est relié principalement à la température de l'eau. Un modèle de Von Bertalanffy est proposé pour décrire la relation entre la taille (Lf et la somme des températures moyennes journalières depuis la date moyenne d'émergence (Tmjpendant la première année : Lf = 106,7 (1 — exp [ — 0,0005 (Tmj + 468]. Les résultats sont discutés et permettent de dégager les faits majeurs intervenant sur la croissance de la truite tout au long d'un cycle jusqu'à la maturation sexuelle. Mots-clés : Température - Croissance - Truite commune - Rivière - France.

  3. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LiP PRODUCED BY Schyzophyllum commune IBL-06 USING BANANA STALK IN SOLID STATE CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asgher,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignin peroxidase was produced from Schyzophyllum commune IBL-06 through solid state fermentation of an abundantly available agro-industrial waste, banana stalk, under pre-optimized conditions. LiP was fractionated by 65% saturation with NH4SO4 and dialysis to 1.5-fold purification. The enzyme was further purified by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography to 2.34 fold with specific activity of 468 U/mg. A single band of 80 kDa was obtained on native gel while on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and two bands having molecular weight of 33 & 47 kDa were obtained, suggesting that LiP was a two polypeptide oligomeric protein. The present LiP from S. commune IBL-06 was optimally active at pH 5 and 35°C. The stability assay showed that LiP retained activity in an acidic pH range of 4 to 6 and a temperature of 25 to 45°C after 24 h of incubation. Lignin peroxidase oxidized the vertry alcohol and showed kinetic constants KM and Vmax values of 0.46 mM and 388 mM/min, respectively. All organic and inorganic compounds inhibited S. commune LiP, but EDTA, β-Marcaptoethanol, and Pb(NO32 were the most inhibitory.

  4. Some metabolic pathways in the blue - green alga micro cystis aeruginosa using 14 C - Labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue - green algae (cyanobacteria) are of world Wied distribution in fresh water, their toxic and nontoxic strains are forming heavy blooms regularly in eutrophic natural water. They grow rapidly under many physicochemical stresses even in many domestic sewage (Skulberg et al., 1984). The toxic and nontoxic strains are morphologically indistin - guishable, so extensive toxicity testing must be taken into consideration and is so much essential because some species are marketed to human consumption as a food. From the toxicological point of view, at least five genera are now known as toxic strains, these are anabaena, nostoc, oscillator, aphanizomenon, micro cystis (Carmichael, 1981; Carmichael and Mahmood, 1984, and carmichael et al, 1985). The toxicity levels of these species are varied widely with regard to site, season, week or even day of collection (Carmichael and Gorham, 1981). Such variability may be correlated to the changes in species composition. The intensive growth of toxin producing organisms in municipal and recreational water supplies affect human health both wild and domestic animals, Livestock, pets, fish and birds in many countries and are suspected to cause the last and smell of drinking water to be unpleasant (Beasley et al, 1983 and carmichael et al, 1985)

  5. Evidence for two types of P-700 in membrane fragments from a blue-green alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, T; McSwain, B D; Arnon, D I

    1977-04-11

    The mathematical analysis described in the preceding paper (Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1977) 460, 65-75), in which the steady-state photooxidation of P-700 was compared with overall electron flux in Photosystem I chloroplast fragments, was applied to membrane fragments from the blue-gree alga Nostoc muscorum (Strain 7119) noted for their high activity of both Photosystem I and Photosystem II. The same analysis, which gave good agreement between the photooxidation of P-700 and the overall light-induced electron flux (measured as NADP+ reduction) in Photosystem I chloroplast fragments, revealed in the algal membrane fragments two P-700 components: one responding to high light intensity (P-700 HI), the photooxidation of which was in good agreement with the overall electron flux (measured as NADP+ reduction by reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol), and the other component responding to low light intensity (P-700 LI), the photooxidation of which was not correlated with the reduction of NADP+ by reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol. PMID:403940

  6. Neuroprotective Effects of Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Kwon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is known as a rich source of chemical structures with numerous beneficial health effects. Among marine organisms, marine algae have been identified as an under-exploited plant resource, although they have long been recognized as valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds. Presently, several lines of studies have provided insight into biological activities and neuroprotective effects of marine algae including antioxidant, anti-neuroinflammatory, cholinesterase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of neuronal death. Hence, marine algae have great potential to be used for neuroprotection as part of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and functional foods. This contribution presents an overview of marine algal neuroprotective effects and their potential application in neuroprotection.

  7. Drinking water: a need met for the people of the commune of Bantè, Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Fousseni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir is a Beni¬nese non-governmental organization established in 1999 following the initiatives of young Beninese execu¬tives. A case study undertaken in 2003 in the villages of Galata and Agbon in the commune of Bantè identified the need for drinking water as the most urgent need. In response to this need, and with the financial support of Oxfam Québec, RACINES initiated a project for the installation of manual water pumps in the two villages. The development of this project involved three major phases: the mobilization of communities around this project, the installation of water pumps and the organization of socio-sanitary educational activities. Twenty months into the execution of the project, a local management committee was established and strengthened, a hand-operated water pump was installed and water-themed public awareness activities, such as water use, water sanitation and the dangers of drinking dirty or contaminated water, were organized every month or so in each of the two communities. Overall, this project has introduced a new type of leadership in the commune of Bantè, involving a high level of participation by young people working alongside the elders in the local management committees and ensuring the perpetuation of the systems installed.RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir est une organisation béninoise non gouvernementale créée en 1999 à l’initiative de jeunes cadres béninois. Au nombre des besoins identifiés en 2003 suite à une étude prospective, l’eau potable s’est révélée comme besoin prioritaire dans les villages de Galata et d’Agbon dans la commune de Bantè. En réponse à ce besoin, RACINES a initié, avec le soutien financier de Oxfam Québec, un projet pour l’installation de pompes d’eau manuelles dans les villages concernés. La mise en œuvre de ce projet comporte trois

  8. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzmila Hernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia. Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria. Findings: Findings are presented in two parts: practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding and practices and beliefs that do not support exclusive breastfeeding. The prominent practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding are related to the mother´s bond with the child, preparation for breastfeeding during pregnancy, and family support. Among the practices and beliefs not supporting maternal breastfeeding, we must highlight the mother´s lack of confidence in her breast milk production. Conclusions: Knowledge generated by this study may facilitate nursing care of women during pregnancy and postpartum that is congruent with their culture. To accomplish this, we identified cultural practices that should be kept and others needing modification or restructuring.

  9. Practices and beliefs about exclusive breastfeeding by women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzmila Hernández

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the practices and beliefs about breastfeeding during the first 6 months after delivery, a study was completed with women living in Commune 5 in Cali, Colombia.Methods: The methodology used for the study was ethno nursing, which facilitated inquiring about the emic perspective and identifying beneficial and risk-laden practices for the child´s health regarding feeding. Fifteen women were the key informants; this sample was determined by data saturation criteria.Findings: Findings are presented in two parts: practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding and practices and beliefs that do not support exclusive breastfeeding. The prominent practices and beliefs in favor of exclusive breastfeeding are related to the mother´s bond with the child, preparation for breastfeeding during pregnancy, and family support. Among the practices and beliefs not supporting maternal breastfeeding, we must highlight the mother´s lack of confidence in her breast milk production.Conclusions: Knowledge generated by this study may facilitate nursing care of women during pregnancy and postpartum that is congruent with their culture. To accomplish this, we identified cultural practices that should be kept and others needing modification or restructuring.

  10. Strategy for development of the commune of Topólka and achieving the established goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Zajdel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate the changes introduced by the Strategy for Development of the Commune Topólka for 2002-2017. It has been assumed that the strategy had been implemented without any major obstacles. The researchers used the case study method, which is one of the basic tools for checking quality. A group of one hundred residents has been appointed to provide feedback on the development of their community. They were presented with a questionnaire consisting of nine questions. More than sixty-six (66.8% percent of the polled admitted they had no knowledge about the Strategy for Community Development. The most urgent problems mentioned by the group are: high unemployment rate (59.3%, many houses having no access to the main sewer system (42.9%, poor road condition and the absence of footpaths (33%, wasting the region's tourism potential due to poor publicity and infrastructure (31.9%, transportation shortcomings (33%, and alcoholism (31.9%. The research proves that although the Strategy for Community Development does include the operation and strategic goals, it does not specify any useful measurement instruments. Unfortunately, the operation of the Strategy has not been monitored closely, therefore the authorities were not able to provide any positive or negative evaluation.

  11. Symptoms and causes of poverty in a rural Vietnamese commune: Does ethnicity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Le

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from a sample survey of 200 households drawn from a mountainous commune in Vietnam’s North Central Coast region to measure and explain relative poverty. Principal components analysis is used to construct a multidimensional index of poverty outcomes from variables measuring household income and the value of domestic assets. This index of poverty is then regressed on likely causes of poverty including different forms of resource endowment and social exclusion defined by gender and ethnicity. The ordinary least squares estimates indicate that poverty is indeed influenced by ethnicity, partly through its interaction with social capital. However, poverty is most strongly affected by differences in human and social capital. Differences in the amount of livestock and high quality farmland owned also matter. Thai households are poorer than their Kinh counterparts even when endowed with the same levels of human, social, physical and natural capital considered in the study. This empirical result provides a rationale for further research on the causal relationship between ethnicity and poverty outcomes.

  12. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    OpenAIRE

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface...

  13. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  14. Formation of algae growth constitutive relations for improved algae modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Drewry, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    This SAND report summarizes research conducted as a part of a two year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to improve our abilities to model algal cultivation. Algae-based biofuels have generated much excitement due to their potentially large oil yield from relatively small land use and without interfering with the food or water supply. Algae mitigate atmospheric CO2 through metabolism. Efficient production of algal biofuels could reduce dependence on foreign oil by providing a domestic renewable energy source. Important factors controlling algal productivity include temperature, nutrient concentrations, salinity, pH, and the light-to-biomass conversion rate. Computational models allow for inexpensive predictions of algae growth kinetics in these non-ideal conditions for various bioreactor sizes and geometries without the need for multiple expensive measurement setups. However, these models need to be calibrated for each algal strain. In this work, we conduct a parametric study of key marine algae strains and apply the findings to a computational model.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  17. Scenario studies for algae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are a promising biomass for the biobased economy to produce food, feed, fuel, chemicals and materials. So far, large-scale production of algae is limited and as a result estimates on the performance of such large systems are scarce. There is a need to estimate large-scale biomass producti

  18. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  19. Measurements of photorespiration in some microscopic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K H; Colman, B

    1974-09-01

    The rate of photorespiration in three green algae and four blue-green algae was determined by the measurement of the rate of loss of photosynthetically fixed (14)CO2 in light in CO2-free air at 25°. In all algae studied, CO2 evolution in light was considerably less than that in the dark, except for Chlamydomonas reinhardii which released slightly more CO2 in the light. Raising the temperature to 35° had little effect on the ratio of light to dark (14)CO2 release. Blue-green algae showed the lowest photorespiration rate of the algae studied. PMID:24458883

  20. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...

  1. Identification and characterization of a carboxysomal γ-carbonic anhydrase from the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Charlotte; Arefeen, Dewan; Tadesse, Yohannes; Long, Benedict M; Price, G Dean; Rowlett, Roger S; Kimber, Matthew S; Espie, George S

    2014-09-01

    Carboxysomes are proteinaceous microcompartments that encapsulate carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco); carboxysomes, therefore, catalyze reversible HCO3 (-) dehydration and the subsequent fixation of CO2. The N- and C-terminal domains of the β-carboxysome scaffold protein CcmM participate in a network of protein-protein interactions that are essential for carboxysome biogenesis, organization, and function. The N-terminal domain of CcmM in the thermophile Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 is also a catalytically active, redox regulated γ-CA. To experimentally determine if CcmM from a mesophilic cyanobacterium is active, we cloned, expressed and purified recombinant, full-length CcmM from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 as well as the N-terminal 209 amino acid γ-CA-like domain. Both recombinant proteins displayed ethoxyzolamide-sensitive CA activity in mass spectrometric assays, as did the carboxysome-enriched TP fraction. NstCcmM209 was characterized as a moderately active and efficient γ-CA with a k cat of 2.0 × 10(4) s(-1) and k cat/K m of 4.1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) at 25 °C and pH 8, a pH optimum between 8 and 9.5 and a temperature optimum spanning 25-35 °C. NstCcmM209 also catalyzed the hydrolysis of the CO2 analog carbonyl sulfide. Circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence analysis demonstrated that NstCcmM209 was progressively and irreversibly denatured above 50 °C. NstCcmM209 activity was inhibited by the reducing agent tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine, an effect that was fully reversed by a molar excess of diamide, a thiol oxidizing agent, consistent with oxidative activation being a universal regulatory mechanism of CcmM orthologs. Immunogold electron microscopy and Western blot analysis of TP pellets indicated that Rubisco and CcmM co-localize and are concentrated in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 carboxysomes. PMID:24907906

  2. Allelopatrhic effect of Acorus tatarinowii upon algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Besides competing with algae for light and mineralnutrients (i.e. N, P, etc.), the root system of Acorus tatarinowii excretes some chemical substances, which injure and eliminate alga cells, to inhibit the growth of the algae. When the algae cells were treated in "A. tatarinowii water", some of the chlorophyll a were destroyed and the photosynthetic rate of algae decreased markedly and the ability of alga cells to deoxidize triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduced greatly. Then alga cells turned from bright red to bluish green under fluorescence microscope. These showed that the allelopathic effects of A.tatarinowii on algae were obvious and planting A. tatarinowii can control some green algae. The experiment on the extractions of the secretions of the root system showed that the inhibitory effect had a concentration effect. If the concentration of the root secretion was below 30 /disc, the inhibitory rate was negative; if it was over 45 /disc, the inhibitory rate was positive. This proved that the influence of the root secretion on the same acceptor was a kind of concentration effect. When the concentration of the root secretion was low, it promoted the growth of algae; when the concentration reached a definite threshold value, it restrained the growth of algae. In present case, the threshold value was between 30 /disc and 45 u?disc.

  3. Macro algae as substrate for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Sarker, Shiplu; Gautam, Dhan Prasad;

    Algae as a substrate for biogas is superior to other crops since it has a much higher yield of biomass per unit area and since algae grows in the seawater there will be no competition with food production on agricultural lands. So far, the progress in treating different groups of algae as a source...... of energy is promising. In this study 5 different algae types were tested for biogas potential and two algae were subsequent used for co-digestion with manure. Green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and brown seaweed Laminaria digitata was co-digested with cattle manure at mesophilic and thermophilic condition...... thermophilic treatment of Laminaria produced an average of 142 L CH4/kgVS, Ulva yielded around 122 L/kgVS. Overall, it was found that algae are promising substrates for co-digestion with cattle manure and besides producing energy algae can remove substantial amounts of nutrients from the water environment that...

  4. La recepción del Ius Commune por el Tribunal Superior del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, María J.

    2010-01-01

    En el trabajo se expone cómo y por qué se aplicaron el Derecho canónico y el Derecho romano en el extenso territorio del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico. Buena parte de los ducados, marquesados, etc. integrados en él habían quedado siempre fuera del limes romano. Además, en los momentos en que tuvo lugar la recepción plena del Ius commune, debido a la Reforma protestante, se dejaba de reconocer la autoridad del Romano Pontífice y de los Obispos. Ello fue posible debido a que el Tribunal Superi...

  5. Quand l'Union européenne gouverne les poissons : pourquoi une politique commune de la pêche ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lequesne, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Une politique commune de la pêche est inscrite à l'agenda de l'Union européenne (UE) depuis 1970. Concernant un nombre réduit d'acteurs sociaux, cette politique n'a guère donné raison aux prédictions des théoriciens néofonctionnalistes, qui voyaient essentiellement dans l'intégration européenne une affaire d'experts mettant leur expérience en commun, afin de gérer rationnellement des problèmes tels que la raréfaction de la ressource halieutique (...).

  6. Optimization of extraction time and temperature on antioxidant activity of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Rao, Vigneswara; Low, Jia Yin; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X1: 99.5–290.5 min) and temperature (X2: 30.1–54.9 °C) of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC). Results indicated that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects on antioxidant acti...

  7. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06

    OpenAIRE

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk’s basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhanc...

  8. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE AUTHORITIES’ ACTIVITY FOR THE ABSORPTION OF THE EU FUNDS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT. THE EXAMPLE OF THE SZAMOCIN COMMUNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona Standar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at presenting the authorities’ activity when applying for the EU funds and the influence of gained aid on a local development. The Szamocin Commune is the subject of research. The authorities’ activity is the commune’s strength. Despite their mediocre financial situation, approximately 1/4 of their spending is on investments. The commune’s weaknesses include mainly poor quality of the roads in the commune and few sanitary sewage systems. In order to improve the level of a local development and the quality of the inhabitant’s life, investments in these areas have been realized thanks to gained EU funds for several years now. The commune could carry out more EU projects does not have its own sufficient resources required in case of financial engineering. It is one of the two barriers to absorb the EU funds, except for an inefficient system of funds allocation.

  9. Effect of tryptophan on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid toxicity in the nitrogen-fixing-cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Tiwari, D N

    1986-01-01

    The combined effect of a hormone weed killer 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and an amino acid (tryptophan) has been studied on growth and heterocyst differentiation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia. 2.4-D at 100 micrograms/ml stimulated growth and heterocyst frequency in combined nitrogen-free medium while its higher concentrations inhibited both. Tryptophan under similar conditions promoted much growth yield with 3-4 fold enhanced heterocyst frequency than the control. Such heterocysts were immature and showed germination under in situ condition. The concentrations of 2,4-D (100 micrograms/ml) and tryptophan (50 micrograms/ml), stimulatory to growth and heterocyst formation, caused additive effect while herbicide inhibition of nitrogen-fixing growth at higher doses was partially relieved by tryptophan but tryptophan-induced heterocyst frequency was completely suppressed under this condition. The possible role of interaction of these two chemicals on growth and heterocyst formation has been discussed. PMID:3083089

  10. Effect of Light Intensity and Photoperiod on Growth and Biochemical Composition of a Local Isolate of Nostoc calcicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajepour, Fateme; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Rasoul; Markou, Giorgos

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of light intensity (21, 42, and 63 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and photoperiod (8:16, 12:12, and 16:8 h light/dark) on the biomass production and its biochemical composition (total carotenoids, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin (PE), phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC), total protein, and carbohydrates) of a local isolate of Nostoc calcicola. The results revealed that N. calcicola prefers dim light; however, the most of the levels of light intensity and photoperiod investigated did not have a significant impact on biomass production. Increasing light intensity biomass content of chlorophyll a, PE, PC, APC, and total protein decreased, while total carotenoids and carbohydrate increased. The same behavior was observed also when light duration (photoperiod) increased. The interaction effect of increasing light intensity and photoperiod resulted in an increase of carbohydrate and total carotenoids, and to the decrease of chlorophyll a, PE, PC, APC, and total protein content. The results indicate that varying the light regime, it is capable to manipulate the biochemical composition of the local isolate of N. calcicola, producing either valuable phycobiliproteins or proteins under low light intensity and shorter photoperiods, or producing carbohydrates and carotenoids under higher light intensities and longer photoperiods. PMID:26100389

  11. Differential physiological and biochemical responses of two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum against oxyfluorfen and UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba; Pratap Singh, Vijay; Kumar Srivastava, Prabhat; Mohan Prasad, Sheo

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, degree of tolerance and tolerance strategies of two paddy field cyanobacteria viz. Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum against oxyfluorfen (10 and 20 μg ml(-1)) and UV-B (7.2 kJ m(-2)d(-1)) stress were investigated. Oxyfluorfen and UV-B decreased growth, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, nitrate reductase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, which accompanied with the increase in the level of oxidative stress. However, growth was more affected in N. muscorum than P. foveolarum. Antioxidants exhibited differential responses against oxyfluorfen and UV-B stress. Ascorbate and proline levels were higher in P. foveolarum. A protein of 66 kDa was expressed in N. muscorum, however, it was absent in P. foveolarum than those of N. muscorum. Besides this, a protein of 29 kDa appeared in P. foveolarum under all the treatments, but it was present only in control cells of N. muscorum cells. Overall results indicated resistant nature of P. foveolarum against oxyfluorfen and UV-B stress in comparison to N. muscorum. PMID:21798597

  12. The non-metabolizable sucrose analog sucralose is a potent inhibitor of hormogonium differentiation in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, Samantha D; Risser, Douglas D

    2016-03-01

    Nostoc punctiforme is a filamentous cyanobacterium which forms nitrogen-fixing symbioses with several different plants and fungi. Establishment of these symbioses requires the formation of motile hormogonium filaments. Once infected, the plant partner is thought to supply a hormogonium-repressing factor (HRF) to maintain the cyanobacteria in a vegetative, nitrogen-fixing state. Evidence implies that sucrose may serve as a HRF. Here, we tested the effects of sucralose, a non-metabolizable sucrose analog, on hormogonium differentiation. Sucralose inhibited hormogonium differentiation at a concentration approximately one-tenth that of sucrose. This result implies that: (1) sucrose, not a sucrose catabolite, is perceived by the cell and (2) inhibition is not due to a more general osmolarity-dependent effect. Additionally, both sucrose and sucralose induced the accrual of a polysaccharide sheath which bound specifically to the lectin ConA, indicating the presence of α-D-mannose and/or α-D-glucose. A ConA-specific polysaccharide was also found to be expressed in N. punctiforme colonies from tissue sections of the symbiotically grown hornwort Anthoceros punctatus. These findings imply that plant-derived sucrose or sucrose analogs may have multiple effects on N. punctiforme, including both repression of hormogonia and the induction of a polysaccharide sheath that may be essential to establish and maintain the symbiotic state. PMID:26576759

  13. Constant phycobilisome size in chromatically adapted cells of the cyanobacterium Tolypothrix tenuis, and variation in Nostoc sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohki, K.; Gantt, E.; Lipschultz, C.A.; Ernst, M.C.

    1985-12-01

    Phycobilisomes of Tolypothrix tenuis, a cyanobacterium capable of complete chromatic adaptation, were studied from cells grown in red and green light, and in darkness. The phycobilisome size remained constant irrespective of the light quality. The hemidiscoidal phycobilisomes had an average diameter of about 52 nanometers and height of about 33 nanometers, by negative staining. The thickness was equivalent to a physocyanin molecule (about 10 nanometers). The molar ratio of allophycocyanin, relative to other phycobiliproteins always remained at about 1:3. Phycobilisomes from red light grown cells and cells grown heterotrophically in darkness were indistinguishable in their pigment composition, polypeptide pattern, and size. Eight polypeptides were resolved in the phycobilin region (17.5 to 23.5 kilodaltons) by isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Half of these were invariable, while others were variable in green and red light. It is inferred that phycoerythrin synthesis in green light resulted in a one for one substitution of phycocyanin, thus retaining a constant phycobilisome size. Tolypothrix appears to be one of the best examples of phycobiliprotein regulation with wavelength. By contrast, in Nostoc sp., the decrease in phycoerythrin in red light cells was accompanied by a decrease in phycobilisome size but not a regulated substitution.

  14. Characterization of a novel debranching enzyme from Nostoc punctiforme possessing a high specificity for long branched chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel debranching enzyme from Nostoc punctiforme PCC73102 (NPDE) exhibits hydrolysis activity toward both α-(1,6)- and α-(1,4)-glucosidic linkages. The action patterns of NPDE revealed that branched chains are released first, and the resulting maltooligosaccharides are then hydrolyzed. Analysis of the reaction with maltooligosaccharide substrates labeled with 14C-glucose at the reducing end shows that NPDE specifically liberates glucose from the reducing end. Kinetic analyses showed that the hydrolytic activity of NPDE is greatly affected by the length of the substrate. The catalytic efficiency of NPDE increased considerably upon using substrates that can occupy at least eight glycone subsites such as maltononaose and maltooctaosyl-α-(1,6)-β-cyclodextrin. These results imply that NPDE has a unique subsite structure consisting of -8 to +1 subsites. Given its unique subsite structure, side chains shorter than maltooctaose in amylopectin were resistant to hydrolysis by NPDE, and the population of longer side chains was reduced.

  15. PPR proteins of green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage:...

  16. Parasites in algae mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd William Lane

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

  17. Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Pilar Rauter

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds.

  18. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  19. Dynein Heavy Chain, Encoded by Two Genes in Agaricomycetes, Is Required for Nuclear Migration in Schizophyllum commune.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Brunsch

    Full Text Available The white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (Agaricomycetes was used to study the cell biology of microtubular trafficking during mating interactions, when the two partners exchange nuclei, which are transported along microtubule tracks. For this transport activity, the motor protein dynein is required. In S. commune, the dynein heavy chain is encoded in two parts by two separate genes, dhc1 and dhc2. The N-terminal protein Dhc1 supplies the dimerization domain, while Dhc2 encodes the motor machinery and the microtubule binding domain. This split motor protein is unique to Basidiomycota, where three different sequence patterns suggest independent split events during evolution. To investigate the function of the dynein heavy chain, the gene dhc1 and the motor domain in dhc2 were deleted. Both resulting mutants were viable, but revealed phenotypes in hyphal growth morphology and mating behavior as well as in sexual development. Viability of strain Δdhc2 is due to the higher expression of kinesin-2 and kinesin-14, which was proven via RNA sequencing.

  20. Budget of the Topólka commune and the use of EU funds – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalcewicz-Kaniowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of article is to show and evaluate how funding from the European Union has helped to develop the Topólka commune and improve living conditions of its citizens. To achieve this Topólka budget performance reports have been analysed and dynamics of the changes has been recorded. It appears that in 2007-2010 the province obtained most of its income from external sources in the form of different grants and subventions. The average for the obtained grants in 2007-2009 was 32.3-33.1%, while in 2010 it fell to 26.1%. Money from the budget is spent on own and commissioned projects. The research shows that, in the studied period, the majority of funds was allocated to education and parenting (31% of total spending. The research also proves that investment requirements of the commune exceed its annual budget. Without help from the EU, Topólka’s development would slow down considerably

  1. Red algae and their use in papermaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yung-Bum; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Chun-Han; You, Hack-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Gelidialian red algae, that contain rhizoidal filaments, except the family Gelidiellaceae were processed to make bleached pulps, which can be used as raw materials for papermaking. Red algae consist of rhizoidal filaments, cortical cells usually reddish in color, and medullary cells filled with mucilaginous carbohydrates. Red algae pulp consists of mostly rhizoidal filaments. Red algae pulp of high brightness can be produced by extracting mucilaginous carbohydrates after heating the algae in an aqueous medium and subsequently treating the extracted with bleaching chemicals. In this study, we prepared paper samples from bleached pulps obtained from two red algae species (Gelidium amansii and Gelidium corneum) and compared their properties to those of bleached wood chemical pulps. PMID:20022488

  2. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    OpenAIRE

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae ...

  3. Bacterial Enhancement of Vinyl Fouling by Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Paul E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of bacteria in the development of algae on low-density vinyl was investigated. Unidentified bacterial contaminants in unialgal stock cultures of Phormidium faveolarum and Pleurochloris pyrenoidosa enhanced, by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, colonization of vinyl by these algae, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy counts and chlorophyll a in extracts of colonized vinyl. Colonization by bacteria always preceded that by algae. Scanning electron microscopy of the colonized Phormidiu...

  4. Zeolite‐Based Algae Biofilm Rotating Photobioreactor for Algae and Biomass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Ashton M.

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline conditions induced by algae growth in wastewater stabilization ponds create deprotonated ammonium ions that result in ammonia gas (NH3) volatilization. If algae are utilized to remediate wastewater through uptake of phosphorus, the resulting nitrogen loss will hinder this process because algae generally require a stoichiometric molar ratio of N16P1. Lower ratios of N/P due to loss of ammonia gas will limit the growth and yield of algae, and therefore will reduce phosphorus removal fr...

  5. Toxic Effects of Phthalates on Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of phthalates and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. Through the experiments on the toxic effects of dimethyl (o-) phthalate (DMP), diethyl (o-) phthalate (DEP), dibutyl (o-)phthalate (DBP) on ocean algae, the 50 % lethal concentration of the three substances in 48 h and 96 h for plaeodectylum tricornutum, platymonas sp, isochrysis galbana, and skeletonema costatum is obtained. Tolerance limits of the above ocean algae of DMP, DEP, and DBP are discussed.

  6. Cytotoxicity and secondary metabolites production in terrestrial .i.Nostoc./i. strains, originating from different climatic/geographic regions and habitats: Is their cytotoxicity environmentally dependent?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, P.; Lukešová, Alena; Urban, J.; Voloshko, L.; Pushparaj, B.; Ventura, S.; Lukavský, Jaromír; Štys, D.; Kopecký, Jiří

    Bratislava: Československá spoločnosť mikrobiologická, 2010. s. 38. ISBN 970-80-970477-8-8. [Mikroorganizmy a kvalita života. Kongres Československej spoločnosti mikrobiologickej /25./. 15.09.2010-18.09.2010, Stará Lesná] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cytotoxicity * secondary metabolites production * terrestrial Nostoc strains Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Waste streams for algae cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kautto, Antti

    2011-01-01

    ALDIGA, short for “Algae from Waste for Combined Biodiesel and Biogas Pro-duction”, aims to develop a concept for a closed circulation of resources in pro-ducing biodiesel and biogas from waste. The project is realized in co-operation between VTT, University of Helsinki, Lahti and Häme Universities of Applied Sciences, SYKE and funded by Tekes. The project’s first work phase ergo this bachelor’s thesis covered the mapping of available and suitable streams to be used in the cultivation of ...

  8. Europeanisering van het vertrouwensbeginsel : Betekenis van het Europese vertrouwensbeginsel voor de equivalente beginselen in Nederland, Frankrijk en België in het kader van een groeiend ius commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    The central issue in this book is the Europeanization of the principle of legitimate expectations in the context of European administrative law and of the growth of a European ius commune. First, an overview is given of the European principle of legitimate expectations and the equivalent principles

  9. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Adana (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Marine algae and seagrasses were researched in the upper infralittoral zone of Adana (Turkish Mediterranean coasts) in this study. 381 algae and 5 seagrasses (Liliopsida) were determined (Total 386 taxa). 27 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae(195)], 78 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 72 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (18), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophor...

  10. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Hatay (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erdugan, H.; Okudan, E. S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Hatay (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 377 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 30 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 201 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (5), Florideophyceae (192)], 73 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 73 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (5), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (24...

  11. Marine Algae and Seagrasses of Mersin Shore (Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Okudan, E. S.; Erdugan, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this research, marine algae and seagrasses were investigated in the upper infralittoral zone of Mersin (Turkish Mediterranean coasts). A total of 396 algae and 5 seagrasses were determined. 36 of them belong to blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae), 204 to red algae [Rhodellophyceae (2), Compsopogonophyceae (2), Bangiophyceae (6), Florideophyceae(I94)], 82 to brown algae (Fucophyceae), 74 to green algae [Chlorophyceae (7), Ulvophyceae (19), Trentepohliophyceae (1), Cladophorophyceae (25...

  12. The tourism potential of the commune Janów Podlaski and its evaluation of tourism appeal as compared to the administrative district of Biała Podlaska (Lublin voivodeship)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Chmielewska, Anna Beata

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis has been to evaluate tourism appeal of the commune of Janów Podlaski, as compared to the other communes in the administrative district of Biała Podlaska, and to analyse the recreational potential of the natural environment within the commune and it's present day infrastructure for tourism industry. For evaluation of the tourism attractiveness of the commune, based on comparative analysis, the method of synthetic measures was applied. The commune of Janów Podlaski belongs to one of the most attractive areas for tourists in the administrative district of Biała Podlaska. The attractiveness of the commune is associated with the Bug river, which flows across high-value landscapes and possess many ecological assets. Development of water tourism, however, is hindered by the fact that the Bug forms part of Poland's state border and it's water is rather polluted. Walking tourism in the commune of Janów Podlaski is encouraged owing to a well-developed and properly sing-posted networks of trails. The accommodation facilities are not evenly distributed as most of the rooms for tourists can be found in Janów Podlaski.

  13. Phthalates pollution in algae of Turkish coast

    OpenAIRE

    Erakın, Sinem; Binark, Neşe; Güven, Kasım Cemal; Coban, Burak; Erduğan, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this work phthalates pollution in red, brown and green algae in the Black Sea, Istanbul Starait and Çanakkale Strait were investigated. The detected phthalate derivatives were DEP, DIBP, DBP and DEHP. Very toxic phthalate DEHP was found only in the Istanbul Strait. Phthalates pollution of algae depends on the pollution of sea water.

  14. The Algae flora in Tekirdag - Istanbul coastline

    OpenAIRE

    Koç, Hüseyin; AYDIN, Ayten

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In this work 36 algae species were collected on the coastline between Tekirdag and Istanbul. There were 12 Chlorophyceae, 10 Phaeophyceae and 14 Rhodophyceae amongst them. The algae were f irst determined in Sea of Marmara are: Gigartina teedii, Cystoseira opuntioides, Lithothamnion lichenoides, Hildenbrandia prototypus, Rhodymenia corallicola.

  15. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Worland, Roger M

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the level of cold acclimation and cryoprotection estimated as ice nucleation activity in snow algae (Chlamydomonas cf. nivalis and Chloromonas nivalis), lichen symbiotic algae (Trebouxia asymmetrica, Trebouxia erici and Trebouxia glomerata), and a mesophilic strain (Chlamydomonas reinhardti) were evaluated. Ice nucleation activity was measured using the freezing droplet method. Measurements were performed using suspensions of cells of A750 (absorbance at 750 nm) ~ 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 dilutions for each strain. The algae had lower ice nucleation activity, with the exception of Chloromonas nivalis contaminated by bacteria. The supercooling points of the snow algae were higher than those of lichen photobionts. The supercooling points of both, mesophilic and snow Chlamydomonas strains were similar. The lower freezing temperatures of the lichen algae may reflect either the more extreme and more variable environmental conditions of the original localities or the different cellular structure of the strains examined. PMID:23625082

  16. Cars will be fed on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the first and second generations of bio-fuels has led to a rise in food prices and the carbon balance sheet is less good than expected. Great hopes have been put on unicellular algae for they can synthesize oils, sugar and even hydrogen and the competition with food production is far less harsh than with actual bio-fuels. Moreover, when you grow micro-algae, the loss of water through evaporation is less important than in the case of intensive farm cultures. In 2009 10.000 tonnes of micro-algae were produced worldwide, they were mainly used for the production of fish food and of complements for humane food (fat acids and antioxidants). Different research programs concern unicellular algae: they aim at modifying micro-algae genetically in order to give them a higher productivity or to make them produce an oil more adapted for motor fuel or more easily recoverable. (A.C.)

  17. Thermal springs and thermal algae in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mifune, Masaaki (Misasa Branch Hospital, Okayama Univ. Medical School, Misasa Spa, Tottori, Japan)

    1989-03-20

    Oman is situated in the southern east part of the Arabian Peninsula. Specimens of thermal algae in Oman were obtained, and the outlines of thermal springs and thermal algae in Oman are introduced. In Oman, spring waters including thermal springs are precious water resources, and widely used as farming irrigation waters as well as for drinking and bathing purposes. The ranges of temperatures and pH values of the thermal waters are 42.0 - 67.2{sup 0}C and 6.3 - 8.0 respectively. The thermal algae identified were divided into 9 species. The feature of the thermal algae in Oman is that Oscillatorious algae is the dominant species among the alage such as Synechococcus, Cyanidium, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, Mostigocladus, etc. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The impacts of the expansion of fruit farming businesses In the Commune of Llay Llay, Aconcagua Valley, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gonzalez Cid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The commune of Llay Llay is characterized by the existence of a regional economy structured around fruit farming businesses. The operations of these enterprises have not had a beneficial impact on the area. Rather has been confronted by a dual predicament: temporary work and low wages. As well, the environment is threatened as the agricultural frontier extends into the foothills of the nearby mountain ranges. In addition, there is evidence of increased land concentration and control of water on the part of the agribusinesses, to the detriment of the livelihoods of small producers.  The loss of land and water is the other face of a peasant proletarization process that is ultimately functional to the agribusinesses needs for financial and human resources

  19. Increased delignification rate of Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxburgh nees by Schizophyllum commune Fr.; Fr. to reduce chemical consumption during pulping process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Saini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper industry is traditionally known to be a large contributor to environmental pollution due its largeconsumption of energy and chemicals. To reduce the chemical consumption, rate of delignification was increased bySchizophyllum commune in destructured sample of Dendrocalamus stictus, which was destructured by Impressafiner (compression-cum dewatering process. The extent of delignification was determined and comparison was made between thenon-destructured and destructured samples. The influence of physical parameters like incubation time, moisture level, media,media concentration, pH and temperature were also examined during the study. It was found that rate of delignification wassignificantly 6.43% more in destructured sample than non-destructured sample. Kraft pulping of treated destructured sampleshows 2.59 point reduction in kappa number than untreated non-destructured sample. Thus this paper provides an insight ofthe delignification extent in Dendrocalamus strictus after mechanical operation at varying physical parameters.

  20. Chemical profile of the secondary metabolites produced by a deep-sea sediment-derived fungus Penicillium commune SD-118

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhuo; Li, Xiaoming; Meng, Li; Li, Chunshun; Gao, Shushan; Huang, Caiguo; Wang, Bingui

    2012-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract from Penicillium commune SD-118, a fungus obtained from a deep-sea sediment sample, resulted in the isolation of a known antibacterial compound, xanthocillin X ( 1), and 14 other known compounds comprising three steroids ( 2-4), two ceramides ( 5 and 6), six aromatic compounds ( 7-12), and three alkaloids ( 13-15). Xanthocillin X ( 1) was isolated for the first time from a marine fungus. In the bioassay, xanthocillin X ( 1) displayed remarkable antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7, HepG2, H460, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Meleagrin ( 15) exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. This is the first report of the cytotoxicity of xanthocillin X ( 1).

  1. Algae Biofuel in the Nigerian Energy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Isa; Guerrero, Cinthya

    2016-05-01

    The issue of energy consumption is one of the issues that have significantly become recognized as an important topic of global discourse. Fossil fuels production reportedly experiencing a gradual depletion in the oil-producing nations of the world. Most studies have relatively focused on biofuel development and adoption, however, the awareness of a prospect in the commercial cultivation of algae having potential to create economic boost in Nigeria, inspired this research. This study aims at exploring the potential of the commercialization of a different but commonly found organism, algae, in Nigeria. Here, parameters such as; water quality, light, carbon, average temperature required for the growth of algae, and additional beneficial nutrients found in algae were analysed. A comparative cum qualitative review of analysis was used as the study made use of empirical findings on the work as well as the author's deductions. The research explored the cultivation of algae with the two major seasonal differences (i.e. rainy and dry) in Nigeria as a backdrop. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the contribution of algae and other sources of biofuels as a necessity for bioenergy in Nigeria. However, for an effective sustainability of this prospect, adequate measures need to be put in place in form of funding, provision of an economically-enabling environment for the cultivation process as well as proper healthcare service in the face of possible health hazard from technological processes. Further studies can seek to expand on the potential of cultivating algae in the Harmattan season.

  2. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  3. Method and apparatus for processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2012-07-03

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells. The lysate separates into at least two layers including a lipid-containing hydrophobic layer and an ionic liquid-containing hydrophilic layer. A salt or salt solution may be used to remove water from the ionic liquid-containing layer before the ionic liquid is reused. The used salt may also be dried and/or concentrated and reused. The method can operate at relatively low lysis, processing, and recycling temperatures, which minimizes the environmental impact of algae processing while providing reusable biofuels and other useful products.

  4. Nonlinear Analysis in a Nutrient-Algae-Zooplankton System with Sinking of Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanjun Dai; Min Zhao

    2014-01-01

    A reaction-diffusion-advection model is proposed for the Zeya Reservoir to study interactions between algae and zooplankton, including the diffusive spread of algae and zooplankton and the sinking of algae. The model is investigated both with and without sinking. Conditions of Hopf and Turing bifurcation in the spatial domain are obtained, and conditions for differential-flow instability that gives rise to the formation of spatial patterns are derived. Using numerical simulation, the authors ...

  5. Mycelia Growth and Production of Total Flavonoids and 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- by Schizophyllum commune Using a Bubble Column Bioreactor Considering Aeration Effect and Mass Transfer Study

    OpenAIRE

    Teoh, Y. P.; Mat Don, M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher fungi are a major source of bioactive secondary metabolites, and Schizophyllum commune secreted Schizophyllan that could possess antifungal activity. 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- (DDMP), a compound with flavonoid fraction, is an important bioactive chemical which exhibited antifungal activity to inhibit growth or spore germination. In view of the potential of DDMP, bench scale production of total flavonoid content (TFC) and DDMP of Schizophyllum commune was carri...

  6. Role of marine algae in organic farming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    As the efforts to unearth new sources for organic farming accelerate, one needs to evaluate the options available. Marine algae popularly known as seaweeds, have served mankind from times immemorial. form. Seaweed-based fertilizer is rich in growth...

  7. Dipeptides from the red alga Acanthopora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    An investigation of red alga Acanthophora spicifera afforded the known peptide, aurantiamide acetate and a new diastereoisomer of this dipeptide (dia-aurantiamide acetate). This is a first report of aurantiamide acetate from a marine source...

  8. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Joyce [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Algae Platform Review meeting.

  9. Collection, Isolation and Culture of Marine Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods of collecting, isolating, and culturing microscopic and macroscopic marine algae are described. Three different culture media list of chemicals needed and procedures for preparing Erdschreiber's and Provasoli's E. S. media. (BC)

  10. Marine algae and seagrasses of Tekirdag (Black Sea,Turkey)*

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; Erdugan, Hüseyin; DURAL, Berrin; SükranOkudan, E.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this study, marine algae and seagrasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea coast of Tekirdag (Turkey) were investigated. A total 156 taxon (153 algae and 3 seagrasses) in species or inferior to the species category were determined. 15 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 84 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 26 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 28 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 3 to marineflowering plants (Magnoliophyta).

  11. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on the value chains in which algae production was positioned within these initiatives. The questionnaire was used by EnAlgae project partners to collect information in Great Britain, Ireland, Germany...

  12. THE SOIL ALGAE OF CIBODAS FOREST RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of green algae and one blue-green alga were recorded from eight samples of soil found associated with bryophytes in the Cibodas Forest Reserve. Chemical analysis of the soil showed severe leaching of soluable mineral substances associated with a low pH. The low light intensity under forest conditions and the low pH may account for the limited algal flora.

  13. Nutrient improvement for simultaneous production of exopolysaccharide and mycelial biomass by submerged cultivation of Schizophyllum commune AGMJ-1 using statistical optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Mayur; Patel, Harshad; Gupte, Shilpa; Gupte, Akshaya

    2012-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) of fungal origin have attracted special attention from researchers due to their multifarious applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, optimization of the process parameters for the production of exopolysaccharide by Schizophyllum commune AGMJ-1 was studied using one factor at a time (OFAT) method, Plackett–Burman design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM). OFAT method revealed xylose and yeast extract to be the most effect...

  14. La G.R.H. : tentative d’application à une collectivité locale, la commune de Jette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Marie Empain

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  « Au commencement était la modernisation … », à moins que ce ne soit la motivation … ? Suite aux assauts violents que connut l’organisation bureaucratique au cours des années 80, le paradigme à la mode les rendit indissociables. Les résultats d'une enquête internationale ont révélé les attentes principales des citoyens sont : l’efficacité et la productivité (83 %, la qualité du service (77 % et la transparence (70 %.Pour les collectivités locales, dont la spécificité sera montrée dans l’article, il est temps d’entrer dans le nouveau siècle avec des armes adaptées : management moderne, gestion des ressources humaines, informatisation … Seulement, les obstacles sont multiples, dus notamment à l’aspect statutaire de la fonction publique, à un certain type de politisation, à l’existence de coutumes séculaires, à l’exercice de la tutelle par les autorités régionales …C’est pourquoi, l’introduction de la Charte sociale dans les communes de la Région de Bruxelles-capitale, qui concrétise les résultats d’une étude commandée par la Région en 1990-91, constitua une véritable opportunité pour les communes qui le souhaitaient. Ce fut le cas de Jette qui profita de l’occasion pour introduire des principes de management, de G.R.H., de dépolitisation et de changement dans les modes de gestion. Outre l’application de la Charte sociale, dont les piliers seront exposés dans l’article, il fallut faire preuve d’imagination pour contourner les obstacles. La nouvelle orientation de la gestion de personnel devint de valoriser les marges de liberté de chacun et de canaliser les stratégies personnelles. Le principe qui sous-tend cette action est désormais qu’«  il est moral et souhaitable d'émanciper autrui, de le rendre plus maître de lui, plus autonome ».

  15. Using GIS techniques to detect the impact of territorial evolution on producing natural hazard in Northern Romania, commune Vorniceni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gălbău, Ionela

    2015-04-01

    Using techniques of information, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), on spatial analysis, offers numerous possibilities in terms of spatial emphasizing the study area and marking hazard risk areas (especially landslides). Although the means ultra modern techniques have advanced, using GIS in spatial planning remains the most important technique used. Also, GIS maps obtained are more objective than paper made by hand, using the same data and the same conceptual model. The study area, commune Vorniceni is situated in the north of Romania, Ibaneasa River basin, a tributary of Jijiei and occupies an area of 63 km2. The area has experienced over the past 50 years, a trend not only territorial but also morphological and morphometric. This study involves a relation between the evolution of territorial distribution of the population of the commune Vorniceni and influence on the environment. The construction of the dam reservoir Ibaneasa River using poor borrow pits, meant a starting point for the development of landslides. Brutal antropic intervention on the environment by building a dam or lake clogging the two reservoirs (ponds) increased possibility of negative phenomena in the area. These phenomena directly affect the village population as territorial evolution involved the construction of settlements in areas with potential risk of landslides. The analysis of the factors that have influenced the evolution of territorial and producing negative phenomena and making GIS database will be followed by the realization of a hypsometric map of slopes, slope inclination and land use. All this, highlights the relationship anthropic environment - natural environment, and not turning both low population provides another opportunity to use the land in a beneficial way by harnessing the risk map obtained. Although not without shortcomings, the method proved to be a feasible and cost-effective approach for assessing landslide susceptibility and mapping. "ACKNOWLEDGMENT This

  16. Epidemiological factors associated with polymicrobial urine cultures: Census-based study in a commune of Los Ríos Region, 2009-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Navarro A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection is the most frequent infectious disease in ambulatory as in hospitalized patients. Diagnosis requires urine culture test (UCx, where a value less than 5% of polymicrobial specimens is considerate acceptable. OBJECTIVE: To determinate frequency and epidemiological factors associated to polymicrobial UCx, found in patients with presumptive diagnosis of urinary infection, from Panguipulli’s Commune, Chile. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Cross-sectional study, where all urine culture test proceeded from health centers of Panguipulli’s Commune, were analyzed. They were processed at the laboratory of Panguipulli’s Hospital between January 2009 and April 2011. Different epidemiological variables were analyzed according to Chi-Squared test (p105 CFU; 1.05% <105 CFU, and 10.6% were polymicrobial. In ambulatory centers, the prevalence of contaminated UCx was 11.2%, and urine specimens obtained outside of locality of Panguipulli showed greater degree of contamination than those which were obtained in Panguipulli’s CESFAM (p<0,01. In Panguipulli’s Hospital, 10.6% of UCx were polymicrobial. The highest contamination prevalence was registered in Maternity ward (13.9%, while the lowest one was obtained in E.R. (9.1%. DISCUSSION : The prevalence of contaminated urine cultures at inpatient services and outpatient centers of Panguipulli’s Commune exceeded the established international recommendations. Differences between the distances of localities and the degree of contamination samples were evidenced. Therefore, it is recommended to analyze protocols and normative for the urine specimens obtaining.

  17. Single-cell confocal spectrometry of a filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc at room and cryogenic temperature. Diversity and differentiation of pigment systems in 311 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Kana; Itoh, Shigeru

    2012-08-01

    The fluorescence spectrum at 298 and 40 K and the absorption spectrum at 298 K of each cell of the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. was measured by single-cell confocal laser spectroscopy to study the differentiation of cell pigments. The fluorescence spectra of vegetative (veg) and heterocyst (het) cells of Nostoc formed separate groups with low and high PSII to PSI ratios, respectively. The fluorescence spectra of het cells at 40 K still contained typical PSII bands. The PSII/PSI ratio estimated for the veg cells varied between 0.4 and 1.2, while that of het cells varied between 0 and 0.22 even in the same culture. The PSII/PSI ratios of veg cells resembled each other more closely in the same filament. 'pro-het' cells, which started to differentiate into het cells, were identified from the small but specific difference in the PSII/PSI ratio. The allophycocyanin (APC)/PSII ratio was almost constant in both veg and het cells, indicating their tight couplings. Phycocyanin (PC) showed higher fluorescence in most het cells, suggesting the uncoupling from PSII. Veg cells seem to vary their PSI contents to give different PSII/PSI ratios even in the same culture, and to suppress the synthesis of PSII, APC and PC to differentiate into het cells. APC and PC are gradually liberated from membranes in het cells with the uncoupling from PSII. Single-cell spectrometry will be useful to study the differentiation of intrinsic pigments of cells and chloroplasts, and to select microbes from natural environments. PMID:22739509

  18. Systems Level Approaches to Understanding and Manipulating Heterocyst Differentiation in Nostoc Punctiforme: Sites of Hydrogenase and Nitrogenase Synthesis and Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, John C. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-02

    Heterocysts are specialized cells that establish a physiologically low oxygen concentration; they function as the sites of oxygen-sensitive nitrogen fixation and hydrogen metabolism in certain filamentous cyanobacteria. They are present at a frequency of less than 10% of the cells and singly in a nonrandom spacing pattern in the filaments. The extent of differential gene expression during heterocyst differentiation was defined by DNA microarray analysis in wild type and mutant cultures of Nostoc punctiforme. The results in wild-type cultures identified two groups of genes; approximately 440 that are unique to heterocyst formation and function, and 500 that respond positively and negatively to the transient stress of nitrogen starvation. Nitrogen fixation is initiated within 24 h after induction, but the cultures require another 24 h before growth is reinitiated. Microarray analyses were conducted on strains with altered expression of three genes that regulate the presence and spacing of heterocysts in the filaments; loss of function or over expression of these genes increases the heterocyst frequency 2 to 3 fold compared to the wild-type. Mutations in the genes hetR and hetF result in the inability to differentiate heterocysts, whereas over expression of each gene individually yields multiple contiguous heterocysts at sites in the filaments; they are positive regulatory elements. Mutation of the gene patN results in an increase in heterocysts frequency, but, in this case, the heterocysts are singly spaced in the filaments with a decrease in the number of vegetative cells in the interval between heterocysts; this is a negative regulatory element. However, over expression of patN resulted in the wild-type heterocyst frequency and spacing pattern. Microarray results indicated HetR and HetF influence the transcription of a common set of about 395 genes, as well as about 350 genes unique to each protein. HetR is known to be a transcriptional regulator and HetF is

  19. Hyperspectral imaging of snow algae and green algae from aeroterrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-09-01

    Snow algae and green algae living in aeroterrestrial habitats are ideal objects to study adaptation to high light irradiation. Here, we used a detailed description of the spectral properties as a proxy for photo-acclimation/protection in snow algae (Chlamydomonas nivalis, Chlainomonas sp. and Chloromonas sp.) and charophyte green algae (Zygnema sp., Zygogonium ericetorum and Klebsormidium crenulatum). The hyperspectral microscopic mapping and imaging technique allowed us to acquire total absorption spectra of these microalgae in the waveband of 400-900nm. Particularly in Chlamydomonas nivalis and Chlainomonas sp., a high absorbance between 400-550nm was observed, due to naturally occurring secondary carotenoids; in Chloromonas sp. and in the charopyhte algae this high absorbance was missing, the latter being close relatives to land plants. To investigate if cellular water loss has an influence on the spectral properties, the cells were plasmolysed in sorbitol or desiccated at ambient air. While in snow algae, these treatments did hardly change the spectral properties, in the charopyhte algae the condensation of the cytoplasm and plastids increased the absorbance in the lower waveband of 400-500nm. These changes might be ecologically relevant and photoprotective, as aeroterrestrial algae are naturally exposed to occasional water limitation, leading to desiccation, which are conditions usually occurring together with higher irradiation. PMID:27442511

  20. Algae production for energy and foddering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Attila; Jobbagy, Peter; Durko, Emilia [University of Debrecen, Faculty of Applied Economics and Rural Development (UD-FAERD), Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    This study not only presents the results of our own experiments in alga production, but also shows the expected economic results of the various uses of algae (animal feed, direct burning, pelleting, bio-diesel production), the technical characteristics of a new pelleting method based on literature, and also our own recommended alga production technology. In our opinion, the most promising alternative could be the production of alga species with high levels of oil content, which are suitable for utilization as by-products for animal feed and in the production of bio-diesel, as well as for use in waste water management and as a flue gas additive. Based on the data from our laboratory experiments, of the four species we analyzed, Chlorella vulgaris should be considered the most promising species for use in large-scale experiments. Taking expenses into account, our results demonstrate that the use of algae for burning technology purposes results in a significant loss under the current economic conditions; however, the utilization of algae for feeding and bio-diesel purposes - in spite of their innovative nature - is nearing the level needed for competitiveness. By using the alga production technology recommended by us and described in the present study in detail, with an investment of 545 to 727 thousand EUR/ha, this technology should be able to achieve approximately 0-29 thousand EUR/ha net income, depending on size. More favorable values emerge in the case of the 1-ha (larger) size, thanks to the significant savings on fixed costs (depreciation and personnel costs). (orig.)

  1. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  2. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoai, Pham Manh [Research Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai Str., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sebesvari, Zita [United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, D-5311, Bonn (Germany); Minh, Tu Binh; Viet, Pham Hung [Research Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai Str., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Renaud, Fabrice G., E-mail: renaud@ehs.unu.edu [United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, D-5311, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. - Highlights: > Pesticide use and residue concentrations in the environment and biota was investigated. > Cypermethrin, trichlorfon, fenobucarb, cyfluthrin were frequently detected in biota. > Acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels were repeatedly exceeded in fish and vegetables. > Banned organochlorine pesticides still persist in the environment. > Better information-sharing is required to improve farmers' pesticide management. - Pollution with recently used and banned pesticides was observed in the environment and food products in Northern Vietnam and is discussed in context of human exposure.

  3. Mammalian mitochondrial intermediate peptidase: Structure/function analysis of a new homologue from Schizophyllum commune and relationship to thimet oligopeptidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaya, G.; Sakati, W.R.; Rollins, R.A. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    Mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (MIP) is a component of the mitochondrial protein import machinery required for maturation of nuclear-encoded precursor proteins targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or inner membrane. We previously characterized this enzyme in rat (RMIP) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YMIP) and showed that MIP activity is essential for mitochondrial function in yeast. We have now defined the structure of a new MIP homologue (SMIP) from the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune. SMIP includes 4 exons of 523, 486, 660, and 629 bp separated by 3 short introns. The predicted SMIP, YMIP, and RMIP sequences share 31-37% identity and 54-57% similarity over 700 amino acids. When SMIP and RMIP were expressed in a yeast mip1{Delta} mutant, they were both able to rescue the respiratory-deficient phenotype caused by genetic inactivation of YMIP, indicating that the function of this enzyme is conserved in eukaryotes. Moreover, the MIP sequences show 20-24% identity and 40-47% similarity to a family of oligopeptidases from bacteria, yeast, and mammals. MIP and these proteins are characterized by a highly conserved motif, F-H-E-X-G-H-(X){sub 12}-G-(X){sub 5}-D-(X){sub 2}-E-X-P-S-(X){sub 3}-E-X, centered around a zinc-binding site and appear to represent a new family of genes associated with proteolytic processing in the mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments. 48 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Quality of reproductive health services at commune health stations in Viet Nam: implications for national reproductive health care strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Anh D; Hill, Peter S

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study conducted in 2009 of provider and patient perceptions of primary level reproductive health services provided by commune health stations (CHSs), and the implications for Viet Nam's 2011-2020 National Strategy for Reproductive Health Care. In the three provinces of Thai Nguyen, Thua Thien Hue, and Vinh Long, we interviewed the heads of CHSs, held focus group discussions with midwives and women patients, and observed facilities. Half the 30 CHSs visited were in poor physical condition; the rest were newly renovated. However, the model of service delivery was largely unchanged from ten years before. Many appeared to fall short in meeting patient expectations in terms of modern medical equipment and technology, range of drug supplies, and levels of staff expertise. As a result, many women were turning to private doctors and public hospitals, at least in urban areas, or seeking medication from pharmacies. To make CHS clinics sustainable, promotion of access to reproductive health services should be undertaken concurrently with quality improvement. A responsive payment scheme must also be developed to generate revenues. Efforts should be made to reduce the unnecessary use of more costly services from private clinics and higher level public facilities. PMID:21555086

  5. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. - Highlights: → Pesticide use and residue concentrations in the environment and biota was investigated. → Cypermethrin, trichlorfon, fenobucarb, cyfluthrin were frequently detected in biota. → Acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels were repeatedly exceeded in fish and vegetables. → Banned organochlorine pesticides still persist in the environment. → Better information-sharing is required to improve farmers' pesticide management. - Pollution with recently used and banned pesticides was observed in the environment and food products in Northern Vietnam and is discussed in context of human exposure.

  6. Radiation effects on algae and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on algae have been summarized in this article. Today, algae are being considered to have the great potential to fulfill the demand of food, fodder, fuel and various pharmaceutical products. Red algae are particularly rich in the content of polysaccharides present in their cell wall. For isolation of these polysaccharides, separation of cells cemented together by middle lamella is essential. The gamma rays are known to bring about biochemical changes in the cell wall and cause the breakdown of the middle lamella. These rays ate also known to speed up the starch sugar inter-conversion in the cells which is very useful for the tapping the potential of algae to be used as biofuel as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Cyanobacteria, among algae and other plants are more resistant to the radiation. In some cyanobacteria the radiation treatment is known to enhance the resistance against the antibiotics. Radiation treatment is also known to enhance the diameter of cell and size of the nitrogen fixing heterocyst. (author)

  7. Biological toxicity of lanthanide elements on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Peidong; Zhao, Qing; Su, Dan; Li, Peijun; Stagnitti, Frank

    2010-08-01

    The biological toxicity of lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was investigated. The specific objective of this research was to establish the relationship between the abundance in the seawater of lanthanides and their biological toxicities on marine monocellular algae. The results showed that all single lanthanides had similar toxic effects on Skeletonema costatum. High concentrations of lanthanides (29.04+/-0.61 micromol L(-1)) resulted in 50% reduction in growth of algae compared to the controls (0 micromol L(-1)) after 96 h (96 h-EC50). The biological toxicity of 13 lanthanides on marine monocellular algae was unrelated with the abundance of different lanthanide elements in nature, and the "Harkins rule" was not appropriate for the lanthanides. A mixed solution that contained equivalent concentrations of each lanthanide element had the same inhibition effect on algae cells as each individual lanthanide element at the same total concentration. This phenomenon is unique compared to the groups of other elements in the periodic table. Hence, we speculate that the monocellular organisms might not be able to sufficiently differentiate between the almost chemically identical lanthanide elements. PMID:20547408

  8. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  9. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications. PMID:27206511

  10. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, W.D.; Giles, K.R.

    1979-06-01

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs.

  11. Freshwater algae of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-two species of freshwater algae were identified in samples collected from the eight known natural springs of the Nevada Test Site. Although several species were widespread, 29 species were site specific. Diatoms provided the greatest variety of species at each spring. Three-fifths of all algal species encountered were diatoms. Well-developed mats of filamentous green algae (Chlorophyta) were common in many of the water tanks associated with the springs and accounted for most of the algal biomass. Major nutrients were adequate, if not abundant, in most spring waters - growth being limited primarily by light and physical habitat. There was some evidence of cesium-137 bioconcentration by algae at several of the springs

  12. Algae a promising alternative for biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sayadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on renewable and environmentally friendly fuel is growing rapidly and many scientists and governments are interested to grow it fast due to limitation of conventional fuel sources and their harmful effects on the environment. Biofuels are not only the best and reliably available fuels attained from renewable sources which are environment friendly. Besdies biofuels are abundantly available in all the locations easily accessible and highly sustainable. In the present review, the authors present a brief highlight of challenges that necessitates to be covered in order to make both, micro as well as macro algae a viable option to produce renewable biofuels. It is interesting to note that algae are varied, pervasive, and productive and also having less impact with plants as a food for human and animals. Further research is required to a high quantity of product innovation because most dedicated algae are faced uneconomically high costs.

  13. Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Qiu, Huan; Rose, Nicholas; Ball, Steven; Weber, Andreas P M; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Krishnan, Anagha; Zäuner, Simone; Morath, Shannon; Hilliou, Frédérique; Egizi, Andrea; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2013-01-01

    The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life. PMID:23770768

  14. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation

  15. Global Gene Expression Patterns of Nostoc punctiforme in Steady-State Dinitrogen-Grown Heterocyst-Containing Cultures and at Single Time Points during the Differentiation of Akinetes and Hormogonia▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Elsie L.; Summers, Michael L.; Christman, Harry; Martin, Miriam E.; Meeks, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The vegetative cells of the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme can differentiate into three mutually exclusive cell types: nitrogen-fixing heterocysts, spore-like akinetes, and motile hormogomium filaments. A DNA microarray consisting of 6,893 N. punctiforme genes was used to identify the global transcription patterns at single time points in the three developmental states, compared to those in ammonium-grown time zero cultures. Analysis of ammonium-grown cultures yielded a transcr...

  16. Funktionelle Charakterisierung der Zellwandproteine AmiC2 und SepJN und ihre Bedeutung für die Vielzelligkeit des filamentösen Cyanobakteriums Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 ist ein multizelluläres Cyanobakterium, welches photoautotroph in Filamenten aus mehreren hundert Zellen wächst, die über eine kontinuierliche äußere Membran und einen Mureinsacculus miteinander verbunden sind. Nach der Zellteilung werden die Zellen nicht wie bei einzelligen Bakterien voneinander getrennt, sondern bleiben als kommunizierende Einheit miteinander verbunden. Der Informationsaustausch unter den Zellen ermöglicht dem Filament schnell auf Änderungen de...

  17. Harvesting of algae by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, G V; CLENDENNING, J R; GIBOR, A; BOGAR, F D

    1962-03-01

    A highly efficient froth flotation procedure has been developed for harvesting algae from dilute suspensions. The method does not depend upon the addition of flotants. Harvesting is carried out in a long column containing the feed solution which is aerated from below. A stable column of foam is produced and harvested from a side arm near the top of the column. The cell concentration of the harvest is a function of pH, aeration rate, aerator porosity, feed concentration, and height of foam in the harvesting column. The economic aspects of this process seem favorable for mass harvesting of algae for food or other purposes. PMID:14464557

  18. Foresight Brief: Seaweed & Algae as Biofuels Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2008-01-01

    Seaweed is a known potential carbon-dioxide (CO2) neutral source of second generation biofuels. When seaweed grows it absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and this CO2 is released back to the atmosphere during combustion. What makes seaweed, and in particular micro algae, so promising as a fuel source is their growth rates and high lipid (oil) content. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world. Energy is stored inside the cell as lipids and carbohydrates, and can be converted into fu...

  19. Serpins in plants and green algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Hejgaard, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    . Serpins have been found in diverse species of the plant kingdom and represent a distinct clade among serpins in multicellular organisms. Serpins are also found in green algae, but the evolutionary relationship between these serpins and those of plants remains unknown. Plant serpins are potent inhibitors...... of mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family in vitro but, intriguingly, plants and green algae lack endogenous members of this proteinase family, the most common targets for animal serpins. An Arabidopsis serpin with a conserved reactive centre is now known to be capable of inhibiting...

  20. Association of thraustochytrids and fungi with living marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Nagarkar, S.; Raghukumar, S.

    Occurrence of thraustochytrids, yeasts and mycelial fungi in six marine algae was studied. Thraustochytrids and mycelial fungi were recovered from non-surface-sterilized as well as surface-sterilized pieces of algae, whereas yeasts were isolated...

  1. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  2. An Overview of Algae Biofuel Production and Potential Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas)...

  3. Growth acceleration and photosynthesis of the scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae in deuterium water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to find new way to treat the radioactive tritium waste water, scenedesmus algae and cocconeis algae are cultured in medium which contains 30% (w) deuterium water. During different time, activities of photosymthesis, absorption spectrum, growth rate and low-temperature fluorescence spectrum are measured. Accelerated growth is found in the deuterium water compared to the normal water. Activities of photosynthesis show the similar result (Fv/Fm) to the growth data. It is also concluded from low-temperature fluorescence spectra that algae activities in the deuterium water, which are expressed by PS I/PS II, are more sensitive than those in the normal water

  4. ALGAE OF RIVER GANGAWATER BETWEEN BITHOOR TO JAJMAU, KANPUR

    OpenAIRE

    Sachendra Kumar Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Present study deals with the study of algae in Ganga water from Bithoor to Jajmau, Kanpur (U.P.). During present study a total number of 316 algal species spread over 83 chlorophyceae, 108 cyano phyceae, 121 bacillariophyceae, and 4 euglenophyceae were recorded from Ganga water between Bithoor to Jajmau A very large number of planktonic algae including diatoms formed broad chunk of algae. Algae showing luxuriant growth and qualitative abundance are of major significance and their implications...

  5. Catalog of marine benthic algae from New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigue, Claire; Tsuda, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    A catalog of the marine benthic algae (#Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta$ and #Rhodophyta$) reported from New Caledonia is presented in two sections : 1. Classification; 2. Check list with references and localities. There are 35 genera, 130 species of green algae; 23 genera, 59 species of brown algae; and 79 genera, 147 species of red algae which represent a rich algal flora for the subtropics. (Résumé d'auteur)

  6. Marine algae and seagrasses of Samsun (Black Sea, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, Veysel; DURAL, Berrin; Şenkardeşler, Ayhan; Aysel, Hüseyin Erduğan and Fulya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this investigation, the presence and the distribution of the blue-green algae; Cyanophyeae, 20 taxa, red algae; Rhodophyceae, 106 taxa, one of them is new record for the Blacksea shore of Turkey, Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis var. pusillum brown algae; Fucophyceae, 27 taxa, green algae; Chlorophyceae, 21 taxa, and seagrasses, 2 taxa were identified in the upper infralittoral zone of Samsun (Black Sea) shore of Turkey. A total 176 taxon was determined.

  7. Algae Along Qatar Coasts Utilization And Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    Most of marine algae have no equivalent on earth and therefore could be considered as irreplaceable sources of primary and secondary metabolites. This is especially the case for hydrocolloids from red and brown algae that are cultured and used at an industrial scale for food-processing (carrageenans and agars from red algae and alginates from brown algae are widely used as gelling agents and thickeners) but also for pharmaceutical uses (agar gels for culture of microorganisms). Others main ap...

  8. Biosorption of heavy metals using a dead macro fungus schizophyllum commune fries: evaluation of equilibrium and kinetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass of a wood rotting fungus viz., Schizophyllum commune Fries was utilized for the treatment of electroplating wastewater that contained Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cr(VI) ions. Preliminary batch assays were conducted with synthetic pure metal-bearing solutions. Results obtained showed that among various parameters studied, solution pH between a range of 2.0-6.0 induced negligible uptake at pH < 3.5 and exhibited maximum at around 4.5-5.5 for Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions, while for Cr(VI) ion the highest was evidenced at pH 2.0-2.5. The kinetics of all metal ions was fast and biosorption equilibrium was established in 1 hour with appropriateness of pseudo-second-order. A temperature change in the range of 15 - 45 deg. C did not affect the biosorption capacity of the candidate fungus. The biosorption of metal ion increased on elevating initial metal ions concentrations (20-100 mg L/sup -1/) in the medium. The maximum biosorption capacity of fungus biomass was 9.0, 21.27, 4.83, 18.54 mg g/sup -1/ for Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The experimental data was best adjusted by Langmuir, Freundlich and modified Langmuir models. Biosorption assays conducted with actual electroplating effluents under pre-optimized conditions revealed efficiency of 72.01, 53.16, 7.08 and 19.87% for Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cr(VI) ions, respectively by candidate biomass. (author)

  9. Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.121 Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas em relação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0 g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas podendo ser alcançada nessas condições quando comparadas com o crescimento autotrófico.Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be the best substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 times greater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a

  10. Mixotrophic growth of Nostoc sp. on glucose, sucrose and sugarcane molasses for phycobiliprotein production = Crescimento mixotrófico de Nostoc sp. Glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-de-açúcar foram testados como substratos para produção de biomassa e ficobiliproteinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Pimenta Pinotti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose, sacarose, and sugarcane molasses were tested as substrates for production of biomass and phycobiliproteins by Nostoc sp., varying their concentrations in relation to a mineral medium, BG11. All substrates increased the biomass and phycobiliproteins when compared with the control. Sugarcane molasses showed to be thebest substrate for production of both biomass and phycobiliproteins. Greater biomass production occurred in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1 and it was 5.7 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 2.5 g L-1 and sucrose, in 1.5 g L-1, reaching 2.5 and 4.8 timesgreater than the control, respectively. For phycobiliproteins, the major production was in sugarcane molasses 1.0 g L-1, 12.5 times greater than the control. With glucose, it was in 1.0 g L-1 and sucrose, in 0,5 g L-1, reaching 3.0 and 4.5 times greater than the control, respectively. The Nostoc sp. assayed can grow mixotrophically, using glucose, sucrose, and sugarcane molasses as organic substrates, and a greater production of biomass andphycobiliproteins can be reached when compared with the autotrophic growth.Todos os substratos aumentaram a biomassa e ficobiliproteinas emrelação ao controle, meio mineral BG11. Melaço de cana-de-açúcar foi o melhor substrato tanto para a produção de biomassa como de ficobiliproteinas. A maior produção de biomassa ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 5,7 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 2,5 g L-1 e sacarose 1,5 g L-1, sendo 2,5 e 4,8 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. A maior produção de ficobiliproteinas ocorreu usando melaço de cana-de-açúcar 1,0 g L-1 sendo 12,5 vezes maior que o controle. Com glucose foi em 1,0g L-1 e sacarose 0,5 g L-1, 3,0 e 4,5 vezes maior que o controle, respectivamente. Nostoc sp. testado pode crescer mixotroficamente, usando glucose, sacarose e melaço de cana-deaçúcar como substratos orgânicos, uma maior produção de biomassa e

  11. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  12. New methodologies for integrating algae with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally recognized, that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fe

  13. Technetium uptake by the green alga Chlorella fusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astonishingly very small transfer factor of 0.16 ± 0.07 (Bq g-1 fresh algae: Bq ml-1 solution) was found for the uptake of TcO4- by the green alga Chlorella fusca. No dependency of the technetium concentration was observed. These results are in accordance with most other reported values for green algae. (author) 8 refs

  14. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture...

  15. Novel Fiber Optic Fluorometer for the Measurement of Alga Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel fluorometer based on fiber optics is briefly introduced for the measurement of alga concentration. Both the exciting light and the fluorescence from alga chlorophyll are transmitted along a fiber cable. By this way, we can get alga concentration by measuring its chlorophyll-a fluorescence intensity. The experiment results show that this instrument is characterized by good sensitivity, linearity and accuracy.

  16. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal consists of the comminuted and dried cells of the...

  17. How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Biochemists, Inc., Mequon, WI.

    Included in this guide to water management are general descriptions of algae, toxic algae, weed problems in lakes, ponds, and canals, and general discussions of mechanical, biological and chemical control methods. In addition, pictures, descriptions, and recommended control methods are given for algae, 6 types of floating weeds, 18 types of…

  18. 硫酸酯化修饰葛仙米多糖工艺研究%Sulfation Modification of Polysaccharide Extracted from Nostoc sphaeroides Ktzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉婷; 谭姚; 莫开菊

    2011-01-01

    The orthogonal array design method was used to optimize three reaction conditions,including esterification reagent,temperature and reaction time,for the sulfation of crude polysaccharides extracted from Nostoc sphaeroides Ku..tzing by water extraction and subsequent alcohol precipitation.Besides,FTIR spectroscopic analysis was carried out to identify the structural difference of Nostoc sphaeroides Ku..tzing polysaccharides as a result of the sulfation reaction,and a correlation analysis was done between FTIR A1261/A1418 and degree of substitution(DS) of sulfated polysaccharides,as determined by the barium chloride-gelation method.The optimal sulfation reaction conditions were found to be: 1:4 chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine as esterification reagent for 6 h reaction at 70 ℃.Under the optimal sulfation conditions,the DS of the final products was 1.042.Meanwhile,the sulfated polysaccharide obtained revealed typical sulfated functional groups.The correlation coefficient between FTIR A1261/A1418 and DS of sulfated Nostoc sphaeroides Ku..tzing polysaccharides was 0.974.Therefore,infrared spectroscopy can be used to characterize the structural difference of sulfated polysaccharides and quantify the DS of sulfate groups.%采用氯磺酸-吡啶法合成硫酸酯化葛仙米多糖,利用正交设计对酯化试剂比例、反应温度及反应时间进行优化。通过傅里叶红外光谱分析酯化前后的结构差异,氯化钡-明胶比浊法测定取代度,并分析红外光谱法与取代度之间的相关性。结果表明:葛仙米多糖硫酸酯化修饰的最佳条件为V(氯磺酸)与V(吡啶)比例1:4、反应温度70℃、反应时间6h,此条件下取代度达到1.042;红外光谱分析表明,硫酸酯化后的葛仙米多糖具有硫酸酯键的特征吸收峰,其吸光度比值A1261/A1418与化学方法所测得的硫酸酯化取代度的相关系数达到0.974。红外光谱不仅可以表征硫酸酯化多

  19. Photosynthetic production of hydrogen by algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.

    1978-09-01

    Because hydrogen as a fuel is very attractive both in energy and ecological terms, the photosynthetic production of hydrogen by some algae is attracting considerable attention. In addition to the ordinary photosynthetic mechanisms, many algae have enzymes which can produce hydrogen: hydrogenation enzymes and nitrogen-fixation enzymes. Certain enzymes with the former begin to produce hydrogen after several hours in an anaerobic envirionment; the reason for the delay is that the hydrogen-producing enzymes must adjust to the anaerobic conditions. Eventually the production of hydrogen ceases because production of oxygen by the ordinary photosynthetic mechanism suppresses activity of the hydrogen-producing enzymes. Any use of these algae to produce hydrogen must involve alternating hydrogen production and rest. Nitrogen-fixing enzymes are found especially in the blue-green algae. These seem to produce hydrogen from organic compounds produced by the ordinary photosynthetic process. The nitrogen-fixation type of hydrogen-producing photosynthesis seems the more promising type for future exploitation.

  20. Spirulina: The Alga That Can End Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ripley D.

    1985-01-01

    One approach to eliminating malnutrition worldwide is to grow spirulina in recycled village wastes. Spirulina is a blue-green alga and a natural concentrated food. Spirulina can give poor villages a nutritional food supplement they can grow themselves and can reduce infectious disease at the same time. (Author/RM)

  1. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae.

    OpenAIRE

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin Koduvayur Habeebullah , Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme and Termamyl and the glycoproteins were isolated from these enzyme extracts.

  2. Starch Overproduction by Means of Algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zachleder, Vilém; Brányiková, I.

    Dordrecht, Heidelberg, london, New York: Springer Science+Business Media, 2014 - (Bajpai, R.; Prokop, A.; Zappi, M.), s. 217-240. (Cultivation of cells and products. Volume 1). ISBN 978-94-007-7493-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OE 221; GA MŠk OE09025 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : starch * alga * overproduction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. The ice nucleation activity of extremophilic algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvíderová, Jana; Hájek, J.; Worland, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2013), s. 137-148. ISSN 0143-2044 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601630808; GA AV ČR KJB600050708 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Ice nucleation * snow algae * lichen photobionts Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2013

  4. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Liu; Poul Erik Hansen; Xiukun Lin

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to structure, bioactivities, and their potential application as pharmaceuticals.

  5. Bromophenols in Marine Algae and Their Bioactivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun

    2011-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect to...

  6. Isolation of glycoproteins from brown algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel process for the isolation of unique anti-oxidative glycoproteins from the pH precipitated fractions of enzymatic extracts of brown algae. Two brown seaweeds viz, Fucus serratus and Fucus vesiculosus were hydrolysed by using 3 enzymes viz, Alcalase, Viscozyme...

  7. Hydrogen production by the engineered cyanobacterial strain Nostoc PCC 7120 ΔhupW examined in a flat panel photobioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Marcus; Heidorn, Thorsten; Lindblad, Peter

    2015-12-10

    Nitrogenase based hydrogen production was examined in a ΔhupW strain of the filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120, i.e., cells lacking the last step in the maturation system of the large subunit of the uptake hydrogenase and as a consequence with a non-functional uptake hydrogenase. The cells were grown in a developed flat panel photobioreactor system with 3.0L culture volume either aerobically (air) or anaerobically (Ar or 80% N2/20% Ar) and illuminated with a mixture of red and white LED. Aerobic growth of the ΔhupW strain of Nostoc PCC 7120 at 44μmolar photons m(-2)s(-1) PAR gave the highest hydrogen production of 0.7mL H2 L(-1)h(-1), 0.53mmol H2 mg chlorophyll a(-1)h(-1), and a light energy conversion efficiency of 1.2%. Anaerobic growth using 100% argon showed a maximal hydrogen production of 1.7mLL(-1)h(-1), 0.85mmol per mg chlorophyll a(-1) h(-1), and a light energy conversion efficiency of 2.7%. Altering between argon/N2 (20/80) and 100% argon phases resulted in a maximal hydrogen production at hour 128 (100% argon phase) with 6.2mL H2L(-1)h(-1), 0.71mL H2 mg chlorophyll a(-1)h(-1), and a light energy efficiency conversion of 4.0%. The highest buildup of hydrogen gas observed was 6.89% H2 (100% argon phase) of the total photobioreactor system with a maximal production of 4.85mL H2 L(-1)h(-1). The present study clearly demonstrates the potential to use purpose design cyanobacteria in developed flat panel photobioreactor systems for the direct production of the solar fuel hydrogen. Further improvements in the strain used, environmental conditions employed, and growth, production and collection systems used, are needed before a sustainable and economical cyanobacterial based hydrogen production can be realized. PMID:26325196

  8. Componentes funcionales en aceites de pescado y de alga Functional components in fish and algae oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Conchillo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Buena parte del desarrollo de nuevos alimentos funcionales está encaminada al descubrimiento o aplicación de componentes de los alimentos que favorezcan la instauración de un perfil lipídico saludable en el organismo. El objetivo del trabajo fue realizar la caracterización de la fracción lipídica de dos tipos de aceites, de pescado y de alga, para valorar su potencial utilización como ingredientes funcionales, tanto en relación con el contenido en ácidos grasos de alto peso molecular como con la presencia de esteroles y otros componentes de la fracción insaponificable. Ambos aceites presentaron una fracción lipídica muy rica en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados ω-3 de alto peso molecular, con un 33,75% en el caso del aceite de pescado y un 43,97% en el de alga, siendo el EPA el ácido graso mayoritario en el pescado y el DHA en el alga. La relación ω-6/ω-3 fue en ambos aceites inferior a 0,4. En cuanto a la fracciσn insaponificable, el aceite de alga presentσ un contenido 3 veces menor de colesterol y una mayor proporciσn de escualeno. El contenido en fitosteroles fue significativamente superior en el aceite de alga.An important area of the development of new functional foods is facussed on finding or applying food components which favour achieving a healthier lipid profile in the organism. The objective of this work was to carry out the characterisation of the lipid fraction of two oils, fish oil and algae oil, to evaluate their potential use as functional ingredients, in relation to the high molecular weight fatty acid content and the presence of sterols and other components of the unsaponificable fraction. Both oils showed a lipid fraction rich in high molecular weight polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, containing a 33.75% in the fish oil and a 43.97% in the algae oil. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the major fatty acid in fish oil, whereas docosahexaenoic was the most abundant fatty acid in algae oil. The ω-6/ω-3 ratio was lower

  9. Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junwei Zhang; Dafang Fu; Jilong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of Norfloxacin in aqueous solution containing algae under a medium pressure mercury lamp (15 W,λmax =365 nm) was investigated.Results indicated that the photodegradation of Norfloxacin could be induced by the algae in the heterogeneous algaewater systems.The photodegradation rate of Norfloxacin increased with increasing algae concentration,and was greatly influenced by the temperature and pH of solution.Meanwhile,the cooperation action of algae and Fe(Ⅲ),and the ultrasound were beneficial to photodegradation of Norfloxaciu.The degradation kinetics of Norfloxacin was found to follow the pseudo zero-order reaction in the suspension of algae.In addition,we discussed the photodegradation mechanism of Norfloxacin in the suspension of algae.This work will be helpful for understanding the photochemical degradation of antibiotics in aqueous environment in the presence of algae,for providing a new method to deal with antibiotics pollution.

  10. Biofuels from algae for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and useful chemicals. Two algae samples (Cladophora fracta and Chlorella protothecoid) were studied for biofuel production. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to biodiesel, bioethanol, bio-oil, biohydrogen and biomethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 liters per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. Algal oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. The effect of temperature on the yield of hydrogen from two algae (C. fracta and C. protothecoid) by pyrolysis and steam gasification were investigated in this study. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO2, CO, H2, and CH4.The yields of hydrogen by pyrolysis and steam gasification processes of the samples increased with temperature. The yields of gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 8.2% to 39.2% and 9.5% to 40.6% by volume, respectively, while the final pyrolysis temperature was increased from 575 to 925 K. The percent of hydrogen in gaseous products from the samples of C. fracta and C. protothecoides increased from 25.8% to 44.4% and 27.6% to 48.7% by volume, respectively

  11. Clustering of cases of type 1 diabetes in high socioeconomic communes in Santiago de Chile: spatio-temporal and geographical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Avilés, Francisco; Carrasco, Elena; Icaza, Gloria; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe spatial and space-time patterns of type 1 diabetes in children less than 15 years old, diagnosed between 2000 and 2005 with residence in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. Knox and Mantel tests were used to detect space-time interaction between cases. An ecological Bayesian model adjusted by socioeconomic factor and year was proposed to estimate the incidence by communes. Initially, there was no space-time interaction between cases, but there is evidence of clustering effect in urban areas of the region. The incidence rate for the overall study period was estimated by 6.18/100,000 (95% CI: 5.69-6.70), with a significant annual trend of 8.2% (P < 0.01). The geographical incidence could be explained by the human development index, as a socioeconomic factor. These results suggest that children living in communes with higher socioeconomic levels may be at higher risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Our findings support the hypothesis of an aetiological role of environmental factors in the onset of type 1 diabetes. PMID:20464570

  12. Structurally Distinct Cation Channelrhodopsins from Cryptophyte Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

    2016-06-01

    Microbial rhodopsins are remarkable for the diversity of their functional mechanisms based on the same protein scaffold. A class of rhodopsins from cryptophyte algae show close sequence homology with haloarchaeal rhodopsin proton pumps rather than with previously known channelrhodopsins from chlorophyte (green) algae. In particular, both aspartate residues that occupy the positions of the chromophore Schiff base proton acceptor and donor, a hallmark of rhodopsin proton pumps, are conserved in these cryptophyte proteins. We expressed the corresponding polynucleotides in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and studied electrogenic properties of the encoded proteins with whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Despite their lack of residues characteristic of the chlorophyte cation channels, these proteins are cation-conducting channelrhodopsins that carry out light-gated passive transport of Na(+) and H(+). These findings show that channel function in rhodopsins has evolved via multiple routes. PMID:27233115

  13. Hyperaccumulation of radioactive isotopes by marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperaccumlators are effective indicator organisms for monitoring marine pollution by heavy metals and artificial radionuclides. We found a green algae, Bryopsis maxima that hyperaccumulate a stable and radioactive isotopes such as Sr-90, Tc-99, Ba-138, Re-187, and Ra-226. B. maxima showed high concentration factors for heavy alkali earth metals like Ba and Ra, compared with other marine algae in Japan. Furthermore, this species had the highest concentrations for Tc-99 and Re-187. The accumulation and excretion patterns of Sr-85 and Tc-95m were examined by tracer experiments. The chemical states of Sr and Re in living B. maxima were analyzed by HPLC-ICP/MS, LC/MS, and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis using synchrotron radiation. (author)

  14. Use of algae as biofuel sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the algae production technologies such as open, closed and hybrid systems, production costs, and algal energy conversions. Liquid biofuels are alternative fuels promoted with potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuel imports. Biofuels production costs can vary widely by feedstock, conversion process, scale of production and region. Algae will become the most important biofuel source in the near future. Microalgae appear to be the only source of renewable biodiesel that is capable of meeting the global demand for transport fuels. Microalgae can be converted to bio-oil, bioethanol, bio-hydrogen and bimethane via thermochemical and biochemical methods. Microalgae are theoretically very promising source of biodiesel.

  15. Radiokinetic study in betony marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influx and outflux kinetics of some radionuclides in algae of the Rio de Janeiro coastline, were studied in order to select bioindicators for radioactive contamination in aquatic media, due to the presence of Nuclear Power Stations. Bioassays of the concentration and loss of radionuclides such as 137Cs, 51Cr, 60Co and 131I were performed in 1000cm3 aquarium under controlled laboratory conditions, using a single channel gamma counting system, to study the species of algae most frequently found in the region. The concentration and loss parameters for all the species and radionuclides studied were obtained from the normalized results. The loss parameters were computerwise adjusted using Powell's multiparametric method. (author)

  16. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  17. Flavonoids from the Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Long-Mei(曾陇梅); 曾陇梅; WANG Chao-Jie(王超杰); 王超杰; SU Jing-Yu(苏镜娱); 苏镜娱; LI Du(李笃); 李笃; OWEN Noel L.; OWEN Noel L; LU Yang(吕扬); 吕扬; LU Nan(鲁南); 鲁南; ZHENG Qi-Tai(郑启泰); 郑启泰

    2001-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, acanthophorin A (1) and acanthophorin B (2), along with three known compounds tiliroside (3),( - )-catechin (4) and quercetin (5) were isolated from the red alga Acanthophora spicifera. The structures of 1 and 2were determined to be kaempferol 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3-O-α-L-fucopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed significant anfioxidant activity.

  18. Algae-Derived Dietary Ingredients Nourish Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, Columbia, Maryland-based Martek Biosciences Corporation worked with Ames Research Center to pioneer the use of microalgae as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids, work that led the company to develop its highly successful Formulaid product. Now the Nutritional Products Division of Royal DSM, the company also manufactures DHAgold, a nutritional supplement for pets, livestock and farm-raised fish that uses algae to deliver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

  19. Algae as reservoirs for coral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Sweet

    Full Text Available Benthic algae are associated with coral death in the form of stress and disease. It's been proposed that they release exudates, which facilitate invasion of potentially pathogenic microbes at the coral-algal interface, resulting in coral disease. However, the original source of these pathogens remains unknown. This study examined the ability of benthic algae to act as reservoirs of coral pathogens by characterizing surface associated microbes associated with major Caribbean and Indo-Pacific algal species/types and by comparing them to potential pathogens of two dominant coral diseases: White Syndrome (WS in the Indo-Pacific and Yellow Band Disease (YBD in the Caribbean. Coral and algal sampling was conducted simultaneously at the same sites to avoid spatial effects. Potential pathogens were defined as those absent or rare in healthy corals, increasing in abundance in healthy tissues adjacent to a disease lesion, and dominant in disease lesions. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected in both WS and YBD and were also present within the majority of algal species/types (54 and 100% for WS and YBD respectively. Pathogenic ciliates were associated only with WS and not YBD lesions and these were also present in 36% of the Indo-Pacific algal species. Although potential pathogens were associated with many algal species, their presence was inconsistent among replicate algal samples and detection rates were relatively low, suggestive of low density and occurrence. At the community level, coral-associated microbes irrespective of the health of their host differed from algal-associated microbes, supporting that algae and corals have distinctive microbial communities associated with their tissue. We conclude that benthic algae are common reservoirs for a variety of different potential coral pathogens. However, algal-associated microbes alone are unlikely to cause coral death. Initial damage or stress to the coral via other competitive mechanisms is

  20. Cytoskeleton and Early Development in Fucoid Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions play important roles during development in many multicellular eukaryotes.Fucoid algae have a long history as models for studying early developmental processes, probably because of the ease with which zygotes can be observed and manipulated in the laboratory. This review discusses cell polarization and asymmetric cell divisions in fucoid algal zygotes with an emphasis on the roles played by the cytoskeleton.

  1. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view. PMID:20042280

  2. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm2, pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 109-1.55 x 109 cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m3. The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  3. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Shanshan, E-mail: luck81919@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, Hei Longjiang (China); Yang Jixian; Tian Jiayu; Ma Fang; Tu Gang; Du Maoan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, Hei Longjiang (China)

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 10{sup 9}-1.55 x 10{sup 9} cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m{sup 3}. The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  4. Antibody Production in Plants and Green Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibov, Vidadi; Kushnir, Natasha; Streatfield, Stephen J

    2016-04-29

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a wide range of modern applications, including research, diagnostic, therapeutic, and industrial uses. Market demand for mAbs is high and continues to grow. Although mammalian systems, which currently dominate the biomanufacturing industry, produce effective and safe recombinant mAbs, they have a limited manufacturing capacity and high costs. Bacteria, yeast, and insect cell systems are highly scalable and cost effective but vary in their ability to produce appropriate posttranslationally modified mAbs. Plants and green algae are emerging as promising production platforms because of their time and cost efficiencies, scalability, lack of mammalian pathogens, and eukaryotic posttranslational protein modification machinery. So far, plant- and algae-derived mAbs have been produced predominantly as candidate therapeutics for infectious diseases and cancer. These candidates have been extensively evaluated in animal models, and some have shown efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we review ongoing efforts to advance the production of mAbs in plants and algae. PMID:26905655

  5. New records of marine algae in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Hau, Nhu; Ly, Bui Minh; Van Huynh, Tran; Trung, Vo Thanh

    2015-06-01

    In May, 2013, a scientific expedition was organized by the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) and the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEBRAS) through the frame of the VAST-FEBRAS International Collaboration Program. The expedition went along the coast of Vietnam from Quang Ninh to Kien Giang. The objective was to collect natural resources to investigate the biological and biochemical diversity of the territorial waters of Vietnam. Among the collected algae, six taxa are new records for the Vietnam algal flora. They are the red algae Titanophora pikeana (Dickie) Feldmann from Cu Lao Xanh Island, Laurencia natalensis Kylin from Tho Chu Island, Coelothrix irregularis (Harvey) Børgesen from Con Dao Island, the green algae Caulerpa oligophylla Montagne, Caulerpa andamanensis (W.R. Taylor) Draisma, Prudhomme et Sauvage from Phu Quy Island, and Caulerpa falcifolia Harvey & Bailey from Ly Son Island. The seaweed flora of Vietnam now counts 833 marine algal taxa, including 415 Rhodophyta, 147 Phaeophyceae, 183 Chlorophyta, and 88 Cyanobacteria.

  6. Cytoplasmic inheritance of organelles in brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Taizo; Nagasato, Chikako; Kimura, Kei

    2010-03-01

    Brown algae, together with diatoms and chrysophytes, are a member of the heterokonts. They have either a characteristic life cycle of diplohaplontic alternation of gametophytic and sporophytic generations that are isomorphic or heteromorphic, or a diplontic life cycle. Isogamy, anisogamy and oogamy have been recognized as the mode of sexual reproduction. Brown algae are the characteristic group having elaborated multicellular organization within the heterokonts. In this study, cytoplasmic inheritance of chloroplasts, mitochondria and centrioles was examined, with special focus on sexual reproduction and subsequent zygote development. In oogamy, chloroplasts and mitochondria are inherited maternally. In isogamy, chloroplasts in sporophyte cells are inherited biparentally (maternal or paternal); however, mitochondria (or mitochondrial DNA) derived from the female gamete only remained during zygote development after fertilization. Centrioles in zygotes are definitely derived from the male gamete, irrespective of the sexual reproduction pattern. Female centrioles in zygotes are selectively broken down within 1-2 h after fertilization. The remaining male centrioles play a crucial role as a part of the centrosome for microtubule organization, mitosis, determination of the cytokinetic plane and cytokinesis, as well as for maintaining multicellularity and regular morphogenesis in brown algae. PMID:20145971

  7. Ou Ning: Bishan Commune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Ning

    social- og kunstaktivistiske projekt, Bishankommunen, der officielt blev indviet i 2011 i landsbyen Bishan i Anhui-provinsen. I 2013 forlod Ou Ning sit hjem i Beijing for at flytte permanent til Bishan med sin familie. Hans mål med Bishankommunen er at realisere sin utopi om en autonom zone for fri og...

  8. Removal of Pb(2+) by biomass of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, A A

    2000-10-01

    New biosorbent material derived from ubiquitous marine algae has been examined in packed-bed flow for Pb(2+) removal through sorption columns. Mixed biomass of marine algae has been used, consisting of representative species of the following algae: Ulva lactuca (green algae), Jania rubens (red algae), and Sargassum asperifolium (brown algae). A mixture of these three species showed a promising removal capacity for Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Lead uptake up to 281.8 mg/g dry algal mixture was observed. Equilibrium was achieved after 120 min. No significant effect of changing the flow rate on the removal capacity was noticed. It was found that Langmuir model expresses the system at pH 4. Mineral acids exhibited good elution properties (a mean of 93%) for recovery of sorbed biomass ions as compared with the tested alkalies (about 60%). PMID:10977889

  9. Eradication of algae in ships' ballast water by electrolyzing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Kun; SUN Pei-ting; XIAO Jing-kun; SONG Yong-xin

    2006-01-01

    In order to verify the effectiveness of electrolytic treatment on ships' ballast water,experiments are carried out by a pilot system in laboratory. The raw seawater and seawater with different concentrations of different algae are simulated as ships' ballast water. The algae in the raw seawater can be killed if it is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Nitzschia closterum, Dicrateria spp., or Pyramidomonnas sp.105cells/mL) is treated by electrolysis with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 5 mg/L, the alga can be sterilized. If the seawater with one kind of algae (Dunaliella sp., Platymonas or Chlorella spp.)is directly treated by electrolyzing with an initial residual chlorine concentration of 4 mg/L, the instant mortality changes with the concentration of different algae. However, after 72 hours, in all treated samples, there are no live algal cells found.

  10. Pseudostimulatory effect of γ-radiation on red algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of γ-irradiation of fragments with doses of 50 to 250 Gy, at the stage of spore formation, the alga biomass increased by 1.4-1.7 times, as compared to control, due to the blockade of processes of decreasing the rate of growth and destruction of telome after the transfer of algae to the sporiferous stage. The radiostimulatory effect was paralleled by the damaging effect of the doses used and was the result of alga damage (pseudostimulation)

  11. Photosynthesis and respiration of some marine benthic algae from Spitsbergen

    OpenAIRE

    Latala, Adam

    1990-01-01

    Light-photosynthesis curves for 9 species of benthic algae from the Hornsund fiord were determined. As a result of adaptation to the conditions in the Arctic, benthic algae from Spitsbergen have a low requirement of light. Saturation and compensation points are low and within a range typical for shadow-tolerant plants.The values for gas exchange rates indicate that Arctic algae have lower photosynthctic capacity than temperate species.

  12. Bromophenols from Marine Algae with Potential Anti-Diabetic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiukun; LIU Ming

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities,including antimicrobial,anticancer,and anti-diabetic effects.Here,we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae,emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications.Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B,α-glucosidase,as well as other mechanisms.

  13. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  14. Evaluación de los exopolisacáridos producidos por una cepa nativa de cianobacteria Nostoc sp. Como sustrato en la producción de bioetanol

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Pérez, Ruth Marisol

    2012-01-01

    La inminente necesidad de buscar fuentes energéticas alternativas a los combustibles fósiles ha impulsado el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías de producción energética, entre ellas el bioetanol. Éste biocombustible es producido principalmente utilizando como materia prima grandes cultivos de maíz y caña de azúcar, lo que ha generado controversia frente al uso de recursos apropiados para la producción de alimentos. En éste trabajo se estudió la microalga Nostoc sp. LAUN015 como fuente alternati...

  15. Overall Energy Considerations for Algae Species Comparison and Selection in Algae-to-Fuels Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, D.; Kail, B.; Curtis, W.; Tuerk,A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled growth of microalgae as a feedstock for alternative transportation fuel continues to receive much attention. Microalgae have the characteristics of rapid growth rate, high oil (lipid) content, and ability to be grown in unconventional scenarios. Algae have also been touted as beneficial for CO{sub 2} reuse, as algae can be grown using CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-based energy generation. Moreover, algae does not compete in the food chain, lessening the 'food versus fuel' debate. Most often, it is assumed that either rapid production rate or high oii content should be the primary factor in algae selection for algae-to-fuels production systems. However, many important characteristics of algae growth and lipid production must be considered for species selection, growth condition, and scale-up. Under light limited, high density, photoautotrophic conditions, the inherent growth rate of an organism does not affect biomass productivity, carbon fixation rate, and energy fixation rate. However, the oil productivity is organism dependent, due to physiological differences in how the organisms allocate captured photons for growth and oil production and due to the differing conditions under which organisms accumulate oils. Therefore, many different factors must be considered when assessing the overall energy efficiency of fuel production for a given algae species. Two species, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii, are popular choices when discussing algae-to-fuels systems. Chlorella is a very robust species, often outcompeting other species in mixed-culture systems, and produces a lipid that is composed primarily of free fatty acids and glycerides. Botryococcus is regarded as a slower growing species, and the lipid that it produces is characterized by high hydrocarbon content, primarily C28-C34 botryococcenes. The difference in growth rates is often considered to be an advantage oiChlorella. However, the total energy captured by each algal

  16. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of polonium 210Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  17. Importance of algae oil as a source of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae are the fastest-growing plants in the world. Industrial reactors for algal culture are open ponds, photobioreactors and closed systems. Algae are very important as a biomass source. Algae will some day be competitive as a source for biofuel. Different species of algae may be better suited for different types of fuel. Algae can be grown almost anywhere, even on sewage or salt water, and does not require fertile land or food crops, and processing requires less energy than the algae provides. Algae can be a replacement for oil based fuels, one that is more effective and has no disadvantages. Algae are among the fastest-growing plants in the world, and about 50% of their weight is oil. This lipid oil can be used to make biodiesel for cars, trucks, and airplanes. Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. the per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from 20,000 to 80,000 l per acre, per year; this is 7-31 times greater than the next best crop, palm oil. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. Most current research on oil extraction is focused on microalgae to produce biodiesel from algal oil. Algal-oil processes into biodiesel as easily as oil derived from land-based crops.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of blue-green and green algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantkumar P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of a blue-green alga and two green algae have been investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus nigricans using agar cup-plate method. Blue-green alga, namely, Microchaete tenera ; and green algae, namely, Nitella tenuissima and Sphaeroplea annulina , showed significant antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Microchaete tenera showed good antimicrobial activity against Proteus vulgaris and Aspergillus niger. Sphaeroplea annulina showed feeble antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus .

  19. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses. PMID:25537136

  20. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  1. Method and apparatus for lysing and processing algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Geoffrey; Reich, Alton J.; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Di Salvo, Roberto

    2013-03-05

    Methods and apparatus for processing algae are described in which a hydrophilic ionic liquid is used to lyse algae cells at lower temperatures than existing algae processing methods. A salt or salt solution is used as a separation agent and to remove water from the ionic liquid, allowing the ionic liquid to be reused. The used salt may be dried or concentrated and reused. The relatively low lysis temperatures and recycling of the ionic liquid and salt reduce the environmental impact of the algae processing while providing biofuels and other useful products.

  2. Differential sensitivity of five cyanobacterial strains to ammonium toxicity and its inhibitory mechanism on the photosynthesis of rice-field cyanobacterium Ge-Xian-Mi (Nostoc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of two fertilizers, NH4Cl and KCl, on the growth of the edible cyanobacterium Ge-Xian-Mi (Nostoc) and four other cyanobacterial strains were compared at pH 8.3 ± 0.2 and 25 deg. C. Their growth was decreased by at least 65% at 10 mmol L-1 NH4Cl but no inhibitory effect was observed at the same level of KCl. Meanwhile, the strains exhibited a great variation of sensitivity to NH4+ toxicity in the order: Ge-Xian-Mi > Anabaena azotica FACHB 118 > Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB 905 > M. aeruginosa FACHB 315 > Synechococcus FACHB 805. The 96-h EC50 value for relative growth rate with regard to NH4+ for Ge-Xian-Mi was 1.105 mmol L-1, which was much less than the NH4+ concentration in many agricultural soils (2-20 mmol L-1). This indicated that the use of ammonium as nitrogen fertilizer was responsible for the reduced resource of Ge-Xian-Mi in the paddy field. After 96 h exposure to 1 mmol L-1 NH4Cl, the photosynthetic rate, Fv/Fm value, saturating irradiance for photosynthesis and PSII activity of Ge-Xian-Mi colonies were remarkably decreased. The chlorophyll synthesis of Ge-Xian-Mi was more sensitive to NH4+ toxicity than phycobiliproteins. Thus, the functional absorption cross section of Ge-Xian-Mi PSII was increased markedly at NH4Cl levels ≥1 mmol L-1 and the electron transport on the acceptor side of PSII was significantly accelerated by NH4Cl addition ≥3 mmol L-1. Dark respiration of Ge-Xian-Mi was significantly increased by 246% and 384% at 5 and 10 mmol L-1 NH4Cl, respectively. The rapid fluorescence rise kinetics indicated that the oxygen-evolving complex of PSII was the inhibitory site of NH4+

  3. NaCl-induced physiological and biochemical changes in two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different photosynthetically active radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2015-10-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating physiological and biochemical behavior of two cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum acclimatized to different levels (sub-optimum; 25 ± 0.5, optimum; 75 ± 2.5 and supra-optimum; 225 ± 3.5 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), and subsequently treated with two doses (30 and 90 mM) of NaCl. PAR influences growth in tested cyanobacteria being maximum in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. NaCl-induced maximum percent decline in growth was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells, which was in consonance with a decrease in chlorophyll content. Sub-optimum PAR acclimatization stimulated phycocyanin content in control cells, whereas maximum carotenoids content was observed in supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells. Photosystem II photochemistry viz. Fv/F0, Fv/Fm, Ψ0, ϕE0, PIABS, ABS/RC, TR0/RC, ET0/RC and DI0/RC was also influenced by PAR and NaCl. Maximum percent rise in superoxide radical (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation was observed in sub-optimum PAR acclimatized cells exposed to NaCl, which could be correlated with lower values of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic (NP-SH and cysteine) antioxidants. In supra-optimum PAR acclimatized cells level of oxidative stress markers was in parallel with enhanced antioxidants. The results suggest that PAR significantly changes physiological and biochemical responses of studied cyanobacteria under NaCl stress. Besides this, this study also shows that P. foveolarum is more tolerant than N. muscorum under test conditions. PMID:26318279

  4. Inorganic carbon acquisition in some synurophyte algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Shabana; Colman, Brian

    2008-05-01

    Some characteristics of photosynthesis of three synurophyte algae, Synura petersenii, Synura uvella and Tessellaria volvocina were investigated to determine the mechanism of inorganic carbon (C(i)) uptake. All three species were found to have no external carbonic anhydrase, no capacity for direct bicarbonate uptake and a low whole-cell affinity for C(i). The internal pH of S. petersenii determined using (14)C-benzoic acid and [2-(14)C]-5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione was pH 7.0-7.5, over an external pH range of 5.0-7.5. Thus, the pH difference between the cell interior of S. petersenii and the external medium was large enough, over the alga's growth range, to allow the accumulation of C(i) by the diffusive uptake of CO(2). Monitoring O(2) evolution and CO(2) uptake by suspensions of S. petersenii at pH 7.0 by mass spectrometry did not indicate a rapid uptake of CO(2), and the final CO(2) compensation concentration reached was 24 +/- 0.7 microM. Furthermore, when the cells were darkened, a brief burst of CO(2) occurred before a steady rate of dark respiration was established, suggesting a loss of CO(2) by photorespiration. An examination of the kinetics of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in homogenates of cells of S. petersenii, S. uvella and Mallomonas papillosa showed that values of the K(m) (CO(2)) were 28.4, 41.8 and 18.2 microM, respectively. These species lack the characteristics of cells with a CO(2)-concentrating mechanism because the cell affinity for C(i) appears to be determined by the relatively high CO(2) affinity of the Rubisco of these algae. PMID:18298411

  5. Interactions between arsenic species and marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The arsenic concentration and speciation of marine algae varies widely, from 0.4 to 23 ng.mg/sup -1/, with significant differences in both total arsenic content and arsenic speciation occurring between algal classes. The Phaeophyceae contain more arsenic than other algal classes, and a greater proportion of the arsenic is organic. The concentration of inorganic arsenic is fairly constant in macro-algae, and may indicate a maximum level, with the excess being reduced and methylated. Phytoplankton take up As(V) readily, and incorporate a small percentage of it into the cell. The majority of the As(V) is reduced, methylated, and released to the surrounding media. The arsenic speciation in phytoplankton and Valonia also changes when As(V) is added to cultures. Arsenate and phosphate compete for uptake by algal cells. Arsenate inhibits primary production at concentrations as low as 5 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/ when the phosphate concentration is low. The inhibition is competitive. A phosphate enrichment of > 0.3 ..mu..M alleviates this inhibition; however, the As(V) stress causes an increase in the cell's phosphorus requirement. Arsenite is also toxic to phytoplankton at similar concentrations. Methylated arsenic species did not affect cell productivity, even at concentrations of 25 ..mu..g.1/sup -1/. Thus, the methylation of As(V) by the cell produces a stable, non-reactive compound which is nontoxic. The uptake and subsequent reduction and methylation of As(V) is a significant factor in determining the arsenic biogeochemistry of productive systems, and also the effect that the arsenic may have on algal productivity. Therefore, the role of marine algae in determining the arsenic speciation of marine systems cannot be ignored. (ERB)

  6. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  7. Algae and extreme environments - ecology and physiology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elster, Josef

    Noordwijk : ESA Publications Division, 2002 - (Lacoste, H.), s. 227-229 ISBN 92-9092-828-X. [European Workshop on Exo/Astrobiology /2./. Graz (AT), 16.09.2002-19.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Grant ostatní: COBRA No. QLRI-CT-2001-01645(EU) French-Czech cooperative research program BARRANDE, No. 99054 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : algae, cyanobacteria, extreme environment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  8. Effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algal species (65) were isolated from oil refinery effluent. Twenty-five of these species were cultured in Benecke's medium in a growth chamber, along with controls. Retardation in algal growth, inhibition in algal photosynthesis, and discoloration was observed in petroleum enriched medium. Few forms, viz. Cyclotella sp., Cosmarium sp., and Merismopedia sp. could not survive. The lag phase lengthened by several days and slope of exponential phase was also depressed. Chlamydomonas sp., Scenedesmus sp., Ankistrodesmus sp., Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. were comparatively susceptible to petroleum. Depression in carbon fixation, cell numbers, and total dry algal mass was noticeable, showing toxicity to both diatoms and green algae

  9. ALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Тітлова, О.А.

    2015-01-01

    Today humanity is beginning to understand the consequences of ill-considered use of energy resources. In the last decade  a new direction of the economy is actively developing – «The Blue Economy». Its aim is to find innovative solutions that are safe for the environment and society. Bioenergy is one of the directions of the «Blue Economy» which is actively developing lately. The article discusses the possibility, advisability and examples of the algae use as a feedstock for the energy resour...

  10. Epiphytic algae on mosses in the vicinity of Syowa Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Shuji, Ohtani

    1986-01-01

    Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae on mosses growing in the vicinity of Syowa Station were investigated. Moss samples were collected from three localities, East Ongul Island, Mukai Rocks and Langhovde. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 23 species in total, 16 of blue-green algae, 4 of diatoms, 3 of green algae. Blue-green algae were more frequently found among these epiphytic algae on mosses in each locality. Among the three localities, Langhovde was the m...

  11. Energy from algae using microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B.

    2009-08-15

    Bioelectricity production froma phytoplankton, Chlorella vulgaris, and a macrophyte, Ulva lactuca was examined in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs were fed with the two algae (as powders), obtaining differences in energy recovery, degradation efficiency, and power densities. C. vulgaris produced more energy generation per substrate mass (2.5 kWh/kg), but U. lactuca was degraded more completely over a batch cycle (73±1% COD). Maximum power densities obtained using either single cycle or multiple cycle methods were 0.98 W/m2 (277 W/m3) using C. vulgaris, and 0.76 W/m2 (215 W/m3) using U. lactuca. Polarization curves obtained using a common method of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) overestimated maximum power densities at a scan rate of 1 mV/s. At 0.1 mV/s, however, the LSV polarization data was in better agreement with single- and multiple-cycle polarization curves. The fingerprints of microbial communities developed in reactors had only 11% similarity to inocula and clustered according to the type of bioprocess used. These results demonstrate that algae can in principle, be used as a renewable source of electricity production in MFCs. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Specht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for molecular pharming in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae are poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, and they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally-delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and system immune reactivity.

  13. Study on the effect of irradiation on algae by proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the algae is just beginning and the study on protein expression and growth by the change of condition was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the protein expression was investigated for the protection mechanisms and new genome source and furthermore, isolation of new mutant strains. To monitor the growth of algae, absorbance and FDA staining methods were developed and the content of lipid of algae species were measured. With these methods, the radiation sensitivity of algae species was determined. To investigate the proteome of algae, 2D-electrophoresis methods was applied. From the comparison of proteomes, the radiation specific expressed protein was identified as thioredoxin-h and its nucleotide sequences was defined. The expression of thioredoxin-h was further defined on the mRNA level. Also, the extract of algae species was analyzed for its antioxidant activity and polyphenolic content. The changes in antioxidant activity of extract by radiation was investigated. From the radiation experiments, mutant Spirogyra species having higher resistant against radical stress was obtained. The mutant strain has higher antioxidant activity. This results can provide the proteome date and mutation technology of algae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  14. The algae biodiesel physical property and spray parameters modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Колодницька, Руслана Віталіївна; Васильєв, Руслан

    2015-01-01

    The modelling of micro-algae biodiesel density, viscosity and surface tension was performed. The spray middle diameters of droplets in diesel engine were counted.   It was shown that the property of algae biodiesel can be compare with  traditional biodiesel based on rapeseed oil.

  15. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  16. Comments on the Manuscript, "Biodiesel Production from Freshwater Algae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent publication (Vijayaragahavan, K.; Hemanathan, K., Biodiesel from freshwater algae, Energy Fuels, 2009, 23(11):5448-5453) on fuel production from algae is evaluated. It is discussed herein that the fuel discussed in that paper is not biodiesel, rather it probably consists of hydrocarbons. ...

  17. Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domínguez, H.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone;

    1996-01-01

    The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source of......'Etoile, France), but further genetic and physiological analyses identified them as Shewanella alga....

  18. New Records for the Freshwater Algae of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BAYKAL, Tülay; AKBULUT, Aydın; İlkay AÇIKGÖZ

    2009-01-01

    Algae samples were collected from important dam lakes and running waters of the Lower Euphrates Basin. Eighteen new records of Turkish freshwater algae were identified. Among these new records, 5 belong to Cyanophyta, 10 to Chlorophyta, 1 to Xanthophyta, and 2 to Bacillariophyta.

  19. First Case of Osteomyelitis Due to Shewanella algae

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho-Nevers, E.; Gouriet, F.; Rovery, C.; Paris, P.; Roux, V.; Raoult, D.; Brouqui, P.

    2005-01-01

    Shewanella spp. are infrequently recovered from clinical specimens. We report here on the first case of osteomyelitis due to Shewanella algae. This bacterium, at first misidentified by phenotypic tests as Shewanella putrefaciens, was subsequently identified correctly as S. algae by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

  20. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter. PMID:12868282

  1. Differential sensitivity of five cyanobacterial strains to ammonium toxicity and its inhibitory mechanism on the photosynthesis of rice-field cyanobacterium Ge-Xian-Mi (Nostoc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Guozheng [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Deblois, Charles P. [Department des Sciences Biologiques, TOXEN, Canada Research Chair on Ecotoxicology of Aquatic Microorganisms, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Succursale Centre-ville, C.P. 8888 Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8 (Canada); Liu Shuwen [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Juneau, Philippe [Department des Sciences Biologiques, TOXEN, Canada Research Chair on Ecotoxicology of Aquatic Microorganisms, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Succursale Centre-ville, C.P. 8888 Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8 (Canada); Qiu Baosheng [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China)], E-mail: bsqiu@public.wh.hb.cn

    2008-08-29

    Effects of two fertilizers, NH{sub 4}Cl and KCl, on the growth of the edible cyanobacterium Ge-Xian-Mi (Nostoc) and four other cyanobacterial strains were compared at pH 8.3 {+-} 0.2 and 25 deg. C. Their growth was decreased by at least 65% at 10 mmol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}Cl but no inhibitory effect was observed at the same level of KCl. Meanwhile, the strains exhibited a great variation of sensitivity to NH{sub 4}{sup +} toxicity in the order: Ge-Xian-Mi > Anabaena azotica FACHB 118 > Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB 905 > M. aeruginosa FACHB 315 > Synechococcus FACHB 805. The 96-h EC{sub 50} value for relative growth rate with regard to NH{sub 4}{sup +} for Ge-Xian-Mi was 1.105 mmol L{sup -1}, which was much less than the NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration in many agricultural soils (2-20 mmol L{sup -1}). This indicated that the use of ammonium as nitrogen fertilizer was responsible for the reduced resource of Ge-Xian-Mi in the paddy field. After 96 h exposure to 1 mmol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}Cl, the photosynthetic rate, F{sub v}/F{sub m} value, saturating irradiance for photosynthesis and PSII activity of Ge-Xian-Mi colonies were remarkably decreased. The chlorophyll synthesis of Ge-Xian-Mi was more sensitive to NH{sub 4}{sup +} toxicity than phycobiliproteins. Thus, the functional absorption cross section of Ge-Xian-Mi PSII was increased markedly at NH{sub 4}Cl levels {>=}1 mmol L{sup -1} and the electron transport on the acceptor side of PSII was significantly accelerated by NH{sub 4}Cl addition {>=}3 mmol L{sup -1}. Dark respiration of Ge-Xian-Mi was significantly increased by 246% and 384% at 5 and 10 mmol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}Cl, respectively. The rapid fluorescence rise kinetics indicated that the oxygen-evolving complex of PSII was the inhibitory site of NH{sub 4}{sup +}.

  2. The economics of producing biodiesel from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for conventional diesel that is made from natural plant oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oils. This paper discusses the economics of producing biodiesel fuel from algae grown in open ponds. There is potential for large-scale production of biodiesel from algal farms on non-arable land; however, previous studies have failed to demonstrate an economically viable process that could be scalable to a commercialized industry. The problems include inconsistent and insufficient algal productivities, uncertain capital and operating costs, volatile market prices and unknown levels of government support. Although intensive work is being done on many technological issues, the economic studies and data are incomplete and out of date. This paper presents an updated financial analysis of the production and economic conditions that could have a profound effect on the success of this important alternative fuel production process. (author)

  3. Rubidium efflux from the alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compartmental analysis of 86Rb outflux into a non-radioactive medium suggests that the distribution of potassium (for which rubidium seems to be a satisfactory marker) in the alga Hydrodictyon reticulatum is uniform, i.e. at the medium conditions used (0.1 mM CaCl2, 0.1 mM NaCl and 1.0 mM KCl) the potassium concentration is practically equal in the cytoplasm and in the vacuole. The unidirectional potassium flux across the tonoplast (about one order of magnitude lower than that across the plasmalemma) thus appears to be passive and does not result in an appreciable electrochemical potential difference of the potassium ion. (author)

  4. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  5. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  6. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  7. Développement de l'administration électronique par les communes françaises : éléments pour une typologie raisonnée

    OpenAIRE

    Attour, Amel; Longhi, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Cet article est une contribution à l'étude du développement de l'administration électronique locale. Il montre l'importance du niveau local dans cette analyse, et se focalise donc sur l'étude des communes françaises. Après une revue de la littérature, il met en évidence des différences importantes dans les stratégies de déploiement des services d'administration électronique locale d'un échantillon de communes homogène en exploitant une base de données originale, et l'importance des caractéris...

  8. 脱水和复水过程中金发藓(Polytrichum commune)与湿地匐灯藓(Plagiomnium acutum)叶绿素荧光特性变化的比较研究%Comparison on Alternation of Chlorophyll Fluoroscence Between Polytrichum commune and Plagiomnium acutum During Dehydration and Rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓濛; 田向荣; 李菁; 石进校

    2012-01-01

    Polytrichum commune from relative drought habitat and Plagiomnium acutum from wet habitat were used as materials, and their chlorophyll fluroscence characteristics, such as ETR-PAR (Photosyntheti-cally Active Radiation-electron transportation rate) light respond curves, Fv/Fm (ratio of chlorophyll variation fluorescence), Y( II) (quantum yielding of PS II), qP (photochemical quenching) and NPQ (none-photochemical quenching) in diferent dehydration and rehydration treatments were detected by IMAGING-PAM analyzer (WALZ). In the procedure of desiccation, P. commune could sustain a higher inhibit light intensity (over 800 μmol/(m2·s)) and a stable ETR value (about 20), but inhibit light intensity of P. acutum menifested a dramatic decline and decreased to about 400 μmol/(m2·s), and ETR value could be inhibited to null. Fv/Fm, Y (II), qP of both two bryophyta species displayed a drop trends, nevertheless, P. commune contain a higher value. NPQ of two bryophytes manifested an obvious peak, and the peak of P. commune occured early and possess a lower alternative range. In the process of rehydration, inhibit light intensity and ETR value of both species recover rapidly, and P. commnue menifested slowly and was provide with less alternation. Fv/Fm, Y (II) of both species recover to normal state, and values of P. commune was higher. Results indicated that desiccation tolerance of bryophytes primarily rely on the repair ability in recovery process. But bryophytes from difer-ent habitat should reflect distinct response on desiccation, P. commune from relative drought habitat possess stronger desicccation tolerance than P. acutum from wet habitat.%以来自不同水分生境的金发藓(Polytrichum commune)和湿地匐灯藓(Plagiomnium acutum)为材料,利用叶绿素荧光成像技术比较了脱水和复水过程中两种藓类的荧光光响应曲线、光系统Ⅱ光能转化效率(ratio of chlorophyll variation fluorescence,Fv/Fm)、

  9. Algae Technology for Reduction of Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short overview about the climate situation with regard to CO2, the physiology of photosynthesis will be explained in nonprofessional's style using algae as an example. The photosynthesis products and their conversions into valuable materials for human nutrition or into base substances for diverse industries will be described. Furthermore, I will introduce the state of the art on current scientific projects aiming to improve algae productivity and for the synthesis of therapeutically medicinal proteins. A highly productive algae facility will be introduced including its integration in an energy concept.(author)

  10. Dinitrogen fixation by blue-green algae from paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work using radioactive nitrogen on the blue-green algae of paddy fields has been reviewed. These algae fix dinitrogen and photoassimilate carbon evolving oxygen, thereby augmenting nitrogen and carbon status of the soil and also providing oxygen to the water-logged rice paddies. Further studies using radioactive isotopes 13N, 24Na and 22Na on their nitrogen fixation, nitrogen assimilation pathways; regulation of nitrogenase, heterocysts production and sporulation and sodium transport and metabolism have been carried out and reported. The field application of blue green algae for N2 fixation was found to increase the status of soil nitrogen and yield of paddy. (M.G.B.)

  11. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  12. A survey of Marine Algae and Seagrasses of İstanbul, (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Aysel, V.; Erduğan, H.; Dural, B.; Okudan, E.Ş.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this research, have been studied marine algae in the upper infralittoral zone of the Bosphorus coasts of İstanbul (including Bosphorus) . A total of 244 taxon have been determined. 11 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanophyta), 127 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 46 to brown algae (Heterokontophyta), 60 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 2 to flowering plants (Tracheophyta).

  13. Effects of elevated CO2 on sensitivity of six species of algae and interspecific competition of three species of algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Effects of elevated CO2 (5000 μl/L) on sensitivity comparison of six species of algae and interspecific competition of three species of algae were investigated. The results showed that, the cell densities of six species of algae grown in elevated CO2significantly increased compared to those in ambient CO2 (360 μl/L), and with the time prolonged, the increasing extent increased.Therefore, elevated CO2 can promote the growth of six species of algae. However, there were differences in sensitivity between six species of algae. Based on the effects of elevated CO2 on biomass, the sensitive order (from high to low) was Platymanas sp.,Platymanas subcordiformis, Nitzschia closterium, Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, Dunaliella salina, Chlorella sp., on the condition of solitary cultivation. Compared to ambient CO2, elevated CO2 promoted the growth of three species of algae, Platymanas subcordiformis, Nitzschia closterium and Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701 under the condition of mixed cultivation. The sensitivity of the three species to elevated CO2 in mixed cultivation changed a lot compared to the condition of solitary cultivation. When grown in elevated CO2 under the condition of mixed cultivation, the sensitive order from high to low were Nitzschia clostertium, Platymonas subcordiformis and Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701. However, under the condition of solitary cultivation, the sensitive order in elevated CO2 was Isochrysis galbana Parke 8701, Nitzschia clostertium, Platymonas subcordiformis, from sensitive to less sensitive. On the day 21, the dominant algae, the sub-dominant algae and inferior algae grown in elevated CO2 did not change. However, the population increasing dynamic and composition proportion of three algal species have significantly changed.

  14. The impact of social franchising on the use of reproductive health and family planning services at public commune health stations in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Service franchising is a business model that involves building a network of outlets (franchisees that are locally owned, but act in coordinated manner with the guidance of a central headquarters (franchisor. The franchisor maintains quality standards, provides managerial training, conducts centralized purchasing and promotes a common brand. Research indicates that franchising private reproductive health and family planning (RHFP services in developing countries improves quality and utilization. However, there is very little evidence that franchising improves RHFP services delivered through community-based public health clinics. This study evaluates behavioral outcomes associated with a new approach - the Government Social Franchise (GSF model - developed to improve RHFP service quality and capacity in Vietnam's commune health stations (CHSs. Methods The project involved networking and branding 36 commune health station (CHS clinics in two central provinces of Da Nang and Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. A quasi-experimental design with 36 control CHSs assessed GSF model effects on client use as measured by: 1 clinic-reported client volume; 2 the proportion of self-reported RHFP service users at participating CHS clinics over the total sample of respondents; and 3 self-reported RHFP service use frequency. Monthly clinic records were analyzed. In addition, household surveys of 1,181 CHS users and potential users were conducted prior to launch and then 6 and 12 months after implementing the GSF network. Regression analyses controlled for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. Results CHS franchise membership was significantly associated with a 40% plus increase in clinic-reported client volumes for both reproductive and general health services. A 45% increase in clinic-reported family planning service clients related to GSF membership was marginally significant (p = 0.05. Self-reported frequency of RHFP service use

  15. La compétition interspécifique entre la truite commune (Salmo trutta L. et la truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Walbaum : influence sur les modèles d'habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARAN P.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available L'influence de la compétition interspécifique sur l'occupation de l'habitat physique du ruisseau d'Estibère a été étudiée sur deux populations de truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss, vivant respectivement en allopatrie et en sympatrie avec une population de truite commune (Salmo trutta L.. Le taux d'occupation de la Surface Pondérée Utile (SPU calculée par la méthode des microhabitats (BOVEE, 1982 est significativement supérieur (t de Student, p < 0.05 pour la population allopatrique de truite arc-en-ciel par rapport à la population sympatrique. La surface d'abris, la pente et le taux d'occupation de la SPU par les truites communes permettent d'expliquer 77 % de la variation d'occupation de l'habitat physique par les adultes de truites arc-en-ciel. Pour les truites communes, la surface d'abris explique à elle seule, 81 % de la variation du taux d'occupation de l'habitat par les adultes. Selon l'espèce et le stade de développement considéré, la compétition interspécifique peut être un élément déterminant dans l'occupation de l'habitat physique potentiel.

  16. AlgaeEconomics: bio-economic production models of micro-algae and downstream processing to produce bio energy carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.; Schipperus, R.; Kootstra, A.M.J.; de Visser

    2015-01-01

    This report describes results of work carried out within the EnAlgae project to describe production costs and identify the variables that have most effect in determining future cost prices so that R&D can be focussed on these issues. This has been done by making use of pilots within the EnAlgae consortium and by describing the process in Excel models that have been spread among and discussed with stakeholders active in the field of commercial algae production. The expectation is that this...

  17. Chemical examination of the Red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analyses of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the marine alga Acanthophora spicifera exhibiting antifertility activity led to the isolation of sterols and fatty acids as well as the rare dipeptides aurantiamides. All the compounds were...

  18. Glycolipids from the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al-Fadhli, A.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    Three distinct fractions containing polar glycolipids (PF1–3) were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of crude methanolic extract of red alga Chondria armata (Kütz.) Okamura on gel chromatography over Sephadex LH20. Their structure...

  19. Exploration of the gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Hendry, Doug; Wilkinson, Nikolas; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Jacoby, William

    2012-09-01

    This study presents non-catalytic gasification of Spirulina algae in supercritical water using a plug flow reactor and a mechanism for feeding solid carbon streams into high pressure (>25 MPa) environments. A 2(III)(3-1) factorial experimental design explored the effect of concentration, temperature, and residence time on gasification reactions. A positive displacement pump fed algae slurries into the reactor at a temperature range of 550-600°C, and residence times between 4 and 9s. The results indicate that algae gasify efficiently in supercritical water, highlighting the potential for a high throughput process. Additional experiments determined Arrhenius parameters of Spirulina algae. This study also presents a model of the gasification reaction using the estimated activation energy (108 kJ/mol) and other Arrhenius parameters at plug flow conditions. The maximum rate of gasification under the conditions studied of 53 g/Ls is much higher than previously reported. PMID:22728180

  20. Colourful Cultures: Classroom Experiments with the Unicellular Alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the photosynthetic potential of the different developmental stages of the green unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Reviews the biotechnological applications of astaxanthin, the red pigment which can be extracted from Haematococcus pluvialis. (Author/MM)

  1. The plastid genome of the red alga Laurencia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Heroen; Costa, Joana F

    2015-06-01

    We present the 174,935 nt long plastid genome of the red alga Laurencia sp. JFC0032. It is the third plastid genome characterized for the largest order of red algae (Ceramiales). The circular-mapping plastid genome is small compared to most florideophyte red algae, and our comparisons show a trend toward smaller plastid genome sizes in the family Rhodomelaceae, independent from a similar trend in Cyanidiophyceae. The Laurencia genome is densely packed with 200 annotated protein-coding genes (188 widely conserved, 3 open reading frames shared with other red algae and 9 hypothetical coding regions). It has 29 tRNAs, a single-copy ribosomal RNA cistron, a tmRNA, and the RNase P RNA. PMID:26986672

  2. Application of synthetic biology in cyanobacteria and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eWang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria and algae are becoming increasingly attractive cell factories for producing renewable biofuels and chemicals due to their ability to capture solar energy and CO2 and their relatively simple genetic background for genetic manipulation. Increasing research efforts from the synthetic biology approach have been made in recent years to modify cyanobacteria and algae for various biotechnological applications. In the article, we critically review recent progresses in developing genetic tools for characterizing or manipulating cyanobacteria and algae, the applications of genetically modified strains for synthesizing renewable products such as biofuels and chemicals. In addition, the emergent challenges in the development and application of synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and algae are also discussed.

  3. Kalaärimeeste kohus algas venitamisega / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2007-01-01

    Harju maakohtus algas kohtuprotsess veterinaar- ja toiduameti endise asejuhi Vladimir Razumovski väidetava altkäemaksuvõtmise üle, kus on süüdistavaid eraisikuid ja ettevõtjaid. Lisa: Kes on kohtu all?

  4. Removal of nutrients by algae from municipal wastewater contaminated with heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Bigyan

    2015-01-01

    Selected species of algae (green algae and blue green algae) were cultivated in municipal wastewater using PBR (photo-bioreactor) bottles. Uptake of nutrients by these algae species was measured on different dates. From the results of the experiments, it was observed that a combination of certain blue green algae species (cyanobacteria) was able to remove most of the nutrients from the wastewater. The presence of heavy metal ions in the wastewater also affected the nutrient-absorbing capacit...

  5. THE ALGAE OF LITTORAL SALT MARSHES OF THE MOLOCHNIY LIMAN LEFT BANK

    OpenAIRE

    Yaroviy S.O.; Solonenko A.M.; Yarovaya T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Data on algae floristic spectrum of coastal salt marshes of the left bank of Molochny liman were presented. Thealgae diversity was presented by four compartments: Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Xanthophyta. Theregistered algae belong to 15 orders, 20 families, and 27 genera. The Cyanophyta algae were the dominant in exploredsalt marshes, counted 56% from total discovered species. The schematic algae structure of left bank salt marshes ofMolochniy liman was performed, some algae...

  6. Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02

    OpenAIRE

    Voort, van der, R.; Vulsteke, E.; de Visser

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these market characteristics a conclusion is drawn on the market potential for algae products. Per market desk research is done and literature is consulted to create a reliable market outlook.

  7. Taxonomy of marine micro-algae - An addendum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    . V. S. LIGADE D. SREEDHAR M. AJAY N. UDUPA* Department of Pharmacy Management, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal 576 104, India *e-mail: n.udupa@manipal.edu Taxonomy of marine micro-algae, an addendum... in the marine environment. Let me cite micro-algae (free- floating microscopic plants of 20–200 µm size) in particular as an example, since they are discussed over decades globally for notoriety in forming toxic or harmful algal blooms (HAB). Perhaps...

  8. Green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possess endogenous sialylated N-glycans

    OpenAIRE

    Mamedov, Tarlan; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2011-01-01

    Green algae have a great potential as biofactories for the production of proteins. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a representative of eukaryotic microalgae, has been extensively used as a model organism to study light-induced gene expression, chloroplast biogenesis, photosynthesis, light perception, cell–cell recognition, and cell cycle control. However, little is known about the glycosylation machinery and N-linked glycan structures of green algae. In this study, we performed mass spectrometry a...

  9. Cytotoxicity of Algae Extracts on Normal and Malignant Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Liesveld; Karen Rosell; Jeremy Bechelli; Myra Coppage

    2011-01-01

    Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun), Astaxanthin (Ast), Spirulina platensis (Spir), and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primar...

  10. Accumulation and excretion of radionuclides by alga Chara tomentosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been found in the course of the study of accumulation and excretion of radionuclides by alga chara tomentosa that 55Fe, 60Co, 91Y are accumulated by living and dead components of alga chara tomentosa to a far greater extent and are stronger retained than 90Sr, 137Cs, 144Ce. The main part of the absorbed quantities of all investigated nuclides (80-92%) is fixed on the surface of the plant in the ''cortex'' layer

  11. Evolution of reproductive development in the volvocine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Hallmann, Armin

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of multicellularity, the separation of germline cells from sterile somatic cells, and the generation of a male–female dichotomy are certainly among the greatest innovations of eukaryotes. Remarkably, phylogenetic analysis suggests that the shift from simple to complex, differentiated multicellularity was not a unique progression in the evolution of life, but in fact a quite frequent event. The spheroidal green alga Volvox and its close relatives, the volvocine algae, span the fu...

  12. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Kaysheva; M. N. Arkhipova; A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus) and red (Ahnfeltia plicata) algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results ...

  14. Homogeneity of Danish Environmental and Clinical Isolates of Shewanella algae

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, Hanne Marie; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Bundvad, Anemone; Søgaard, Per; Gram, Lone

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the prima...

  15. Molecular Characterization of Epiphytic Bacterial Communities on Charophycean Green Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Madeline M.; Wilcox, Lee W.; Linda E Graham

    1998-01-01

    Epiphytic bacterial communities within the sheath material of three filamentous green algae, Desmidium grevillii, Hyalotheca dissiliens, and Spondylosium pulchrum (class Charophyceae, order Zygnematales), collected from a Sphagnum bog were characterized by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. A total of 20 partial sequences and nine different sequence types were obtained, and one sequence type was recovered from the bacterial communities on all three algae. By phyl...

  16. An overview of algae biofuel production and potential environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menetrez, Marc Y

    2012-07-01

    Algae are among the most potentially significant sources of sustainable biofuels in the future of renewable energy. A feedstock with virtually unlimited applicability, algae can metabolize various waste streams (e.g., municipal wastewater, carbon dioxide from industrial flue gas) and produce products with a wide variety of compositions and uses. These products include lipids, which can be processed into biodiesel; carbohydrates, which can be processed into ethanol; and proteins, which can be used for human and animal consumption. Algae are commonly genetically engineered to allow for advantageous process modification or optimization. However, issues remain regarding human exposure to algae-derived toxins, allergens, and carcinogens from both existing and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), as well as the overall environmental impact of GMOs. A literature review was performed to highlight issues related to the growth and use of algal products for generating biofuels. Human exposure and environmental impact issues are identified and discussed, as well as current research and development activities of academic, commercial, and governmental groups. It is hoped that the ideas contained in this paper will increase environmental awareness of issues surrounding the production of algae and will help the algae industry develop to its full potential. PMID:22681590

  17. Radionuclides and trace metals in eastern Mediterranean Sea algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three types of sea alga distributed along the Syrian coast have been collected and analyzed for radioactivity and trace elements. Results have shown that 137Cs concentrations in all the analyzed sample were relatively low (less than 1.2 Bq kg-1 dry weight) while the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 210Po and 210Pb, were found to be high in most samples; the highest observed value (27.43 Bq kg-1 dry weight) for 210Po being in the red Jania longifurca alga. In addition, most brown alga species were also found to accumulate 210Po, which indicates their selectivity to this isotope. On the other hand, brown alga (Cystoseira and Sargassum Vulgare) have shown a clear selectivity for some trace metals such as Cr, As, Cu and Co, this selectivity may encourage their use as biomonitor for pollution by trace metals. Moreover, the red alga species were found to contain the highest levels of Mg while the brown alga species were found to concentrate Fe, Mn, Na and K and nonmetals such as Cl, I and Br

  18. Feeding preferences of mesograzers on aquacultured Gracilaria and sympatric algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Friedlander, Michael

    2011-12-21

    While large grazers can often be excluded effectively from algal aquaculture operations, smaller herbivores such as small crustaceans and gastropods may be more difficult to control. The susceptibility of three Gracilaria species to herbivores was evaluated in multiple-choice experiments with the amphipod Ampithoe ramondi and the crab Acanthonyx lunulatus. Both mesograzers are common along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. When given a choice, the amphipod preferred to consume Gracilaria lemaneiformis significantly more than either G. conferta or G. cornea. The crab, however, consumed equivalent amounts of G. lemaneiformis and G. conferta, but did not consume G. cornea. Organic content of these algae, an important feeding cue for some mesograzers, could not account for these differences. We further assessed the susceptibility of a candidate species for aquaculture, G. lemaneiformis, against local algae, including common epiphytes. When given a choice of four algae, amphipods preferred the green alga Ulva lactuca over Jania rubens. However, consumption of U. lactuca was equivalent to those of G. lemaneiformis and Padina pavonica. In contrast, the crab showed a marked and significant preference for G. lemaneiformis above any of the other three algae offered. Our results suggest that G. cornea is more resistant to herbivory from common mesograzers and that, contrary to expectations, mixed cultures or epiphyte growth on G. lemaneiformis cannot reduce damage to this commercially appealing alga if small herbivores are capable of recruiting into culture ponds. Mixed cultures may be beneficial when culturing other Gracilaria species. PMID:22711945

  19. Micro-algae: French players discuss the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 75000 species of algae have been reported so far, the domains of application are huge and investment are increasing all around the world. One of the difficulties is to find the most appropriate algae to a specific application. Some development programs have failed scientifically or economically for instance the production of protein for animal food from the chlorella algae or the production of bio-fuel from C14-C18 chains, from zeaxanthine and from phycoerytrine. On the other side some research programs have led to promising industrial applications such as the production of food for fish and farm animals. Some research fields are completely innovative such as the use of micro-algae for the construction of bio-walls for buildings. Micro-algae are diverse and fragile. Photo-bioreactors have been designed to breed fragile algae like some types of chlorophycees used in bio-fuel and in cosmetics, a prototype has been tested for 15 months and its production is about 2 kg of dry matter a day. (A.C.)

  20. Biofuels and algae; Biocarburants, la promesse des algues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-15

    Bio-fuels based on micro-algae are promising, their licensing for being used in plane fuels in a mix containing 50% of fossil kerosene is expected in the coming months. In United-States research on bio-fuels has been made more important since 2006 when 2 policies were launched: 'Advanced energy initiative' and 'Twenty-in-ten', the latter aiming to develop alternative fuels. In Europe less investment has been made concerning micro-algae fuels but research programs were launched in Spain, United-Kingdom and France. In France 3 important projects were launched: SHAMASH (2006-2010) whose aim is to produce lipidic fuels from micro-algae, ALGOHUB (2008-2013) whose aim is to use micro-algae as a raw material for humane and animal food, medicine and cosmetics, SYMBIOSE (2009-2011) whose aim is the optimization of the production of methane through the anaerobic digestion of micro-algae, SALINALGUE (2010-2016) whose aim is to grow micro-algae for the production of bio-energies and bio-products. (A.C.)

  1. Study on Algae Removal by Immobilized Biosystem on Sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Haiyan; HU Wenrong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, sponges were used to immobilize domesticated sludge microbes in a limited space, forming an immobilized biosystem capable of algae and microcystins removal. The removal effects on algae, microcystins and UV260 of this biosystem and the mechanism of algae removal were studied. The results showed that active sludge from sewage treatment plants was able to remove algae from a eutrophic lake's water after 7 d of domestication. The removal efficiency for algae,organic matter and microcystins increased when the domesticated sludge was immobilized on sponges. When the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 5h, the removal rates of algae, microcystins and UV260 were 90%, 94.17% and 84%, respectively.The immobilized biosystem consisted mostly of bacteria, the Ciliata and Sarcodina protozoans and the Rotifer metazoans.Algal decomposition by zoogloea bacteria and preying by microcreatures were the two main modes of algal removal, which occurred in two steps: first, absorption by the zoogloea; second, decomposition by the zoogloea bacteria and the predacity of the microcreatures.

  2. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on green fuels which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI's have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  3. Impact of radon on the health of the population in the District of Abidjan: The case of the commune of Abobo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detectors (SSNTD) LR 115 type II technique has been used to measure the concentration of radon in some dwellings of Abobo, one of the commune in the District of Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) with the highest number of inhabitants. The detectors have been placed at 18 sites selected for the measurements for two(2) months. After their collection, all the films go through a chemical etching first, before been counted under an optical microscope.The values calculated vary from 27.5 to 211.2 Bq/m3. Apart from one site, most of the concentrations obtained in this study are inferior to the limits preconised by other countries and by some international agencies like the WHO. Besides, some recommendations are made in order to reduce the proportion of radon on the studied sites. This work will contribute to the reduction of the number of lung cancers on the ivorian territory linked to that radioactive gas. (author)

  4. CAUSES THAT LEAD TO THE SEVERE DECLINE IN THE NUMBER OF CATTLE BRED BY SUBSISTENCE FARMERS IN PLATARESTI COMMUNE, CALARASI COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria-Loredana PREDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania is a country of contrasts especially as agriculture is concerned. On one side we have state of the art machinery and equipment being used on farms larger than 100 ha and on the other side we have small subsistence farms operated by an aging and poor population. The paper aims to highlight few causes that have stressed even more the difficult situation of the rural population of this country; especially those that have been brought about by the financial crisis initiated in 2008 and that have gotten even worse with the passing of time. We have performed a qualitative and quantitative analysis showing the decline in the number of cattle bred, either for milk or meat, by the subsistence farmers from Plataresti commune, Calarasi County, Romania, allowing us to identify few causes that could be counteracted by a proactive social measure. The results of our research indicate one possible measure meant to counteract negative effects that subsistence farmers are now facing.

  5. Microfluidic one-way streets for algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Jorn; Kantsler, Vasily; Polin, Marco; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-02-01

    Controlling locomotion and transport of microorganisms is a key challenge in the development of future biotechnological applications. Here, we demonstrate the use of optimized microfluidic ratchets to rectify the mean swimming direction in suspensions of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is a promising candidate for the photosynthetic production of hydrogen. To assess the potential of microfluidic barriers for the manipulation of algal swimming, we studied first the scattering of individual C. reinhardtii from solid boundaries. High-speed imaging reveals the surprising result that these quasi-spherical ``puller''-type microswimmers primarily interact with surfaces via direct flagellar contact, whereas hydrodynamic effects play a subordinate role. A minimal theoretical model, based on run-and-turn motion and the experimentally measured surface-scattering law, predicts the existence of optimal wedge-shaped ratchets that maximize rectification of initially uniform suspensions. We confirm this prediction in experimental measurements with different geometries. Since the mechano-elastic properties of eukaryotic flagella are conserved across many genera, we expect that our results and methods are applicable to a broad class of biflagellate microorganisms.

  6. Is the Future Really in Algae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Having just emerged from the warmest decade on record and watching as the oceans acidify, global resources peak, the world's population continues to climb, and nearly half of all known species face extinction by the end of the century. We stand on the threshold of one of the most important transition in human history-the transition from hunting-and-gathering our energy to cultivating sustainable, carbon-neutral, environmentally-friendly energy supplies. Can we "cultivate" enerm without competing with agriculture for land, freshwater, or fertilizer? Can we develop an "ecology of technology" that optimizes our use of limited resources? Is human activity compatible with improved conditions in the world's oceans? Will our ingenuity prevail in time to make a difference for our children and the children of all species? With support from NASA ARMD and the California Energy Commission, a group of dedicated scientists and engineers are working on a project called OMEGA (Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae), to provide practical answers to these critical questions and to leave a legacy of hope for the oceans and for the future.

  7. Two-Step Evolution of Endosymbiosis between Hydra and Algae

    KAUST Repository

    Ishikawa, Masakazu

    2016-07-09

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians.

  8. [Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Green Algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-05-01

    Coptis chinensis contains antiseptic alkaloids and thus its rhizomes and preparations are widely used for the treatment of.fish diseases. In order to realize the risk of water ecosystems produced by this medical herb and preparations used in aquaculture, the present experiment was carried out to study the toxicity of Coptis chinensis rhizome extract (CRE) to Scenedesmus oblique and Chlorella pyrenoidosa grown in culture solution with 0.00 (CK), 0.088 (Tl), 0.44 (T2) and 1.76 mg · L(-1) (T3) of CRE, respectively. The results show that low concentration of CRE (T1) inhibited the growth rate of the alga and high CRE (T2 and T3) ceased growth and reproductions. CRE also decreased the chlorophyll and proteins in alga cells, indicating the inhibition of photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis, which could be direct reasons for the low growth rate and death of green alga. The efflux of protons and substances from alga cells led to pH reduction and conductivity increment in culture solution with CRE. Furthermore, the activity of superoxide dismutase in alga increased at the beginning of CRE in T1 and T2 treatments but decreased as time prolonged which was in contrast to high CRE treatment. And the long exposure to low CRE treatment behaved otherwise. This suggests that the low concentration of CRE could induce the resistant reactions in alga at initial time but high CRE concentration or long exposure even at low CRE concentration could inhibit the enzyme synthesis. Similarly, malondialdehyde in alga increased as CRE concentrations increased in culture solutions, implying the damage and high permeability of cell membrane. In general, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was more sensitive to CRE. The abuse of rhizomes and preparations in aquaculture and intensive cultivation of Coptis chinensis plants in a large scale might produce ecological risks to primary productivity of water ecosystems. PMID:26314112

  9. Two-step evolution of endosymbiosis between hydra and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masakazu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    In the Hydra vulgaris group, only 2 of the 25 strains in the collection of the National Institute of Genetics in Japan currently show endosymbiosis with green algae. However, whether the other non-symbiotic strains also have the potential to harbor algae remains unknown. The endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains that can harbor algae may have been acquired before or during divergence of the strains. With the aim of understanding the evolutionary process of endosymbiosis in the H. vulgaris group, we examined the endosymbiotic potential of non-symbiotic strains of the H. vulgaris group by artificially introducing endosymbiotic algae. We found that 12 of the 23 non-symbiotic strains were able to harbor the algae until reaching the grand-offspring through the asexual reproduction by budding. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences showed that all the strains with endosymbiotic potential grouped into a single cluster (cluster γ). This cluster contained two strains (J7 and J10) that currently harbor algae; however, these strains were not the closest relatives. These results suggest that evolution of endosymbiosis occurred in two steps; first, endosymbiotic potential was gained once in the ancestor of the cluster γ lineage; second, strains J7 and J10 obtained algae independently after the divergence of the strains. By demonstrating the evolution of the endosymbiotic potential in non-symbiotic H. vulgaris group strains, we have clearly distinguished two evolutionary steps. The step-by-step evolutionary process provides significant insight into the evolution of endosymbiosis in cnidarians. PMID:27404042

  10. [Comparison of histone-like proteins from blue-green algae with ribosomal basic proteins of alga and wheat germ histones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofshteĭn, L V; Iurina, N P; Romashkin, V I; Oparin, A I

    1975-01-01

    Histone-like proteins was found in blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans, which has no nucleus. F2b2, F2a2, F2a1 fractions were found in histone-like algae proteins and no fraction F1. Content of basic amino acids (arginine being prevailing in algae protein) is quite identical in histone-like algae proteins and in wheat germs histones, while the content of acid amino acids is considerably higher in algae. The presence in procaryotic cells of basic proteins similar in a number of properties to histones of higher organisms suggests that these proteins are evolutionary precursors of eucaryotic histones. PMID:813782

  11. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  12. Conversion of solar energy to liquid fuels via algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, J.T.; Mauldin, G.L.; Phelan, P.F.

    1980-12-01

    Conceptual designs for a commercial algae farm and alcohol plant are presented in this paper. The designs envision algae being grown in shallow basins and being harvested continuously. The algae would then be degraded by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermented to produce alcohol which would be concentrated to 190 proof by distillation. Protein from the algae would be a valuable by-product that could be sold as animal feed. An economic analysis is described, and the results are compared with the costs of other common processes for producing energy. The sensitivity of the venture to uncertainties in plant investment, utility costs and other parameters is discussed. The design is based on an annual growth rate of 160 T of algae per acre. This is over 10 times the best yield ever observed experimentally. The calculations and reasons for assuming this extraordinarily high yield are presented in detail. This paper summarizes scientists' present understanding of photosynthesis and photorespiration and explains how culture conditions must be adjusted to achieve high yields.

  13. Application of algae-biosensor for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Lazuardi; Alexander, Frank A; Wiest, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Environmental problems including water and air pollution, over fertilization, insufficient wastewater treatment and even ecological disaster are receiving greater attention in the technical and scientific area. In this paper, a method for water quality monitoring using living green algae (Chlorella Kessleri) with the help of the intelligent mobile lab (IMOLA) is presented. This measurement used two IMOLA systems for measurement and reference simultaneously to verify changes due to pollution inside the measurement system. The IMOLA includes light emitting diodes to stimulate photosynthesis of the living algae immobilized on a biochip containing a dissolved oxygen microsensor. A fluid system is used to transport algae culture medium in a stop and go mode; 600s ON, 300s OFF, while the oxygen concentration of the water probe is measured. When the pump stops, the increase in dissolved oxygen concentration due to photosynthesis is detected. In case of a pollutant being transported toward the algae, this can be detected by monitoring the photosynthetic activity. Monitoring pollution is shown by adding emulsion of 0,5mL of Indonesian crude palm oil and 10mL algae medium to the water probe in the biosensor. PMID:26737928

  14. THE FAMILY CALCIFOLIACEAE EMEND.,MISSISSIPPIAN-EARLY PENNSYLVANIAN ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL VACHARD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Fasciellaceae was created as a group of red algae. It was emended as a tribe Fascielleae of incertae sedis algae, and related to the tribe Calcifolieae Shuysky emend. Vachard & Cózar. The tribes Fascielleae and Calcifolieae both constitute the family Calcifoliaceae emend. This family is actually a homogeneous group, and could be more or less closely related with some questionable Moravamminales and Aoujgaliales: Claracrustaceae, Labyrinthoconaceae and Donezellaceae. All these microfossils were successively considered as green algae, red algae, "phylloid" algae, or fibres of calcispongia. The genera included in Fascielleae are: Fasciella, Praedonezella, and ?Kulikaella. The genera Calcifolium, Falsocalcifolium and Frustulata are included in the Calcifolieae. The phylogeny of the Calcifoliaceae is reconstructed. Thus, the family appears to be ancestrally linked, in the early Mississippian and even earlier in the Devonian, to Kulikaella, Stacheoidella, Pseudostacheoides, Pokorninella and Precorninella. The Calcifoliaceae are important for the zonation of the Late Mississippian-earliest Pennsylvanian (early Bashkirian interval (Asbian to Siuransky in the carbonate platform facies from western Palaeotethys and Ural Oceans.

  15. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131I, 129Tem, and 110Agm and lowest for radiocesium and 140Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  16. Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp. and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp. separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. Size and orientation of these areas were dependent on flow regime. For corals and algae in close proximity the 2D optodes show areas of extremely low oxygen concentration at the interaction interfaces under both dark (18.4 ± 7.7 µmol O2 L- 1 and daylight (97.9 ± 27.5 µmol O2 L- 1 conditions. These images present the first two-dimensional visualization of oxygen gradients generated by benthic reef algae and corals under varying flow conditions and provide a 2D depiction of previously observed hypoxic zones at coral algae interfaces. This approach allows for visualization of locally confined, distinctive alterations of oxygen concentrations facilitated by benthic organisms and provides compelling evidence for hypoxic conditions at coral-algae interaction zones.

  17. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus. PMID:26679972

  18. Algae-bacteria interactions: Evolution, ecology and emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Rishiram; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Algae and bacteria have coexisted ever since the early stages of evolution. This coevolution has revolutionized life on earth in many aspects. Algae and bacteria together influence ecosystems as varied as deep seas to lichens and represent all conceivable modes of interactions - from mutualism to parasitism. Several studies have shown that algae and bacteria synergistically affect each other's physiology and metabolism, a classic case being algae-roseobacter interaction. These interactions are ubiquitous and define the primary productivity in most ecosystems. In recent years, algae have received much attention for industrial exploitation but their interaction with bacteria is often considered a contamination during commercialization. A few recent studies have shown that bacteria not only enhance algal growth but also help in flocculation, both essential processes in algal biotechnology. Hence, there is a need to understand these interactions from an evolutionary and ecological standpoint, and integrate this understanding for industrial use. Here we reflect on the diversity of such relationships and their associated mechanisms, as well as the habitats that they mutually influence. This review also outlines the role of these interactions in key evolutionary events such as endosymbiosis, besides their ecological role in biogeochemical cycles. Finally, we focus on extending such studies on algal-bacterial interactions to various environmental and bio-technological applications. PMID:26657897

  19. ANESTHÉSIE ET PROCÉDURES CHIRURGICALES POUR L’IMPLANTATION DE RADIO ÉMETTEURS DANS LA CAVITÉ VENTRALE DE TRUITES COMMUNES ADULTES (SALMO TRUTTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOSSET C.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer la meilleure technique d’implantation chirurgicale intra-abdominale de radioémetteurs chez la truite commune (Salmo trutta. Deux types d’anesthésie, chimique au clou de girofle et par l’électricité sont comparés. Deux types d’émetteurs, à antenne filaire externe et à antenne interne enroulée et deux emplacements de l’incision de la paroi abdominale, en avant et en arrière de la ceinture pelvienne, sont testés. Le clou de girofle est un anesthésique satisfaisant mais l’anesthésie par l’électricité est immédiate, et ne semble pas occasionner de stress post-opératoire. Elle offre un meilleur confort d’intervention que l’anesthésie chimique et ne présente aucun danger pour le poisson et l’expérimentateur. Elle convient donc parfaitement pour l’insertion chirurgicale des émetteurs de radiopistage. Si on ne recherche pas une distance d’émission maximale, l’émetteur à antenne interne est préférable à l’émetteur à antenne externe : il est plus stable à l’intérieur de l’abdomen et son expulsion semble moins fréquente. Toutefois, la perte d’émetteur est relativement fréquente dans les deux cas et doit être prise en compte lors de toute surveillance par radiopistage, d’une durée supérieure à 40 jours. L’emplacement de l’incision n’a aucune influence sur la survie, le risque d’expulsion, la cicatrisation et le positionnement des marques dans l’abdomen.

  20. Comparaison des performances de deux souches de truite commune (Salmo trutta L. (domestique et hybride sauvage x domestique introduites au stade alevin dans un ruisseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIHOUARN A.

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available La production d'un hybride mâle sauvage x femelle domestique, chez la truite commune (Salmo trutta a parfois été proposée pour le repeuplement (CUINAT, 1971. Nos précédents travaux (MAISSE et al., 1983 ont montré que ces sujets sont plus difficiles à élever que ceux dont les deux parents sont domestiques. La présente étude a porté sur la comparaison des performances des hybrides et des domestiques déversés simultanément dans un ruisseau où la reproduction de la truite est compromise par le colmatage du fond. Les déversements ont été effectués sur la totalité du ruisseau, en mai, deux années de suite. Des inventaires ont été réalisés sur des secteurs représentatifs en mai, avant les déversements, et en octobre. Les résultats ont montré que les taux d'implantation, tant en 0+ qu'en 1+, ne différaient pas suivant l'origine des poissons. De plus, sur chacun des secteurs inventoriés, les individus d'origine domestique ont gardé l'avantage de taille qu'ils avaient au moment du déversement. L'intérêt d'un tel croisement est discuté en fonction des diverses stratégies de repeuplement à mettre en œuvre.

  1. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  2. Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em

  3. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  4. [Immunostimulating activity of the lipopolysaccharides of blue-green algae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besednova, N N; Smolina, T P; Mikheĭskaia, L V; Ovodova, R G

    1979-12-01

    The whole cells of blue-gree algae and lipopolysaccharides isolated from these cells were shown to stimulate the production of macro-(mainly) and microglobulin antibodies in rabbits. The macro- and microphage indices in rabbits increased significantly after the injection of LPS isolated from blue-green algae 24--48 hours before infecting the animals with a virulent Y. pseudotuberculosis strain. Besides, the inhibiting action of this strain on the migration of phagocytes to the site of infection was abolished immediately after the injection. The use of the indirect hemagglutination test allowed to prove the absence of close antigenic interrelations between blue-green algae and the following organisms: Spirulina platensis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Phormidium africanum and P. uncinatum. PMID:117655

  5. Cycloartane triterpenes from marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xinping; ZHU Xiaobin; DENG Liping; DENG Zhiwei; LIN Wenhan

    2006-01-01

    Six cycloartanes were isolated from ethanol extract of marine green alga Cladophora fascicularis by column chromatography. Procedure of isolation and description of these compounds are given in this paper. The structures were elucidated as (1). 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25- en-3β-ol; (2).cycloart-25-en-3β 24-diol; (3). 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol; (4). cycloart-23-en-3β, 25-diol; (5).cycloart-23, 25-dien-3β-ol; and (6). cycloart-24-en-3β-ol by spectroscopic (MS, 1D and 2D NMR) data analysis. Cycloartane derivatives are widely distributed in terrestrial plants, but only few were obtained in the alga. All these compounds that have been isolated from terrestrial plants, were found in the marine alga for the first time.

  6. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nizar Machmud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, corn, sago and the other food crops have been commonly used as raw materials to produce green plastics. However, plastics produced from such crops cannot be tailored to fit a particular requirement due to their poor water resistance and mechanical properties. Nowadays, researchers are hence looking to get alternative raw materials from the other sustainable resources to produce plastics. Their recent published studies have reported that marine red algae, that has been already widely used as a raw material for producing biofuels, is one of the potential algae crops that can be turned into plastics. In this work, Eucheuma Cottonii, that is one of the red alga crops, was used as raw material to produce plastics by using a filtration technique. Selected latex of Artocarpus altilis and Calostropis gigantea was separately then blended with bioplastics derived from the red algae, to replace use of glycerol as plasticizer. Role of the glycerol and the selected latex on physical and mechanical properties of the red algae bioplastics obtained under a tensile test performed at room temperature are discussed. Tensile strength of some starch-based plastics collected from some recent references is also presented in this paperDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88 [How to cite this article: Machmud, M.N., Fahmi, R.,  Abdullah, R., and Kokarkin, C.  (2013. Characteristics of Red Algae Bioplastics/Latex Blends under Tension. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,81-88. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.81-88

  7. The attached algae community near Pickering GS: III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between attached algae and macro-invertebrates in the nearshore zone of Lake Ontario was investigated in the vicinity of the Pickering 'A' NGS. Measures of faunal density, richness, evenness, and biomass were generally higher from areas which supported attached algae. Gammarus fasciatus, Cricotopus bicinctus, Dicrotendipes spp., Orthocladius obumbratus, Cladotanytarsus spp., Orthocladius spp., and Parakiefferiella spp., were significantly correlated with algal standing crop. All of the above dominant invertebrates ingested epiphytes associated with Cladophora glomerata. Attempts to explain the distribution of the zoobenthic assemblages using the physical/biological characteristics of the study area indicated algal cover, substrate size, wind velocity and water temperature were most important

  8. Uptake of americium-241 by algae and bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of americium by three algae, scenedesmus obliquus, selenastrum capricomutum and chlorella pyrenosdosa and a bacterium aeromonas hydrophila was studied. Live and fixed cells of each algal species and live bacterial cells were used. it is shown that algae and bacteria concentrate americium 241 to a high degree which makes them important links in the biomagnification phenomenon which may ultimately lead to a human hazard and be potentially important in recycling Am 241 in the water column and mobilization from sediments. Chemical fixation of algal cells caused increased uptake which indicated that uptake is by passive diffusion and probably due to chemical alteration of surface binding sites. (U.K.)

  9. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Baltmiškytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential are built to estimate the best model fitting for algae quantity prediction. Unknown model parameters are estimated and Bayesian kriging prediction posterior distribution is computed in OpenBUGS modeling environment by using Bayesian spatial statistics methods.

  10. Algae as promising organisms for environment and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-09-01

    Algae, like other plants, produce a variety of remarkable compounds collectively referred to as secondary metabolites. They are synthesized by these organisms at the end of the growth phase and/or due to metabolic alterations induced by environmental stress conditions. Carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phycobiliprotein pigments, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids are same of the algal natural products, which were reported to have variable biological activities, including antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, antimicroabial activity against bacteria-virus-algae-fungi, organic fertilizer and bioremediation potentials. PMID:21862867

  11. Algas (Phaeophyta) presentes en productos comerciales utilizados para adelgazar

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Patricia Marta; Correa, Rubén Florestan; Cortella, Alicia Rita

    1997-01-01

    Numerosos registros bibliográficos se refieren a la utilización de algas en tratamientos para combatir la obesidad. En particular, están muy difundidos los productos comerciales que contienen algas pardas (Phaeophyta), principalmente del género Fucus. En el presente trabajo se analizaron los contenidos de muestras comerciales de diverso origen, en sus distintas formas farmacéuticas. Se identificaron principalmente dos géneros de Phaeophyta: Fucus y Ascophyllum. Se encontraron además elementos...

  12. Chemical composition of the green alga Codium Divaricatum Holmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhizhou; Zhang, Anjiang; Ding, Lisheng; Lei, Xinxiang; Sun, Jianzhang; Zhang, Lixue

    2010-12-01

    A new sterol, 24-R-stigmasta-4,25-diene-3β,6β-diol (1), along with three known compounds (2-3), was isolated from the green alga Codium divaricatum Holmes, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is efficacious against cancer. All structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and comparison with related known compounds. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography allowed us to confirm the structure of 1. To our knowledge, the compound 1 is reported as the first from natural source, and compounds 2, 4 have not been isolated from green algae before. PMID:20655992

  13. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, H.M.; Gerner-Smidt, P.;

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random...... amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. From several patients, clonally identical strains of S. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary isolation, indicating that the same strain may be able to maintain the infection....

  14. Smallest algae thrive as the Arctic Ocean freshens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, William K W; McLaughlin, Fiona A; Lovejoy, Connie; Carmack, Eddy C

    2009-10-23

    As climate changes and the upper Arctic Ocean receives more heat and fresh water, it becomes more difficult for mixing processes to deliver nutrients from depth to the surface for phytoplankton growth. Competitive advantage will presumably accrue to small cells because they are more effective in acquiring nutrients and less susceptible to gravitational settling than large cells. Since 2004, we have discerned an increase in the smallest algae and bacteria along with a concomitant decrease in somewhat larger algae. If this trend toward a community of smaller cells is sustained, it may lead to reduced biological production at higher trophic levels. PMID:19900890

  15. Assessment of calcareous alga Corallina pilulifera as elemental provider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcareous algae such as Corallina pilulifera Postels et Ruprecht can be one of the most potential candidates to be used in biological carbon dioxide assimilation to reduce greenhouse effect because of its calcification capacity as well as photosynthesis if utilized extensively and properly. The major elemental composition of C. pilulifera is as follows: sodium 0.13%, chloride 1.75%, magnesium 4.37%, calcium 18.4%, iron 0.31%, and carbonate 28.5%. Calcareous algae can be used as elemental provider for livestock or agriculture. (author)

  16. Bioecology of an articulated coralline alga Amphiroa fragilissima from Anjuna, Goa, Central Western Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ambiye, V.; Untawale, A.G.

    An articulated coralline alga Amphiroa fragilissima L. Lam. was found to exhibit spasmogenic and hypotensive activities due to the presence of a biogenic amine. This biologically active alga was studied for its bioecology. Its thallus is multiaxial...

  17. A Novel Aeration Method for the Preparation of Algae (Dunaliella Salina Biomass for Biofuel Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.O. Enwereuzoh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of algae (Dunaliela Salina biomass in ammonia (NH4 + and nitrate (NO3 - growth media for biofuel production was investigated, with special attention on the elimination of inhibitory oxygen that adversely affects algae growth. A novel aeration method based on high and efficient transfer of carbon dioxide (CO2 required to stabilize the CO2 of the algae growth medium in a short time was adopted for the elimination of the inhibitory oxygen. The novel aeration method was found to increase the algae growth rate in the growth media investigated as suggested by increases in pH and decreases in dissolved oxygen concentration. However, algae grown in ammonia medium showed 17% higher growth rate than algae grown in nitrate medium. The high mass transfer of CO2 and high energy efficiency make the novel aeration method of algae growth in ammonia medium better suited for high yield of algae biomass for biofuel production.

  18. Algae of economic importance that accumulate cadmium and lead: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila O. Souza; Lizângela R. Ferreira; Natanael R. X. Pires; Pedro J. S. Filho; Fabio A. Duarte; Claudio M. P. Pereira; Márcia F. Mesko

    2012-01-01

    Currently, algae and algae products are extensively applied in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Algae are the main organisms that take up and store heavy metals. Therefore, the use of compounds derived from algae by the pharmaceutical industry should be closely monitored for possible contamination. The pollution generated by heavy metals released by industrial and domestic sources causes serious changes in the aquatic ecosystem, resulting in a loss of biological diversity and...

  19. Green algae in alpine biological soil crust communities: acclimation strategies against ultraviolet radiation and dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten, Ulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are major components of biological soil crusts in alpine habitats. Together with cyanobacteria, fungi and lichens, green algae form a pioneer community important for the organisms that will succeed them. In their high altitudinal habitat these algae are exposed to harsh and strongly fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly intense irradiation, including ultraviolet radiation, and lack of water leading to desiccation. Therefore, green algae surviving in these environments must ...

  20. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska; Teresa Mrozińska

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland), in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances). The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epili...

  1. Research of Influence of Aniline on the Growth of Ocean Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Haiyuan; WANG Xian

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the interaction of aniline and ocean algae based on the standard appraisal method of chemical medicine for algae toxicity. It is showed by experimental results that aniline has pretty toxic effects on algae. Suspended substances in water can offset some effects of aniline. It also discusses the dynamic constant of first order degradation reaction rate of algae on aniline from the point of view of chemical dynamics.

  2. Vitamin A, nutrition, and health values of algae: Spirulina, Chlorella, and Dunaliella

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, G.; Suter, P M

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro and micro nutrients have been studied and confirmed in various populations. The safety of human consuming these algae and products derived from these algae by humans has been widely studied. It is ...

  3. Viruses of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae isolated from Paramecium bursaria and Hydra viridis

    OpenAIRE

    James L Van Etten; Meints, Russel H.; Kuczmarski, Daniel; Burbank, Dwight E.; Lee, Kit

    1982-01-01

    We previously reported that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from the Florida strain of Hydra viridis induced replication of a virus (designated HVCV-1) in the algae. We now report that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from four other sources of green hydra and one source of the protozoan Paramecium bursaria also induced virus synthesis. Algae from one of these hydra contained a virus identical to HVCV-1 (based on its rate of sedimentation, buoyant density, reaction to H...

  4. Effect of Spray Freeze Drying on Antioxidant Activity of Phycocyprotein from Nostoc sphaeroides KUting%喷雾冷冻干燥对葛仙米藻胆蛋白抗氧化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程超; 朱玉婷; 田瑞; 汪兴平; 潘思轶

    2012-01-01

    研究喷雾冷冻干燥对葛仙米藻胆蛋白抗氧化特性的影响,并与冷冻干燥技术进行比较。主要测定ABTS+·、铁还原抗氧化能力(FRAP)、对羟自由基(·OH)清除作用和H2O2诱导的脂质过氧化的抑制作用,结果发现,喷雾冷冻干燥(SFD)对葛仙米藻胆蛋白的抗氧化特性有一定的影响,在基于电子转移和氢原子转移的抗氧化测定方法中,SFD与冷冻干燥(FD)制备的样品差异不明显,但在基于活性氧自由基清除的测定方法中,SFD显著优于FD。表明SFD非常适合于高活性成分的干燥。%In this study, the effect of spray freeze drying on the antioxidant activity of phycobiliprotein fromNostoc sphaeroides KUting was studied and compared with that of common freeze drying. The scavenging effect of phycobiliprotein on ABTS+· and hydroxyl radicals (·OH), H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation and ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) were evaluated. The results indicated that spray freeze drying method had obvious effect on antioxidant activity of phycobiliprotein from Nostoc sphaeroides Kuting. The samples dried by two different methods showed no significant difference in the antioxidant activity determined based on electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer. The free radical scavenging activity of the sample dried by spray freeze drying method was markedly higher than that of the sample dried by common freeze drying method. These data suggest that spray freeze drying is more suitable for drying active substances.

  5. Distribution and biomass estimation of shell-boring algae in the intertidal area at Goa India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Sharma, S.; Lande, V.

    The distribution and frequency of shell-boring green and blue-green algae in the intertidal at Goa, India were studied. The green alga Gomontia sp. and the blue green algae Hyella caespitosa Bornet et Flahault, H. gigas Lucas et Golubic...

  6. Relationship between carbohydrate movement and the symbiosis in lichens with green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D J; Ahmadjian, V

    1972-09-01

    When isolated in pure culture, four genera of lichen algae were able to produce the polyol which is known to move from the alga to the fungus in lichens with these algae. This conclusion corrects earlier suggestions that the mobile polyol is only formed by the alga in the lichen thallus. Stichococcus produced sorbitol and it is therefore suggested that, in lichens with this alga, sorbitol moves between the symbionts. Hyalococcus and Stichococcus had a similar pattern of incorporation of H(14)CO 3 (-) in the light, suggesting a close relationship between these algae which are only separated now on morphological grounds.The pattern of incorporation of H(14)CO 3 (-) in the light into Cladonia cristatella and its alga (Trebouxia erici) in culture indicates that in the cultured algae more (14)C was incorporated into ethanol insoluble substances and lipids and less into ribitol than in the lichen. The pattern in a joint culture of the alga and the fungus of C. cristatella was approximately intermediate between that of the lichen and the alga. However, only a small amount of (14)C fixed by the alga reached the fungus in the joint culture, and it is therefore suggested that the presence of the fungus without morphological differentiation into a lichen thallus is not sufficient to promote the alga to release carbohydrate. PMID:24481561

  7. New methodologies for the integration of power plants with algae ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, K.; Gijp, S. van der; Stel, R.W van der; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally recognized that algae could be an interesting option for reducing CO2 emissions. Based on light and CO2, algae can be used for the production various economically interesting products. Current algae cultivation techniques, however, still present a number of limitations. Efficient fee

  8. Oxidative stress and antioxidant indices of marine alga Porphyra vietnamensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pise, N.M.; Gaikwad, D.K.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems were assessed in a marine red alga Porphyra vietnamensis Tanaka et Pham-Hoang Ho, from India. Lipid peroxidation (LPX) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were measured as oxidative...

  9. Lipid constituents of the red alga Acantophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Govenkar, M.B.

    A new steroid cholest-4-ene-3 alpha, 6 beta-diol together with the known cholest-4-ene-3-one, lauric acid and O-phathalic acid bis-(2-ethyl nonly)-ester were isolated from the red alga Acantophora spicifera. The structures of these compounds were...

  10. Free Sterols of the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Govenkar, M.B.; Wahidullah, S.

    The free sterols of the red alga, Chondria armata have been identified by means of NMR, EIMS and GCMS analyses. The mixture contained besides cholesterol, C sub(28) and C sub(29) saturated as well as unsaturated components. The major component...

  11. New bromotriterpene polyethers from the Indian alga Chondria armata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ciavatta, M.L.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Scognamiglio, G.; Cimino, G.

    Six new bromotriterpene polyethers, armatol A-F (1-6), with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from the Indian Ocean red alga Chondria armata. The structures were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, in particular 1D- and 2D-NMR...

  12. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  13. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Stephen P.; Franklin, Scott E.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Although combinatorial antibody libraries have solved the problem of access to large immunological repertoires, efficient production of these complex molecules remains a problem. Here we demonstrate the efficient expression of a unique large single-chain (lsc) antibody in the chloroplast of the unicellular, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We achieved high levels of protein accumulation by synthesizing the lsc gene in chloroplast codon bias and by driving expression of the chimeric gene using either of two C. reinhardtii chloroplast promoters and 5' and 3' RNA elements. This lsc antibody, directed against glycoprotein D of the herpes simplex virus, is produced in a soluble form by the alga and assembles into higher order complexes in vivo. Aside from dimerization by disulfide bond formation, the antibody undergoes no detectable posttranslational modification. We further demonstrate that accumulation of the antibody can be modulated by the specific growth regime used to culture the alga, and by the choice of 5' and 3' elements used to drive expression of the antibody gene. These results demonstrate the utility of alga as an expression platform for recombinant proteins, and describe a new type of single chain antibody containing the entire heavy chain protein, including the Fc domain.

  14. Uptake of tritiated lysine by fresh water alga, Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium uptake by fresh water alga. S.obliquus was studied using tritium labelled lysine, and a sequential solvent extraction procedure was used to study the distribution of tritium in different organic constituents of the algal cells. The accumulation of tritium in the algal cells was found to be 3-4 orders of magnitude more than that obtained for tritiated water. (author)

  15. Uptake of plutonium by alga Dunaliella and bivalve Meretrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plutonium uptake from seawater by Dunaliella indicated kd(ratio of Pu in alga to that in seawater) factors of 104 similar to those obtained for sediments. However transfer ratios for Pu from contaminated sediments for Meretrix was 10-4 for short term periods ranging up to 20 days. (author)

  16. Effect of sonication frequency on the disruption of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Masaki; King, Patrick M; Wu, Xiaoge; Joyce, Eadaoin M; Mason, Timothy J; Yamamoto, Ken

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the efficiency of ultrasonic disruption of Chaetoceros gracilis, Chaetoceros calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp. was investigated by applying ultrasonic waves of 0.02, 0.4, 1.0, 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3MHz to algal suspensions. The results showed that reduction in the number of algae was frequency dependent and that the highest efficiency was achieved at 2.2, 3.3, and 4.3MHz for C. gracilis, C. calcitrans, and Nannochloropsis sp., respectively. A review of the literature suggested that cavitation, rather than direct effects of ultrasonication, are required for ultrasonic algae disruption, and that chemical effects are likely not the main mechanism for algal cell disruption. The mechanical resonance frequencies estimated by a shell model, taking into account elastic properties, demonstrated that suitable disruption frequencies for each alga were associated with the cell's mechanical properties. Taken together, we consider here that physical effects of ultrasonication were responsible for algae disruption. PMID:26964936

  17. Epiphytic Algae study from pool of Ammiq (Bekaa, Lebanon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this particular place which constitutes the pool of Ammiq, 104 species and varieties have been collected. The diatoms constitute in themselves 85% of the algae population. This is an epiphytic microflora which is attached to the immerged macrophytics on this above mentioned place . (author)

  18. Enhanced high energy efficient steam drying of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology (HC) were proposed. • HC was developed on exergy recovery through exergy elevation and heat pairing. • The energy efficiency of the proposed drying processes was evaluated. • Significant reduction of energy input and CO2 emission in drying is readily achieved. - Abstract: State-of-the-art brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology were proposed, and their performance with respect to energy consumption was evaluated. Heat circulation technology was developed using the principle of exergy recovery performed through exergy elevation and effective heat pairing for both sensible and latent heat. Two steam drying processes based on heat circulation technology for algae drying were proposed, involving heat circulation with or without steam recirculation. The proposed processes were compared with the conventional heat recovery system employing heat cascade technology. Brown algae Laminaria japonica was selected as the test sample. From the results, it is very clear that both proposed drying processes can reduce the required drying energy significantly by up to 90% of that required in conventional heat recovery drying. Furthermore, the temperature–enthalpy diagram for each process shows that in heat circulation technology based drying, the curves of both hot and cold streams are almost parallel, resulting in the minimization of exergy losses

  19. The alga Trachydiscus minutus (Pseudostaurastrum minutum): growth and composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iliev, I.; Petkov, G.; Lukavský, Jaromír; Furnadzhieva, S.; Andreeva, R.; Bankova, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, 3-4 (2011), 222-231. ISSN 1312-8183 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : algae, * fatty acids * pilot plant cultivation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  20. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Phagomixotrophic Green Alga Cymbomonas tetramitiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Amber E.; Graham, Linda E.; Kim, Eunsoo

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cymbomonas tetramitiformis strain PLY262, which is a prasinophycean green alga that retains a phagomixotrophic mode of nutrition. The genome is 84,524 bp in length, with a G+C content of 37%, and contains 3 rRNAs, 26 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. PMID:27313295

  1. Algae of the Bohemian Forest. 1. Specieses richness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lederer, F.; Lukavský, Jaromír

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2001), s. 97-104. ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA60504; GA ČR GA206/99/1411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Bohemian Forest * species richness * biodiversity * algae * cyanobacteria * lakes * brooks * rivers * bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Selenocystamine improves protein accumulation in chloroplasts of eukaryotic green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira-Camargo, Livia S; Tran, Miller; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D.; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic green algae have become an increasingly popular platform for recombinant proteins production. In particular, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has garnered increased attention for having the necessary biochemical machinery to produce vaccines, human antibodies and next generation cancer targeting immunotoxins. While it has been shown that chloroplasts contain chaperones, peptidyl prolylisomerases and protein disulfide isomerases that facilitate these complex proteins folding and assembly,...

  3. Proteomics analysis of heterogeneous flagella in brown algae (stramenopiles).

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Gang; Nagasato, Chikako; Oka, Seiko; Cock, J. Mark; Motomura, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    International audience Flagella are conserved organelles among eukaryotes and they are composed of many proteins, which are necessary for flagellar assembly, maintenance and function. Stramenopiles, which include brown algae, diatoms and oomycetes, possess two laterally inserted flagella. The anterior flagellum (AF) extends forward and bears tripartite mastigonemes, whilst the smooth posterior flagellum (PF) often has a paraflagellar body structure. These heterogeneous flagella have served...

  4. Emulsion properties of algae soluble protein isolate from Tetraselmis sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenzfeier, A.; Helbig, A.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2013-01-01

    To study possible applications of microalgae proteins in foods, a colourless, protein-rich fraction was isolated from Tetraselmis sp. In the present study the emulsion properties of this algae soluble protein isolate (ASPI) were investigated. Droplet size and droplet aggregation of ASPI stabilized o

  5. Rare Earth Elements and Algae: Physiological Effects, Biorefinery and Recycling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goecke, Franz; Vítová, Milada; Zachleder, Vilém

    Švýcarsko: Springer International Publishing, 2015 - (Prokop, A.; Bajpai, R.; Zappi, M.), s. 339-363 ISBN 978-3-319-20199-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Algae * Algal blooms * Bioaccumulation of metals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  6. Decreased abundance of crustose coralline algae due to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Andersson, Andreas J; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Mackenzie, Fred T.

    2008-01-01

    Owing to anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide could almost double between 2006 and 2100 according to business-as-usual carbon dioxide emission scenarios1. Because the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere2, 3, 4, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters, and hence acidification and lower carbonate saturation states2, 5. As a consequence, it has been suggested that marine calcifying organisms, for example corals, coralline algae, molluscs and foraminifera, will have difficulties producing their skeletons and shells at current rates6, 7, with potentially severe implications for marine ecosystems, including coral reefs6, 8, 9, 10, 11. Here we report a seven-week experiment exploring the effects of ocean acidification on crustose coralline algae, a cosmopolitan group of calcifying algae that is ecologically important in most shallow-water habitats12, 13, 14. Six outdoor mesocosms were continuously supplied with sea water from the adjacent reef and manipulated to simulate conditions of either ambient or elevated seawater carbon dioxide concentrations. The recruitment rate and growth of crustose coralline algae were severely inhibited in the elevated carbon dioxide mesocosms. Our findings suggest that ocean acidification due to human activities could cause significant change to benthic community structure in shallow-warm-water carbonate ecosystems.

  7. Algas vene kirjanduse nädal / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    22. septembril algas Tartu Linnaraamatukogus vene kirjanduse nädal Inga Ivanova raamatu "Kadunud koerte saladus" esitlusega; 24. sept. toimub Igor Kotjuhi autoriõhtu; 26.-28. toimub Tartu Ülikoolis vene kirjandusele pühendatud rahvusvaheline teaduskonverents. Raamatukogust saab osta ka venekeelseid raamatuid

  8. Biochar production from freshwater algae by slow pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the feasibility of biochar production from 3 kinds of freshwateralgae, viz. Spirulina, Spirogyra and Cladophora, was undertaken. Using a slow pyrolysis process in a specially designed reactor, biochar could be generated at 550oC under nitrogen atmosphere. The yields of biochar were between 28-31% of the dry algae.

  9. Biochar production from freshwater algae by slow pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

    2012-01-01

    A study on the feasibility of biochar production from 3 kinds of freshwateralgae, viz. Spirulina, Spirogyra and Cladophora, was undertaken. Using a slow pyrolysis process in a specially designed reactor, biochar could be generated at 550oC under nitrogen atmosphere. The yields of biochar were between 28-31% of the dry algae.

  10. Homogeneity of Danish environmental and clinical isolates of Shewanella algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Holt, H.M.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Bundvad, A.; Søgaard, P.; Gram, Lone

    2000-01-01

    Danish isolates of Shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. Although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random...

  11. Alga-lysing bioreactor and the dominant bacteria strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Hai-yan; HU Wen-rong; MU Rui-min; LI Xiao-cai

    2007-01-01

    Alga-lysing bacteria have been paid much attention to in recent years. In this study, the alga-lysing strain P05 which was isolated from an immobilizing biosystem was immobilized by coke and elastic filler, forming two biological reactors. The removal efficiencies of algae, NH3-N and organic matter using the two reactors were studied. The results showed that strain P05 was an ideal algal-lysing bacteria strain because it was easy to be immobilized by coke and elastic filler which are of cheap, low biodegradability and the simple immobilization procedure. After 7 d filming, the biological film could be formed and the reactors were used to treat the eutrophic water. These two reactors were of stability and high effect with low cost and easy operation. The optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each reactor was 4 h. The algae removal rates were 80.38% and 82.1% (in term of Chl-a) of coke reactor and filler reactor, respectively. And that of NH3-N were 52.3% and 52.7%. The removal rates of CODMn were 39.03% and 39.64%. The strain P05 was identified as Bacillus sp. by PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, BLAST analysis, and comparison with sequences in the GenBank nucleotide database.

  12. Fuzzy Pattern Recognition System for Detection of Alga Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To realize the on-line measurement and make analysis on the density of algae and their cluster distribution, the fluorescent detection and fuzzy pattern recognition techniques are used. The principle of fluorescent fiber-optic detection is given as well as the method of fuzzy feature extraction using a class of neural network.

  13. A REVIEW OF HEAVY METAL ADSORPTION BY MARINE ALGAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  14. A Novel Lanostanoid Lactone From the Alga Hypnea cerricornis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Xiao-Hua; CHEN, Xiao; LU, Jian-Hua; YAO, Guang-Min; LI, Yah-Ming; ZE NG, Long-Mei

    2001-01-01

    A novel lanntanoid lactone (1) was first isolated fron the Alga Hypnen cerriconis collected from the Xisha Islands in theSouth China Sea. The structure of 1 was determined on spectral evidence as 5a-tansta-8-en-3β,22ζ-dihydroxy-22 (R), 24(S)-lactone.

  15. The Occurrence of Hormesis in Plants and Algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedergreen, Nina; Streibig, Jens C; Kudsk, Per;

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the frequency, magnitude and dose/concentration range of hormesis in four species: The aquatic plant Lemna minor, the micro-alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the two terrestrial plants Tripleurospermum inodorum and Stellaria media exposed to nine herbicides and one...

  16. Photo-producing Hydrogen with Marine Green Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Hydrogen is often hailed as a potential source of unlimited clean power.It can be produced with green algae from water and solar energy through a process called "photobiological hydrogen production."Although its efficiency is rather low at present, scientists believe,an increase to 10% would make this process economically feasible.

  17. Survey of Hydrogenase Activity in Algae: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, J. J.

    1982-04-01

    The capacity for hydrogen gas production was examined in nearly 100 strains of Eukaryotic algae. Each strain was assessed for rate of H2 production in darkness, at compensating light intensity and at saturating Tight intensity. Maximum H2 yield on illumination and sensitivity to molecular oxygen were also measured.

  18. THE OCCURRENCE OF HORMESIS IN PLANTS AND ALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluated the frequency, magnitude and dose/concentration range of hormesis in four species: The aquatic plant Lemna minor, the micro-algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the two terrestrial plants Tripleurospermum inodorum and Stellaria media exposed to nine herbicides and one fung...

  19. Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols (TAGs in plants and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Cagliari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Triacylglycerols (TAGs, which consist of three fatty acids bound to a glycerol backbone, are major storage lipids that accumulate in developing seeds, flower petals, pollen grains, and fruits of innumerous plant species. These storage lipids are of great nutritional and nutraceutical value and, thus, are a common source of edible oils for human consumption and industrial purposes. Two metabolic pathways for the production of TAGs have been clarified: an acyl¬ CoA-dependent pathway and an acyl-CoA-independent pathway. Lipid metabolism, specially the pathways to fatty acids and TAG biosynthesis, is relatively well understood in plants, but poorly known in algae. It is generally accepted that the basic pathways of fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis in algae are analogous to those of higher plants. However, unlike higher plants where individual classes of lipids may be synthesized and localized in a specific cell, tissue or organ, the complete pathway, from carbon dioxide fixation to TAG synthesis and sequestration, takes place within a single algal cell. Another distinguishing feature of some algae is the large amounts of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC- PUFAs as major fatty acid components. Nowadays, the focus of attention in biotechnology is the isolation of novel fatty acid metabolizing genes, especially elongases and desaturases that are responsible for PUFAs synthesis, from different species of algae, and its transfer to plants. The aim is to boost the seed oil content and to generate desirable fatty acids in oilseed crops through genetic engineering approaches. This paper presents the current knowledge of the neutral storage lipids in plants and algae from fatty acid biosynthesis to TAG accumulation.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL ANATOMICAL AND PHITOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME ALGAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kaysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical features of thalluses of brown (Laminaria saccharina, Fucus vesiculosus and red (Ahnfeltia plicata algae, procured at a coastal strip of the Northern basin in gulfs of Ura-Guba and Palkina-Guba at different depths. Compliance of Fucus and Ahnfeltia with pharmacopoeial norms and merchandising indices for Laminaria was established, except for high concentration of sand in Ahnfeltia thalluses. The identity of algae between each other was shown based on the results of qualitative analysis on polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, iodine, mannitol, amino acids presence. Quantitative content of polysaccharides, alginic acids, reducing sugars, pentosans, iodine, cellulose, mannitol, proteins, lipids, agar was determined. In comparison with Fucus and Ahnfeltia higher concentration of the following content was noted in Laminaria: alginic acids (1.4 and 5.75 times higher, polysaccharides (1.3 and 1.4 times, iodine (4.5 and 1.8 times, mannatol (1.5 and 2.5 times (data received is statistically reliable. Impropriety of storm algae for processing was shown as law quality raw material. The highest concentration of active substances was revealed in Laminaria thalluses which were procured at the depth of 10 m in a period from September to October. Active accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese corresponding to similar sea water composition was established in algae. Mathematical equations of regression between protein and manganese, protein and iron content in algae were deduced. Under proper conditions of drying and storage high quality of the materials can be preserved during 3 years. Based on the findings of photochemical researches, taking into account squares of plantations and possible exploitation stocks, the possibility and prospectivity of industrial processing of Fucus vesiculosus and Ahnfeltia plicata together with Laminaria saccharina as plant sources of polysaccharides (mainly

  1. Photosynthetic H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular green algae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios

    2007-10-01

    Unicellular green algae have the ability to operate in two distinctly different environments (aerobic and anaerobic), and to photosynthetically generate molecular hydrogen (H2). A recently developed metabolic protocol in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii permitted separation of photosynthetic O2-evolution and carbon accumulation from anaerobic consumption of cellular metabolites and concomitant photosynthetic H2-evolution. The H2 evolution process was induced upon sulfate nutrient deprivation of the cells, which reversibly inhibits photosystem-II and O2-evolution in their chloroplast. In the absence of O2, and in order to generate ATP, green algae resorted to anaerobic photosynthetic metabolism, evolved H2 in the light and consumed endogenous substrate. This study summarizes recent advances on green algal hydrogen metabolism and discusses avenues of research for the further development of this method. Included is the mechanism of a substantial tenfold starch accumulation in the cells, observed promptly upon S-deprivation, and the regulated starch and protein catabolism during the subsequent H2-evolution. Also discussed is the function of a chloroplast envelope-localized sulfate permease, and the photosynthesis-respiration relationship in green algae as potential tools by which to stabilize and enhance H2 metabolism. In addition to potential practical applications of H2, approaches discussed in this work are beginning to address the biochemistry of anaerobic H2 photoproduction, its genes, proteins, regulation, and communication with other metabolic pathways in microalgae. Photosynthetic H2 production by green algae may hold the promise of generating a renewable fuel from nature's most plentiful resources, sunlight and water. The process potentially concerns global warming and the question of energy supply and demand. PMID:17721788

  2. Apport des arbres fruitiers à la sécurité alimentaire en milieu urbain tropical: cas de la commune de Limete- Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyindula, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit Trees Contribution to Food Security in Tropical Urban Environment: Instance of Commune of Limete in Kinshasa- Democratic Republic of Congo. Problems of hunger and malnutrition in urban environnements force the populations to exploit all the food resources available. This work investigates the contribution to the diet of the population of the edible fruits produced by the 19 species of trees found in a district of Kinshasa. An investigation carried out in 1.09% of the 18,475 household plots of the commune of Limete permitted to estimate at approximately 47,000 feet the number of trees planted there and their annual production at approximately 4.087 tons. The six main species (Mangifera indica, Persea americana, Elaeis guineensis, Carica papaya, Dacryodes edulis and Musa paradisiaca account on their own for an approximate total of 36,400 feet. The contribution of these species to the population alimentation was estimated respectively at 10.9 g, 6.1 g, 4.5 g, 4.4 g, 1.8 g and 0.6 g of fruits per person and per day. The control of certain environmental- friendly techniques and environmental education relating to the trees in urban environment should increase the importance of this contribution.

  3. A Green Algae Mixture of Scenedesmus and Schroederiella Attenuates Obesity-Linked Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Arun Kumar; Marie Magnusson; Leigh C. Ward; Paul, Nicholas A.; Lindsay Brown

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the responses to a green algae mixture of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Schroederiella apiculata (SC) containing protein (46.1% of dry algae), insoluble fibre (19.6% of dry algae), minerals (3.7% of dry algae) and omega-3 fatty acids (2.8% of dry algae) as a dietary intervention in a high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome model in four groups of male Wistar rats. Two groups were fed with a corn starch diet containing 68% carbohydrates as polysaccharide...

  4. Sublethal concentrations of ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect rainbow trout susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Lorenzen, Ellen; Boutrup, Torsten Snogdal;

    2016-01-01

    concentrations of the ichthyotoxic alga Prymnesium parvum affect the susceptibility of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). During exposure to sublethal algal concentrations, the fish increased production of mucus on their gills. When fish were exposed to the algae...... for 12 h prior to the addition of virus, a marginal decrease in the susceptibility to VHSV was observed compared to fish exposed to VHSV without algae. If virus and algae were added simultaneously, inclusion of the algae increased mortality by 50% compared to fish exposed to virus only, depending on...

  5. Study on the concentration and seasonal variation of inorganic elements in 35 species of marine algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Yan, X.J.

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of five major and 28 trace elements in 35 marine algae collected along the coast of China were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of halogens, rare earth elements and many transition metal elements in marine algae are remarkably higher than...... those in terrestrial plants. The concentration factors for 31 elements in all collected algae were calculated, those for tri- and tetra-valent elements were higher than those of the mono- and di-valent elements in marine algae. The biogeochemical characteristics of inorganic elements in marine algae...

  6. Photoreduction of chromium(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Lin [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang Hongli [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: nsdengwhu@163.com

    2006-11-16

    In this thesis, the photochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated under the irradiation of metal halide lamps ({lambda}=365nm, 250W). The affecting factors of photochemical reduction were studied in detail, such as exposure time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, initial algae concentration and pH. The rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction increased with algae concentration increasing, exposure time increasing, initial Cr(VI) concentration decreasing and the decrease of pH. When pH increased to 6, the rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction nearly vanished. When initial Cr(VI) concentration ranged from 0.4 to 1.0mgL{sup -1} and initial algae concentration ranged from ABS{sub algae} (the absorbency of algae)=0.025 to ABS{sub algae}=0.180, According to the results of kinetic analyses, the kinetic equation of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction in aqueous solution with algae under 250W metal halide lamps was V{sub 0}=kC{sub 0}{sup 0.1718}A{sub algae}{sup 0.5235} (C{sub 0} was initial concentration of Cr(VI); A{sub algae} was initial concentration of algae) under the condition of pH 4.

  7. The effects of ProAlgaZyme novel algae infusion on metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildreth DeWall J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome, or Syndrome X, is characterized by a set of metabolic and lipid imbalances that greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The syndrome is highly prevalent in the United States and worldwide, and treatments are in high demand. ProAlgaZyme, a novel and proprietary freshwater algae infusion in purified water, has been the subject of several animal studies and has demonstrated low toxicity even with chronic administration at elevated doses. The infusion has been used historically for the treatment of several inflammatory and immune disorders in humans and is considered well-tolerated. Here, the infusion is evaluated for its effects on the cardiovascular risk factors present in metabolic syndrome in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 60 overweight and obese persons, ages 25–60. All participants received four daily oral doses (1 fl oz of ProAlgaZyme (N = 22 or water placebo (N = 30 for a total of 10 weeks, and were encouraged to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Blood sampling and anthropometric measurements were taken at the beginning of the study period and after 4, 8 and 10 weeks of treatment. Eight participants did not complete the study. Results ProAlgaZyme brought about statistically significant (p Conclusion ProAlgaZyme (4 fl oz daily consumption resulted in significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while significantly improving serum lipid profiles and reducing markers of inflammation, thus improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects over a course of 10 weeks with an absence of adverse side effects. Trial Registration US ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00489333

  8. The Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Herbivore Abundance on the Ability of Turf Algae to Overgrow Coral in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Imke van Moorselaar; Sarah Engelhard; Christine Hörnlein; Vonk, Sophie M.; Visser, Petra M

    2010-01-01

    Turf algae are multispecies communities of small marine macrophytes that are becoming a dominant component of coral reef communities around the world. To assess the impact of turf algae on corals, we investigated the effects of increased nutrients (eutrophication) on the interaction between the Caribbean coral Montastraea annularis and turf algae at their growth boundary. We also assessed whether herbivores are capable of reducing the abundance of turf algae at coral-algae boundaries. We foun...

  9. Neutron activation analysis of stable elements in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry has grown during the last decades and continuing growth is predicted. Although considerable efforts are being made to minimize the release of the increasing amounts of radioactive wastes into marine environment, it is evident that the potential for radioactive contamination will continue to grow. The purposes of marine environment monitoring around nuclear facilities are to verify that they are functioning as it was designed and to detect the unplanned releases of radioactive contaminants. To provide a sufficient assessment with biological indicators of 60Co and 137Cs, most significant radionuclides in waste effluents released with nuclear power station, the concentration of stable elements in the Sargassum and other algae were surveyed with thermal neutron activation method. The results were followed: 1) The concentration of Mn, As, Zn, and Co were seem to be higher in the sargassum than in other algae. 2) The concentration of Co and Cs were higher in S. thunbergit than in other Sargassum. (author)

  10. Marine Polysaccharides from Algae with Potential Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae.

  11. Bioremoval of toxic elements with aquatic plants and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.C.; Ramesh, G. [Harbor Branch Oceanographic Inst., Fort Pierce, FL (United States); Weissman, J.C.; Varadarajan, R. [Microbial Products, Inc., Vero Beach, FL (United States); Benemann, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic plants were screened to evaluate their ability to adsorb dissolved metals. The plants screened included those that are naturally immobilized (attached algae and rooted plants) and those that could be easily separated from suspension (filamentous microalgae, macroalgae, and floating plants). Two plants were observed to have high adsorption capabilities for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) removal: one blue green filamentous alga of the genus Phormidium and one aquatic rooted plant, water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). These plants could also reduce the residual metal concentration to 0.1 mg/L or less. Both plants also exhibited high specific adsorption for other metals (Pb, Ni, and Cu) both individually and in combination. Metal concentrations were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

  12. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimeters), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured, and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  13. Accumulation and loss of technetium by macrophytic algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are presented of a study of the accumulation of Tc by four species of brown algae (Sargassum vulgare, Cystoseira complexa, Dictyopteris membranacea, Dictyota dichotama implexa) and one species of green algae (Chlorophyta, Ulva rigida). With the exception of Cystoseira complexa, the accumulation was very rapid, and concentration factors decreased from Sargassum vulgare to Ulva rigida. Young stipes of Cystoseira complexa concentrated twice as much more Tc than cylindrical main axes. Attempts were made to understand the mechanism of Tc accumulation by brown seaweed. Fucoidan, a pool of high molecular weight polysaccharides extracted from Fucus sp. was put with sup(95m)Tc in seawater for 48 h and then dialysed, but no activity was retained by Fucoidan. (UK)

  14. Recurring patterns in bacterioplankton dynamics during coastal spring algae blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeling, Hanno; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Bennke, Christin M; Krüger, Karen; Chafee, Meghan; Kappelmann, Lennart; Reintjes, Greta; Waldmann, Jost; Quast, Christian; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wiltshire, Karen H; Amann, Rudolf I

    2016-01-01

    A process of global importance in carbon cycling is the remineralization of algae biomass by heterotrophic bacteria, most notably during massive marine algae blooms. Such blooms can trigger secondary blooms of planktonic bacteria that consist of swift successions of distinct bacterial clades, most prominently members of the Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria and the alphaproteobacterial Roseobacter clade. We investigated such successions during spring phytoplankton blooms in the southern North Sea (German Bight) for four consecutive years. Dense sampling and high-resolution taxonomic analyses allowed the detection of recurring patterns down to the genus level. Metagenome analyses also revealed recurrent patterns at the functional level, in particular with respect to algal polysaccharide degradation genes. We, therefore, hypothesize that even though there is substantial inter-annual variation between spring phytoplankton blooms, the accompanying succession of bacterial clades is largely governed by deterministic principles such as substrate-induced forcing. PMID:27054497

  15. Physiology and cryosensitivity of coral endosymbiotic algae (Symbiodinium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, M; Carter, V L; Leong, J C; Kleinhans, F W

    2010-04-01

    Coral throughout the world are under threat. To save coral via cryopreservation methods, the Symbiodinium algae that live within many coral cells must also be considered. Coral juvenile must often take up these important cells from their surrounding water and when adult coral bleach, they lose their endosymbiotic algae and will die if they are not regained. The focus of this paper was to understand some of the cryo-physiology of the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium, living within three species of Hawaiian coral, Fungia scutaria, Porites compressa and Pocillopora damicornis in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Although cryopreservation of algae is common, the successful cryopreservation of these important coral endosymbionts is not common, and these species are often maintained in live serial cultures within stock centers worldwide. Freshly-extracted Symbiodinium were exposed to cryobiologically appropriate physiological stresses and their viability assessed with a Pulse Amplitude Fluorometer. Stresses included sensitivity to chilling temperatures, osmotic stress, and toxic effects of various concentrations and types of cryoprotectants (i.e., dimethyl sulfoxide, propylene glycol, glycerol and methanol). To determine the water and cryoprotectant permeabilities of Symbiodinium, uptake of radio-labeled glycerol and heavy water (D(2)O) were measured. The three different Symbiodinium subtypes studied demonstrated remarkable similarities in their morphology, sensitivity to cryoprotectants and permeability characteristics; however, they differed greatly in their sensitivity to hypo- and hyposmotic challenges and sensitivity to chilling, suggesting that standard slow freezing cryopreservation may not work well for all Symbiodinium. An appendix describes our H(2)O:D(2)O water exchange experiments and compares the diffusionally determined permeability with the two parameter model osmotic permeability. PMID:19857482

  16. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Barbosa-Filho; Maria de Fátima V. de Souza; Luis C. Rodrigues; Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Lira, Narlize S.; Camila De A. Montenegro; Lima, Gedson R. de M.; Batista, Leônia M.; Falcão, Heloina de S.; de Almeida, Cynthia Layse F.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested fo...

  17. The life with harmful algae in Norway - management

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Einar; Tangen, Karl

    1999-01-01

    Harmful phytoplankton is a part of the natural, marine flora. The need for management and mitigation of their occurrence and effects has raised with the increased use and utilization of the coastal waters. Besides fisheries, fish farming and harvesting/cultivation of bivalves are activities in Norway, which have experienced problems, including economic losses, due to harmful algae. Management tools for tackling such problems and minimize losses are proper site selection of aqua...

  18. Sustainable Fuel from Algae: Challenges and New Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken, Douglas; Antizar Ladislao, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating the potential of producing biofuels from algae has been enjoying a recent revival due to heightened oil prices, uncertain fossil fuel sources and legislative targets aimed at reducing our contribution to climate change. If the concept is to become a reality however, many obstacles need to be overcome. It is necessary to minimise energetic inputs to the system and maximize energy recovery. The cultivation process can be one of the greatest energy consumption hotspots in ...

  19. Toxicity Assessment of Expired Pesticides to Green Algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    OpenAIRE

    Satyavani, G.; G. Chandrasehar; K. Krishna Varma; Goparaju, A.; Ayyappan, S.; P. Neelakanta Reddy; P. Balakrishna Murthy

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of expired pesticides on the yield and growth rate of green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, a study was conducted as per the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline number 201. Fifteen expired pesticide formulations, most commonly used in Indian agriculture, were tested in comparison with their unexpired counterparts. The expired pesticide formulations studied belonged to various class and functional groups: organophosph...

  20. PCD and autophagy in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata

    OpenAIRE

    Affenzeller, Matthias Josef; Darehshouri, Anza; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; LÜTZ-MEINDL, URSULA

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a central role in normal plant development and is also induced by various biotic and abiotic stress factors. In the unicellular freshwater green alga Micrasterias denticulata morphological and biochemical hallmarks such as the appearance of autophagosomes, increased production of ROS and degradation of genomic DNA into small fragments (“DNA laddering”) indicate PCD. Our data not only demonstrate that Micrasterias is capable of performing PCD under salt stress...

  1. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae

    OpenAIRE

    Mayfield, Stephen P.; Franklin, Scott E.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Although combinatorial antibody libraries have solved the problem of access to large immunological repertoires, efficient production of these complex molecules remains a problem. Here we demonstrate the efficient expression of a unique large single-chain (lsc) antibody in the chloroplast of the unicellular, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We achieved high levels of protein accumulation by synthesizing the lsc gene in chloroplast codon bias and by driving expression of the chimeric gene...

  2. Baltic sea algae analysis using Bayesian spatial statistics methods

    OpenAIRE

    Eglė Baltmiškytė; Kęstutis Dučinskas

    2013-01-01

    Spatial statistics is one of the fields in statistics dealing with spatialy spread data analysis. Recently, Bayes methods are often applied for data statistical analysis. A spatial data model for predicting algae quantity in the Baltic Sea is made and described in this article. Black Carrageen is a dependent variable and depth, sand, pebble, boulders are independent variables in the described model. Two models with different covariation functions (Gaussian and exponential) are built to estima...

  3. Techno-Economic Assessment of Micro-Algae Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Global oil consumption is rising at an unprecedented rate renewing interest in alternative fuels. Micro-algae represents a promising feedstock due to inherent advantages such as high solar energy efficiencies, large lipid fractions, and utilization of various waste streams including industrial flue gas. Current technological challenges have limited the commercial viability of microalgae based biofuel production systems. This study directly evaluates and compares the economic viability of biom...

  4. Evidence of ancient genome reduction in red algae (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huan; Price, Dana C; Yang, Eun Chan; Yoon, Hwan Su; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2015-08-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) comprise a monophyletic eukaryotic lineage of ~6,500 species with a fossil record that extends back 1.2 billion years. A surprising aspect of red algal evolution is that sequenced genomes encode a relatively limited gene inventory (~5-10 thousand genes) when compared with other free-living algae or to other eukaryotes. This suggests that the common ancestor of red algae may have undergone extensive genome reduction, which can result from lineage specialization to a symbiotic or parasitic lifestyle or adaptation to an extreme or oligotrophic environment. We gathered genome and transcriptome data from a total of 14 red algal genera that represent the major branches of this phylum to study genome evolution in Rhodophyta. Analysis of orthologous gene gains and losses identifies two putative major phases of genome reduction: (i) in the stem lineage leading to all red algae resulting in the loss of major functions such as flagellae and basal bodies, the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis pathway, and the autophagy regulation pathway; and (ii) in the common ancestor of the extremophilic Cyanidiophytina. Red algal genomes are also characterized by the recruitment of hundreds of bacterial genes through horizontal gene transfer that have taken on multiple functions in shared pathways and have replaced eukaryotic gene homologs. Our results suggest that Rhodophyta may trace their origin to a gene depauperate ancestor. Unlike plants, it appears that a limited gene inventory is sufficient to support the diversification of a major eukaryote lineage that possesses sophisticated multicellular reproductive structures and an elaborate triphasic sexual cycle. PMID:26986787

  5. A computerized image database for freshwater algae recorded in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Şen, Bülent; SÖNMEZ, Feray; ÇETİN, Ahmet Kadri; ALP, Mehmet Tahir; ÖZER, Tülay BAYKAL

    2015-01-01

    A computer-based image database for freshwater algae recorded in Turkey has been established. A separate page was prepared for each algal taxon and each page includes images and taxonomic and ecological information related to the taxon. Algal images were obtained mainly from authors of algal studies previously carried out in various freshwater bodies in Turkey. Data were then standardized in accordance with that of the central database of Turkish herbaria and a database for Turkish freshwater...

  6. Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Andreas F; Allison K. Gregg; Smith, Jennifer E.; Abieri, Maria L.; Mark Hatay; Forest Rohwer

    2013-01-01

    Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp.) and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp.) separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. ...

  7. Analytical approaches to photobiological hydrogen production in unicellular green algae

    OpenAIRE

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Melis, Anastasios; Happe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Several species of unicellular green algae, such as the model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, can operate under either aerobic photosynthesis or anaerobic metabolism conditions. A particularly interesting metabolic condition is that of “anaerobic oxygenic photosynthesis”, whereby photosynthetically generated oxygen is consumed by the cell’s own respiration, causing anaerobiosis in the culture in the light, and induction of the cellular “hydrogen metabolism” process. The latter enta...

  8. Nitrogen and sulfur assimilation in plants and algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giordano, Mario; Raven, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 2 (2014), s. 45-61. ISSN 0304-3770 Grant ostatní: University of Dundee(GB) SC 015096; Italian Ministry for Agriculture(IT) MIPAF, Bioforme project; Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs(IT) MAE. Joint Italian-Israel Cooperation Program Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : nitrogen * sulfur * assimilation * algae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2014

  9. The diversity and evolution of telomeres in algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulnečková, J.; Ševčíková, T.; Fajkus, J.; Lukešová, Alena; Eliáš, M.; Sýkorová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, Supp 1 (2015), s. 149-150. ISSN 0967-0262. [European Phycological Congress /6./. 23.08.2015-28.08.2015, London] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06595S Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0189 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : telomeres * algae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. Cryopreservation of freezing sensitive soil algae using encapsulation dehydration method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouzek, Pavel; Lukešová, Alena; Hauer, Tomáš; Lukeš, Martin

    České Budějovice: Jihočeská univerzita, 2003. s. 30. [TEMP 2003 - International Symposium on Animal and Plant Cold Hardiness. 10.08.2003-14.08.2003, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : cryopreservation * freezing sensitive soil algae * encapsulation dehydration method Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  11. Enhanced Genetic Tools for Engineering Multigene Traits into Green Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Rasala, Beth A.; Syh-Shiuan Chao; Matthew Pier; Daniel J Barrera; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes withi...

  12. Toxicity of Fluoranthene and Its Biodegradation by Cyclotella caspia Alga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fluoranthene is one of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with four benzene rings. Because of its toxicity,mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity, fluoranthene is on the black lists of 129 and 68 priority pollutants established by US Environmental Protection Agency and the People's Republic of China, respectively. In recent years, the amount of fluoranthene in the aquatic environment has been increasing with increases in anthropogenic discharge. Based on the biological investigation of tidal water in the Futian mangrove, Cyclotella caspia was selected as the dominant algal species to determine the toxicity of fluoranthene towards C. caspia alga and to investigate the biodegradation of fluoranthene by C. caspia under pure culture. The toxicity experiment showed that the 96-h EC50 vaiue for fluoranthene was 0.2 mg/mL. Four parameters, namely C. caspia algal growth rate,chlorophyll (Chi) a content, cell morphology, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, were chosen as indices of toxicity and were measured at 6 d (144 h). The results showed that: (i) the toxicity of fluoranthene towards C.caspia alga was obvious; (ii) C. caspia algal growth rate and Chi a content decreased with increasing concentrations of fluoranthene; and (iii) the rate of cell deformation and SOD activity increased with increasing concentrations of fluoranthene. The biodegradation experiment showed that: (i) the rate of physical degradation of fluoranthene was only 5.86%; (ii) the rate of biodegradation of fluoranthene on the 1st and 6th days (i.e. at 24 and 144 h) was approximately 35% and 85%, respectively; and (iii) the biodegradation capability of C. caspia alga towards fluoranthene was high. It is suggested that further investigations on the toxicity of fluoranthene towards algae, as well as on algal biodegradation mechanisms, are of great importance to use C. caspia as a biological treatment species in an organic wastewater treatment system.

  13. Adsorption of copper onto char derived macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A release of heavy metals into the environment by industrial activities raises much environmental problems because they tend to remain indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain. Copper is essential to human life and health but, like all heavy metals, is potentially toxic as well. The excessive intakes of copper result in its accumulation in the liver and produce gastrointestinal problems, kidney damage, anemia, and continued inhalation of copper-containing sprays is linked with an increase in lung cancer among exposed people. Consequently, we need to eliminate the copper in drinking water. Also, growth rates of marine macro algae far exceed those of terrestrial biomass, without water limitations, so annual primary production rates are higher for the major marine macro algae than for most terrestrial biomass. According to these reasons, we try to use the macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida. Adsorption of heavy metals is one of the possible technologies involved in the removal of toxic metals from industrial waste streams and mining waste water using low-cost adsorbents. In recent years, many low-cost adsorbents such as seaweeds, activated carbon, etc. have been investigated, but the char by macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida, have not proven to be the most effective and promising substrates. The aim of this study is to remove copper from its aqueous solution by Undaria pinnatifida char for various parameters like pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) by Undaria pinnatifida char was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration at room temperature. And it was verified using equilibrium studies. (author)

  14. Endolithic algae: an alternative source of photoassimilates during coral bleaching.

    OpenAIRE

    Fine, Maoz; Loya, Yossi

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of worldwide coral bleaching events leading to devastating coral mortality have caused alarm among scientists and resource managers. Differential survival of coral species through bleaching events has been widely documented. We suggest that among the possible factors contributing to survival of coral species during such events are endolithic algae harboured in their skeleton, providing an alternative source of energy. We studied the dynamics of photosynthetic pigment concentrat...

  15. The algae raceway integrated design for optimal temperature management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) minimizes diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations and maintains temperature within the optimal range, between 15 and 30 °C, during day and night and during all seasons in Tucson, Arizona. The system regulates temperature by adjusting the water surface area and thus regulates the energy transfer to and from the atmosphere and raceway. A temperature model of the raceway was developed and was based on a standardized energy balance model for agricultural crops. The model includes the Penman–Monteith evapotranspiration equation, long wave radiation, short wave radiation, sensible heat transfer (convection) and soil heat flux. The temperature model predicted minimum daily raceway water temperature within 1–2 °C over a range of atmospheric conditions during a 21 day algae growth experiment. Because the model is based on standard agricultural weather station data, it can be used in any location that is in proximity to an agricultural weather station. The model automatically downloads data from any weather station in Arizona, allows specification of various cover and liner conditions, specifies the timing of circulation, and has a dynamic simulation mode. -- Highlights: ► An innovative raceway system (ARID) was designed and constructed for temperature management. ► A Visual Basic language/Excel model was developed for algae culture temperature. ► The ARID raceway model predictions were in good agreement with the measured temperatures. ► The ARID raceway model can automatically download standard agricultural weather station data. ► The ARID raceway has a superior temperature regime for algae growth compared to conventional raceways.

  16. Cytotoxic sterols from the formosan brown alga Turbinaria ornata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, J H; Wang, G H; Sung, P J; Chiu, Y H; Duh, C Y

    1997-12-01

    Two hydroperoxysterols 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (1) and 29-hydroperoxystigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta-ol (2), and fucosterol (3) were isolated from the brown alga Turbinaria ornata (Sargassaceae). Hydroperoxide 2 is a new natural compound and was converted into 29-hydroxystigmasta-5,24 (28)-dien-3beta-ol (4) by reaction with LAH. Sterols 1, 2, and 4 exhibited cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:17252381

  17. Relative Contributions of Various Cellular Mechanisms to Loss of Algae during Cnidarian Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Tamaki; Onishi, Masayuki; Xiang, Tingting; Grossman, Arthur R.; Pringle, John R

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged. PMID:27119147

  18. Cytotoxicity of algae extracts on normal and malignant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechelli, Jeremy; Coppage, Myra; Rosell, Karen; Liesveld, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Algae preparations are commonly used in alternative medicine. We examined the effects of algae extracts on normal hematopoietic cells and leukemia cells. Ethanol extracts were prepared of Dunaliella salina (Dun), Astaxanthin (Ast), Spirulina platensis (Spir), and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA). Cell viability effects were completed by Annexin staining. Ast and AFA inhibited HL-60 and MV-4-11 whereas Dun and Spir had no effect. Primary AML blasts demonstrated increased apoptosis in AFA. Primary CLL cells showed apoptosis at 24 hours after exposure to Dun, Ast, Spir, and AFA. High AFA concentrations decreased viability of normal marrow cells. Normal CD34+ viability was inhibited by Dun. Dun and AFA inhibited BFU-E, but all extracts inhibited CFU-GM. Cell-cycle analysis of AML cell lines showed G0/G1 arrest in the presence of AFA. These data suggest that algae extracts may inhibit AML cell lines and leukemia blasts, but they may also have potential inhibitory effects on normal hematopoiesis. PMID:23213541

  19. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments. PMID:23917560

  20. Influence of thermal loading on the ecology of intertidal algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal effluents from the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (operating intermittently from October 1972 to December 1974) increased water temperatures in the discharge area by 7 to 150C. Plant operation and the removal of a causeway increased mixing and salinities in Montsweag Bay. Four small red algae immigrated into the area, but no species were lost from the system. Distribution and abundance patterns of the dominant algae, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus, were altered by the thermal discharge. The cover of F. vesiculosus decreased, whereas that of A. nodosum increased in 1973 but declined significantly in 1974. Reductions in biomass and percent cover were accompanied by changes in the growth dynamics of A. nodosum. Growth and survival in the discharge area were enhanced in 1973 but reduced in 1974. Growth was initiated earlier at all sites affected by the warm water. Plants at experimental sites not directly in the discharge channel grew at accelerated rates during the two years, but stressed plants in the discharge produced few or no viable apexes in 1974. The net effect has been a compression and reduction of intertidal algae into a narrower and less dense band