Sahraoui, Fouad; Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2010-01-01
Over the past few decades, large-scales solar wind (SW) turbulence has been studied extensively, both theoretically and observationally. Observed power spectra of the low frequency turbulence, which can be described in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit, are shown to obey the Kolmogorov scaling, $k"{ -5/3 }$, down the local proton gyrofrequency ($C{ci} \\sim O.l$-Hz). Turbulence at frequencies above $C{ci}$ has not been thoroughly investigated and remains far less well understood. Above $C{ ci}$ the spectrum steepens to $\\sim f"{ -2.5}$ and a debate exists as to whether the turbulence has become dominated by dispersive kinetic Alfven waves (KA W) or by whistler waves, before it is dissipated at small scales, In a case study Sahraoui et al., PRL (2009) have reported the first direct determination of the dissipation range of solar wind turbulence near the electron gyroscale using the high resolution Cluster magnetic and electric field data (up to $10"2$-Hz in the spacecraft reference frame). Above the Doppler-shifted proton scale $C{\\rho i}$ a new inertial range with a scaling $\\sim f"{ -2.3}$ has been evidenced and shown to remarkably agree with theoretical predictions of a quasi-two-dimensional cascade into KA W turbulence. Here, we use a wider sample of data sets of small scale SW turbulence under different plasma conditions, and investigate under which physical criteria the KA W (or the whistler) turbulence may be observed to carry out the cascade at small scales, These new observations/criteria are compared to the predictions on the cascade and the (kinetic) dissipation from the Vlasov theory. Implications of the results on the heating problem of the solar wind will be discussed.
Garcia-Munoz, M.; Hicks, N.; van Voornveld, R.; Classen, I.G.J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Bruedgam, M.; Fahrbach, H. U.; Igochine, V.; Jaemsae, S.; Maraschek, M.; Sassenberg, K.
2010-01-01
We present here the first phase-space characterization of convective and diffusive energetic particle losses induced by shear Alfven waves in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. While single toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) and Alfven cascades (AC) eject resonant fast ions in a convective process
Interchange Reconnection Alfven Wave Generation
Lynch, B J; Li, Y
2014-01-01
Given recent observational results of interchange reconnection processes in the solar corona and the theoretical development of the S-Web model for the slow solar wind, we present further analysis of the 3D MHD simulation of interchange reconnection by Edmondson et al. (Astrophys. J. 707, 1427, 2009). Specifically, we analyze the consequences of the dynamic streamer belt jump that corresponds to flux opening by interchange reconnection. Information about the magnetic field restructuring by interchange reconnection is carried throughout the system by Alfven waves propagating away from the reconnection region, distributing the shear and twist imparted by the driving flows, including shedding the injected stress-energy and accumulated magnetic helicity along newly-open field lines. We quantify the properties of the reconnection-generated wave activity in the simulation. There is a localized high frequency component associated with the current sheet/reconnection site and an extended low frequency component associ...
Nonlinear Landau damping and Alfven wave dissipation
Vinas, Adolfo F.; Miller, James A.
1995-01-01
Nonlinear Landau damping has been often suggested to be the cause of the dissipation of Alfven waves in the solar wind as well as the mechanism for ion heating and selective preacceleration in solar flares. We discuss the viability of these processes in light of our theoretical and numerical results. We present one-dimensional hybrid plasma simulations of the nonlinear Landau damping of parallel Alfven waves. In this scenario, two Alfven waves nonresonantly combine to create second-order magnetic field pressure gradients, which then drive density fluctuations, which in turn drive a second-order longitudinal electric field. Under certain conditions, this electric field strongly interacts with the ambient ions via the Landau resonance which leads to a rapid dissipation of the Alfven wave energy. While there is a net flux of energy from the waves to the ions, one of the Alfven waves will grow if both have the same polarization. We compare damping and growth rates from plasma simulations with those predicted by Lee and Volk (1973), and also discuss the evolution of the ambient ion distribution. We then consider this nonlinear interaction in the presence of a spectrum of Alfven waves, and discuss the spectrum's influence on the growth or damping of a single wave. We also discuss the implications for wave dissipation and ion heating in the solar wind.
Alfven Wave Tomography for Cold MHD Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch
2001-09-07
Alfven waves propagation in slightly nonuniform cold plasmas is studied by means of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) nonlinear equations. The evolution of the MHD spectrum is shown to be governed by a matrix linear differential equation with constant coefficients determined by the spectrum of quasi-static plasma density perturbations. The Alfven waves are shown not to affect the plasma density inhomogeneities, as they scatter off of them. The application of the MHD spectrum evolution equation to the inverse scattering problem allows tomographic measurements of the plasma density profile by scanning the plasma volume with Alfven radiation.
The role of torsional Alfven waves in coronal heating
Antolin, P
2009-01-01
In the context of coronal heating, among the zoo of MHD waves that exist in the solar atmosphere, Alfven waves receive special attention. Indeed, these waves constitute an attractive heating agent due to their ability to carry over the many different layers of the solar atmosphere sufficient energy to heat and maintain a corona. However, due to their incompressible nature these waves need a mechanism such as mode conversion (leading to shock heating), phase mixing, resonant absorption or turbulent cascade in order to heat the plasma. New observations with polarimetric, spectroscopic and imaging instruments such as those on board of the japanese satellite Hinode, or the SST or CoMP, are bringing strong evidence for the existence of energetic Alfven waves in the solar corona. In order to assess the role of Alfven waves in coronal heating, in this work we model a magnetic flux tube being subject to Alfven wave heating through the mode conversion mechanism. Using a 1.5-dimensional MHD code we carry out a paramete...
Swirling astrophysical flows - efficient amplifiers of Alfven waves
Rogava, A D; Bodo, G; Massaglia, S; Rogava, Andria D.; Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Bodo, Gianluigi; Massaglia, Silvano
2003-01-01
We show that a helical shear flow of a magnetized plasma may serve as an efficient amplifier of Alfven waves. We find that even when the flow is purely ejectional (i.e., when no rotation is present) Alfven waves are amplified through the transient, shear-induced, algebraic amplification process. Series of transient amplifications, taking place sequentially along the flow, may result in a cascade amplification of these waves. However, when a flow is swirling or helical (i.e., some rotation is imposed on the plasma motion), Alfven waves become subject to new, much more powerful shear instabilities. In this case, depending on the type of differential rotation, both usual and parametric instabilities may appear. We claim that these phenomena may lead to the generation of large amplitude Alfven waves and the mechanism may account for the appearance of such waves in the solar atmosphere, in accretion-ejecion flows and in accretion columns. These processes may also serve as an important initial (linear and nonmodal)...
Kinetic Alfven wave turbulence in space plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, R.P. [Plasma Simulation Laboratory, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi-110016, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Sachin, E-mail: dynamicalfven@gmail.co [Plasma Simulation Laboratory, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi-110016, New Delhi (India)
2010-07-26
This work presents the derivation of nonlinear coupled equations for the evolution of solar wind turbulence. These equations are governing the coupled dynamics of kinetic Alfven wave and ion acoustic wave. Numerical simulation of these equations is also presented. The ponderomotive nonlinearity is incorporated in the wave dynamics. Filamentation of kinetic Alfven wave and the turbulent spectra are presented in intermediate-{beta} plasmas at heliocentric distances (0.3 AU{<=}r<1.0 AU). The growing filaments and steeper turbulent spectra (of power law k{sup -S}, 5/3{<=}S{<=}3) can be responsible for plasma heating and particle acceleration in solar wind.
Alfven Wave-Driven Supernova Explosion
Suzuki, T K; Yamada, S
2007-01-01
We investigate the role of Alfven waves in the core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion. We assume that Alfven waves are generated by convections inside a proto-neutron star (PNS) and emitted from its surface. Then these waves propagate outwards and dissipate via nonlinear processes and heat up matter around a stalled prompt shock. To quantitatively assess the importance of this process for revival of the stalled shock, we perform 1D time-dependent hydrodynamical simulations, taking into account the heating via the dissipation of Alfven waves. We show that the shock revival occurs if the surface field strength is larger than ~2x10^{15}G and if the amplitude of velocity fluctuation at the PNS surface is larger than ~ 20% of the local sound speed. Interestingly, the Alfven wave mechanism is self-regulating in the sense that the explosion energy is not very sensitive to the surface field strength and initial amplitude of Alfven waves as long as they are larger than the threshold values given above. It should be em...
Nonlinear Landau damping of Alfven waves.
Hollweg, J. V.
1971-01-01
Demonstration that large-amplitude linearly or elliptically polarized Alfven waves propagating parallel to the average magnetic field can be dissipated by nonlinear Landau damping. The damping is due to the longitudinal electric field associated with the ion sound wave which is driven (in second order) by the Alfven wave. The damping rate can be large even in a cold plasma (beta much less than 1, but not zero), and the mechanism proposed may be the dominant one in many plasmas of astrophysical interest.
Nonlinear Evolution of Alfvenic Wave Packets
Buti, B.; Jayanti, V.; Vinas, A. F.; Ghosh, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1998-01-01
Alfven waves are a ubiquitous feature of the solar wind. One approach to studying the evolution of such waves has been to study exact solutions to approximate evolution equations. Here we compare soliton solutions of the Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger evolution equation (DNLS) to solutions of the compressible MHD equations.
Analysis of Magnetic Fields in Inertial Alfven Wave Collisions
Drake, Dereth J; Shanken, Brian C; Howes, Gregory G; Skiff, Frederick; Kletzing, Craig A; Carter, Troy A; Dorfman, Seth
2014-01-01
Turbulence in astrophysical and space plasmas is dominated by the nonlinear interaction of counterpropagating Alfven waves. Most Alfven wave turbulence theories have been based on ideal plasma models, such as incompressible MHD, for Alfven waves at large scales. However, in the inertial Alfven wave regime (vA > vthe), relevant to magnetospheric plasmas, how the turbulent nonlinear interactions are modified by the dispersive nature of the waves remains to be explored. Here we present the first laboratory evidence of the nonlinear interaction in the inertial regime. A comparison is made with the theory for MHD Alfven waves.
Riemann solvers and Alfven waves in black hole magnetospheres
Punsly, Brian; Balsara, Dinshaw; Kim, Jinho; Garain, Sudip
2016-09-01
In the magnetosphere of a rotating black hole, an inner Alfven critical surface (IACS) must be crossed by inflowing plasma. Inside the IACS, Alfven waves are inward directed toward the black hole. The majority of the proper volume of the active region of spacetime (the ergosphere) is inside of the IACS. The charge and the totally transverse momentum flux (the momentum flux transverse to both the wave normal and the unperturbed magnetic field) are both determined exclusively by the Alfven polarization. Thus, it is important for numerical simulations of black hole magnetospheres to minimize the dissipation of Alfven waves. Elements of the dissipated wave emerge in adjacent cells regardless of the IACS, there is no mechanism to prevent Alfvenic information from crossing outward. Thus, numerical dissipation can affect how simulated magnetospheres attain the substantial Goldreich-Julian charge density associated with the rotating magnetic field. In order to help minimize dissipation of Alfven waves in relativistic numerical simulations we have formulated a one-dimensional Riemann solver, called HLLI, which incorporates the Alfven discontinuity and the contact discontinuity. We have also formulated a multidimensional Riemann solver, called MuSIC, that enables low dissipation propagation of Alfven waves in multiple dimensions. The importance of higher order schemes in lowering the numerical dissipation of Alfven waves is also catalogued.
Adiabatic trapping in coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shah, H. A.; Ali, Z. [Department of Physics, G.C. University, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Masood, W. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2013-03-15
In the present work, we have discussed the effects of adiabatic trapping of electrons on obliquely propagating Alfven waves in a low {beta} plasma. Using the two potential theory and employing the Sagdeev potential approach, we have investigated the existence of arbitrary amplitude coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic solitary waves in both the sub and super Alfvenic cases. The results obtained have been analyzed and presented graphically and can be applied to regions of space where the low {beta} assumption holds true.
Torsional Alfven waves in stratified and expanding magnetic flux tubes
2011-01-01
The effects of both density stratification and magnetic field expansion on torsional Alfven waves in magnetic flux tubes are studied. The frequencies, the period ratio P1/P2 of the fundamental and its first-overtone, and eigenfunctions of torsional Alfven modes are obtained. Our numerical results show that the density stratification and magnetic field expansion have opposite effects on the oscillating properties of torsional Alfven waves.
Global Alfven Waves in Solar Physics: Coronal Heating
de Azevedo, C. A.; de Assis, A. S.
1990-11-01
RESUMEN. Se ha demostrado que Ia onda discreta de Alfven puede generar por lo memos un 20% de la energia coronal requerida con densidad de flujo de lO- erg 5 . Las ondas discretas de Alfven son una nueva clase `de ondas de Alfven las cuales pueden describirse por el modelo con que incluye un i6n finito, con frecuencia ciclotr6nica ( /uci # 0) y los efectos del equilibrio de plasma mostrados por Appert, Vaclavik and Villar 1984. ABSTRACT. It has been shown that the Discrete Alfven wave can power at least 20% of the required coronal energy flux density iO- Discrete Alfven waves are a new class of Alfven waves wich can be described by the model with the inclusion of finite ion cyclotron frequency (w/wci 0) and the equilibrium plasma current effects as shown by Appert, Vaclavik and Villar 1984. o,t :, HYDROMAGNETICS - SUN-CORONA
Alfven wave in higher dimensional space time
Panigrahi, D; Chatterjee, S
2009-01-01
Following the wellknown spacetime decomposition technique as applied to (d+1) dimensions we write down the equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in a spatially at generalised FRW universe. Assuming an equation of state for the background cosmic fluid we find solutions in turn for acous- tic waves and also for Alfven waves in a warm (cold) magnetised plasma. Interestingly the different plasma modes closely resemble the at space coun- terparts except that here the field variables all redshift with their time due to the expansion of the background. It is observed that in the ultrarelativistic limit the field parameters all scale as the free photon. The situation changes in the prerelativistic limit where the frequencies change in a bizarre fashion depending on initial conditions. It is observed that for a fixed magnetic field in a particular medium the Alfven wave velocity decreases with the number of dimensions, being the maximum in the usual 4D. Further for a fixed dimension the velocity attenuation is more ...
Nonlinear propagation of short wavelength drift-Alfven waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1986-01-01
Making use of a kinetic ion and a hydrodynamic electron description together with the Maxwell equation, the authors derive a set of nonlinear equations which governs the dynamics of short wavelength ion drift-Alfven waves. It is shown that the nonlinear drift-Alfven waves can propagate as two...
Alfven Wave Solar Model: Part 1, Coronal Heating
van der Holst, Bart; Meng, Xing; Jin, Meng; Manchester, Ward B; Toth, Gabor; Gombosi, Tamas I
2013-01-01
We present the new Alfven Wave Solar Model (AWSoM), a global model from the upper chromosphere to the corona and the heliosphere. The coronal heating and solar wind acceleration are addressed with low-frequency Alfven wave turbulence. The injection of Alfven wave energy at the inner boundary is such that the Poynting flux is proportional to the magnetic field strength. The three-dimensional magnetic field topology is simulated using data from photospheric magnetic field measurements. This model does not impose open-closed magnetic field boundaries; those develop self-consistently. The physics includes: (1) The model employs three different temperatures, namely the isotropic electron temperature and the parallel and perpendicular ion temperatures. The firehose, mirror, and ion-cyclotron instabilities due to the developing ion temperature anisotropy are accounted for. (2) The Alfven waves are partially reflected by the Alfven speed gradient and the vorticity along the field lines. The resulting counter-propagat...
HLL Riemann Solvers and Alfven Waves in Black Hole Magnetospheres
Punsly, Brian; Kim, Jinho; Garain, Sudip
2016-01-01
In the magnetosphere of a rotating black hole, an inner Alfven critical surface (IACS) must be crossed by inflowing plasma. Inside the IACS, Alfven waves are inward directed toward the black hole. The majority of the proper volume of the active region of spacetime (the ergosphere) is inside of the IACS. The charge and the totally transverse momentum flux (the momentum flux transverse to both the wave normal and the unperturbed magnetic field) are both determined exclusively by the Alfven polarization. However, numerical simulations of black hole magnetospheres are often based on 1-D HLL Riemann solvers that readily dissipate Alfven waves. Elements of the dissipated wave emerge in adjacent cells regardless of the IACS, there is no mechanism to prevent Alfvenic information from crossing outward. Thus, it is unclear how simulated magnetospheres attain the substantial Goldreich-Julian charge density associated with the rotating magnetic field. The HLL Riemann solver is also notorious for producing large recurring...
Numerical Simulation of Solitary Kinetic Alfven Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING Jian; LI Yi; WANG Shui
2008-01-01
Using the two-fluid model in the case of α1 (α=β/2Q, β is the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure, and Q=m,e/m,I), we numerically investigate the interactions between two solitary kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs) and between an SKAW and a density discontinuity. The results show that the two SKAWs would remain in their original shapes and propagate at their initiating speeds, which indicates that SKAWs behave just like standard solitons. The simulation also shows that SKAWs will reflect and refract when crossing a discontinuity and propagating into a higher density region. The transmission wave is an SKAW with increasing density, and the reverberation is a disturbance with lower amplitude.
On reflection of Alfven waves in the solar wind
Krogulec, M.; Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.; Moore, R. L.; Nerney, S. F.
1993-01-01
We have revisited the problem of propagation of toroidal and linear Alfven waves formulated by Heinemann and Olbert (1980) to compare WKB and non-WKB waves and their effects on the solar wind. They considered two solar wind models and showed that reflection is important for Alfven waves with periods of the order of one day and longer, and that non-WKB Alfven waves are no more effective in accelerating the solar wind than WKB waves. There are several recently published papers which seem to indicate that Alfven waves with periods of the order of several minutes should be treated as non-WKB waves and that these non-WKB waves exert a stronger acceleration force than WKB waves. The purpose of this paper is to study the origin of these discrepancies by performing parametric studies of the behavior of the waves under a variety of different conditions. In addition, we want to investigate two problems that have not been addressed by Heinemann and Olbert, namely, calculate the efficiency of Alfven wave reflection by using the reflection coefficient and identify the region of strongest wave reflection in different wind models. To achieve these goals, we investigated the influence of temperature, electron density distribution, wind velocity and magnetic field strength on the waves. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that Alfven wave reflection is strongly model dependent and that the strongest reflection can be expected in models with the base temperatures higher than 10(exp 6) K and with the base densities lower than 7 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -3). In these models as well as in the models with lower temperatures and higher densities, Alfven waves with periods as short as several minutes have negligible reflection so that they can be treated as WKB waves; however, for Alfven waves with periods of the order of one hour or longer reflection is significant, requiring a non-WKB treatment. We also show that non-WKB, linear Alfven waves are always less effective in accelerating the
A laboratory search for plasma erosion by Alfven waves
Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.
2007-12-01
Obliquely propagating shear Alfven waves with transverse wavelengths on the order of the electron inertial length or even the ion gyro-radius are commonly observed in the earth's low-altitude auroral zones. These regions are also replete with observations of electron beams and transversely heated ions. A kinetic treatment of shear Alfven wave-particle interaction reveals how these waves can be responsible for some of the observed particle acceleration. The auroral plasma environment is further enriched by the presence of field-aligned depletions in plasma density, and it has been suggested* that the Alfven waves may, in fact, be the cause of the erosion of ionospheric density. In this laboratory experiment, shear waves will be launched using a variety of proven antennas, and also allowed to grow spontaneously as Drift-Alfven modes in seeded density depletions**. Detailed measurements of the wave magnetic fields in the perpendicular density gradient regions will be presented which demonstrate the generation of short perpendicular wave scales due to the perpendicular gradient in parallel wave phase speed. Miniature in-situ particle diagnostics will also be used to look for electron and ion acceleration. The waves will also be launched into an increasing region of background magnetic field in an attempt to model the ratios of Alfven speed to electron thermal speed, and density gradient scale length to electron inertial length appropriate to the earth's auroral zone. Preliminary results will be presented on the efficacy of shear Alfven waves to self-generate plasma density depletions, or deepen ambient density inhomogeneities. The experiments are conducted at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility in the Large Plasma Device. *Chaston, et al., "Ionospheric erosion by Alfven Waves," JGR, V 111, A03206, 2006. **Penano, et al., "Drift-Alfven fluctuations associated with a narrow pressure striation," Phys. Plasmas, V 7, Issue 1, pp. 144-157 (2000).
Nonlinear evolution of parallel propagating Alfven waves: Vlasov - MHD simulation
Nariyuki, Y; Kumashiro, T; Hada, T
2009-01-01
Nonlinear evolution of circularly polarized Alfv\\'en waves are discussed by using the recently developed Vlasov-MHD code, which is a generalized Landau-fluid model. The numerical results indicate that as far as the nonlinearity in the system is not so large, the Vlasov-MHD model can validly solve time evolution of the Alfv\\'enic turbulence both in the linear and nonlinear stages. The present Vlasov-MHD model is proper to discuss the solar coronal heating and solar wind acceleration by Alfve\\'n waves propagating from the photosphere.
Che, H; Viñas, A F
2013-01-01
The observed sub-proton scale turbulence spectrum in the solar wind raises the question of how that turbulence originates. Observations of keV energetic electrons during solar quite-time suggest them as possible source of free energy to drive the turbulence. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we explore how free energy in energetic electrons, released by an electron two-stream instability drives Weibel-like electromagnetic waves that excite wave-wave interactions. Consequently, both kinetic Alfv\\'enic and whistler waves are excited that evolve through inverse and forward magnetic energy cascades.
Reflection and dissipation of Alfv\\'en waves in interstellar clouds
Pinto, C; Galli, D; Velli, M
2012-01-01
Context: Supersonic nonthermal motions in molecular clouds are often interpreted as long-lived magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. The propagation and amplitude of these waves is affected by local physical characteristics, most importantly the gas density and the ionization fraction. Aims: We study the propagation, reflection and dissipation of Alfv\\'en waves in molecular clouds deriving the behavior of observable quantities such as the amplitudes of velocity fluctuations and the rate of energy dissipation. Methods: We formulated the problem in terms of Els\\"asser variables for transverse MHD waves propagating in a one-dimensional inhomogeneous medium, including the dissipation due to collisions between ions and neutrals and to a nonlinear turbulent cascade treated in a phenomenological way. We considered both steady-state and time-dependent situations and solved the equations of the problem numerically with an iterative method and a Lax-Wendroff scheme, respectively. Results: Alfv\\'en waves incident on overdens...
Emission of radiation induced by pervading Alfven waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, G. Q. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, C. S. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Zhongli, Taiwan (China)
2013-03-15
It is shown that under certain conditions, propagating Alfven waves can energize electrons so that consequently a new cyclotron maser instability is born. The necessary condition is that the plasma frequency is lower than electron gyrofrequency. This condition implies high Alfven speed, which can pitch-angle scatter electrons effectively and therefore the electrons are able to acquire free energy which are needed for the instability.
ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Carbonell, M., E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es, E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es, E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es, E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es [Departament de Matematiques i Informatica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2013-04-20
Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.
Quantum effects on compressional Alfven waves in compensated semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amin, M. R. [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, East West University, Aftabnagar, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)
2015-03-15
Amplitude modulation of a compressional Alfven wave in compensated electron-hole semiconductor plasmas is considered in the quantum magnetohydrodynamic regime in this paper. The important ingredients of this study are the inclusion of the particle degeneracy pressure, exchange-correlation potential, and the quantum diffraction effects via the Bohm potential in the momentum balance equations of the charge carriers. A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the evolution of the slowly varying amplitude of the compressional Alfven wave by employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. Typical values of the parameters for GaAs, GaSb, and GaN semiconductors are considered in analyzing the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the compressional Alfven wave. Detailed analysis of the modulation instability in the long-wavelength regime is presented. For typical parameter ranges of the semiconductor plasmas and at the long-wavelength regime, it is found that the wave is modulationally unstable above a certain critical wavenumber. Effects of the exchange-correlation potential and the Bohm potential in the wave dynamics are also studied. It is found that the effect of the Bohm potential may be neglected in comparison with the effect of the exchange-correlation potential in the linear and nonlinear dispersions of the compressional Alfven wave.
Alfven waves in the solar atmosphere. III - Nonlinear waves on open flux tubes
Hollweg, J. V.; Jackson, S.; Galloway, D.
1982-01-01
Consideration is given the nonlinear propagation of Alfven waves on solar magnetic flux tubes, where the tubes are taken to be vertical, axisymmetric and initially untwisted and the Alfven waves are time-dependent axisymmetric twists. The propagation of the waves into the chromosphere and corona is investigated through the numerical solution of a set of nonlinear, time-dependent equations coupling the Alfven waves into motions that are parallel to the initial magnetic field. It is concluded that Alfven waves can steepen into fast shocks in the chromosphere, pass through the transition region to produce high-velocity pulses, and then enter the corona, which they heat. The transition region pulses have amplitudes of about 60 km/sec, and durations of a few tens of seconds. In addition, the Alfven waves exhibit a tendency to drive upward flows, with many of the properties of spicules.
Alfven waves in a partially ionized two-fluid plasma
Soler, R; Ballester, J L; Terradas, J
2013-01-01
Alfv\\'en waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfv\\'en waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfv\\'en waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cut-off values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mo...
Nonlinear Alfv\\'en waves in extended magnetohydrodynamics
Abdelhamid, Hamdi M
2015-01-01
Large-amplitude Alfv\\'en waves are observed in various systems in space and laboratories, demonstrating an interesting property that the wave shapes are stable even in the nonlinear regime. The ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model predicts that an Alfv\\'en wave keeps an arbitrary shape constant when it propagates on a homogeneous ambient magnetic field. However, such arbitrariness is an artifact of the idealized model that omits the dispersive effects. Only special wave forms, consisting of two component sinusoidal functions, can maintain the shape; we derive fully nonlinear Alfv\\'en waves by an extended MHD model that includes both the Hall and electron inertia effects. Interestingly, these \\small-scale effects" change the picture completely; the large-scale component of the wave cannot be independent of the small scale component, and the coexistence of them forbids the large scale component to have a free wave form. This is a manifestation of the nonlinearity-dispersion interplay, which is somewhat differ...
Simulation of the interaction between Alfven waves and fast particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feher, Tamas Bela
2014-02-18
There is a wide variety of Alfven waves in tokamak and stellarator plasmas. While most of them are damped, some of the global eigenmodes can be driven unstable when they interact with energetic particles. By coupling the MHD code CKA with the gyrokinetic code EUTERPE, a hybrid kinetic-MHD model is created to describe this wave-particle interaction in stellarator geometry. In this thesis, the CKA-EUTERPE code package is presented. This numerical tool can be used for linear perturbative stability analysis of Alfven waves in the presence of energetic particles. The equations for the hybrid model are based on the gyrokinetic equations. The fast particles are described with linearized gyrokinetic equations. The reduced MHD equations are derived by taking velocity moments of the gyrokinetic equations. An equation for describing the Alfven waves is derived by combining the reduced MHD equations. The Alfven wave equation can retain kinetic corrections. Considering the energy transfer between the particles and the waves, the stability of the waves can be calculated. Numerically, the Alfven waves are calculated using the CKA code. The equations are solved as an eigenvalue problem to determine the frequency spectrum and the mode structure of the waves. The results of the MHD model are in good agreement with other sophisticated MHD codes. CKA results are shown for a JET and a W7-AS example. The linear version of the EUTERPE code is used to study the motion of energetic particles in the wavefield with fixed spatial structure, and harmonic oscillations in time. In EUTERPE, the gyrokinetic equations are discretized with a PIC scheme using the delta-f method, and both full orbit width and finite Larmor radius effects are included. The code is modified to be able to use the wavefield calculated externally by CKA. Different slowing-down distribution functions are also implemented. The work done by the electric field on the particles is measured to calculate the energy transfer
Matsumoto, Takuma
2011-01-01
We report the results of the first two-dimensional self-consistent simulations directly covering from the photosphere to the interplanetary space. We carefully set up grid points with spherical coordinate to treat Alfv\\'enic waves in the atmosphere with the huge density contrast, and successfully simulate hot coronal wind streaming out as a result of surface convective motion. Footpoint motion excites upwardly propagating Alfv\\'enic waves along an open magnetic flux tube. These waves, traveling in non-uniform medium, suffer reflection, nonlinear mode conversion to compressive modes, and turbulent cascade. Combination of these mechanisms, the Alfv\\'enic waves eventually dissipate to accelerate the solar wind. While the shock heating by the dissipation of the compressive wave plays a primary role in the coronal heating, both turbulent cascade and shock heating contribute to drive the solar wind.
Role of Convective Cells in Nonlinear Interaction of Kinetic Alfven Waves
Luk, Onnie
The convective cells are observed in the auroral ionosphere and they could play an important role in the nonlinear interaction of Alfven waves and disrupt the kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence. Zonal fields, which are analogous to convective cells, are generated by microturbulence and regulate microturbulence inside toroidally confined plasmas. It is important to understand the role of convective cells in the nonlinear interaction of KAW leading to perpendicular cascade of spectral energy. A nonlinear gyrokinetic particle simulation has been developed to study the perpendicular spectral cascade of kinetic Alfven wave. However, convective cells were excluded in the study. In this thesis project, we have modified the formulation to implement the convective cells to study their role in the nonlinear interactions of KAW. This thesis contains detail description of the code formulation and convergence tests performed, and the simulation results on the role of convective cells in the nonlinear interactions of KAW. In the single KAW pump wave simulations, we observed the pump wave energy cascades to waves with shorter wavelengths, with three of them as dominant daughter waves. Convective cells are among those dominant daughter waves and they enhance the rate of energy transfer from pump to daughter waves. When zonal fields are present, the growth rates of the dominant daughter waves are doubled. The convective cell (zonal flow) of the zonal fields is shown to play a major role in the nonlinear wave interaction, while the linear zonal vector potential has little effects. The growth rates of the daughter waves linearly depends on the pump wave amplitude and the square of perpendicular wavenumber. On the other hand, the growth rates do not depend on the parallel wavenumber in the limit where the parallel wavenumber is much smaller than the perpendicular wavenumber. The nonlinear wave interactions with various perpendicular wavenumbers are also studied in this work. When
Parametric decay of parallel and oblique Alfven waves in the expanding solar wind
Del Zanna, L; Landi, S; Verdini, A; Velli, M
2014-01-01
The long-term evolution of large-amplitude Alfven waves propagating in the solar wind is investigated by performing two-dimensional MHD simulations within the expanding box model. The linear and nonlinear phases of the parametric decay instability are studied for both circularly polarized waves in parallel propagation and for arc-polarized waves in oblique propagation. The non-monochromatic case is also considered. In the oblique case, the direct excitation of daughter modes transverse to the local background field is found for the first time in an expanding environment, and this transverse cascade seems to be favored for monochromatic mother waves. The expansion effect reduces the instability growth rate, and it can even suppress its onset for the lowest frequency modes considered here, possibly explaining the persistence of these outgoing waves in the solar wind.
Kuridze, D
2007-01-01
Nonlinear coupling between 3-minute oscillations and Alfven waves in the solar lower atmosphere is studied. 3-minute oscillations are considered as acoustic waves trapped in a chromospheric cavity and oscillating along transversally inhomogeneous vertical magnetic field. It is shown that under the action of the oscillations the temporal dynamics of Alfven waves is governed by Mathieu equation. Consequently, the harmonics of Alfven waves with twice period and wavelength of 3-minute oscillations grow exponentially in time near the layer where the sound and Alfven speeds equal. Thus the 3-minute oscillations are resonantly absorbed by pure Alfven waves near this resonant layer. The resonant Alfven waves may penetrate into the solar corona taking energy from the chromosphere. Therefore the layer c_s=v_A may play a role of energy channel for otherwise trapped acoustic oscillations.
Roles of Fast-Cyclotron and Alfven-Cyclotron Waves for the Multi-Ion Solar Wind
Xiong, Ming
2012-01-01
Using linear Vlasov theory of plasma waves and quasi-linear theory of resonant wave-particle interaction, the dispersion relations and the electromagnetic field fluctuations of fast and Alfven waves are studied for a low-beta multi-ion plasma in the inner corona. Their probable roles in heating and accelerating the solar wind via Landau and cyclotron resonances are quantified. We assume that (1) low-frequency Alfven and fast waves have the same spectral shape and the same amplitude of power spectral density; (2) these waves eventually reach ion cyclotron frequencies due to a turbulence cascade; (3) kinetic wave-particle interaction powers the solar wind. The existence of alpha particles in a dominant proton/electron plasma can trigger linear mode conversion between oblique fast-whistler and hybrid alpha-proton cyclotron waves. The fast-cyclotron waves undergo both alpha and proton cyclotron resonances. The alpha cyclotron resonance in fast-cyclotron waves is much stronger than that in Alfven-cyclotron waves. ...
Characteristics of Short-wavelength Oblique Alfven and Slow waves
Zhao, J S; Yu, M Y; Lu, J Y; Wu, D J
2014-01-01
Linear properties of kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (KAWs) and kinetic slow waves (KSWs) are studied in the framework of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. We obtain the wave dispersion relations that are valid in a wide range of the wave frequency {\\omega} and plasma-to-magnetic pressure ratio {\\beta}. The KAW frequency can reach and exceed the ion cyclotron frequency at ion kinetic scales, whereas the KSW frequency remains sub-cyclotron. At {\\beta}\\sim1, the plasma and magnetic pressure perturbations of both modes are in anti-phase, so that there is nearly no total pressure perturbations. However, these modes exhibit several different properties. At high {\\beta}, the electric field polarization of KAW and KSW is opposite at the ion gyroradius scale, where KAWs are polarized in sense of electron gyration (right-hand polarized) and KSWs are left-hand polarized. The magnetic helicity {\\sigma}\\sim1 for KAWs and {\\sigma}\\sim-1 for KSWs, and the ion Alfv\\'en ratio R_{Ai}\\ll 1 for KAWs and R_{Ai}\\gg 1 for KSWs. We also found...
Vlasov simulations of Kinetic Alfv\\'en Waves at proton kinetic scales
Vasconez, C L; Camporeale, E; Veltri, P
2014-01-01
Kinetic Alfv\\'en waves represent an important subject in space plasma physics, since they are thought to play a crucial role in the development of the turbulent energy cascade in the solar wind plasma at short wavelengths (of the order of the proton inertial length $d_p$ and beyond). A full understanding of the physical mechanisms which govern the kinetic plasma dynamics at these scales can provide important clues on the problem of the turbulent dissipation and heating in collisionless systems. In this paper, hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell simulations are employed to analyze in detail the features of the kinetic Alfv\\'en waves at proton kinetic scales, in typical conditions of the solar wind environment. In particular, linear and nonlinear regimes of propagation of these fluctuations have been investigated in a single-wave situation, focusing on the physical processes of collisionless Landau damping and wave-particle resonant interaction. Interestingly, since for wavelengths close to $d_p$ and proton plasma beta $\\bet...
Phase Mixing of Alfv\\'en Waves Near a 2D Magnetic Null Point
McLaughlin, J A
2014-01-01
The propagation of linear Alfv\\'en wave pulses in an inhomogeneous plasma near a 2D coronal null point is investigated. When a uniform plasma density is considered, it is seen that an initially planar Alfv\\'en wavefront remains planar, despite the varying equilibrium Alfv\\'en speed, and that all the wave collects at the separatrices. Thus, in the non-ideal case, these Alfv\\'enic disturbances preferentially dissipate their energy at these locations. For a non-uniform equilibrium density, it is found that the Alfv\\'en wavefront is significantly distorted away from the initially planar geometry, inviting the possibility of dissipation due to phase mixing. Despite this however, we conclude that for the Alfv\\'en wave, current density accumulation and preferential heating still primarily occur at the separatrices, even when an extremely non-uniform density profile is considered.
Effects of compressional magnetic perturbation on kinetic Alfven waves
Dong, Ge; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Lin, Zhihong
2016-10-01
Kinetic Alfven waves play a very important role in the dynamics of fusion as well as space and astrophysical plasmas. The compressional magnetic perturbation δB|| can play important role in kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) and various instabilities at large plasma β. It could affect the nonlinear behavior of these modes significantly even at small β. In this study, we have implemented δB|| in gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC). The perpendicular Ampere's law is solved as a force balance equation. Double gyroaveraging is incorporated in the code to treat the finite Larmor radius effects related to δB|| terms. KAW is studied in slab geometry as a benchmark case. A scan in β for the KAW dispersion relation shows that as β approaches 1 (>0.3), the effects of δB|| becomes important. Connections are made with other existing studies of KAWs in the fusion and space plasma literature. This new capability of including δB|| in GTC could be applied to nonlinear simulations of modes such as kinetic ballooning and tearing modes. This research is supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Behavior of Torsional Alfven Waves and Field Line Resonance on Rotating Magnetars
Kojima, T O Y
2005-01-01
Torsional Alfven waves are likely excited with bursts in rotating magnetars. These waves are probably propagated through corotating atmospheres toward a vacuum exterior. We have studied the physical effects of the azimuthal wave number and the characteristic height of the plasma medium on wave transmission. In this work, explicit calculations were carried out based on the three-layered cylindrical model. We found that the coupling strength between the internal shear and the external Alfven modes is drastically enhanced, when resonance occurs in the corotating plasma cavity. The spatial structure of the electromagnetic fields in the resonance cavity is also investigated when Alfven waves exhibit resonance.
Alfv\\'en Wave Driven High Frequency Waves in the Solar Atmosphere: Implications for Ion Heating
Kaghashvili, Edisher Kh
2014-01-01
This work is an extension of Kaghashvili [1999] where ion-cyclotron wave dissipation channel for Alfv\\'en waves was discussed. While our earlier study dealt with the mode coupling in the commonly discussed sense, here we study changes in the initial waveform due to interaction of the initial driver Alfv\\'en wave and the plasma inhomogeneity, which are implicitly present in the equations, but were not elaborated in Kaghashvili [1999]. Using a cold plasma approximation, we show how high frequency waves (higher than the initial driver Alfv\\'en wave frequency) are generated in the inhomogeneous solar plasma flow. The generation of the high frequency forward and backward propagating modified fast magnetosonic/whistler waves as well as the generation of the driven Alfv\\'en waves is discussed in the solar atmosphere. The generated high frequency waves have a shorter dissipation timescale, and they can also resonant interact with particles using both the normal cyclotron and anomalous cyclotron interaction channels. ...
Parametric instabilities of large-amplitude parallel propagating Alfven waves: 2-D PIC simulation
Nariyuki, Yasuhiro; Hada, Tohru
2008-01-01
We discuss the parametric instabilities of large-amplitude parallel propagating Alfven waves using the 2-D PIC simulation code. First, we confirmed the results in the past study [Sakai et al, 2005] that the electrons are heated due to the modified two stream instability and that the ions are heated by the parallel propagating ion acoustic waves. However, although the past study argued that such parallel propagating longitudinal waves are excited by transverse modulation of parent Alfven wave, we consider these waves are more likely to be generated by the usual, parallel decay instability. Further, we performed other simulation runs with different polarization of the parent Alfven waves or the different ion thermal velocity. Numerical results suggest that the electron heating by the modified two stream instability due to the large amplitude Alfven waves is unimportant with most parameter sets.
Similon, Philippe L.; Sudan, R. N.
1989-01-01
The importance of field line geometry for shear Alfven wave dissipation in coronal arches is demonstrated. An eikonal formulation makes it possible to account for the complicated magnetic geometry typical in coronal loops. An interpretation of Alfven wave resonance is given in terms of gradient steepening, and dissipation efficiencies are studied for two configurations: the well-known slab model with a straight magnetic field, and a new model with stochastic field lines. It is shown that a large fraction of the Alfven wave energy flux can be effectively dissipated in the corona.
Transfer of Energy, Potential, and Current by Alfv\\'en Waves in Solar Flares
Melrose, D B
2013-01-01
Alfv\\'en waves play three related roles in the impulsive phase of a solar flare: they transport energy from a generator region to an acceleration region; they map the cross-field potential (associated with the driven energy release) from the generator region onto the acceleration region; and within the acceleration region they damp by setting up a parallel electric field that accelerates electrons and transfers the wave energy to them. The Alfv\\'en waves may also be regarded as setting up new closed current loops, with field-aligned currents that close across field lines at boundaries. A model is developed for large-amplitude Alfv\\'en waves that shows how Alfv\\'en waves play these roles in solar flares. A picket-fence structure for the current flow is incorporated into the model to account for the "number problem" and the energy of the accelerated electrons.
Alfven Waves in a Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer Associated with Near-Tail Magnetic Reconnection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YUAN Zhi-Gang; DENG Xiao-Hua; PANG Ye; LI Shi-You; WANG Jing-Fang
2007-01-01
We report observations from Geotail satellite showing that large Poynting fluxes associated with Alfven waves in the plasma sheet boundary layer(PSBL) occur in the vicinity of the near-tail reconnection region on 10 December 1996.During the period of large Poynting fluxex,Geotail also observed strong tailward plasma flws.These observations demonstrate the importance of near-tail reconnection process as the energy source of Alfven waves in the PSBL.Strong tailward(Earthward)plasma flows ought to be an important candidate in generating Alfven waves.Furthermore,the strong pertutbations not only of the magnetic field but also of the electric field observed in the PSBL indicate that the PSBL plays an important role in the generation and propagation of the energy flux associated with Alfven waves.
Drake, D J; Howes, G G; Kletzing, C A; Skiff, F; Carter, T A; Auerbach, D W
2013-01-01
Turbulence is a phenomenon found throughout space and astrophysical plasmas. It plays an important role in solar coronal heating, acceleration of the solar wind, and heating of the interstellar medium. Turbulence in these regimes is dominated by Alfven waves. Most turbulence theories have been established using ideal plasma models, such as incompressible MHD. However, there has been no experimental evidence to support the use of such models for weakly to moderately collisional plasmas which are relevant to various space and astrophysical plasma environments. We present the first experiment to measure the nonlinear interaction between two counterpropagating Alfven waves, which is the building block for astrophysical turbulence theories. We present here four distinct tests that demonstrate conclusively that we have indeed measured the daughter Alfven wave generated nonlinearly by a collision between counterpropagating Alfven waves.
Heating of the Solar Corona by Alfven Waves: Self-Induced Opacity
Zahariev, N I
2011-01-01
There have been derived equations describing the static distributions of temperature and wind velocity at the transition region within the framework of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of fully ionized hydrogen plasma . We have also calculated the width of the transition between the chromosphere and corona as a self-induced opacity of the high-frequency Alfven waves (AWs). The domain wall is a direct consequence of the self-consistent MHD treatment of AWs propagation. We predict considerable spectral density of the high-frequency AWs in the photosphere. The idea that Alfven waves might heat the solar corona belong to Alfven - we simply derived the corresponding MHD equations. The comparison of the solutions to those equations with the observational/measured data will be crucial for revealing the heating mechanism. The analysis of those solutions will explain how Alfven waves brick unto the corona and dissipate their energy there.
Observation of an Alfv\\'en Wave Parametric Instability in a Laboratory Plasma
Dorfman, S
2016-01-01
A shear Alfv\\'en wave parametric instability is observed for the first time in the laboratory. When a single finite $\\omega/\\Omega_i$ kinetic Alfv\\'en wave (KAW) is launched in the Large Plasma Device above a threshold amplitude, three daughter modes are produced. These daughter modes have frequencies and parallel wave numbers that are consistent with copropagating KAW sidebands and a low frequency nonresonant mode. The observed process is parametric in nature, with the frequency of the daughter modes varying as a function of pump wave amplitude. The daughter modes are spatially localized on a gradient of the pump wave magnetic field amplitude in the plane perpendicular to the background field, suggesting that perpendicular nonlinear forces (and therefore $k_{\\perp}$ of the pump wave) play an important role in the instability process. Despite this, modulational instability theory with $k_{\\perp}=0$ has several features in common with the observed nonresonant mode and Alfv\\'en wave sidebands.
Nariyuki, Y; Nariyuki, Yasuhiro; Hada, Tohru
2006-01-01
Nonlinear relations among frequencies and phases in modulational instability of circularly polarized Alfven waves are discussed, within the context of one dimensional, dissipation-less, unforced fluid system. We show that generation of phase coherence is a natural consequence of the modulational instability of Alfven waves. Furthermore, we quantitatively evaluate intensity of wave-wave interaction by using bi-coherence, and also by computing energy flow among wave modes, and demonstrate that the energy flow is directly related to the phase coherence generation.
Numerical simulations of impulsively generated Alfv\\'en waves in solar magnetic arcades
Chmielewski, P; Musielak, Z E; Srivastava, A K
2014-01-01
We perform numerical simulations of impulsively generated Alfv\\'en waves in an isolated solar arcade, which is gravitationally stratified and magnetically confined. We study numerically the propagation of Alfv\\'en waves along such magnetic structure that extends from the lower chromosphere, where the waves are generated, to the solar corona, and analyze influence of the arcade size and width of the initial pulses on the wave propagation and reflection. Our model of the solar atmosphere is constructed by adopting the temperature distribution based on the semi-empirical VAL-C model and specifying the curved magnetic field lines that constitute the asymmetric magnetic arcade. The propagation and reflection of Alfv\\'en waves in this arcade is described by 2.5D magnetohydrodynamic equations that are numerically solved by the FLASH code. Our numerical simulations reveal that the Alfv\\'en wave amplitude decreases as a result of a partial reflection of Alfv\\'en waves in the solar transition region, and that the waves...
Nonlinear Alfv\\'en wave dynamics at a 2D magnetic null point: ponderomotive force
Thurgood, J O
2013-01-01
Context : In the linear, {\\beta}=0 MHD regime, the transient properties of MHD waves in the vicinity of 2D null points are well known. The waves are decoupled and accumulate at predictable parts of the magnetic topology: fast waves accumulate at the null point; whereas Alfv\\'en waves cannot cross the separatricies. However, in nonlinear MHD mode conversion can occur at regions of inhomogeneous Alfv\\'en speed, suggesting that the decoupled nature of waves may not extend to the nonlinear regime. Aims: We investigate the behaviour of low-amplitude Alfv\\'en waves about a 2D magnetic null point in nonlinear, {\\beta}= 0 MHD. Methods: We numerically simulate the introduction of low-amplitude Alfv\\'en waves into the vicinity of a magnetic null point using the nonlinear LARE2D code. Results: Unlike in the linear regime, we find that the Alfv\\'en wave sustains cospatial daughter disturbances, manifest in the transverse and longitudinal fluid velocity, owing to the action of nonlinear magnetic pressure gradients (viz. t...
Alfv\\'enic Wave Heating of the Upper Chromosphere in Flares
Reep, Jeffrey W
2016-01-01
We have developed a numerical model of flare heating due to the dissipation of Alfv\\'enic waves propagating from the corona to the chromosphere. With this model, we present an investigation of the key parameters of these waves on the energy transport, heating, and subsequent dynamics. For sufficiently high frequencies and perpendicular wave numbers, the waves dissipate significantly in the upper chromosphere, strongly heating it to flare temperatures. This heating can then drive strong chromospheric evaporation, bringing hot and dense plasma to the corona. We therefore find three important conclusions: (1) Alfv\\'enic waves, propagating from the corona to the chromosphere, are capable of heating the upper chromosphere and the corona, (2) the atmospheric response to heating due to the dissipation of Alfv\\'enic waves can be strikingly similar to heating by an electron beam, and (3) this heating can produce explosive evaporation.
Disperson relation of finite amplitude Alfven wave in a relativistic electron- positron plasma
Hada, T; Muñoz, V; Hada, Tohru; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Munoz, Victor
2004-01-01
The linear dispersion relation of a finite amplitude, parallel, circularly polarized Alfv\\'en wave in a relativistic electron-positron plasma is derived. In the nonrelativistic regime, the dispersion relation has two branches, one electromagnetic wave, with a low frequency cutoff at $\\sqrt{1+2\\omega_p^2/\\Omega_p^2}$ (where $\\omega_p=(4\\pi n e^2/m)^{1/2}$ is the electron/positron plasma frequency), and an Alfv\\'en wave, with high frequency cutoff at the positron gyrofrequency $\\Omega_p$. There is only one forward propagating mode for a given frequency. However, due to relativistic effects, there is no low frequency cutoff for the electromagnetic branch, and there appears a critical wave number above which the Alfv\\'en wave ceases to exist. This critical wave number is given by $ck_c/\\Omega_p=a/\\eta$, where $a=\\omega_p^2/\\Omega_p^2$ and $\\eta$ is the ratio between the Alfv\\'en wave magnetic field amplitude and the background magnetic field. In this case, for each frequency in the Alfv\\'en branch, two additional...
Threaded-Field-Lines Model for the Low Solar Corona Powered by the Alfven Wave Turbulence
Sokolov, Igor V; Manchester, Ward B; Ozturk, Doga Can Su; Szente, Judit; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Tóth, Gabor; Jin, Meng; Gombosi, Tamas I
2016-01-01
We present an updated global model of the solar corona, including the transition region. We simulate the realistic tree-dimensional (3D) magnetic field using the data from the photospheric magnetic field measurements and assume the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Alfv\\'en wave turbulence and its non-linear dissipation to be the only source for heating the coronal plasma and driving the solar wind. In closed field regions the dissipation efficiency in a balanced turbulence is enhanced. In the coronal holes we account for a reflection of the outward propagating waves, which is accompanied by generation of weaker counter-propagating waves. The non-linear cascade rate degrades in strongly imbalanced turbulence, thus resulting in colder coronal holes. The distinctive feature of the presented model is the description of the low corona as almost-steady-state low-beta plasma motion and heat flux transfer along the magnetic field lines. We trace the magnetic field lines through each grid point of the lower boundary of the g...
Impulsively Generated Linear and Non-linear Alfven Waves in the Coronal Funnels
Chmielewski, P; Murawski, K; Musielak, Z E
2014-01-01
We present simulation results of the impulsively generated linear and non-linear Alfven waves in the weakly curved coronal magnetic flux-tubes (coronal funnels) and discuss their implications for the coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. We solve numerically the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic equations to find the temporal signatures of the small and large-amplitude Alfven waves in the model atmosphere of open and expanding magnetic field configuration with a realistic temperature distribution. We compute the maximum transversal velocity of both linear and non-linear Alfven waves at different heights of the model atmosphere, and study their response in the solar corona during the time of their propagation. We infer that the pulse-driven non-linear Alfven waves may carry sufficient wave energy fluxes to heat the coronal funnels and also to power the solar wind that originates in these funnels. Our study of linear Alfven waves show that they can contribute only to the plasma dynamics and heating of t...
Zaqarashvili, T V; Soler, R
2012-01-01
Ion-neutral collisions may lead to the damping of Alfven waves in chromospheric and prominence plasmas. Neutral helium atoms enhance the damping in certain temperature interval, where the ratio of neutral helium and neutral hydrogen atoms is increased. Therefore, the height-dependence of ionization degrees of hydrogen and helium may influence the damping rate of Alfven waves. We aim to study the effect of neutral helium in the damping of Alfven waves in stratified partially ionized plasma of the solar chromosphere. We consider a magnetic flux tube, which is expanded up to 1000 km height and then becomes vertical due to merging with neighboring tubes, and study the dynamics of linear torsional Alfven waves in the presence of neutral hydrogen and neutral helium atoms. We start with three-fluid description of plasma and consequently derive single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for torsional Alfven waves. Thin flux tube approximation allows to obtain the dispersion relation of the waves in the lower pa...
Pulse-driven nonlinear Alfv\\'en waves and their role in the spectral line broadening
Chmielewski, P; Murawski, K; Musielak, Z E
2012-01-01
We study the impulsively generated non-linear Alfv\\'en waves in the solar atmosphere, and describe their most likely role in the observed non-thermal broadening of some spectral lines in solar coronal holes. We solve numerically the time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic equations to find temporal signatures of large-amplitude Alfv\\'en waves in the model atmosphere of open and expanding magnetic field configuration, with a realistic temperature distribution. We calculate the temporally and spatially averaged, instantaneous transversal velocity of non-linear Alfv\\'en waves at different heights of the model atmosphere, and estimate its contribution to the unresolved non-thermal motions caused by the waves. We find that the pulse-driven nonlinear Alfv\\'en waves with the amplitude $A_{\\rm v}$=50 km s$^{-1}$ are the most likely candidates for the non-thermal broadening of Si VIII $\\lambda$1445.75 \\AA\\ line profiles in the polar coronal hole as reported by Banerjee et al. (1998). We also demonstrate that the Alfv\\'en w...
Exploring the Use of Alfven Waves in Magnetometer Calibration at Geosynchronous Orbit
Bentley, John; Sheppard, David; RIch, Frederick; Redmon, Robert; Loto'aniu, Paul; Chu, Donald
2016-01-01
An Alfven wave is a type magnetohydrodynamicwave that travels through a conducting fluid under the influence of a magnetic field. Researchers have successfully calculated offset vectors of magnetometers in interplanetary space by optimizing the offset to maximize certain Alfvenic properties of observed waves (Leinweber, Belcher). If suitable Alfven waves can be found in the magnetosphere at geosynchronous altitude then these techniques could be used to augment the overall calibration plan for magnetometers in this region such as on the GOES spacecraft, possibly increasing the time between regular maneuvers. Calibration maneuvers may be undesirable because they disrupt the activities of other instruments. Various algorithms to calculate an offset using Alfven waves were considered. A new variation of the Davis-Smith method was derived because it can be mathematically shown that the Davis-Smith method tolerates filtered data, which expands potential applications. The variant developed was designed to find only the offset in the plane normal to the main field because the overall direction of Earth's magnetic field rarely changes, and theory suggests the Alfvenic disturbances occur transverse to the main field. Other variations of the Davis-Smith method encounter problems with data containing waves that propagate in mostly the same direction. A searching algorithm was then designed to look for periods of time with potential Alfven waves in GOES 15 data based on parameters requiring that disturbances be normal to the main field and not change field magnitude. Final waves for calculation were hand-selected. These waves produced credible two-dimensional offset vectors when input to the Davis-Smith method. Multiple two-dimensional solutions in different planes can be combined to get a measurement of the complete offset. The resulting three dimensional offset did not show sufficient precision over several years to be used as a primary calibration method, but reflected
Che, H.; Goldstein, M. L.; Vinas, A. F.
2014-01-01
The observed steep kinetic scale turbulence spectrum in the solar wind raises the question of how that turbulence originates. Observations of keV energetic electrons during solar quiet time suggest them as a possible source of free energy to drive kinetic turbulence. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we explore how the free energy released by an electron two-stream instability drives Weibel-like electromagnetic waves that excite wave-wave interactions. Consequently, both kinetic Alfvénic and whistler turbulence are excited that evolve through inverse and forward magnetic energy cascades.
Small amplitude Kinetic Alfven waves in a superthermal electron-positron-ion plasma
Adnan, Muhammad; Mahmood, Sahahzad; Qamar, Anisa; Tribeche, Mouloud
2016-11-01
We are investigating the propagating properties of coupled Kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves in a low beta plasma having superthermal electrons and positrons. Using the standard reductive perturbation method, a nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type equation is derived which describes the evolution of Kinetic Alfven waves. It is found that nonlinearity and Larmor radius effects can compromise and give rise to solitary structures. The parametric role of superthermality and positron content on the characteristics of solitary wave structures is also investigated. It is found that only sub-Alfvenic and compressive solitons are supported in the present model. The present study may find applications in a low β electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons and positrons.
Quantum Treatment of Kinetic Alfv\\'en Waves instability in a dusty plasma: Magnetized ions
Rubab, N
2016-01-01
The dispersion relation of kinetic Alfv\\'en wave in inertial regime is studied in a three component non-degenerate streaming plasma. A lin- ear dispersion relation using fluid- Vlasov equation for quantum plasma is also derived. The quantum correction CQ raised due to the insertion of Bohm potential in Vlasov model causes the suppression in the Alfven wave frequency and the growth rates of instability. A number of analytical expressions are derived for various modes of propagation. It is also found that many system parameters, i.e, streaming velocity, dust charge, num- ber density and quantum correction significantly influence the dispersion relation and the growth rate of instability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fierros Palacios, Angel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)
2001-02-01
In this work the complete set of differential field equations which describes the dynamic state of a continuos conducting media which flow in presence of a perturbed magnetic field is obtained. Then, the thermic equation of state, the wave equation and the conservation law of energy for the Alfven MHD waves are obtained. [Spanish] Es este trabajo se obtiene el conjunto completo de ecuaciones diferenciales de campo que describen el estado dinamico de un medio continuo conductor que se mueve en presencia de un campo magnetico externo perturbado. Asi, se obtiene la ecuacion termica de estado, la ecuacion de onda y la ley de la conservacion de la energia para las ondas de Alfven de la MHD.
The Modulation of Ionospheric Alfven Resonator on Heating HF Waves and the Doppler Effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NiBin-bin; ZhaoZheng-yu; XieShu-guo
2003-01-01
The propagation of HF waves in IAR can produce many nonlinear effects, including the modulation effect of IAR on HF waves and the Doppler effect. To start with the dependence of the ionospheric electron temperature varia-tions on the Alfven resonant field, We discuss the mechanism of the modulation effect and lucubrate possible reasons for the Doppler effect. The results show that the Alfven resonant field can have an observable modulation effect on HF waves while its mechanism is quite different from that of Schumann resonant field on HF waves. The depth of modulation of IAR on HF waves has a quasi-quadratic relation with the Alfven field, which directly inspires the formation of cross-spectrum between ULF waves and HF waves and results in spectral peaks at some gyro-frequencies of IAR. With respect to the Doppler effect during the propagation of HF waves in IAR, it is mainly caused by the motion of the high-speed flyer and the drifting electrons and the frequency shift from the phase vari-ation of the reflected waves can be neglected when the frequency of HF incident wave is high enough.
Prokopov, P. A.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Melekhov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Posukh, V. G.; Terekhin, V. A.
2016-11-01
Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field Eφ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field Bφ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number MA∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*1013 cm-3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller MA ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B0∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied.
Overdamped Alfven waves due to ion-neutral collisions in the solar chromosphere
Soler, R; Zaqarashvili, T V
2014-01-01
Alfvenic waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere and their dissipation may play an important role in atmospheric heating. In the partially ionized solar chromosphere, collisions between ions and neutrals are an efficient dissipative mechanism for Alfven waves with frequencies near the ion-neutral collision frequency. The collision frequency is proportional to the ion-neutral collision cross section for momentum transfer. Here, we investigate Alfven wave damping as a function of height in a simplified chromospheric model and compare the results for two sets of collision cross sections, namely those of the classic hard-sphere model and those based on recent quantum-mechanical computations. We find important differences between the results for the two sets of cross sections. There is a critical interval of wavelengths for which impulsively excited Alfven waves are overdamped as a result of the strong ion-neutral dissipation. The critical wavelengths are in the range from 1 km to 50 km for the hard-sphere cr...
Heating and Acceleration of the Fast Solar Wind by Alfv\\'{e}n Wave Turbulence
van Ballegooijen, A A
2016-01-01
We present numerical simulations of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) turbulence in a magnetic flux tube at the center of a polar coronal hole. The model for the background atmosphere is a solution of the momentum equation, and includes the effects of wave pressure on the solar wind outflow. Alfv\\'{e}n waves are launched at the coronal base, and reflect at various heights due to variations in Alfv\\'{e}n speed and outflow velocity. The turbulence is driven by nonlinear interactions between the counter-propagating Alfv\\'{e}n waves. Results are presented for two models of the background atmosphere. In the first model the plasma density and Alfv\\'{e}n speed vary smoothly with height, resulting in minimal wave reflections and low energy dissipation rates. We find that the dissipation rate is insufficient to maintain the temperature of the background atmosphere. The standard phenomenological formula for the dissipation rate significantly overestimates the rate derived from our RMHD simulations, and a revised formu...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carrion, P.M.; Hasegawa, A.; Patton, W.; Prakash, M.
1988-06-01
A set of linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations was reduced to the reflectivity equation for the compressional magnetic perturbations in the framework of the Radoski model. It is shown that the reflection coeficient is a function of the inhomogeneities of the magnetic field, and the inhomogeneities of the Alfven velocity. An interesting property of the reflectivity equation is that, near Alfven resonant magnetic-force lines, this equation reduces to the curvature-free Budden equation. Near Alfven resonances, the curvature does not play a significant role and Budden's asymptotics in time can be applied to the wave field near the magnetic-force lines where the Alfven dispersion relation holds.
Effects of electron drift on the collisionless damping of kinetic Alfv\\'en waves in the solar wind
Tong, Yuguang; Chen, Christopher H K; Salem, Chadi S; Verscharen, Daniel
2015-01-01
The collisionless dissipation of anisotropic Alfv\\'enic turbulence is a promising candidate to solve the solar wind heating problem. Extensive studies examined the kinetic properties of Alfv\\'en waves in simple Maxwellian or bi-Maxwellian plasmas. However, the observed electron velocity distribution functions in the solar wind are more complex. In this study, we analyze the properties of kinetic Alfv\\'en waves in a plasma with two drifting electron populations. We numerically solve the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov equations and find that the damping rate and the proton-electron energy partition for kinetic Alfv\\'en waves are significantly modified in such plasmas, compared to plasmas without electron drifts. We suggest that electron drift is an important factor to take into account when considering the dissipation of Alfv\\'enic turbulence in the solar wind or other $\\beta \\sim 1$ astrophysical plasmas.
Cut-off wavenumber of Alfven waves in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere
Zaqarashvili, T V; Ballester, J L; Khodachenko, M L
2012-01-01
Alfven wave dynamics in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere shows that there is indeed a cut-off wavenumber, i.e. the Alfven waves with wavenumbers higher than the cut-off value are evanescent. The cut-off wavenumber appears in single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approximation but it is absent in a multi-fluid approach. Up to now, an explanation for the existence of the cut-off wavenumber is still missing. The aim of this paper is to point out the reason for the appearance of a cut-off wavenumber in single-fluid MHD. Beginning with three-fluid equations (with electrons, protons and neutral hydrogen atoms), we performed consecutive approximations until we obtained the usual single-fluid description is obtained. We solved the dispersion relation of linear Alfven waves at each step and sought the approximation responsible of the cut-off wavenumber appearance. We have found that neglecting inertial terms significantly reduces the real part of the Alfven frequency although it never becomes zero. T...
Experimental evidence of Alfv\\'en wave propagation in a Gallium alloy
Alboussiere, Thierry; Debray, François; La Rizza, Patrick; Masson, Jean-Paul; Plunian, Franck; Ribeiro, Adolfo; Schmitt, Denys
2011-01-01
Experiments with a liquid metal alloy, galinstan, are reported and show clear evidence of Alfv\\'en wave propagation as well as resonance of Alfv\\'en modes. Galinstan is liquid at room temperature, and although its electrical conductivity is not as large as that of liquid sodium or NaK, it has still been possible to study Alfv\\'en waves, thanks to the use of intense magnetic fi elds, up to 13 teslas. The maximal values of Lundquist number, around 60, are similar to that of the reference experimental study by Jameson [1]. The generation mechanism for Alfv\\'en waves and their refl ection is studied carefully. Numerical simulations have been performed and have been able to reproduce the experimental results despite the fact that the simulated magnetic Prandtl number was much larger than that of galinstan. An originality of the present study is that a poloidal disturbance (magnetic and velocity fields) is generated, allowing us to track its propagation from outside the conducting domain, hence without interfering.
3D Alfven wave behaviour around proper and improper magnetic null points
Thurgood, J O
2013-01-01
Context: MHD waves and magnetic null points are both prevalent in many astrophysical plasmas, including the solar atmosphere. Interaction between waves and null points has been implicated as a possible mechanism for localised heating events. Aims: Here we investigate the transient behaviour of the Alfven wave about fully 3D proper and improper 3D magnetic null points. Previously, the behaviour of fast magnetoacoustic waves at null points in 3D, cold MHD was considered by Thurgood & McLaughlin (Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2012, 545, A9). Methods: We introduce an Alfven wave into the vicinity of both proper and improper null points by numerically solving the ideal, $\\beta=0$ MHD equations using the LARE3D code. A magnetic fieldline and flux-based coordinate system permits the isolation of resulting wave-modes and the analysis of their interaction. Results: We find that the Alfven wave propagates throughout the region and accumulates near the fan-plane, causing current build up. For different values of nul...
Small scales formation via Alfven wave propagation in compressible nonuniform media
Malara, F.; Primavera, L.; Veltri, P.
1995-01-01
In weakly dissipative media governed by the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, any efficient mechanism of energy dissipation requires the formation of small scales. The possibility to produce small scales has been studied by Malara et al. in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly 2D geometry. We extend the work of Malara et al. to include both compressibility and the third component for vector quantities. Using numerical simulations we show that, when an Alfven wave propagates in a compressible nonuniform medium, the two dynamical effects responsible for the small scales formation in the incompressible case are still at work: energy pinching and phase-mixing. Moreover, the interaction between the initial Alfven wave and the inhomogeneity gives rise to the formation of compressible perturbations (fast and slow waves or a static entropy wave). Some of these compressive fluctuations are subject to the steepening of the wave front and become shock waves, which are extremely efficient in dissipating their energy, their dissipation being independent of the Reynolds number. A rough estimate of the typical times which the various dynamical processes take to produce small scales and then to dissipate the energy show that these times are consistent with those required to dissipate inside the solar corona the energy of Alfven waves of photospheric origin.
Nariyuki, Y; Nariyuki, Yasuhiro; Hada, Tohru
2006-01-01
Parametric instabilities of parallel propagating,circularly polarized Alfv\\'en waves in a uniform background plasma is studied, within a framework of one-dimensional Vlasov equation for ions and massless electron fluid, so that kinetic perturbations in the longitudinal direction (ion Landau damping) are included. The present formulation also includes the Hall effect. The obtained results agree well with relevant analysis in the past, suggesting that kinetic effects in the longitudinal direction play essential roles in the parametric instabilities of Alfven waves when the kinetic effects react "passively". Furthermore, existence of the kinetic parametric instabilities is confirmed for the regime with small wave number daughter waves. Growth rates of these instabilities are sensitive to ion temperature.
Arbitrary amplitude kinetic Alfven solitary waves in two temperature electron superthermal plasma
Singh, Manpreet; Singh Saini, Nareshpal; Ghai, Yashika
2016-07-01
Through various satellite missions it is observed that superthermal velocity distribution for particles is more appropriate for describing space and astrophysical plasmas. So it is appropriate to use superthermal distribution, which in the limiting case when spectral index κ is very large ( i.e. κ→∞), shifts to Maxwellian distribution. Two temperature electron plasmas have been observed in auroral regions by FAST satellite mission, and also by GEOTAIL and POLAR satellite in the magnetosphere. Kinetic Alfven waves arise when finite Larmor radius effect modifies the dispersion relation or characteristic perpendicular wavelength is comparable to electron inertial length. We have studied the kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) in a plasma comprising of positively charged ions, superthermal hot electrons and Maxwellian distributed cold electrons. Sagdeev pseudo-potential has been employed to derive an energy balance equation. The critical Mach number has been determined from the expression of Sagdeev pseudo-potential to see the existence of solitary structures. It is observed that sub-Alfvenic compressive solitons and super-Alfvenic rarefactive solitons exist in this plasma model. It is also observed that various parameters such as superthermality of hot electrons, relative concentration of cold and hot electron species, Mach number, plasma beta, ion to cold electron temperature ratio and ion to hot electron temperature ratio have significant effect on the amplitude and width of the KAWs. Findings of this investigation may be useful to understand the dynamics of coherent non-linear structures (i.e. KAWs) in space and astrophysical plasmas.
A global 3-D MHD model of the solar wind with Alfven waves
Usmanov, A. V.
1995-01-01
A fully three-dimensional solar wind model that incorporates momentum and heat addition from Alfven waves is developed. The proposed model upgrades the previous one by considering self-consistently the total system consisting of Alfven waves propagating outward from the Sun and the mean polytropic solar wind flow. The simulation region extends from the coronal base (1 R(sub s) out to beyond 1 AU. The fully 3-D MHD equations written in spherical coordinates are solved in the frame of reference corotating with the Sun. At the inner boundary, the photospheric magnetic field observations are taken as boundary condition and wave energy influx is prescribed to be proportional to the magnetic field strength. The results of the model application for several time intervals are presented.
Effect of Alfven resonance on low-frequency fast wave current drive
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, C.Y.; Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.; Jaeger, E.F.; Stallings, D.C. [Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)
1995-07-01
The Alfven resonances may occur on the low- and high-field sides for a low-frequency fast wave current drive scenario proposed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [Nucl. Fusion {bold 31}, 1135 (1991)]. At the resonance on the low-field side, the fast wave may be mode converted into a short-wavelength slow wave, which can be absorbed by electrons at the plasma edge, before the fast wave propagates into the core area of the plasma. Such absorption may cause a significant parasitic power loss. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
Parametric instabilities of large amplitude Alfven waves with obliquely propagating sidebands
Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a brief report on properties of the parametric decay and modulational, filamentation, and magnetoacoustic instabilities of a large amplitude, circularly polarized Alfven wave. We allow the daughter and sideband waves to propagate at an arbitrary angle to the background magnetic field so that the electrostatic and electromagnetic characteristics of these waves are coupled. We investigate the dependance of these instabilities on dispersion, plasma/beta, pump wave amplitude, and propagation angle. Analytical and numerical results are compared with numerical simulations to investigate the full nonlinear evolution of these instabilities.
Mithaiwala, Manish; Crabtree, Chris; Ganguli, Gurudas
2012-01-01
It is shown that the dispersion relation for whistler waves is identical for a high or low beta plasma. Furthermore in the high-beta solar wind plasma whistler waves meet the Landau resonance with electrons for velocities less than the thermal speed, and consequently the electric force is small compared to the mirror force. As whistlers propagate through the inhomogeneous solar wind, the perpendicular wave number increases through refraction, increasing the Landau damping rate. However, the whistlers can survive because the background kinetic Alfven wave turbulence creates a plateau by quasilinear diffusion in the solar wind electron distribution at small velocities. It is found that for whistler energy density of only ~10^-3 that of the kinetic Alfven waves, the quasilinear diffusion rate due to whistlers is comparable to KAW. Thus very small amplitude whistler turbulence can have a significant consequence on the evolution of the solar wind electron distribution function.
Energy densities of Alfven waves between 0.7 and 1.6 AU. [in interplanetary medium
Belcher, J. W.; Burchsted, R.
1974-01-01
Plasma and field data from Mariner 4 and 5 between 0.7 and 1.6 AU are used to study the radial dependence of the levels of microscale fluctuation associated with interplanetary Alfven waves. The observed decrease of these levels with increasing distance from the sun is consistent with little or no local generation or damping of the ambient Alfven waves over this range of radial distance.
Torsional Alfven Waves in Solar Magnetic Flux Tubes of Axial Symmetry
Murawski, K; Musielak, Z E; Srivastava, A K; Kraskiewicz, J
2015-01-01
Aims: Propagation and energy transfer of torsional Alfv\\'en waves in solar magnetic flux tubes of axial symmetry is studied. Methods: An analytical model of a solar magnetic flux tube of axial symmetry is developed by specifying a magnetic flux and deriving general analytical formulae for the equilibrium mass density and a gas pressure. The main advantage of this model is that it can be easily adopted to any axisymmetric magnetic structure. The model is used to simulate numerically the propagation of nonlinear Alfv\\'en waves in such 2D flux tubes of axial symmetry embedded in the solar atmosphere. The waves are excited by a localized pulse in the azimuthal component of velocity and launched at the top of the solar photosphere, and they propagate through the solar chromosphere, transition region, and into the solar corona. Results: The results of our numerical simulations reveal a complex scenario of twisted magnetic field lines and flows associated with torsional Alfv\\'en waves as well as energy transfer to t...
Kinetic Alfv\\'en waves generation by large-scale phase-mixing
Vasconez, C L; Valentini, F; Servidio, S; Matthaeus, W H; Malara, F
2015-01-01
One view of the solar-wind turbulence is that the observed highly anisotropic fluctuations at spatial scales near the proton inertial length $d_p$ may be considered as Kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (KAWs). In the present paper, we show how phase-mixing of large-scale parallel propagating Alfv\\'en waves is an efficient mechanism for the production of KAWs at wavelengths close to $d_p$ and at large propagation angle with respect to the magnetic field. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall-Magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD), and hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell (HVM) simulations modeling the propagation of Alfv\\'en waves in inhomogeneous plasmas are performed. In linear regime, the role of dispersive effects is singled out by comparing MHD and HMHD results. Fluctuations produced by phase-mixing are identified as KAWs through a comparison of polarization of magnetic fluctuations and wave group velocity with analytical linear predictions. In the nonlinear regime, comparison of HMHD and HVM simulations allows to point out the role of kinetic effe...
On the reflection of Alfv\\'en waves and its implication for Earth's core modeling
Schaeffer, Nathanaël; Cardin, Philippe; Marie, Drouard
2011-01-01
Alfv\\'en waves propagate in electrically conducting fluids in the presence of a magnetic field. Their reflection properties depend on the ratio between the kinematic viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity of the fluid, also known as the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. In the special case Pm=1, there is no reflection on an insulating, no-slip boundary, and the wave energy is entirely dissipated in the boundary layer. We investigate the consequences of this remarkable behaviour for the numerical modeling of torsional Alfv\\'en waves (also known as torsional oscillations), which represent a special class of Alfv\\'en waves, in rapidly rotating spherical shells. They consist of geostrophic motions and are thought to exist in the fluid cores of planets with internal magnetic field. In the geophysical limit Pm 0.3, which is the range of values for which geodynamo numerical models operate. As a result, geodynamo models with no-slip boundary conditions cannot exhibit torsional oscillation normal modes.
Inbound waves in the solar corona: a direct indicator of Alfv\\'en Surface location
DeForest, C E; McComas, D J
2014-01-01
The tenuous supersonic solar wind that streams from the top of the corona passes through a natural boundary -- the Alfv\\'en surface -- that marks the causal disconnection of individual packets of plasma and magnetic flux from the Sun itself. The Alfv\\'en surface is the locus where the radial motion of the accelerating solar wind passes the radial Alfv\\'en speed, and therefore any displacement of material cannot carry information back down into the corona. It is thus the natural outer boundary of the solar corona, and the inner boundary of interplanetary space. Using a new and unique motion analysis to separate inbound and outbound motions in synoptic visible-light image sequences from the COR2 coronagraph on board the STEREO-A spacecraft, we have identified inbound wave motion in the outer corona beyond 6 solar radii for the first time, and used it to determine that the Alfv\\'en surface is at least 12.5 solar radii from the Sun over the polar coronal holes and 17 solar radii in the streamer belt, well beyond ...
Generation of Alfvenic Waves and Turbulence in Magnetic Reconnection Jets
Hoshino, M.
2014-12-01
The magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) linear stability for the plasma sheet with a localized bulk plasma flow parallel to the neutral sheet is investigated. We find three different unstable modes propagating parallel to the anti-parallel magnetic field line, and we call them as "streaming tearing'', "streaming sausage'', and "streaming kink'' mode. The streaming tearing and sausage modes have the tearing mode-like structure with symmetric density fluctuation to the neutral sheet, and the streaming kink mode has the asymmetric fluctuation. The growth rate of the streaming tearing mode decreases with increasing the magnetic Reynolds number, while those of the streaming sausage and kink modes do not strongly depend on the Reynolds number. The wavelengths of these unstable modes are of the order of the thickness of plasma sheet, which behavior is almost same as the standard tearing mode with no bulk flow. Roughly speaking the growth rates of three modes become faster than the standard tearing mode. The situation of the plasma sheet with the bulk flow can be realized in the reconnection exhaust with the Alfvenic reconnection jet, and the unstable modes may be regarded as one of the generation processes of Alfvenic turbulence in the plasma sheet during magnetic reconnection.
Study of Nonlinear Interaction and Turbulence of Alfven Waves in LAPD Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boldyrev, Stanislav; Perez, Jean Carlos
2013-11-29
The complete project had two major goals — investigate MHD turbulence generated by counterpropagating Alfven modes, and study such processes in the LAPD device. In order to study MHD turbulence in numerical simulations, two codes have been used: full MHD, and reduced MHD developed specialy for this project. Quantitative numerical results are obtained through high-resolution simulations of strong MHD turbulence, performed through the 2010 DOE INCITE allocation. We addressed the questions of the spectrum of turbulence, its universality, and the value of the so-called Kolmogorov constant (the normalization coefficient of the spectrum). In these simulations we measured with unprecedented accuracy the energy spectra of magnetic and velocity fluctuations. We also studied the so-called residual energy, that is, the difference between kinetic and magnetic energies in turbulent fluctuations. In our analytic work we explained generation of residual energy in weak MHD turbulence, in the process of random collisions of counterpropagating Alfven waves. We then generalized these results for the case of strong MHD turbulence. The developed model explained generation of residual energy is strong MHD turbulence, and verified the results in numerical simulations. We then analyzed the imbalanced case, where more Alfven waves propagate in one direction. We found that spectral properties of the residual energy are similar for both balanced and imbalanced cases. We then compared strong MHD turbulence observed in the solar wind with turbulence generated in numerical simulations. Nonlinear interaction of Alfv´en waves has been studied in the upgraded Large Plasma Device (LAPD). We have simulated the collision of the Alfven modes in the settings close to the experiment. We have created a train of wave packets with the apltitudes closed to those observed n the experiment, and allowed them to collide. We then saw the generation of the second harmonic, resembling that observed in the
Alfv\\'en Wave Heating of the Solar Chromosphere: 1.5D models
Arber, T D; Shelyag, S
2015-01-01
Physical processes which may lead to solar chromospheric heating are analyzed using high-resolution 1.5D non-ideal MHD modelling. We demonstrate that it is possible to heat the chromospheric plasma by direct resistive dissipation of high-frequency Alfv\\'en waves through Pedersen resistivity. However this is unlikely to be sufficient to balance radiative and conductive losses unless unrealistic field strengths or photospheric velocities are used. The precise heating profile is determined by the input driving spectrum since in 1.5D there is no possibility of Alfv\\'en wave turbulence. The inclusion of the Hall term does not affect the heating rates. If plasma compressibility is taken into account, shocks are produced through the ponderomotive coupling of Alfv\\'en waves to slow modes and shock heating dominates the resistive dissipation. In 1.5D shock coalescence amplifies the effects of shocks and for compressible simulations with realistic driver spectra the heating rate exceeds that required to match radiative...
Dissipative MHD solutions for resonant Alfven waves in 1-dimensional magnetic flux tubes
Goossens, Marcel; Ruderman, Michail S.; Hollweg, Joseph V.
1995-01-01
The present paper extends the analysis by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg (1991) on resonant Alfven waves in nonuniform magnetic flux tubes. It proves that the fundamental conservation law for resonant Alfven waves found in ideal MHD by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg remains valid in dissipative MHD. This guarantees that the jump conditions of Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg, that connect the ideal MHD solutions for xi(sub r), and P' across the dissipative layer, are correct. In addition, the present paper replaces the complicated dissipative MHD solutions obtained by Sakurai, Goossens, and Hollweg for xi(sub r), and P' in terms of double integrals of Hankel functions of complex argument of order 1/3 with compact analytical solutions that allow a straight- forward mathematical and physical interpretation. Finally, it presents an analytical dissipative MHD solution for the component of the Lagrangian displacement in the magnetic surfaces perpen- dicular to the magnetic field lines xi(sub perpendicular) which enables us to determine the dominant dynamics of resonant Alfven waves in dissipative MHD.
Spectroscopic Observations and Modelling of Impulsive Alfv\\'en Waves Along a Polar Coronal Jet
Jelínek, P; Murawski, K; Kayshap, P; Dwivedi, B N
2015-01-01
Using the Hinode/EIS 2$"$ spectroscopic observations, we study the intensity, velocity, and FWHM variations of the strongest Fe XII 195.12 \\AA\\ line along the jet to find the signature of Alfv\\'en waves. We simulate numerically the impulsively generated Alfv\\'en waves within the vertical Harris current-sheet, forming the jet plasma flows, and mimicking their observational signatures. Using the FLASH code and the atmospheric model with embedded weakly expanding magnetic field configuration within a vertical Harris current-sheet, we solve the two and half-dimensional (2.5-D) ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations to study the evolution of Alfv\\'en waves and vertical flows forming the plasma jet. At a height of $\\sim 5~\\mathrm{Mm}$ from the base of the jet, the red-shifted velocity component of Fe XII 195.12 \\AA\\ line attains its maximum ($5~\\mathrm{km\\,s}^{-1}$) which converts into a blue-shifted one between the altitude of $5-10~\\mathrm{Mm}$. The spectral intensity continously increases up to $10~\\mathrm{Mm...
Energy cascade in internal wave attractors
Brouzet, Christophe; Joubaud, Sylvain; Sibgatullin, Ilias; Dauxois, Thierry
2016-01-01
One of the pivotal questions in the dynamics of the oceans is related to the cascade of mechanical energy in the abyss and its contribution to mixing. Here, we propose internal wave attractors in the large amplitude regime as a unique self-consistent experimental and numerical setup that models a cascade of triadic interactions transferring energy from large-scale monochro-matic input to multi-scale internal wave motion. We also provide signatures of a discrete wave turbulence framework for internal waves. Finally, we show how beyond this regime, we have a clear transition to a regime of small-scale high-vorticity events which induce mixing. Introduction.
Shukla, P K
2012-01-01
It is shown that a three-dimensional (3D) modified-kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (m-KAWs) can propagate in the form of Alfv\\'enic tornadoes characterized by plasma density whirls or magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). By using the two fluid model, together with Amp\\`ere's law, we derive the wave equation for a 3D m-KAWs in a magnetoplasma with $m_e/m_i \\ll \\beta \\ll 1$, where $m_e$ $(m_i)$ is the electron (ion) mass, $\\beta =4 \\pi n_0 k_B (T_e + T_i)/B_0^2$, $n_0$ the unperturbed plasma number density, $k_B$ the Boltzmann constant, $T_e (T_e)$ the electron (ion) temperature, and $B_0$ the strength of the ambient magnetic field. The 3D m-KAW equation admits solutions in the form of a Laguerre-Gauss (LG) Alfv\\'enic vortex beam or Alfv\\'enic tornadoes with plasma density whirls that support the dynamics of Alfv\\'en magnetic flux ropes.
Resonant Alfven waves in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere
Soler, R; Goossens, M
2011-01-01
Context. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. In magnetic waveguides resonant absorption due to plasma inhomogeneity naturally transfers wave energy from large-scale motions to small-scale motions. In the cooler parts of the solar atmosphere as, e.g., the chromosphere, effects due to partial ionization may be relevant for wave dynamics and heating. Aims. We study resonant Alfven waves in partially ionized plasmas. Methods. We use the multifluid equations in the cold plasma approximation. We investigate propagating resonant MHD waves in partially ionized flux tubes. We use approximate analytical theory based on normal modes in the thin tube and thin boundary approximations along with numerical eigenvalue computations. Results. We find that the jumps of the wave perturbations across the resonant layer are the same as in fully ionized plasmas. The damping length due to resonant absorption is inversely proportional to the frequency, while that due to ion-neutral collisions is in...
Matsumoto, Takuma
2010-01-01
We have performed MHD simulations of Alfven wave propagation along an open flux tube in the solar atmosphere. In our numerical model, Alfven waves are generated by the photospheric granular motion. As the wave generator, we used a derived temporal spectrum of the photospheric granular motion from G-band movies of Hinode/SOT. It is shown that the total energy flux at the corona becomes larger and the transition region height becomes higher in the case when we use the observed spectrum rather than white/pink noise spectrum as the wave generator. This difference can be explained by the Alfven wave resonance between the photosphere and the transition region. After performing Fourier analysis on our numerical results, we have found that the region between the photosphere and the transition region becomes an Alfven wave resonant cavity. We have confirmed that there are at least three resonant frequencies, 1, 3 and 5 mHz, in our numerical model. Alfven wave resonance is one of the most effective mechanisms to explai...
The role of Alfv\\'en wave heating in solar prominences
Soler, Roberto; Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis
2016-01-01
Observations have shown that magnetohydrodynamic waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in solar prominences. The waves are probably driven by photospheric motions and may transport energy up to prominences suspended in the corona. Dissipation of wave energy can lead to heating of the cool prominence plasma, so contributing to the local energy balance within the prominence. Here we discuss the role of Alfv\\'en wave dissipation as a heating mechanism for the prominence plasma. We consider a slab-like quiescent prominence model with a transverse magnetic field embedded in the solar corona. The prominence medium is modelled as a partially ionized plasma composed of a charged ion-electron single fluid and two separate neutral fluids corresponding to neutral hydrogen and neutral helium. Friction between the three fluids acts as a dissipative mechanism for the waves. The heating caused by externally-driven Alfv\\'en waves incident on the prominence slab is analytically explored. We find that the dense pro...
Plastic damping of Alfv\\'en waves in magnetar flares and delayed afterglow emission
Li, Xinyu
2015-01-01
Magnetar flares generate Alfv\\'en waves bouncing in the closed magnetosphere with energy up to $\\sim 10^{46}$ erg. We show that on a 10-ms timescale the waves are transmitted into the star and form a compressed packet of high energy density. This packet strongly shears the stellar crust and initiates a plastic flow, heating the crust and melting it hundreds of meters below the surface. A fraction of the deposited plastic heat is eventually conducted to the stellar surface, contributing to the surface afterglow months to years after the flare. A large fraction of heat is lost to neutrino emission or conducted into the core of the neutron star.
Experimental evidence of Alfven wave propagation in a Gallium alloy
2011-01-01
10p.; International audience; Experiments with a liquid metal alloy, galinstan, are reported and show clear evidence of Alfvén wave propagation as well as resonance of Alfvén modes. Galinstan is liquid at room temperature, and although its electrical conductivity is not as large as that of liquid sodium or NaK, it has still been possible to study Alfvén waves, thanks to the use of intense magnetic fi elds, up to 13 teslas. The maximal values of Lundquist number, around 60, are similar to that...
Plasma acceleration by the interaction of parallel propagating Alfv\\'en waves
Mottez, Fabrice
2014-01-01
It is shown that two circularly polarised Alfv\\'en waves that propagate along the ambient magnetic field in an uniform plasma trigger non oscillating electromagnetic field components when they cross each other. The non-oscilliating field components can accelerate ions and electrons with great efficiency. This work is based on particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulations and on analytical non-linear computations. The analytical computations are done for two counter-propagating monochromatic waves. The simulations are done with monochromatic waves and with wave packets. The simulations show parallel electromagnetic fields consistent with the theory, and they show that the particle acceleration result in plasma cavities and, if the waves amplitudes are high enough, in ion beams. These acceleration processes could be relevant in space plasmas. For instance, they could be at work in the auroral zone and in the radiation belts of the Earth magnetosphere. In particular, they may explain the origin of the deep plasma...
Kinetic Alfv\\'{e}n solitary and rogue waves in superthermal plasmas
Bains, A; Xia, L -D
2014-01-01
We investigate the small but finite amplitude solitary Kinetic Alfv\\'{e}n waves (KAWs) in low $\\beta$ plasmas with superthermal electrons modeled by a kappa-type distribution. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of KAWs is derived by using the standard reductive perturbation method. Examining the dependence of the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients of the KdV equation on the superthermal parameter $\\kappa$, plasma $\\beta$ and obliqueness of propagation, we show that these parameters may change substantially the shape and size of solitary KAW pulses. Only sub-Alfv\\'enic, compressive solitons are supported. We then extend the study to examine kinetic Alfv\\'en rogue waves by deriving a nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation from {the KdV} equation. Rational solutions that form rogue wave envelopes are obtained. We examine how the behavior of rogue waves depends on the plasma parameters in question, finding that the rogue envelopes are lowered with increasing electron superthermal...
Burgulence and Alfv\\'en waves heating mechanism of solar corona
Mishonov, T M
2006-01-01
Heating of magnetized turbulent plasma is calculated in the framework of Burgers turbulence [A.M. Polyakov, Phys. Rev. E. 52, 6183, (1995)]. There is calculated the energy flux of Alfv\\'en waves along the magnetic field. The Alfven waves are considered as intermediary between the turbulent energy and the heat. The derived results are related to wave channel of the heating of solar corona. After incorporating dissipation of convective plasma waves instabilities [G.D. Chagelishvili, R.G. Chanishvili, T.S. Hristov, and J.G. Lominadze, Phys. Rev. E 47, 366 (1993)] and [A.D. Rogava, S.M. Mahajan, G. Bodo, and S. Marsaglia, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 399, 421-431 (2003)] the suggested model of heating can be applied to analysis of the missing viscosity of accretion discs and to reveal why the quasars are the most powerful sources of light in the universe. We suppose that applied Langevin-Burgers approach to turbulence can be helpful for other systems where we have intensive interaction between a stochastic turbu...
Nonlinear reflection process of linearly-polarized, broadband Alfv\\'en waves in the fast solar wind
Shoda, Munehito
2016-01-01
Using one-dimensional numerical simulations, we study the elementary process of Alfv\\'{e}n wave reflection in a uniform medium, including nonlinear effects. In the linear regime, Alfv\\'{e}n wave reflection is triggered only by the inhomogeneity of the medium, whereas in the nonlinear regime, it can occur via nonlinear wave-wave interactions. Such nonlinear reflection (backscattering) is typified by decay instability. In most studies of decay instabilities, the initial condition has been a circularly polarized Alfv\\'{e}n wave. In this study we consider a linearly polarized Alfv\\'en wave, which drives density fluctuations by its magnetic pressure force. For generality, we also assume a broadband wave with a red-noise spectrum. In the data analysis, we decompose the fluctuations into characteristic variables using local eigenvectors, thus revealing the behaviors of the individual modes. Different from circular-polarization case, we find that the wave steepening produces a new energy channel from the parent Alfv\\...
Shukla, P. K.
2012-01-01
It is shown that a three-dimensional (3D) modified-kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (m-KAWs) can propagate in the form of Alfv\\'enic tornadoes characterized by plasma density whirls or magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). By using the two fluid model, together with Amp\\`ere's law, we derive the wave equation for a 3D m-KAWs in a magnetoplasma with $m_e/m_i \\ll \\beta \\ll 1$, where $m_e$ $(m_i)$ is the electron (ion) mass, $\\beta =4 \\pi n_0 k_B (T_e + T_i)/B_0^2$, $n_0$ the unpert...
Studies of the Jet in BL Lacertae. II. Superluminal Alfv\\'en Waves
Cohen, M H; Arshakian, T G; Clausen-Brown, E; Homan, D C; Hovatta, T; Kovalev, Y Y; Lister, M L; Pushkarev, A B; Richards, J L; Savolainen, T
2014-01-01
Ridge lines on the pc-scale jet of the active galactic nucleus BL Lac display transverse patterns that move superluminally downstream. The patterns are not ballistic, but are analogous to waves on a whip. Their apparent speeds $\\beta_\\mathrm{app}$ (units of $c$) range from 4.2 to 13.5, corresponding to $\\beta_\\mathrm{wave}^\\mathrm{gal}= 0.981 - 0.998$ in the galaxy frame. We show that the magnetic field in the jet is well-ordered with a strong transverse component, and assume that it is helical and that the transverse patterns are longitudinal Alfv\\'en waves. The wave-induced transverse speed of the jet is non-relativistic ($\\beta_\\mathrm{tr}^\\mathrm{gal}\\sim 0.09$) and in agreement with our assumption of low-amplitude waves. In 2010 the wave activity subsided and the jet displayed a mild wiggle that had a complex oscillatory behavior. The waves are excited by changes in the position angle of the recollimation shock, in analogy to exciting a wave on a whip by shaking it. Simple models of the system are presen...
Clack, C T M; Douglas, M
2010-01-01
Resonant absorption of fast magnetoacoustic (FMA) waves in an inhomogeneous, weakly dissipative, one-dimensional planar, strongly anisotropic and dispersive plasma is investigated. The magnetic configuration consists of an inhomogeneous magnetic slab sandwiched between two regions of semi-infinite homogeneous magnetic plasmas. Laterally driven FMA waves penetrate the inhomogeneous slab interacting with the localised slow or Alfven waves present in the inhomogeneous layer and are partly reflected, dissipated and transmitted by this region. The presented research aims to find the coefficient of wave energy absorption under solar chromospheric and coronal conditions. Numerical results are analyzed to find the coefficient of wave energy absorption at both the slow and Alfven resonance positions. The mathematical derivations are based on the two simplifying assumptions that (i) nonlinearity is weak, and (ii) the thickness of the inhomogeneous layer is small in comparison to the wavelength of the wave, i.e. we empl...
Entanglement of helicity and energy in kinetic Alfven wave/whistler turbulence
Galtier, S
2014-01-01
The role of magnetic helicity is investigated in kinetic Alfv\\'en wave and oblique whistler turbulence in presence of a relatively intense external magnetic field $b_0 {\\bf e_\\parallel}$. In this situation, turbulence is strongly anisotropic and the fluid equations describing both regimes are the reduced electron magnetohydrodynamics (REMHD) whose derivation, originally made from the gyrokinetic theory, is also obtained here from compressible Hall MHD. We use the asymptotic equations derived by Galtier \\& Bhattacharjee (2003) to study the REMHD dynamics in the weak turbulence regime. The analysis is focused on the magnetic helicity equation for which we obtain the exact solutions: they correspond to the entanglement relation, $n+\\tilde n = -6$, where $n$ and $\\tilde n$ are the power law indices of the perpendicular (to ${\\bf b_0}$) wave number magnetic energy and helicity spectra respectively. Therefore, the spectra derived in the past from the energy equation only, namely $n=-2.5$ and $\\tilde n = - 3.5$,...
Propagation of Alfv\\'enic Waves From Corona to Chromosphere and Consequences for Solar Flares
Russell, Alexander J B
2013-01-01
How do magnetohydrodynamic waves travel from the fully ionized corona, into and through the underlying partially ionized chromosphere, and what are the consequences for solar flares? To address these questions, we have developed a 2-fluid model (of plasma and neutrals) and used it to perform 1D simulations of Alfv\\'en waves in a solar atmosphere with realistic density and temperature structure. Studies of a range of solar features (faculae, plage, penumbra and umbra) show that energy transmission from corona to chromosphere can exceed 20% of incident energy for wave periods of one second or less. Damping of waves in the chromosphere depends strongly on wave frequency: waves with periods 10 seconds or longer pass through the chromosphere with relatively little damping, however, for periods of 1 second or less, a substantial fraction (37%-100%) of wave energy entering the chromosphere is damped by ion-neutral friction in the mid and upper chromosphere, with electron resistivity playing some role in the lower ch...
Solitary Kinetic Alfven Waves in a Low-β Dusty Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Yin-Hua; LU Wei
2000-01-01
The nonlinear kinetic Alfven waves in a low-β(0<β<1)dusty plasma have been investigated with the fluid model of three-component plasma. The nonlinear equation governing the perturbation density of electrons in a form of the energy integral has been derived. In the approximation of small amplitude, the soliton solution for the perturbation density of electrons is found, and the characteristics of solitons in different range of plasma parameters is studied numerically. The results show that the density dip or hump can be formed in a dusty plasma for different ranges of parameters, the amplitude of density dip is enhanced and the amplitude of density hump is reduced with increasing dust grain content.
Focusing of Alfvenic wave power in the context of gamma-ray burst emissivity
Fatuzzo, Marco; Melia, Fulvio
1993-01-01
Highly dynamic magnetospheric perturbations in neutron star environments can naturally account for the features observed in gamma-ray burst spectra. The source distribution, however, appears to be extragalactic. Although noncatastrophic isotropic emission mechanisms may be ruled out on energetic and timing arguments, MHD processes can produce strongly anisotropic gamma rays with an observable flux out to distances of about 1-2 Gpc. Here we show that sheared Alfven waves propagating along open magnetospheric field lines at the poles of magnetized neutron stars transfer their energy dissipationally to the current sustaining the field misalignment and thereby focus their power into a spatial region about 1000 times smaller than that of the crustal disturbance. This produces a strong (observable) flux enhancement along certain directions. We apply this model to a source population of 'turned-off' pulsars that have nonetheless retained their strong magnetic fields and have achieved alignment at a period of approximately greater than 5 sec.
Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies
Ofman, L.
2010-01-01
Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.
Alfv\\'en wave phase-mixing and damping in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies
Threlfall, J W; De Moortel, I
2010-01-01
Aims. To determine the effect of the Hall term in the generalised Ohm's law on the damping and phase mixing of Alfv\\'en waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies in uniform and non-uniform equilibrium plasmas. Methods. Wave damping in a uniform plasma is treated analytically, whilst a Lagrangian remap code (Lare2d) is used to study Hall effects on damping and phase mixing in the presence of an equilibrium density gradient. Results. The magnetic energy associated with an initially Gaussian field perturbation in a uniform resistive plasma is shown to decay algebraically at a rate that is unaffected by the Hall term to leading order in k^2di^2 where k is wavenumber and di is ion skin depth. A similar algebraic decay law applies to whistler perturbations in the limit k^2di^2>>1. In a non-uniform plasma it is found that the spatially-integrated damping rate due to phase mixing is lower in Hall MHD than it is in MHD, but the reduction in the damping rate, which can be attributed to the effects of wave dispers...
Kinetic Alfven wave instability in a Lorentzian dusty plasma: Non-resonant particle approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rubab, N.; Biernat, H. K. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Erkaev, V. [Institute of Computational Modelling, 660036 Krasnoyarsk, Russia and Siberian Federal University, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Langmayr, D. [Virtual Vehicle Competence Center (vif), Inffeldgasse 21a, 8010 Graz (Austria)
2011-07-15
Analysis of the electromagnetic streaming instability is carried out which is related to the cross field drift of kappa distributed ions. The linear dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave using Vlasov-fluid equations in a dusty plasma is derived. Modified two stream instability (MTSI) in a dusty plasma has been discussed in the limit {omega}{sub pd}{sup 2}/c{sup 2}k{sub perpendicular}{sup 2}<<1. Numerical calculations of the growth rate of instability have been carried out. Growth rates of kinetic Alfven instability are found to be small as compared to MTSI. Maximum growth rates for both instabilities occur in oblique directions for V{sub 0}{>=}V{sub A}. It is shown that the presence of both the charged dust particles and perpendicular ion beam sensibly modify the dispersion relation of low-frequency electromagnetic wave. The dispersion characteristics are found to be insensible to the superthermal character of the ion distribution function. Applications to different intersteller regions are discussed.
Explaining Signatures of Auroral Arcs based on the Stationary Inertial Alfven Wave
Nogami, Sh; Koepke, Me; Knudsen, Dj; Gillies, Dm; Donovan, E.; Vincena, S.
2016-10-01
Optical emission data from the THEMIS array of All Sky Imagers are analyzed to determine the lifetime of an auroral arc (i.e., the elapsed time during which an arc is visible). Lifetime is an important temporal signature related to the arc generation mechanism, by which arcs can be distinguished. An arc with a lifetime greater than ten minutes is consistent with arc generation by Stationary Inertial Alfven Wave (StIAW) which supports a steady-state wave electric field component parallel to a background magnetic field. An StIAW is a non-fluctuating, non-travelling, spatially periodic pattern of perturbed ion density that is static in the laboratory frame. StIAWs are the predicted result of the interaction between a magnetic-field-aligned electron current and plasma convection perpendicular to a background magnetic field. Electrostatic probes measure the fixed pattern of perturbed ion density in LAPD-U. Electron acceleration due to StIAWs is being investigated as a mechanism for the formation and support of long-lived auroral arcs. Preliminary evidence of electron acceleration from laboratory experiment is reported. This work was supported by NSF Grant PHY-130-1896, Grants from the Canadian Space Agency, and the THEMIS ASI teams at UCalgary and UC Berkeley. Facility use and experimental assistance from BaPSF is gratefully acknowledged.
James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Talk: On Nonlinear Physics of Shear Alfv'en Waves
Chen, Liu
2012-10-01
Shear Alfv'en Waves (SAW) are electromagnetic oscillations prevalent in laboratory and nature magnetized plasmas. Due to its anisotropic propagation property, it is well known that the linear wave propagation and dispersiveness of SAW are fundamentally affected by plasma nonuniformities and magnetic field geometries; for example, the existence of continuous spectrum, spectral gaps, and discrete eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas. This talk will discuss the crucial roles that nonuniformity and geometry could also play in the physics of nonlinear SAW interactions. More specifically, the focus will be on the Alfv'enic state and its breaking up by finite compressibility, non-ideal kinetic effects, and geometry. In the case of compressibility, finite ion-Larmor-radius effects are shown to qualitatively and quantitatively modify the three-wave parametric decays via the ion-sound perturbations. In the case of geometry, the spontaneous excitation of zonal structures by toroidal Alfv'en eigenmodes is investigated; demonstrating that, for realistic tokamak geometries, zonal current dominates over zonal flow. [4pt] Present address: Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
Rankin, R.; Sydorenko, D.
2015-12-01
Results from a 3D global numerical model of Alfven wave propagation in a warm multi-species plasma in Earth's magnetosphere are presented. The model uses spherical coordinates, accounts for a non-dipole magnetic field, vertical structure of the ionosphere, and an air gap below the ionosphere. A realistic density model is used. Below the exobase altitude (2000 km) the densities and the temperatures of electrons, ions, and neutrals are obtained from the IRI and MSIS models. Above the exobase, ballistic (originating from the ionosphere and returning to ionosphere) and trapped (bouncing between two reflection points above the ionosphere) electron populations are considered similar to [Pierrard and Stegen (2008), JGR, v.113, A10209]. Plasma parameters at the exobase provided by the IRI are the boundary conditions for the ballistic electrons while the [Carpenter and Anderson (1992), JGR, v.97, p.1097] model of equatorial electron density defines parameters of the trapped electron population. In the simulations that are presented, Alfven waves with frequencies from 1 Hz to 0.01 Hz and finite azimuthal wavenumbers are excited in the magnetosphere and compared with Van Allen Probes data and ground-based observations from the CARISMA array of ground magnetometers. When short perpendicular scale waves reflect form the ionosphere, compressional Alfven waves are observed to propagate across the geomagnetic field in the ionospheric waveguide [e.g., Lysak (1999), JGR, v.104, p.10017]. Signals produced by the waves on the ground are discussed. The wave model is also applied to interpret recent Van Allen Probes observations of kinetic scale ULF waves that are associated with radiation belt electron dynamics and energetic particle injections.
Wang, C B; Lee, L C
2014-01-01
A scenario is proposed to explain the preferential heating of minor ions and differential streaming velocity between minor ions and protons observed in the solar corona and in the solar wind. It is demonstrated by test particle simulations that minor ions can be nearly fully picked up by intrinsic Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves observed in the solar wind based on the observed wave energy density. Both high frequency ion-cyclotron waves and low frequency Alfv\\'en waves play crucial roles in the pickup process. A minor ion can first gain a high magnetic moment through the resonant wave-particle interaction with ion-cyclotron waves, and then this ion with a large magnetic moment can be trapped by magnetic mirror-like field structures in the presence of the lower-frequency Alfv\\'en waves. As a result, the ion is picked up by these Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves. However, minor ions can only be partially picked up in the corona due to low wave energy density and low plasma beta. During the pickup process, minor ions are stoch...
Kinetic Alfven Waves and the Depletion of the Thermal Population in Extragalactic Jets
Jafelice, L. C.; Opher, R.
1990-11-01
evident that both problems are intimately related to one another. Jafe- lice and Opher (1987a)(Astrophys. Space Sci. 137, 303)showed that an abundant generation of kinetic Alfven waves (KAw) within EJ and ERS is expected. In the present work we study the chain of processes: a) KAW accelerate thermal electrons along the background magnetic field producing suprathermal runaway electrons; b) which generate Langmuir waves and c) which in turn further accelerate a fraction of the runaway electrons to moderately relativistic energies. We show that assuming that there is no other source of a thermal population but the original one, the above sequence of processes can account for the consumption of thermal electrons in a time scale the source lifetime. Key o : GALAXIES-JETS - HYDROMAGNETICS
Hahn, Michael
2013-01-01
We present a measurement of the energy carried and dissipated by Alfv\\'en waves in a polar coronal hole. Alfv\\'en waves have been proposed as the energy source that heats the corona and drives the solar wind. Previous work has shown that line widths decrease with height in coronal holes, which is a signature of wave damping, but have been unable to quantify the energy lost by the waves. This is because line widths depend on both the non-thermal velocity v_nt and the ion temperature T_i. We have implemented a means to separate the T_i and v_nt contributions using the observation that at low heights the waves are undamped and the ion temperatures do not change with height. This enables us to determine the amount of energy carried by the waves at low heights, which is proportional to v_nt. We find the initial energy flux density present was 6.7 +/- 0.7 x 10^5 erg cm^-2 s^-1, which is sufficient to heat the coronal hole and acccelerate the solar wind during the 2007 - 2009 solar minimum. Additionally, we find tha...
Dispersive waves in fs cascaded second-harmonic generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;
2009-01-01
Dispersive waves are observed in simulations of cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation. When generating ultra-short fs compressed near-IR solitons the dispersive waves are strongly red-shifted, depending on the soliton wavelength. Semi-analytical calculations predict the wavelengths....
Influence of the condensate and inverse cascade on the direct cascade in wave turbulence
Korotkevich, A O
2009-01-01
During direct numerical simulation of the isotropic turbulence of surface gravity waves in the framework of Hamiltonian equations formation of the long wave background or condensate was observed. Exponents of the direct cascade spectra at the different levels of an artificial condensate suppression show a tendency to become closer to the prediction of the wave turbulence theory at lower levels of condensate. A simple qualitative explanation of the mechanism of this phenomenon is proposed.
Chandran, Benjamin D G; Quataert, Eliot; Bale, Stuart D
2011-01-01
We develop a 1D solar-wind model that includes separate energy equations for the electrons and protons, proton temperature anisotropy, collisional and collisionless heat flux, and an analytical treatment of low-frequency, reflection-driven, Alfven-wave turbulence. To partition the turbulent heating between electron heating, parallel proton heating, and perpendicular proton heating, we employ results from the theories of linear wave damping and nonlinear stochastic heating. We account for mirror and oblique firehose instabilities by increasing the proton pitch-angle scattering rate when the proton temperature anisotropy exceeds the threshold for either instability. We numerically integrate the equations of the model forward in time until a steady state is reached, focusing on two fast-solar-wind-like solutions. These solutions are consistent with a number of observations, supporting the idea that Alfven-wave turbulence plays an important role in the origin of the solar wind.
Hansen, Shelley C
2012-01-01
Alfv\\'en waves may be difficult to excite at the photosphere due to low ionization fraction and suffer near-total reflection at the transition region (TR). Yet they are ubiquitous in the corona and heliosphere. To overcome these difficulties, we show that they may instead be generated high in the chromosphere by conversion from reflecting fast magnetohydrodynamic waves, and that Alfv\\'enic transition region reflection is greatly reduced if the fast reflection point is within a few scale heights of the TR. The influence of mode conversion on the phase of the reflected fast wave is also explored. This phase can potentially be misinterpreted as a travel speed perturbation, with implications for the practical seismic probing of active regions.
Tsiklauri, D
2015-01-01
Our magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and analytical calculations show that, when a background flow is present, mathematical expressions for the Alfv\\'en wave (AW) damping via phase mixing are modified by a following substitution $C_A^\\prime(x) \\to C_A^\\prime(x)+V_0^\\prime(x)$, where $C_A$ and $V_0$ are AW phase and the flow speeds and prime denotes derivative in the direction across the background magnetic field. In uniform magnetic field and over-dense plasma structures, in which $C_A$ is smaller compared to surrounding plasma, the flow, that is confined to the structure, in the same direction as the AW, reduces the effect of phase mixing, because on the edges of the structure $C_A^\\prime$ and $V_0^\\prime$ have opposite sign. Thus, the wave damps via phase mixing {\\it slower} compared to the case without the flow. This is the consequence of the co-directional flow reducing the wave front stretching in the transverse direction. Although, the result is generic and is applicable to different laboratory or ...
Alfven波在微电离大气中的衰减特性研究%Attenuation of Alfven Waves in Weakly Ionized Near Earth Atmosphere
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘元涛; 赵华; 李磊; 王劲东; 周斌; 冯永勇
2011-01-01
利用简单的偶极子地磁场模型以及大气电子密度和电导率模式,分析地面产生的磁扰动以Alfven波的模式传播到近地空间区域.这种地面的磁扰动可能干扰近地空间卫星对空间磁扰动的观测.通过对地面磁扰动Alfven 波模式1000km高度内的衰减情况进行模拟,认为在近地空间采用地磁偶极子模型是合理的.由于衰减随扰动频率的增大而急剧增强,分析还得到了近地卫星能够探测到地面磁扰动的最大频率.计算结果表明,Alfven波的衰减主要集中在高度50km以下,这个区域内的大气电导率极其微弱,使Alfven波的传播受到极大衰减.0.4Hz 以下的Alfven波沿磁力线传播到1000 km高度后衰减结为原来扰动幅度的千分之一,因此频率在0.4 Hz以下的Alfven波可能会干扰低轨卫星探测磁场脉动.%Alfven waves, produced on the ground by artificial or by soundstorm, propagating to the near-earth space along the geomagnetic field lines, would decay greatly with distance.A dipole geomagnetic field model in near earth space, plasma density and conductivity models derived from observational data are used in this study to investigate the attenuation of Alfven waves below 1000 km altitude by numerical simulation methods.The frequency that would be detected by magnetometer carried by satellite was also found.The result showed that: Alfven waves will decay sharply in the height of less than 50 km for the much weak electrical conductivity in this region; it is 0.4 Hz Alfven waves, when transmitted to 1000 km, that becomes about one-thousandth of the original, so Alfven waves below 0.4 Hz can be detected by LEO satellites.
On the cascade mechanism of short surface wave modulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Charnotskii
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Modulation of short surface ripples by long surface or internal waves by a cascade mechanism is considered. At the first stage, the orbital velocity of the long wave (LW adiabatically modulates an intermediate length nonlinear gravity wave (GW, which generates a bound (parasitic capillary wave (CW near its crest in a wide spatial frequency band. Due to strong dependence of the CW amplitude on that of the GW, the resulting ripple modulation by LW can be strong. Adiabatic modulation at the first stage is calculated for an arbitrarily strong LW current. The CWs are calculated based on the Lonquet-Higgins theory, in the framework of a steady periodic solution, which proves to be sufficient for the cases considered. Theoretical results are compared with data from laboratory experiments. A discussion of related sea clutter data is given in the conclusion.
Optical evidence for Alfven wave breaking in the near-Earth magnetosphere
Semeter, J.; Blixt, M.
2006-12-01
Alfvén waves propagating obliquely to the Earth's magnetic lines of force become dispersive when the perpendicular wavelength approaches the collisionless electron skin depth. The dispersion results in two simultaneous effects: (1) wave energy becomes coupled to particle kinetic energy such that parallel acceleration of electrons is possible, and (2) wave energy spreads azimuthally across the background magnetic field, with phase- and group-velocities oppositely directed. Validation of this mechanism requires two-dimensional, time-dependent measurements of the dispersing wave packet. Such evidence should be available in video measurements of the aurora-borealis. An analysis of high-speed, narrow-field, intensified video of dynamic aurora event is presented, confirming the salient predictions for inertial Alfvén wave dispersion.
Nature and dynamics of overreflection of Alfven waves in MHD shear flows
Gogichaishvili, D; Chanishvili, R; Lominadze, J
2014-01-01
Our goal is to gain new insights into the physics of wave overreflection phenomenon in MHD nonuniform/shear flows changing the existing trend/approach of the phenomenon study. The performed analysis allows to separate from each other different physical processes, grasp their interplay and, by this way, construct the basic physics of the overreflection in incompressible MHD flows with linear shear of mean velocity, ${\\bf U}_0=(Sy,0,0)$, that contain two different types of Alfv${\\rm \\acute{e}}$n waves. These waves are reduced to pseudo- and shear shear-Alfv${\\rm \\acute{e}}$n waves when wavenumber along $Z$-axis equals zero (i.e., when $k_z=0$). Therefore, for simplicity, we labelled these waves as: P-Alfv${\\rm \\acute{e}}$n and S-Alfv${\\rm \\acute{e}}$n waves (P-AWs and S-AWs). We show that: (1) the linear coupling of counter-propagating waves determines the overreflection, (2) counter-propagating P-AWs are coupled with each other, while counter-propagating S-AWs are not coupled with each other, but are asymmetri...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rehman, M. A.; Qureshi, M. N. S. [Department of Physics, GC University, Kachery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shah, H. A. [Department of Physics, Forman Christian College, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Masood, W. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shehzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP) Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2015-10-15
Nonlinear circularly polarized Alfvén waves are studied in magnetized nonrelativistic, relativistic, and ultrarelativistic degenerate Fermi plasmas. Using the quantum hydrodynamic model, Zakharov equations are derived and the Sagdeev potential approach is used to investigate the properties of the electromagnetic solitary structures. It is seen that the amplitude increases with the increase of electron density in the relativistic and ultrarelativistic cases but decreases in the nonrelativistic case. Both right and left handed waves are considered, and it is seen that supersonic, subsonic, and super- and sub-Alfvénic solitary structures are obtained for different polarizations and under different relativistic regimes.
Erkaev, NV; Shaidurov, VA; Semenov, VS; Biernat, HK; Heidorn, D; Lakhina, GS
2006-01-01
A ratio of the maximal and minimal cross sections of the magnetic tube (contraction ratio) is a crucial parameter which affects very strongly on reflections of MHD wave pulses propagating along a narrowing magnetic flux tube. In cases of large contraction ratios of magnetospheric magnetic tubes, the
Alfven Eigenmode And Ion Bernstein Wave Studies For Controlling Fusion Alpha Particles
Heeter, R F
1999-01-01
In magnetic confinement fusion reactor plasmas, the charged fusion products (such as alpha particles in deuterium-tritium plasmas) will be the dominant power source, and by controlling these charged fusion products using wave-particle interactions the reactor performance could be optimized. This thesis studies two candidate waves: Mode-Converted Ion Bernstein Waves (MCIBWs) and Alfvén Eigenmodes (AEs). Rates of MCIBW-driven losses of alpha-like fast deuterons, previously observed in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), are reproduced by a new model so that the wave-particle diffusion coefficient can be deduced. The MCIBW power in TFTR is found to be ∼ 1/3 that needed for collisionless alpha particle control. A reasonable reactor power scaling is derived. To study AEs, existing magnetic fluctuation probes at the Joint European Torus (JET) have been absolutely calibrated from 30–500 kHz for the first time, allowing fluctuation measurements with &vbm0;dBpol&vbm0;/B0&am...
Proton heating and beam formation via parametrically unstable Alfven-cyclotron waves
Marsch, Eckart; Araneda, Jaime; -Vinas, Adolfo F.
Vlasov theory and one-dimensional hybrid simulations are used to study the effects that compressible fluctuations driven by parametric instabilities of Alfvén/cyclotron waves have on proe ton velocity distributions. Field-aligned proton beams are generated during the saturation phase of the wave-particle interaction, with a drift speed which is slightly greater than the Alfvén speed and is maintained until the end of the simulation. The main part of the dise tribution becomes anisotropic due to phase mixing as is typically observed in the velocity distributions measured in the fast solar wind. We identify the key instabilities and also find that even in the parameter regime, where fluid theory appears to be appropriate, strong kinetic effects still prevail.
Interpreting Ulysses data using inverse scattering theory: Oblique Alfv\\'en waves
Wheeler, Harry R; Hamilton, R L
2015-01-01
Solitary wave structures observed by the Ulysses spacecraft in the solar wind were analyzed using both inverse scattering theory as well as direct numerical integration of the derivative nonlinear Schr\\"odinger (DNLS) equation. Several of these structures were found to be consistent with soliton solutions of the DNLS equation. Such solitary structures have been commonly observed in the space plasma environment and may, in fact, be long-lived solitons. While the generation of these solitons may be due to an instability mechanism, e.g., the mirror instability, they may be observable far from the source region due to their coherent nature.
Coffey, Victoria; Chandler, Michael; Singh, Nagendra
2008-01-01
The role that the cleft/cusp has in ionosphere/magnetosphere coupling makes it a very dynamic region having similar fundamental processes to those within the auroral regions. With Polar passing through the cusp at 1 Re in the Spring of 1996, we observe a strong correlation between ion heating and broadband ELF (BBELF) emissions. This commonly observed relationship led to the study of the coupling of large field-aligned currents, burst electric fields, and the thermal O+ ions. We demonstrate the role of these measurements to Alfvenic waves and stochastic ion heating. Finally we will show the properties of the resulting density cavities.
Brady, C S
2016-01-01
Two of the central problems in our understanding of the solar chromosphere are how the upper chromosphere is heated and what drives spicules. Estmates of the required chromospheric heating, based on radiative and conductive losses suggest a rate of $\\sim 0.1 \\mathrm{\\:erg\\:cm^{-3}\\:s^{-1}}$ in the lower chromosphere dropping to $\\sim 10^{-3} \\mathrm{\\:erg\\:cm^{-3}\\:s^{-1}}$ in the upper chromosphere (\\citet{Avrett1981}). The chromosphere is also permeated by spicules, higher density plasma from the lower atmosphere propelled upwards at speeds of $\\sim 10-20 \\mathrm{\\:km\\:s^{-1}}$, for so called Type-I spicules (\\citet{Pereira2012,Zhang2012}, reaching heights of $\\sim 3000-5000 \\mathrm{\\:km}$ above the photosphere. A clearer understanding of chromospheric dynamics, its heating and the formation of spicules, is thus of central importance to solar atmospheric science. For over thirty years it has been proposed that photospheric driving of MHD waves may be responsible for both heating and spicule formation. This ...
Simulations of the Mg II k and Ca II 8542 lines from an Alfv\\'en Wave-heated flare chromosphere
Kerr, Graham S; Russell, Alexander J B; Allred, Joel C
2016-01-01
We use radiation hydrodynamic simulations to examine two models of solar flare chromospheric heating: Alfv\\'en wave dissipation and electron beam collisional losses. Both mechanisms are capable of strong chromospheric heating, and we show that the distinctive atmospheric evolution in the mid-to-upper chromosphere results in Mg II k-line emission that should be observably different between wave-heated and beam-heated simulations. We also present Ca II 8542A profiles which are formed slightly deeper in the chromosphere. The Mg II k-line profiles from our wave-heated simulation are quite different from those from a beam-heated model and are more consistent with IRIS observations. The predicted differences between the Ca II 8542A in the two models are small. We conclude that careful observational and theoretical study of lines formed in the mid-to-upper chromosphere holds genuine promise for distinguishing between competing models for chromospheric heating in flares.
Formation of quasiparallel Alfven solitons
Hamilton, R. L.; Kennel, C. F.; Mjolhus, E.
1992-01-01
The formation of quasi-parallel Alfven solitons is investigated through the inverse scattering transformation (IST) for the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equation. The DNLS has a rich complement of soliton solutions consisting of a two-parameter soliton family and a one-parameter bright/dark soliton family. In this paper, the physical roles and origins of these soliton families are inferred through an analytic study of the scattering data generated by the IST for a set of initial profiles. The DNLS equation has as limiting forms the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS), Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) and modified Korteweg-de-Vries (MKdV) equations. Each of these limits is briefly reviewed in the physical context of quasi-parallel Alfven waves. The existence of these limiting forms serves as a natural framework for discussing the formation of Alfven solitons.
Excitation and diagnosis of cascading Langmuir waves in ionospheric plasmas at Gakona, Alaska
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burton, L M; Cohen, J A; Pradipta, R; Labno, A; Lee, M C; Batishchev, O; Rokusek, D L [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kuo, S P [Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Watkins, B J; Oyama, S [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)], E-mail: mclee@mit.edu
2008-12-15
Ionospheric plasma heating experiments were conducted at Gakona, Alaska to investigate cascading spectra of Langmuir wave turbulence, excited by parametric instabilities diagnosed by Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR). This work is aimed at testing the recent theory of Kuo and Lee (2005 J. Geophys. Res. 110 A01309) that addresses how the cascade of Langmuir waves can distribute spatially via the resonant and non-resonant decay processes. The non-resonant cascade proceeds at the location where parametric decay instability (PDI) or oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI) is excited and severely hampered by the frequency mismatch effect. By contrast, the resonant cascade, which takes place at lower matching heights, has to overcome the propagation loss of the Langmuir pump waves in each cascade step. Our experimental results have corroborated these predictions about the generation of cascading Langmuir waves by the HAARP heater.
Normal Incident Long Wave Infrared Quantum Dash Quantum Cascade Photodetector
Wang, Feng-Jiao; Ren, Fei; Liu, Shu-Man; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo
2016-09-01
We demonstrate a quantum dash quantum cascade photodetector (QDash-QCD) by incorporating self-assembled InAs quantum dashes into the active region of a long wave infrared QCD. Sensitive photoresponse to normal incident light at 10 μm was observed, which is attributed to the intersubband (ISB) transitions in the quantum well/quantum dash (QW/QDash) hybrid absorption region and the following transfer of excited electrons on the extraction stair-like quantum levels separated by LO-phonon energy. The high density InAs quantum dashes were formed in the Stranski-Krastanow mode and stair-like levels were formed by a lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs superlattice. A stable responsivity from 5 mA/W at 77 K to 3 mA/W at as high as 190 K was observed, which makes the QDash-QCD promising in high temperature operation.
Cho, Jungyeon
2011-01-01
Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluid-like description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave (also known as whistler wave) propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of 3-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results: 1. Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. 2. EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and 2-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence.
Normal Incident Long Wave Infrared Quantum Dash Quantum Cascade Photodetector.
Wang, Feng-Jiao; Ren, Fei; Liu, Shu-Man; Zhuo, Ning; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo
2016-12-01
We demonstrate a quantum dash quantum cascade photodetector (QDash-QCD) by incorporating self-assembled InAs quantum dashes into the active region of a long wave infrared QCD. Sensitive photoresponse to normal incident light at 10 μm was observed, which is attributed to the intersubband (ISB) transitions in the quantum well/quantum dash (QW/QDash) hybrid absorption region and the following transfer of excited electrons on the extraction stair-like quantum levels separated by LO-phonon energy. The high density InAs quantum dashes were formed in the Stranski-Krastanow mode and stair-like levels were formed by a lattice matched InGaAs/InAlAs superlattice. A stable responsivity from 5 mA/W at 77 K to 3 mA/W at as high as 190 K was observed, which makes the QDash-QCD promising in high temperature operation.
Cho, Jungyeon
2011-05-13
Electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) provides a fluidlike description of small-scale magnetized plasmas. An EMHD wave propagates along magnetic field lines. The direction of propagation can be either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field lines. We numerically study propagation of three-dimensional (3D) EMHD wave packets moving in one direction. We obtain two major results. (1) Unlike its magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) counterpart, an EMHD wave packet is dispersive. Because of this, EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction create opposite-traveling wave packets via self-interaction and cascade energy to smaller scales. (2) EMHD wave packets traveling in one direction clearly exhibit inverse energy cascade. We find that the latter is due to conservation of magnetic helicity. We compare inverse energy cascade in 3D EMHD turbulence and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence.
Highly Alfvenic Slow Solar Wind
Roberts, D. Aaron
2010-01-01
It is commonly thought that fast solar wind tends to be highly Alfvenic, with strong correlations between velocity and magnetic fluctuations, but examples have been known for over 20 years in which slow wind is both Alfvenic and has many other properties more typically expected of fast solar wind. This paper will present a search for examples of such flows from more recent data, and will begin to characterize the general characteristics of them. A very preliminary search suggests that such intervals are more common in the rising phase of the solar cycle. These intervals are important for providing constraints on models of solar wind acceleration, and in particular the role waves might or might not play in that process.
Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Shats, M
2013-05-10
We report the generation of large coherent vortices via inverse energy cascade in Faraday wave driven turbulence. The motion of floaters in the Faraday waves is three dimensional, but its horizontal velocity fluctuations show unexpected similarity with two-dimensional turbulence. The inverse cascade is detected by measuring frequency spectra of the Lagrangian velocity, and it is confirmed by computing the third moment of the horizontal velocity fluctuations. This is observed in deep water in a broad range of wavelengths and vertical accelerations. The results broaden the scope of recent findings on Faraday waves in thin layers [A. von Kameke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 074502 (2011)].
Kaladze, Tamaz; Kahlon, Laila
Nonlinear dynamics of coupled internal-gravity (IG) and alfven electromagnetic planetary waves in the weakly ionized ionospheric E-layer is investigated. Under such coupling new type of alfven waves is revealed. It is shown that such short wavelength turbulence of IG and alfvén waves is unstable with respect to the excitation of low-frequency and large-scale perturbations of the zonal flow and magnetic field. A set of coupled equations describing the nonlinear interaction of coupled IG and alfven waves with zonal flows is derived. The nonlinear mechanism of the instability is driven by the advection of vorticity and is based on the parametric excitation of convective cells by finite-amplitude coupled IG and alfven waves leading to the inverse energy cascade toward the longer wavelength. The growth rates of the corresponding instability and the conditions for driving them are determined. The possibility of generation of the intense mean magnetic field is shown.
Soler, Roberto
2015-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles for the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfv\\'en continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In ...
Above room temperature continuous wave operation of a broad-area quantum-cascade laser
Semtsiv, M. P.; Masselink, W. T.
2016-11-01
We describe the design and implementation of a broad-area (w ≈ 30 μm) quantum-cascade laser operating in a continuous wave mode up to heat-sink temperatures beyond +100 °C. The room-temperature emission wavelength is 4.6 μm. The temperature gradient in the active region of such a wide laser stripe is essentially perpendicular to the epitaxial layers and the resulting steady-state active region temperature offset scales approximately with the square of the number of cascades. With only 10 cascades in the active region, the threshold electrical power density in the current quantum-cascade laser in the continuous-wave mode is as low as Vth × Ith = 3.8 V × 0.9 kA/cm2 = 3.4 kW/cm2 at room temperature for 2 mm-long two-side high-reflectivity coated laser stripe. A 4 mm-long one-side high-reflectivity coated laser stripe delivers in continuous-wave mode above 0.6 W at +20 °C and above 1.3 W at -27 °C (cooled with a single-stage Peltier element). A 2 mm-long two-side high-reflectivity coated laser stripe demonstrates continuous-wave lasing up to at least +102 °C (375 K). The thermal conductance, Gth, ranges between 235 W/K cm2 and 140 W/K cm2 for temperatures between -33 °C and +102 °C. This demonstration opens the route for continuous-wave power scaling of quantum-cascade lasers via broad-area laser ridges.
The period ratio P_1/P_2 of torsional Alfv\\'en waves with steady flows in spicules
Ebadi, H; Farahani, S Vasheghani
2016-01-01
The aim here is to model the standing torsional oscillations in solar spicules in the presence of density stratification, magnetic field expansion, and steady flows. By implementing cylindrical geometry, the eigenfrequencies, eigenfunctions, and the period ratio P_1/P_2 of these waves is obtained for finite plasma-beta. The shifts created by the steady flow justifies the divergence of the observed period ratio for the first and second periods from the number 2.
MHD-kinetic transition in imbalanced Alfv$\\'{e}$nic turbulence
Voitenko, Yuriy
2016-01-01
Alfvenic turbulence in space is usually imbalanced: amplitudes of waves propagating parallel and anti-parallel to the mean magnetic field $B_0$ are unequal. It is commonly accepted that the turbulence is driven by (counter-) collisions between these counter-propagating wave fractions. Contrary to this, we found a new ion-scale dynamical range of the turbulence established by (co-) collisions among waves co-propagating in the same direction along $B_0$. The turbulent cascade is accelerated there and power spectra are steep and non-universal. The spectral indexes vary around -3 (-4) in the strong (weak) turbulence, such that steeper spectra follow larger imbalances. Intermittency steepens spectra further, up to -3.7 (-4.5). Our theoretical predictions are compatible with steep variable spectra observed in the solar wind at ion kinetic scales.
Energetic particle parallel diffusion in a cascading wave turbulence in the foreshock region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Otsuka
2007-09-01
Full Text Available We study parallel (field-aligned diffusion of energetic particles in the upstream of the bow shock with test particle simulations. We assume parallel shock geometry of the bow shock, and that MHD wave turbulence convected by the solar wind toward the shock is purely transverse in one-dimensional system with a constant background magnetic field. We use three turbulence models: a homogeneous turbulence, a regular cascade from a large scale to smaller scales, and an inverse cascade from a small scale to larger scales. For the homogeneous model the particle motions along the average field are Brownian motions due to random and isotropic scattering across 90 degree pitch angle. On the other hand, for the two cascade models particle motion is non-Brownian due to coherent and anisotropic pitch angle scattering for finite time scale. The mean free path λ_{||} calculated by the ensemble average of these particle motions exhibits dependence on the distance from the shock. It also depends on the parameters such as the thermal velocity of the particles, solar wind flow velocity, and a wave turbulence model. For the inverse cascade model, the dependence of λ_{||} at the shock on the thermal energy is consistent with the hybrid simulation done by Giacalone (2004, but the spatial dependence of λ_{||} is inconsistent with it.
Waves and vortices in the inverse cascade regime of stratified turbulence with or without rotation
Herbert, Corentin; Rosenberg, Duane; Pouquet, Annick
2015-01-01
We study the partition of energy between waves and vortices in stratified turbulence, with or without rotation, for a variety of parameters, focusing on the behavior of the waves and vortices in the inverse cascade of energy towards the large scales. To this end, we use direct numerical simulations in a cubic box at a Reynolds number Re=1000, with the ratio between the Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a frequency N and the inertial frequency f varying from 1/4 to 20, together with a purely stratified run. The Froude number, measuring the strength of the stratification, varies within the range 0.02 < Fr < 0.32. We find that the inverse cascade is dominated by the slow quasi-geostrophic modes. Their energy spectra and fluxes exhibit characteristics of an inverse cascade, even though their energy is not conserved. Surprisingly, the slow vortices still dominate when the ratio N/f increases, also in the stratified case, although less and less so. However, when N/f increases, the inverse cascade of the slow modes becomes we...
Continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with frequency-shifted feedback
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyakh, A., E-mail: arkadiy.lyakh@ucf.edu [Pranalytica, Inc., 1101 Colorado Ave., Santa Monica, CA 90401 (United States); NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Pkwy, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 304 Scorpius St, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Barron-Jimenez, R.; Dunayevskiy, I.; Go, R.; Tsvid, G.; Patel, C. Kumar N., E-mail: patel@pranalytica.com [Pranalytica, Inc., 1101 Colorado Ave., Santa Monica, CA 90401 (United States)
2016-01-15
Operation of continuous wave quantum cascade lasers with a frequency-shifted feedback provided by an acousto-optic modulator is reported. Measured linewidth of 1.7 cm{sup −1} for these devices, under CW operating conditions, was in a good agreement with predictions of a model based on frequency-shifted feedback seeded by spontaneous emission. Linewidth broadening was observed for short sweep times, consistent with sound wave grating period variation across the illuminated area on the acousto-optic modulator. Standoff detection capability of the AOM-based QCL setup was demonstrated for several solid materials.
Vortex algebra by multiply cascaded four-wave mixing of femtosecond optical beams.
Hansinger, Peter; Maleshkov, Georgi; Garanovich, Ivan L; Skryabin, Dmitry V; Neshev, Dragomir N; Dreischuh, Alexander; Paulus, Gerhard G
2014-05-05
Experiments performed with different vortex pump beams show for the first time the algebra of the vortex topological charge cascade, that evolves in the process of nonlinear wave mixing of optical vortex beams in Kerr media due to competition of four-wave mixing with self-and cross-phase modulation. This leads to the coherent generation of complex singular beams within a spectral bandwidth larger than 200nm. Our experimental results are in good agreement with frequency-domain numerical calculations that describe the newly generated spectral satellites.
Superradiant cascade emissions in an atomic ensemble via four-wave mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jen, H.H., E-mail: sappyjen@gmail.com
2015-09-15
We investigate superradiant cascade emissions from an atomic ensemble driven by two-color classical fields. The correlated pair of photons (signal and idler) is generated by adiabatically driving the system with large-detuned light fields via four-wave mixing. The signal photon from the upper transition of the diamond-type atomic levels is followed by the idler one which can be superradiant due to light-induced dipole–dipole interactions. We then calculate the cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) of the idler photon, which is a cumulative effect of interaction energy. We study its dependence on a cylindrical geometry, a conventional setup in cold atom experiments, and estimate the maximum CLS which can be significant and observable. Manipulating the CLS of cascade emissions enables frequency qubits that provide alternative robust elements in quantum network. - Highlights: • Superradiance from a cascade atomic transition. • Correlated photon pair generation via four-wave mixing. • Dynamical light–matter couplings in a phased symmetrical state. • Cooperative Lamb shift in a cylindrical atomic ensemble.
Cascaded four-wave mixing for broadband tunable laser sideband generation.
Liu, Weimin; Zhu, Liangdong; Wang, Liang; Fang, Chong
2013-06-01
We demonstrate the versatile broadband wavelength tunability of frequency upconverted multicolor cascaded four-wave-mixing (CFWM) signals spanning the continuous wavelength range from UV to near IR in a thin type-I BBO crystal using 35 fs, 800 nm fundamental and chirped IR supercontinuum white light pulses. Two sets of spatially dispersed CFWM laser sidebands are concomitantly generated from two incident pulses as well as their second-harmonic-generation and sum-frequency-generation pulses in a crossing geometry. The tunable cascaded signals with ultrabroad bandwidth can be readily achieved via spatially rotating the BBO crystal to different phase-matching conditions and temporally varying the time delay between the two incident near-IR pulses.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2015-04-10
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles in the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfvén continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In addition, we discuss that the processes of resonant absorption and phase mixing are closely linked. They represent two aspects of the same underlying physical mechanism: the energy cascade from large scales to small scales due to naturally occurring plasma and/or magnetic field inhomogeneities. This process may provide the necessary scenario for efficient dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy in the solar atmospheric plasma.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xue Feng; Wei Zhang; Xiaoming Liu
2009-01-01
The optical carrier suppression in optical quadruple frequency modulation by cascaded external modulators is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the optical carrier suppression ratio is related with not only the initial phase difference of electrical signals applied on the two modulators, but also the optical phase shift between the two modulators. The maximum suppression ratio can be achieved when the total phase difference is equal to nπ+π/2(n=1,2…),which is verified by experiments. By properly controlling the total phase shift, 40-GHz millimeter-wave is generated by using a 10-GHz radio frequency (RF) source and the modulators.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Testa, D [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Fasoli, A [CRPP, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Borba, D [Associacao EURATOM/IST (Portugal); EDFA-CSU, Culham Science Centre (United Kingdom); Baar, M de [FOM-Instituut Voor Plasmafysica, Rijnhuizen (Netherlands); Bigi, M [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Brzozowski, J [NADA VR-Euratom Association, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Vries, P de [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)
2004-07-01
We have investigated the effect of different ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating schemes, of error field modes, of the plasma shape and edge magnetic shear, and of the ion {nabla}B drift direction on the stability of Alfven eigenmodes (AEs). The use of multi-frequency or 2nd harmonic minority ICRF heating at high plasma density gives rise to a lower fast ion pressure gradient in the plasma core and to a reduced mode activity in the Alfven frequency range. Externally excited low-amplitude error fields lead to a much larger AE instability threshold, which we attribute to a moderate radial redistribution of the fast ions. The edge plasma shape has a clear stabilizing effect on high-n, radially localized AEs. The damping rate of n = 1 toroidal AEs is a factor 3 higher when the ion {nabla}B drift is directed towards the divertor. These results represent a useful step towards the extrapolation of current scenarios to the inclusion of fusion-born alpha particles in ITER, with possible application for feedback control schemes for the various ITER operating regimes.
Predator prey oscillations in a simple cascade model of drift wave turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berionni, V.; Guercan, Oe. D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)
2011-11-15
A reduced three shell limit of a simple cascade model of drift wave turbulence, which emphasizes nonlocal interactions with a large scale mode, is considered. It is shown to describe both the well known predator prey dynamics between the drift waves and zonal flows and to reduce to the standard three wave interaction equations. Here, this model is considered as a dynamical system whose characteristics are investigated. The analytical solutions for the purely nonlinear limit are given in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions. An approximate analytical solution involving Jacobi elliptic functions and exponential growth is computed using scale separation for the case of unstable solutions that are observed when the energy injection rate is high. The fixed points of the system are determined, and the behavior around these fixed points is studied. The system is shown to display periodic solutions corresponding to limit cycle oscillations, apparently chaotic phase space orbits, as well as unstable solutions that grow slowly while oscillating rapidly. The period doubling route to transition to chaos is examined.
Diffusive shock acceleration with magnetic field amplification and Alfvenic drift
Kang, Hyesung
2012-01-01
We explore how wave-particle interactions affect diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at astrophysical shocks by performing time-dependent kinetic simulations, in which phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA), Alfvenic drift, thermal leakage injection, Bohm-like diffusion, and a free escape boundary are implemented. If the injection fraction of cosmic-ray (CR) particles is greater than 2x10^{-4}, for the shock parameters relevant for young supernova remnants, DSA is efficient enough to develop a significant shock precursor due to CR feedback, and magnetic field can be amplified up to a factor of 20 via CR streaming instability in the upstream region. If scattering centers drift with Alfven speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum can be steepened significantly and the acceleration efficiency is reduced. Nonlinear DSA with self-consistent MFA and Alfvenic drift predicts that the postshock CR pressure saturates roughly at 10 % of the shock ram pressure for strong shocks...
Two-wave interaction in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
T. V. Zaqarashvili; Roberts, B.
2006-01-01
The weakly nonlinear interaction of sound and linearly polarised Alfv{\\'e}n waves propagating in the same direction along an applied magnetic field is studied. It is found that a sound wave is coupled to the Alfv{\\'e}n wave with double period and wavelength when the sound and Alfv{\\'e}n speeds are equal. The Alfv{\\'e}n wave drives the sound wave through the ponderomotive force, while the sound wave returns energy back to the Alfv{\\'e}n wave through the parametric (swing) influence. As a resul...
Pressure-gradient-induced Alfven eigenmodes: 2. Kinetic excitation with ion temperature gradient
Bierwage, Andreas; Zonca, Fulvio
2009-01-01
The kinetic excitation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) discrete Alfven eigenmodes in the second MHD ballooning stable domain is studied in the presence of a thermal ion temperature gradient (ITG), using linear gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of a local flux tube in shifted-circle tokamak geometry. The instabilities are identified as alpha-induced toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (alphaTAE); that is, bound states trapped between pressure-gradient-induced potential barriers of the Schroedinger equation for shear Alfven waves. Using numerical tools, we examine in detail the effect of kinetic thermal ion compression on alphaTAEs; both non-resonant coupling to ion sound waves and wave-particle resonances. It is shown that the Alfvenic ITG instability thresholds (e.g., the critical temperature gradient) are determined by two resonant absorption mechanisms: Landau damping and continuum damping. The numerical results are interpreted on the basis of a theoretical framework previously derived from a variational f...
Fundamentals of Highly Non-Degenerate Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosa Weigand
2015-09-01
Full Text Available By crossing two intense ultrashort laser pulses with different colors in a transparent medium, like a simple piece of glass, a fan of multicolored broadband light pulses can be simultaneously generated. These newly generated pulses are emitted in several well-defined directions and can cover a broad spectral range, from the infrared to the ultraviolet and beyond. This beautiful phenomenon, first observed and described 15 years ago, is due to highly-nondegenerate cascaded four-wave mixing (cascaded FWM, or CFWM. Here, we present a review of our work on the generation and measurement of multicolored light pulses based on third-order nonlinearities in transparent solids, from the discovery and first demonstration of highly-nondegenerate CFWM, to the coherent synthesis of single-cycle pulses by superposition of the multicolored light pulses produced by CFWM. We will also present the development and main results of a dedicated 2.5-D nonlinear propagation model, i.e., with propagation occurring along a two-dimensional plane while assuming cylindrically symmetric pump beam profiles, capable of adequately describing noncollinear FWM and CFWM processes. A new method for the generation of femtosecond pulses in the deep-ultraviolet (DUV based on FWM and CFWM will also be described. These experimental and theoretical results show that highly-nondegenerate third-order nonlinear optical processes are formally well understood and provide broader bandwidths than other nonlinear optical processes for the generation of ultrashort light pulses with wavelengths extending from the near-infrared to the deep-ultraviolet, which have many applications in science and technology.
Alfven cyclotron instability and ion cyclotron emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorelenkov, N.N.; Cheng, C.Z.
1995-07-01
Two-dimensional solutions of compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE) are studied in the cold plasma approximation. For finite inverse aspect ratio tokamak plasmas the two-dimensional eigenmode envelope is localized at the low magnetic field side with the radial and poloidal localization on the order of a/{radical}m and a/(fourth root of m), respectively, where m is the dominant poloidal mode number. Charged fusion product driven Alfven Cyclotron Instability (ACI) of the compressional Alfven eigenmodes provides the explanation for the ion cyclotron emission (ICE) spectrum observed in tokamak experiments. The ACI is excited by fast charged fusion products via Doppler shifted cyclotron wave-particle resonances. The ion cyclotron and electron Landau dampings and fast particle instability drive are calculated perturbatively for deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas. Near the plasma edge at the low field side the velocity distribution function of charged fusion products is localized in both pitch angle and velocity. The poloidal localization of the eigenmode enhances the ACI growth rates by a factor of {radical}m in comparison with the previous results without poloidal envelope. The thermal ion cyclotron damping determines that only modes with eigenfrequencies at multiples of the edge cyclotron frequency of the background ions can be easily excited and form an ICE spectrum similar to the experimental observations. Theoretical understanding is given for the results of TFTR DD and DT experiments with {upsilon}{sub {alpha}0}/{upsilon}{sub A} < 1 and JET experiments with {upsilon}{sub {alpha}0}/{upsilon}{sub A} > 1.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Howes, G. G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.
2009-04-23
become the slow and entropy modes of the conventional MHD). In the "dissipation range" below ion gyroscale, there are again two cascades: the kinetic-Alfven-wave (KAW) cascade governed by two fluid-like Electron Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (ERMHD) equations and a passive cascade of ion entropy fluctuations both in space and velocity. The latter cascade brings the energy of the inertial-range fluctuations that was Landau-damped at the ion gyroscale to collisional scales in the phase space and leads to ion heating. The KAWenergy is similarly damped at the electron gyroscale and converted into electron heat. Kolmogorov-style scaling relations are derived for all of these cascades. The relationship between the theoretical models proposed in this paper and astrophysical applications and observations is discussed in detail.
Supradeepa, V R
2010-01-01
We demonstrate a scheme to scale the bandwidth by several times while enhancing spectral flatness of frequency combs generated by intensity and phase modulation of CW lasers using cascaded four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber.
Velli, M.; Liewer, P. C.; Goldstein, B. E.
2000-05-01
We present simulations of parallel propagating Alfvén waves in the accelerating solar wind and their interactions with protons, alpha particles, and minor ions using an expanding box hybrid code (Liewer et al., 1999). In this model, the average solar wind flow speed is a given external function, and the simulation domain follows a plasma parcel as it expands both in the radial and transverse directions accordingly: the decrease of Alfvén speed and density with distance from the Sun are taken into account self-consistently. It is therefore possible to carry out a detailed study of frequency drifting and the coming into resonance with the waves at different radial locations of particles with differing charge to mass ratios. Simulations of monochromatic waves as well as waves with well-developed spectra are presented for plasmas with one, two and three ion species. We observe preferential heating and acceleration of protons and minor ions. Under some conditions, we obtain the scaling observed in coronal hole solar wind: the heavy ion temperature is proportional to its mass (Liewer et al., 2000). A comparison with predictions from models based on such quasi-linear or linear analyses will also be presented. P. C. Liewer, M. Velli and B. E. Goldstein, in Solar Wind Nine, S. Habbal, R. Esser, J. V. Hollweg, P. A. Isenberg, eds., (AIP Conference Proceedings 471, 1999) 449. P. C. Liewer, M. Velli, and B. E. Goldstein, in Proc. ACE 2000 Conference (2000) to be published.
Tian, Hui; McIntosh, Scott W.; Wang, Tongjiang; Offman, Leon; De Pontieu, Bart; Innes, Davina E.; Peter, Hardi
2012-01-01
Using data obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode, we have performed a survey of obvious and persistent (without significant damping) Doppler shift oscillations in the corona. We have found mainly two types of oscillations from February to April in 2007. One type is found at loop footpoint regions, with a dominant period around 10 minutes. They are characterized by coherent behavior of all line parameters (line intensity, Doppler shift, line width, and profile asymmetry), and apparent blueshift and blueward asymmetry throughout almost the entire duration. Such oscillations are likely to be signatures of quasi-periodic upflows (small-scale jets, or coronal counterpart of type-II spicules), which may play an important role in the supply of mass and energy to the hot corona. The other type of oscillation is usually associated with the upper part of loops. They are most clearly seen in the Doppler shift of coronal lines with formation temperatures between one and two million degrees. The global wavelets of these oscillations usually peak sharply around a period in the range of three to six minutes. No obvious profile asymmetry is found and the variation of the line width is typically very small. The intensity variation is often less than 2%. These oscillations are more likely to be signatures of kink/Alfv´en waves rather than flows. In a few cases, there seems to be a p/2 phase shift between the intensity and Doppler shift oscillations, which may suggest the presence of slow-mode standing waves according to wave theories. However, we demonstrate that such a phase shift could also be produced by loops moving into and out of a spatial pixel as a result of Alfv´enic oscillations. In this scenario, the intensity oscillations associated with Alfv´enic waves are caused by loop displacement rather than density change. These coronal waves may be used to investigate properties of the coronal plasma and magnetic field.
Attractors of magnetohydrodynamic flows in an Alfvenic state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunez, Manuel; Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid (Spain)
1999-08-13
We present a simplified form of the magnetohydrodynamic system which describes the evolution of a plasma where the small-scale velocity and magnetic field are aligned in the form of Alfven waves, such as happens in several turbulent situations. Bounds on the dimension of the global attractor are found, and are shown to be an improvement of the standard ones for the full magnetohydrodynamic equations. (author)
Relativistic particle acceleration in developing Alfv\\'{e}n turbulence
Matsukiyo, S; 10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/1004
2009-01-01
A new particle acceleration process in a developing Alfv\\'{e}n turbulence in the course of successive parametric instabilities of a relativistic pair plasma is investigated by utilyzing one-dimensional electromagnetic full particle code. Coherent wave-particle interactions result in efficient particle acceleration leading to a power-law like energy distribution function. In the simulation high energy particles having large relativistic masses are preferentially accelerated as the turbulence spectrum evolves in time. Main acceleration mechanism is simultaneous relativistic resonance between a particle and two different waves. An analytical expression of maximum attainable energy in such wave-particle interactions is derived.
Drift-Alfven instabilities of a finite beta plasma shear flow along a magnetic field
Mikhailenko, V. V.; Mikhailenko, V. S.; Lee, Hae June
2016-02-01
It was derived that the drift-Alfven instabilities with the shear flow parallel to the magnetic field have significant difference from the drift-Alfven instabilities of a shearless plasma when the ion temperature is comparable with electron temperature for a finite plasma beta. The velocity shear not only modifies the frequency and the growth rate of the known drift-Alfven instability, which develops due to the inverse electron Landau damping, but also triggers a combined effect of the velocity shear and the inverse ion Landau damping, which manifests the development of the ion kinetic shear-flow-driven drift-Alfven instability. The excited unstable waves have the phase velocities along the magnetic field comparable with the ion thermal velocity, and the growth rate is comparable with the frequency. The development of this instability may be the efficient mechanism of the ion energization in shear flows.
Signal-Pressure Curves of Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing in Gas-Filled Capillary by fs Pulses
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Bao-Zhen; HUANG Zu-Qia
2005-01-01
The theoretical framework for the cascaded four waves mixing (CFWM) in gas-filled capillary by fs pulses is constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the signal-pressure curves (SPC) of the CFWM in gas-filled capillary by fs pulses are calculated. With a comparison between the theoretical and experimental SPC we have discussed the influence of the walk-off and Phase modulation on the SPC. At the same time, we have discussed the possible origin of the first three peaks of the SPC.
A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler
Richter, Heiko; Greiner-Bär, Michael; Pavlov, Sergey; Semenov, Alexei D.; Wienold, Martin; Schrottke, Lutz; Giehler, M.; Hey, R.; Grahn, H.T.; Huebers, H. -W.
2010-01-01
We report on the development of a compact, easy-to-use terahertz radiation source, which combines a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) with a compact, low-input-power Stirling cooler. The QCL, which is based on a two-miniband design, has been developed for high output and low electrical pump power. Special care has been taken to achieve a good thermal coupling between the QCL and the cold finger of the cooler. The whole system weighs less than 15 kg including the cooler and power supplies. The maxim...
Bashinov, A V; Kim, A V
2016-01-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of longitudinal particle drifting in a standing circularly polarized wave at extreme intensities when quantum radiation reaction (RR) effects should be accounted for. To get an insight into the physics of this phenomenon we made a comparative study considering the RR force in the Landau-Lifshitz or quantum-corrected form, including the case of photon emission stochasticity. It is shown that the cases of circular and linear polarization are qualitatively different. Moreover, specific features of particle dynamics have a strong impact on spatial structures of the electron-positron ($e^-e^+$) density created in vacuum through quantum electrodynamic (QED) cascades in counter-propagating laser pulses. 3D PIC modeling accounting for QED effects confirms realization of different pair plasma structures.
Langone, Leonardo; Miserocchi, Stefano; Boldrin, Alfredo; Turchetto, Margherita; Foglini, Federica; Trincardi, Fabio
2010-05-01
The dense water forming in the North Adriatic (NAdDW) spreading southward along the Italian continental shelf, sinks in the Southern Adriatic basin through particular cascading events. Such events are seasonal, occurring specially in April, with variable intensity. These phenomena control the water mass mixing, the deep ocean ventilation, the behaviour of deep ecosystems, the formation of complex erosive and depositional bedforms and the abyssal export and burial of nutrients and carbon. Because of the NadDW formation is linked to climate factors (frequency, duration and size of Bura winds), the temporal variations of the NadDW dispersion into the Southern Adriatic allow to make inferences of the impact of recent climate changes on the ecosystems of the deep Mediterranean Sea. Previous research projects (EuroStrataform, HERMES) acquired a large data set of bathymetric, side-scan sonar (TOBI) and Chirp sonar profiles, which were used to build detailed morpho-bathymetric maps of the Southern Adriatic margin. There, the seabed is extremely complex, characterized by a large variety of bedforms (sediment waves, erosive scours, longitudinal furrows and giant comet marks). A branch of the cascading NAdDW is confined and accelerated through the Bari canyon where it produces a strong current capable of reaching down-slope velocities greater than 60 cm s-1 near the bottom at ~600 m of water depth, eroding the canyon thalweg and entraining large amounts of fine-grained sediment. At the exit of the canyon, in water depth greater than 800 m, the current becomes less confined, spreads laterally and generates an 80-km2-wide field of mud waves; these bedforms migrate up current and show amplitudes up to 50 m and wavelengths of about 1 km. Cruise IMPACT-09 of RV Urania was carried out in the Southern Adriatic Sea from 17-30 March 2009 with main scope of studying the impact of NadDW cascading events on the deep ecosystems of the Southern Adriatic. Experiments planned in the cruise
Chen, J. Z.; Liu, Z.; Gmachl, C. F.; Sivco, D. L.
2005-08-01
Quantum cascade lasers and unclad silver halide fibers were used to assemble mid-infrared fiber-optics evanescent-wave sensors suitable to measure the chemical composition of liquid droplets. The laser wavelengths were chosen to be in the regions which offer the largest absorption contrast between constituents inside the mixture droplets. A pseudo-Beer-Lambert law fits well with the experimental data. Using a 300μm diameter fiber with a 25 mm immersion length, the signal to noise ratios correspond to 1 vol.% for α-tocophenol in squalane and 2 vol.% for acetone in aqueous solution for laser wavenumbers of 1208 cm-1 and 1363 cm-1, respectively.
Energy cascades in the upper ocean
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ray Q.Lin; Scott Chubb
2006-01-01
Wave-wave interactions cause energy cascades. These are the most important processes in the upper ocean because they govern wave-growth and dissipation. Through indirect cascades, wave energy is transferred from higher frequencies to lower frequencies, leading to wave growth. In direct cascades, energy is transferred from lower frequencies to the higher frequencies, which causes waves to break, and dissipation of wave energy. However, the evolution and origin of energy cascade processes are still not fully understood. In particular, for example, results from a recent theory (Kalmykov, 1998) suggest that the class I wave-wave interactions (defined by situations involving 4-, 6-, 8-, etc, even numbers of resonantly interacting waves) cause indirect cascades, and Class II wave-wave interactions (involving, 5-, 7-, 9-, etc, .., odd numbers of waves) cause direct cascades. In contrast to this theory, our model results indicate the 4-wave interactions can cause significant transfer of wave energy through both direct and indirect cascades. In most situations, 4-wave interactions provide the major source of energy transfer for both direct cascades and indirect cascades, except when the wave steepness is larger than 0.28. Our model results agree well with wave measurements, obtained using field buoy data (for example, Lin and Lin, 2002). In particular, in these observations, asymmetrical wave-wave interactions were studied. They found that direct and indirect cascades both are mainly due to the 4-wave interactions when wave steepness is less than 0.3.
Plasma heating inside ICMEs by Alfvenic fluctuations dissipation
Li, Hui; He, Jiansen; Zhang, Lingqian; Richardson, John D; Belcher, John W; Tu, Cui
2016-01-01
Nonlinear cascade of low-frequency Alfvenic fluctuations (AFs) is regarded as one candidate of the energy sources to heat plasma during the non-adiabatic expansion of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). However, AFs inside ICMEs were seldom reported in the literature. In this study, we investigate AFs inside ICMEs using observations from Voyager 2 between 1 and 6 au. It is found that AFs with high degree of Alfvenicity frequently occurred inside ICMEs, for almost all the identified ICMEs (30 out of 33 ICMEs), and 12.6% of ICME time interval. As ICMEs expand and move outward, the percentage of AF duration decays linearly in general. The occurrence rate of AFs inside ICMEs is much less than that in ambient solar wind, especially within 4 au. AFs inside ICMEs are more frequently presented in the center and at the boundaries of ICMEs. In addition, the proton temperature inside ICME has a similar distribution. These findings suggest significant contribution of AFs on local plasma heating inside ICMEs.
Mid-wave interband cascade infrared photodetectors based on GaInAsSb absorbers
Lei, Lin; Li, Lu; Lotfi, Hossein; Jiang, Yuchao; Yang, Rui Q.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Lubyshev, Dmitri; Qiu, Yueming; Fastenau, Joel M.; Liu, Amy W. K.
2016-10-01
In this work, we report the demonstration of quaternary GaInAsSb-based mid-wavelength infrared photodetectors with cutoff wavelengths longer than 4 μm at 300 K. Both interband cascade infrared photodetector (ICIP) with a three-stage discrete absorber architecture and conventional one-stage detector structures have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy and investigated in experiments for their electrical and optical properties. High absorption coefficient and gain were observed in both detector structures. The three-stage ICIPs had superior carrier transport over the one-stage detectors. A detectivity as high as 1.0 × 109 cm Hz1/2 W-1 was achieved at 3.3 μm for both one- and three-stage detectors under zero bias at 300 K. The implications of these results are discussed along with potential of GaInAsSb-based ICIPs for high-speed applications.
A self-consistent theory of collective alpha particle losses induced by Alfvenic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biglari, H. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Diamond, P.H. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics)
1992-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of kinetic Alfven waves, resonantly excited by energetic ions/alpha particles, is investigated. It is shown that {alpha}-particles govern both linear instability and nonlinear saturation dynamics, while the background MHD turbulence results only in a nonlinear real frequency shift. The most efficient saturation mechanism is found to be self-induced profile modification. Expressions for the fluctuation amplitudes and the {alpha}-particle radial flux are self-consistently derived. The work represents the first self-consistent, turbulent treatment of collective {alpha}-particle losses by Alfvenic fluctuations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paoloni, Claudio; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bouamrane, Fayçal;
2013-01-01
The design and fabrication challenges in the first ever attempt to realize a 1-THz vacuum tube amplifier are described. Implementation of innovative solutions including a slow-wave structure in the form of a double corrugated waveguide, lateral tapered input and output couplers, deep X-ray LIGA...
Linear gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of Alfven instabilities in tokamaks
Biancalani, A; Briguglio, S; Koenies, A; Lauber, Ph; Mishchenko, A; Poli, E; Scott, B D; Zonca, F
2015-01-01
The linear dynamics of Alfven modes in tokamaks is investigated here by means of the global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code NEMORB. The model equations are shown and the local shear Alfven wave dispersion relation is derived, recovering the continuous spectrum in the incompressible ideal MHD limit. A verification and benchmark analysis is performed for continuum modes in a cylinder and for toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes. Modes in a reversed-shear equilibrium are also investigated, and the dependence of the spatial structure in the poloidal plane on the equilibrium parameters is described. In particular, a phase-shift in the poloidal angle is found to be present for modes whose frequency touches the continuum, whereas a radial symmetry is found to be characteristic of modes in the continuum gap.
Competing turbulent cascades and eddy-wave interactions in shallow water equilibria
Weichman, Peter B
2016-01-01
In recent work, Renaud, Venaille, and Bouchet (RVB) revisit the equilibrium statistical mechanics theory of the shallow water equations, within a microcanonical approach, focusing on a more careful treatment of the energy partition between inertial gravity wave and eddy motions in the equilibrium state, and deriving joint probability distributions for the corresponding dynamical degrees of freedom. The authors derive a Liouville theorem that determines the underlying phase space statistical measure, but then, through some physical arguments, actually compute the equilibrium statistics using a measure that \\emph{violates} this theorem. Here, using a more convenient, but essentially equivalent, grand canonical approach, the full statistical theory consistent with the Liouville theorem is derived. The results reveal several significant differences from the previous results: (1) The microscale wave motions lead to a strongly fluctuating thermodynamics, including long-ranged correlations, in contrast to the mean-f...
Prokopov, Pavel; Zaharov, Yuriy; Tishchenko, Vladimir; Boyarintsev, Eduard; Melehov, Aleksandr; Ponomarenko, Arnold; Posuh, Vitaliy; Shayhislamov, Ildar
2016-03-01
The paper deals with generation of Alfven plasma disturbances in magnetic flux tubes through exploding laser plasma in magnetized background plasma. Processes with similar effect of excitation of torsion-type waves seem to provide energy transfer from the solar photosphere to corona. The studies were carried out at experimental stand KI-1 represented a high-vacuum chamber of 1.2 m diameter, 5 m long, external magnetic field up to 500 Gs along the chamber axis, and up to 2×10^-6 Torr pressure in operating mode. Laser plasma was produced when focusing the CO2 laser pulse on a flat polyethylene target, and then the laser plasma propagated in θ-pinch background hydrogen (or helium) plasma. As a result, the magnetic flux tube of 15-20 cm radius was experimentally simulated along the chamber axis and the external magnetic field direction. Also, the plasma density distribution in the tube was measured. Alfven wave propagation along the magnetic field was registered from disturbance of the magnetic field transverse component B_ψ and field-aligned current J_z. The disturbances propagate at near-Alfven velocity of 70-90 km/s and they are of left-hand circular polarization of the transverse component of magnetic field. Presumably, Alfven wave is generated by the magnetic laminar mechanism of collisionless interaction between laser plasma cloud and background. The right-hand polarized high-frequency whistler predictor was registered which have been propagating before Alfven wave at 300 km/s velocity. The polarization direction changed with Alfven wave coming. Features of a slow magnetosonic wave as a sudden change in background plasma concentration along with simultaneous displacement of the external magnetic field were found. The disturbance propagates at ~20-30 km/s velocity, which is close to that of ion sound at low plasma beta value. From preliminary estimates, the disturbance transfers about 10 % of the original energy of laser plasma.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Liu
2010-04-01
Full Text Available We have reviewed the generation and amplification of wavelength-tunable multicolored femtosecond laser pulses using cascaded four-wave mixing (CFWM in transparent bulk media, mainly concentrating on our recent work. Theoretical analysis and calculations based on the phase-matching condition could explain well the process semi-quantitatively. The experimental studies showed: (1 as many as fifteen spectral up-shifted and two spectral down-shifted sidebands were obtained simultaneously with spectral bandwidth broader than 1.8 octaves from near ultraviolet (360 nm to near infrared (1.2 μm; (2 the obtained sidebands were spatially separated well and had extremely high beam quality with M2 factor better than 1.1; (3 the wavelengths of the generated multicolor sidebands could be conveniently tuned by changing the crossing angle or simply replacing with different media; (4 as short as 15-fs negatively chirped or nearly transform limited 20-fs multicolored femtosecond pulses were obtained when one of the two input beams was negatively chirped and the other was positively chirped; (5 the pulse energy of the sideband can reach a μJ level with power stability better than 1% RMS; (6 broadband two-dimensional (2-D multicolored arrays with more than ten periodic columns and more than ten rows were generated in a sapphire plate; (7 the obtained sidebands could be simultaneously spectra broadened and power amplified in another bulk medium by using cross-phase modulation (XPM in conjunction with four-wave optical parametric amplification (FOPA. The characterization showed that this is interesting and the CFWM sidebands generated by this novel method have good enough qualities in terms of power stability, beam quality, and temporal features suited to various experiments such as ultrafast multicolor time-resolved spectroscopy and multicolor-excitation nonlinear microscopy.
Xie, Feng; Caneau, Catherine; LeBlanc, Herve P.; Coleman, Sean; Hughes, Lawrence C.; Zah, Chung-en
2012-03-01
We demonstrated the room temperature continuous wave (CW) operation of mid-infrared distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) made of strain balanced GaInAs/AlInAs material on InP substrates for sensing CO2 isotope and N2O gas for potential applications that need battery powered portable devices in a sensor network. For the former device at 4.35 μm wavelength, we demonstrated a low threshold voltage of less than 8 V for battery operation and a near circular far field pattern with small divergent angles of 33 by 28 degrees full width at half maximum (FWHM) in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, for easy collimation. For the latter device at 4.5 μm wavelength, we demonstrated a low CW threshold power consumption of 0.7 W at 20 °C. A side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 30 dB was achieved within the whole operating current and temperature ranges for both lasers.
Benchmarking Fast-to-Alfven Mode Conversion in a Cold MHD Plasma
Cally, Paul S
2011-01-01
Alfv\\'en waves may be generated via mode conversion from fast magneto-acoustic waves near their reflection level in the solar atmosphere, with implications both for coronal oscillations and for active region helio-seismology. In active regions this reflection typically occurs high enough that the Alfv\\'en speed $a$ greatly exceeds the sound speed $c$, well above the $a=c$ level where the fast and slow modes interact. In order to focus on the fundamental characteristics of fast/Alfv\\'en conversion, stripped of unnecessary detail, it is therefore useful to freeze out the slow mode by adopting the gravitationally stratified cold MHD model $c\\to0$. This provides a benchmark for fast-to-Alfv\\'en mode conversion in more complex atmospheres. Assuming a uniform inclined magnetic field and an exponential Alfv\\'en speed profile with density scale height $h$, the Alfv\\'en conversion coefficient depends on three variables only; the dimensionless transverse-to-the-stratification wavenumber $\\kappa=kh$, the magnetic field ...
Beam Distribution Modification By Alfven Modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.
2010-01-25
Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.
Beam Distribution Modification by Alfven Modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.
2010-04-03
Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.
Superdiffusion versus Alfvenic collapse: plasma flow bounding and penetration
Savin, S.; Amata, A.; Zelenyi, L.; Budaev, V.; Kuznetsov, E. A.; Consolini, G.; Blecki, J.; Buechner, J.; Rauch, J. L.
2009-04-01
A geophysical flow is the solar plasma one around the Earth's magnetosphere. We discuss an anomalous MHD plasma mixing with concentrated kinetic energy bursts - ‘plasma jets' - in view of common features of the geophysical flows, along with the laboratory and astrophysical plasma ones. While the plasma flows are quite dilute, they probably can lead to electric power system collapses on the ground, radiation hazards in space, including geostationary spacecraft faults, and communication interrupts etc. We would like to concentrate on a unique case of plasma mixing by the jets in the streamlining flow with quite effective transport barrier , most probably, due to Alfvenic collapse of the magnetic field at the interface of their streaming and stagnant plasma ahead the Earth magnetopause on February 2, 2003 from the Cluster spacecraft data. On the basis of outer magnetospheric spacecraft observations in the magnetosheath (MSH) we provide evidence for the temporary existence of the anomalously concentrated plasma jets as well in the region close to the bow shock (BS) as near the magnetopause (MP). Disturbed zones of duration of up to 2 hours are regularly detected in the MSH, preferably downstream of the quasi-parallel and oblique BS with average energy density well above that of the un-shocked solar wind (SW). These zones are similar to high-latitude MSH near the MP, known as the ‘turbulent boundary layer' (TBL), which is the result of the interaction of the MSH flow with the throat of the cusp. In both these disturbed zones the field and plasma fluctuations have comparable intensity and similar spectral properties. Determination of the structure functions of the magnetic field and ion flux also reveals similar multifractal and intermittent properties. The same holds for fitting a Log-Poisson cascade model. A new phenomenon - Alfvenic collapse - is discussed as a ‘tool' for separating of the MHD flows: in the MHD limit it predicts infinite field rising due to
Kinetic Alfv\\'{e}n turbulence below and above ion-cyclotron frequency
Zhao, J S; Wu, D J; Yu, M Y
2015-01-01
Alfv\\'{e}nic turbulent cascade perpendicular and parallel to the background magnetic field is studied accounting for anisotropic dispersive effects and turbulent intermittency. The perpendicular dispersion and intermittency make the perpendicular-wavenumber magnetic spectra steeper and speed up production of high ion-cyclotron frequencies by the turbulent cascade. On the contrary, the parallel dispersion makes the spectra flatter and decelerate the frequency cascade above the ion-cyclotron frequency. Competition of the above factors results in spectral indices distributed in the interval [-2,-3], where -2 is the index of high-frequency space-filling turbulence, and -3 is the index of low-frequency intermittent turbulence formed by tube-like fluctuations. Spectra of fully intermittent turbulence fill a narrower range of spectral indices [-7/3,-3], which almost coincides with the range of indexes measured in the solar wind. This suggests that the kinetic-scale turbulent spectra are shaped mainly by dispersion a...
Spectral stability of Alfven filament chains
Bergmans, J.; Kuvshinov, B. N.; Lakhin, V. P.; Schep, T. J.
2000-01-01
The two-fluid model of nonlinear Alfven perturbations has singular solutions in the form of current-vortex filaments. We investigate analytically and numerically the spectral stability of single and double rows of filaments. Staggered and non-staggered double rows (von Karman streets) are studied. I
Spectral stability of Alfven filament configurations
Bergmans, J.; Kuvshinov, B. N.; Lakhin, V. P.; Schep, T. J.
2000-01-01
The two-fluid plasma equations that describe nonlinear Alfven perturbations have singular solutions in the form of current-vortex filaments. These filaments are analogous to point vortices in ideal hydrodynamics and geostrophic fluids. In this work the spectral (linear) stability of current-vortex f
Valentini, F; Pezzi, O; Servidio, S; Malara, F; Pucci, F
2016-01-01
Space plasmas are dominated by the presence of large-amplitude waves, large-scale inhomogeneities, kinetic effects and turbulence. Beside the homogeneous turbulence, generation of small scale fluctuations can take place also in other realistic configurations, namely, when perturbations superpose to an inhomogeneous background magnetic field. When an Alfv\\'en wave propagates in a medium where the Alfv\\'en speed varies in a direction transverse to the mean field, it undergoes phase-mixing, which progressively bends wavefronts, generating small scales in the transverse direction. As soon as transverse scales get of the order of the proton inertial length $d_p$, kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (KAWs) are naturally generated. KAWs belong to the branch of Alfv\\'en waves and propagate nearly perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, at scales close to $d_p$. Many numerical, observational and theoretical works have suggested that these fluctuations may play a determinant role in the development of the solar-wind turbulent ...
Statistical Evidence for the Existence of Alfv\\'enic Turbulence in Solar Coronal Loops
Liu, Jiajia; De Moortel, Ineke; Threlfall, James; Bethge, Christian
2014-01-01
Recent observations have demonstrated that waves which are capable of carrying large amounts of energy are ubiquitous throughout the solar corona. However, the question of how this wave energy is dissipated (on which time and length scales) and released into the plasma remains largely unanswered. Both analytic and numerical models have previously shown that Alfv\\'enic turbulence may play a key role not only in the generation of the fast solar wind, but in the heating of coronal loops. In an effort to bridge the gap between theory and observations, we expand on a recent study [De Moortel et al., ApJL, 782:L34, 2014] by analyzing thirty-seven clearly isolated coronal loops using data from the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) instrument. We observe Alfv\\'enic perturbations with phase speeds which range from 250-750 km/s and periods from 140-270 s for the chosen loops. While excesses of high frequency wave-power are observed near the apex of some loops (tentatively supporting the onset of Alfv\\'enic turbu...
Kinetic cascade beyond MHD of solar wind turbulence in two-dimensional hybrid simulations
Verscharen, Daniel; Motschmann, Uwe; Müller, Joachim
2012-01-01
The nature of solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range at scales much smaller than the large MHD scales remains under debate. Here a two-dimensional model based on the hybrid code abbreviated as A.I.K.E.F. is presented, which treats massive ions as particles obeying the kinetic Vlasov equation and massless electrons as a neutralizing fluid. Up to a certain wavenumber in the MHD regime, the numerical system is initialized by assuming a superposition of isotropic Alfv\\'en waves with amplitudes that follow the empirically confirmed spectral law of Kolmogorov. Then turbulence develops and energy cascades into the dispersive spectral range, where also dissipative effects occur. Under typical solar wind conditions, weak turbulence develops as a superposition of normal modes in the kinetic regime. Spectral analysis in the direction parallel to the background magnetic field reveals a cascade of left-handed Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves up to wave vectors where their resonant absorption sets in, as well as a cont...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biglari, H.; Zonca, F.; Chen, L.
1991-10-01
Toroidal Alfven eigenmodes are shown to be resonantly destabilized by both circulating and trapped energetic ions/alpha particles. In particular, the energetic circulating ions are shown to resonate with the mode not only at the Alfven speed ({upsilon}{sub A}), but also one-third of this speed, while resonances exist between trapped energetic ions and the wave when {upsilon} = {upsilon}{sub A}/21{epsilon}{sup {1/2}} (l=integer, {epsilon}=r/R is the local inverse aspect ratio), although the instability becomes weaker for resonances other than the fundamental. The oft-quoted criterion that instability requires super-Alfvenic ion velocities is thus sufficient but not necessary. 14 refs.
Characteristics of Short Wavelength Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fredrickson, E D; Podesta, M; Bortolon, A; Crocker, N A; Gerhardt, S P; Bell, R E; Diallo, A; LeBlanc, B; Levinton, F M
2012-12-19
Most Alfvenic activity in the frequency range between Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes and roughly one half of the ion cyclotron frequency on NSTX [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557], that is, approximately 0.3 MHz up to ≈ 1.2 MHz, are modes propagating counter to the neutral beam ions. These have been modeled as Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE) and are excited through a Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with the beam ions. There is also a class of co-propagating modes at higher frequency than the counter-propagating CAE and GAE. These modes have been identified as CAE, and are seen mostly in the company of a low frequency, n=1 kink-like mode. In this paper we present measurements of the spectrum of these high frequency CAE (hfCAE), and their mode structure. We compare those measurements to a simple model of CAE and present evidence of a curious non-linear coupling of the hfCAE and the low frequency kink-like mode.
Low-n shear Alfven spectra in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.
1985-11-01
In toroidal plasmas, the toroidal magnetic field is nonuniform over a magnetic surface and causes coupling of different poloidal harmonics. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the toroidicity not only breaks up the shear Alfven continuous spectrum, but also creates new, discrete, toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the continuum gaps. Potential applications of the low-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes on plasma heating and instabilities are addressed. 17 refs., 4 figs.
The formation heights of coronal shocks from 2D density and Alfv\\'en speed maps
Zucca, Pietro; Bloomfield, D Shaun; Gallagher, Peter T
2014-01-01
Super-Alfv\\'enic shock waves associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can produce radio emission known as Type II bursts. In the absence of direct imaging, accurate estimates of coronal electron densities, magnetic field strengths and Alfv\\'en speeds are required in order to calculate the kinematics of shocks. To date, 1D radial models have been used, but these are not appropriate for shocks propagating in non-radial directions. Here, we study a coronal shock wave associated with a CME and Type II radio burst using 2D electron density and Alfv\\'en speed maps to determine the locations that shocks are excited as the CME expands through the corona. Coronal density maps were obtained from emission measures derived from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory ($SDO$) and polarized brightness measurements from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory ($SOHO$). Alfv\\'en speed maps were calculated using these dens...
Global Structures of Alfven-Ballooning Modes in Magnetospheric Plasmas.
Vetoulis, Georgios
1995-01-01
The problem of radial localization of kinetically excited Alfven-type waves in the terrestial magnetosphere is examined using WKB approximations in the radial direction. These modes have been called drift Alfven ballooning modes (DABM) by CHEN and HASEGAWA, (1991)^1 and are the prime candidates to explain Pc4-Pc5 waves observed during storms. Pc4-5 type geomagnetic oscillations are long-lasting pulsations with large amplitudes and periods on the order of 500 sec. They are typically observed in the inner magnetosphere. Up to now, work on the theory of these pulsations has been done in one dimension, along the equilibrium magnetic field. In this dissertation, we include the effects of both parallel and perpendicular plasma inhomogeneities and investigate the issue of whether such a wave can be radially localized. In the first part, we formulate the theoretical approach neglecting the wave -particle resonances and using the one-fluid MHD limit. A local dispersion relationship is found on each flux surface of the equilibrium, and a global quantization condition is derived. To each flux surface correspond certain characteristic frequencies, (determined as eigenvalues of appropriate one-dimensional problems along the equilibrium magnetic field), and if the appropriate frequency matches the global mode frequency, then this surface is called resonant. In the picture developed here, the global mode is trapped at the outer side of a storm-time ring current by a steep pressure gradient. At the same time, energy from it tunnels through a barrier, and gets absorbed at its corresponding resonant flux surface, which in space physics terminology is called field line resonance. This energy absorption would lead to the damping of the mode, in the absence of an excitation mechanism. A strong dependence of the damping rate on the azimuthal wave number m is established, as well as on the equilibrium profile. First, it is found that the equilibrium pressure gradient has to be steeper
Ultra-bright GeV photon source via controlled electromagnetic cascades in laser-dipole waves
Gonoskov, A; Bastrakov, S; Efimenko, E; Ilderton, A; Kim, A; Marklund, M; Meyerov, I; Muraviev, A; Sergeev, A
2016-01-01
One aim of upcoming high-intensity laser facilities is to provide new high-flux gamma-ray sources. Electromagnetic cascades may serve for this, but are known to limit both field strengths and particle energies, restricting efficient production of photons to sub-GeV energies. Here we show how to create a directed GeV photon source, enabled by a controlled interplay between the cascade and anomalous radiative trapping. Using advanced 3D QED particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and analytic estimates, we show that the concept is feasible for planned peak powers of 10 PW level. A higher peak power of 40 PW can provide $10^9$ photons with GeV energies in a well-collimated 3 fs beam, achieving peak brilliance ${9 \\times 10^{24}}$ ph s$^{-1}$mrad$^{-2}$mm$^{-2}$/0.1${\\%}$BW. Such a source would be a powerful tool for studying fundamental electromagnetic and nuclear processes.
Detection of Ionospheric Alfven Resonator Signatures Onboard C/NOFS: Implications for IRI Modeling
Simoes, F.; Klenzing, J.; Ivanov, S.; Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Bilitza, D.
2011-01-01
The 2008-2009 long-lasting solar minimum activity has been the one of its kind since the dawn of space age, offering exceptional conditions for investigating space weather in the near-Earth environment. First ever detection of Ionospheric Alfven Resonator (IAR) signatures in orbit offers new means for investigating ionospheric electrodynamics, namely MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamics) wave propagation, aeronomy processes, ionospheric dynamics, and Sun-Earth connection mechanisms at a local scale. Local and global plasma density heterogeneities in the ionosphere and magnetosphere allow for formation of waveguides and resonators where magnetosonic and shear Alfven waves propagate. The ionospheric magnetosonic waveguide results from complete magnetosonic wave reflection about the ionospheric F-region peak, where the Alfven index of refraction presents a maximum. MHD waves can also be partially trapped in the vertical direction between the lower boundary of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, a resonance mechanism known as IAR. In this work we present C/NOFS (Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) electric field measurements related to IAR signatures, discuss the resonance and wave propagation mechanisms in the ionosphere, and address the electromagnetic inverse problem from which electron/ion distributions can be derived. These peculiar IAR electric field measurements provide new, complementary methodologies for inferring ionospheric electron and ion density profiles, and also contribute for the investigation of ionosphere dynamics and space weather monitoring. Specifically, IAR spectral signatures measured by C/NOFS contribute for improving the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model, namely electron density and ion composition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Das Mita
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, are necessary for appropriate responses to immune challenges. In the brain, excess superoxide production predicts neuronal cell loss, suggesting that Parkinson's disease (PD with its wholesale death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (nigra may be a case in point. Although microglial NADPH oxidase-produced superoxide contributes to dopaminergic neuron death in an MPTP mouse model of PD, this is secondary to an initial die off of such neurons, suggesting that the initial MPTP-induced death of neurons may be via activation of NADPH oxidase in neurons themselves, thus providing an early therapeutic target. Methods NADPH oxidase subunits were visualized in adult mouse nigra neurons and in N27 rat dopaminergic cells by immunofluorescence. NADPH oxidase subunits in N27 cell cultures were detected by immunoblots and RT-PCR. Superoxide was measured by flow cytometric detection of H2O2-induced carboxy-H2-DCFDA fluorescence. Cells were treated with MPP+ (MPTP metabolite following siRNA silencing of the Nox2-stabilizing subunit p22phox, or simultaneously with NADPH oxidase pharmacological inhibitors or with losartan to antagonize angiotensin II type 1 receptor-induced NADPH oxidase activation. Results Nigral dopaminergic neurons in situ expressed three subunits necessary for NADPH oxidase activation, and these as well as several other NADPH oxidase subunits and their encoding mRNAs were detected in unstimulated N27 cells. Overnight MPP+ treatment of N27 cells induced Nox2 protein and superoxide generation, which was counteracted by NADPH oxidase inhibitors, by siRNA silencing of p22phox, or losartan. A two-wave ROS cascade was identified: 1 as a first wave, mitochondrial H2O2 production was first noted at three hours of MPP+ treatment; and 2 as a second wave, H2O2 levels were further increased by 24 hours. This second wave was eliminated by
Sotani, Hajime; Stergioulas, Nikolaos
2007-01-01
We investigate torsional Alfv\\'en oscillations of relativistic stars with a global dipole magnetic field, via two-dimensional numerical simulations. We find that a) there exist two families of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with harmonics at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency, b) the lower-frequency QPO is related to the region of closed field lines, near the equator, while the higher-frequency QPO is generated near the magnetic axis, c) the QPOs are long-lived, d) for the chosen form of dipolar magnetic field, the frequency ratio of the lower to upper fundamental QPOs is ~0.6, independent of the equilibrium model or of the strength of the magnetic field, and e) within a representative sample of equations of state and of various magnetar masses, the Alfv\\'en QPO frequencies are given by accurate empirical relations that depend only on the compactness of the star and on the magnetic field strength. The lower and upper QPOs can be interpreted as corresponding to the edges or turning points of an...
Richter, Heiko; Greiner-Bär, Michael; Pavlov, Sergey; Semenov, Alexei D.; Wienold, Martin; Schrottke, Lutz; Giehler, M.; Hey, R.; Grahn, H.T.; Huebers, H. -W.
2010-01-01
We report on the development of a compact, easy-to-use terahertz radiation source, which combines a quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating at 3.1 THz with a compact, low input-power Stirling cooler. The QCL, which is based on a two miniband design, has been developed for high output and low electrical pump power. The amount of generated heat complies with the nominal cooling capacity of the Stirling cooler of 7 W at 65 K with 240 W of electrical input power. Special care has been taken to achi...
Martin, Aude; Combrié, Sylvain; Willinger, Amnon; Eisenstein, Gadi; de Rossi, Alfredo
2016-08-01
Phase-sensitive parametric interactions can selectively process the two complex quadratures of the optical field. We implement phase-sensitive amplification in a large band-gap semiconductor photonic crystal waveguide in order to avoid two-photon absorption and free-carrier-related effects. Experimentally, an extinction ratio of 15 dB is achieved in a 1.5-mm-long photonic crystal waveguide, at a peak pump power of about 600 mW. We show that cascaded parametric interaction has a strong impact on squeezing and phase-sensitive extinction ratio and that this depends on the dispersion profile of the waveguide.
Arai, Tsunenori; Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi; Naruse, Kyota; Ishihara, Miya; Sato, Shunichi; Kikuchi, Makoto; Kasamatsu, Tadashi; Sekita, Hitoshi; Obara, Minoru
2000-06-01
We studied coagulation layer controlled incision with newly developed continuous wave 2 micrometer, 3 micrometer cascade oscillation fiber laser in vitro. Since this laser device simultaneously oscillates 2 micrometer and 3 micrometer radiation, we could change tissue interaction by arranging power ratio of 2 micrometer to 3 micrometer radiation. About one watt of total irradiation power with various power ratios was focused to extracted fresh porcine myocardium or anesthetized rabbit on an automatic moving stage to obtain line incision. Macro photograph and microscopic histology were used to observe tissue interaction phenomenon. The incised specimen showed that precise cutting groove with thin coagulation layer was attained by a 3 micrometer based radiation, meanwhile addition of 2 micrometer radiation to 3 micrometer radiation made coagulation layer thicker. A heat conduction simulator using finite-element method was used to qualitatively explain obtained coagulation layer thickness. This precise incision with controllable side coagulation layer may effective to control bleeding during incision, for instance, for skin, liver, and kidney incisions. Pure continuous wave radiation of 2 micrometer and 3 micrometer may eliminate stress wave induced tissue damage which is frequently found in Ho:YAG and/or Er:YAG tissue interactions. Moreover, sapphire fiber might offer flexible power delivery to this new laser to establish endoscopic application and/or to improved beam handling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorelenkov, N.N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University (United States)], E-mail: ngorelen@pppl.gov; Berk, H.L. [IFS, Austin, Texas (United States); Fredrickson, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University (United States); Sharapov, S.E. [Euroatom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United States)
2007-10-08
New global MHD eigenmode solutions arising in gaps in the low frequency Alfven-acoustic continuum below the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) frequency have been found numerically and have been used to explain relatively low frequency experimental signals seen in NSTX and JET tokamaks. These global eigenmodes, referred to here as Beta-induced Alfven-Acoustic Eigenmodes (BAAE), exist in the low magnetic safety factor region near the extrema of the Alfven-acoustic continuum. In accordance to the linear dispersion relations, the frequency of these modes shifts as the safety factor, q, decreases. We show that BAAEs can be responsible for observations in JET plasmas at relatively low beta <2% as well as in NSTX plasmas at relatively high-beta >20%. In contrast to the mostly electrostatic character of GAMs the new global modes also contain an electromagnetic (magnetic field line bending) component due to the Alfven coupling, leading to wave phase velocities along the field line that are large compared to the sonic speed. Qualitative agreement between theoretical predictions and observations are found.
Nonlinear interplay of Alfven instabilities and energetic particles in tokamaks
Biancalani, A; Cole, M; Di Troia, C; Lauber, Ph; Mishchenko, A; Scott, B; Zonca, F
2016-01-01
The confinement of energetic particles (EP) is crucial for an efficient heating of tokamak plasmas. Plasma instabilities such as Alfven Eigenmodes (AE) can redistribute the EP population making the plasma heating less effective, and leading to additional loads on the walls. The nonlinear dynamics of toroidicity induced AE (TAE) is investigated by means of the global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code ORB5, within the NEMORB project. The nonperturbative nonlinear interplay of TAEs and EP due to the wave-particle nonlinearity is studied. In particular, we focus on the nonlinear modification of the frequency, growth rate and radial structure of the TAE, depending on the evolution of the EP distribution in phase space. For the ITPA benchmark case, we find that the frequency increases when the growth rate decreases, and the mode shrinks radially. This nonlinear evolution is found to be correctly reproduced by means of a quasilinear model, namely a model where the linear effects of the nonlinearly modified EP distri...
Li, Chunguang; Zheng, Chuantao; Dong, Lei; Ye, Weilin; Tittel, Frank K.; Wang, Yiding
2016-07-01
A ppb-level mid-infrared ethane (C2H6) sensor was developed using a continuous-wave, thermoelectrically cooled, distributed feedback interband cascade laser emitting at 3.34 μm and a miniature dense patterned multipass gas cell with a 54.6-m optical path length. The performance of the sensor was investigated using two different techniques based on the tunable interband cascade laser: direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) and second-harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy (2 f-WMS). Three measurement schemes, DAS, WMS and quasi-simultaneous DAS and WMS, were realized based on the same optical sensor core. A detection limit of ~7.92 ppbv with a precision of ±30 ppbv for the separate DAS scheme with an averaging time of 1 s and a detection limit of ~1.19 ppbv with a precision of about ±4 ppbv for the separate WMS scheme with a 4-s averaging time were achieved. An Allan-Werle variance analysis indicated that the precisions can be further improved to 777 pptv @ 166 s for the separate DAS scheme and 269 pptv @ 108 s for the WMS scheme, respectively. For the quasi-simultaneous DAS and WMS scheme, both the 2 f signal and the direct absorption signal were simultaneously extracted using a LabVIEW platform, and four C2H6 samples (0, 30, 60 and 90 ppbv with nitrogen as the balance gas) were used as the target gases to assess the sensor performance. A detailed comparison of the three measurement schemes is reported. Atmospheric C2H6 measurements on the Rice University campus and a field test at a compressed natural gas station in Houston, TX, were conducted to evaluate the performance of the sensor system as a robust and reliable field-deployable sensor system.
Chen, Jian Z.; Liu, Zhijun; Gmachl, Claire F.; Sivco, Deborah L.
2005-11-01
Quantum cascade lasers coupled directly to unclad silver halide fibers were used to assemble mid-infrared fiber-optics evanescent-wave sensors suitable to measure the chemical composition of simple liquid droplets. Quantum cascade lasers can be designed to emit across a wide range of mid-infrared wavelengths by tailoring the quantum-well structure, and the wavelength can be fine tuned by a thermoelectric cooler. Here, laser wavelengths were chosen which offer the largest absorption contrast between two constituents of a droplet. The laser was coupled to an unclad silver halide fiber, which penetrates through the droplet resting on a hydrophobic surface. For the same liquid composition and droplet size, the transmitted intensity is weaker for a droplet on a 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-octyltrichlorosilane coated glass slide than for one on a hexadecanethiol (HDT) coated Au-covered glass slide because of the high reflectivity of the HDT/Au surface at mid-infrared wavelengths. The absorption coefficients of water, glycerol, α-tocophenol acetate, and squalane were measured by varying the immersion length of the fiber; i.e. the droplet size. A pseudo-Beer-Lambert law fits well with the experimental data. We tested both aqueous liquid mixtures (acetone/water and ethanol/water) and oil-base solutions (n-dodecane/squalane and α-tocophenol acetate/squalane); α-tocophenol acetate and squalane are common ingredients of cosmetics, either as active ingredients or for chemical stabilization. Using a 300μm diameter silver halide fiber with a 25mm immersion length, the detection limits are 1 vol.% for α-tocophenol in squalane and 2 vol.% for acetone in water for laser wavenumbers of 1208 cm -1 and 1363 cm -1, respectively. This work was previously been reported in J. Z. Chen et al. Optics Express 13, 5953 (2005).
Richter, H; Greiner-Bär, M; Pavlov, S G; Semenov, A D; Wienold, M; Schrottke, L; Giehler, M; Hey, R; Grahn, H T; Hübers, H-W
2010-05-10
We report on the development of a compact, easy-to-use terahertz radiation source, which combines a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) operating at 3.1 THz with a compact, low-input-power Stirling cooler. The QCL, which is based on a two-miniband design, has been developed for high output and low electrical pump power. The amount of generated heat complies with the nominal cooling capacity of the Stirling cooler of 7 W at 65 K with 240 W of electrical input power. Special care has been taken to achieve a good thermal coupling between the QCL and the cold finger of the cooler. The whole system weighs less than 15 kg including the cooler and power supplies. The maximum output power is 8 mW at 3.1 THz. With an appropriate optical beam shaping, the emission profile of the laser is fundamental Gaussian. The applicability of the system is demonstrated by imaging and molecular-spectroscopy experiments.
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES AND CORONAL HEATING: UNIFYING EMPIRICAL AND MHD TURBULENCE MODELS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sokolov, Igor V.; Van der Holst, Bart; Oran, Rona; Jin, Meng; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Gombosi, Tamas I. [Department of AOSS, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Downs, Cooper [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Roussev, Ilia I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Evans, Rebekah M., E-mail: igorsok@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Space Weather Lab, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2013-02-10
We present a new global model of the solar corona, including the low corona, the transition region, and the top of the chromosphere. The realistic three-dimensional magnetic field is simulated using the data from the photospheric magnetic field measurements. The distinctive feature of the new model is incorporating MHD Alfven wave turbulence. We assume this turbulence and its nonlinear dissipation to be the only momentum and energy source for heating the coronal plasma and driving the solar wind. The difference between the turbulence dissipation efficiency in coronal holes and that in closed field regions is because the nonlinear cascade rate degrades in strongly anisotropic (imbalanced) turbulence in coronal holes (no inward propagating wave), thus resulting in colder coronal holes, from which the fast solar wind originates. The detailed presentation of the theoretical model is illustrated with the synthetic images for multi-wavelength EUV emission compared with the observations from SDO AIA and STEREO EUVI instruments for the Carrington rotation 2107.
The slow-mode nature of compressible wave power in solar wind turbulence
Howes, G G; Klein, K G; Chen, C H K; Salem, C S; TenBarge, J M
2011-01-01
We use a large, statistical set of measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU, and supporting synthetic spacecraft data based on kinetic plasma theory, to show that the compressible component of inertial range solar wind turbulence is primarily in the kinetic slow mode. The zero-lag cross correlation C(delta n, delta B_parallel) between proton density fluctuations delta n and the field-aligned (compressible) component of the magnetic field delta B_parallel is negative and close to -1. The typical dependence of C(delta n,delta B_parallel) on the ion plasma beta_i is consistent with a spectrum of compressible wave energy that is almost entirely in the kinetic slow mode. This has important implications for both the nature of the density fluctuation spectrum and for the cascade of kinetic turbulence to short wavelengths, favoring evolution to the kinetic Alfven wave mode rather than the (fast) whistler mode.
Cao, Leiming; Qi, Jian; Du, Jinjian; Jing, Jietai
2017-02-01
Multimode quantum states, such as multipartite quantum entanglement or quantum correlations, are important for both fundamental science and the future development of quantum technologies. Here we theoretically propose and experimentally realize a scheme that can fully exploit the multi-spatial-mode nature of the four-wave-mixing (FWM) process, i.e., spatial multiplexing, and thus integrates multiple FWM processes into a single cell at each stage of the cascaded process. The number of generated quantum-correlated beams 2n is exponentially dependent on the number of vapor cells n . In addition, the quantum correlations between the multiple beams also increase as the number of vapor cell increases. For the case of n =2 , we experimentally show that the degree of intensity-difference squeezing between the four quantum-correlated beams in our scheme is enhanced to -8.2 ±0.2 dB from -5.6 ±0.3 and -6.5 ±0.2 dB of squeezing obtained with a single FWM process. Our system may find applications in quantum information and precision measurement.
Subproton-scale cascades in solar wind turbulence: driven hybrid-kinetic simulations
Cerri, S S; Jenko, F; Told, D; Rincon, F
2016-01-01
A long-lasting debate in space plasma physics concerns the nature of subproton-scale fluctuations in solar wind (SW) turbulence. Over the past decade, a series of theoretical and observational studies were presented in favor of either kinetic Alfv\\'en wave (KAW) or whistler turbulence. Here, we investigate numerically the nature of the subproton-scale turbulent cascade for typical SW parameters by means of unprecedented high-resolution simulations of forced hybrid-kinetic turbulence in two real-space and three velocity-space dimensions. Our analysis suggests that small-scale turbulence in this model is dominated by KAWs at $\\beta\\gtrsim1$ and by magnetosonic/whistler fluctuations at lower $\\beta$. The spectral properties of the turbulence appear to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. A tentative interpretation of this result in terms of relative changes in the damping rates of the different waves is also presented. Overall, the results raise interesting new questions about the properties and va...
Covert, Michael
2015-01-01
This book is intended for software developers, system architects and analysts, big data project managers, and data scientists who wish to deploy big data solutions using the Cascading framework. You must have a basic understanding of the big data paradigm and should be familiar with Java development techniques.
Experimental Evaluation of Energy Transfer between Fast Ions and Alfven Eigenmodes
Nagaoka, Kenichi; Osakabe, Masaki; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Ogawa, Kunihiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shinji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Fontdecaba, Josep Maria; Ascasibar, Enrique; LHD Team
2016-10-01
Recently, a new wave-particle analyzer was proposed to identify interaction between fast ions and Alfven eigenmodes [K. Nagaoka, 67th annual meeting of APS-DPP, savanna, 2015]. A data acquisition system for the wave-particle interaction analysis was developed for particle counting mode operation of neutral particle detectors. We recently applied the system to the Si-FNA detector signals in LHD and Heliotron J, and NPA signals in TJ-II. The first experimental results obtained in three devices are presented and the importance of the optimization of line of sight will be discussed. This research was supported by NIFS/NINS under the project of 'Promotion of International Network for Scientific Collaboration', NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS16KUHL068) and JSPS KAKENHI Grani-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) 26709071.
Excitation of global Alfven Eigenmodes by RF heating in JET
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerner, W.; Borba, D.; Gormezano, C.; Huysmans, G.; Porcelli, F.; Start, D. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Fasoli, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Sharapov, S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1994-07-01
The alpha-particle confinement of future D-T experiments at JET can be severely degraded by Global Alfven Eigenmodes (AE). Scenarios for the excitation of Alfven Eigenmodes in usual (e.g. D-D) plasmas are proposed, which provide a MHD diagnostic and allow the study of the transport of super-Alfvenic ions. Active studies with separate control of TAE amplitude and energetic particle destabilization, measuring the plasma response, give more information than passive studies, in particular concerning the damping mechanisms. The TAE excitation can be achieved by means of the saddle coil and the ICRH antenna. The experimental method is introduced together with a theoretical model for RF excitation. (authors). 6 refs., 3 figs.
Jo, Young Hyun; Lee, Hae June; Mikhailenko, Vladimir V.; Mikhailenko, Vladimir S.
2016-01-01
It was derived that the drift-Alfven instabilities with the shear flow parallel to the magnetic field have significant difference from the drift-Alfven instabilities of a shearless plasma when the ion temperature is comparable with electron temperature for a finite plasma beta. The velocity shear not only modifies the frequency and the growth rate of the known drift-Alfven instability, which develops due to the inverse electron Landau damping, but also triggers a combined effect of the velocity shear and the inverse ion Landau damping, which manifests the development of the ion kinetic shear-flow-driven drift-Alfven instability. The excited unstable waves have the phase velocities along the magnetic field comparable with the ion thermal velocity, and the growth rate is comparable with the frequency. The development of this instability may be the efficient mechanism of the ion energization in shear flows. The levels of the drift--Alfven turbulence, resulted from the development of both instabilities, are determined from the renormalized nonlinear dispersion equation, which accounts for the nonlinear effect of the scattering of ions by the electromagnetic turbulence. The renormalized quasilinear equation for the ion distribution function, which accounts for the same effect of the scattering of ions by electromagnetic turbulence, is derived and employed for the analysis of the ion viscosity and ions heating, resulted from the interactions of ions with drift-Alfven turbulence. In the same way, the phenomena of the ion cyclotron turbulence and anomalous anisotropic heating of ions by ion cyclotron plasma turbulence has numerous practical applications in physics of the near-Earth space plasmas. Using the methodology of the shearing modes, the kinetic theory of the ion cyclotron turbulence of the plasma with transverse current with strong velocity shear has been developed.
Alfven eigenmode structure during off-axis neutral beam injection
Tobias, B.; Bass, E. M.; Classen, I.G.J.; Domier, C.W.; Grierson, B. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Nazikian, R.; Park, H. K.; Spong, D. A.; VanZeeland, M. A.
2012-01-01
The spatial structure of Alfven eigenmodes on the DIII-D tokamak is compared for contrasting fast ion deposition profiles resulting from on- and off-axis neutral beam injection (NBI). In both cases, poloidal mode rotation and eigenmode twist, or radial phase variation, are correlated with the direct
Agarwal, Nishant; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, Mark
2009-01-01
We develop a fully covariant, well-posed 5D effective action for the 6D cascading gravity brane-world model, and use this to study cosmological solutions. We obtain this effective action through the 6D decoupling limit, in which an additional scalar degree mode, \\pi, called the brane-bending mode, determines the bulk-brane gravitational interaction. The 5D action obtained this way inherits from the sixth dimension an extra \\pi self-interaction kinetic term. We compute appropriate boundary terms, to supplement the 5D action, and hence derive fully covariant junction conditions and the 5D Einstein field equations. Using these, we derive the cosmological evolution induced on a 3-brane moving in a static bulk. We study the strong- and weak-coupling regimes analytically in this static ansatz, and perform a complete numerical analysis of our solution. Although the cascading model can generate an accelerating solution in which the \\pi field comes to dominate at late times, the presence of a critical singularity prev...
Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2000-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma
Westerhof, E.
2010-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2008-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold
Tholerus, Emmi; Hellsten, Torbjörn
2016-01-01
FOXTAIL is a new hybrid magnetohydrodynamic-kinetic code used to describe interactions between energetic particles and Alfv\\'en eigenmodes in tokamaks with realistic geometries. The code simulates the nonlinear dynamics of the amplitudes of individual eigenmodes and of a set of discrete markers in five-dimensional phase space representing the energetic particle distribution. Action-angle coordinates of the equilibrium system are used for efficient tracing of energetic particles, and the particle acceleration by the wave fields of the eigenmodes is Fourier decomposed in the same angles. The eigenmodes are described using temporally constant eigenfunctions with dynamic complex amplitudes. Possible applications of the code are presented, e.g., making a quantitative validity evaluation of the one-dimensional bump-on-tail approximation of the system. Expected effects of the fulfillment of the Chirikov criterion in two-mode scenarios have also been verified.
Goodman, Michael L
2014-01-01
A magnetohydrodynamic model that includes a complete electrical conductivity tensor is used to estimate conditions for photospherically driven, linear, non-plane Alfvenic oscillations extending from the photosphere to the lower corona to drive a chromospheric heating rate due to Pedersen current dissipation that is comparable to the net chromospheric net radiative loss of $\\sim 10^7$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-sec$^{-1}$. The heating rates due to electron current dissipation in the photosphere and corona are also computed. The wave amplitudes are computed self-consistently as functions of an inhomogeneous background (BG) atmosphere. The effects of the conductivity tensor are resolved numerically using a resolution of 3.33 m. The oscillations drive a chromospheric heating flux $F_{Ch} \\sim 10^7 - 10^8$ ergs-cm$^{-2}$-sec$^{-1}$ at frequencies $\
The Berk-Breizman Model as a Paradigm for Energetic Particle-driven Alfven Eigenmodes
Lesur, Maxime
2011-01-01
The achievement of sustained nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasma relies on efficient confinement of high-energy ions produced by the fusion reaction. Such particles can excite Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs), which significantly degrade their confinement and threatens the vacuum vessel of future reactors. To develop diagnostics and control schemes, a better understanding of linear and nonlinear features of resonant interactions between plasma waves and high-energy particles, is required. In the case of an isolated single resonance, the problem is homothetic to the so-called Berk-Breizman (BB) problem, which is an extension of the classic bump-on-tail electrostatic problem, including external damping to a thermal plasma, and collisions. A semi-Lagrangian simulation code, COBBLES, is developed to solve the initial-value BB problem. The nonlinear behavior of instabilities in experimentally-relevant conditions is categorized into steady-state, periodic, chaotic, and frequency-sweeping (chirping) regimes. The c...
Nonlinear wave interactions in quantum magnetoplasmas
Shukla, P K; Marklund, M; Stenflo, L
2006-01-01
Nonlinear interactions involving electrostatic upper-hybrid (UH), ion-cyclotron (IC), lower-hybrid (LH), and Alfven waves in quantum magnetoplasmas are considered. For this purpose, the quantum hydrodynamical equations are used to derive the governing equations for nonlinearly coupled UH, IC, LH, and Alfven waves. The equations are then Fourier analyzed to obtain nonlinear dispersion relations, which admit both decay and modulational instabilities of the UH waves at quantum scales. The growth rates of the instabilities are presented. They can be useful in applications of our work to diagnostics in laboratory and astrophysical settings.
Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang
2012-01-01
Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov-Maxwell system.A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma.It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light,as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction.The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period.The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade,which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures.For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation,higher-harmonic generation and wave-wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter.In addition,stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light.
Refined Critical Balance in Strong Alfv\\'enic Turbulence
Mallet, A; Chandran, B D G
2014-01-01
We present numerical evidence that in strong Alfv\\'enic turbulence, the critical balance principle---equality of the nonlinear decorrelation and linear propagation times---is scale invariant, in the sense that the probability distribution of the ratio of these times is independent of scale. This result only holds if the local alignment of the Elsasser fields is taken into account in calculating the nonlinear time. At any given scale, the degree of alignment is found to increase with fluctuation amplitude, supporting the idea that the cause of alignment is mutual dynamical shearing of Elsasser fields. The scale-invariance of critical balance (while all other quantities of interest are strongly intermittent, i.e., have scale-dependent distributions) suggests that it is the most robust of the scaling principles used to describe Alfv\\'enic turbulence.
Sub-Alfvenic inlet boundary conditions for axisymmetric MHD nozzles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cassibry, J T [Propulsion Research Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Wu, S T [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomy Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)
2007-09-07
There are numerous electromagnetic accelerator concepts which require plasma expansion through a magnetic nozzle. If the inlet flow is slower than one or all of the outgoing characteristics, namely, the Alfven, slow and fast magnetosonic speeds, then the number of inlet conditions which could be arbitrarily specified are reduced by the number of outgoing characteristics (up to three). We derive the axisymmetric compatibility equations using the method of projected characteristics for the inlet conditions in the z-plane to assure the boundary conditions being consistent with flow properties. We make simplifications to the equations assuming that the inlet Alfven speed is much faster than the sonic and slow magnetosonic speeds. We compare results for various inlet boundary conditions, including a modified Lax-Wendroff implementation of the compatibility equations, first order extrapolation and arbitrarily specifying the inlet conditions, in order to assess the stability and accuracy of various approaches.
Alfven frequency modes at the edge of TFTR plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Zweben, S.J. [and others
1995-07-01
An Alfven frequency mode (AFM) is very often seen in TFTR neutral beam heated plasmas as well as ohmic plasmas. This quasi-coherent mode is so far only seen on the magnetic fluctuation diagnostics (Mirnov coils). A close correlation between the plasma edge density and the mode activity (frequency and amplitude) has been observed, which indicates that the AFM is an edge localized mode with r/a > 0.85. No direct impact of this mode on the plasma global performance or fast ion loss (e.g., the {alpha}-particles in DT experiments) has been observed. This mode is apparently not the conventional TAE (toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes). The present TAE theory cannot explain the observation. Other possible explanations are discussed.
Non-linear modulation of short wavelength compressional Alfven eigenmodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Podesta, M.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Bortolon, A. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Crocker, N. A. [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Levinton, F. M.; Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2013-04-15
Most Alfvenic activity in the frequency range between toroidal Alfven eigenmodes and roughly one half of the ion cyclotron frequency on National Spherical Torus eXperiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], that is, approximately 0.3 MHz up to Almost-Equal-To 1.2 MHz, are modes propagating counter to the neutral beam ions. These have been modeled as Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE) and are excited through a Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with the beam ions. There is also a class of co-propagating modes at higher frequency than the counter-propagating CAE and GAE. These modes have been identified as CAE, and are seen mostly in the company of a low frequency, n = 1 kink-like mode. In this paper, we present measurements of the spectrum of these high frequency CAE (hfCAE) and their mode structure. We compare those measurements to a simple model of CAE and present a predator-prey type model of the curious non-linear coupling of the hfCAE and the low frequency kink-like mode.
From solitary wave to traveling surge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋礼庭
1995-01-01
The solution of kinetic Alfven wave under action of anomalous resistance has two branches: the slow wave, VP
Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an Alfven resonant layer of a solar coronal loop
Uchimoto, E.; Strauss, H. R.; Lawson, W. S.
1991-01-01
A Kelvin-Helmholtz instability has been identified numerically on an azimuthally symmetric Alfven resonant layer in an axially bounded, straight cylindrical coronal loop. The set of equations is solved numerically as an initial value problem. The linear growth rate of this instability is shown to be approximately proportional to the Alfven driving amplitude and inversely proportional to the width of the Alfven resonant layer. It is also shown that the linear growth rate increases linearly with m - 1 up to a certain m, reaches its maximum value for the mode whose half wavelength is comparable to the Alfven resonant layer width, and decreases at higher azimuthal mode number.
Transport properties of cascading gauge theories
Buchel, A
2005-01-01
Cascading gauge theories of Klebanov et.al. provide a model within a framework of gauge theory/string theory duality for a four dimensional non-conformal gauge theory with a spontaneously generated mass scale. Using the dual supergravity description we study sound wave propagation in strongly coupled cascading gauge theory plasma. We analytically compute the speed of sound and the bulk viscosity of cascading gauge theory plasma at a temperature much larger than the strong coupling scale of the theory. The sound wave dispersion relation is obtained from the hydrodynamic pole in the stress-energy tensor two-point correlation function. The speed of sound extracted from the pole of the correlation function agrees with its value computed in [hep-th/0506002] using the equation of state. We find that the bulk viscosity of the hot cascading gauge theory plasma is non-zero at the leading order in the deviation from conformality.
Destabilization of Alfven eigenmodes by fast particles in W7-AS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zegenhagen, S.
2006-02-15
In the present thesis, a systematic study of beam driven Alfven eigenmodes in high-density and low-temperature plasmas of the W7-AS stellarator is performed. The goal of this thesis is twofold: (I) identification and description of fast particle driven Alfven instabilities in W7-AS, and (II) study of energetic particle losses induced by Alfven instabilities. A total of 133 different Alfven eigenmodes is studied in discharges from different experimental campaigns. The discharges are characterized by high density, n{sub e}=5 x 1019 m{sup -3} to 2.5 x 1020 m{sup -3} at relatively low temperatures of T{sub e}=T{sub i}=150..600 eV. Additional 13 events are found to have frequencies inside the EAE gap and could possibly be EAEs. Evidence for high-frequency Alfven eigenmodes (mirror- and helicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes) is seen, but can not be proven rigorously due to uncertain mode numbers and the complexity of the Alfven continuum. The remaining 41 Alfven eigenmodes can not be classified to be one of the above cases. (orig.)
VanZeeland, M. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Fisher, R. K.; Munoz, M. G.; Kramer, G. J.; Pace, D. C.; White, R. B.; Akaslompolo, S.; Austin, M. E.; Boom, J. E.; Classen, I.G.J.; da Graca, S.; Geiger, B.; Gorelenkova, M.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Hyatt, A. W.; Luhmann, N.; Maraschek, M.; McKee, G. R.; Moyer, R. A.; Muscatello, C. M.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.; Sharapov, S.; Suttrop, W.; Tardini, G.; Tobias, B. J.; Zhu, Y. B.
2011-01-01
Neutral beam injection into reversed magnetic shear DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs). These modes are studied during the discharge current ramp phase when incomplete c
Clustered frequency analysis of shear Alfven modes in stellarators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spong, Donald A [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Ed F [ORNL; Todo, Yasushi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan
2010-01-01
The shear Alfven spectrum in three-dimensional configurations, such as stellarators and rippled tokamaks, is more densely populated due to the larger number of mode couplings caused by the variation in the magnetic field in the toroidal dimension. This implies more significant computational requirements that can rapidly become prohibitive as more resolution is requested. Alfven eigenfrequencies and mode structures are a primary point of contact between theory and experiment. A new algorithm based on the Jacobi-Davidson method is developed here and applied for a reduced magnetohydrodynamics model to several stellarator configurations. This technique focuses on finding a subset of eigenmodes clustered about a specified input frequency. This approach can be especially useful in modeling experimental observations, where the mode frequency can generally be measured with good accuracy and several different simultaneous frequency lines may be of interest. For cases considered in this paper, it can be a factor of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} times faster than more conventional methods.
Cosmic Ray propagation in sub-Alfvenic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Cohet, Romain
2016-01-01
This work has the main objective to provide a detailed investigation of cosmic ray propagation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulent fields generated by forcing the fluid velocity field at large scales. It provides a derivation of the particle mean free path dependences in terms of the turbulence level described by the Alfv\\'enic Mach number and in terms of the particle rigidity. We use an upgrade version of the magnetohydrodynamic code {\\tt RAMSES} which includes a forcing module and a kinetic module and solve the Lorentz equation for each particle. The simulations are performed using a 3 dimension periodical box in the test-particle and magnetostatic limits. The forcing module is implemented using an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. An ensemble average over a large number of particle trajectories is applied to reconstruct the particle mean free paths. We derive the cosmic ray mean free paths in terms of the Alfv\\'enic Mach numbers and particle reduced rigidities in different turbulence forcing geometries. The reduced...
Vurgaftman, I.; Weih, R.; Kamp, M.; Meyer, J. R.; Canedy, C. L.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, M.; Bewley, W. W.; Merritt, C. D.; Abell, J.; Höfling, S.
2015-04-01
We review the current status of interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting in the midwave infrared (IR). The ICL may be considered the hybrid of a conventional diode laser that generates photons via electron-hole recombination, and an intersubband-based quantum cascade laser (QCL) that stacks multiple stages for enhanced current efficiency. Following a brief historical overview, we discuss theoretical aspects of the active region and core designs, growth by molecular beam epitaxy, and the processing of broad-area, narrow-ridge, and distributed feedback (DFB) devices. We then review the experimental performance of pulsed broad area ICLs, as well as the continuous-wave (cw) characteristics of narrow ridges having good beam quality and DFBs producing output in a single spectral mode. Because the threshold drive powers are far lower than those of QCLs throughout the λ = 3-6 µm spectral band, ICLs are increasingly viewed as the laser of choice for mid-IR laser spectroscopy applications that do not require high output power but need to be hand-portable and/or battery operated. Demonstrated ICL performance characteristics to date include threshold current densities as low as 106 A cm-2 at room temperature (RT), cw threshold drive powers as low as 29 mW at RT, maximum cw operating temperatures as high as 118 °C, maximum cw output powers exceeding 400 mW at RT, maximum cw wallplug efficiencies as high as 18% at RT, maximum cw single-mode output powers as high as 55 mW at RT, and single-mode output at λ = 5.2 µm with a cw drive power of only 138 mW at RT.
Goto, Susumu; Vassilicos, J. C.
2016-11-01
We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5 /3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G. I. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 151, 421 (1935), 10.1098/rspa.1935.0158] and A. N. Kolmogorov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 538 (1941)]. Even though the customary theoretical basis for this Taylor-Kolmogorov scaling is a statistically stationary cascade where large-scale energy flux balances dissipation, this is not the case throughout the entire time range of integration in all our DNS runs. The recently discovered dissipation scaling can be reformulated physically as a situation in which the dissipation rates of the small and large scales evolve together. We advance two hypotheses that may form the basis of a theoretical approach to unsteady turbulence cascades in the presence of large-scale coherent structures.
Dislocations in magnetohydrodynamic waves in a stellar atmosphere
Ariste, A López; Khomenko, E
2013-01-01
We describe the presence of wavefront dislocations in magnetohydrodynamic waves in stratified stellar atmospheres. Scalar dislocations such as edges and vortices can appear in Alfv\\'en waves, as well as in general magneto-acoustic waves. We detect those dislocations in observations of magnetohydrodynamic waves in sunspots in the solar chromosphere. Through the measured charge of all the dislocations observed, we can give for the first time estimates of the modal contribution in the waves propagating along magnetic fields in solar sunspots.
Combined Ideal and Kinetic Effects on Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
N.N. Gorelenkov, G.J. Kramer, and R. Nazikian
2011-05-23
A theory of Reversed Shear Alfven Eigenmodes (RSAEs) is developed for reversed magnetic field shear plasmas when the safety factor minimum, qmin, is at or above a rational value. The modes we study are known sometimes as either the bottom of the frequency sweep or the down sweeping RSAEs. We show that the ideal MHD theory is not compatible with the eigenmode solution in the reversed shear plasma with qmin above integer values. Corrected by special analytic FLR condition MHD dispersion of these modes nevertheless can be developed. Large radial scale part of the analytic RSAE solution can be obtained from ideal MHD and expressed in terms of the Legendre functions. The kinetic equation with FLR effects for the eigenmode is solved numerically and agrees with the analytic solutions. Properties of RSAEs and their potential implications for plasma diagnostics are discussed.
On Properties of Compressional Alfven Eigenmode Instability Driven by Superalfvinic Ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
N.N. Gorelenkov; C.Z. Cheng
2002-02-06
Properties of the instability of Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE) in tokamak plasmas are studied in the cold plasma approximation with an emphasis on the instability driven by the energetic minority Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) ions. We apply earlier developed theory [N.N. Gorelenkov and C.Z. Cheng, Nuclear Fusion 35 (1995) 1743] to compare two cases: Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) driven by charged fusion products and ICRH Minority driven ICE (MICE) [J. Cottrell, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2000)] recently observed on JET [Joint European Torus]. Particularly in MICE spectrum, only instabilities with even harmonics of deuterium-cyclotron frequency at the low-field-side plasma edge were reported. Odd deuterium-cyclotron frequency harmonics of ICE spectrum between the cyclotron harmonics of protons can be driven only via the Doppler-shifted cyclotron wave-particle resonance of CAEs with fusion products, but are shown to be damped due to the electron Landau damping in experiments on MI CE. Excitation of odd harmonics of MICE with high-field-side heating is predicted. Dependencies of the instability on the electron temperature is studied and is shown to be strong. Low electron temperature is required to excite odd harmonics in MICE.
Excitation of Alfven Cyclotron Instability by charged fusion products in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorelenkov, N.N.; Cheng, C.Z.
1994-08-01
The spectrum of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) observed in tokamak experiments shows narrow peaks at multiples of the edge cyclotron frequency of background ions. A possible mechanism of ICE based on the fast Alfven Cyclotron Instability (ACI) resonantly excited by high energy charged products ({alpha}-particles or protons) is studied here. The two-dimensional ACI eigenmode structure and eigenfrequency are obtained in the large tokamak aspect ratio limit. The ACI is excited via wave-particle resonances in phase space by tapping the fast ion velocity space free energy. The instability growth rates are computed perturbatively from the perturbed fast particle distribution function, which is obtained by integrating the high frequency gyrokinetic equation along the particle orbit. Numerical examples of ACI growth rates are presented for TFTR plasmas. The fast ion distribution function is assumed to be singular in pitch angle near the plasma edge. The results are employed to understand the ICE in Deuterium-Deuterium (DD) and Deuterium-tritium (DT) tokamak experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Lei, E-mail: donglei@sxu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Laser Spectroscopy, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Li, Chunguang; Gluszek, Aleksander K.; Tittel, Frank K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Sanchez, Nancy P.; Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)
2016-01-04
A tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based methane sensor, employing a dense-pattern multi-pass gas cell and a 3.3 μm, CW, DFB, room temperature interband cascade laser (ICL), is reported. The optical integration based on an advanced folded optical path design and an efficient ICL control system with appropriate electrical power management resulted in a CH{sub 4} sensor with a small footprint (32 × 20 × 17 cm{sup 3}) and low-power consumption (6 W). Polynomial and least-squares fit algorithms are employed to remove the baseline of the spectral scan and retrieve CH{sub 4} concentrations, respectively. An Allan-Werle deviation analysis shows that the measurement precision can reach 1.4 ppb for a 60 s averaging time. Continuous measurements covering a seven-day period were performed to demonstrate the stability and robustness of the reported CH{sub 4} sensor system.
Multifunctional Cascaded Metamaterials: Integrated Transmitarrays
Elsakka, Amr A.; Asadchy, Viktar S.; Faniayeu, Ihar A.; Tcvetkova, Svetlana N.; Tretyakov, Sergei A.
2016-10-01
Control of electromagnetic waves using engineered materials is very important in a wide range of applications, therefore there is always a continuous need for new and more efficient solutions. Known natural and artificial materials and surfaces provide a particular functionality in the frequency range they operate but cast a "shadow" and produce reflections at other frequencies. Here, we introduce a concept of multifunctional engineered materials that possess different predetermined functionalities at different frequencies. Such response can be accomplished by cascading metasurfaces (thin composite layers) that are designed to perform a single operation at the desired frequency and are transparent elsewhere. Previously, out-of-band transparent metasurfaces for control over reflection and absorption were proposed. In this paper, to complete the full set of functionalities for wave control, we synthesize transmitarrays that tailor transmission in a desired way, being "invisible" beyond the operational band. The designed transmitarrays for wavefront shaping and anomalous refraction are tested numerically and experimentally. To demonstrate our concept of multifunctional engineered materials, we have designed a cascade of three metasurfaces that performs three different functions for waves at different frequencies. Remarkably, applied to volumetric metamaterials, our concept can enable a single composite possessing desired multifunctional response.
Reese, D; Rieutord, M
2004-01-01
We carry out numerical and mathematical investigations of shear Alfven waves inside of a spherical shell filled with an incompressible conducting fluid, and bathed in a strong dipolar magnetic field. We focus on axisymmetric toroidal and non-axisymmetric modes, in continuation of a previous work by Rincon & Rieutord (2003). Analytical expressions are obtained for toroidal eigenmodes and their corresponding frequencies at low diffusivities. These oscillations behave like magnetic shear layers, in which the magnetic poles play a key role, and hence become singular when diffusivities vanish. It is also demonstrated that non-axisymmetric modes are split into two categories, namely poloidal or toroidal types, following similar asymptotic behaviours as their axisymmetric counterparts when the diffusivities become arbitrarily small.
Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser Based 3D Imaging Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LongWave Photonics proposes a terahertz quantum-cascade laser based swept-source optical coherence tomography (THz SS-OCT) system for single-sided, 3D,...
Alfven. Symphony No 5 in A minor, Op. 54 / Robert Layton
Layton, Robert
1994-01-01
Uuest heliplaadist "Alfven. Symphony No 5 in A minor, Op. 54. The Mountain King - Suite, Gustav II Adolf, Op. 49 - Elegy. Royal Stockholm Philarmonic Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. BIS CD 585 (68 minutes) Recorded in association with Trygg Hansa"
Spray formation: an inverse cascade
Ling, Yue; Tryggvason, Gretar; zaleski, Stephane
2015-01-01
We present a study of droplet formation in a gas-liquid mixing layer using direct numerical simulation. It is seen that two mechanisms compete to generate the droplets: fingering at the tip of the waves and hole formation in the thin liquid sheet. The three dimensional liquid structures are much shorter than the longitudinal wavelength of the instability at the first instant of their formation. As time evolves, the structures evolves to larger and larger scales, in a way similar to the inverse cascade of length scales in droplet impact and impact crown formation.
Measuring the Alfvenic Nature of the Interstellar Medium: Velocity Anisotropy Revisited
Burkhart, Blakesley; A. Lazarian; Leao, I.C.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Esquivel, A.
2014-01-01
The dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) are strongly affected by turbulence, which shows increased anisotropy in the presence of a magnetic field. We expand upon the Esquivel & Lazarian method to estimate the Alfven Mach number using the structure function anisotropy in velocity centroid data from position-position-velocity maps. We utilize 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of fully developed turbulence, with a large range of sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers, to produce synthetic ...
Dipole AlfvenVortex with Finite Ion Larmor Radius in a Low-Beta Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xu-Yu; HE Xian-Tu; LIU Zhen-Xing; CAO Jin-Bin
2000-01-01
A set of nonlinear fluid equations which include the effects of ion gyroradius is derived to describe Alfven vortex. The correction of finite ion gyroradius to the Alfven vortex in the inertial region is much more significant than that in the kinetic region. The amplitude of the vortex is enhanced in both regions. The scale of the vortex in the kinetic region becomes larger whereas it becomes smaller in the inertial region.
Existence of Weakly Damped Kinetic Alfven Eigenmodes in Reversed Shear Tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
N. N. Gorelenkov
2008-08-12
A kinetic theory of weakly damped Alfven Eigenmode (AE) solutions strongly interacting with the continuum is developed for tokamak plasmas with reversed magnetic shear. We show that the ideal MHD model is not sufficient for the eigenmode solutions if the standard causality condition bypass rule is applied. Finite Larmor radius effects are required, which introduce multiple kinetic subeigenmodes and collisionless radiative damping. The theory explains the existence of experimentally observed Alfvenic instabilities with frequencies sweeping down and reaching their minimum (bottom).
Turbulence: does energy cascade exist?
Josserand, Christophe; Lehner, Thierry; Pomeau, Yves
2016-01-01
To answer the question whether a cascade of energy exists or not in turbulence, we propose a set of correlation functions able to test if there is an irreversible transfert of energy, step by step, from large to small structures. These tests are applied to real Eulerian data of a turbulent velocity flow, taken in the wind grid tunnel of Modane, and also to a prototype model equation for wave turbulence. First we demonstrate the irreversible character of the flow by using multi-time correlation function at a given point of space. Moreover the unexpected behavior of the test function leads us to connect irreversibility and finite time singularities (intermittency). Secondly we show that turbulent cascade exists, and is a dynamical process, by using a test function depending on time and frequency. The cascade shows up only in the inertial domain where the kinetic energy is transferred more rapidly (on average) from the wavenumber $k_{1}$ to $k_{2}$ than from $k_{1}$ to $k'_{2}$ larger than $k_{2}$.
DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION AT COSMOLOGICAL SHOCK WAVES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Hyesung [Department of Earth Sciences, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Dongsu, E-mail: kang@uju.es.pusan.ac.kr, E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-02-10
We reexamine nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at cosmological shocks in the large-scale structure of the universe, incorporating wave-particle interactions that are expected to operate in collisionless shocks. Adopting simple phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA) by cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instabilities and Alfvenic drift, we perform kinetic DSA simulations for a wide range of sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers and evaluate the CR injection fraction and acceleration efficiency. In our DSA model, the CR acceleration efficiency is determined mainly by the sonic Mach number M{sub s} , while the MFA factor depends on the Alfvenic Mach number and the degree of shock modification by CRs. We show that at strong CR modified shocks, if scattering centers drift with an effective Alfven speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum is steepened and the acceleration efficiency is reduced significantly, compared to the cases without such effects. As a result, the postshock CR pressure saturates roughly at {approx}20% of the shock ram pressure for strong shocks with M{sub s} {approx}> 10. In the test-particle regime (M{sub s} {approx}< 3), it is expected that the magnetic field is not amplified and the Alfvenic drift effects are insignificant, although relevant plasma physical processes at low Mach number shocks remain largely uncertain.
Multifunctional Cascaded Metamaterials: Integrated Transmitarrays
Elsakka, Amr A; Faniayeu, Ihar A; Tcvetkova, Svetlana N; Tretyakov, Sergei A
2016-01-01
Control of electromagnetic waves using engineered materials is very important in a wide range of applications, therefore there is always a continuous need for new and more efficient solutions. Known natural and artificial materials and surfaces provide a particular functionality in the frequency range they operate but cast a "shadow" and produce reflections at other frequencies. Here, we introduce a concept of multifunctional engineered materials that possess different predetermined functionalities at different frequencies. Such response can be accomplished by cascading metasurfaces (thin composite layers) that are designed to perform a single operation at the desired frequency and are transparent elsewhere. Previously, out-of-band transparent metasurfaces for control over reflection and absorption were proposed. In this paper, to complete the full set of functionalities for wave control, we synthesize transmitarrays that tailor transmission in a desired way, being "invisible" beyond the operational band. The...
Hui, Zhan-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Guo
2015-07-01
This paper reports a new design of optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) systems that possess a functionality of simultaneous time demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting based on the cascaded four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (DF-HNL-PCF). A module of OTDM demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting can be feasibly implemented by using a 3 dB optical coupler, a high-power erbium-doped fiber amplifier, a short-length DF-HNL-PCF, and a wavelength demultiplexer in the simple configuration. We also carry out an experiment on the proposed system to demonstrate the 100-10 Gbit s-1 OTDM demultiplexing with wavelength conversion simultaneously at 4 multicast wavelengths. It is shown that error-free wavelength multicasting is achieved on two wavelength channels with the minimum power penalty of 3.2 dB relative to the 10 Gbit s-1 back-to-back measurement, whereas the bit error rates of other two multicasting channels are measured to be about 10-6-10-5. Moreover, we propose the use of a proper error-correcting code to improve the multicasting performance of such an OTDM system, and our work reveals that the resulting system can theoretically support error-free multicasting of the OTDM-demultiplexed signal on four wavelength channels.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many t...
Hydrodynamic Waves in an Anomalous Charged Fluid
Abbasi, Navid; Rezaei, Zahra
2015-01-01
We study the collective excitations in a relativistic fluid with an anomalous conserved charge. In $3+1$ dimensions, in addition to two ordinary sound modes we find two propagating modes in presence of an external magnetic field: one with a velocity proportional to the coefficient of gauge-gravitational anomaly coefficient and the other with a velocity which depends on both chiral anomaly and the gauge gravitational anomaly coefficients. While the former is the Chiral Alfv\\'en wave recently found in arXiv:1505.05444, the latter is a new type of collective excitations originated from the density fluctuations. We refer to these modes as the Type-M and Type-D chiral Alfv\\'en waves respectively. We show that the Type-M Chiral Alfv\\'en mode is split into two chiral Alfv\\'en modes when taking into account the effect of dissipation processes in the fluid. In 1+1 dimensions we find only one propagating mode associated with the anomalous effects. We explicitly compute the velocity of this wave and show that in contras...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Nan-run; GONG Li-hua; LIU Ye
2006-01-01
In this letter a cascade quantum teleportation scheme is proposed. The proposed scheme needs less local quantum operations than those of quantum multi-teleportation. A quantum teleportation scheme based on entanglement swapping is presented and compared with the cascade quantum teleportation scheme. Those two schemes can effectively teleport quantum information and extend the distance of quantum communication.
Are "EIT Waves" Fast-Mode MHD Waves?
Wills-Davey, M J; Stenflo, J O
2007-01-01
We examine the nature of large-scale, coronal, propagating wave fronts (``EIT waves'') and find they are incongruous with solutions using fast-mode MHD plane-wave theory. Specifically, we consider the following properties: non-dispersive single pulse manifestions, observed velocities below the local Alfven speed, and different pulses which travel at any number of constant velocities, rather than at the ``predicted'' fast-mode speed. We discuss the possibility of a soliton-like explanation for these phenomena, and show how it is consistent with the above-mentioned aspects.
Review article: MHD wave propagation near coronal null points of magnetic fields
McLaughlin, J A; De Moortel, I; 10.1007/s11214-010-9654-y
2010-01-01
We present a comprehensive review of MHD wave behaviour in the neighbourhood of coronal null points: locations where the magnetic field, and hence the local Alfven speed, is zero. The behaviour of all three MHD wave modes, i.e. the Alfven wave and the fast and slow magnetoacoustic waves, has been investigated in the neighbourhood of 2D, 2.5D and (to a certain extent) 3D magnetic null points, for a variety of assumptions, configurations and geometries. In general, it is found that the fast magnetoacoustic wave behaviour is dictated by the Alfven-speed profile. In a $\\beta=0$ plasma, the fast wave is focused towards the null point by a refraction effect and all the wave energy, and thus current density, accumulates close to the null point. Thus, null points will be locations for preferential heating by fast waves. Independently, the Alfven wave is found to propagate along magnetic fieldlines and is confined to the fieldlines it is generated on. As the wave approaches the null point, it spreads out due to the di...
Wavelength Conversion by Cascaded FWM in a Fiber Optical Parametric Oscillator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard
2011-01-01
We report on a continuous-wave fiber optical parametric oscillator utilizing selective filtering on cascade four wave mixing (CFWM). Oscillations of distinct CFWM terms are obtained, extending wavelength conversion outside the parametric gain region.......We report on a continuous-wave fiber optical parametric oscillator utilizing selective filtering on cascade four wave mixing (CFWM). Oscillations of distinct CFWM terms are obtained, extending wavelength conversion outside the parametric gain region....
Schiff, Avery J
2016-01-01
Coronal loops trace out bipolar, arch-like magnetic fields above the Sun's surface. Recent measurements that combine rotational tomography, extreme ultraviolet imaging, and potential-field extrapolation have shown the existence of large loops with inverted temperature profiles; i.e., loops for which the apex temperature is a local minimum, not a maximum. These "down loops" appear to exist primarily in equatorial quiet regions near solar minimum. We simulate both these and the more prevalent large-scale "up loops" by modeling coronal heating as a time-steady superposition of: (1) dissipation of incompressible Alfven-wave turbulence, and (2) dissipation of compressive waves formed by mode conversion from the initial population of Alfven waves. We found that when a large percentage (> 99%) of the Alfven waves undergo this conversion, heating is greatly concentrated at the footpoints and stable "down loops" are created. In some cases we found loops with three maxima that are also gravitationally stable. Models th...
Torsional Oscillations of Relativistic Stars with Dipole Magnetic Fields II. Global Alfv\\'en Modes
Sotani, H; Stergioulas, N; Vavoulidis, M
2006-01-01
We investigate torsional Alfv\\'{e}n modes of relativistic stars with a global dipole magnetic field. It has been noted recently (Glampedakis et al. 2006) that such oscillation modes could serve as as an alternative explanation (in contrast to torsional crustal modes) for the SGR phenomenon, if the magnetic field is not confined to the crust. We compute global Alfv\\'{e}n modes for a representative sample of equations of state and magnetar masses, in the ideal MHD approximation and ignoring $\\ell \\pm 2$ terms in the eigenfunction. We find that the presence of a realistic crust has a negligible effect on Alfv\\'{e}n modes for $B > 4\\times 10^{15}$ G. Furthermore, we find strong avoided crossings between torsional Alfv\\'{e}n modes and torsional crust modes. For magnetar-like magnetic field strengths, the spacing between consecutive Alfv\\'{e}n modes is of the same order as the gap of avoided crossings. As a result, it is not possible to identify modes of predominantly crustal character and all oscillations are pred...
Nonlinear modeling of thermoacoustically driven energy cascade
Gupta, Prateek; Scalo, Carlo; Lodato, Guido
2016-11-01
We present an investigation of nonlinear energy cascade in thermoacoustically driven high-amplitude oscillations, from the initial weakly nonlinear regime to the shock wave dominated limit cycle. We develop a first principle based quasi-1D model for nonlinear wave propagation in a canonical minimal unit thermoacoustic device inspired by the experimental setup of Biwa et al.. Retaining up to quadratic nonlinear terms in the governing equations, we develop model equations for nonlinear wave propagation in the proximity of differentially heated no-slip boundaries. Furthermore, we discard the effects of acoustic streaming in the present study and focus on nonlinear energy cascade due to high amplitude wave propagation. Our model correctly predicts the observed exponential growth of the thermoacoustically amplified second harmonic, as well as the energy transfer rate to higher harmonics causing wave steepening. Moreover, we note that nonlinear coupling of local pressure with heat transfer reduces thermoacoustic amplification gradually thus causing the system to reach limit cycle exhibiting shock waves. Throughout, we verify the results from the quasi-1D model with fully compressible Navier-Stokes simulations.
Measuring the Alfvenic Nature of the Interstellar Medium: Velocity Anisotropy Revisited
Burkhart, Blakesley; Leao, I C; de Medeiros, J R; Esquivel, A
2014-01-01
The dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) are strongly affected by turbulence, which shows increased anisotropy in the presence of a magnetic field. We expand upon the Esquivel & Lazarian method to estimate the Alfven Mach number using the structure function anisotropy in velocity centroid data from position-position-velocity maps. We utilize 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of fully developed turbulence, with a large range of sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers, to produce synthetic observations of velocity centroids with observational characteristics such as thermal broadening, cloud boundaries, noise, and radiative transfer effects of carbon monoxide. In addition, we investigate how the resulting anisotropy-Alfven Mach number dependency found in Esquivel & Lazarian (2011) might change when taking the second moment of the position-position-velocity cube or when using different expressions to calculate the velocity centroids. We find that the degree of anisotropy is related primarily to the m...
Calculation of continuum damping of Alfv\\'en eigenmodes in 2D and 3D cases
Bowden, G W; Könies, A
2015-01-01
In ideal MHD, shear Alfv\\'{e}n eigenmodes may experience dissipationless damping due to resonant interaction with the shear Alfv\\'{e}n continuum. This continuum damping can make a significant contribution to the overall growth/decay rate of shear Alfv\\'{e}n eigenmodes, with consequent implications for fast ion transport. One method for calculating continuum damping is to solve the MHD eigenvalue problem over a suitable contour in the complex plane, thereby satisfying the causality condition. Such an approach can be implemented in three-dimensional ideal MHD codes which use the Galerkin method. Analytic functions can be fitted to numerical data for equilibrium quantities in order to determine the value of these quantities along the complex contour. This approach requires less resolution than the established technique of calculating damping as resistivity vanishes and is thus more computationally efficient. The complex contour method has been applied to the three-dimensional finite element ideal MHD code CKA . ...
Fast-Particle-Driven Alfvenic Modes in a Reversed Field Pinch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koliner, J. J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Forest, C. B. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Sarff, J. S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Anderson, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Liu, D [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Nomberg, M. D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Waksman, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Lin, L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Brower, D. L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Ding, W. X. [University of California, Los Angeles; Spong, Donald A [ORNL
2012-01-01
Alfvenic modes are observed due to neutral beam injection for the first time in a reversed field pinch plasma. Modeling of the beam deposition and slowing down shows that the velocity and radial localization are high. This allows instability drive from inverse Landau damping of a bump-on-tail in the parallel distribution function or from free energy in the fast ion density gradient. Mode switching from a lower frequency toroidal mode number n = 5 mode that scales with beam injection velocity to a higher frequency n = 4 mode with Alfvenic scaling is observed.
Nonlinear mhd simulations of wave dissipation in flux tubes
Poedts, S.; Toth, G.; Belien, A. J. C.; Goedbloed, J. P.
1997-01-01
The phase mixing and resonant dissipation of Alfven waves is studied in both the 'closed' magnetic loops and the 'open' coronal holes observed in the hot solar corona. The resulting energy transfer from large to small length scales contributes to the heating of these magnetic str
Direct and inverse cascades in the geodynamo
Reshetnyak, M
2010-01-01
The rapid rotation of planets causes cyclonic thermal turbulence in their cores which may generate the large-scale magnetic fields observed outside the planets. We consider the model which enables us reproduce the typical features of small-scale geostrophic flows in physical and wave spaces. We present estimates of kinetic and magnetic energy fluxes as a function of the wave number. The joint existence of forward and inverse cascades are demonstrated. We also consider the mechanism of magnetic field saturation at the end of the kinematic dynamo regime.
Direct and inverse cascades in the geodynamo
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Reshetnyak
2008-11-01
Full Text Available The rapid rotation of planets causes cyclonic thermal turbulence in their cores which may generate the large-scale magnetic fields observed outside the planets. We investigate numerically a model based on the geodynamo equations in simplified geometry, which enables us to reproduce the main features of small-scale geostrophic flows in physical and wave vector spaces. We find fluxes of kinetic and magnetic energy as a function of the wave number and demonstrate the co-existence of forward and inverse cascades. We also explain the mechanism of magnetic field saturation at the end of the kinematic dynamo regime.
Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers.
Barkan, A; Tittel, F K; Mittleman, D M; Dengler, R; Siegel, P H; Scalari, G; Ajili, L; Faist, J; Beere, H E; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Ritchie, D A
2004-03-15
We have measured the spectral linewidths of three continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers operating at terahertz frequencies by heterodyning the free-running quantum cascade laser with two far-infrared gas lasers. Beat notes are detected with a GaAs diode mixer and a microwave spectrum analyzer, permitting very precise frequency measurements and giving instantaneous linewidths of less than -30 kHz. Characteristics are also reported for frequency tuning as the injection current is varied.
Nonlinear surface waves over topography
Janssen, T.T.
2006-01-01
As ocean surface waves radiate into shallow coastal areas and onto beaches, their lengths shorten, wave heights increase, and the wave shape transforms from nearsinusoidal to the characteristic saw-tooth shapes at the onset of breaking; in the ensuing breaking process the wave energy is cascaded to
Schlenker, Cody W.
2011-09-27
We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
The effect of toroidal plasma rotation on low-frequency reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes in tokamaks
Haverkort, J. W.
2012-01-01
The influence of toroidal plasma rotation on the existence of reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs) near their minimum frequency is investigated analytically. An existence condition is derived showing that a radially decreasing kinetic energy density is unfavourable for the existence of RSAEs. Th
Fast Ion Induced Shearing of 2D Alfven Eigenmodes Measured by Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging
Tobias, B. J.; Classen, I.G.J.; Domier, C.W.; Heidbrink, W. W.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Nazikian, R.; Park, H. K.; Spong, D. A.; VanZeeland, M. A.
2011-01-01
Two-dimensional images of electron temperature perturbations are obtained with electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) on the DIII-D tokamak and compared to Alfven eigenmode structures obtained by numerical modeling using both ideal MHD and hybrid MHD-gyrofluid codes. While many features of the o
Electromagnetic transport components and sheared flows in drift-Alfven turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.
2003-01-01
Results from three-dimensional numerical simulations of drift-Alfven turbulence in a toroidal geometry with sheared magnetic field are presented. The simulations show a relation between self-generated poloidal shear flows and magnetic field perturbations. For large values of the plasma beta we...
Alfven, Hugo. Die drei Schwedischen Rhapsodien op. 19, 24 und 47 / Andreas Meyer
Meyer, Andreas
1995-01-01
Uuest heliplaadist "Alfven, Hugo. Die drei Schwedischen Rhapsodien op. 19, 24 und 47, En skärgardssägen op. 20, Suite aus Der Berkönig. Königliche Stockholmer Philharmoniker, Neeme Järvi". AD: 1987-1992. BIS?Disco-Center CD 725 (WD: 77'00")
Cusp Alfven and Plasma Electrodynamics Rocket (CAPER) Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launch a single rocket from Andoya Rocket Range into an active cusp event. Observe electric and magnetic fields, HF waves, electron and ion distributions and...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Guang; QIAN Liejia; WANG Tao; FAN Dianyuan; LI Fuming
2004-01-01
It is shown that the cascaded fifth-order nonlinear phase shifts will increase with energy loss in the cascaded processes. Essentially different from the multi-photon absorption accompanied with inherent material nonlinearities, the loss of fundamental wave in a cascaded process is controllable and suppressible. By introducing difference frequencies generated from the reaction between the fundamental and its second harmonic after the cascaded processes, the fundamental wave can be free of energy loss, while the large cascaded fifth-order nonlinear phase shift is maintained.
Cascaded Parametric Amplification for Highly Efficient Terahertz Generation
Ravi, Koustuban; Cirmi, Giovanni; Reichert, Fabian; Schimpf, Damian N; Muecke, Oliver D; Kaertner, Franz X
2016-01-01
A highly efficient, practical approach to high-energy terahertz (THz) generation based on spectrally cascaded optical parametric amplification (THz-COPA) is introduced. The THz wave initially generated by difference frequency generation between a strong narrowband optical pump and optical seed (0.1-10% of pump energy) kick-starts a repeated or cascaded energy down-conversion of pump photons. This helps to greatly surpass the quantum-defect efficiency and results in exponential growth of THz energy over crystal length. In cryogenically cooled periodically poled lithium niobate, energy conversion efficiencies >8% for 100 ps pulses are predicted. The calculations account for cascading effects, absorption, dispersion and laser-induced damage. Due to the coupled nonlinear interaction of multiple triplets of waves, THz-COPA exhibits physics distinct from conventional three-wave mixing parametric amplifiers. This in turn governs optimal phase-matching conditions, evolution of optical spectra as well as limitations o...
Diffusive Shock Acceleration at Cosmological Shock Waves
Kang, Hyesung
2012-01-01
We reexamine nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at cosmological shocks in the large scale structure of the Universe, incorporating wave-particle interactions that are expected to operate in collisionless shocks. Adopting simple phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA) by cosmic-ray (CR) streaming instabilities and Alfv'enic drift, we perform kinetic DSA simulations for a wide range of sonic and Alfv'enic Mach numbers and evaluate the CR injection fraction and acceleration efficiency. In our DSA model the CR acceleration efficiency is determined mainly by the sonic Mach number Ms, while the MFA factor depends on the Alfv'enic Mach number and the degree of shock modification by CRs. We show that at strong CR modified shocks, if scattering centers drift with an effective Alfv'en speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum is steepened and the acceleration efficiency is reduced significantly, compared to the cases without such effects. As a result, the postshock C...
Matsuo, Kuniaki; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin Carl
1982-12-01
We investigate the counting statistics for stationary and nonstationary cascaded Poisson processes. A simple equation is obtained for the variance-to-mean ratio in the limit of long counting times. Explicit expressions for the forward-recurrence and inter-event-time probability density functions are also obtained. The results are expected to be of use in a number of areas of physics.
Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser
Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.
TEMPORAL OPTICAL SOLITONS VIA MULTISTEP x(2) CASCADING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG GUO-XIANG
2001-01-01
We consider a multistep X(2) cascading for light pulses with the dispersion of the system taken into account. Using the method of multiple scales we derive a set of coupled envelope equations governing the nonlinear evolution of the fundamental, second and third harmonic waves involved simultaneously in two nonlinear optical processes, i.e. second harmonic generation and sum frequency mixing. We show that three-wave temporal optical solitons are possible in three- and four-step cascading in the presence of a group-velocity mismatch between different pulses.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI; Zhongci
2001-01-01
［1］Bornemann, F., Deuflhard, P., The cascadic multigrid method for elliptic problems, Numer. Math., 996, 75: 35.［2］Bornemann, F., Deuflhard, P., The cascadic multigrid method, The Eighth International Conference on Domain Decomposition Methods for Partial Differential Equations (eds. Glowinski, R., Periaux, J., Shi, Z. et al.), New York: John Wiley and Sons, 997.［3］Bornemann, F., Krause, R., Classical and cascadic multigrid-methodogical comparison, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Domain Decomposition (eds. Bjorstad, P., Espedal, M., Keyes, D.), New York: John Wiley and Sons, 998.［4］Shaidurov, V., Some estimates of the rate of convergence for the cascadic conjugate gradient method, Comp. Math. Applic., 996, 3: 6.［5］Shi, Z., Xu, X., Cascadic multigrid method for the second order elliptic problem, East-West J. Numer. Math., 998, 6: 309.［6］Shi, Z., Xu, X., Cascadic multigrid for elliptic problems, East-West J. Numer. Math., 999, 7: 99.［7］Shi, Z., Xu, X., Cascadic multigrid method for the plate bending problem, East-West J. Numer. Math., 998, 6: 37.［8］Braess, D., Dahmen, W., A cascade multigrid algorithm for the Stokes equations, Number. Math., 999, 82: 79.［9］Shi, Z., Xu, X., Cascadic multigrid for parabolic problems, J. Comput. Math., 2000, 8: 450.［10］Ciarlet, P.,The Finite Element Method for Elliptic Problems, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 978.［11］Zienkiewicz, O. C., The Finite Element Method, 3rd. ed., London: McGraw-Hill, 977.［12］Powell, M. J. D., Sabin, M. A., Piecewise quadratic approximations on triangles, ACM Trans. Mat. Software, 977, 3: 36.［13］Xu, J., The auxiliary space method and optimal multigrid precondition techniques for unstructured grids, Computing, 996, 56: 25.［14］Bank, R., Dupont, T., An optimal order process for solving finite element equations, Math. Comput., 980, 36: 35.［15］Brenner, S., Convergence of nonconforming multigrid methods without full elliptic regularity, Math
Information cascade on networks
Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro
2016-05-01
In this paper, we discuss a voting model by considering three different kinds of networks: a random graph, the Barabási-Albert (BA) model, and a fitness model. A voting model represents the way in which public perceptions are conveyed to voters. Our voting model is constructed by using two types of voters-herders and independents-and two candidates. Independents conduct voting based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, herders base their voting on the number of previous votes. Hence, herders vote for the majority candidates and obtain information relating to previous votes from their networks. We discuss the difference between the phases on which the networks depend. Two kinds of phase transitions, an information cascade transition and a super-normal transition, were identified. The first of these is a transition between a state in which most voters make the correct choices and a state in which most of them are wrong. The second is a transition of convergence speed. The information cascade transition prevails when herder effects are stronger than the super-normal transition. In the BA and fitness models, the critical point of the information cascade transition is the same as that of the random network model. However, the critical point of the super-normal transition disappears when these two models are used. In conclusion, the influence of networks is shown to only affect the convergence speed and not the information cascade transition. We are therefore able to conclude that the influence of hubs on voters' perceptions is limited.
Drift-Alfven turbulence of a parallel shearing flow of the finite beta plasma with warm ions
Mikhailenko, V. V.; Mikhailenko, V. S.; Lee, Hae June
2016-09-01
It was predicted [Mikhailenko et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 020701 (2016)] that two distinct drift-Alfven instabilities may be developed in the parallel shearing flow of finite beta plasmas ( 1 ≫β≫me/mi ) with comparable ion and electron temperatures. The first one is the shear-flow-modified drift-Alfven instability, which develops due to the inverse electron Landau damping and exists in the shearless plasma as well. The second one is the shear-flow-driven drift-Alfven instability, which develops due to the combined effect of the velocity shear and ion Landau damping and is absent in the shearless plasma flows. In the present paper, these drift-Alfven instabilities are examined numerically and analytically by including the electromagnetic response of the ions. The levels of the drift-Alfven turbulence, resulted from the development of both instabilities, are determined from the renormalized nonlinear dispersion equation, which accounts for the nonlinear effect of ion scattering by the electromagnetic turbulence. The renormalized quasilinear equation for the ion distribution function, which accounts for the same nonlinear effect of ion scattering, is derived and employed for the analysis of the ion viscosity and ions heating resulting from the interactions of ions with drift-Alfven turbulence.
Resonant Heating of Ions by Parallel Propagating Alfvén Waves in Solar Coronal Holes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tian-Xi Zhang; Jing-Xiu Wang; Chi-Jie Xiao
2005-01-01
Resonant heating of H, O+5, and Mg+9 by parallel propagating ioncyclotron Alfven waves in solar coronal holes at a heliocentric distance is studied using the heating rate derived from the quasilinear theory. It is shown that the particle-Alfven-wave interaction is a significant microscopic process. The temperatures of the ions are rapidly increased up to the observed order in only microseconds, which implies that simply inserting the quasilinear heating rate into the fluid/MHD energy equation to calculate the radial dependence of ion temperatures may cause errors as the time scales do not match. Different species ions are heated by Alfven waves with a power law spectrum in approximately a mass order.To heat O+5 over Mg+9 as measured by the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) in the solar coronal hole at a region≥ 1.9R⊙, the energy density of Alfven waves with a frequency close to the O+5-cyclotron frequency must be at least double of that at the Mg+9-cyclotron frequency. With an appropriate wave-energy spectrum, the heating of H, O+5 and Mg+9 can be consistent with the UVCS measurements in solar coronal holes at a heliocentric distance.
On the spatial scales of wave heating in the solar chromosphere
Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis
2015-01-01
Dissipation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave energy has been proposed as a viable heating mechanism in the solar chromospheric plasma. Here, we use a simplified one-dimensional model of the chromosphere to theoretically investigate the physical processes and the spatial scales that are required for the efficient dissipation of Alfv\\'en waves and slow magnetoacoustic waves. We consider the governing equations for a partially ionized hydrogen-helium plasma in the single-fluid MHD approximation and include realistic wave damping mechanisms that may operate in the chromosphere, namely Ohmic and ambipolar magnetic diffusion, viscosity, thermal conduction, and radiative losses. We perform an analytic local study in the limit of small amplitudes to approximately derive the lengthscales for critical damping and efficient dissipation of MHD wave energy. We find that the critical dissipation lengthscale for Alfv\\'en waves depends strongly on the magnetic field strength and ranges from 10~m to 1~km for realistic field ...
Phenomenology of non-Alfvenic turbulence in a uniformly expanding medium
Matthaeus, W. H.; Zank, G. P.
1995-01-01
Transport and decay of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in a weakly inhomogeneous uniformly expanding medium involves a fairly complex formalism, even for the case where no spectral information is required. Here we argue that the phenomenology for decay simplifies greatly if: (1) the cross helicity (Alfvenicity) is small, (2) the dynamical influence of the large scale magnetic field is negligible either because of spectral anisotropy or because the expansion speed is much greater than the corresponding Alfven speed, and (3) the ratio of kinetic energy to magnetic energy for the fluctuations is either unity or some other constant. These conditions are acceptable as an approximation to solar wind turbulence in the outer heliosphere. In these circumstances a reasonable MHD energy-containing phenomenology is essentially that of locally homogeneous Kolmogoroff turbulence in a uniformly expanding medium. Analytical solutions for this model are presented for both undriven and driven cases.
Generation of Alfv\\'enic Waves and Turbulence in Reconnection Jets
Hoshino, Masahiro
2015-01-01
The magnetohydrodynamic linear stability with the localized bulk flow oriented parallel to the neutral sheet is investigated, by including the Hall effect and the guide magnetic field. We observe three different unstable modes: a "streaming tearing" mode at a slow flow speed, a "streaming sausage" mode at a medium flow speed, and a "streaming kink" mode at a fast flow speed. The streaming tearing and sausage modes have a standard tearing mode-like structure with symmetric density fluctuations in the neutral sheet, while the kink mode has an asymmetric fluctuation. The growth rate of the streaming tearing mode decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, while the growth rates of the sausage and kink modes do not depend strongly on the Reynolds number. The sausage and kink modes can be unstable for not only super-Alfv\\'enic flow but also sub-Alfv\\'enic flow when the lobe density is low. The wavelengths of these unstable modes are of the same order of magnitude as the thickness of the plasma sheet. Their...
Alfvenic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the presence of an equilibrium electric field
Sharma, Avadhesh C.; Srivastava, Krishna M.
1992-01-01
The Alfvenic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of a high-beta plasma in the presence of equilibrium magnetic and electric fields perpendicular to each other are studied. The plasma components are assumed to have 2D sheared velocity in y and z directions. The dispersion relation is derived, and the instability criterion is determined. It is shown that the equilibrium electric field has either stabilizing or destabilizing effect depending on certain conditions discussed in the paper.
Bi-directional Alfv\\'en Cyclotron Instabilities in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak
Sharapov, S E; Akers, R; Ayed, N Ben; Cecconello, M; Cook, J W C; Cunningham, G; Verwichte, E; Tea, the MAST
2014-01-01
Alfv\\'en cyclotron instabilities excited by velocity gradients of energetic beam ions were investigated in MAST experiments with super-Alfv\\'enic NBI over a wide range of toroidal magnetic fields from ~0.34 T to ~0.585 T. In MAST discharges with high magnetic field, a discrete spectrum of modes in the sub-cyclotron frequency range is excited toroidally propagating counter to the beam and plasma current (toroidal mode numbers n < 0).
The Magnetic Coupling of Chromospheres and Winds From Late Type Evolved Stars: Role of MHD Waves
Airapetian, Vladimir; Leake, James; Carpenter, Kenneth
2015-08-01
Stellar chromospheres and winds represent universal attributes of stars on the cool portion of H-R diagram. In this paper we derive observational constrains for the chromospheric heating and wind acceleration from cool evolved stars and examine the role of Alfven waves as a viable source of energy dissipation and momentum deposition. We use a 1.5D magnetohydrodynamic code with a generalized Ohm's law to study propagation of Alfven waves generated along a diverging magnetic field in a stellar photosphere at a single frequency. We demonstrate that due to inclusion of the effects of ion-neutral collisions in magnetized weakly ionized chromospheric plasma on resistivity and the appropriate grid resolution, the numerical resistivity becomes 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the physical resistivity. The motions introduced by non-linear transverse Alfven waves can explain non-thermally broadened and non-Gaussian profiles of optically thin UV lines forming in the stellar chromosphere of α Tau and other late-type giant and supergiant stars. The calculated heating rates in the stellar chromosphere model due to resistive (Joule) dissipation of electric currents on Pedersen resistivity are consistent with observational constraints on the net radiative losses in UV lines and the continuum from α Tau. At the top of the chromosphere, Alfven waves experience significant reflection, producing downward propagating transverse waves that interact with upward propagating waves and produce velocity shear in the chromosphere. Our simulations also suggest that momentum deposition by non-linear Alfven waves becomes significant in the outer chromosphere within 1 stellar radius from the photosphere that initiates a slow and massive winds from red giants and supergiants.
Ionization in Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs and Extrasolar Planets V: Alfv\\'{e}n Ionization
Stark, Craig R; Diver, Declan A; Rimmer, Paul B
2013-01-01
Observations of continuous radio and sporadic X-ray emission from low-mass objects suggest they harbour localized plasmas in their atmospheric environments. For low-mass objects, the degree of thermal ionization is insufficient to qualify the ionized component as a plasma, posing the question: what ionization processes can efficiently produce the required plasma that is the source of the radiation? We propose Alfv\\'{e}n ionization as a mechanism for producing localized pockets of ionized gas in the atmosphere, having sufficient degrees of ionization ($\\geq10^{-7}$) that they constitute plasmas. We outline the criteria required for Alfv\\'{e}n ionization and demonstrate it's applicability in the atmospheres of low-mass objects such as giant gas planets, brown dwarfs and M-dwarfs for both solar and sub-solar metallicities. We find that Alfv\\'{e}n ionization is most efficient at mid to low atmospheric pressures where a seed plasma is easier to magnetize and the pressure gradients needed to drive the required neut...
Sunward-propagating Alfv\\'enic fluctuations observed in the heliosphere
Li, H; Belcher, J W; He, J S; Richardson, J D
2016-01-01
The mixture/interaction of anti-sunward-propagating Alfv\\'enic fluctuations (AFs) and sunward-propagating Alfv\\'enic fluctuations (SAFs) is believed to result in the decrease of the Alfv\\'enicity of solar wind fluctuations with increasing heliocentric distance. However, SAFs are rarely observed at 1 au and solar wind AFs are found to be generally outward. Using the measurements from Voyager 2 and Wind, we perform a statistical survey of SAFs in the heliosphere inside 6 au. We first report two SAF events observed by Voyager 2. One is in the anti-sunward magnetic sector with a strong positive correlation between the fluctuations of magnetic field and solar wind velocity. The other one is in the sunward magnetic sector with a strong negative magnetic field-velocity correlation. Statistically, the percentage of SAFs increases gradually with heliocentric distance, from about 2.7% at 1.0 au to about 8.7% at 5.5 au. These results provide new clues for understanding the generation mechanism of SAFs.
Predictions and observations of global beta-induced Alfven-acoustic modes in JET and NSTX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorelenkov, N N [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Berk, H L [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Crocker, N A [Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1354 (United States); Fredrickson, E D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kaye, S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kubota, S [Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1354 (United States); Park, H [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Peebles, W [Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1354 (United States); Sabbagh, S A [Department of Applied Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Sharapov, S E [Euroatom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Stutmat, D [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tritz, K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Levinton, F M [Nova Photonics, One Oak Place, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Yuh, H [Nova Photonics, One Oak Place, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2007-12-15
In this paper we report on observations and interpretations of a new class of global MHD eigenmode solutions arising in gaps in the low frequency Alfven-acoustic continuum below the geodesic acoustic mode frequency. These modes have been just reported (Gorelenkov et al 2007 Phys. Lett. 370 70-7) where preliminary comparisons indicate qualitative agreement between theory and experiment. Here we show a more quantitative comparison emphasizing recent NSTX experiments on the observations of the global eigenmodes, referred to as beta-induced Alfven-acoustic eigenmodes (BAAEs), which exist near the extrema of the Alfven-acoustic continuum. In accordance to the linear dispersion relations, the frequency of these modes may shift as the safety factor, q, profile relaxes. We show that BAAEs can be responsible for observations in JET plasmas at relatively low beta <2% as well as in NSTX plasmas at relatively high beta >20%. In NSTX plasma observed magnetic activity has the same properties as predicted by theory for the mode structure and the frequency. Found numerically in NOVA simulations BAAEs are used to explain the observed properties of relatively low frequency experimental signals seen in NSTX and JET tokamaks.
Multi-mode Alfv\\'enic Fast Particle Transport and Losses: Numerical vs. Experimental Observation
Schneller, Mirjam; Bilato, Roberto; García-Muñoz, Manuel; Brüdgam, Michael; Günter, Sibylle
2013-01-01
In many discharges at ASDEX Upgrade fast particle losses can be observed due to Alfv\\'enic gap modes, Reversed Shear Alfv\\'en Eigenmodes or core-localized Beta Alfv\\'en Eigenmodes. For the first time, simulations of experimental conditions in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are performed for different plasma equilibria (particularly for different, also non-monotonic q profiles). The numerical tool is the extended version of the HAGIS code [Pinches'98, Br\\"udgam PhD Thesis, 2010], which also computes the particle motion in the vacuum region between vessel wall in addition to the internal plasma volume. For this work, a consistent fast particle distribution function was implemented to represent the strongly anisotropic fast particle population as generated by ICRH minority heating. Furthermore, HAGIS was extended to use more realistic eigenfunctions, calculated by the gyrokinetic eigenvalue solver LIGKA [Lauber'07]. The main aim of these simulations is to allow fast ion loss measurements to be interpreted with ...
Alfvenic behavior of alpha particle driven ion cyclotron emission in TFTR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cauffman, S.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); McClements, K.G. [UKAEA Government Division, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom). Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association] [and others
1995-07-01
Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) has been observed during D-T discharges in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), using rf probes located near the top and bottom of the vacuum vessel. Harmonics of the alpha cyclotron frequency ({Omega}{sub {alpha}}) evaluated at the outer midplane plasma edge are observed at the onset of the beam injection phase of TFTR supershots, and persist for approximately 100-250 ms. These results are in contrast with observations of ICE in JET, in which harmonics of {Omega}{sub {alpha}} evolve with the alpha population in the plasma edge. Such differences are believed to be due to the fact that newly-born fusion alpha particles are super-Alfvenic near the edge of JET plasmas, while they are sub-Alfvenic near the edge of TFTR supershot plasmas. In TFTR discharges with edge densities such that newly-born alpha particles are super-Alfvenic, alpha cyclotron harmonics are observed to persist. These results are in qualitative agreement with numerical calculations of growth rates due to the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability.
Vortex merging and spectral cascade in two-dimensional flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, A.H.; He, X.; Juul Rasmussen, J.;
1996-01-01
The merging of two identical vortices is studied numerically using a spectral code. It is noted that the enstrophy cascade is most active on the distorted vortex boundaries, with a Kolmogorov-like spectrum E(k) approximate to k(-alpha), alpha less than or equal to 4, developed at high wave numbers...
Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs
Faist, Jérôme; Scalari, Giacomo; Rösch, Markus; Bonzon, Christopher; Hugi, Andreas; Beck, Mattias
2015-01-01
It was recently demonstrated that broadband quantum cascade lasers can operate as frequency combs. As such, they operate under direct electrical pumping at both mid-infrared and THz frequencies, making them very attractive for dual-comb spectroscopy. Performance levels are continuously improving, with average powers over 100 mW and frequency coverage of 100 cm$^{-1}$ in the mid-infrared. In the THz range, 10 mW of average power and 600 GHz of frequency coverage are reported. As a result of the very short upper state lifetime of the gain medium, the mode proliferation in these sources arises from four wave mixing rather than saturable absorption. As a result, their optical output is characterized by the tendency of small intensity modulation of the output power, and the relative phases of the modes to be similar to the ones of a frequency modulated laser. Recent results include the proof of comb operation down to a metrological level, the observation of a Schawlow-Townes broadened linewidth, as well as the fir...
Period-doubling cascades galore
Sander, Evelyn; Yorke, James A.
2009-01-01
The appearance of numerous period-doubling cascades is among the most prominent features of {\\bf parametrized maps}, that is, smooth one-parameter families of maps $F:R \\times {\\mathfrak M} \\to {\\mathfrak M}$, where ${\\mathfrak M}$ is a smooth locally compact manifold without boundary, typically $R^N$. Each cascade has infinitely many period-doubling bifurcations, and it is typical to observe -- such as in all the examples we investigate here -- that whenever there are any cascades, there are...
Inferring Network Structure from Cascades
Ghonge, Sushrut
2016-01-01
Many physical, biological and social phenomena can be described by cascades taking place on a network. Often, the activity can be empirically observed, but not the underlying network of interactions. In this paper we solve the dynamics of general cascade processes. We then offer three topological inversion methods to infer the structure of any directed network given a set of cascade arrival times. Our forward and inverse formulas hold for a very general class of models where the activation probability of a node is a generic function of its degree and the number of its active neighbors. We report high success rates for synthetic and real networks, for 5 different cascade models.
Information cascade on networks
Hisakado, Masato
2015-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a voting model by considering three different kinds of networks: a random graph, the Barab\\'{a}si-Albert(BA) model, and a fitness model. A voting model represents the way in which public perceptions are conveyed to voters. Our voting model is constructed by using two types of voters--herders and independents--and two candidates. Independents conduct voting based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, herders base their voting on the number of previous votes. Hence, herders vote for the majority candidates and obtain information relating to previous votes from their networks. We discussed the difference between the phases on which the networks depend. Two kinds of phase transitions, an information cascade transition and a super-normal transition, were identified. The first of these is a transition between a state in which most voters make the correct choices and a state in which most of them are wrong. The second is a transition of convergence speed. The information cascade t...
Alexakis, A.
2009-04-01
Most astrophysical and planetary systems e.g., solar convection and stellar winds, are in a turbulent state and coupled to magnetic fields. Understanding and quantifying the statistical properties of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) turbulence is crucial to explain the involved physical processes. Although the phenomenological theory of hydro-dynamic (HD) turbulence has been verified up to small corrections, a similar statement cannot be made for MHD turbulence. Since the phenomenological description of Hydrodynamic turbulence by Kolmogorov in 1941 there have been many attempts to derive a similar description for turbulence in conducting fluids (i.e Magneto-Hydrodynamic turbulence). However such a description is going to be based inevitably on strong assumptions (typically borrowed from hydrodynamics) that do not however necessarily apply to the MHD case. In this talk I will discuss some of the properties and differences of the energy and helicity cascades in turbulent MHD and HD flows. The investigation is going to be based on the analysis of direct numerical simulations. The cascades in MHD turbulence appear to be a more non-local process (in scale space) than in Hydrodynamics. Some implications of these results to turbulent modeling will be discussed
MHD oscillations and waves near a magnetic null line
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bulanov, S.V.; Syrovatskii, S.I.
1980-11-01
An informative picture is drawn of the propagation of Alfven and magnetosonic waves in a two-dimensional magnetic field with a hyperbolic null point in the approximation of a cold plasma. The magnetosonic waves asymptotically transform into cylindrical waves. The wave amplitude increases toward the null point. A distortion of the plasma boundary produces excitation of noncylindrical magnetosonic waves. If the frequency of these waves is below the critical value, they will not penetrate into the plasma. Dissipation leads to a reflection of magnetosonic waves near the null line. Any arbitrarily slight dissipation leads to the appearance of a discrete spectrum of weakly damped Alfven oscillations. Oscillations of this type also occur in adiabatic confinement systems in which the magnetic field has null points. The nonlinear distortion of magnetosonic waves which leads to wave breaking and to the appearance of weak shock waves is studied. The amplitude of the magnetic field perturbations in a shock wave propagating toward the center asymptotically approaches a constant value.
He, Jiansen; Marsch, Eckart; Chen, Christopher H K; Wang, Linghua; Pei, Zhongtian; Zhang, Lei; Salem, Chadi S; Bale, Stuart D
2015-01-01
Magnetohydronamic turbulence is believed to play a crucial role in heating the laboratorial, space, and astrophysical plasmas. However, the precise connection between the turbulent fluctuations and the particle kinetics has not yet been established. Here we present clear evidence of plasma turbulence heating based on diagnosed wave features and proton velocity distributions from solar wind measurements by the Wind spacecraft. For the first time, we can report the simultaneous observation of counter-propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar wind turbulence. Different from the traditional paradigm with counter-propagating Alfv\\'en waves, anti-sunward Alfv\\'en waves (AWs) are encountered by sunward slow magnetosonic waves (SMWs) in this new type of solar wind compressible turbulence. The counter-propagating AWs and SWs correspond respectively to the dominant and sub-dominant populations of the imbalanced Els\\"asser variables. Nonlinear interactions between the AWs and SMWs are inferred from the non-orth...
The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion
Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.
2016-01-01
A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at
Matteini, L; Pantellini, F; Velli, M; Schwartz, S J
2015-01-01
We investigate properties of the plasma fluid motion in the large amplitude low frequency fluctuations of highly Alfv\\'enic fast solar wind. We show that protons locally conserve total kinetic energy when observed from an effective frame of reference comoving with the fluctuations. For typical properties of the fast wind, this frame can be reasonably identified by alpha particles, which, owing to their drift with respect to protons at about the Alfv\\'en speed along the magnetic field, do not partake in the fluid low frequency fluctuations. Using their velocity to transform proton velocity into the frame of Alfv\\'enic turbulence, we demonstrate that the resulting plasma motion is characterized by a constant absolute value of the velocity, zero electric fields, and aligned velocity and magnetic field vectors as expected for unidirectional Alfv\\'enic fluctuations in equilibrium. We propose that this constraint, via the correlation between velocity and magnetic field in Alfv\\'enic turbulence, is at the origin of ...
Applications of absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers.
Zhang, Lizhu; Tian, Guang; Li, Jingsong; Yu, Benli
2014-01-01
Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is a promising modern technique for sensing trace gases with high sensitivity, selectivity, and high time resolution. Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers, operating in a pulsed or continuous wave mode, have potential as spectroscopic sources because of their narrow linewidths, single mode operation, tunability, high output power, reliability, low power consumption, and compactness. This paper reviews some important developments in modern laser absorption spectroscopy based on the use of quantum cascade laser (QCL) sources. Among the various laser spectroscopic methods, this review is focused on selected absorption spectroscopy applications of QCLs, with particular emphasis on molecular spectroscopy, industrial process control, combustion diagnostics, and medical breath analysis.
Cascade Distillation System Development
Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah
2014-01-01
NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.
Optical Cherenkov radiation in ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Zhou, Binbin
2010-01-01
the dispersive wave. Finally, an investigation of recent experimental results uncovers a four-wave-mixing phenomenon related to Cherenkov radiation that is an additional generation mechanism of long-wavelength radiation that can occur during soliton compression. We discuss the conditions that lead......We show through theory and numerics that when few-cycle femtosecond solitons are generated through cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation, these broadband solitons can emit optical Cherenkov radiation in the form of linear dispersive waves located in the red part of the spectrum....... The beating between the dispersive wave and the soliton generates trailing temporal oscillations on the compressed soliton. Insertion of a simple short-wave pass filter after the crystal can restore a clean soliton. On the other hand, bandpass filtering around the dispersive wave peak results in near...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Testa, D. [CRPP, Switzerland; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Panis, T. [CRPP, Switzerland; Blanchard, P. [CRPP, Switzerland; Fasoli, A. [CRPP, Switzerland
2011-01-01
This paper reports the results of recent experiments performed on the JET tokamak on Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) with toroidal mode number (n) in the range n = 3-15. The stability properties of these medium-n AEs are investigated experimentally using a new set of compact in-vessel antennas, providing a direct and real-time measurement of the frequency, damping rate and amplitude for each individual toroidal mode number. We report here the quantitative analysis of the measurements of the damping rate for stable n = 3 toroidal AEs as a function of the edge plasma elongation, and the theoretical analysis of these data with the TAEFL code. The TAEFL results are in excellent qualitative agreement with the measurements, reproducing well the experimental scaling of increasing damping rate versus increasing edge elongation, and in many cases are also quantitatively correct, with a difference with respect to the measurements below 30%, particularly for magnetic configurations that have a larger edge magnetic shear.
Hellinger, Petr
2016-01-01
Using one-dimensional hybrid expanding box model we investigate properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere. We assume a proton-electron plasma with a strictly transverse ambient magnetic field and, beside the expansion, we take into account influence of a continuous injection of cold pick-up protons through the charge-exchange process between the solar wind protons and hydrogen of interstellar origin. The injected cold pick-up protons form a ring distribution function that rapidly becomes unstable and generate Alfv\\'en cyclotron waves. The Alfv\\'en cyclotron waves scatter pick-up protons to a spherical shell distribution function that thickens over that time owing to the expansion-driven cooling. The Alf\\'ven cyclotron waves heat solar wind protons in the perpendicular direction (with respect to the ambient magnetic field) through the cyclotron resonance. At later times, the Alfv\\'en cyclotron waves become parametrically unstable and the generated ion acoustic waves heat protons in the parallel dir...
Dispersion Relations and Polarizations of Low-frequency Waves in Two-fluid Plasmas
Zhao, Jinsong
2015-01-01
Analytical expressions for the dispersion relations and polarizations of low-frequency waves in magnetized plasmas based on two-fluid model are obtained. The properties of waves propagating at different angles (to the ambient magnetic field $\\mathbf{B}_{0}$) and \\beta (the ratio of the plasma to magnetic pressures) values are investigated. It is shown that two linearly polarized waves, namely the fast and Alfv\\'{e}n modes in the low-\\beta $\\left( \\beta \\ll 1\\right)$ plasmas, the fast and slow modes in the \\beta \\sim 1 plasmas, and the Alfv\\'{e}n and slow modes in the high-\\beta $\\left( \\beta \\gg 1\\right)$ plasmas, become circularly polarized at the near-parallel (to $\\mathbf{B}_{0}$) propagation. The negative magnetic-helicity of the Alfv\\'{e}n mode occurs only at small or moderate angles in the low-\\beta plasmas, and the ion cross-helicity of the slow mode is nearly the same as that of the Alfv\\'{e}n mode in the high-\\beta plasmas. It also shown the electric polarization $\\delta E_{z}/\\delta E_{y}$ decreases...
Sensitivity of alpha-particle-driven Alfven eigenmodes to q-profile variation in ITER scenarios
Rodrigues, P; Fazendeiro, L; Ferreira, J; Coelho, R; Nabais, F; Borba, D; Polevoi, N F Loureiro A R; Pinches, S D; Sharapov, S E
2016-01-01
An hybrid ideal-MHD/drift-kinetic approach to assess the stability of alpha-particle-driven Alfven eigenmodes in burning plasmas is used to show that certain foreseen ITER scenarios, namely the $I_\\mathrm{p} = 15$ MA baseline scenario with very low and broad core magnetic shear, are sensitive to small changes in the background magnetic equilibrium. Slight perturbations (of the order of 1%) in the total plasma current are seen to cause large variations in the growth rate, toroidal mode number, and radial location of the most unstable eigenmodes found. The observed sensitivity is shown to proceed from the very low magnetic shear values attained throughout the plasma core.
Neutral beam excitation of Alfven continua in the madison symmetric torus reversed field pinch
Koliner, Jonathan Jay
Alfven continua and Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) have been generated for reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma equilibria in Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). Data gathered from the extensive suite of diagnostics on MST was used to generate equilibria using MSTFIT and VMEC. Three dimensional equilibria for spontaneous helical states were generated using the equilibrium reconstruction code V3FIT. The reduced-MHD codes AE3D and STELLGAP were run on all generated equilibria to calculate the continua and AEs. All continuum solutions contain a toroidicity-induced Alfven gap at 200-400 kHz, within which AE solutions appear by coupling of m=0,1 at medium n. The first observation of beam-driven instabilities on the RFP was performed using MST magnetics during neutral beam injection (NBI). Spatially coherent bursts with n=5,m=1 were observed in plasmas with edge safety factor q_a=0. The bursts oscillate at 65 kHz, and reach maximum amplitude and decay away within 100 mus. These bursts persist for the duration of NBI. Secondary n=-1 and n=4 bursts are coupled in time, reaching maximum amplitude with 50 mus after the n=5 peak amplitude. While the n=5 bursts scale weakly with the electron density n_e and strongly with the beam velocity v_beam, the n=4 bursts scale with the Alfven speed v_A. The burst frequencies are well below those of the calculated AEs and the modes are driven even with v_ beam plasmas. In reversed plasmas, the temporally changing q profile changes the burst resonances, bringing n=6 into resonance halfway through the sawtooth cycle. The n=5 mode switches from its frequency in non-reversed plasmas to a higher frequency at the end of the sawtooth cycle. In deeply reversed plasmas, the bursts are weaker and display chirping behavior as the plasma reversal increases. During the transition to a helical state, the bursts increase in frequency as q on-axis changes, altering the parallel wavenumber k_||. When the helical state is established, the bursts terminate.
Fine Structure Zonal Flow Excitation by Beta-induced Alfven Eigenmode
Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio
2016-01-01
Nonlinear excitation of low frequency zonal structure (LFZS) by beta-induced Alfven eigenmode (BAE) is investigated using nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. It is found that electrostatic zonal flow (ZF), rather than zonal current, is preferentially excited by finite amplitude BAE. In addition to the well-known meso-scale radial envelope structure, ZF is also found to exhibit fine radial structure due to the localization of BAE with respect to mode rational surfaces. Specifically, the zonal electric field has an even mode structure at the rational surface where radial envelope peaks.
Fast Ion Induced Shearing of 2D Alfven Eigenmodes Measured by Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tobias, Ben [University of California, Davis; Classen, I.G.J. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands; Domier, C. W. [University of California, Davis; Heidbrink, W. [University of California, Irvine; Luhmann, N.C. [University of California, Davis; Nazikian, Raffi [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Park, H.K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Van Zeeland, Michael [General Atomics
2011-01-01
Two-dimensional images of electron temperature perturbations are obtained with electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) on the DIII-D tokamak and compared to Alfven eigenmode structures obtained by numerical modeling using both ideal MHD and hybrid MHD-gyrofluid codes. While many features of the observations are found to be in excellent agreement with simulations using an ideal MHD code (NOVA), other characteristics distinctly reveal the influence of fast ions on the mode structures. These features are found to be well described by the nonperturbative hybrid MHD-gyrofluid model TAEFL.
Zonal Flows Driven by Small-Scale Drift-Alfven Modes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李德徽; 周登
2011-01-01
Generation of zonal flows by small-scale drift-Alfven modes is investigated by adopting the approach of parametric instability with the electron polarization drift included. The zonal mode can be excited by primary modes propagating at both electron and ion diamagnetic drift directions in contrast to the assertion in previous studies that only primary modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift directions can drive zonal instabilities. Generally, the growth rate of the driven zonal mode is in the same order as that in previous study. However, different from the previous work, the growth rate is no longer proportional to the difference between the diamagnetic drift frequencies of electrons and ions.
Effects of energetic particles on zonal flow generation by toroidal Alfven eigenmode
Qiu, Zhiyong; Zonca, Fulvio
2016-01-01
Generation of zonal ow (ZF) by energetic particle (EP) driven toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE) is investigated using nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. It is found that, nonlinear resonant EP contri- bution dominates over the usual Reynolds and Maxwell stresses due to thermal plasma nonlinear response. ZF can be forced driven in the linear growth stage of TAE, with the growth rate being twice the TAE growth rate. The ZF generation mechanism is shown to be related to polarization induced by resonant EP nonlinearity. The generated ZF has both the usual meso-scale and micro- scale radial structures. Possible consequences of this forced driven ZF on the nonlinear dynamics of TAE are also discussed.
Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon
Sherrod, David R.
2016-01-01
The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges.
Measuring the Turbulent Cascade in the Solar Wind
MacBride, B. T.; Forman, M. A.; Smith, C. W.
2006-12-01
Kolmogorov's famous 4/5 law for the Navier-Stokes equation states that in isotropic hydrodynamic (HD) turbulence, the third moment of longitudinal velocity fluctuations at a spatial distance L is (4/5) ɛ ěrt L ěrt where ɛ is the turbulent energy cascade rate = heating rate per unit mass. A definite, signed, third moment is a fundamental property of the turbulent velocity fluctuations arising from the non-linear term in the Navier-Stokes equation, the only direct indicator that a cascade exists, the only measure of what direction that cascade takes (to smaller or larger spatial scales), and the truest indication of the cascade rate. The solar wind is MHD, however, and its turbulence is anisotropic. Dasso et al. (2005) perform a study on the anisotropy in the solar wind as a function of flow speed and find that there exists "quasi-two-dimensional" turbulence in low speed streams and a one dimensional "slab" structure in high speed flow. Politano and Pouquet (1998; PP) have derived an exact expression, valid in anisotropic situations, for the divergence with lag vector L of a certain vector third moment of the fluctuations in the Elsasser variables as a function of L. We perform an analysis of the third-order moment derived by PP. We use 8 years of ACE combine 64-s magnetic field and plasma measurements in variably defined subsets to compute the Elsasser variables in mean-field coordinates for different solar wind conditions (high/low wind speed, yearly, etc.). Most significantly, we attempt to separately resolve parallel and perpendicular cascades relative to the mean magnetic field. We find (1) the third moment structure functions are approximately proportional to lag as expected, (2) the inferred energy dissipation rate for outward-moving waves is larger than for inward-moving waves with many intervals showing evidence of an inverse cascade of the minority component, (3) the total energy-dissipation rate inferred by this method is frequently in disagreement
MHD Waves and Coronal Seismology: an overview of recent results
De Moortel, Ineke
2012-01-01
Recent observations have revealed that MHD waves and oscillations are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, with a wide range of periods. We give a brief review of some aspects of MHD waves and coronal seismology which have recently been the focus of intense debate or are newly emerging. In particular, we focus on four topics: (i) the current controversy surrounding propagating intensity perturbations along coronal loops, (ii) the interpretation of propagating transverse loop oscillations, (iii) the ongoing search for coronal (torsional) Alfven waves and (iv) the rapidly developing topic of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) in solar flares.
Observation of an MHD Alfv\\'en vortex in the slow solar wind
Roberts, Owen Wyn; Alexandrova, Olga; Li, Bo
2016-01-01
In the solar wind, magnetic field power spectra usually show several power-laws. In this paper, magnetic field data from the Cluster mission during an undisturbed interval of slow solar wind is analyzed at 0.28Hz, near the spectral break point between the ion inertial and dissipation/dispersion ranges. Assuming Taylor's frozen-in condition, it corresponds to a proton kinetic scale of $kv_A/\\Omega_p \\sim 0.38$, where $v_A$ and $\\Omega_p$ are the Alfv\\'en speed and proton angular gyrofrequency, respectively. Data show that the Cluster spacecraft passed through a series of wavepackets. A strong isolated wavepacket is found to be in accordance with the four Cluster satellites crossing an Alfv\\'en vortex, a nonlinear solution to the incompressible MHD equations. A strong agreement is seen between the data from four satellites and a model vortex with a radius of the order of $40$ times the local proton gyro-radii. The polarization at different spacecraft is compared and is found to agree with the vortex model, wher...
Perturbative Study of Energetic Particle Redistribution by Alfven Eigenmodes in ITER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
N.N. Gorelenkov and R.B. White
2012-10-29
The modification of particle distributions by magnetohydrodynamic modes is an important topic for magnetically confined plasmas. Low amplitude modes are known to be capable of producing significant modification of injected neutral beam profiles. Flattening of a distribution due to phase mixing in an island or due to portions of phase space becoming stochastic is a process extremely rapid on the time scale of an experiment. In this paper we examine the effect of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAE) in ITER on alpha particle and injected beam distributions using theoretically predicted mode amplitudes. It is found that for the equilibrium of a hybrid scenario even at ten times the predicted saturation level the modes have negligible effect on these distributions. A strongly reversed shear (or advanced) scenario, having a spectrum of modes that are much more global, is somewhat more susceptible to induced loss due to mode resonance, with alpha particle losses of over one percent with predicted amplitudes and somewhat larger with the assistance of toroidal field ripple. The elevated q profile contributes to stronger TAE (RSAE) drive and more unstable modes. An analysis of the existing mode-particle resonances is carried out to determine which modes are responsible for the profile modification and induced loss. We find that losses are entirely due to resonance with the counter-moving and trapped particle populations, with co-moving passing particles participating in resonances only deep within the plasma and not leading to loss.
Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics
Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I; Fisher, Robert T
2008-01-01
Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256^3 and 512^3 simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li, McKee, & Klein (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectr...
Smith, David R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Diallo, A.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Sabbagh, S. A.
2016-10-01
Edge localized mode (ELM) saturation mechanisms, filament dynamics, and multi-mode interactions require nonlinear models, and validation of nonlinear ELM models requires fast, localized measurements on Alfven timescales. Recently, we investigated characteristic ELM evolution patterns with Alfven-scale measurements from the NSTX/NSTX-U beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system. We applied clustering algorithms from the machine learning domain to ELM time-series data. The algorithms identified two or three groups of ELM events with distinct evolution patterns. In addition, we found that the identified ELM groups correspond to distinct parameter regimes for plasma current, shape, magnetic balance, and density pedestal profile. The observed characteristic evolution patterns and corresponding parameter regimes suggest genuine variation in the underlying physical mechanisms that influence the evolution of ELM events and motivate nonlinear MHD simulations. Here, we review the previous results for characteristic ELM evolution patterns and parameter regimes, and we report on a new effort to explore the identified ELM groups with 2D BES measurements and nonlinear MHD simulations. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy Award Numbers DE-SC0001288 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, R I; Li, P S; McKee, C F; Fisher, R
2008-04-10
Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256{sup 3} and 512{sup 3} simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li et al. (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectra compared to the ideal MHD case. Changes in the density PDF, total magnetic energy, and ionization fraction are determined as a function of the AD Reynolds number. The power spectra for the neutral gas properties of a strongly magnetized medium with a low AD Reynolds number are similar to those for a weakly magnetized medium; in particular, the power spectrum of the neutral velocity is close to that for Burgers turbulence.
Cascade Product of Permutation Groups
Egri-Nagy, Attila; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.
2013-01-01
We define the cascade product of permutation groups as an external product, an explicit construction of substructures of the iterated wreath product that are much smaller than the full wreath product. This construction is essential for computational implementations of algebraic hierarchical decompositions of finite automata. We show how direct, semidirect, and wreath products and group extensions can all be expressed as cascade products, and analyse examples of groups that can be constructed ...
Low Noise Interband Cascade Photodetectors
2012-02-28
National Laboratories, Zhaobing Tian, Zhihua Cai, R. T. Hinkey, L. Li, Tetsuya D. Mishima , Michael B. Santos, and Matthew B. Johnson at the...Phys. 107, No. 5, 054514 (2010). 2. R. Q. Yang, Z. Tian, J. F. Klem, T. D. Mishima , M. B. Santos, and M. B. Johnson, “Interband cascade photovoltaic...2012). 4. Z. Tian, Z. Cai, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima , M. B. Santos, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “Interband Cascade Infrared Photodetectors
Are longer cascades more stable?
2004-01-01
Yes, they are. We consider data from experimental cascade games that were run in different laboratories, and find uniformly that subjects are more willing to follow the crowd, the bigger the crowd is �although the decision makers who are added to the crowd should in theory simply follow suit and hence reveal no information. This correlation of length and strength of cascades appears consistently across games with different parameters and different choice sets for the subjects. ...
Aeroelasticity in Turbomachine-Cascades.
1982-11-10
STABLE -180 UNSTABLE -360 ’ - ’ - -180 0. O DIAGRAM 3 AERODYNAMIC LIFT (OENT)COEFFICIENTI AND PHASE LEADS IN DEPENDANCE OF FLOM GUANTATIES AND CASCADE...ABL -0.8 0.0 -5 0. -5 DIAGRAM ’. AERODYNAMIC NORK AND DAMPING COEFFICIENTS (FOR A RIGID NOTION) IN DEPENDANCE OF FLOW OURNTATIES AND CASCADE GEOMETRY...coefficients on blades + blade vibration + vizualization in the transonic flow domain (Schlieren) + instability dependance on flow conditions, blade
Cascading Gravity is Ghost Free
de Rham, Claudia; Tolley, Andrew J
2010-01-01
We perform a full perturbative stability analysis of the 6D cascading gravity model in the presence of 3-brane tension. We demonstrate that for sufficiently large tension on the (flat) 3-brane, there are no ghosts at the perturbative level, consistent with results that had previously only been obtained in a specific 5D decoupling limit. These results establish the cascading gravity framework as a consistent infrared modification of gravity.
Emergence of a turbulent cascade in a quantum gas
Navon, Nir; Gaunt, Alexander L.; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2016-11-01
A central concept in the modern understanding of turbulence is the existence of cascades of excitations from large to small length scales, or vice versa. This concept was introduced in 1941 by Kolmogorov and Obukhov, and such cascades have since been observed in various systems, including interplanetary plasmas, supernovae, ocean waves and financial markets. Despite much progress, a quantitative understanding of turbulence remains a challenge, owing to the interplay between many length scales that makes theoretical simulations of realistic experimental conditions difficult. Here we observe the emergence of a turbulent cascade in a weakly interacting homogeneous Bose gas—a quantum fluid that can be theoretically described on all relevant length scales. We prepare a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical box, drive it out of equilibrium with an oscillating force that pumps energy into the system at the largest length scale, study its nonlinear response to the periodic drive, and observe a gradual development of a cascade characterized by an isotropic power-law distribution in momentum space. We numerically model our experiments using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and find excellent agreement with the measurements. Our experiments establish the uniform Bose gas as a promising new medium for investigating many aspects of turbulence, including the interplay between vortex and wave turbulence, and the relative importance of quantum and classical effects.
Dynamics of quantum cascade lasers: numerics
Van der Sande, Guy; Verschaffelt, Guy
2016-04-01
Since the original demonstration of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs), the performance of these devices has shown rapid improvement. QCLs can now deliver milliwatts or more of continuous-wave radiation throughout the terahertz frequency range (300 GHz to 10 THz). Therefore, QCLs have become widely used in various applications such as spectroscopy, metrology or free-space telecommunications. For many of these applications there is a need for compact tuneable quantum cascade lasers. Nowadays most tuneable QCLs are based on a bulky external cavity configuration. We explore the possibility of tuning the operating wavelength through a fully integrated on-chip wavelength selective feedback applied to a dual wavelength QCL. Our numerical and analytical analyses are based on rate equation models describing the dynamics of QCLs extended to include delayed filtered optical feedback. We demonstrate the possibility to tune the operating wavelength by altering the absorption and/or amplification of the signal in the delayed feedback path. The tuning range of a laser is limited by the spectral width of its gain. For inter-band semiconductor lasers this spectral width is typically several tens of nm. Hence, the laser cavity supports the existence of multiple modes and on chip wavelength selective feedback has been demonstrated to be a promising tuning mechanism. We have selected a specific QCL gain structure with four energy levels and with two lasing transitions in the same cascade. In this scheme, the two lasing modes use a common upper level. Hence, the two modes compete in part for the same carriers to account for their optical gain. We have added delayed wavelength specific filtered optical feedback to the rate equation model describing these transitions. We have calculated the steady states and their stability in the absence of delay for the feedback field and studied numerically the case with non-zero delay. We have proven that wavelength tuning of a dual wavelength
Chromospheric Observations of a Kink Wave in an On-disk Active Region Fibril
Pietarila, A. M.; Aznar Cuadrado, R.; Hirzberger, J.; Solanki, S.
2011-12-01
Most observations of kink and Alfven waves in the chromosphere are made in off-limb spicules. Here we present observations of a kink wave in high spatial and temporal resolution Ca II 8542 data of an active region fibril on the solar disk. The properties of the observed wave are similar to kink waves in spicules. From the inferred wave phase and period we estimate the lower limit for the field strength in the chromospheric fibril to be a few hundred Gauss. The observations indicate that the event may have been triggered by a small-scale reconnection event higher up in the atmosphere.
Interband Cascade Photovoltaic Cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Rui Q. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Santos, Michael B. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Johnson, Matthew B. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)
2014-09-24
In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells [1]. These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamental aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 μm, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.
Long wave-short wave resonance in nonlinear negative refractive index media.
Chowdhury, Aref; Tataronis, John A
2008-04-18
We show that long wave-short wave resonance can be achieved in a second-order nonlinear negative refractive index medium when the short wave lies on the negative index branch. With the medium exhibiting a second-order nonlinear susceptibility, a number of nonlinear phenomena such as solitary waves, paired solitons, and periodic wave trains are possible or enhanced through the cascaded second-order effect. Potential applications include the generation of terahertz waves from optical pulses.
High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb
Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh
2017-01-01
An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm−1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy. PMID:28262834
High efficiency quantum cascade laser frequency comb
Lu, Quanyong; Wu, Donghai; Slivken, Steven; Razeghi, Manijeh
2017-03-01
An efficient mid-infrared frequency comb source is of great interest to high speed, high resolution spectroscopy and metrology. Here we demonstrate a mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with a high power output and narrow beatnote linewidth at room temperature. The active region was designed with a strong-coupling between the injector and the upper lasing level for high internal quantum efficiency and a broadband gain. The group velocity dispersion was engineered for efficient, broadband mode-locking via four wave mixing. The comb device exhibits a narrow intermode beatnote linewidth of 50.5 Hz and a maximum wall-plug efficiency of 6.5% covering a spectral coverage of 110 cm‑1 at λ ~ 8 μm. The efficiency is improved by a factor of 6 compared with previous demonstrations. The high power efficiency and narrow beatnote linewidth will greatly expand the applications of quantum cascade laser frequency combs including high-precision remote sensing and spectroscopy.
Communication Scheme via Cascade Chaotic Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUA Chang-Chun; GUAN Xin-Ping
2004-01-01
@@ A new chaotic communication scheme is constructed. Different from the existing literature, cascade chaotic systems are employed. Two cascade modes are considered. First, we investigate the input to state cascade mode;cascade systems between different kinds of chaotic systems are considered. Then the parameter cascade case of chaotic system is studied. Under the different cases, the corresponding receivers are designed, which can succeed in recovering the former emitted signal. Simulations are performed to verify the validity of the proposed main results.
A New Phase-Shifted Cascade High Voltage Inverter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lau Eng Tin
2005-01-01
This paper presents a unique novel design of the phase-shifted cascade high voltage inverter. Thehigh voltage inverter utilizes fewer power switches and supplies a balance load. The usage of phase shifttransformer and phase shifting SPWM ensures that input and output harmonic wave content is low and outputvoltage change (du/dt) has a low rate, meeting all the requirements of the power authorities. The most out-standing feature is the energy saving with very fast cost recovery.
Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Transmission-Line Metamaterials
Tavallaee, Amir Ali
2012-01-01
Terahertz quantum-cascade (QC) lasers operating at 0.6 − 5 THz (λ ∼ 60 − 500 μm) are poised to become the dominant solid-state sources of continuous-wave (cw) far-infrared radiation enabling applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and sensing. QC-lasers are the longest wavelength semiconductor laser sources in which terahertz gain is obtained from electronic intersubband radiative transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure quantum wells. Since their invent...
Novel trophic cascades: apex predators enable coexistence.
Wallach, Arian D; Ripple, William J; Carroll, Scott P
2015-03-01
Novel assemblages of native and introduced species characterize a growing proportion of ecosystems worldwide. Some introduced species have contributed to extinctions, even extinction waves, spurring widespread efforts to eradicate or control them. We propose that trophic cascade theory offers insights into why introduced species sometimes become harmful, but in other cases stably coexist with natives and offer net benefits. Large predators commonly limit populations of potentially irruptive prey and mesopredators, both native and introduced. This top-down force influences a wide range of ecosystem processes that often enhance biodiversity. We argue that many species, regardless of their origin or priors, are allies for the retention and restoration of biodiversity in top-down regulated ecosystems.
Kouznetsov, Igor; Lotko, William
1995-01-01
The 'radial' transport of energy by internal ULF waves, stimulated by dayside magnetospheric boundary oscillations, is analyzed in the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. (the term radial is used here to denote the direction orthogonal to geomagnetic flux surfaces.) The model for the inhomogeneous magnetospheric plasma and background magnetic field is axisymmetric and includes radial and parallel variations in the magnetic field, magnetic curvature, plasma density, and low but finite plasma pressure. The radial mode structure of the coupled fast and intermediate MHD waves is determined by numerical solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation; the parallel mode structure is characterized by a Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Ionospheric dissipation is modeled by allowing the parallel wave number to be complex. For boudnary oscillations with frequencies in the range from 10 to 48 mHz, and using a dipole model for the background magnetic field, the combined effects of magnetic curvature and finite plasma pressure are shown to (1) enhance the amplitude of field line resonances by as much as a factor of 2 relative to values obtained in a cold plasma or box-model approximation for the dayside magnetosphere; (2) increase the energy flux delivered to a given resonance by a factor of 2-4; and (3) broaden the spectral width of the resonance by a factor of 2-3. The effects are attributed to the existence of an 'Alfven buoyancy oscillation,' which approaches the usual shear mode Alfven wave at resonance, but unlike the shear Alfven mode, it is dispersive at short perpendicular wavelengths. The form of dispersion is analogous to that of an internal atmospheric gravity wave, with the magnetic tension of the curved background field providing the restoring force and allowing radial propagation of the mode. For nominal dayside parameters, the propagation band of the Alfven buoyancy wave occurs between the location of its (field line) resonance and that of the
Particle Scattering off of Right-Handed Dispersive Waves
Schreiner, Cedric; Spanier, Felix
2016-01-01
Resonant scattering of fast particles off low frequency plasma waves is a major process determining transport characteristics of energetic particles in the heliosphere and contributing to their acceleration. Usually, only Alfv\\'en waves are considered for this process, although dispersive waves are also present throughout the heliosphere. We investigate resonant interaction of energetic electrons with dispersive, right-handed waves. For the interaction of particles and a single wave a variable transformation into the rest frame of the wave can be performed. Here, wellestablished analytic models derived in the framework of magnetostatic quasi-linear theory (QLT) can be used as a reference to validate simulation results. However, this approach fails as soon as several dispersive waves are involved. Based on analytic solutions modeling the scattering amplitude in the magnetostatic limit, we present an approach to modify these equations for the use in the plasma frame. Thereby we aim at a description of particle ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeng, Xianglong; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin
2012-01-01
In few-cycle soliton generation with large compression factors using cascaded nonlinearities the pulse quality can be improved by engineering quasi-phase-matching structures. The soliton-induced mid-IR optical Cherenkov wave is also enhanced.......In few-cycle soliton generation with large compression factors using cascaded nonlinearities the pulse quality can be improved by engineering quasi-phase-matching structures. The soliton-induced mid-IR optical Cherenkov wave is also enhanced....
Rottmeier, Fabrice; Bölcs, Albin
2005-01-01
An experimental investigation has been conducted in the non-rotating annular test facility of the "Laboratoire de Thermique Appliquée et de Turbomachines" (LTT), "École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne" (EPFL). During this investigation, the unsteady aerodynamic response of a turbine cascade was investigated for three different cases: (1) the clamped blades subjected to periodic, upstream generated aerodynamic gusts, (2) the cascade forced to vibrate in the travelling wave mode in a uniform...
Rottmeier, Fabrice
2003-01-01
An experimental investigation has been conducted in the non-rotating annular test facility of the "Laboratoire de Thermique Appliquée et de Turbomachines" (LTT), "École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne" (EPFL). During this investigation, the unsteady aerodynamic response of a turbine cascade was investigated for three different cases: (1) the clamped blades subjected to periodic, upstream generated aerodynamic gusts, (2) the cascade forced to vibrate in the travelling wave mode in a uniform...
Cascaded-cladding-pumped cascaded Raman fiber amplifier.
Jiang, Huawei; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Yan
2015-06-01
The conversion efficiency of double-clad Raman fiber laser is limited by the cladding-to-core area ratio. To get high conversion efficiency, the inner-cladding-to-core area ratio has to be less than about 8, which limits the brightness enhancement. To overcome the problem, a cascaded-cladding-pumped cascaded Raman fiber laser with multiple-clad fiber as the Raman gain medium is proposed. A theoretical model of Raman fiber amplifier with multiple-clad fiber is developed, and numerical simulation proves that the proposed scheme can improve the conversion efficiency and brightness enhancement of cladding pumped Raman fiber laser.
Optimum design of camber line shape in a transonic axial fan cascade with splitter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Xi-miao; WANG Song-tao; JIANG Bin; QIANG Xiao-qing; WANG Zhong-qi
2008-01-01
Genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks method were adopted to .optimize the camber line shape of splitter cascade in a transonic axial fan. For a certain type of transonic axial fan, the isentropic effi-ciency was improved by 0.6% with the modification of splitter cascade rotor. Numerical simulation studies show that the curvature of the optimum splitter cascade with larger suction side is increased, the static pressure gradi-ent is reduced, the process of flow expansion on suction surface is controlled and the separation near hub is e-liminated by changing the shock wave structure. The efficiency near hub is improved by 1.3%.
Clack, C
2009-01-01
The nonlinear theory of driven magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves in strongly anisotropic and dispersive plasmas, developed for slow resonance by Clack and Ballai [Phys. Plasmas, 15, 2310 (2008)] and Alfv\\'en resonance by Clack \\emph{et al.} [A&A,494, 317 (2009)], is used to study the weakly nonlinear interaction of fast magnetoacoustic (FMA) waves in a one-dimensional planar plasma. The magnetic configuration consists of an inhomogeneous magnetic slab sandwiched between two regions of semi-infinite homogeneous magnetic plasmas. Laterally driven FMA waves penetrate the inhomogeneous slab interacting with the localized slow or Alfv\\'{e}n dissipative layer and are partly reflected, dissipated and transmitted by this region. The nonlinearity parameter defined by Clack and Ballai (2008) is assumed to be small and a regular perturbation method is used to obtain analytical solutions in the slow dissipative layer. The effect of dispersion in the slow dissipative layer is to further decrease the coefficient of ener...
Non-WKB Models of the FIP Effect: The Role of Slow Mode Waves
Laming, J Martin
2011-01-01
A model for element abundance fractionation between the solar chromosphere and corona is further developed. The ponderomotive force due to Alfven waves propagating through, or reflecting from the chromosphere in solar conditions generally accelerates chromospheric ions, but not neutrals, into the corona. This gives rise to what has become known as the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect. We incorporate new physical processes into the model. The chromospheric ionization balance is improved, and the effect of different approximations is discussed. We also treat the parametric generation of slow mode waves by the parallel propagating Alfven waves. This is also an effect of the ponderomotive force, arising from the periodic variation of the magnetic pressure driving an acoustic mode, which adds to the background longitudinal pressure. This can have subtle effects on the fractionation, rendering it quasi-mass independent in the lower regions of the chromosphere. We also briefly discuss the change in the fracti...
Autoregressive cascades on random networks
Iyer, Srikanth K.; Vaze, Rahul; Narasimha, Dheeraj
2016-04-01
A network cascade model that captures many real-life correlated node failures in large networks via load redistribution is studied. The considered model is well suited for networks where physical quantities are transmitted, e.g., studying large scale outages in electrical power grids, gridlocks in road networks, and connectivity breakdown in communication networks, etc. For this model, a phase transition is established, i.e., existence of critical thresholds above or below which a small number of node failures lead to a global cascade of network failures or not. Theoretical bounds are obtained for the phase transition on the critical capacity parameter that determines the threshold above and below which cascade appears or disappears, respectively, that are shown to closely follow numerical simulation results.
Bierwage, Andreas; Spong, Donald A.
2009-05-01
Hybrid-MHD-Gyrokinetic Code (HMGC) [1] and the gyrofluid code TAEFL [2,3] are used for nonlinear simulation of Alfven Eigenmodes in Tokamak plasma. We compare results obtained in two cases: (I) a case designed for cross-code benchmark of TAE excitation; (II) a case based on a dedicated DIII-D shot #132707 where RSAE and TAE activity is observed. Differences between the numerical simulation results are discussed and future directions are outlined. [1] S. Briguglio, G. Vlad, F. Zonca and C. Kar, Phys. Plasmas 2 (1995) 3711. [2] D.A. Spong, B.A. Carreras and C.L. Hedrick, Phys. Fluids B4 (1992) 3316. [3] D.A. Spong, B.A. Carreras and C.L. Hedrick, Phys. Plasmas 1 (1994) 1503.
Stochastic Orbit Loss of Neutral Beam Ions From NSTX Due to Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode Avalanches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darrow, D S; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; Gorelenkova, M; Kubota, S; Medley, S S; Podesta, M; Shi, L
2012-07-11
Short toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE) avalanche bursts in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) cause a drop in the neutron rate and sometimes a loss of neutral beam ions at or near the full injection energy over an extended range of pitch angles. The simultaneous loss of wide ranges of pitch angle suggests stochastic transport of the beam ions occurs. When beam ion orbits are followed with a guiding center code that incorporates plasma's magnetic equilibrium plus the measured modes, the predicted ranges of lost pitch angle are similar to those seen in the experiment, with distinct populations of trapped and passing orbits lost. These correspond to domains where the stochasticity extends in the orbit phase space from the region of beam ion deposition to the loss boundary.
Reversed Shear Alfv'en Eigenmode Stabilization by Localized Electron Cyclotron Heating
van Zeeland, M. A.; Lohr, J.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Nazikian, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Kramer, G. J.; Austin, M. E.; Rhodes, T. L.; Holcomb, C.; Makowski, M. A.; McKee, G. R.; Sharapov, S. E.
2007-11-01
Reversed shear Alfv'en eigenmode (RSAE) activity in DIII-D is observed to be stabilized by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) near the minimum of the safety factor (qmin) in neutral beam heated discharges with reversed magnetic shear. The degree of RSAE stabilization and the volume averaged neutron production (Sn) are highly dependent on ECH deposition location relative to qmin. Ideal MHD simulations predict RSAE existence during ECH, indicating that the mode disappearance is due to kinetic effects not taken into account by the ideal MHD model. While discharges with ECH stabilization of RSAEs have higher Sn than discharges with significant RSAE activity, neutron production remains strongly reduced (up to 60%), indicating the bulk of the deficit is not due to RSAEs alone.
The Heating of Test Particles in Numerical Simulations of Alfvenic Turbulence
Lehe, Remi; Quataert, Eliot
2009-01-01
We study the heating of charged test particles in three-dimensional numerical simulations of weakly compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence (``Alfvenic turbulence''); these results are relevant to particle heating and acceleration in the solar wind, solar flares, accretion disks onto black holes, and other astrophysics and heliospheric environments. The physics of particle heating depends on whether the gyrofrequency of a particle is comparable to the frequency of a turbulent fluctuation that is resolved on the computational domain. Particles with these frequencies nearly equal undergo strong perpendicular heating (relative to the local magnetic field) and pitch angle scattering. By contrast, particles with large gyrofrequency undergo strong parallel heating. Simulations with a finite resistivity produce additional parallel heating due to parallel electric fields in small-scale current sheets. Many of our results are consistent with linear theory predictions for the particle heating produced by the ...
Experimental study of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode (TAE) stability at high q(0)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Torrance, CA (United States); Spong, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others
1995-07-01
Experiments to destabilize the Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) by energetic alpha particles were performed on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor using deuterium and tritium fuel. To decrease the alpha particle pressure instability threshold, discharges with an elevated value of q(0) > 1.5 were used. By raising q(0), the radial location of the low toroidal-mode-number TAE gaps moves toward the magnetic axis and into alignment with the region of maximum alpha pressure gradient, thereby (in theory) lowering the value of {beta}{sub {alpha}}(0) required for instability. No TAE activity was observed when the central alpha particle {beta}{sub {alpha}} reached 0.08% in a discharge with fusion power of 2.4 MW. Calculations show that the fusion power is within a factor of 1.5 to 3 of the instability threshold.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Zhou, Binbin;
2011-01-01
When ultrafast noncritical cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses occur in a bulk lithium niobate crystal optical Cherenkov waves are formed in the near- to mid-IR. Numerical simulations show that the few-cycle solitons radiate Cherenkov (dispersive) waves in the λ = 2...... efficiency is up to 25%. Thus, optical Cherenkov waves formed with cascaded nonlinearities could become an efficient source of energetic near- to mid-IR few-cycle pulses....
Direct and Inverse Cascades in the Acceleration Region of the Fast Solar Wind
van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Asgari-Targhi, M.
2017-01-01
Alfvén waves are believed to play an important role in the heating and acceleration of the fast solar wind emanating from coronal holes. Nonlinear interactions between the dominant {{\\boldsymbol{z}}}+ waves and minority {{\\boldsymbol{z}}}- waves have the potential to transfer wave energy either to smaller perpendicular scales (“direct cascade”) or to larger scales (“inverse cascade”). In this paper we use reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations to investigate how the cascade rates {ε }+/- depend on perpendicular wavenumber and radial distance from the Sun center. For models with a smooth background atmosphere, we find that an inverse cascade ({ε }+ 0) occurs elsewhere. For a model with density fluctuations, there are multiple regions with an inverse cascade. In both cases, the cascade rate {ε }+ varies significantly with perpendicular wavenumber, indicating that the cacsade is a highly nonlocal process. As a result of the inverse cascades, the energy dissipation rates are much lower than expected from a phenomenological model and are insufficient to maintain the temperature of the background atmosphere. We conclude that RMHD models are unable to reproduce the observed properties of the fast solar wind.
Cascaded resonant bridge converters
Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A converter for converting a low voltage direct current power source to a higher voltage, high frequency alternating current output for use in an electrical system where it is desired to use low weight cables and other circuit elements. The converter has a first stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which converts the direct current power source to an alternating current by means of switching elements that are operated by a variable frequency voltage regulator, a transformer to step up the voltage of the alternating current, and a rectifier bridge to convert the alternating current to a direct current first stage output. The converter further has a second stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which is connected in series to the first stage converter to receive its direct current output and convert it to a second stage high frequency alternating current output by means of switching elements that are operated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The voltage of the second stage output is controlled at a relatively constant value by controlling the first stage output voltage, which is accomplished by controlling the frequency of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller in response to second stage voltage. Fault tolerance in the event of a load short circuit is provided by making the operation of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller responsive to first and second stage current limiting devices. The second stage output is connected to a rectifier bridge whose output is connected to the input of the second stage to provide good regulation of output voltage wave form at low system loads.
Unsteady transonic flow in cascades
Surampudi, S. P.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1984-01-01
There is a need for methods to predict the unsteady air loads associated with flutter of turbomachinery blading at transonic speeds. The results of such an analysis in which the steady relative flow approaching a cascade of thin airfoils is assumed to be transonic, irrotational, and isentropic is presented. The blades in the cascade are allowed to undergo a small amplitude harmonic oscillation which generates a small unsteady flow superimposed on the existing steady flow. The blades are assumed to oscillate with a prescribed motion of constant amplitude and interblade phase angle. The equations of motion are obtained by linearizing about a uniform flow the inviscid nonheat conducting continuity and momentum equations. The resulting equations are solved by employing the Weiner Hopf technique. The solution yields the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on the cascade at Mach number equal to 1. Making use of an unsteady transonic similarity law, these results are compared with the results obtained from linear unsteady subsonic and supersonic cascade theories. A parametric study is conducted to find the effects of reduced frequency, solidity, stagger angle, and position of pitching axis on the flutter.
Azobenzene-functionalized cascade molecules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Archut, A.; Vogtle, F.; De Cola, L.;
1998-01-01
Cascade molecules bearing up to 32 azobenzene groups in the periphery have been prepared from poly(propylene imine) dendrimers and N-hydroxysuccinimide esters. The dendritic azobenzene species show similar isomerization properties as the corresponding azobenzene monomers. The all-E azobenzene...
CASCADE: Introducing AI into CBT.
Hendley, R. J.; Jurascheck, N.
1992-01-01
Discusses changes in training requirements of commerce and industry in the United Kingdom and describes a project, CASCADE, that was developed to investigate and implement the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques into computer-based training (CBT). An overview of pilot projects in higher education settings is provided. (eight…
Applications of cascade multilevel inverters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭方正; 钱照明
2003-01-01
Cascade multilevel inverters have been developed for electric utility applications. A cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 H-bridges in which each bridge's dc voltage is supported by its own dc capacitor. The new inverter can: (1) generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage while only switching one time per fundamental cycle; (2) dispense with multi-pulse inverters' transformers used in conventional utility interfaces and static var compensators; (3) enables direct parallel or series transformer-less connection to medium- and high-voltage power systems. In short, the cascade inverter is much more efficient and suitable for utility applications than traditional multi-pulse and pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters. The authors have experimentally demonstrated the superiority of the new inverter for power supply, (hybrid) electric vehicle (EV) motor drive, reactive power (var) and harmonic compensation. This paper summarizes the features, feasibility, and control schemes of the cascade inverter for utility applications including utility interface of renewable energy, voltage regulation, var compensation, and harmonic filtering in power systems. Analytical, simulated, and experimental results demonstrated the superiority of the new inverters.
Applications of cascade multilevel inverters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭方正; 钱照明
2003-01-01
Cascade multilevel inverters have been developed for electric utility applications. A cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 H-bridges in which each bridge's dc voltage is supported by its own de ca-pacitor. The new inverter can : ( 1 ) generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage while only switching one timeper fundamental cycle ; (2) dispense with multi-pulse inverters' transformers used in conventional utility in-terfaces and static var compensators; (3) enables direct parallel or series transformer-less connection to medium- and high-voltage power systems. In short, the cascade inverter is much more efficient and suitable for utility applications than traditional multi-pulse and pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters. The authors have experimentally demonstrated the superiority of the new inverter for power supply, (hybrid) electric vehicle (EV) motor drive, reactive power (var) and harmonic compensation. This paper summarizes the features,feasibility, and control schemes of the cascade inverter for utility applications including utility interface of renewable energy, voltage regulation, var compensation, and harmonic filtering in power systems. Analytical,simulated, and experimental results demonstrated the superiority of the new inverters.
Cascade Support Vector Machines with Dimensionality Reduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oliver Kramer
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cascade support vector machines have been introduced as extension of classic support vector machines that allow a fast training on large data sets. In this work, we combine cascade support vector machines with dimensionality reduction based preprocessing. The cascade principle allows fast learning based on the division of the training set into subsets and the union of cascade learning results based on support vectors in each cascade level. The combination with dimensionality reduction as preprocessing results in a significant speedup, often without loss of classifier accuracies, while considering the high-dimensional pendants of the low-dimensional support vectors in each new cascade level. We analyze and compare various instantiations of dimensionality reduction preprocessing and cascade SVMs with principal component analysis, locally linear embedding, and isometric mapping. The experimental analysis on various artificial and real-world benchmark problems includes various cascade specific parameters like intermediate training set sizes and dimensionalities.
Sunspot seismic halos generated by fast MHD wave refraction
Khomenko, E
2009-01-01
We suggest an explanation for the high-frequency power excess surrounding active regions known as seismic halos. The idea is based on numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic waves propagation in sunspots. We propose that such an excess can be caused by the additional energy injected by fast mode waves refracted in the higher atmosphere due to the rapid increase of the Alfven speed. Our model qualitatively explains the magnitude of the halo and allows to make some predictions of its behavior that can be checked in future observations.
Direct and Inverse Cascades in the Wind-Driven Sea
Zakharov, Vladimir E
2015-01-01
We offer a new form for the S(nl) term in the Hasselmann kinetic equation for squared wave amplitudes of wind-driven gravity wave. This form of S(nl) makes possible to rewrite in differential form the conservation laws for energy, momentum, and wave action, and introduce their fluxes by a natural way. We show that the stationary kinetic equation has a family of exact Kolmogorov-type solutions governed by the fluxes of motion constants: wave action, energy, and momentum. The simple "local" model for S(nl) term that is equivalent to the "diffusion approximation" is studied in details. In this case, Kolmogorov spectra are found in the explicit form. We show that a general solution of the stationary kinetic equation behind the spectral peak is described by the Kolmogorov-type solution with frequency-dependent fluxes. The domains of "inverse cascade" and "direct cascade" can be separated by natural way. The spectrum in the universal domain is close to $\\omega^{-4}$.
Cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics.
Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Genty, G; Murdoch, S G
2013-01-15
We report on a theoretical and experimental study of cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics. We show that the usual energy-momentum conservation of Bragg scattering can be considerably relaxed via cascade-induced phase-matching. Experimentally we demonstrate frequency translation over six- and 11-fold cascades, in excellent agreement with derived phase-matching conditions.
Height-dependent Refraction of A Global EUV Wave and Its Associated Sympathetic Eruptions
Liu, Wei; Ofman, Leon; Downs, Cooper; Schrijver, Karel
2014-06-01
The height dependence of global extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves in the solar corona, especially of their wave-like behaviors such as transmission and reflection, is critical to understanding their physical nature. Prior observations of such behaviors, when detected on the solar disk, were compromised because height-dependent information is lost due to the line-of-sight projection from a top-down view. We report a global EUV wave on the limb observed by SDO/AIA from a side-view that evidently shows height-dependent transmission and refraction. As the wave travels through an active region, the orientation of the low-corona wave front changes from a forward inclination toward the solar surface to a backward inclination. This indicates that the EUV wave speed is lower at higher altitudes, which is expected because of the rapid drop with height of the Alfven and fast-mode speeds in active regions, as predicted by MHD models. When traveling into the active region, the EUV wave speed in the low corona increases from ~600 km/s to ~900 km/s. In addition, in the neighborhood of the active region, sympathetic eruptions of local coronal structures take place sequentially upon the wave impact and may appear as wave reflection. Understanding propagation behaviors of global EUV waves brings us one step closer to fully utilizing them for seismological diagnostics of the global corona, such as mapping the spatial distribution of the Alfven speed and magnetic field strength.
Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Waite, J.; Fuselier, S.; Vaisberg, O. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The Interball/Tail spacecraft crossed the high latitude magnetopause near the cusp region under stable northward IMF conditions on 29 May 1996, with magnetic local time and magnetic latitude approx. 7.3 hours, approx. 65.4 degrees, respectively. The Interball Tail spacecraft observed quasi-steady reconnection and a relatively stable reconnection site at high latitudes. Observed sunward plasma flow and tangential stress balance indicated that reconnection occurred poleward of the magnetic cusp, above the spacecraft location. The spacecraft observed sub-alfvenic flow in the magnetosheath region adjacent to the magnetopause current layer near the reconnection site indicating that the reconnection site may have moved in the sunward direction. These observations suggest that the region of sub-alfvenic flow and stable, quasi-steady reconnection extend to very high latitudes under northward IMF conditions which is not consistent with the gas dynamic model predictions.
Cascade processes in stratified media: experiment and direct numerical simulation.
Sibgatullin, Ilias; Brouzet, Christophe; Joubaud, Sylvain; Ermanyuk, Evgeny; Dauxois, Thierry
2016-04-01
Internal gravity waves may transfer substantial part of energy in oceans and astrophysical objects, influence the background stratification, and angular momentum. Internal waves can be generated by convection in astrophysical objects, by tidal motion and interaction with orography in oceans. Internal and inertial waves obey similar system of equations. Due to very particular type of dispersive relation and the way internal waves are reflected from surfaces, in confined domains the monochromatic internal waves after sequence of reflections may form closed paths, the "wave attractors" [1]. Presently, linear theory of wave attractors is quite elaborated and a principal interest of research is focused on nonlinear regimes and unstable configurations, overturning events and mixing. We have performed direct numerical simulation of wave attractors which closely reproduces experiments [2] being carried out in Ecole Normal Superior de Lyon (ENS de Lyon). Direct numerical simulation is realized with the help of spectral element approach and code nek5000. Triadic resonance is confirmed as the first instability which appears on the most energetic ray of the attractor at sufficiently large forcing. With further increase of the forcing amplitude the daughter waves also become unstable resulting in a sophisticated cascade process which was first observed experimentally. For very high forcing amplitude interaction of focused waves with the walls results in appearance of small-scale folded structures. Their interaction with principal flow is the subject of further research. 1. Maas, L. R. M. & Lam, F.-P. A., Geometric focusing of internal waves. J. Fluid Mech, 1995,. 300, 1-41 2. Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E., Dauxois, T., 2013, Physical Review Letters, 110, 234501
Alfven eigenmode stability and fast ion loss in DIII-D and ITER reversed magnetic shear plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Zeeland, Michael [General Atomics; Gorelenkov, Nikolai [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Heidbrink, W. [University of California, Irvine; Kramer, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Austin, M. E. [University of Texas, Austin; Fisher, R K [General Atomics, San Diego; Munoz, M G [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Gorelenkova, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Luhmann, N.C. [University of California, Davis; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Nazikian, Raffi [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tobias, Ben [University of California, Davis; White, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)
2012-01-01
Neutral beam injection into reversed-magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs). With measured equilibrium profiles as inputs, the ideal MHD code NOVA is used to calculate eigenmodes of these plasmas. The postprocessor code NOVA-K is then used to perturbatively calculate the actual stability of the modes, including finite orbit width and finite Larmor radius effects, and reasonable agreement with the spectrum of observed modes is found. Using experimentally measured mode amplitudes, fast ion orbit following simulations have been carried out in the presence of the NOVA calculated eigenmodes and are found to reproduce the dominant energy, pitch and temporal evolution of the losses measured using a large bandwidth scintillator diagnostic. The same analysis techniques applied to a DT 8 MA ITER steady-state plasma scenario with reversed-magnetic shear and both beam ion and alpha populations show Alfven eigenmode instability. Both RSAEs and TAEs are found to be unstable with maximum growth rates occurring for toroidal mode number n = 6 and the majority of the drive coming from fast ions injected by the 1MeV negative ion beams. AE instability due to beam ion drive is confirmed by the non-perturbative code TAEFL. Initial fast ion orbit following simulations using the unstable modes with a range of amplitudes (delta B/B = 10(-5)-10(-3)) have been carried out and show negligible fast ion loss. The lack of fast ion loss is a result of loss boundaries being limited to large radii and significantly removed from the actual modes themselves.
Emergence of a Turbulent Cascade in a Quantum Gas
Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert P; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2016-01-01
In the modern understanding of turbulence, a central concept is the existence of cascades of excitations from large to small lengthscales, or vice-versa. This concept was introduced in 1941 by Kolmogorov and Obukhov, and the phenomenon has since been observed in a variety of systems, including interplanetary plasmas, supernovae, ocean waves, and financial markets. Despite a lot of progress, quantitative understanding of turbulence remains a challenge due to the interplay of many lengthscales that usually thwarts theoretical simulations of realistic experimental conditions. Here we observe the emergence of a turbulent cascade in a weakly interacting homogeneous Bose gas, a quantum fluid that is amenable to a theoretical description on all relevant lengthscales. We prepare a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in an optical box, drive it out of equilibrium with an oscillating force that pumps energy into the system at the largest lengthscale, study the BEC's nonlinear response to the periodic drive, and observe a gr...
Phase-locking in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering
Büttner, Thomas F S; Steel, M J; Hudson, Darren D; Eggleton, Benjamin J
2015-01-01
Cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is a complex nonlinear optical process that results in the generation of several optical waves that are frequency shifted by an acoustic resonance frequency. Four-wave mixing (FWM) between these Brillouin shifted optical waves can create an equally spaced optical frequency comb with a stable spectral phase, i.e. a Brillouin frequency comb (BFC). Here, we investigate phase-locking of the spectral components of BFCs, considering FWM interactions arising from the Kerr-nonlinearity as well as from coupling by the acoustic field. Deriving for the first time the coupled-mode equations that include all relevant nonlinear interactions, we examine the contribution of the various nonlinear processes to phase-locking, and show that different regimes can be obtained that depend on the length scale on which the field amplitudes vary.
Phase-locking in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering
Büttner, Thomas F. S.; Poulton, Christopher G.; Steel, M. J.; Hudson, Darren D.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.
2016-02-01
Cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering is a complex nonlinear optical process that results in the generation of several optical waves that are frequency shifted by an acoustic resonance frequency. Four-wave mixing (FWM) between these Brillouin shifted optical waves can create an equally spaced optical frequency comb with a stable spectral phase, i.e. a Brillouin frequency comb (BFC). Here, we investigate phase-locking of the spectral components of BFCs, considering FWM interactions arising from the Kerr-nonlinearity as well as from coupling by the acoustic field. Deriving for the first time the coupled-mode equations that include all relevant nonlinear interactions, we examine the contribution of the various nonlinear processes to phase-locking, and show that different regimes can be obtained that depend on the length scale on which the field amplitudes vary.
Cascade of parametric resonances in coupled Josephson junctions
Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Azemtsa-Donfack, H.; Rahmonov, I. R.; Botha, A. E.
2016-06-01
We found that the coupled system of Josephson junctions under external electromagnetic radiation demonstrates a cascade of parametric instabilities. These instabilities appear along the IV characteristics within bias current intervals corresponding to Shapiro step subharmonics and lead to charging in the superconducting layers. The amplitudes of the charge oscillations increase with increasing external radiation power. We demonstrate the existence of longitudinal plasma waves at the corresponding bias current values. An essential advantage of the parametric instabilities in the case of subharmonics is the lower amplitude of radiation that is needed for the creation of the longitudinal plasma wave. This fact gives a unique possibility to create and control longitudinal plasma waves in layered superconductors. We propose a novel experiment for studying parametric instabilities and the charging of superconducting layers based on the simultaneous variation of the bias current and radiation amplitude.
Bankruptcy Cascades in Interbank Markets
Tedeschi, Gabriele; Mazloumian, Amin; Gallegati, Mauro; Helbing, Dirk
2012-01-01
We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank’s liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable. PMID:23300760
Thermal cascaded lattice Boltzmann method
Fei, Linlin
2016-01-01
In this paper, a thermal cascaded lattice Boltzmann method (TCLBM) is developed in combination with the double-distribution-function (DDF) approach. A density distribution function relaxed by the cascaded scheme is employed to solve the flow field, and a total energy distribution function relaxed by the BGK scheme is used to solve temperature field, where two distribution functions are coupled naturally. The forcing terms are incorporated by means of central moments, which is consistent with the previous force scheme [Premnath \\emph{et al.}, Phys. Rev. E \\textbf{80}, 036702 (2009)] but the derivation is more intelligible and the evolution process is simpler. In the method, the viscous heat dissipation and compression work are taken into account, the Prandtl number and specific-heat ratio are adjustable, the external force is considered directly without the Boussinesq assumption, and the low-Mach number compressible flows can also be simulated. The forcing scheme is tested by simulating a steady Taylor-Green f...
Cascade Chaotic System With Applications.
Zhou, Yicong; Hua, Zhongyun; Pun, Chi-Man; Chen, C L Philip
2015-09-01
Chaotic maps are widely used in different applications. Motivated by the cascade structure in electronic circuits, this paper introduces a general chaotic framework called the cascade chaotic system (CCS). Using two 1-D chaotic maps as seed maps, CCS is able to generate a huge number of new chaotic maps. Examples and evaluations show the CCS's robustness. Compared with corresponding seed maps, newly generated chaotic maps are more unpredictable and have better chaotic performance, more parameters, and complex chaotic properties. To investigate applications of CCS, we introduce a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a data encryption system using a chaotic map generated by CCS. Simulation and analysis demonstrate that the proposed PRNG has high quality of randomness and that the data encryption system is able to protect different types of data with a high-security level.
Optimally Training a Cascade Classifier
Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den
2010-01-01
Cascade classifiers are widely used in real-time object detection. Different from conventional classifiers that are designed for a low overall classification error rate, a classifier in each node of the cascade is required to achieve an extremely high detection rate and moderate false positive rate. Although there are a few reported methods addressing this requirement in the context of object detection, there is no a principled feature selection method that explicitly takes into account this asymmetric node learning objective. We provide such an algorithm here. We show a special case of the biased minimax probability machine has the same formulation as the linear asymmetric classifier (LAC) of \\cite{wu2005linear}. We then design a new boosting algorithm that directly optimizes the cost function of LAC. The resulting totally-corrective boosting algorithm is implemented by the column generation technique in convex optimization. Experimental results on object detection verify the effectiveness of the proposed bo...
Bankruptcy cascades in interbank markets.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriele Tedeschi
Full Text Available We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank's liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable.
Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser
Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)
2013-01-01
Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.
Control of Cascaded Multilevel Inverters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2004-01-01
Abstract-A new type of multilevel inverter is introduced which is created by cascading two three-phase three-level inverters using the load connection, but requires only one DC voltage source. This new inverter can operateas a seven-level inverter and naturally splits the power conversion into a higher-voltage lower-frequency inverter and a lower-voltage higher-fre-quency inverter. This type of system presents particular advantages to Naval ship propulsion systems which rely on high power quality, survivable drives. New control methods are described involving both joint and separate control of the individual three-level inverters. Simulation resuits demonstrate the effectiveness of both controls. A laboratory set-up at the Naval Surface Warfare Center power electronics laboratory was used to validate the proposed joint-inverter control. Due to the effect of compounding levels in the cascaded inverter, a high number of levels are available resulting in a voltage THD of 9% (without filtering). Index Terms-Cascaded inverter, multilevel inverter, three-level inverter.
Stochastic Acceleration of Ions Driven by Pc1 Wave Packets
Khazanov, G. V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.
2015-01-01
The stochastic motion of protons and He(sup +) ions driven by Pc1 wave packets is studied in the context of resonant particle heating. Resonant ion cyclotron heating typically occurs when wave powers exceed 10(exp -4) nT sq/Hz. Gyroresonance breaks the first adiabatic invariant and energizes keV ions. Cherenkov resonances with the electrostatic component of wave packets can also accelerate ions. The main effect of this interaction is to accelerate thermal protons to the local Alfven speed. The dependencies of observable quantities on the wave power and plasma parameters are determined, and estimates for the heating extent and rate of particle heating in these wave-particle interactions are shown to be in reasonable agreement with known empirical data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spong, D. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Bass, E. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, California 192093 (United States); Deng, W.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Lin, Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Tobias, B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 085430 (United States); Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)
2012-08-15
A verification and validation study is carried out for a sequence of reversed shear Alfven instability time slices. The mode frequency increases in time as the minimum (q{sub min}) in the safety factor profile decreases. Profiles and equilibria are based upon reconstructions of DIII-D discharge (no. 142111) in which many such frequency up-sweeping modes were observed. Calculations of the frequency and mode structure evolution from two gyrokinetic codes, GTC and GYRO, and a gyro-Landau fluid code TAEFL are compared. The experimental mode structure of the instability was measured using time-resolved two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging. The three models reproduce the frequency upsweep event within {+-}10% of each other, and the average of the code predictions is within {+-}8% of the measurements; growth rates are predicted that are consistent with the observed spectral line widths. The mode structures qualitatively agree with respect to radial location and width, dominant poloidal mode number, ballooning structure, and the up-down asymmetry, with some remaining differences in the details. Such similarities and differences between the predictions of the different models and the experimental results are a valuable part of the verification/validation process and help to guide future development of the modeling efforts.
Anomalous flow deflection at planetary bow shocks in the low Alfven Mach number regime
Nishino, Masaki N.; Fujimoto, Masaki; Tai, Phan-Duc; Mukai, Toshifumi; Saito, Yoshifumi; Kuznetsova, Masha M.; Rastaetter, Lutz
A planetary magnetosphere is an obstacle to the super-sonic solar wind and the bow shock is formed in the front-side of it. In ordinary hydro-dynamics, the flow decelerated at the shock is diverted around the obstacle symmetrically about the planet-Sun line, which is indeed observed in the magnetosheath most of the time. Here we show a case under a very low density solar wind in which duskward flow was observed in the dawnside magnetosheath of the Earth's magnetosphere. A Rankine-Hugoniot test across the bow shock shows that the magnetic effect is crucial for this "wrong flow" to appear. A full three-dimensional Magneto- Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) simulation of the situation in this previously unexplored parameter regime is also performed. It is illustrated that in addition to the "wrong flow" feature, various peculiar characteristics appear in the global picture of the MHD flow interaction with the obstacle. The magnetic effect at the bow shock should become more conspicuously around the Mercury's magnetosphere, because stronger interplanetary magnetic field and slower solar wind around the Mercury let the Alfven Mach number low. Resultant strong deformation of the magnetosphere induced by the "wrong flow" will cause more complex interaction between the solar wind and the Mercury.
Alfvenic Ion Temperature Gradient Activities in a Weak Magnetic Shear Plasma
Chen, W; Li, Y Y; Shi, Z B; Du, H R; Jiang, M; Yu, L M; Yuan, B S; Li, Y G; Yang, Z C; Shi, P W; Ding, X T; Dong, J Q; Liu, Yi; Xu, M; Xu, Y H; Yang, Q W; Duan, X R
2016-01-01
We report the first experimental evidence of Alfvenic ion temperature gradient (AITG) modes in HL-2A Ohmic plasmas. A group of oscillations with $f=15-40$ kHz and $n=3-6$ is detected by various diagnostics in high-density Ohmic regimes. They appear in the plasmas with peaked density profiles and weak magnetic shear, which indicates that corresponding instabilities are excited by pressure gradients. The time trace of the fluctuation spectrogram can be either a frequency staircase, with different modes excited at different times or multiple modes may simultaneously coexist. Theoretical analyses by the extended generalized fishbone-like dispersion relation (GFLDR-E) reveal that mode frequencies scale with ion diamagnetic drift frequency and $\\eta_i$, and they lie in KBM-AITG-BAE frequency ranges. AITG modes are most unstable when the magnetic shear is small in low pressure gradient regions. Numerical solutions of the AITG/KBM equation also illuminate why AITG modes can be unstable for weak shear and low pressure...
Momentum and energy transport by waves in the solar atmosphere and solar wind
Jacques, S. A.
1977-01-01
The fluid equations for the solar wind are presented in a form which includes the momentum and energy flux of waves in a general and consistent way. The concept of conservation of wave action is introduced and is used to derive expressions for the wave energy density as a function of heliocentric distance. The explicit form of the terms due to waves in both the momentum and energy equations are given for radially propagating acoustic, Alfven, and fast mode waves. The effect of waves as a source of momentum is explored by examining the critical points of the momentum equation for isothermal spherically symmetric flow. We find that the principal effect of waves on the solutions is to bring the critical point closer to the sun's surface and to increase the Mach number at the critical point. When a simple model of dissipation is included for acoustic waves, in some cases there are multiple critical points.
Modelling of GaN quantum dot terahertz cascade laser
Asgari, A.; Khorrami, A. A.
2013-03-01
In this paper GaN based spherical quantum dot cascade lasers has been modelled, where the generation of the terahertz waves are obtained. The Schrödinger, Poisson, and the laser rate equations have been solved self-consistently including all dominant physical effects such as piezoelectric and spontaneous polarization in nitride-based QDs and the effects of the temperature. The exact value of the energy levels, the wavefunctions, the lifetimes of electron levels, and the lasing frequency are calculated. Also the laser parameters such as the optical gain, the output power and the threshold current density have been calculated at different temperatures and applied electric fields.
Intrinsic linewidth of quantum cascade laser frequency combs
Cappelli, Francesco; Riedi, Sabine; Faist, Jerome
2015-01-01
The frequency noise power spectral density of a free-running quantum cascade laser frequency comb is investigated. A plateau is observed at high frequencies, attributed to the quantum noise limit set by the Schawlow-Townes formula for the total laser power on all comb lines. In our experiment, a linewidth of 292 Hz is measured for a total power of 25 mW. This result proves that the four-wave mixing process, responsible for the comb operation, effectively correlates the quantum noise of the individual comb lines.
Studies of stability of blade cascade suction surface boundary layer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Xue-zhi; YAN Pei-gang; HAN Wan-jin
2007-01-01
Compressible boundary layers stability on blade cascade suction surface was discussed by wind tunnel experiment and numerical solution. Three dimensional disturbance wave Parabolized Stability Equations(PSE) of orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates in compressible flow was deducted. The surface pressure of blade in wind tunnel experiment was measured. The Falkner-Skan equation was solved under the boundary conditions of experiment result, and velocity, pressure and temperature of average flow were obtained. Substituted this result for discretization of the PSE Eigenvalue Problem, the stability problem can be solved.
Quantum cascade laser Kerr frequency comb
Lecaplain, Caroline; Lucas, Erwan; Jost, John D; Kippenberg, Tobias J
2015-01-01
The mid-infrared (mid-IR) regime (typically the wavelength regime of $\\lambda \\sim 2.5-20 \\ \\mathrm{\\mu m}$) is an important spectral range for spectroscopy as many molecules have their fundamental rotational-vibrational absorption in this band. Recently optical frequency combs based on optical microresonators ("Kerr" combs) at the onset of the mid-IR region have been generated using crystalline resonators and integrated planar silicon micro-resonators. Here we extend for the first time Kerr combs deep into the mid-IR i.e. the 'molecular fingerprint' region. This is achieved by combining an ultra high quality (Q) factor mid-IR microresonator based on crystalline $\\mathrm{MgF_{2}}$ with the quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology. Using a tapered chalgogenide (ChG) fiber and a QCL continuous wave pump laser, frequency combs at $\\lambda\\sim 4.4\\ \\mathrm{\\mu m}$ (i.e. 2270cm$^{-1}$) are generated, that span over 600nm (i.e. 300cm$^{-1}$) in bandwidth, with a mode spacing of 14.3GHz (0.5cm$^{-1}$), corresponding t...
A Comparison of Methods for Cascade Prediction
Guo, Ruocheng
2016-01-01
Information cascades exist in a wide variety of platforms on Internet. A very important real-world problem is to identify which information cascades can go viral. A system addressing this problem can be used in a variety of applications including public health, marketing and counter-terrorism. As a cascade can be considered as compound of the social network and the time series. However, in related literature where methods for solving the cascade prediction problem were proposed, the experimental settings were often limited to only a single metric for a specific problem formulation. Moreover, little attention was paid to the run time of those methods. In this paper, we first formulate the cascade prediction problem as both classification and regression. Then we compare three categories of cascade prediction methods: centrality based, feature based and point process based. We carry out the comparison through evaluation of the methods by both accuracy metrics and run time. The results show that feature based met...
Disaster Mythology and Availability Cascades
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lisa Grow Sun
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Sociological research conducted in the aftermath of natural disasters has uncovered a number of “disaster myths” – widely shared misconceptions about typical post-disaster human behavior. This paper discusses the possibility that perpetuation of disaster mythology reflects an “availability cascade,” defined in prior scholarship as a “self-reinforcing process of collective belief formation by which an expressed perception triggers a chain reaction that gives the perception increasing plausibility through its rising availability in public discourse.” (Kuran and Sunstein 1999. Framing the spread of disaster mythology as an availability cascade suggests that certain tools may be useful in halting the myths’ continued perpetuation. These tools include changing the legal and social incentives of so-called “availability entrepreneurs” – those principally responsible for beginning and perpetuating the cascade, as well as insulating decision-makers from political pressures generated by the availability cascade. This paper evaluates the potential effectiveness of these and other solutions for countering disaster mythology. Las investigaciones sociológicas realizadas tras los desastres naturales han hecho evidentes una serie de “mitos del desastre”, conceptos erróneos ampliamente compartidos sobre el comportamiento humano típico tras un desastre. Este artículo analiza la posibilidad de que la perpetuación de los mitos del desastre refleje una “cascada de disponibilidad”, definida en estudios anteriores como un “proceso de auto-refuerzo de la formación de una creencia colectiva, a través del que una percepción expresada produce una reacción en cadena que hace que la percepción sea cada vez más verosímil, a través de una mayor presencia en el discurso público” (Kuran y Sunstein 1999. Enmarcar la propagación de los mitos del desastre como una cascada de disponibilidad sugiere que ciertas herramientas pueden ser
Cascades on clique-based graphs
Hackett, Adam
2013-01-01
We present an analytical approach to determining the expected cascade size in a broad range of dynamical models on the class of highly-clustered random graphs introduced in [J. P. Gleeson, Phys. Rev. E 80, 036107 (2009)]. A condition for the existence of global cascades is also derived. Applications of this approach include analyses of percolation, and Watts's model. We show how our techniques can be used to study the effects of in-group bias in cascades on social networks.
Lateral Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregory C. Dente
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We will examine the waveguide mode losses in ridge-guided quantum cascade lasers. Our analysis illustrates how the low-loss mode for broad-ridge quantum cascade lasers (QCLs can be a higher-order lateral waveguide mode that maximizes the feedback from the sloped ridge-wall regions. The results are in excellent agreement with the near- and far-field data taken on broad-ridge-guided quantum cascade lasers processed with sloped ridge walls.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Ouliang [Oracle Corporation, Redwood Shores, CA (United States); Gary, S. Peter [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Wang, Joseph, E-mail: ouliang@usc.edu, E-mail: pgary@lanl.gov, E-mail: josephjw@usc.edu [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2015-02-20
We present the results of the first fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying whistler turbulence in a magnetized, homogeneous, collisionless plasma in which both forward cascades to shorter wavelengths, and inverse cascades to longer wavelengths are allowed to proceed. For the electron beta β {sub e} = 0.10 initial value considered here, the early-time rate of inverse cascade is very much smaller than the rate of forward cascade, so that at late times the fluctuation energy in the regime of the inverse cascade is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime. Similarly, the wavevector anisotropy in the inverse cascade regime is much weaker than that in the forward cascade regime.
Unsteady transonic flow over cascade blades
Surampudi, S. P.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1986-01-01
An attempt is made to develop an efficient staggered cascade blade unsteady aerodynamics model for the neighborhood of March 1, representing the blade row by a rectilinear two-dimensional cascade of thin, flat plate airfoils. The equations of motion are derived on the basis of linearized transonic small perturbation theory, and an analytical solution is obtained by means of the Wiener-Hopf procedure. Making use of the transonic similarity law, the results obtained are compared with those of other linearized cascade analyses. A parametric study is conducted to find the effects of reduced frequency, stagger angle, solidity, and the location of the pitching axis on cascade stability.
Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen
2011-03-01
As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.
Single-Seed Cascades on Clustered Networks
McSweeney, John K
2015-01-01
We consider a dynamic network cascade process developed by Watts applied to a random networks with a specified amount of clustering, belonging to a class of random networks developed by Newman. We adapt existing tree-based methods to formulate an appropriate two-type branching process to describe the spread of a cascade started with a single active node, and obtain a fixed-point equation to implicitly express the extinction probability of such a cascade. In so doing, we also recover a special case of a formula of Hackett et al. giving conditions for certain extinction of the cascade.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arunasalam, V.
1995-08-01
The velocity distribution functions of the newly born (t = 0) charged fusion products of tokamak discharges can be approximated by a monoenergetic ring distribution with a finite v{sub {parallel}} such that v{sub {perpendicular}} {approx} v{sub {parallel}} {approx} v{sub j} where (M{sub j}V{sub j}{sup 2}/2) = E{sub j}, the directed birth energy of the charged fusion product species j of mass M{sub j}. As the time t progresses these distribution functions will evolve into a Gaussian in velocity with thermal spreadings given by the perpendicular and parallel temperatures T{sub {perpendicular}j}(t) = T{sub {parallel}j}(t) with T{sub j}(t) increasing as t increases and finally reaches an isotropic saturation value of T{sub {perpendicular}j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) = T{sub {parallel}j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) = T{sub j}(t {approx} {tau}{sub j}) {approx} [M{sub j}T{sub d}E{sub j}/(M{sub j} + M)]{sup 1/2}, where T{sub d} is the temperature of the background deuterium plasma ions, M is the mass of a triton or a neutron for j = protons and alpha particles, respectively, and {tau}{sub j} {approx} {tau}{sub sj}/4 is the thermalization time of the fusion product species j in the background deuterium plasma and {tau}{sub sj} is the slowing-down time. For times t of the order of {tau}{sub j} their distributions can be approximated by a Gaussian in their total energy. Then for times t {ge} {tau}{sub sj} the velocity distributions of these fusion products will relax towards their appropriate slowing-down distributions. Here the authors will examine the radiative stability of all these distributions. The ion cyclotron emission from energetic ion produced by fusion reactions or neutral beam injection promises to be a useful diagnostic tool.
Nonlocal description of X waves in quadratic nonlinear materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Peter Ulrik Vingaard; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Bang, Ole
2006-01-01
We study localized light bullets and X-waves in quadratic media and show how the notion of nonlocality can provide an alternative simple physical picture of both types of multi-dimensional nonlinear waves. For X-waves we show that a local cascading limit in terms of a nonlinear Schrodinger equation...
Time evolution of cascade decay
Boyanovsky, Daniel
2014-01-01
We study non-perturbatively the time evolution of cascade decay for generic fields $\\pi \\rightarrow \\phi_1\\phi_2\\rightarrow \\phi_2\\chi_1\\chi_2$ and obtain the time dependence of amplitudes and populations for the resonant and final states. We analyze in detail the different time scales and the manifestation of unitary time evolution in the dynamics of production and decay of resonant intermediate and final states. The probability of occupation (population) ``flows'' as a function of time from the initial to the final states. When the decay width of the parent particle $\\Gamma_\\pi$ is much larger than that of the intermediate resonant state $\\Gamma_{\\phi_1}$ there is a ``bottleneck'' in the flow, the population of resonant states builds up to a maximum at $t^* = \\ln[\\Gamma_\\pi/\\Gamma_{\\phi_1}]/(\\Gamma_\\pi-\\Gamma_{\\phi_1})$ nearly saturating unitarity and decays to the final state on the longer time scale $1/\\Gamma_{\\phi_1}$. As a consequence of the wide separation of time scales in this case the cascade decay ...
Nonlinear waves in the terrestrial quasi-parallel foreshock
Hnat, B; O'Connell, D; Nakariakov, V M; Rowlands, G
2016-01-01
We study the applicability of the derivative nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger (DNLS) equation, for the evolution of high frequency nonlinear waves, observed at the foreshock region of the terrestrial quasi-parallel bow shock. The use of a pseudo-potential is elucidated and, in particular, the importance of canonical representation in the correct interpretation of solutions in this formulation is discussed. Numerical solutions of the DNLS equation are then compared directly with the wave forms observed by Cluster spacecraft. Non harmonic slow variations are filtered out by applying the empirical mode decomposition. We find large amplitude nonlinear wave trains at frequencies above the proton cyclotron frequency, followed in time by nearly harmonic low amplitude fluctuations. The approximate phase speed of these nonlinear waves, indicated by the parameters of numerical solutions, is of the order of the local Alfv\\'{e}n speed.
Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Transmission-Line Metamaterials
Tavallaee, Amir Ali
Terahertz quantum-cascade (QC) lasers operating at 0.6 - 5 THz (λ ˜ 60 - 500 µm) are poised to become the dominant solid-state sources of continuous-wave (cw) far-infrared radiation enabling applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and sensing. QC-lasers are the longest wavelength semiconductor laser sources in which terahertz gain is obtained from electronic intersubband radiative transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure quantum wells. Since their invention in 2001, rapid development has enabled demonstration of cw powers greater than 100 mW. However, challenges still remain in the areas of operating temperature, laser efficiency and power, and beam quality to name a few. The highest-temperature operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (200 K pulsed, 117 K cw) depends on the use of a low-loss "metal-metal" waveguide where the active gain material is sandwiched between two metal cladding layers; a technique similar, in concept, to microstrip transmission line technology at microwave frequencies. Due to the subwavelength transverse dimensions of the metal-metal waveguide, however, obtaining a directive beam pattern and efficient out-coupling of THz power is non-trivial. This thesis reports the demonstration of a one-dimensional waveguide for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers that acts as a leaky-wave antenna and tailors laser radiation in one dimension to a directional beam. This scheme adapts microwave transmission-line metamaterial concepts to a planar structure realized in terahertz metal-metal waveguide technology and is fundamentally different from distributed feedback/photonic crystal structures that work based on Bragg scattering of propagating modes. The leaky-wave metamaterial antenna operates based on a propagating mode with an effective phase index smaller than unity such that it radiates in the surface direction via a leaky-wave mechanism. Surface emission (˜ 40° from broadside) with a single directive beam (FWHM ˜ 15°) at 2.74 THz
Multi-component optical solitary waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.;
2000-01-01
We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Advances in surface wave methods: Cascaded MASW-SASW
Westerhoff, R.S.; Brouwer, J.H.; Meekes, J.A.C.
2005-01-01
The application of the MASW method in areas that show strong lateral variations in subsurface properties is limited. Traditional SASW may yield a better lateral resolution but the dispersion curves (and thus the subsurface models) obtained with the method may be poor. The joint application of MASW a
3D WKB solution for fast magnetoacoustic wave behaviour around an X-line
McLaughlin, J A; Regnier, S; Spoors, D L
2016-01-01
We study the propagation of a fast magnetoacoustic wave in a 3D magnetic field created from two magnetic dipoles. The magnetic topology contains an X-line. We aim to contribute to the overall understanding of MHD wave propagation within inhomogeneous media, specifically around X-lines. We investigate the linearised, 3D MHD equations under the assumptions of ideal and cold plasma. We utilise the WKB approximation and Charpit's method during our investigation. It is found that the behaviour of the fast magnetoacoustic wave is entirely dictated by the local, inhomogeneous, equilibrium Alfv\\'en speed profile. All parts of the wave experience refraction during propagation, where the magnitude of the refraction effect depends on the location of an individual wave element within the inhomogeneous magnetic field. The X-line, along which the Alfv\\'en speed is identically zero, acts as a focus for the refraction effect. There are two main types of wave behaviour: part of the wave is either trapped by the X-line or esca...
DISTURBANCE ATTENUATION FOR UNCERTAIN NONLINEAR CASCADED SYSTEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BI Weiping; MU Xiaowu; SUN Yuqiang
2004-01-01
In present paper, the disturbance attenuation problem of uncertain nonlinear cascaded systems is studied. Based on the adding one power integrator technique and recursive design, a feedback controller that solves the disturbance attenuation problem is constructed for uncertain nonlinear cascaded systems with internal stability.
‘Cascade Harvest’ red raspberry
‘Cascade Harvest’ is a new floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Cascade Harvest’ produces a high yield of large, firm fruit suited to machine harves...
A NOTE ON VECTOR CASCADE ALGORITHM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qiu-hui Chen; Jin-zhao Liu; Wen-sheng Zhang
2002-01-01
The focus of this paper is on the relationship between accuracy of multivariate refinable vector and vector cascade algorithm. We show that, if the vector cascade algorithm (1.5) with isotropic dilation converges to a vector-valued function with regularity, then the initial function must satisfy the Strang-Fix conditions.
Cascading costs: An economic nitrogen cycle
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
William R. Moomaw; Melissa B. L. Birch
2005-01-01
The chemical nitrogen cycle is becoming better characterized in terms of fluxes and reservoirs on a variety of scales. Galloway has demonstrated that reactive nitrogen can cascade through multiple ecosystems causing environmental damage at each stage before being denitrifled to N2. We propose to construct a parallel economic nitrogen cascade (ENC) in which economic impacts of nitrogen fluxes can be estimated by the costs associated with each stage of the chemical cascade. Using economic data for the benefits of damage avoided and costs of mitigation in the Chesapeake Bay basin, we have constructed an economic nitrogen cascade for the region. Since a single tonne of nitrogen can cascade through the system, the costs also cascade.Therefore evaluating the benefits of mitigating a tonne of reactive nitrogen released needs to consider the damage avoided in all of the ecosystems through which that tonne would cascade.The analysis reveals that it is most cost effective to remove a tonne of nitrogen coming from combustion since it has the greatest impact on human health and creates cascading damage through the atmospheric, terrestrial, aquatic and coastal ecosystems. We will discuss the implications of this analysis for determining the most cost effective policy option for achieving environmental quality goals.
MHD waves on solar magnetic flux tubes - Tutorial review
Hollweg, Joseph V.
1990-01-01
Some of the highly simplified models that have been developed for solar magnetic flux tubes, which are intense photospheric-level fields confined by external gas pressure but able to vary rapidly with height, are presently discussed with emphasis on the torsional Alfven mode's propagation, reflection, and non-WKB properties. The 'sausage' and 'kink' modes described by the thin flux-tube approximation are noted. Attention is also given to the surface waves and resonance absorption of X-ray-emitting loops, as well as to the results of recent work on the resonant instabilities that occur in the presence of bulk flows.
Unsteadiness of Shock Wave／Boundary Layer Interaction in Supersonic Cascade
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hong－JuanWang; Ke－JunCai; 等
1996-01-01
An investigation of the passive control of shock wave/boundary layer interaction for reducing the amplitude of the shock oscillation was conducted on the circular arc-wedge(CW) profile cascade in a 220290mm transonic compressor cascade wind tunnel.A perforated surface with a cavity beneath it was positioned on the suction surface of the blade at the location of shock impingement.The Schlieren and high-speed photographs for flow over pervorated blade are presented and compared with the results for solid blades,With the perforated surface,the high-speen photographs indicated an significant suppression of shock osciation.
Calibration of the QCM/SAW Cascade Impactor for Measurement of Ozone
Williams, Cassandra K.; Peterson, C. B.; Morris, V. R.
1997-01-01
The Quartz Crystal Microbalance Surface Acoustic Wave (QCM/SAW) cascade impactor is an instrument designed to collect size-fractionated distributions of aerosols on a series of quartz crystals and employ SAW devices coated with chemical sensors for gas detection. We are calibrating the cascade impactor in our laboratory for future deployment for in-situ experiments to measure ozone. Experiments have been performed to characterize the QCM and SAW mass loading, saturation limits, mass frequency relationships, and sensitivity. The characteristics of mass loading, saturation limits, mass-frequency relationships, sensitivity, and the loss of ozone on different materials have been quantified.
Network reconstruction from infection cascades
Braunstein, Alfredo
2016-01-01
Reconstructing propagation networks from observations is a fundamental inverse problem, and it's crucial to understand and control dynamics in complex systems. Here we show that it is possible to reconstruct the whole structure of an interaction network and to simultaneously infer the complete time course of activation spreading, relying just on single snapshots of a small number of activity cascades. The method, that we called Inverse Dynamics Network Reconstruction (IDNR), is shown to work successfully on several synthetic and real networks, inferring the networks and the sources of infection based on sparse observations, including single snapshots. IDNR is built on a Belief Propagation approximation, that has an impressive performance in a wide variety of topological structures. The method can be applied in absence of complete time-series data by providing a detailed modeling of the posterior distribution of trajectories conditioned to the observations. Furthermore, we show by experiments that the informat...
Availability Cascades & the Sharing Economy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Netter, Sarah
2015-01-01
In search of a new concept that will provide answers to as to how modern societies should not only make sense but also resolve the social and environmental problems linked with our modes of production and consumption, collaborative consumption and the sharing economy are increasingly attracting...... attention. This conceptual paper attempts to explain the emergent focus on the sharing economy and associated business and consumption models by applying cascade theory. Risks associated with this behavior will be especially examined with regard to the sustainability claim of collaborative consumption....... With academics, practitioners, and civil society alike having a shared history in being rather fast in accepting new concepts that will not only provide business opportunities but also a good conscience, this study proposes a critical study of the implications of collaborative consumption, before engaging...
Availability Cascades & the Sharing Economy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Netter, Sarah
2014-01-01
In search of a new concept that will provide answers to as to how modern societies should not only make sense but also resolve the social and environmental problems linked with our modes of production and consumption, collaborative consumption and the sharing economy are increasingly attracting...... attention. This conceptual paper attempts to explain the emergent focus on the sharing economy and associated business and consumption models by applying cascade theory. Risks associated with this behavior will be especially examined with regard to the sustainability claim of collaborative consumption....... With academics, practitioners, and civil society alike having a shared history in being rather fast in accepting new concepts that will not only provide business opportunities but also a good conscience, this study proposes a critical study of the implications of collaborative consumption, before engaging...
Cascades in interdependent flow networks
Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; D'Agostino, Gregorio
2015-01-01
We investigate the abrupt breakdown behavior of coupled distribution grids under load growth. This scenario mimics the ever-increasing customer demand and the foreseen introduction of energy hubs interconnecting the different energy vectors. We extend an analytical model of cascading behavior due to line overloads to the case of interdependent networks and find evidence of first order transitions due to the long-range nature of the flows. Our results indicate that the foreseen increase in the couplings between the grids has two competing effects: on the one hand, it increases the safety region where grids can operate without withstanding systemic failures; on the other hand, it increases the possibility of a joint systems' failure.
MAPK Cascades in Guard Cell Signal Transduction
Lee, Yuree; Kim, Yun Ju; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kwak, June M.
2016-01-01
Guard cells form stomata on the epidermis and continuously respond to endogenous and environmental stimuli to fine-tune the gas exchange and transpirational water loss, processes which involve mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. MAPKs form three-tiered kinase cascades with MAPK kinases and MAPK kinase kinases, by which signals are transduced to the target proteins. MAPK cascade genes are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, and they play crucial roles in myriad developmental and physiological processes. MAPK cascades function during biotic and abiotic stress responses by linking extracellular signals received by receptors to cytosolic events and gene expression. In this review, we highlight recent findings and insights into MAPK-mediated guard cell signaling, including the specificity of MAPK cascades and the remaining questions. PMID:26904052
MAPK cascades in guard cell signal transduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuree eLee
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Guard cells form stomata on the epidermis and continuously respond to endogenous and environmental stimuli to fine-tune the gas exchange and transpirational water loss, processes which involve mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades. MAPKs form three-tiered kinase cascades with MAPK kinases and MAPK kinase kinases, by which signals are transduced to the target proteins. MAPK cascade genes are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, and they play crucial roles in myriad developmental and physiological processes. MAPK cascades function during biotic and abiotic stress responses by linking extracellular signals received by receptors to cytosolic events and gene expression. In this review, we highlight recent findings and insights into MAPK-mediated guard cell signaling, including the specificity of MAPK cascades and the remaining questions.
Ion tail formation by cascade trapping in lower-hybrid heating experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gell, Y.; Nakach, R.
1986-03-01
The possibility of the operation of a multistep trapping process in the interaction of the ions of a plasma with lower--hybrid waves, leading to the formation of a tail in the ion velocity distribution, is investigated. Considering waves propagating perpendicularly to a homogeneous magnetic field, it is found that the spectral nature of the lower-hybrid excitation and the dependency of the perpendicular wave vector on the radial coordinate of the torus are the characteristics of the system which enable this cascading acceleration to take place. The conditions and limitations for the operation of this mechanism are discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丛红璐; 唐多昌; 刘雪华; 成爽; 任学藻
2012-01-01
利用全量子理论,在非旋波近似下,对与级联型三能级原子相互作用的二项式光场的光场压缩效应和原子布居几率进行了精确求解.讨论了二项式光场参量η对光场压缩效应的影响,同时也讨论了二项式态光场的最大光子数M对原子布居几率的影响.数值计算结果表明:随着二项式光场参量η的增大,光场压缩效应的持续时间先增大后减小.在非旋波近似下,由于虚光子的影响,光场压缩效应的演化曲线出现了“小锯齿状”的振荡;随着二项式光场的最大光子数M的增大,原子布居几率回复塌缩周期逐渐增大,并且原子布居几率在塌缩区不能完全塌缩,而是出现了“小锯齿状”的振荡.另外文中也讨论了非旋波项对系统量子特性的影响.%The squeezing effect and atomic population of the binomial field interacting with a cascade three level atom are calculated accurately without rotating-wave approximation (without RWA) by using the complete quantum theory. The influences of the binomial state field parameter η on the field squeezing effect and the maximum photon number M of the binomial state field on the atomic population are considered. The results obtained from using the numerical method show that with increase of the binomial state field parameter η, the duration of the squeezing effect increases at first and then decreases. The little indentation oscillation appears in the evolution curves of the field squeezing effect, which is caused by virtual photon without RWA. The period of the revival-collapse increases with the increase of the maximum photon number M, and the atomic population can not collapse completely in the collapse regime, but displays little indentation oscillation. In addition the influence of the without-RWA terms on the quantum properties of the system are discussed.
Kinetic treatment of nonlinear magnetized plasma motions - General geometry and parallel waves
Khabibrakhmanov, I. KH.; Galinskii, V. L.; Verheest, F.
1992-01-01
The expansion of kinetic equations in the limit of a strong magnetic field is presented. This gives a natural description of the motions of magnetized plasmas, which are slow compared to the particle gyroperiods and gyroradii. Although the approach is 3D, this very general result is used only to focus on the parallel propagation of nonlinear Alfven waves. The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger-like equation is obtained. Two new terms occur compared to earlier treatments, a nonlinear term proportional to the heat flux along the magnetic field line and a higher-order dispersive term. It is shown that kinetic description avoids the singularities occurring in magnetohydrodynamic or multifluid approaches, which correspond to the degenerate case of sound speeds equal to the Alfven speed, and that parallel heat fluxes cannot be neglected, not even in the case of low parallel plasma beta. A truly stationary soliton solution is derived.
Figueiredo, A C A; Borba, D; Coelho, R; Fazendeiro, L; Ferreira, J; Loureiro, N F; Nabais, F; Pinches, S D; Polevoi, A R; Sharapov, S E
2016-01-01
The linear stability of Alfv\\'en eigenmodes in the presence of fusion-born alpha particles is thoroughly assessed for two variants of an ITER baseline scenario, which differ significantly in their core and pedestal temperatures. A systematic approach is used that considers all possible eigenmodes for a given magnetic equilibrium and determines their growth rates due to alpha-particle drive and Landau damping on fuel ions, helium ashes and electrons. This extensive stability study is efficiently conducted through the use of a specialized workflow that profits from the performance of the hybrid MHD drift-kinetic code $\\mbox{CASTOR-K}$ (Borba D. and Kerner W. 1999 J. Comput. Phys. ${\\bf 153}$ 101; Nabais F. ${\\it et\\,al}$ 2015 Plasma Sci. Technol. ${\\bf 17}$ 89), which can rapidly evaluate the linear growth rate of an eigenmode. It is found that the fastest growing instabilities in the aforementioned ITER scenario are core-localized, low-shear toroidal Alfv\\'en eigenmodes. The largest growth-rates occur in the s...
Felipe, T; Collados, M
2010-01-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of magnetoacoustic wave propagation are performed in a sunspot atmosphere with a computational domain covering from the photosphere to the chromosphere. The wave source, with properties resembling the solar spectrum, is located at different distances from the axis of the sunspot for each simulation. These results are compared with the theory of mode transformation and also with observational features. Simulations show that the dominant oscillation frequency in the chromosphere decreases with the radial distance from the sunspot axis. The energy flux of the different wave modes involved, including de Alfv\\'en mode, is evaluated and discussed.
Metastability of collisionless current sheets. Hannes Alfven Lecture on behalf of Albert Galeev
Zelenyi, L.; Galeev, A.
2009-04-01
Complicated magnetic configurations containing numerous magnetic field reversals are widespread in nature. Each of such reversals is supported by corresponding current sheet (CS) which could often have very small thickness comparable to ion skin depth. Since the beginning of Space Age "in situ" investigations of current sheets in the Earth's magnetosphere (magnetopause and magnetotail) acquired one of the highest priorities in national space programs and became one of the cornerstones of various international activities, like ISTP, IACG, and ILWS, which appeared to be very effective. Intense theoretical efforts were undertaken by theorists all over the world to develop both equilibrium models of current sheets and analyze its stability and further nonlinear evolution. Lack of collisions and smallness of many characteristic scales in comparison with ion Larmor radius made an application of straightforward MHD approach dramatically questionable. Professor Alfven was one of the first who suggested in 1968 simple but very physical self-consistent particle model of CS. One of the most intriguing features of current sheets in collisionless plasma is their ability to accumulate tremendous amounts of magnetic energy (1015 J for magnetospheric substorms , 1024 J for solar flare associated sheets) and then suddenly sometimes almost explosively release them. We will demonstrate in this talk that such METASTABILITY is a principal intrinsic feature of current sheets in hot plasma. Very intense theoretical debates of 80-ies and late 90-ies resulted in some consensus that current sheets with the small component of magnetic field normal to their plane become overstable for spontaneous reconnection (i.e. versus the development of ion tearing mode). Analysis of INTERBALL and especially 4- point CLUSTER data have shown that real current sheets observed in the Earth's magnetotail very rarely resemble simplistic HARRIS current sheets which have been used for an early stability
Wave damping by MHD turbulence and its effect upon cosmic ray propagation in the ISM
Farmer, A J; Farmer, Alison J.; Goldreich, Peter
2004-01-01
Cosmic rays scatter off magnetic irregularities (Alfven waves) with which they are resonant, that is waves of wavelength comparable to their gyroradii. These waves may be generated either by the cosmic rays themselves, if they stream faster than the Alfven speed, or by sources of MHD turbulence. Waves excited by streaming cosmic rays are ideally shaped for scattering, whereas the scattering efficiency of MHD turbulence is severely diminished by its anisotropy. We show that MHD turbulence has an indirect effect on cosmic ray propagation by acting as a damping mechanism for cosmic ray generated waves. The hot (``coronal'') phase of the interstellar medium is the best candidate location for cosmic ray confinement by scattering from self-generated waves. We relate the streaming velocity of cosmic rays to the rate of turbulent dissipation in this medium, for the case in which turbulent damping is the dominant damping mechanism. We conclude that cosmic rays with up to 10^2 GeV could not stream much faster than the ...
5-minute Solar Oscillations and Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind
Guglielmi, Anatol; Dovbnya, Boris
2015-01-01
In the present paper we study impact of the photospheric 5-minute oscillations on the ion cyclotron waves in the solar wind. We proceed from the assumption that the ion cyclotron waves in solar wind are experiencing modulation with a characteristic period of 5 minutes under the influence of Alfven waves driven by photospheric motions. The theory presented in our paper predicts a deep frequency modulation of the ion cyclotron waves. The frequency modulation is expected mainly from variations in orientation of the IMF lines. In turn, the variations in orientation are caused by the Alfven waves, propagating from the Sun. To test the theoretical predictions we have analyzed records of the ultra-low-frequency (ULF) geoelectromagnetic waves in order to find the permanent quasi-monochromatic oscillations of natural origin in the Pc1-2 frequency band (0.1-5 Hz), the carrier frequency of which varies with time in a wide range. As a result we found the so-called "serpentine emission" (SE), which was observed in Antarct...
Cascade Hierarchy in SUSY SU(5) GUT
Kojima, Kentaro; Takahashi, Ryo
2010-01-01
We study cascade hierarchy in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theory. The neutrino Dirac mass matrix of the cascade form can lead to the tri-bimaximal generation mixing at the leading order in the seesaw mechanism while the down quark mass matrix of a hybrid cascade form naturally gives the CKM structure. We embed such experimentally favored mass textures into supersymmetric SU(5) GUT, which gives a relation between the down quark and charged lepton mass matrices. Related phenomenologies, such as lepton flavor violating processes and leptogenesis, are also investigated in addition to lepton mixing angles.
Cascades on clique-based graphs
Hackett, Adam; Gleeson, James P.
2013-06-01
We present an analytical approach to determining the expected cascade size in a broad range of dynamical models on the class of highly clustered random graphs introduced by Gleeson [J. P. Gleeson, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.80.036107 80, 036107 (2009)]. A condition for the existence of global cascades is also derived. Applications of this approach include analyses of percolation, and Watts's model. We show how our techniques can be used to study the effects of in-group bias in cascades on social networks.
Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran
2013-05-01
An evanescent wave based biosensor is developed on the silica-on-silicon (SOS) with a cascaded waveguide coupler for the detection of recombinant growth hormone. So far, U -bends and tapered waveguides are demonstrated for increasing the penetration depth and enhancing sensitivity of the evanescent wave sensor. In this work, a monolithically integrated sensor platform containing a cascaded waveguide coupler with optical power splitters and combiners designed with S -bends and tapper waveguides is demonstrated for an enhanced detection of recombinant growth hormone. In the cascaded waveguide coupler, a large surface area to bind the antibody with increased penetration depth of evanescent wave to excite the tagged-rbST is obtained by splitting the waveguide into multiple paths using Y splitters designed with s -bends and subsequently combining them back to a single waveguide through tapered waveguide and combiners. Hence a highly sensitive fluoroimmunoassay sensor is realized. Using the 2D FDTD (Finite-difference time-domain method) simulation of waveguide with a point source in Rsoft FullWAVE, the fluorescence coupling efficiency of straight and bend section of waveguide is analyzed. The sensor is demonstrated for the detection of fluorescently-tagged recombinant growth hormone with the detection limit as low as 25 ng/ml.
Ubiquity of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves at Earth's magnetopause.
Kavosi, Shiva; Raeder, Joachim
2015-05-11
Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the dominant process by which solar wind plasma enters the magnetosphere. However, for periods of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) reconnection is less likely at the dayside magnetopause, and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves (KHWs) may be important agents for plasma entry and for the excitation of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves. The relative importance of KHWs is controversial because no statistical data on their occurrence frequency exist. Here we survey 7 years of in situ data from the NASA THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macro scale Interactions during Substorms) mission and find that KHWs occur at the magnetopause ∼19% of the time. The rate increases with solar wind speed, Alfven Mach number and number density, but is mostly independent of IMF magnitude. KHWs may thus be more important for plasma transport across the magnetopause than previously thought, and frequently drive magnetospheric ULF waves.
North Cascades Grizzly Bear Ecosystem Evaluation
Oak Ridge National Laboratory — We conducted a 6-year evaluation of the North Cascades Grizzly Bear Ecosystem (NCGBE) in north-central Washington to determine the suitability of the area to support...
Multilevel Inverter by Cascading Industrial VSI
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim
2002-01-01
In this paper the modularity concept applied to medium-voltage adjustable speed drives is addressed. First, the single-phase cascaded voltage-source inverter that uses series connection of IGBT H-bridge modules with isolated dc-buses is presented. Next, a novel three-phase cascaded voltage...... of the motor rated kVA. The concept of using cascaded inverters is further extended to a new modular motor-modular inverter system where the motor winding connections are reconnected into several three-phase groups, either six-lead or 12-lead connection according to the voltage level, each powered...... by a standard triphase IGBT inverter module. Thus, a high fault tolerance is being achieved and the output transformer requirement is eliminated. A staggered space-vector modulation technique applicable to three-phase cascaded voltage-source inverter topologies is also demonstrated. Both computer simulations...
Cascade of period doublings of tori
Arneodo, A.; Coullet, P. H.; Spiegel, E. A.
1983-02-01
A three-dimensional map is proposed to model the effects of periodic forcing on a system displaying a transition to chaos through a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations. The study outlined here raises the problem of the existence and bifurcation of invariant tori. A principal feature of the simulations of both the differential equations and the discrete dynamical systems is that it is possible to disrupt period-doubling sequences (and inverse sequences as well) by periodic external forcing. Even though the way in which this abortion works is not understood, the mechanism is thought to be associated with the destruction of tori (Aronson et al., 1982) when the system is on the verge of bifurcation. The simulations therefore suggest that in moving farther along the cascade, the tori become more fragile. It is suspected that for arbitrarily weak driving, the cascade will eventually be disrupted after the cascade has proceeded through a sufficient number of steps.
Picturing perturbative parton cascades in QCD matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksi Kurkela
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Based on parametric reasoning, we provide a simple dynamical picture of how a perturbative parton cascade, in interaction with a QCD medium, fills phase space as a function of time.
MAP kinase cascades in Arabidopsis innate immunity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Roux, Milena Edna; Petersen, Morten
2012-01-01
Plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades generally transduce extracellular stimuli into cellular responses. These stimuli include the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by host transmembrane pattern recognition receptors which trigger MAPK-dependent innate ...
Chemoenzymatic cascade processes for sustainable organic synthesis
Simons, C.
2007-01-01
Chemical production processes often require wasteful and expensive isolation as well as purification of intermediates. Catalytic cascades offer a unique opportunity to eliminate these inefficient and polluting steps, in particular when carefully orchestrated, involving enzymes and chemocatalysts. Th
Model for cascading failures in congested Internet
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian WANG; Yan-heng LIU; Jian-qi ZHU; Yu JIAO
2008-01-01
Cascading failures often occur in congested networks such as the Internet. A cascading failure can be described as a three-phase process: generation, diffusion, and dissipation of the congestion. In this account, we present a function that represents the extent of congestion on a given node. This approach is different from existing functions based on betweenness centrality. By introducing the concept of 'delay time', we designate an intergradation between permanent removal and nouremoval. We also construct an evaluation function of network efficiency, based on congestion, which measures the damage caused by cascading failures. Finally, we investigate the effects of network structure and size, delay time, processing ability and packet generation speed on congestion propagation. Also, we uncover the relationship between the cascade dynamics and some properties of the network such as structure and size.
A quantum cascade phonon-polariton laser
Ohtani, Keita; Bosco, Lorenzo; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jérôme
2016-01-01
We report a laser that coherently emits phonon-polaritons, quasi-particles arising from the coupling between photons and transverse optical phonons. The gain is provided by an intersubband transition in a quantum cascade structure. The polaritons at h$\
Research on a New Type of Energy Feedback Cascade Multilevel Inverter System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Jianhua
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Traditional cascade multilevel inverter can only transmit one-direction of energy. This paper proposes a new cascade multilevel inverter topology and control strategy based on part units to realize the energy feedback. By using PWM converter to replace uncontrollable converter in part units of the traditional inverter, and combining the inverter with H-bridge inverter, the two-direction running of the cascade inverter is realized. A double closed loop control strategy is used to obtain fine control characteristic of input current. The carrier phase-shifted SPWM technology is adopted in the cascade inverter to reduce harmonious wave of output voltage and current, meanwhile, a new type of bypass control method is proposed to collect all the feedback energy and restore it into the energy feedback units. According to the simulation of a three-phase and five-unit cascaded inverter with three energy feedback units, the results demonstrate that the proposed inverter can be input near sinusoidal current , and realize two-way flow of energy automatically with simplified phase shifting transformer structure, and show its feasibility and effectiveness.
Innovation cascades: artefacts, organization and attributions.
Lane, David A
2016-03-19
Innovation cascades inextricably link the introduction of new artefacts, transformations in social organization, and the emergence of new functionalities and new needs. This paper describes a positive feedback dynamic, exaptive bootstrapping, through which these cascades proceed, and the characteristics of the relationships in which the new attributions that drive this dynamic are generated. It concludes by arguing that the exaptive bootstrapping dynamic is the principal driver of our current Innovation Society.
Cascade Textures and SUSY SO(10) GUT
Adulpravitchai, Adisorn; Takahashi, Ryo
2010-01-01
We give texture analyses of cascade hierarchical mass matrices in supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theory. We embed cascade mass textures of the standard model fermion with right-handed neutrinos into the theory, which gives relations among the mass matrices of the fermions. The related phenomenologies, such as the lepton flavor violating processes and leptogenesis, are also investigated in addition to the PMNS mixing angles.
Supersonic Chordwise Bending Flutter in Cascades
1975-05-31
such a flutter boundary can be made by utilizing the trend lines predicted from a supersonic analysis based on supersonic cascade theory (Appendix I...bonding agent was injected via hypodermic needles after the blade tabs were properly inserted, The integrity and repeatability of the mounting of the indi...in conjunction with NASTRAN predictions and supersonic cascade aerodynamic computa- tions. Comparisons between theory and experiment are discussed. DD
Compression limits in cascaded quadratic soliton compression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;
2008-01-01
Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency....
Emergence of event cascades in inhomogeneous networks
Onaga, Tomokatsu; Shinomoto, Shigeru
2016-09-01
There is a commonality among contagious diseases, tweets, and neuronal firings that past events facilitate the future occurrence of events. The spread of events has been extensively studied such that the systems exhibit catastrophic chain reactions if the interaction represented by the ratio of reproduction exceeds unity; however, their subthreshold states are not fully understood. Here, we report that these systems are possessed by nonstationary cascades of event-occurrences already in the subthreshold regime. Event cascades can be harmful in some contexts, when the peak-demand causes vaccine shortages, heavy traffic on communication lines, but may be beneficial in other contexts, such that spontaneous activity in neural networks may be used to generate motion or store memory. Thus it is important to comprehend the mechanism by which such cascades appear, and consider controlling a system to tame or facilitate fluctuations in the event-occurrences. The critical interaction for the emergence of cascades depends greatly on the network structure in which individuals are connected. We demonstrate that we can predict whether cascades may emerge, given information about the interactions between individuals. Furthermore, we develop a method of reallocating connections among individuals so that event cascades may be either impeded or impelled in a network.
Quasi-linear wave-particle interactions in the Earth's radiation belts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villalon, E. (Center for Electromagnetics Research, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (USA)); Burke, W.J.; Rothwell, P.L. (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts (USA)); Silevitch, M.B. (Center for Electromagnetic Research, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (USA))
1989-11-01
This paper studies the theory of gyroresonant interactions of energetic trapped electrons and protons in the Earth's radiation zones with ducted electromagnetic cyclotron waves. Substorm injected electrons in the mid-latitude regions interact with coherent VLF signals, such as whistler mode waves. Energetic protons may interact with narrow-band hydromagnetic (Alfven) waves. A set of equations is derived based on the Fokker-Planck theory of pitch angle diffusion. They describe the evolution in time of the number of particles in the flux tube and the energy density of waves, for the interaction of Alfven waves with protons and of whistler waves with electrons. The coupling coefficients are obtained based on a quasi-linear analysis after averaging over the particle bounce motion. It is found that the equilibrium solutions for particle fluxes and wave amplitudes are stable under small local perturbations. The reflection of the waves in the ionosphere is discussed. To efficiently dump the energetic particles from the radiation belts, the reflection coefficient must be very close to unity so waves amplitudes can grow to high values. Then, the precipitating particle fluxes may act as a positive feedback to raise the height integrated conductivity of the ionosphere which in turn, enhances the reflection of the waves. In addition, by heating the foot of the flux tube with high intensity, RF energy the mirroring properties of the ionosphere are also enhanced. The stability analysis around the equilibrium solutions for precipitating particle fluxes and wave intensity show that an actively excited ionosphere can cause the development of explosive instabilities. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989
Quantum Cascade Photonic Crystal lasers
Capasso, Federico
2004-03-01
QC lasers have emerged in recent years as the dominant laser technology for the mid-to far infrared spectrum in light of their room temperature operation, their tunability, ultrahigh speed operation and broad range of applications to chemical sensing, spectroscopy etc. (Ref. 1-3). After briefly reviewing the latter, I will describe a new class of mid-infrared QC lasers, Quantum Cascade Photonic Crystal Surface Emitting Lasers (QCPCSELS), that combine electronic and photonic band structure engineering to achieve vertical emission from the surface (Ref. 4). Devices operating on bandedge mode and on defect modes will be discussed. Exciting potential uses of these new devices exist in nonlinear optics, microfluidics as well as novel sensors. Finally a bird's eye view of other exciting areas of QC laser research will be given including broadband QCLs and new nonlinear optical sources based on multiwavelength QCLs. 1. F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, Physics Today 55, 34 (May 2002) 2. F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho and H. C. Liu, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 6, 931 (2000). 3. F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, E. A. Whittaker, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511 (2002) 4. R. Colombelli, K. Srivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho and F. Capasso, Science 302, 1374 (2003)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Podesta, M; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; LeBlanc, B P; Heidbrink, W W; Crocker, N A; Kubota, S
2010-08-19
The effects of a sheared toroidal rotation on the dynamics of bursting Toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are investigated in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 557 (2000)]. The modes have a global character, extending over most of the minor radius. A toroidal rotation shear layer is measured at the location of maximum drive for the modes. Contrary to results from other devices, no clear evidence of increased damping is found. Instead, experiments with simultaneous neutral beam and radio-frequency auxiliary heating show a strong correlation between the dynamics of the modes and the instability drive. It is argued that kinetic effects involving changes in the mode drive and damping mechanisms other than rotation shear, such as continuum damping, are mostly responsible for the bursting dynamics of the modes.
Quantum cascade laser: Applications in chemical detection and environmental monitoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radovanović Jelena
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider the structural parameter optimization of the active region of a GaAs-based quantum cascade laser in order to maximize the optical gain of the laser at the characteristic wavelengths, which are best suited for detection of pollutant gasses, such as SO2, HNO3, CH4, and NH3, in the ambient air by means of direct absorption. The procedure relies on applying elaborate tools for global optimization, such as the genetic algorithm. One of the important goals is to extend the applicability of a single active region design to the detection of several compounds absorbing at close wave-lengths, and this is achieved by introducing a strong external magnetic field perpendicularly to the epitaxial layers. The field causes two-dimensional continuous energy subbands to split into the series of discrete Landau levels. Since the arrangement of Landau levels depends strongly on the magnitude of the magnetic field, this enables one to control the population inversion in the active region, and hence the optical gain. Furthermore, strong effects of band non-parabolicity result in subtle changes of the lasing wavelength at magnetic fields which maximize the gain, thus providing a path for fine-tuning of the output radiation properties and changing the target compound for detection. The numerical results are presented for quantum cascade laser structures designed to emit at specified wavelengths in the mid-infrared part of the spectrum.
Period-doubling cascades for large perturbations of Henon families
Sander, Evelyn; Yorke, James A.
2009-01-01
The Henon family has been shown to have period-doubling cascades. We show here that the same occurs for a much larger class: Large perturbations do not destroy cascades. Furthermore, we can classify the period of a cascade in terms of the set of orbits it contains, and count the number of cascades of each period. This class of families extends a general theory explaining why cascades occur.
Design, Prototyping and Measurement of a Cascaded 6-GHz Frequency Selective Surface Array
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcelo Bender Perotoni
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The design, prototyping, and free-space measurement of a 6-GHz Frequency Selective Surface filter is presented. The prototyping resolution of a large (A4 sheet size Frequency Selective Surface with small loops as elements is checked, as well as the correlation with measurements performed with a 3-D full-wave solver. The test also involved the effect of cascading two different Frequency Selective Surfaces with a viewpoint towards a narrower frequency range, which provided good results.
Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser With Efficient Coupling and Beam Profile
Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Lin, Robert H.; Williams, Benjamin
2012-01-01
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are unipolar semiconductor lasers, where the wavelength of emitted radiation is determined by the engineering of quantum states within the conduction band in coupled multiple-quantum-well heterostructures to have the desired energy separation. The recent development of terahertz QCLs has provided a new generation of solid-state sources for radiation in the terahertz frequency range. Terahertz QCLs have been demonstrated from 0.84 to 5.0 THz both in pulsed mode and continuous wave mode (CW mode). The approach employs a resonant-phonon depopulation concept. The metal-metal (MM) waveguide fabrication is performed using Cu-Cu thermo-compression bonding to bond the GaAs/AlGaAs epitaxial layer to a GaAs receptor wafer.
Free-space communication based on quantum cascade laser
Chuanwei, Liu; Shenqiang, Zhai; Jinchuan, Zhang; Yuhong, Zhou; Zhiwei, Jia; Fengqi, Liu; Zhanguo, Wang
2015-09-01
A free-space communication based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) is presented. A room-temperature continuous-wave distributed-feedback (DFB) QCL combined with a mid-infrared detector comprise the basic unit of the communication system. Sinusoidal signals at a highest frequency of 40 MHz and modulated video signals with a carrier frequency of 30 MHz were successfully transmitted with this experimental setup. Our research has provided a proof-of-concept demonstration of space optical communication application with QCL. The highest operation frequency of our setup was determined by the circuit-limited modulation bandwidth. A high performance communication system can be obtained with improved modulation circuit system. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2013CB632801, 2013CB632803) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61435014, 61306058, 61274094).
Monolithic single mode interband cascade lasers with wide wavelength tunability
von Edlinger, M.; Weih, R.; Scheuermann, J.; Nähle, L.; Fischer, M.; Koeth, J.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.
2016-11-01
Monolithic two-section interband cascade lasers offering a wide wavelength tunability in the wavelength range around 3.7 μm are presented. Stable single mode emission in several wavelength channels was realized using the concept of binary superimposed gratings and two-segment Vernier-tuning. The wavelength selective elements in the two segments were based on specially designed lateral metal grating structures defined by electron beam lithography. A dual-step dry etch process provided electrical separation between the segments. Individual current control of the segments allowed wavelength channel selection as well as continuous wavelength tuning within channels. A discontinuous tuning range extending over 158 nm in up to six discrete wavelength channels was achieved. Mode hop free wavelength tuning up to 14 nm was observed within one channel. The devices can be operated in continuous wave mode up to 30 °C with the output powers of 3.5 mW around room temperature.
Hiding an image in cascaded Fresnel digital holograms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shaogeng Deng; Liren Liu; Haitao Lang; Weiqing Pan; Dong Zhao
2006-01-01
@@ A system of two separated computer-generated holograms termed cascaded Fresnel digital holography (CFDH) is proposed and its application to hiding information is demonstrated by a computer simulation experiment. The technique is that the reconstructed image is the result of the wave Fresnel diffractionof two sub-holograms located at different distances from the imaging plane along the illuminating beam. The two sub-holograms are generated by an iterative algorithm based on the projection onto convex sets. In the application to the hiding of optical information, the information to be hidden is encoded into thesub-hologram which is multiplied by the host image in the input plane, the other sub-hologram in the filterplane is used for the deciphering key, the hidden image can be reconstructed in the imaging plane of the CFDH setup.
Cascade correlation-enhanced Raman scattering in atomic vapors
Ma, Hong-Mei; Chen, Li-Qing; Yuan, Chun-Hua
2016-12-01
A new Raman process can be used to realize efficient Raman frequency conversion by coherent feedback at low light intensity [Chen B, Zhang K, Bian C L, Qiu C, Yuan C H, Chen L Q, Ou Z Y, and Zhang W P 2013 Opt. Express 21, 10490]. We present a theoretical model to describe this enhanced Raman process, termed as cascade correlation-enhanced Raman scattering, which is a Raman process injected by a seeded light field. It is correlated with the initially prepared atomic spin excitation and driven by the quasi-standing-wave pump fields, and the processes are repeated until the Stokes intensities are saturated. Such an enhanced Raman scattering may find applications in quantum information, nonlinear optics, and optical metrology due to its simplicity. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474095, 11274118, and 91536114).
,
2012-01-01
During previous numerical experiments on isotropic turbulence of surface gravity waves we observed formation of the long wave background (condensate). It was shown (Korotkevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 101 (7), 074504 (2008)), that presence of the condensate changes a spectrum of direct cascade, corresponding to the flux of energy to the small scales from pumping region (large scales). Recent experiments show that the inverse cascade spectrum is also affected by the condensate. In this case mechanism proposed as a cause for the change of direct cascade spectrum cannot work. But inverse cascade is directly influenced by the linear dispersion relation for waves, as a result direct measurement of the dispersion relation in the presence of condensate is necessary. We performed the measurement of this dispersion relation from the direct numerical experiment. The results demonstrate that in the region of inverse cascade influence of the condensate cannot be neglected.
Cascade reactions catalyzed by metal organic frameworks.
Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Garcia, Hermenegildo
2014-09-01
Cascade or tandem reactions where two or more individual reactions are carried out in one pot constitute a clear example of process intensification, targeting the maximization of spatial and temporal productivity with mobilization of minimum resources. In the case of catalytic reactions, cascade processes require bi-/multifunctional catalysts that contain different classes of active sites. Herein, we show that the features and properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make these solids very appropriate materials for the development of catalysts for cascade reactions. Due to composition and structure, MOFs can incorporate different types of sites at the metal nodes, organic linkers, or at the empty internal pores, allowing the flexible design and synthesis of multifunctional catalysts. After some introductory sections on the relevance of cascade reactions from the point of view of competitiveness, sustainability, and environmental friendliness, the main part of the text provides a comprehensive review of the literature reporting the use of MOFs as heterogeneous catalysts for cascade reactions including those that combine in different ways acid/base, oxidation/reduction, and metal-organic centers. The final section summarizes the current state of the art, indicating that the development of a first commercial synthesis of a high-added-value fine chemical will be a crucial milestone in this area.
Xiao, Chijie; Zhao, Siqi; Shi, Mijie; Pu, Zuyin; Wang, Xiaogang
2016-10-01
Here we report an asymmetric reconnection event with strong guide field observed by Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) on the dayside magnetopause. In this event there are multiple wave modes, such as electron Alfvenic mode, broadband waves between the lower-hybrid and electron cyclotron frequencies, exist in the vicinity of the electron diffusion region and the separatrix. And the electron velocity distribution functions show that bi-stream electrons with low energy (processes are investigated and comparison with some 3D numerical simulation results. This work was supported by NSFC (Grants 41274168 and 11375053).
Unified approach to cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering and frequency-comb generation
Dong, Mark; Winful, Herbert G.
2016-04-01
We present a unified approach to cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering and frequency-comb generation in which the multitude of interacting pump, Stokes, and anti-Stokes optical fields is described by a single forward wave and a single backward wave at a single carrier frequency. The envelopes of these two waves are modulated through coupling to a single acoustic oscillation and through four-wave mixing. Starting from a single pump field, we observe the emergence of a comb of frequencies as the intensity is increased. The set of three differential equations derived here is sufficient to describe the generation of any number of Brillouin sidebands in oscillator systems that would have required hundreds of coupled equations in the standard approach. We test this approach on some published experiments and find excellent agreement with the results.
Emergence of event cascades in inhomogeneous networks
Onaga, Tomokatsu
2016-01-01
There is a commonality among contagious diseases, tweets, urban crimes, nuclear reactions, and neuronal firings that past events facilitate the future occurrence of events. The spread of events has been extensively studied such that the systems exhibit catastrophic chain reactions if the interaction represented by the ratio of reproduction exceeds unity; however, their subthreshold states for the case of the weaker interaction are not fully understood. Here, we report that these systems are possessed by nonstationary cascades of event-occurrences already in the subthreshold regime. Event cascades can be harmful in some contexts, when the peak-demand causes vaccine shortages, heavy traffic on communication lines, frequent crimes, or large fluctuations in nuclear reactions, but may be beneficial in other contexts, such that spontaneous activity in neural networks may be used to generate motion or store memory. Thus it is important to comprehend the mechanism by which such cascades appear, and consider controlli...
Epidemic and Cascading Survivability of Complex Networks
Manzano, Marc; Ripoll, Jordi; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Torres-Padrosa, Victor; Pahwa, Sakshi; Scoglio, Caterina
2014-01-01
Our society nowadays is governed by complex networks, examples being the power grids, telecommunication networks, biological networks, and social networks. It has become of paramount importance to understand and characterize the dynamic events (e.g. failures) that might happen in these complex networks. For this reason, in this paper, we propose two measures to evaluate the vulnerability of complex networks in two different dynamic multiple failure scenarios: epidemic-like and cascading failures. Firstly, we present \\emph{epidemic survivability} ($ES$), a new network measure that describes the vulnerability of each node of a network under a specific epidemic intensity. Secondly, we propose \\emph{cascading survivability} ($CS$), which characterizes how potentially injurious a node is according to a cascading failure scenario. Then, we show that by using the distribution of values obtained from $ES$ and $CS$ it is possible to describe the vulnerability of a given network. We consider a set of 17 different compl...
Cascade enzymatic reactions for efficient carbon sequestration.
Xia, Shunxiang; Zhao, Xueyan; Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin; Zheng, Wenyun; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping
2015-04-01
Thermochemical processes developed for carbon capture and storage (CCS) offer high carbon capture capacities, but are generally hampered by low energy efficiency. Reversible cascade enzyme reactions are examined in this work for energy-efficient carbon sequestration. By integrating the reactions of two key enzymes of RTCA cycle, isocitrate dehydrogenase and aconitase, we demonstrate that intensified carbon capture can be realized through such cascade enzymatic reactions. Experiments show that enhanced thermodynamic driving force for carbon conversion can be attained via pH control under ambient conditions, and that the cascade reactions have the potential to capture 0.5 mol carbon at pH 6 for each mole of substrate applied. Overall it manifests that the carbon capture capacity of biocatalytic reactions, in addition to be energy efficient, can also be ultimately intensified to approach those realized with chemical absorbents such as MEA.
MAP Kinase Cascades in Plant Innate Immunity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magnus Wohlfahrt Rasmussen
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades generally transduce extracellular stimuli into cellular responses. These stimuli include the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by host transmembrane pattern recognition receptors (PRRs which trigger MAPK-dependent innate immune responses. In the model Arabidopsis, molecular genetic evidence implicates a number of MAPK cascade components in PAMP signaling, and in responses to immunity-related phytohormones such as ethylene, jasmonate and salicylate. In a few cases, cascade components have been directly linked to the transcription of target genes or to the regulation of phytohormone synthesis. Thus MAPKs are obvious targets for bacterial effector proteins and are likely guardees of resistance (R proteins, which mediate defense signaling in response to the action of effectors, or effector-triggered immunity (ETI. This mini-review discusses recent progress in this field with a focus on the Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3, 4, 6 and 11 in their apparent pathways.
Bifurcations analysis of turbulent energy cascade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Divitiis, Nicola de, E-mail: n.dedivitiis@gmail.com
2015-03-15
This note studies the mechanism of turbulent energy cascade through an opportune bifurcations analysis of the Navier–Stokes equations, and furnishes explanations on the more significant characteristics of the turbulence. A statistical bifurcations property of the Navier–Stokes equations in fully developed turbulence is proposed, and a spatial representation of the bifurcations is presented, which is based on a proper definition of the fixed points of the velocity field. The analysis first shows that the local deformation can be much more rapid than the fluid state variables, then explains the mechanism of energy cascade through the aforementioned property of the bifurcations, and gives reasonable argumentation of the fact that the bifurcations cascade can be expressed in terms of length scales. Furthermore, the study analyzes the characteristic length scales at the transition through global properties of the bifurcations, and estimates the order of magnitude of the critical Taylor-scale Reynolds number and the number of bifurcations at the onset of turbulence.
Sakurai, Takashi; Goossens, Marcel; Hollweg, Joseph V.
1991-01-01
The present method of addressing the resonance problems that emerge in such MHD phenomena as the resonant absorption of waves at the Alfven resonance point avoids solving the fourth-order differential equation of dissipative MHD by recourse to connection formulae across the dissipation layer. In the second part of this investigation, the absorption of solar 5-min oscillations by sunspots is interpreted as the resonant absorption of sounds by a magnetic cylinder. The absorption coefficient is interpreted (1) analytically, under certain simplifying assumptions, and numerically, under more general conditions. The observed absorption coefficient magnitude is explained over suitable parameter ranges.
Alfvenic Fluctuations in an Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection Observed Near 1 AU
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁浩明; 肖池阶; 周桂萍; 濮祖荫; 王红刚; 王晓钢
2012-01-01
As for the present situation of coronal mass ejection （CME） triggering models, the distributions of Alfv@n waves in flux ropes are different from model to model, and thus examining those distributions in interplanetary coronal mass ejection （ICME） is an effective way to connect ICME observations with these theoretical models of CME triggering. However, previous observations of Alfv@nic fluctuations in ICMEs were rare with locations ranging from 0.3 AU to 0.68 AU only, which is usually explained as rapid dissipation of those remnant waves. Here we present an observation of Alfv@n waves in a magnetic cloud （MC） near 1 AU, in situ detected by WIND in February 17,-~20, 2011. The MC was generated by a CME accompanied with the first X-class flare in the 24th solar cycle. The slope of the power spectral densities of magnetic fluctuation in the MC, are similar to those modes in ambient solar wind, but more anisotropic. The results will also be helpful for studies of CME theories and ICME thermodynamics.
Oblique non-neutral solitary Alfven modes in weakly nonlinear pair plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verheest, Frank [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Physics, Howard College Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Lakhina, G S [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410218 (India); Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)
2005-04-01
The equal charge-to-mass ratio for both species in pair plasmas induces a decoupling of the linear eigenmodes between waves that are charge neutral or non-neutral, also at oblique propagation with respect to a static magnetic field. While the charge-neutral linear modes have been studied in greater detail, including their weakly and strongly nonlinear counterparts, the non-neutral mode has received less attention. Here the nonlinear evolution of a solitary non-neutral mode at oblique propagation is investigated in an electron-positron plasma. Employing the framework of reductive perturbation analysis, a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation (with cubic nonlinearity) for the lowest-order wave magnetic field is obtained. In the linear approximation, the non-neutral mode has its magnetic component orthogonal to the plane spanned by the directions of wave propagation and of the static magnetic field. The linear polarization is not maintained at higher orders. The results may be relevant to the microstructure in pulsar radiation or to the subpulses.
Magnetoacoustic Waves in a Stratified Atmosphere with a Magnetic Null Point
Tarr, Lucas A; Leake, James
2016-01-01
We perform nonlinear MHD simulations to study the propagation of magnetoacoustic waves from the photosphere to the low corona. We focus on a 2D system with a gravitationally stratified atmosphere and three photospheric concentrations of magnetic flux that give rise to a magnetic null point with a magnetic dome topology. We find that a single wavepacket introduced at the lower boundary splits into multiple secondary wavepackets. A portion of the packet refracts towards the null due to the varying Alfv\\'en speed. Waves incident on the equipartition contour surrounding the null, where the sound and Alfv\\'en speeds coincide, partially transmit, reflect, and mode convert between branches of the local dispersion relation. Approximately $15.5\\%$ of the wavepacket's initial energy ($E_{input}$) converges on the null, mostly as a fast magnetoacoustic wave. Conversion is very efficient: $70\\%$ of the energy incident on the null is converted to slow modes propagating away from the null, $7\\%$ leaves as a fast wave, and ...
Piscivores, Trophic Cascades, and Lake Management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ray W. Drenner
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The concept of cascading trophic interactions predicts that an increase in piscivore biomass in lakes will result in decreased planktivorous fish biomass, increased herbivorous zooplankton biomass, and decreased phytoplankton biomass. Though often accepted as a paradigm in the ecological literature and adopted by lake managers as a basis for lake management strategies, the trophic cascading interactions hypothesis has not received the unequivocal support (in the form of rigorous experimental testing that might be expected of a paradigm. Here we review field experiments and surveys, testing the hypothesis that effects of increasing piscivore biomass will cascade down through the food web yielding a decline in phytoplankton biomass. We found 39 studies in the scientific literature examining piscivore effects on phytoplankton biomass. Of the studies, 22 were confounded by supplemental manipulations (e.g., simultaneous reduction of nutrients or removal of planktivores and could not be used to assess piscivore effects. Of the 17 nonconfounded studies, most did not find piscivore effects on phytoplankton biomass and therefore did not support the trophic cascading interactions hypothesis. However, the trophic cascading interactions hypothesis also predicts that lake systems containing piscivores will have lower phytoplankton biomass for any given phosphorus concentration. Based on regression analyses of chlorophyll�total phosphorus relationships in the 17 nonconfounded piscivore studies, this aspect of the trophic cascading interactions hypothesis was supported. The slope of the chlorophyll vs. total phosphorus regression was lower in lakes with planktivores and piscivores compared with lakes containing only planktivores but no piscivores. We hypothesize that this slope can be used as an indicator of “functional piscivory” and that communities with extremes of functional piscivory (zero and very high represent classical 3- and 4-trophic level
Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks.
Wei, Hong; Wang, Zhuoxian; Tian, Xiaorui; Käll, Mikael; Xu, Hongxing
2011-07-12
Optical computing has been pursued for decades as a potential strategy for advancing beyond the fundamental performance limitations of semiconductor-based electronic devices, but feasible on-chip integrated logic units and cascade devices have not been reported. Here we demonstrate that a plasmonic binary NOR gate, a 'universal logic gate', can be realized through cascaded OR and NOT gates in four-terminal plasmonic nanowire networks. This finding provides a path for the development of novel nanophotonic on-chip processor architectures for future optical computing technologies.
Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals.
Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, Aaron P; Juslin, Niklas; Stoller, Roger E; Wirth, Brian D; Kurtz, Richard J
2015-06-10
Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent, b, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy (N(F) ~ E(MD)(b)). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, μ, between the high- and the low-energy regime. Using Cr, Fe, Mo and W data, an empirical formula of μ as a function of displacement threshold energy, E(d), is presented for bcc metals.
Cascaded impedance networks for NPC inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Ding; Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang;
2010-01-01
would have a higher output voltage gain. It is anticipated that it would help the formed inverters find applications in photovoltaic and other renewable systems, where a high voltage gain is usually requested. Experimental testing has already been conducted and verifies the theory. ©2010 IEEE....... they are subject to the renewable sources. To date, three distinct types of impedance networks can be summarized for implementing a hybrid source impedance network, which can in principle be combined and cascaded before connected to a NPC inverter by proposed two ways. The resulting cascaded impedance network NPC...
Self-organized model of cascade spreading
Gualdi, S.; Medo, M.; Zhang, Y.-C.
2011-01-01
We study simultaneous price drops of real stocks and show that for high drop thresholds they follow a power-law distribution. To reproduce these collective downturns, we propose a minimal self-organized model of cascade spreading based on a probabilistic response of the system elements to stress conditions. This model is solvable using the theory of branching processes and the mean-field approximation. For a wide range of parameters, the system is in a critical state and displays a power-law cascade-size distribution similar to the empirically observed one. We further generalize the model to reproduce volatility clustering and other observed properties of real stocks.
Self-organized model of cascade spreading
Gualdi, Stanislao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2010-01-01
We study simultaneous price drops of real stocks and show that for high drop thresholds they follow a power-law distribution. To reproduce these collective downturns, we propose a self-organized model of cascade spreading based on a probabilistic response of the system's elements to stress conditions. This model is solvable using the theory of branching processes and the mean-field approximation and displays a power-law cascade-size distribution-similar to the empirically observed one-over a wide range of parameters.
Dynamics of Soliton Cascades in Fiber Amplifiers
Arteaga-Sierra, F R; Agrawal, Govind P
2016-01-01
We study numerically the formation of cascading solitons when femtosecond optical pulses are launched into a fiber amplifier with less energy than required to form a soliton of equal duration. As the pulse is amplified, cascaded fundamental solitons are created at different distances, without soliton fission, as each fundamental soliton moves outside the gain bandwidth through the Raman-induced spectral shifts. As a result, each input pulse creates multiple, temporally separated, ultrashort pulses of different wavelengths at the amplifier output. The number of pulses depends not only on the total gain of the amplifier but also on the width of input pulses.
Effects of dispersive wave modes on charged particles transport
Schreiner, Cedric
2015-01-01
The transport of charged particles in the heliosphere and the interstellar medium is governed by the interaction of particles and magnetic irregularities. For the transport of protons a rather simple model using a linear Alfv\\'en wave spectrum which follows the Kolmogorov distribution usually yields good results. Even magnetostatic spectra may be used. For the case of electron transport, particles will resonate with the high-k end of the spectrum. Here the magnetic fluctuations do not follow the linear dispersion relation, but the kinetic regime kicks in. We will discuss the interaction of fluctuations of dispersive waves in the kinetic regime using a particle-in-cell code. Especially the scattering of particles following the idea of Lange et al. (2013) and its application to PiC codes will be discussed. The effect of the dispersive regime on the electron transport will be discussed in detail.
The dynamics and excitation of torsional waves in geodynamo simulations
Teed, Robert J; Tobias, Steven M
2013-01-01
The predominant force balance in rapidly rotating planetary cores is between Coriolis, pressure, buoyancy and Lorentz forces. This magnetostrophic balance leads to a Taylor state where the spatially averaged azimuthal Lorentz force is compelled to vanish on cylinders aligned with the rotation axis. Any deviation from this state leads to a torsional oscillation, signatures of which have been observed in the Earth's secular variation and are thought to influence length of day variations via angular momentum conservation. In order to investigate the dynamics of torsional oscillations, we perform several three-dimensional dynamo simulations in a spherical shell. We find torsional oscillations, identified by their propagation at the correct Alfv\\'{e}n speed, in many of our simulations. We find that the frequency, location and direction of propagation of the waves are influenced by the choice of parameters. Torsional waves are observed within the tangent cylinder and also have the ability to pass through it. Severa...
Cross-polarized wave generation by effective cubic nonlinear optical interaction.
Petrov, G I; Albert, O; Etchepare, J; Saltiel, S M
2001-03-15
A new cubic nonlinear optical effect in which a linearly polarized wave propagating in a single quadratic medium is converted into a wave that is cross polarized to the input wave is observed in BBO crystal. The effect is explained by cascading of two different second-order processes: second-harmonic generation and difference frequency mixing.
Microscale capillary wave turbulence excited by high frequency vibration.
Blamey, Jeremy; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R
2013-03-19
Low frequency (O(10 Hz-10 kHz)) vibration excitation of capillary waves has been extensively studied for nearly two centuries. Such waves appear at the excitation frequency or at rational multiples of the excitation frequency through nonlinear coupling as a result of the finite displacement of the wave, most often at one-half the excitation frequency in so-called Faraday waves and twice this frequency in superharmonic waves. Less understood, however, are the dynamics of capillary waves driven by high-frequency vibration (>O(100 kHz)) and small interface length scales, an arrangement ideal for a broad variety of applications, from nebulizers for pulmonary drug delivery to complex nanoparticle synthesis. In the few studies conducted to date, a marked departure from the predictions of classical Faraday wave theory has been shown, with the appearance of broadband capillary wave generation from 100 Hz to the excitation frequency and beyond, without a clear explanation. We show that weak wave turbulence is the dominant mechanism in the behavior of the system, as evident from wave height frequency spectra that closely follow the Rayleigh-Jeans spectral response η ≈ ω(-17/12) as a consequence of a period-halving, weakly turbulent cascade that appears within a 1 mm water drop whether driven by thickness-mode or surface acoustic Rayleigh wave excitation. However, such a cascade is one-way, from low to high frequencies. The mechanism of exciting the cascade with high-frequency acoustic waves is an acoustic streaming-driven turbulent jet in the fluid bulk, driving the fundamental capillary wave resonance through the well-known coupling between bulk flow and surface waves. Unlike capillary waves, turbulent acoustic streaming can exhibit subharmonic cascades from high to low frequencies; here it appears from the excitation frequency all the way to the fundamental modes of the capillary wave at some four orders of magnitude in frequency less than the excitation frequency
Pseudo-invariants causing inverse energy cascades in three-dimensional turbulence
Rathmann, Nicholas M
2016-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) turbulence is characterized by a dual forward cascade of both kinetic energy and helicity, a second inviscid flow invariant, from the integral scale of motion to the viscous dissipative scale. In helical flows, however, such as strongly rotating flows with broken mirror symmetry, an inverse energy cascade can be observed analogous to that of two-dimensional turbulence (2D) where a second positive-definite flow invariant, enstrophy, unlike helicity in 3D, effectively blocks the forward cascade of energy. In the spectral-helical decomposition of the Navier-Stokes equation it has previously been show that a subset of three-wave (triad) interactions conserve helicity in 3D in a fashion similar to enstrophy in 2D, thus leading to a 2D-like inverse energy cascade in 3D. In this work, we show both theoretically and numerically that an additional subset of interactions exist conserving a new pseudo-invariant in addition to energy and helicity, which contributes either to a forward or inverse en...
Che, H; Goldstein, M L; Viñas, A F
2014-02-14
The observed steep kinetic scale turbulence spectrum in the solar wind raises the question of how that turbulence originates. Observations of keV energetic electrons during solar quiet time suggest them as a possible source of free energy to drive kinetic turbulence. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we explore how the free energy released by an electron two-stream instability drives Weibel-like electromagnetic waves that excite wave-wave interactions. Consequently, both kinetic Alfvénic and whistler turbulence are excited that evolve through inverse and forward magnetic energy cascades.
Quantum-engineered interband cascade photovoltaic devices
Yang, Rui Q.; Lotfi, Hossein; Li, Lu; Hinkey, Robert T.; Ye, Hao; Klem, John F.; Lei, L.; Mishima, T. D.; Keay, J. C.; Santos, M. B.; Johnson, M. B.
2013-12-01
Quantum-engineered multiple stage photovoltaic (PV) devices are explored based on InAs/GaSb/AlSb interband cascade (IC) structures. These ICPV devices employ multiple discrete absorbers that are connected in series by widebandgap unipolar barriers using type-II heterostructure interfaces for facilitating carrier transport between cascade stages similar to IC lasers. The discrete architecture is beneficial for improving the collection efficiency and for spectral splitting by utilizing absorbers with different bandgaps. As such, the photo-voltages from each individual cascade stage in an ICPV device add together, creating a high overall open-circuit voltage, similar to conventional multi-junction tandem solar cells. Furthermore, photo-generated carriers can be collected with nearly 100% efficiency in each stage. This is because the carriers travel over only a single cascade stage, designed to be shorter than a typical diffusion length. The approach is of significant importance for operation at high temperatures where the diffusion length is reduced. Here, we will present our recent progress in the study of ICPV devices, which includes the demonstration of ICPV devices at room temperature and above with narrow bandgaps (e.g. 0.23 eV) and high open-circuit voltages.
Geothermal research, Oregon Cascades: Final technical report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Priest, G.R.; Black, G.L.
1988-10-27
Previous USDOE-funded geothermal studies have produced an extensive temperature gradient and heat flow data base for the State of Oregon. One of the important features identified as a result of these studies is a rapid transition from heat flow values on the order of 40 mW/m/sup 2/ in the Willamette Valley and Western Cascades to values of greater than or equal to100 mW/m/sup 2/ in the High Cascades and the eastern portion of the Western Cascades. These data indicate that the Cascade Range in Oregon has potential as a major geothermal province and stimulated much of the later work completed by government agencies and private industry. Additional data generated as a result of this grant and published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-86-2 further define the location and magnitude of this transition zone. In addition, abundant data collected from the vicinity of Breitenbush and Austin Hot Springs have permitted the formulation of relatively detailed models of these hydrothermal systems. These models are published in DOGAMI Open-File Report 0-88-5. Task 1.2 of the Deliverables section of Amendment M001 is fulfilled by DOGAMI publication GMS-48, Geologic map of the McKenzie Bridge quadrangle, Lane County, Oregon. This map was printed in October, 1988, and is part of the final submission to USDOE. 8 refs.
Gene regulation by MAP kinase cascades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Petersen, Klaus; Petersen, Morten
2009-01-01
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are signaling modules that transduce extracellular stimuli to a range of cellular responses. Research in yeast and metazoans has shown that MAPK-mediated phosphorylation directly or indirectly regulates the activity of transcription factors. Plant ...
Forecasting Social Unrest Using Activity Cascades.
Cadena, Jose; Korkmaz, Gizem; Kuhlman, Chris J; Marathe, Achla; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Vullikanti, Anil
2015-01-01
Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011) to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen "on the ground." Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Modeling and simulation of cascading contingencies
Zhang, Jianfeng
This dissertation proposes a new approach to model and study cascading contingencies in large power systems. The most important contribution of the work involves the development and validation of a heuristic analytic model to assess the likelihood of cascading contingencies, and the development and validation of a uniform search strategy. We model the probability of cascading contingencies as a function of power flow and power flow changes. Utilizing logistic regression, the proposed model is calibrated using real industry data. This dissertation analyzes random search strategies for Monte Carlo simulations and proposes a new uniform search strategy based on the Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm. The proposed search strategy is capable of selecting the most significant cascading contingencies, and it is capable of constructing an unbiased estimator to provide a measure of system security. This dissertation makes it possible to reasonably quantify system security and justify security operations when economic concerns conflict with reliability concerns in the new competitive power market environment. It can also provide guidance to system operators about actions that may be taken to reduce the risk of major system blackouts. Various applications can be developed to take advantage of the quantitative security measures provided in this dissertation.
Nested Canalyzing, Unate Cascade, and Polynomial Functions.
Jarrah, Abdul Salam; Raposa, Blessilda; Laubenbacher, Reinhard
2007-09-15
This paper focuses on the study of certain classes of Boolean functions that have appeared in several different contexts. Nested canalyzing functions have been studied recently in the context of Boolean network models of gene regulatory networks. In the same context, polynomial functions over finite fields have been used to develop network inference methods for gene regulatory networks. Finally, unate cascade functions have been studied in the design of logic circuits and binary decision diagrams. This paper shows that the class of nested canalyzing functions is equal to that of unate cascade functions. Furthermore, it provides a description of nested canalyzing functions as a certain type of Boolean polynomial function. Using the polynomial framework one can show that the class of nested canalyzing functions, or, equivalently, the class of unate cascade functions, forms an algebraic variety which makes their analysis amenable to the use of techniques from algebraic geometry and computational algebra. As a corollary of the functional equivalence derived here, a formula in the literature for the number of unate cascade functions provides such a formula for the number of nested canalyzing functions.
Cascading effects of overfishing marine systems
Scheffer, M.; Carpenter, S.; Young, de B.
2005-01-01
Profound indirect ecosystem effects of overfishing have been shown for coastal systems such as coral reefs and kelp forests. A new study from the ecosystem off the Canadian east coast now reveals that the elimination of large predatory fish can also cause marked cascading effects on the pelagic food