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Sample records for alfalfa

  1. Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is an herb. People use the leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine. Alfalfa is used for kidney conditions, bladder and prostate ... bleeding disorder called thrombocytopenic purpura. People also take alfalfa as a source of vitamins A, C, E, ...

  2. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  3. [Alfalfa Planting as weed control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter to farming cooperators regarding the stipulations surrounding alfalfa plantings in lieu of small grain plantings to provide weed control,...

  4. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue proliferatio

  5. Weed management research in alfalfa seed production in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed. Alfalfa seed is produced with wider row and lower plant populations than alfalfa forage requiring greater weed management inputs. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa seed and forage pro...

  6. Alfalfa Hay Quality and Alternative Pricing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Jared A.; Peterson, Hikaru Hanawa; Burton, Robert O., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Price-quality relationships for alfalfa hay were analyzed by hedonic pricing models using 1996-2001 Wisconsin auction data. Individual nutrients included in the analysis all affected alfalfa price, with acid detergent fiber accounting for the largest impact. Alternative pricing models, based on an aggregate quality index or detailed quality information, were similar in their ability to predict price. However, disaggregating price predictions to account for differences in relative feed value (...

  7. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja Vesna; Lević Jelena; Ivanović M.; Tomić Zorica P.

    2005-01-01

    In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum) towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virul...

  8. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja Vesna; Lević Jelena T.; Ivanović Mirko; Tomić Zorica P.

    2005-01-01

    In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum) towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulen...

  9. Correlations among alfalfa yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Olivera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper are the results of our study of correlations among yield components in ten alfalfa genotypes under open pollination (polycross conditions. The study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 at the Rimski Sancevi Experiment Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Highly significant correlations were found between pod number per inflorescence and seed number per inflorescence (r= 0.645 as well as between seed number per pod and seed number per inflorescence (r= 0.685. Similarly, the correlation between inflorescence number per stem and seed yield was significant and positive (r= 0.589. Negative correlations existed between ovule number per ovary on the one hand and seed yield and inflorescence number per stem on the other (r= -0.617 and r= -0.598, respectively. The highest seed yield was achieved with the cultivar Europe (651.4 kg ha-1 and the lowest with the genotype Le-6 (426.25 kg ha-1. The difference was highly significant (CV= 14,93%.

  10. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  11. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  12. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivar K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  13. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivars K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings, which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown, lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  14. Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa is compositionally equivalent to conventional alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Melinda C; Rogan, Glennon J; Fitzpatrick, Sharie; Trujillo, William A; Sorbet, Roy; Hartnell, Gary F; Riodan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A

    2006-09-20

    Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa (GTA) was developed to withstand over-the-top applications of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. As a part of the safety assessment, GTA (designated J101 x J163) was grown under controlled field conditions at geographically diverse locations within the United States during the 2001 and 2003 field seasons along with control and other conventional alfalfa varieties for compositional assessment. Field trials were conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replication blocks at each site. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the late bud to early bloom stage from each plot at five field sites in 2001 (establishment year) and from four field sites in 2003 (third year of stand). The concentration of proximate constituents, fibers, amino acids, coumestrol, and minerals in the forage was measured. The results showed that the forage from GTA J101 x J163 is compositionally equivalent to forage from the control and conventional alfalfa varieties.

  15. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  16. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALFALFA INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Clement E.; Dowdy, Alan K.; Berberet, Richard C.; Stritzke, Jimmie F.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IMP) initially focused on insect pest control. More recently, IPM encompasses a broader concept of management, one which crosses several disciplinary boundaries. This article reports results of research dealing with four integrated management decisions for alfalfa (cultivar selection, inset control, weed control, and end-of-season harvest options.

  17. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area. PMID:24128927

  18. Productive Efficiency of Subsidized Organic Alfalfa Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanos A. Nastis; Papanagiotou, Evangelos; Zamanidis, Savvas

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the efficiency and performance of organic alfalfa farms. Data were obtained from questionnaires collected from forty farms participating in an EU-subsidized program promoting the switch to organic farming. Results obtained using the bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis methodology show that larger farms had lower yields and lower efficiency scores and more experienced farmers had higher efficiency scores. A Tobit analysis of the impact of environmental factors and subsidies...

  19. Extraction of Chlorophyll from Alfalfa Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Khalid Khudair Al-Jomaily; Ahmed Jawad; Isam Kamal

    2006-01-01

    The extraction process of chlorophyll from dehydrated and pulverized alfalfa plant were studied by percolation method. Two solvent systems were used for the extraction namely; Ethanol-water and Hexane-Toluene systems . The effect of circulation rate, solvent concentration, and solvent volume to solid weight ratio were studied. In both ethanol water, and Hexane-Toluene systems it appears that solvent concentration is the most effective variable.

  20. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. (Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (USA)); Geno, P.W. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  1. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures

  2. Environmental stability of stem cell wall traits in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem Klason lignin, glucose, xylose, an...

  3. Elimination of toxicity from diets containing alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; McLaughlin, P; Bardana, E J; Craig, S

    1984-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were fed autoclaved alfalfa seeds for up to 1 yr. There were no humoral signs of a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. The data are in contrast to those previously reported in monkeys fed raw alfalfa seeds, in which a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome was induced in a shorter interval. The autoclaved seeds retained antihypercholesterolaemic effects. PMID:6540232

  4. Alfalfa leafcutting bee population dynamics, flower availability, and pollination rates in two Oregon alfalfa fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jordi; Kemp, William P

    2005-08-01

    Since the 1970s, it has become increasingly difficult for U.S. alfalfa seed producers to maintain Megachile rotundata (F.) populations used for alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., pollination. In 1998, we monitored M. rotundata population dynamics and foraging behavior, as well as alfalfa bloom and pollination rates in two fields in eastern Oregon. Despite marked differences in bee management, establishment was very similar in the two fields (approximately 0.5 females per nesting cavity) and lagged peak bloom by approximately 2 wk. Pollination rates increased from 0-10% in the first 3 wk to 80-90% in week 4-5. By then, M. rotundata females had difficulty finding untripped (nonpollinated) flowers and visited large numbers of already tripped or not fully matured flowers. M. rotundata progeny mortality was very high (54-78%). Estimated seed yields were similar in both fields. We contend similar seed yields, and improved bee production, could be accomplished with smaller bee populations, better timed with alfalfa bloom. PMID:16156556

  5. Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L As A Promising Forage In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L or Lucerne is a perennial herbaceous legume with superior forage quality. It is the most important forage crop in the world and it was the first domesticated forage crop. Alfalfa is able to fix nitrogen from the air through a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria with N production 7.85 – 10.37 g/m2. Its rooting system can reach 4.5 m that allows it to escape drought. Forage production can reach 15.48 tons of dry matter per ha/year and containing 18.0 – 29.1 % crude protein. Plants can live 3 to 12 years depending on climatic conditions and crop varieties. However, alfalfa is not a tropical plant, thus it has not been widely cultivated in Indonesia. The problem of alfalfa cultivation are high pest attacks and competition with weeds. Therefore, alfalfa cultivation requires attention and good management to obtain optimum yield.

  6. Clustering of HI galaxies in HIPASS and ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Passmoor, S S; Faltenbacher, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the clustering of HI-selected galaxies in the ALFALFA survey and compare results with those obtained for HIPASS. Measurements of the angular correlation function and the inferred 3D-clustering are compared with results from direct spatial-correlation measurements. We are able to measure clustering on smaller angular scales and for galaxies with lower HI masses than was previously possible. We calculate the expected clustering of dark matter using the redshift distributions of HIPASS and ALFALFA and show that the ALFALFA sample is somewhat more anti-biased with respect to dark matter than the HIPASS sample.

  7. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  8. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.

  9. Growth and Production Characteristics of Different Alfalfa Varieties in Jiamusi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xiaohui; Feng; Peng; Jiang; Cheng; Li; Rulai; Zheng; Haiyan; Li; Zengjie; Wang; Qiang

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The growth and production characteristics of different alfalfa varieties in Jiamusi were explored in the paper,in order to better study their cold resistance in northern regions. [Method]The yield traits in different growth periods were measured using randomized block design method. [Results] The plant height of Longmu 803 was the highest of 66. 80 cm on the seeding year; the numbers of plants and branches per unit length of Longmu 808 were the highest of 94 plants and 184 branches,respectively,and its yield was the highest. The overwintering rate of each variety in the region was 100%. The yield of first mowing successively were Longmu 808 > Longmu 80 > Xunlu alfalfa > Aohan alfalfa > Zhaodong alfalfa > Longmu 807; the yield and 1 000-grain weight of Longmu803 were the highest,which were 20. 24 and 0. 09 g higher than control Zhaodong alfalfa,respectively. [Conclusion]The test alfalfa varieties have higher cold resistance in Jiamusi. Longmu 803 and Longmu 808 have both high grass production performance and excellent production performance.

  10. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host. PMID:24510307

  11. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  12. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  13. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  14. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  15. Multiple centroid method to evaluate the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Nascimento

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of multiple centroids to study the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.. In this method, the genotypes are compared with ideotypes defined by the bissegmented regression model, according to the researcher's interest. Thus, genotype classification is carried out as determined by the objective of the researcher and the proposed recommendation strategy. Despite the great potential of the method, it needs to be evaluated under the biological context (with real data. In this context, we used data on the evaluation of dry matter production of 92 alfalfa cultivars, with 20 cuttings, from an experiment in randomized blocks with two repetitions carried out from November 2004 to June 2006. The multiple centroid method proved efficient for classifying alfalfa genotypes. Moreover, it showed no unambiguous indications and provided that ideotypes were defined according to the researcher's interest, facilitating data interpretation.

  16. Adaptability of Alfalfa and Ryegrass to New Reclamation Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZHAO-FENG; ZHANG Lei-na; FENG Yong-jun; KANG Jing-tao

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the adaptability of the alfalfa and ryegrass to the new artificial soil that was composed of fly ash and furfural residue. The potted experiments were taken to compare the growth conditions, yields, and qualities of both grasses. Some pots were covered with wheat stalks and others without. The medium Fluvo-aquic soil was taken as control. The results indicated that the growth of two grasses in the mixture were inferior to their growth in the control in initial period. With the leaching of rain and irrigation, the two grasses improved gradually. The alfalfa and ryegrass both could grow in the new mixture, and the ryegrass would be better to plant in no covered material and the alfalfa in covered. This will be a new way to reclaim subsided land and to improve the environment in mining area.

  17. Effect of Rain Leaching on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Hay

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia de Hernandez, Mercedes M.

    1981-01-01

    Yield and chemical changes of second-cutting alfalfa hay treated with artificial rain were determined in a 2 x 3 x 2 factorial experiment. Factors were 2 stages of maturity (1 late vegetative; 2 early bloom), 3 levels of artificial rain applied (1 =no rain; 2 =low or approximately 5 mm; 3 =high or approximately 20 mm), and 2 times of applying artificial rain (1 = when drying forage was 40-60% dry matter; 2 =when drying forage was 60-75% dry matter). Thirty samples of alfalfa were collected at...

  18. RAPD analysis of alfalfa DNA mutation via N+ implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-Feng; HUANG Qun-Ce; LIANG Yun-Zhang; YU Zeng-Liang

    2003-01-01

    Germination capacity of alfalfa seeds under low energy N+ implantation manifests oscillations goingdown with dose strength. From analyzing alfalfa genome DNA under low energy N+ implantation by RAPD (RandomAmplified Polymorphous DNA), it is recommended that 30 polymorphic DNA fragments be amplified with 8 primersin total 100 primers, and fluorescence intensity of the identical DNA fragments amplified by RAPD is different be-tween CK and treatments. Number of different polymorphic DNA fragments between treatment and CK via N+ im-plantation manifests going up with dose strength.

  19. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Greene

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1 evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2 determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  20. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  1. Erwinia herbicola isolates from alfalfa plants may play a role in nodulation of alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti.

    OpenAIRE

    Handelsman, J; Brill, W J

    1985-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola was isolated from roots of plants derived from surface-sterilized seeds of all alfalfa varieties that were tested. Some of these E. herbicola strains affected nodulation by certain strains of Rhizobium meliloti. In previously published work we presented the isolation of slow-and fast-nodulating variants from a single culture of R. meliloti 102F51. In the absence of E. herbicola, the slow-nodulating variant induced the formation of nodules on alfalfa as rapidly as the faster-...

  2. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  3. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  4. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  5. The radiosensitivity of alfalfa varieties and the fuzzy concentration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dried alfalfa seeds (12.1% moisture) were exposed to 6'0Co γ radiation field with 0∼36.1 C/kg radiation doses (irradiation rate is 2.84 x 10-2 C/(kg·min)) to observe and measure some radio-bio-effectivity. In the range of irradiation doses, vitality index, root length, seedling survival rate, seedling height, plant height and grass yield decreased and pollen sterility, micro-nucleus rate, free radical relative content increased as the amount of radiation increased. The activity of peroxidase increased as the amount of radiation increased within certain range of dose and tended to decreased beyond that range. Vitality index and root length, which dosage effect curve is compatible with multiple targets-single hit model, and seedling survival rate, seedling height, plant height and grass yield, which dosage effect curve is compatible with linear regression model. There were strong co-relations between the seedling height, micro-nucleus cell rate and the free radical relative content (P<0.01). There were very significant difference (P<0.01) between the alfalfa species and varieties. With fuzzy concentration analysis method, the alfalfa sample were classified into five groups: higher sensitive, sensitive, intermediate, resistant, higher resistant. The suitable irradiation doses for the alfalfa species and varieties are between 12.9∼34.8 mCi/kg

  6. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  7. Assessing disease stress and modeling yield losses in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jie

    Alfalfa is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and worldwide. Fungal foliar diseases are believed to cause significant yield losses in alfalfa, yet, little quantitative information exists regarding the amount of crop loss. Different fungicides and application frequencies were used as tools to generate a range of foliar disease intensities in Ames and Nashua, IA. Visual disease assessments (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation) were obtained weekly for each alfalfa growth cycle (two to three growing cycles per season). Remote sensing assessments were performed using a hand-held, multispectral radiometer to measure the amount and quality of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. Factors such as incident radiation, sun angle, sensor height, and leaf wetness were all found to significantly affect the percentage reflectance of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. The precision of visual and remote sensing assessment methods was quantified. Precision was defined as the intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability of assessment methods. F-tests, slopes, intercepts, and coefficients of determination (R2) were used to compare assessment methods for precision. Results showed that among the three visual disease assessment methods (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation), percentage defoliation had the highest intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Remote sensing assessment method had better precision than the percentage defoliation assessment method based upon higher intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Significant linear relationships between canopy reflectance (810 nm), percentage defoliation and yield were detected using linear regression and percentage reflectance (810 nm) assessments were found to have a stronger relationship with yield than percentage defoliation assessments. There were also significant linear relationships between percentage defoliation, dry

  8. Revisiting the Economic Injury Level and Economic Threshold Model for Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, Elissa M; Undersander, Dan J; Cullen, Eileen M

    2015-08-01

    The economic injury level for potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was developed over 30 yr ago. In response to increasing market value of alfalfa, farmers and consultants are interested in reducing the economic threshold for potato leafhopper in alfalfa. To address this question, caged field trials were established on two consecutive potato leafhopper susceptible crops in 2013. Field cages were infested with a range of potato leafhopper densities to create a linear regression of alfalfa yield response. The slopes, or yield loss per insect, for the linear regressions of both trials were used to calculate an economic injury level for a range of current alfalfa market values and control costs. This yield-loss relationship is the first quantification that could be used to help assess whether the economic threshold should be lowered, given the increased market value of alfalfa.

  9. Growth With of Alfalfa Mutant in Different Nitrogen Fertilizer and Defoliation Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyati Slamet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate growth  of alfalfa mutan (plant height increment, number of leaves and dry matter production in different  Nitrogen Fertilizer and defoliation intensity. The design used was randomized block design 4x2 factorial with 3 replications. The first was dosage of Nitrogen fertilizerNitrogen   (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N / ha,  the second factor was defoliation intensity (5 and 10 cm. Variables observed alfalfa growth (plant height increment, number of leaves, the production of dry matter (DM forage. The results showed that different N fertilization did not affect the growth of alfalfa mutants. Defoliation intensity  affectedmnumber of leaves and   DM  production of alfalfa mutant. Fertilization to 90 kg N / ha has not affected the growth and   defoliation  intensity 10 cm gave better growth on alfalfa mutant.   [Keywords: alfalfa mutant; Nitrogen fertilizer; defoliation; growth

  10. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  11. Population dynamics of overwintering life stages of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal)

    OpenAIRE

    Hilburn, Daniel J.

    1985-01-01

    Virginia is a natural laboratory for studying overwintering habits of the alfalfa weevi1. At higher elevations, winters are relatively harsh and weevil pressure on the alfalfa crop is usually light. Much heavier pressure is the rule at lower elevations where winters are milder. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of fall and winter temperatures, parasites, and fall regrowth management on population dynamics of overwintering stages of this insect. Sixteen commercial alfalfa field...

  12. Impact of Bee Species and Plant Density on Alfalfa Pollination and Potential for Gene Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Johanne Brunet; Stewart, Christy M.

    2010-01-01

    In outcrossing crops like alfalfa, various bee species can contribute to pollination and gene flow in seed production fields. With the increasing use of transgenic crops, it becomes important to determine the role of these distinct pollinators on alfalfa pollination and gene flow. The current study examines the relative contribution of honeybees, three bumble bee species, and three solitary bee species to pollination and gene flow in alfalfa. Two wild solitary bee species and one wild bumble ...

  13. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  14. Bioinformatics Analysis of Zinc Transporter from Baoding Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo WANG; Junyun GUO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to perform the bioinformatics analysis of Zinc transporter (ZnT) from Baoding Alfalfa. [Method] Based on the amino acid sequence, the physical and chemical properties, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, secondary structure of ZnT from Baoding alfalfa were predicted by a series of bioinformatics software. And the transmembrane domains were predicted by using different online tools. [Result] ZnT is a hydrophobic protein containing 408 amino acids with the theoretical pl of 5.94, and it has 7 potential transmembrane hydrophobic regions. In the sec- ondary structure, co-helix (Hh) accounted for 48.04%, extended strand (Ee) for 9.56%, random coil (Cc) for 42.40%, which was accored with the characteristic of transmembrane protein. [Conclusion] mZnT is a member of CDF family, responsible for transporting Zn^2+ out of the cell membrane to reduce the concentration and toxicity of Zn^2+.

  15. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  16. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (pducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  17. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Suess, Katherine A; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI), OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 HI optical counterparts. Sixty candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colors of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ fro...

  18. Photosynthate partitioning in alfalfa before harvest and during regrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the harvest regrowth cycle of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants, factors such as source to sink distance, sink size, and inter-organ competition continually change. However, consequent changes in the pattern of photosynthate partitioning from leaves to other organs are poorly understood. The authors objective was to examine photosynthate partitioning from upper and lower alfalfa leaves at intervals before herbage harvest and during regrowth after harvest. The uppermost or lowest fully expanded leaf on the longest or dominant stem was labeled with 14CO2. After a 24-h translocation period, the plants were divided into various organs to determine distribution of the radiocarbon. At that time, the upper leaf preferentially partitioned photosynthate to the shoot apex, unexpanded leaves and auxillary shoots of the dominant shoot, whereas the lower leaf preferentially distributed photosynthate to the crown shoots, crown, root, and nodules. Expressions of 14C partitioning were affected differently by organ mass. While the smallest organs such as nodules and unexpanded leaves always ranked higher for 14C based on relative specific activity, the largest organs such as roots and crown shoots accumulated the largest percentage of total plant recovered radioactivity. The results illustrate the importance of growth stage and leaf position in photosynthate partitioning in alfalfa and the dominance of herbage meristems for current photosynthate during regrowth

  19. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in monkeys fed alfalfa sprouts: role of a nonprotein amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Bardana, E J; Pirofsky, B; Craig, S; McLaughlin, P

    1982-04-23

    Hematologic and serologic abnormalities similar to those observed in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed in cynomolgus macaques fed alfalfa sprouts. L-Canavanine sulfate, a constituent of alfalfa sprouts, was incorporated into the diet and reactivated the syndrome in monkeys in which an SLE-like syndrome had previously been induced by the ingestion of alfalfa seeds or sprouts. PMID:7071589

  20. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, reproductive success according to location of nests in U.S. commercial domiciles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. Variable microenvironments are experienced by developing alfalfa leafcutt...

  1. A system for identification of candidate genes controlling cell wall synthesis in alfalfa stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usefulness of alfalfa for livestock feeding and production of lignocellulose-derived ethanol would be improved by genetic alteration of stem cell wall concentration and composition. This could be accomplished through selective breeding and transgenic technologies. However, development of alfalfa cel...

  2. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can serve as a cover crop and subsequent forage crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...

  3. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  4. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks.

  5. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  6. The Productivity and Quality of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in Romanian Forest Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai STAVARACHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative use of alfalfa, for various purposes, including the production of biofuels or food supplement for human alimentation, is a study topic still in its early stages of research. Studying and understanding the biology of alfalfa and the factors with a major influence on it are very important activities. The productivity and quality of alfalfa are two indicators that help determine, in addition to economic value, the way in which alfalfa can be used. Evolution of alfalfa yield and quality depends on many factors, such as the growth stage of alfalfa plants at harvesting. It was observed over three years of vegetation the influence of alfalfa plant growth stage at harvest on plant height, leaves/stems ratio, production of leaves, stems and whole plant (DM - dry matter per hectare and on quality indicators (CP - crude protein, NDF - neutral detergent fiber and ADF - acid detergent fiber. The results showed that, with the advancement of phenological phases, from early bud stage to complete flowering, the total biomass output raised from 2.79 Mg·ha-1 to 4.60 Mg·ha-1, the neutral detergent fiber raised from 48.4-50.6% to 62.0-67.7%, while crude protein content decreased from 21.2-24.0% to 13.3-16.5%. The parameter values were correlated with alfalfa growth stage during the harvesting (significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels.

  7. Complete genome sequence of a new enamovirus from Argentina infecting alfalfa plants showing dwarfism symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Alfalfa dwarf disease, probably caused by synergistic interactions of mixed virus infections, is a major and emergent disease that threatens alfalfa production in Argentina. Deep sequencing of diseased alfalfa plant samples from the central region of Argentina resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling enamoviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Enamovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "alfalfa enamovirus 1" (AEV-1). The availability of the AEV-1 genome sequence will make it possible to assess the genetic variability of this virus and to construct an infectious clone to investigate its role in alfalfa dwarfism disease. PMID:27068164

  8. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.

  9. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  10. Fungicide tests on adult alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, C I; James, R R; Bosch, J; Kemp, W P

    2008-08-01

    Chalkbrood is a serious disease of alfalfa leafcutting bee Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) larvae, causing upward of 20% infection in the field. The causative agent is the fungus Ascosphaera aggregata. This bee is used extensively for alfalfa seed pollination in the United States. Using laboratory bioassays, we previously demonstrated that fungicides can reduce chalkbrood levels in the larvae. Here, we evaluate the toxicity of four fungicides, Benlate, Captan, Orbit, and Rovral, to adult bees by using three different bioassays. In the first test, fungicides were applied to bees' thoraces. In the second test, mimicking foliage residue, a piece of filter paper soaked in fungicide was placed on the bottom of a container of bees. The third test evaluated oral toxicity by incorporating fungicides into a sugar-water solution that was fed to the bees. The filter paper test did not discriminate among the fungicides well, and the oral test resulted in the greatest mortality. Toxicity to males was greater than to females. The use of fungicides for chalkbrood control is a logical choice, but caution should be used in how they are applied in the presence of bees. PMID:18767714

  11. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  12. Gas, Stars and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, S; Giovanelli, R; Brinchmann, J; Stierwalt, S; Neff, S G

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and HI components of 229 low HI mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with HI masses < 10^{7.7} M_sun and HI line widths < 80 km s^{-1}. SDSS data are combined with photometric properties derived from GALEX to derive stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs) and estimates of their SFRs and M_* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M_* < 10^8 M_sun is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of t...

  13. Study on Alfalfa Yield Improved by New Rare Earth Materials for Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Tianwen; Abudukahar; Cui Yingguo; Peng Jianzhang; Wang Jiachen

    2004-01-01

    New rare earth(RE) materials for agriculture including RE entire nutrition agent, amino acid chelated RE fertilizer, RE phosphate were used to alfalfa production in Grassland Working Station of Yili, Xinjiang Province, and repetition was 3 with 7 treatments.The result shows that by using new RE materials, the average treatment height of alfalfa increases by 12.5% compared with traditional cultural, and the yield increases from 21.8% to 41.6% compared with that of traditional cultural.These results show that the new materials have significant good effect on alfalfa production.

  14. Study in mutation of alfalfa genome DNA due to low energy N+ implantation using RAPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After implanted by various dosage N+ beams, germination rate of alfalfa seeds appears to be saddle line with dosage increasing. The authors have studied in mutation of genome DNA due to low energy N+ implantation, and concluded that 30 differential DNA fragments have been amplified by 8 primers (S41, S42, S45, S46, S50, S52, S56, S58) in 100 primers, moreover, number of differential DNA fragments between CK and treatments increases with dosage. Consequently, low energy ion implantation can cause mutation of alfalfa genome DNA. The more dosage it is, the more mutation alfalfa will be

  15. PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN KECERNAAN BAHAN KERING ALFALFA DENGAN PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sunarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago    sativa    L. as one of legume forage crops for ruminant livestock is very sensitive to the phosphorus deficiency. Phosphorus fertilizers have been used widely to overcome those problem. However, the high cost of superphosphate (SP is now focusing attention on cheaper rock phosphate (RP fertilizer. A field experiment was conducted on a latosolic soil (low pH, and low available Bray II extractable P. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer from difference sources on dry matter production, and in    vitro dry matter digestibility of alfalfa. Completely randomized block design with 7 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this field experiment. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (SP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T2 (SP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T3 (SP, 300 kg P2O5/ha, T4 (RP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T5 (RP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T6 (RP, 300 kg P2O5/ha. Size of each plot was 2 m x 2 m, and fertilized with P fertilizer (SP, RP according to the assigned treatment. All plot received basal fertilizer of urea (50 kg N/ha, KCl (100 kg K2O/ha and poultry manure (2 ton/ha. Medicago    sativa was defoliated on 12 weeks after planting and analyzed for dry matter (DM production and in    vitro DM digestibility. Result showed that DM production significantly influenced by the treatments. Superphosphate fertilization resulted DM production significantly higher compared to control and RP, except on RP 300 kg P2O5/ha was non-significant difference. In    vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of alfalfa was not affected by the treatment. There was non-significant difference in IVDMD between the treatments. Therefore, RP (300 kg P2O5/ha could replace SP to increased DM production and not affected for IVDMD of Medicago    sativa in acid latosolic soil.

  16. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  17. Studies on the Alfalfa Growing Effects of Alfalfa Rhizobium%苜蓿根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊川; 杨旭升; 曹亚斌

    2015-01-01

    通过不同剂量苜蓿根瘤菌接种两种紫花苜蓿试验,比较了接种根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长的影响。试验结果表明:接种苜蓿根瘤菌剂能够提高紫花苜蓿结瘤数量和根瘤重,促进紫花苜蓿的生长发育,增加苜蓿草的产草量。在所试验的接种剂量中,以每 kg 苜蓿种子接种12mL 根瘤菌剂为最佳接种量。%This paper studied the alfalfa growing effects of alfalfa rhizobium by inoculated different amounts.The experimental results showed that inoculating rhizobium can raise the nodulating amount of alfalfa and the weight of nodulations,promoting the growth of alfalfas and augment the productions of alfalfas.Among the different inoculated amounts,the amount of 12ml is the best inoculated amount.

  18. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata: the world's most intensively managed solitary bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Cane, James H

    2011-01-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (ALCB), Megachile rotundata F. (Megachildae), was accidentally introduced into the United States by the 1940s. Nest management of this Eurasian nonsocial pollinator transformed the alfalfa seed industry in North America, tripling seed production. The most common ALCB management practice is the loose cell system, in which cocooned bees are removed from nesting cavities for cleaning and storage. Traits of ALCBs that favored their commercialization include gregarious nesting; use of leaves for lining nests; ready acceptance of affordable, mass-produced nesting materials; alfalfa pollination efficacy; and emergence synchrony with alfalfa bloom. The ALCB became a commercial success because much of its natural history was understood, targeted research was pursued, and producer ingenuity was encouraged. The ALCB presents a model system for commercializing other solitary bees and for advancing new testable hypotheses in diverse biological disciplines. PMID:20809804

  19. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jiao, E-mail: qujiao@bhu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Luo, Chunqiu, E-mail: fplj_lcq@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Qian; Cong, Qiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Yuan, Xing [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production.

  20. Phosphorylation of alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Suk; Halk, Edward L; Merlo, Donald J; Nelson, Steven E; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2014-07-01

    The 32-kDa movement protein, P3, of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is essential for cell-to-cell spread of the virus in plants. P3 shares many properties with other virus movement proteins (MPs); however, it is not known if P3 is posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which is important for the function of other MPs. When expressed in Nicotiana tabacum, P3 accumulated primarily in the cell walls of older leaves or in the cytosol of younger leaves. When expressed in Pischia pastoris, P3 accumulated primarily in a soluble form. Metabolic labeling indicated that a portion of P3 was phosphorylated in both tobacco and yeast, suggesting that phosphorylation regulates the function of this protein as it does for other virus MPs. PMID:24435161

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana is an asymptomatic host of Alfalfa mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Ibrahim, Amr; Kim, Bong-Suk; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2006-11-01

    The susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to infection by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was evaluated. Thirty-nine ecotypes supported both local and systemic infection, 26 ecotypes supported only local infection, and three ecotypes could not be infected. No obvious symptoms characteristic of virus infection developed on the susceptible ecotypes under standard conditions of culture. Parameters of AMV infection were characterized in ecotype Col-0, which supported systemic infection and accumulated higher levels of AMV than the symptomatic host Nicotiana tabacum. The formation of infectious AMV particles in infected Col-0 was confirmed by infectivity assays on a hypersensitive host and by electron microscopy of purified virions. Replication and transcription of AMV was confirmed by de novo synthesis of AMV subgenomic RNA in Col-0 protoplasts transfected with AMV RNA or plasmids harboring AMV cDNAs. PMID:16875753

  2. HI Gas in Early Type Galaxies as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Wendy; Morrison, Ryan; Green, Jarred; Raskin, Mark; Crawford, Connor; Bomer-Lawson, August; Hannan, Joshua; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of 1580 early type galaxies (ETGs) in a total sample of 7747 galaxies that have HI measurements or upper limits from the ALFALFA survey. We find a significant correlation between HI content and local density, with HI detections almost exclusively in low-density environments. Using optical line ratios, we split the population into galaxies with spectral lines dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and dominated by star forming regions. Compared with HI-rich star forming ETGs, HI-rich ETGs with AGN tend to be brighter and redder and to exhibit a stronger correlation between stellar mass and HI mass. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  3. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-06-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones. Based on observations made with the Arecibo Observatory and the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana and the Universities Space Research Association. GALEX is operated for NASA by the California Institute of Technology under NASA contract NAS5-98034.

  4. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  5. ALFALFA Hα Reveals How Galaxies Use their HI Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally; Salzer, John; Van Sistine, Angela; Bell, Eric; Haynes, Martha

    2015-08-01

    Atomic hydrogen traces the raw material from which molecular clouds and stars form. With the ALFALFA Hα survey, a statistically complete subset of the ALFALFA survey, we examine the processes that affect galaxies’ abilities to access and consume their HI gas. On galaxy-wide scales, HI gas fractions correlate only weakly with instantaneous specific star formation rates (sSFRs) but tightly with galaxy color. We show that a connection between dust and HI content, arising from the fundamental mass-metallicity-HI relation, leads to this tight color correlation. We find that disk galaxies follow a relation between stellar surface density and HI depletion time, consistent with a scenario in which higher mid-plane pressure leads to more efficient molecular cloud formation from HI. In contrast, spheroids show no such trend. Starbursts, identified by Hα equivalent width, do not show enhanced HI gas fractions relative to similar mass non-starburst galaxies. The starbursts’ shorter HI depletion times indicate more efficient consumption of HI, and galaxy interactions drive this enhanced star formation efficiency in several starbursts. Interestingly, the most disturbed starbursts show greater enhancements in HI gas fraction, which may indicate an excess of HI at early merger stages. At low galaxy stellar masses, the triggering mechanism for starbursts is less clear; the high scatter in efficiency and sSFR among low-mass galaxies may result from periodic bursts. We find no evidence for depleted HI reservoirs in starbursts, which suggests that galaxies may maintain sufficient HI to fuel multiple starburst episodes.

  6. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  7. Role of silicon counteracting cadmium toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Kabir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase and MsMT2 (metallothionein] and PC (phytochelatin accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter, MsNramp1 (metal transporter and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants.

  8. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  9. HI Gas in Large-Scale Filaments as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Skye; Phi, An; Shah, Ebrahim; Livecchi, Jack; Yu, Yang; Gengras, Graeme; Wolfe, Pierre-Francois; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Hyman, Mario; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We assess the relationship between galaxy environment and HI content as measured by ALFALFA. In particular, we consider membership in large-scale filaments in order to provide clues to how star formation in galaxies is quenched in different environments. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to define galaxy environments in terms of clusters, filaments, and voids for a sample of galaxies with z ALFALFA. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  10. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  11. Comparative physiological and transcriptional analyses of two contrasting drought tolerant alfalfa varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli eQuan; Xun eLiu; Haiqing eWang; Zhulong eChan

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological and transcriptional levels. Under ...

  12. Comparative Physiological and Transcriptional Analyses of Two Contrasting Drought Tolerant Alfalfa Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Wenli; Liu, Xun; Wang, Haiqing; Chan, Zhulong

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological, and transcriptional levels. Under...

  13. Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator, Novaluron on Immature Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    OpenAIRE

    Erin W Hodgson; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L.; James D. Barbour

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-p...

  14. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or perennial ryegrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K; Casler, M D

    1998-01-01

    The nutrient contents of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are reasonably similar. Despite similarities, the lactation performance of dairy cows fed perennial ryegrass has not been compared with the lactation performance of dairy cows fed alfalfa. The present study was implemented to compare the performance of lactating cows fed alfalfa or perennial ryegrass silage. Alfalfa and perennial ryegrass were harvested at late bud and boot stages of maturity, respectively, and ensiled in separate 4.9- x 18.3-m concrete silos. The experimental silages were supplemented with a concentrate mix at 31.1% of dietary dry matter and fed to 18 multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation in a crossover experimental design with 28-d periods. Digestibility and rate of passage of experimental diets were also measured using rare earth markers. The perennial ryegrass contained 3.0 percentage units more neutral detergent fiber than did alfalfa, but in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was 8.8 percentage units higher for perennial ryegrass. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was also higher for perennial ryegrass. Cows fed alfalfa silage produced more milk (31.8 kg/d) than did cows fed perennial ryegrass silage (30.2 kg/d). Cows fed perennial ryegrass silage ate less feed (2.2 kg/d) than did cows fed alfalfa. Because dry matter intake was lower, diet digestibilities were higher, and rate of passage was slower, for cows consuming perennial ryegrass. Based on laboratory evaluations, perennial ryegrass silage has high nutritional quality, but performance of lactating cows indicated that the forage was suboptimal for supporting high milk production when compared with alfalfa. The perennial ryegrass silage was suboptimal because it did not stimulate high amounts of dry matter intake in lactating cows. PMID:9493091

  15. Alfalfa water use pinpointed in saline, shallow water tables of Imperial Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, Khaled M.; Grismer, Mark E.; Snyder, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Although alfalfa is the dominant water user in the Imperial Valley and is planted on 40% of its irrigated acreage, data is incomplete regarding its water use under the most common growing conditions: moderately saline, clay soils with a relatively shallow, moderately saline water table. In a study from 1996 through 1998, we determined the seasonal variation in the alfalfa crop coefficient (Kc), based on measurements of applied water and soil-moisture depletion, and the contribution from the w...

  16. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa. PMID:27400509

  17. Germinación y crecimiento de alfalfa bajo condiciones salinas Germination and growth of alfalfa under saline conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lucía González-Romero

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En México, el cultivo de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. se emplea para la alimentación del ganado bovino, éste cuenta con investigaciones de respuestas a estrés salino en la etapa de germinación; sin embargo, sólo se han usado diferentes niveles de NaCl o de manitol y polietilenglicol; por lo anterior, los objetivos de esta investigación fue estudiar la respuesta a la salinidad, que se presenta en zonas áridas y semiáridas de México de la alfalfa en la etapa de germinación y evaluar su efecto sobre el crecimiento de la radícula y la parte aérea. Para cumplir lo anterior, en el laboratorio de salinidad del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas durante el 2009, las semillas se sometieron a pruebas de germinación en un diseño factorial de 11 soluciones salinas a ocho dosis (0, 2, 4, 8, 11.7, 15, 19 y 28 dS m-1 y tres repeticiones. Se observó que las sales NaHCO3 y sulfático-sódica influyeron más sobre la germinación; y las sales CaCl2 2H2O y sulfática registraron el mayor porcentaje de germinación; para el crecimiento de radícula la sal que más afectó fue el NaHCO3 y la salinidad sulfática; las sales CaCl2 2H2O y sulfático-clorhídrica permitieron mayor desarrollo. El crecimiento de la parte aérea fue más afectado en comparación al desarrollo de la radícula. La mezcla de sales favoreció el porcentaje de germinación, el crecimiento de radícula y parte aérea.In Mexico, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is used for feeding cattle and has been studied for responses to salt stress in the germination phase; however, only NaCl or mannitol and polyethylene glycols have been used in different levels. Due to this, the aims of this research were to study the response of alfalfa in the germination stage to the salinity of the arid and semiarid areas in Mexico, and to evaluate its effect on the growth of the radicle and aerial section. In order to achieve this, in the salinity lab of the Colegio de Postgraduados en

  18. El cultivo de alfalfa utilizando agua de perforación, agua residual urbana y precipitaciones The cultivation of alfalfa using artesian well water, urban wastewater and rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Plevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la producción de biomasa aérea, la eficiencia del uso de agua y el valor nutritivo de alfalfa cultivada aplicando riego con agua residual urbana, agua de perforación y un testigo (precipitaciones, en el Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. Los tratamientos de riego tuvieron un efecto positivo sobre la producción de biomasa aérea obteniéndose un 24% más de producción de biomasa que en la situación de secano (precipitaciones. Entre los tratamientos con riego también se manifestaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La alfalfa regada con aguas residuales urbana supero en un 19% a la cultivada con agua de perforación. La eficiencia del uso del agua por parte del cultivo se incrementó cuando el riego se realizó con aguas residuales urbanas. Además, se determinó que la alfalfa regada con agua residual, supera los valores nutritivos del cultivo que crece en condiciones sin riego; encontrándose 39% más de proteínas, 14% más de digestibilidad e igual porcentaje de energía metabólica. Se puede concluir que el agua residual urbana representa otra posible fuente de agua, factible de ingresar al suelo y estar a disposición para el cultivo de alfalfa.The objective of this study was to analyse the production of alfalfa biomass, the efficiency of water use and the nutritional value of forage, inside an irrigation structure of an experimental facility that uses treated urban wastewater, artesian well water and rainfall, at the campus of the Universidad National de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. The irrigation treatment had a positive effect on the production of biomass of alfalfa. On an average 24% increase in production was observed when compared to dry-land farming. Regarding the quality of the irrigation water, statistical differences in production were observed, the irrigation with urban wastewater produced 19% more than that of well water. The

  19. Effect of replacing alfalfa with panicled-tick clover or sericea lespedeza in corn-alfalfa-based substrates on in vitro ruminal methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, H D; Lambert, B D; Armstrong, S A; Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Muir, J P; Ellersieck, M R

    2015-06-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock contribute to total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reduce metabolizable energy intake by the animal. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenolic plant secondary compounds commonly produced by some perennial forage legumes that characteristically bind to protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. The degree to which CT may affect ruminant nutrition depends upon the concentration, structural composition, and biological activity of the CT. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa in a corn-alfalfa-based substrate with a legume containing CT on in vitro CH4 production and the dynamics of fermentation using an in vitro gas production technique. All fermented substrates contained 50% ground corn as the energy concentrate portion, whereas the forage portion (50%) of each diet was comprised of alfalfa (control) or some combination of alfalfa and sericea lespedeza (SL) or panicled-tick clover (PTC). Our treatments consisted of PTC or SL 15, 30, and 45, which corresponded with 15, 30, or 45% replacement of the diet (alfalfa component) with either PTC or SL. Substrates containing 45% PTC or SL reduced in vitro CH4 production. Treatments did not affect total gas production as compared with that of the control. Replacement of alfalfa with SL or PTC increased fermentable organic matter (FOM). The PTC treatment increased FOM by as much as 1.8% at the 45% replacement level, whereas FOM of SL 45 was increased by less than 1%. The replacement of alfalfa with PTC increased substrate nutritive value greater than replacement with SL. There were no correlations between any physicochemical constituent of the substrates and CH4 production. A combination of factors associated with the inclusion of PTC and SL contributed to the in vitro CH4 production, and CT in these forages was likely a major contributing factor. Further confirmation of these results on in situ or in vivo animal systems is required. If

  20. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards. PMID:23786042

  1. Structural Change of the Western United States Alfalfa Hay Market and its Effects of the Western United States Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cann, Joseph Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa is the fourth largest commodity grown in the Western U.S., representing 20% of the crop acreage over the past twenty years. In the last five years alfalfa hay price has doubled from what it was previously, indicating a possible structural change in the market. This research project was completed to test for this structural change using econometric analysis of the important demand components of alfalfa price. In addition to this, simulations of an average Utah dairy were completed to e...

  2. 苜蓿的药用功效和开发利用%Medicinal Effects, Development and Utilization of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 石杰; 王云云; 尤秋实

    2011-01-01

    The development history of alfalfa, the relationship between the nutrients of alfalfa and the human health and the development and utilization of alfalfa were introduced. And some suggestions on the development of alfalfa were also proposed.%阐述了苜蓿发展的历史、苜蓿所合营养元素与人类健康的关系和苜蓿的开发利用情况,并对苜蓿产业的发展提出了建议。

  3. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaojuan, E-mail: xiaojuanwang@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Song, Yu [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Environment Management College of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma Yanhua [Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhuo Renying [Key Lab of Tree Genomics, Research Institute of Subtropical of Forest, Chinese Academy of Forest, Fuyang 311400 (China); Jin Liang [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China)

    2011-12-15

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible. - Highlights: > Evaluate Cd tolerance in wide sources of alfalfa accessions. > Identify Cd-hyperaccumulators potentially useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments. > Cloned differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes. > Characteristics and deduced protein sequence of MsMT2a and MsMT2b were analyzed. > MsMT2a might be a universally gene of alfalfa but MsMT2b might be an inductive gene. - Two Cd tolerant alfalfa genotypes were screened and their metallothionein genes were cloned which showed that MsMT2a was universally expressed but MsMT2b was Cd inducible expression.

  4. Effectivenes of inoculation in alfalfa breeding in ecological conditions of the Bjelovar and Bilogora county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Development and basic existence of animal production as well as production of high quality milk depends upon possibility of sufficient production of quality and protein sufficient forage. Forage crop that satisfies these demands is alfalfa which is one of the most important perennial forage crop legumes. The aim of this study was to enhance alfalfa production on acid soil by liming and alfalfa seed inoculation with efficient Sinorhizobium meliloti strains in order to reduce the use of mineral nitrogen fertilization and enable qualitative and cost effective production of forage on the dairy farms. Field trial was established at family farm in the area of Bjelovar and Bilogora county. During two years experimental period statistically significant influence of inoculation and liming on forage and dry matteryield was determined. Significantly the lowest yields were determined on untreated plots without liming material. In all untreated plots, significantly lower yields were determined, but significant differences in yields were also obtained by inoculation with different S. meliloti strains, emphasizing the importance of strains selection used for alfalfa inoculation. In both experimental years total forage yield were ranging from 34 t/ha (untreated plots without liming up to 60 t/ha on plots inoculated with strain 2011 and without liming. Values of total dry matter yield for both experimental years ranged from 6.5 t/ha (untreated plots without liming up to 15,7 t/ha on plots inoculated with strain 2011 without liming. Results of this study showed that application of liming materials for acidity removal had positive effect on alfalfa yields in both experimental years and significantly improved alfalfa production on acid soils. The results of this study clearly showed that inoculation with selected S. meliloti strains may improve alfalfa production on acid soils and may contribute to more efficient forage production for dairy farms under particular

  5. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  6. Aerobic microorganisms associated with alfalfa leafcutter bees (megachile rotundata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G D; Sigler, L; Goette, M S

    1993-09-01

    Characterization of microorganisms associated with alfalfa leaf-cutter bee (Megachile rotundata) nectar, pollen, provisions, larval guts, and frass (excreta) in Alberta demonstrated a varied aerobic microflora. Yeasts were isolated frequently from nectar, pollen, and provisions but rarely from guts or frass. The most prevalent yeast taxa were: Candida bombicola, Cryptococcus albidus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Rhodotorula glutinis. Although few filamentous fungi were found in nectar, they were frequently isolated from pollen and provisions; the predominant taxa were Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Bacteria, including species of Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and the actinomycete Streptomyces, also were prevalent in provisions and/or on pollen. In general, the diversity of microorganisms isolated from alimentary canals and frass was lower than from nectar, pollen, and provisions. Bacillus firmus, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and Streptomyces spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria, whereas Trichosporonoides megachiliensis was the most common filamentous fungus isolated from larval guts and/or frass. These taxa may be part of the resident microflora of the alimentary canal. Populations of bacteria and filamentous fungi, but not yeasts, were larger from Ascosphaera aggregata-infected larvae than from healthy larvae. However, with the exception of Aspergillus niger and T. megachiliensis in frass from healthy larvae, no taxon of filamentous fungi was conspicuously present or absent in infected larvae, healthy larvae, or their frass. PMID:24190009

  7. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from alfalfa and its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Dong, Xiaofang; Tong, Jianming

    2013-11-01

    In this present study, an efficient complex enzyme-assisted extraction technology was developed and optimized to extract polysaccharides from alfalfa using four factors at five levels central composite rotatable response surface design (CCRD). The experimental data was fitted to a second order polynomial equation with high coefficient of determination values (R(2)>0.95). The results of statistical analysis showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects (Penzyme concentration of 2.5%, 2.0%, 3.0% (weight of alfalfa) of cellulase, papain and pectase, extraction temperature 52.7 °C, extraction pH 3.87, ratio of water to raw material 78.92 mL/g and extraction time 2.73 h. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental extraction yield of alfalfa polysaccharides was 5.05 ± 0.02%, which was well matched with the value (5.09%) predicted by the CCRD model. Moreover, evaluation of the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from alfalfa in vitro suggested that the polysaccharides had good antioxidant effect, especially scavenging activity for hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical, which indicated that the polysaccharides from alfalfa may be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  8. Research Progress of Alfalfa Silage%苜蓿青贮研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振宇; 玉柱; 智建飞; 谢楠; 秦文利; 冯伟; 刘忠宽

    2013-01-01

    As an important protein feed resources, alfalfa silage is of great significance for alfalfa industry and the healthy development of animal husbandry in China.In this paper, the research progress of development history and present situation of alfalfa silage, fermentation promotation, fermentation inhibiting and mixed silage were summarized, and the current main problems in alfalfa silage industry development and future research directions were put forward, in order to provide theoretical and practical references for the alfalfa silage research.%苜蓿作为一种重要的蛋白饲料资源,苜蓿青贮对我国苜蓿产业和畜牧业的健康发展具有重要意义。对苜蓿青贮发展历史与现状以及发酵促进、发酵抑制及混合青贮等研究进行了概述,提出了当前苜蓿青贮产业发展中存在的主要问题和今后的研究方向,以期为苜蓿青贮研究提供理论依据与实践参考。

  9. Yield, chemical composition and persistence of alfalfa on moderately acidic mountain soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Leto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its excellent nutritional characteristics and high yields, alfalfa is the most important forage crop in roughage production. The main limiting factor in global food production is soil acidification. At the moment, about 40% of world agricultural soils are acidic. It is difficult to grow alfalfa on acid soils (pH 0.05. Average DM yield of all cultivars in the year 2000 was 7.07 t/ha, in the year 2001 it was 10.94 t/ha, and finally in the year 2002 it was 12.78 t/ha. Significant differences in DM yields were recorded between cuttings (P0.05. Mean crude protein content was 28.2%, while contents of crude fat, crude fibers and non nitrogen free extract (NFE were 3.73%, 16.15%, 29.19%, respectively. No significant differences in alfalfa ground cover were recorded between cultivars in autumn or in spring in all experimental years (P>0.05. Significant differences in alfalfa ground cover in autumn (P<0.05 and in spring (P<0.01 were recorded between years. The lowest average ground cover was recorded in last experimental year: in the autumn of the year 2001(72.81% and in the spring of the year 2002 (64.37%. All investigated alfalfa cultivars are suitable for growing in similar agroecological conditions.

  10. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. PMID:21439724

  11. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  12. Proteome analysis of alfalfa roots in response to water deifcit stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahman Md Atikur; Kim Yong-Goo; AlamIftekhar; LIU Gong-she; Lee Hyoshin; Lee Jeung Joo; Lee Byung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the response of alfalfa to water deifcit (WD) stress, WD-induced candidates were investigated through a proteomic approach. Alfalfa seedlings were exposed to WD stress for 12 and 15 days respectively, folowed by 3 days re-watering. Water deifcit increased H2O2content, lipid peroxidation, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)-radical scavenging activity, and the free proline level in alfalfa roots. Root proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimentional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 49 WD-responsive proteins were identiifed in alfalfa roots; 25 proteins were reproducibly found to be up-regulated and 24 were down-regulated. Two proteins, namely cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APx2) and putative F-box protein were newly detected on 2-DE maps of WD-treated plants. We identiifed several proteins including agamous-like 65, albumin b-32, inward rectifying potassium channel, and auxin-independent growth promoter. The identiifed proteins are involved in a variety of celular functions including calcium signaling, abacisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation, transcription/ translation, antioxidant/detoxiifcation/stress defense, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and storage. These results indicate the potential candidates were responsible for adaptive response in alfalfa roots.

  13. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Jonker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  14. Implications of season and management protocol on the landscape of gene regulation during diapause development in the Alfalfa Leaf Cutting Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    : The alfalfa leaf cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee for commercial pollination. It is the primary pollinator of seed alfalfa, a valuable crop for dairy cow feed. Overwintering bees emerge in the spring during alfalfa bloom to mate an...

  15. Plant density and maturity stage impacts on stem cell wall composition in high quality and non-lodging alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can affect energy availability in livestock production systems and energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Knowledge of the environmental variability of cell wall concentration and composi...

  16. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  17. Effect of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed development and viability in genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral populations of cultivated crops have the potential to function as bridges and reservoirs that contribute to the unwanted movement of novel genetically engineered (GE) traits. Recognizing that feral alfalfa has the potential to lower genetic purity in alfalfa seed production fields when it is g...

  18. Screening of Highly Effective Sinorhizobium meliloti Strains for 'Vector' Alfalfa and Testing of Its Competitive Nodulation Ability in the Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhao-Hai; CHEN Wen-Xin; HU Yue-Gao; SUI Xin-Hua; CHEN Dan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen Sinorhizobium meliloti strains from seven provinces in China were used to screen highly effective strains for alfalfa cultivar in a greenhouse study and their symbiotic relationship and competitive ability were studied in the field.CCBAU30138 was the most effective strain,as evidenced by increase in dry weights.A field experiment showed that the inoculation of alfalfa with CCBAU30138 resulted in increases of 11.9%and 19.6%of dry matter production and crude protein production,respectively,in forage of monocultured plants.The total dry matter yields of alfalfa and tall fescue in binary culture were increased by 16.3%by inoculation of alfalfa with this strain.These results showed that S.Meliloti strain CCBAU30138 was an effective inoculant both in the greenhouse and in the field.The analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD)by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)from nodule extracts showed that the strain CCBAU30138 had high competitiveness in the field.It occupied 47.5%of nodules in alfalfa monoculture and 44.4% of nodules in alfalfa-tall fescue binary culture after 20 weeks of growth.In conclusion,a simple system to select highly effective and competitive symbiotic strains specific to alfalfa was established.Using this system.A strain suitable for the alfalfa cultivar'Vector’grown in Wuqiao County of Hebei Province was obtained.

  19. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors sup

  20. Molecular Biology Approaches to Solve Forage Crop Limitations: Improving Protein Utilization and Preventing Leaf Loss in Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory is using molecular biology approaches to better understand and develop solutions to some of the current limitations of alfalfa and other forage crops used in animal and bioenergy production systems. A major limitation of alfalfa is that much of its protein is degraded during harvest a...

  1. The genetic components of extended life expectancy in chilled, post-diapause quiescent Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, a solitary bee native to Eurasia, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee and has become the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. These bees, when commercially managed, are overwintered as diapausing prepupae under static ther...

  2. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee (hymenoptera: megachilidae) reproductive success according to location of nests in United States commercial domiciles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  3. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase Gene, OsAPX2, Increases Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; MA Cui; XUE Xin; XU Ming; LI Jing; WU Jin-xia

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop in the world and it is of great signiifcance for the improvement of its salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance in alfalfa, a rice ascorbate peroxidase gene (OsAPX2) was introduced into alfalfa using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with marker gene bar. The different T-DNA insertions in T1 transgenic alfalfa were identiifed by Southern hybridization. Three independent T2 transgenic lines were selected for stress analysis and the results showed that all of them were salt tolerant compared with wild-type plants. The transgenic plants had low levels of H2O2, malondialdehyde and relative electrical conductivity under salt and drought stresses. Moreover, the contents of chlorophyll and proline, and APX activity were high in transgenic plants under salt and drought stresses. Taken together, the overexpression of OsAPX2 enhances salt tolerance in alfalfa through scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  4. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Large Astronomy Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David W.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. This effort has been made possible through the collaboration of the ALFALFA PIs and graduate students, Arecibo Observatory staff, and the faculty at 19 undergraduate-focussed institutions. In this talk, we will discuss how the UAT model works for the ALFALFA project and lessons learned from our efforts over the 8 years of grant funding. We will provide suggestions on how the model could be applied to other legacy projects, particularly in such areas as online collaboration and software usage by undergraduates. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  5. [Effects of continuous cropping of wheat and alfalfa on soil enzyme activities and nutrients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Qiong; Hao, Ming-De; Zang, Yi-Fei; Li, Li-Xia

    2014-11-01

    Based on a long-term rotation and fertilization experiment in Changwu, Shaanxi, China, we determined the enzymatic activities and nutrients in soils after 27 years continuous cropping of alfalfa and wheat, respectively. The activities of invertase, urease and phosphatase were not affected by fertilization treatment within each cropping system, but they were significantly higher in the alfalfa continuous cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system under each fertilization treatment. The activity of hydrogen peroxidase was not affected by the type of cropping system or fertilization treatment. Across the cropping systems, the activities of soil urease, phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase were higher while soil invertase activity was lower in N, P and manure (NPM) combined treatment compared with the other fertilization treatments. The accumulations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available nitrogen were greater in the alfalfa cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system, and the NPM treatment could improve the soil fertility. PMID:25898616

  6. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayad, Ahmed G.; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M.; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  7. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayad, Ahmed G; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  8. The Optical Luminosity Function of Void Galaxies in the SDSS and ALFALFA Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Hoyle, Fiona; Pan, Danny C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    We measure the r-band galaxy luminosity function (LF) across environments over the redshift range 0 ALFALFA). We find that the global LF of the ALFALFA sample is not well fit by a Schechter function because of the presence of a wide dip in the LF around Mr = -18 and an upturn at fainter magnitudes (α ˜ -1.47). We compare the H i selected r-band LF to various LFs of optically selected populations to determine where the H i selected optical LF obtains its shape. We find that sample selection plays a large role in determining the shape of the LF.

  9. Black Leaf and Stem of Alfalfa Caused by Phoma medicaginis Malbr & Roum. var. medicaginis Boerema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif R. Susuri

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Phoma medicaginis has recently been spreading on alfalfa causing black leaf and stem in irrigation fields near Prizren. The average number of lesions is from 18 up to 30 on leaves with an average diameter of 1-10 mm. The average size of pycnidia from diseased alfalfa leaves, stems and PDA is 325 x 338 μm, whereas the average size of pycnidiospores is 7.3 x 3.6 μm. Maximum spore production in average was on PDA 140.9 x 104/ml.

  10. Thermoperiodism Synchronizes Emergence in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, Ian S; Kemp, William P; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2016-02-01

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). M. rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the physical nature of the nest, M. rotundata brood may have limited to no exposure to photoperiodic cues in order to regulate important circadian functions. Therefore, various thermoperiod regimes were used to characterize the possible role of thermoperiodism in synchronizing M. rotundata adult emergence. Adult emergence was monitored using a microprocessor-controlled event logger. Incubating bees under constant 29°C and darkness resulted in an arhythmic adult emergence pattern. Exposing developing M. rotundata to a thermoperiod synchronized emergence to the beginning of the thermophase and decreased the total number of days required for all adults to emerge. The amplitude of the thermoperiod regulated the timing of peak emergence in relationship to the increase in temperature. A thermoperiod amplitude of only 2°C was sufficient to synchronize peak adult emergence to take place during the rise in temperature. Increasing the amplitude of the thermoperiod to 4 or 8°C caused a positively correlated shift in peak emergence to later in the thermophase. Brood stored under constant 29°C and darkness for different durations (May or June early in the growing season or July or August late in the growing season) or under a fluctuating thermal regime (base temperature of 6°C and daily 1-h pulse of 20°C until September or November) maintained their capacity for entraining emergence timing by thermoperiodism. PMID:26385932

  11. Evaluation of Selection Indices for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of selection indices in alfalfa improvement, an experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2007 at East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Iran. A set of 29 native ecotypes, which were collected in 2000 and 2001 from Azerbaijan (Iran, together with one improved variety were used to conduct a polycross nursery. For the purpose of random mating, a randomized complete block design was used with 12 replications arranged in this nursery. The resulting 30 half-sib families were planted individually in pots and the 30 days old seedlings were transplanted to the field in May, 2004. Each 3-row plot consisted of 45 HS plants. Several traits, such as individual plants� fresh weight and individual plants� dry weight (IPFW, IPDW, number of shoots per plant (NS and plant height (PH in each harvest and also, days until 10% flowering, the ratio of fresh and dry weight of leaves/plant and size of trifoliate leaves were measured for three cropping seasons. The results of analysis of variance showed large variation among polycross progenies. Six selection indices (Ii with different number of traits at adult plant stage were evaluated. Based on the result of this investigation, if number of shoots and height of adult plant, excluding yield, are recorded, I2 is suggested. If, in addition to fresh yield, height of adult plant is measured, I6 is recommended. I4 is useful when number of shoots and plant height with dry yield are included in the index. In conclusion, the importance of mature plant traits in selection indices was in the order of yield > plant height > number of shoots. The results provided more evidence that selection indices incorporating the component of dry yield are more advantageous. The most efficient selection index consisted of NS, IPDW and PH, having a relative efficiency of 280%.

  12. The spreading of Alfalfa mosaic virus in lavandin in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stanković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available survey was conducted in 2012 and 2013 to detect the presence and distribution of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV in lavandin crops growing in continental parts of Croatia. A total of 73 lavandin samples from six crops in different localities were collected and analyzed for the presence of AMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV using commercial double-antibody sandwich (DAS-ELISA kits. AMV was detected serologically in 62 samples collected at three different localities, and none of the samples tested positive for CMV. For further analyses, six selected samples of naturally infected lavandin plants originating from different localities were mechanically transmitted to test plants: Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, Nicotiana benthamiana and Ocimum basilicum, confirming the infectious nature of the disease. Molecular detection was performed by amplification of a 751 bp fragment in all tested samples, using the specific primers CP AMV1/CP AMV2 that amplify the part of the coat protein (CP gene and 3’-UTR. The RT-PCR products derived from the isolates 371-13 and 373-13 were sequenced (KJ504107 and KJ504108, respectively and compared with the AMV sequences available in GenBank. CP sequence analysis, conducted using the MEGA5 software, revealed that the isolate 371-13 had the highest nucleotide identity of 99.5% (100% amino acid identity with an isolate from Argentina originating from Medicago sativa (KC881010, while the sequence of isolate 373-13 had the highest identity with an Italian AMV isolate from Lavandula stoechas (FN667967 of 98.6% (99% amino acid identity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the clustering of selected isolates into four molecular groups and the lavandin AMV isolates from Croatia grouped into two distinct groups, implying a significant variability within the AMV lavandin population.

  13. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs.

  14. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs. PMID:27447893

  15. Processed Methods of Alfalfa in Rainy Season%雨季苜蓿草加工的几种途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向金城; 曹致中; 仇亨

    2014-01-01

    针对苜蓿草在雨季容易发霉腐烂的问题,笔者提出了青贮、烘干、榨汁后烘干及汁液提取叶蛋白等可行的加工贮存途径。青贮中不论是否添加玉米粉、乳酸、乙酸及乳酸菌接种剂,只要晾晒至半干(含水量50%~60%)铡碎、压紧、隔绝空气,进行半干青贮,都能获得优质青贮苜蓿。%Feasible approaches to preventing alfalfa from decaying during wet seasons were proposed. These approaches include making alfalfa silage, making alfalfa hay and making hay after the juice in alfalfa is extracted. The extracted juice from alfalfa is used to make leaf proteins. When making the alfalfa silage, it is not important whether corn lfour, lactic acid, acetic acid or lactic acid bacteria inoculant are added in the raw materials, as long as alfalfa foliage is pre-dried ( 50%~60%water content), ifnely chopped and ifrmly pressed (to remove air), the high quality foliage/semi-foliage can always be achieved.

  16. Low temperature stress during pupal development and its effects on adult performance in alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megachile rotundata, commonly known as the alfalfa leafcutting bee, is a key alternative pollinator. Farmers store pupal M. rotundata over the winter inside a 6°C incubator and then place the pupal bees into incubators at 29°C to initiate adult development. Their goal is to time adult bee emergenc...

  17. Transcriptional regulation of temperature stress response during development in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects can be significantly affected by temperature induced stress. While evidence of the physiological consequences of temperature stress is growing, very little is known about how insects respond at the genetic level to these stressors. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, an emergin...

  18. Best Phd thesis Prize : Statistical analysis of ALFALFA galaxies: insights in galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papastergis, E.

    2013-01-01

    We use the rich dataset of local universe galaxies detected by the ALFALFA 21cm survey to study the statistical properties of gas-bearing galaxies. In particular, we measure the number density of galaxies as a function of their baryonic mass ("baryonic mass function") and rotational velocity ("veloc

  19. Evaluation of subsurface drip irrigation design and management parameters for alfalfa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Kandelous; T. Kamai; J.A. Vrugt; J. Šimůnek; B. Hanson; J.W. Hopmans

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa is one of the most cultivated crops in the US, and is being used as livestock feed for the dairy, beef, and horse industries. About nine percent of that is grown in California, yet there is an increasing concern about the large amounts of irrigation water required to attain maximum yield. We

  20. Enhancing forage yields and soil conservation by interseeding alfalfa into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent field studies have identified prohexadione-calcium (PHD) as an effective plant growth regulator for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into corn as a dual-purpose cover and forage crop. Foliar applications of PHD on seedlings doubled or tripled stand survival of interseeded al...

  1. Correlation of fermentation characteristics with intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage in gestating ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baled silage production provides benefits to farmers because it reduces leaf losses, and requires a shorter wilting time, thereby limiting risks of exposure to rain compared with making hay. Our objective was to investigate the correlation of alfalfa silage fermentation parameters with intake and di...

  2. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  3. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W.D. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Y.G. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn; Liang, Y.C. [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, Institute of Soils and Fertilizers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, J. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F.A. [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, DP 636, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Yang, M. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with V {sub max} of 2.25 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight h{sup -1}, and K {sub m} of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag{sup +}. OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg{sup 2+}, suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg{sup 2+} on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process. - Plant uptake of antibiotic oxytetracycline is energy-dependent.

  4. Alfalfa N credits to second-year corn larger than expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa can provide substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) to the first crop that follows it. Recent field research on first-year corn confirms that it is highly likely that grain yields will not improve with added fertilizer N, except on very sandy and very clayey soils. It is less clear how much fert...

  5. Emergence, forage production, and ion relations of alfalfa in response to saline waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) is an important crop utilized in regions under irrigation commonly impacted by salinity. In this study we evaluate the effect of salinity, as a continual process, from emergence to mature plant growth in successive harvests. We studied emergence, biomass production, salt ...

  6. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) with maralfalfahay (Pennisetum sp.) in diets of lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscioni, P.; Marti, J.V.; Pérez-Baena, I.;

    2016-01-01

    tThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa (Medicagosativa) with maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp.) on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methaneemission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in latelactation (45.7 ± 2.96 kg of...

  7. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  8. Pythium and Fusarium species causing seed rot and damping-off of alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed rot and damping-off is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. This disease may have been overlooked as a cause of poor stand establishment and reduced vigor of adult plants. Globally, 15 Pythium species have been found to cause...

  9. Use of Alfalfa for Soil Phosphorus Removal Following Long-Term Manure Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to examine alfalfa remediation effects on a cornfield treated during a 10-yr period with manure at rates matching either the N (MN) or P (MP) requirements of silage corn (Zea mays L.). A commercial fertilizer (NCK) was used as a control. The site was removed from corn prod...

  10. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  11. The Impact of Distinct Insect Species on Pollination and Gene Flow in Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinator species and plant density can influence pollination and gene flow. The efficacy of different floral visitors at tripping alfalfa flowers was examined in both low and high density patches to determine their potential role in pollination. In addition, for a subset of the floral visitors, th...

  12. Potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) ecology and integrated pest management focused on alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge to date on biology of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), is summarized, including geographic distribution, development, migration, agricultural host plants, and the mechanism of injury to host plants. Damage to alfalfa, potato, soybean and snap bean, as well as treatment guide...

  13. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  14. Alfalfa contains substantial 9-hydroperoxide lyase activity and a 3Z:2E-enal isomerase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Noordermeer, M.A.; Veldink, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid hydroperoxides formed by lipoxygenase can be cleaved by hydroperoxide lyase resulting in the formation of short-chain aldehydes and omega-oxo acids. Plant hydroperoxide lyases use 13- or 9-hydroperoxy linoleic and linolenic acid as substrates. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been reporte

  15. The alfalfa N credit: field-specific recommendations may be coming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa can provide all the nitrogen (N) needed for two years of corn. This may sound surprising, but research reports support this statement for about one-half of all trials that have been conducted in the US. However, in other research trials, the need for fertilizer N varied widely and ranged up ...

  16. Forage Quality of Biomass vs. Conventional Alfalfa Cut at Early Bud or Late Flower Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulosic bioenergy systems will result in large areas planted to biomass crops. An important question is whether biomass crops can also be used for livestock feed. This study compared forage quality of an experimental alfalfa germplasm developed for a biomass production system with a conventional ...

  17. Incorporation of p-coumarates into the cell walls of alfalfa changes the lignin composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, monocots can contain a significant amount of an ester-linked p-coumarate (pCA) in their cell walls, but its function is unclear. One hypothesis is that pCA aids in the formation of syringyl-rich regions during lignification. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a dicot, is a cultivated perennial f...

  18. Efficacy of a BVDV subunit vaccine produced in alfalfa transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peréz Aguirreburualde, María Sol; Gómez, María Cristina; Ostachuk, Agustín; Wolman, Federico; Albanesi, Guillermo; Pecora, Andrea; Odeon, Anselmo; Ardila, Fernando; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María José; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2013-02-15

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is considered an important cause of economic loss within bovine herds worldwide. In Argentina, only the use of inactivated vaccines is allowed, however, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. The use of recombinant subunit vaccines has been proposed as an alternative to overcome this difficulty. Different studies on protection against BVDV infection have focused the E2 protein, supporting its putative use in subunit vaccines. Utilization of transgenic plants expressing recombinant antigens for the formulation of experimental vaccines represents an innovative and cost effective alternative to the classical fermentation systems. The aim of this work was to develop transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa, L.) expressing a truncated version of the structural protein E2 from BVDV fused to a molecule named APCH, that target to antigen presenting cells (APCH-tE2). The concentration of recombinant APCH-tE2 in alfalfa leaves was 1 μg/g at fresh weight and its expression remained stable after vegetative propagation. A methodology based an aqueous two phases system was standardized for concentration and partial purification of APCH-tE2 from alfalfa. Guinea pigs parentally immunized with leaf extracts developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. In bovine, the APCH-tE2 subunit vaccine was able to induce BVDV-specific neutralizing antibodies. After challenge, bovines inoculated with 3 μg of APCH-tE2 produced in alfalfa transgenic plants showed complete virological protection. PMID:23291101

  19. Overexpression of malate dehydrogenase in transgenic alfalfa enhances organic acid synthesis and confers tolerance to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, M; Temple, S J; Allan, D L; Vance, C P; Samac, D A

    2001-12-01

    Al toxicity is a severe impediment to production of many crops in acid soil. Toxicity can be reduced through lime application to raise soil pH, however this amendment does not remedy subsoil acidity, and liming may not always be practical or cost-effective. Addition of organic acids to plant nutrient solutions alleviates phytotoxic Al effects, presumably by chelating Al and rendering it less toxic. In an effort to increase organic acid secretion and thereby enhance Al tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), we produced transgenic plants using nodule-enhanced forms of malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase cDNAs under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We report that a 1.6-fold increase in malate dehydrogenase enzyme specific activity in root tips of selected transgenic alfalfa led to a 4.2-fold increase in root concentration as well as a 7.1-fold increase in root exudation of citrate, oxalate, malate, succinate, and acetate compared with untransformed control alfalfa plants. Overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme specific activity in transgenic alfalfa did not result in increased root exudation of organic acids. The degree of Al tolerance by transformed plants in hydroponic solutions and in naturally acid soil corresponded with their patterns of organic acid exudation and supports the concept that enhancing organic acid synthesis in plants may be an effective strategy to cope with soil acidity and Al toxicity. PMID:11743127

  20. ECONOMICS AND ENERGY OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM ALFALFA, CORN, AND SWITCHGRASS IN THE UPPER MIDWEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S., biomass crop systems will be needed to meet future ethanol production goals. We estimated production costs, profits, and energy budgets for three potential crop systems for the Upper Midwest: continuous corn, an alfalfa-corn rotation, and switchgrass. Production costs, profits, and on-f...

  1. Identification of Molecular Marker Linked to Salt Tolerance Gene in Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The study has established the F2 offspring obtained by crossing salt-tolerant with salt-sensitive alfalfa, and appraised the salt-tolerant F2 offspring seedling was evaluated in pot culture. With the F2 segregated population, the research has obtained a molecular marker linked with salt-tolerant genes of alfalfa using the improved BSA combined with RAPD. The RAPD PCR products were excised from the agarose gel and purified using a kit, then were mixed with pMD-18T vector and sequenced. Sequencing result indicated the RAPD marker was 1 438 bp in length. Similarity researches using blast in Genbank indicated that the nucleotide sequence of the RAPD marker showed 93% and 91% similarity with mth2-6el8 gene fragment (347 bp) and mth2-33122 gene fragment (334 bp) of Medicago truncatula respectively. Medicago truncatula is a close relative of alfalfa and Mth2-6e18 is a molecular marker of the gene coding for a cysteine protease which was salt inducible in some plants. These results indicated the RAPD marker was possibly related to cysteine protease genes in alfalfa.

  2. Extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, M J; Glaze, L E

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study to extend AOAC method 44.A06-44.A08 to extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint. A 5 g (spearmint) or 10 g (alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya) test portion is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux apparatus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol, and flotation with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) from Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Each product was spiked at a different level. For rat hairs, recoveries averaged 82.2% from alfalfa, 88.9% from lemon balm, 80.6% from papaya, and 79.6% from spearmint. Recoveries of whole or equivalent insects from these products averaged 66.1, 218.8, 69.4, and 85.4%, respectively; recoveries of insect fragments from these products averaged 89.6, 94.4, 94.1, and 88.1%, respectively. The method has been adopted official first action for extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, papaya, and spearmint. The extension of the method to lemon balm was not recommended because of interferences by intrinsic whole insects, which were the same species as the spike material. PMID:3436916

  3. The effects of perennial ryegrass and alfalfa on microbial abundance and diversity in petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced rhizosphere degradation uses plants to stimulate the rhizosphere microbial community to degrade organic contaminants. We measured changes in microbial communities caused by the addition of two species of plants in a soil contaminated with 31,000 ppm of total petroleum hydrocarbons. Perennial ryegrass and/or alfalfa increased the number of rhizosphere bacteria in the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. These plants also increased the number of bacteria capable of petroleum degradation as estimated by the most probable number (MPN) method. Eco-Biolog plates did not detect changes in metabolic diversity between bulk and rhizosphere samples but denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rDNA sequences indicated a shift in the bacterial community in the rhizosphere samples. Dice coefficient matrices derived from DGGE profiles showed similarities between the rhizospheres of alfalfa and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture in the contaminated soil at week seven. Perennial ryegrass and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture caused the greatest change in the rhizosphere bacterial community as determined by DGGE analysis. We concluded that plants altered the microbial population; these changes were plant-specific and could contribute to degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil. - Plant-specific changes in microbial populations on roots affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil

  4. A comparison of constitutive promoters for expression of transgenes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah A; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Dornbusch, Melinda; Saruul, Purev; Temple, Stephen J

    2004-08-01

    The activity of constitutive promoters was compared in transgenic alfalfa plants using two marker genes. Three promoters, the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), the cassava vein mosaic virus (CsVMV) promoter, and the sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) promoter were each fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) gene. The highest GUS enzyme activity was obtained using the CsVMV promoter and all alfalfa cells assayed by in situ staining had high levels of enzyme activity. The 35S promoter was expressed in leaves, roots, and stems at moderate levels, but the promoter was not active in stem pith cells, root cortical cells, or in the symbiotic zones of nodules. The ScBV promoter was active primarily in vascular tissues throughout the plant. In leaves, GUS activity driven by the CsVMV promoter was approximately 24-fold greater than the activity from the 35S promoter and 38-fold greater than the activity from the ScBV promoter. Five promoters, the double 35S promoter, figwort mosaic virus (FMV) promoter, CsVMV promoter, ScBV promoter, and alfalfa small subunit Rubisco (RbcS) promoter were used to control expression of a cDNA from Trichoderma atroviride encoding an endochitinase (ech42). Highest chitinase activity in leaves, roots, and root nodules was obtained in plants containing the CsVMV:ech42 transgene. Plants expressing the endochitinase were challenged with Phoma medicaginis var. medicaginis, the causal agent of spring black stem and leaf spot of alfalfa. Although endochitinase activity in leaves of transgenic plants was 50- to 2650-fold greater than activity in control plants, none of the transgenic plants showed a consistent increase in disease resistance compared to controls. The high constitutive levels of both GUS and endochitinase activity obtained demonstrate that the CsVMV promoter is useful for high-level transgene expression in alfalfa. PMID:15517994

  5. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James R; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R; Machtley, Scott A; Van Deynze, Allen

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in a 15.2 km(2) area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready alfalfa seed production fields (totaling 120.2 ha). Each year, honey bee self-marking devices were placed on 112 selected honey bee colonies originating from nine different apiary locations. The foraging bees exiting each apiary location were uniquely marked so that the apiary of origin and the distance traveled by the marked (field-collected) bees into each of the alfalfa fields could be pinpointed. Honey bee self-marking devices were installed on 14.4 and 11.2% of the total hives located within the research area in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The frequency of field-collected bees possessing a distinct mark was similar, averaging 14.0% in 2006 and 12.6% in 2007. A grand total of 12,266 bees were collected from the various alfalfa fields on seven sampling dates over the course of the study. The distances traveled by marked bees ranged from a minimum of 45 m to a maximum of 5983 m. On average, marked bees were recovered ~ 800 m from their apiary of origin and the recovery rate of marked bees decreased exponentially as the distance from the apiary of origin increased. Ultimately, these data will be used to identify the extent of pollen-mediated gene flow from Roundup Ready to conventional alfalfa. PMID:22224495

  6. Differential antifungal activity of alfalfa (Medicago santva L.) saponins originated from roots and aerial parts for some ornamental plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Saniewska; Marian Jurzysta; Zbigniew Biały

    2013-01-01

    The total saponins isolated from aerial parts and roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at the concentration of 0,01%, 0,05% and 0,1% showed differential influence on the mycelium growth of Alternaria zinniae, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Phoma poolensis and Rhizoctonia solani. A higher inhibitory effect on in vitro growth of mycelium of all tested pathogens indicated saponins from roots of alfalfa than from aerial parts. Tested saponins from roots at lhe concentration ...

  7. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Liang Jing; Xiao-Fang Dong; Jian-Ming Tong

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD), was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined b...

  8. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Glomus spp. Inoculation on Alfalfa Growth in Soils with Copper Efecto de la Inoculación con Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares Glomus spp. sobre el Crecimiento de Alfalfa en Suelos con Cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Novoa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils near mining centers usually have high heavy metal (HM levels. It has been found that some plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF improve growth and tolerance to HM in soils. This symbiosis is a biological resource for degraded soil recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculating AMF (Glomus spp. on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth in agricultural soils with different copper (Cu levels for degraded soil recovery. To this effect, alfalfa seeds were grown in soils from the Catemu and Casablanca valleys and inoculated with AMF. Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were measured weekly. Dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu concentration in alfalfa plant tissues were measured after 81 days. Inoculation increased plant height by 24%, stem diameter by 11%, and number of leaves by 34%. Inoculation had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on alfalfa plants that were grown in soil with the highest Cu concentration, but had no effect on Cu accumulation in alfalfa plant tissues. A direct relationship was observed between Cu accumulation in alfalfa and Cu concentration in soils. It was concluded that alfalfa inoculated with Glomus spp. is applicable to the soil recovery process whenever soil properties can ensure inoculum effectiveness on alfalfa growth, and avoid toxicity by excessive Cu in alfalfa plant tissues.Los suelos cercanos a centros de actividad minera suelen presentar altos niveles de metales pesados (HM. Se ha encontrado que algunas plantas asociadas a hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF mejoran su crecimiento y tolerancia a los HM presentes en los suelos. Esta simbiosis constituye un recurso biológico para la recuperación de suelos degradados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la inoculación con AMF (Glomus spp. sobre el crecimiento de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en suelos agrícolas con distintos niveles de cobre (Cu para la recuperación de

  9. Enhanced Resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in Populations of Alfalfa Selected for Quantitative Resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R G; Rowe, D E

    2002-02-01

    ABSTRACT Sclerotinia trifoliorum and Sclerotium rolfsii are pathogens for which similar mechanisms of parasitism have been proposed. This suggested that resistance to these pathogens may be related in a common host plant. This study was undertaken to determine whether selection for quantitative resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum in alfalfa also increases resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii as expressed in excised leaf tissues and whole plants. Resistance in excised leaf tissues was evaluated according to the rate of necrosis induced by Sclerotium rolfsii following inoculation with mycelium. Resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in whole plants was evaluated according to their survival following crown inoculations. Three alfalfa populations previously selected from cv. Delta for quantitative resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum exhibited enhanced resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii, in comparison with Delta or with susceptible populations, in excised leaf tissues. When whole plants of Delta and two of these populations, Sclerotinia trifoliorum resistant (STR) and Mississippi Sclerotinia resistant (MSR), were inoculated with Sclerotium rolfsii at 3 to 8 weeks of age, significant (P = 0.01) differences in survival were attributed to plant age at inoculation and alfalfa populations. Survival of both MSR and STR was significantly (P = 0.05) greater than for Delta; the best differential results were obtained by inoculating plants 5 to 7 weeks old. To evaluate relationships of resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum and Sclerotium rolfsii over a broader genetic background, additional populations were selected for resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum from four other alfalfa cultivars by leaf-inoculation techniques, and this resistance was confirmed by whole-plant inoculations. In excised leaf tissues, all four of these populations also expressed enhanced resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in comparison with either parent cultivars or populations of comparable size selected at random

  10. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  11. Best Phd thesis Prize: Statistical analysis of ALFALFA galaxies: insights in galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergis, E.

    2013-09-01

    We use the rich dataset of local universe galaxies detected by the ALFALFA 21cm survey to study the statistical properties of gas-bearing galaxies. In particular, we measure the number density of galaxies as a function of their baryonic mass ("baryonic mass function") and rotational velocity ("velocity width function"), and we characterize their clustering properties ("two-point correlation function"). These statistical distributions are determined by both the properties of dark matter on small scales, as well as by the complex baryonic processes through which galaxies form over cosmic time. We interpret the ALFALFA measurements with the aid of publicly available cosmological N-body simulations and we present some key results related to galaxy formation and small-scale cosmology.

  12. [Molecular identification of intergeneric somatic hybrid plants between alfalfa and sainfoin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z Q; Jia, J F

    2000-03-01

    Somatic hybrid plants between alfalfa and sainfoin were regenerated by protoplast fusion and culture. DNA samples of the hybrid plants, hydroxyproline-resistant sainfoin plants, alfalfa cell line transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens 702 were isolated with a new and simple method. The hybridity was identified by random amplified polymorphic DNAs and Southern hybridization. Significant differences can be seen in the sequences amplified, which are specific for each parent/primer combination under the amplification conditions used. In 20 random oligonucleotide primers used, six could amplified more DNA fragments and had better polymorphisms. The results suggested that besides containing nuclear substances of two parents, the hybrid genome was inclined to eliminate sainfoin chromosome with DNA reconstruction. However, the somatic genome also could produce the sainfoin-specified DNA fragments which further confirmed by Southern hybridization. The hybrids were asymmetric and had certain regeneration ability just because the intervention of sainfoin DNA. PMID:10976321

  13. Cofolding organizes alfalfa mosaic virus RNA and coat protein for replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guogas, Laura M; Filman, David J; Hogle, James M; Gehrke, Lee

    2004-12-17

    Alfalfa mosaic virus genomic RNAs are infectious only when the viral coat protein binds to the RNA 3' termini. The crystal structure of an alfalfa mosaic virus RNA-peptide complex reveals that conserved AUGC repeats and Pro-Thr-x-Arg-Ser-x-x-Tyr coat protein amino acids cofold upon interacting. Alternating AUGC residues have opposite orientation, and they base pair in different adjacent duplexes. Localized RNA backbone reversals stabilized by arginine-guanine interactions place the adenosines and guanines in reverse order in the duplex. The results suggest that a uniform, organized 3' conformation, similar to that found on viral RNAs with transfer RNA-like ends, may be essential for replication. PMID:15604410

  14. ALFALFA HI Content and Star Formation in Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Koopmann, R A; Haynes, M P; Brosch, N

    2009-01-01

    The ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) blind survey is providing a census of HI in galaxies of all types in a range of environments. Here we report on ALFALFA results for Virgo Cluster early-type dwarfs between declinations of 4 and 16 degrees. Less than 2% of the Virgo early-type dwarf population is detected, compared to 70-80% of the Im/BCD dwarf population. Most of the dwarfs detected in HI show evidence for ongoing or recent star formation. Early-type galaxies with HI tend to be located in the outer regions of the cluster and to be brighter. Early-type dwarfs with HI may be undergoing morphological transition due to cluster environmental effects.

  15. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  16. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  17. Effect of Deposition from Static Test Fires on Corn and Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Mendenhall, Scout

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of deposition from static rocket test fires on corn and alfalfa. Seeds were germinated in a wide concentration range of depositional material, called test fire soil (TFS). Additionally, the impact of chloride and aluminum, two major components of test fire soil, on germination was also evaluated. Furthermore, plants were grown in packed columns and exposed to test fire soil, either in the root zone or on foliage. Tissue was weighed and...

  18. Effect of Depostition From Static Rocket Test Fires on Corn and Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Mendenhall, Scout

    2012-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of deposition from static rocket test fires on corn and alfalfa. Seeds were germinated in a wide concentration range of depositional material, called test fire soil (TFS). Additionally, the impact of chloride and aluminum, two major components of test fire soil, on germination was also evaluated. Furthermore, plants were grown in packed columns and exposed to test fire soil, either in the root zone or on foliage. Tissue was weighed and...

  19. The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Survey: An Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael; Craig, David; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way's position in an outer filament of Lanieakea affords us a striking view of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (PPS) arcing roughly from 22h to 4h and 0° to +50° concentrated between cz = 4,000 km/s and cz = 8,000 km/s as a "wall" parallel to the plane of the sky. It is bounded by voids both between Laniakea and PPS and beyond PPS. Within this box, the 70% ALFALFA survey has detected 4,800 galaxies within cz = 8,000 km/s. Of these, 80% have masses greater than 108 M⊙. At the distance of the PPS, galaxies with MHI ≤ 108 M⊙ are below the ALFALFA detection limit. Thus to further explore this rich diversity of galaxy environments and the adjoining voids, the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team is in the process of using the L-band Wide receiver at Arecibo Observatory for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS). We will observe galaxies with 108 M⊙ ≤ MHI ≤ 109 M⊙ chosen from the SDSS DR12 and GALEX catalogs. We are limiting our observations to the PPS ridge in 21h 30m to 3h 15m and 23° to 35°. Since this region lacks SDSS spectroscopy, targets have been selected using photometric criteria derived from SDSS and GALEX observations for galaxies detected by ALFALFA. The results of these observations will allow us to constrain the HI mass function along the PPS ridge. Application of the Tully-Fisher relation will allow a robust measure of the infall velocities of galaxies into the filament. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  20. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, �Seyah-Roud�, �Ahar-Hourand�, �Oskou�, �Malekan� and �Sefida-Khan� were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and �Sefida-Khan� had comparatively less sodium contents than �Oskou�, �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes �Malekan�, Ahar- Hourand and �Oskou� were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes �Malekan� and �Ahar-Hourand� were better.

  1. Bioassay for Detection of Dichlorvos Insecticide in Air in Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile Rotundata F.) Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy John R.; Kevan Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorvos is an insecticide used in slow-release plastic strips for controlling chalcid wasp parasites, such as Pteromalus venustus Walker, in incubators used to raise alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata F.). Beekeepers need a practical method to detect dichlorvos in air and verify that it has dissipated to levels acceptable for worker re-entry and for the bees to emerge. We evaluated three methods for analysis of the dichlorvos concentration in air. Vapor sampling tubes using a ma...

  2. Economic evaluation of biological rodent control using barn owls Tyto alba in alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Motro, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Rodents are common pests in various agricultural cultivations. Utilization of barn owls for rodent pest control has long been used. In Israel, the indirect effect of barn owl predation pressure on alfalfa crop yield has been examined. Using radio-telemetry, barn owls were tracked to form a density-distance function, which was later used to estimate predation pressure on whole fields. This function was utilized on all barn owls nesting in the vicinity to assess accumulated predation pressure o...

  3. Activity screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from alfalfa rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    shahla pashapour; Hossein besharati; Mahmoud rezazadeh; Ahmad Alimadadi; Nadergholi Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some rhizobacteria by various mechanisms influence plant growth as they are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Scientists identified some PGPR characters involved in promoting plant growth, while all these characters are not able to study. The aim of this study was to evaluate PGP activities of bacterial isolates, (45 isolates belonged to rhizobium and 2 bacterial isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescens), which were isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) r...

  4. Effects of the insect growth regulator, novaluron on immature alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Erin W; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Barbour, James D

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-pollen provisions and adults with novaluron. Immature M. rotundata mortality in all novaluron provision dosing treatments was significantly higher than the water or blank controls, providing evidence that novaluron is toxic to progeny in nest cells. The mean cumulative frequency showed that more eggs and 1st-2nd instars died compared to older instars. Female M. rotundata nested similarly in field cages during the field cage experiment; however, there was greater immature mortality in cages where females were fed sugar-water + novaluron compared to sugar-water only. Although females provided adequate provisions, there was a low percentage of egg hatch and larval development when females ingested novaluron before mating and nesting. Novaluron was also present in egg provision of bees collecting resources from novaluron-sprayed plants. At least 84% of progeny died when the females were allowed to mate and nest 24 hours after a novaluron application. Novaluron could be contributing to poor bee return in alfalfa grown for seed. Timely insecticide applications to suppress Lygus spp. is an important consideration to improve ongoing bee health. PMID:21539417

  5. Correlations between environmental factors and wild bee behavior on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Hongping; Li, Xiaoxia; Song, Yu; Chen, Li; Jin, Liang

    2009-10-01

    To discover the effect of environmental factors on pollinator visitation to flowering Medicago sativa, several field experiments were designed to examine the diurnal movement patterns of wild bee species in the Hexi Corridor of northwestern China. Our study results showed that Megachile abluta, M. spissula, and Xylocopa valga showed unimodal diurnal foraging behavior, whereas Andrena parvula and Anthophora melanognatha showed bimodal diurnal foraging behavior. Correlation analysis indicated that diurnal foraging activities of pollinators were significantly correlated with environmental factors. Correlations of foraging activities versus environmental factors for M. abluta, M. spissula, and X. valga best fit a linear model, whereas those of A. parvula and A. melanognatha best fit a parallel quadratic model. Results of this study indicated that solitary wild bees such as M. abluta, M. spissula, X. valga, A. parvula, and A. melanognatha are potential alfalfa pollinators in the Hexi Corridor. An understanding of the environmental factors that affect the behaviors of different wild bees foraging in alfalfa are basic to the utilization of solitary wild bees in a practical way for increased, or more consistent, pollination of alfalfa for seed production. PMID:19825303

  6. Emergence success and sex ratio of commercial alfalfa leafcutting bees from the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; James, Rosalind R

    2005-12-01

    Samples of overwintering alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), cells were sent to the laboratory as loose cells or in nesting boards from bee managers in the United States and in Canada. X-radiographs of cells were used for determining cell contents. Cells containing live prepupae were incubated, and the sex of emerging adults was recorded daily. Cells from which no adult emerged were dissected to determine the developmental stage of dead bees and sex of dead pupae or adults. Bee cells incubated in commercial settings and placed in alfalfa fields by the same bee managers described above also were evaluated to determine adult emergence success. The proportion of live bees in wood nesting boards from the United States was much lower than the live proportion in polystyrene nesting boards from Canada and loose cells overwintered in the United States. For laboratory-incubated loose cells, survival and sex ratios of bees from Canadian sources were statistically higher than those of U.S. bees, but the onset and duration of emergence times were similar. Fewer bees survived in the commercial setting than in the laboratory. Prepupal mortality was significantly higher than pupal or adult mortality, but there was no significant difference between the sexes in the likelihood of survival during incubation. This study supports the commonly held belief that alfalfa leafcutting bees raised in Canada and then sold to the United States represent a more viable source of bees than most bees produced in the United States. PMID:16539094

  7. Evaluation of some weed extracts against field dodder on alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, S A; Rahman, A A

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of some weed extracts against field dodderCuscuta campestris Yunck. on alfalfa (Medicago stiva L.) and to identify and quantify the phytotoxic agents of these extracts. All concentrations of aqueous extract of every weed showed significant effectiveness on dodder when compared to the untreated plant under lath house and field conditions. Control percentages of the (0.5 g) of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and wall goosefoot (Chenopodium murale) ranged between 83 and 96, and the same concentration caused injury to alfalfa foliage up to 43% when applied in the field. Phytotoxic agents were identified as phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic, isochlorogenic,p-coumaric acids, and scopoletin. Their quantities varied with species; Bermuda grass had the highest content (32.2 μg/g dry weight) followed by Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), well goosefoot, and tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus). These results might aid in screening for effective alternate approaches for controlling dodder on alfalfa planted for seeds.

  8. Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Its Surrogates on Alfalfa Seeds by Aqueous Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Markland, Sarah; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2015-08-01

    Alfalfa sprouts have been associated with numerous foodborne outbreaks. Previous studies investigated the effectiveness of aqueous ozone on bacterially contaminated seeds, yet little is known about the response of human norovirus (huNoV). This study assessed aqueous ozone for the disinfection of alfalfa seeds contaminated with huNoV and its surrogates. The inactivation of viruses without a food matrix was also investigated. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with huNoV genogroup II, Tulane virus (TV), and murine norovirus (MNV); viruses alone or inoculated on seeds were treated in deionized water containing 6.25 ppm of aqueous ozone with agitation at 22°C for 0.5, 1, 5, 15, or 30 min. The data showed that aqueous ozone resulted in reductions of MNV and TV infectivity from 1.66 ± 1.11 to 5.60 ± 1.11 log PFU/g seeds; for all treatment times, significantly higher reductions were observed for MNV (P water was similar to that of huNoV, whereas MNV had significantly greater reductions in genomic copies (P ozone-treated viruses alone, with significantly higher levels of inactivation (P ozone indicates that ozone may be a plausible substitute for chlorine as an alternative treatment for seeds. The behavior of TV was similar to that of huNoV, which makes it a promising surrogate for these types of scenarios.

  9. Mycopopulations of alfalfa silage with particular review on toxigenic Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of alfalfa samples (initial not fermented plant material, as well as silage obtained from unfaded and faded state of the same were performed during the year 2003. Total of 14 fungal species, included in 11 genera, were identified during the present study. The most frequent moulds were Chaetomium piluliferum and their anamorph Botryotrichum piluliferum (83.3% and 66.7% respectively. Potentially toxigenic Fusarium spp. (F. culmorum, F. semitectum and F. sporotrichioides were observed less frequently (from 16.7% to 33.0% and only on initial not fermented alfalfa. From the sample of alfalfa faded state contaminated with 0.25 mg/kg of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS and 1.28 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEA F. semitectum SL-B was isolated. The production of fusariotoxins by this strain was later on tested in vitro conditions. Different aeration treatments in semisynthetic medium with glucose (GPK or sucrose (SPK, as well as cultivation on sterilized corn kernels (moisture content 47% were used. The highest yield of DAS (64.0 mg/l was obtained during submerged cultivation of F. semitectum SL-B in GPK (210 rpms, 3 days room temperature. Production of T-2 toxin, but rather poor (0.08 mg/1, was detected only in SPK (150 rpms, 3 days, room temperature. ZEA was found exclusively after 25 days of cultivation on corn kernels at room temperature (21-25°C.

  10. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Collaboration for Undergraduate Research Opportunities and Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Troischt, Parker; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    Legacy astronomy surveys involve large collaborations over long time periods, making it challenging to involve undergraduates in meaningful projects. Collaborating with faculty at 19 undergraduate-focused institutions across the US and Puerto Rico and with US-NSF funding, the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team has developed the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, an effective model to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. This talk will summarize the main components of the program, which include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Cannon et al., Collins, Elliott et al, Craig et al., Hansen et al., Johnson et al., Morrison et al., O'Donoghue et al., Smith et al., Sylvia et al., Troischt et al., this meeting). This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  11. Addition of fructooligosaccharides and alfalfa hay to the diet of weaned piglets on the microbiota and the small intestine morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Enrique Lemos Budiño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to verify the effect of the fructooligossaccharide prebiotic (FOS addition in the diet containing varying levels of alfalfa hay, on the microbiology and intestinal morphology of weaned piglets. It was used 72 piglets, crossed, both sexes, with initial weight of 5.95 ± 0.73 Kg, with approximate age of 21 days. It was evaluated the treatment: T1 – Basal feed + 0% FOS; T2 – Basal feed + 0.3% FOS; T3 – Feed with 5% of alfalfa + 0% FOS; T4 – Feed with 5% of alfalfa + 0.3% FOS; T5 – Feed with 10% of alfalfa + 0% FOS; Feed with 10% of alfalfa + 0.3% FOS. In the end of the experimental period one piglet of each replication was slaughtered for the collection of sample aiming to analyze Salmonela sp. and coliformes and intestinal morphology (height of villus and depht of crypt. The analysis for coliformes didn’t show statistic difference among the levels of FOS and alfalfa hay. It wasn’t find Salmonella sp. colonies in the samples. No difference was observe in the crypt depht (P>0.05 among the treatments. The height of villus and the relation of height of villus per depht of crypt, the group without the addition of FOS didn’t show difference (P>0.05, however, the group supplemented with 0.3% of FOS showed a significant improvement (P<0.05 related to levels of 5% and 10% of alfalfa. There was no influence of treatment on the presence of Salmonella sp. and E. Coli. Regarding intestinal morphology data for villus height and villus height ratio/crypt depth showed the best results in the presence of FOS.

  12. Integration of optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to differentiate grassland and alfalfa in Prairie area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gang; Zhang, Aining; Zhou, Fuqun; Brisco, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Alfalfa presents a huge potential biofuel source in the Prairie Provinces of Canada. However, it remains a challenge to find an ideal single satellite sensor to monitor the regional spatial distribution of alfalfa on an annual basis. The primary interest of this study is to identify alfalfa spatial distribution through effectively differentiating alfalfa from grasslands, given their spectral similarity and same growth calendars. MODIS and RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR narrow mode were selected for regional-level grassland and alfalfa differentiation in the Prairie Provinces, due to the high frequency revisit of MODIS, the weather independence of ScanSAR as well as the large area coverage and the complementary characteristics SAR and optical images. Combining MODIS and ScanSAR in differentiating alfalfa and grassland is very challenging, since there is a large spatial resolution difference between MODIS (250 m) and ScanSAR narrow (50 m). This study investigated an innovative image fusion technique for combining MODIS and ScanSAR and obtaining a synthetic image which has the high spatial details derived from ScanSAR and the colour information from MODIS. The field trip was arranged to collect ground truth to label and validate the classification results. The fusion classification result shows significant accuracy improvement when compared with either ScanSAR or MODIS alone or with other commonly-used data combination methods, such as multiple files composites. This study has shown that the image fusion technique used in this study can combine the structural information from high resolution ScanSAR and colour information from MODIS to significantly improve the classification accuracy between alfalfa and grassland.

  13. The effect of dietary alfalfa meal on the chicken meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tkáčová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of feed mixtures with proportion of alflafa meal 4% on body weight of broiler chickens, fat content their meat and oxidative stability meat fat under storage conditions. Final hybrid Cobb 500 chickens were used in the experiment. The broiler chickens were fed with feed mixtures starter from the 1st to the 18th day, grower from the 19th to the 31st day and finisher from the 32nd to the 38th ad libitum. An alfalfa meal of 4% was added in the feed mixtures of experimental group. In our experiment, we used alfalfa meal, which was made from Medicago sativa L. harvested in the bud's phase. The carcasses of broilers were stored at -18° C for a period of nine months. The average weight of chickens at the end of our experiment, the control group was 1685.6 g. In experimental group with addition of 4% alfalfa meal in feed mixtures, the chickens weighed 1709.6 g. The difference in body weight between the groups was not statistically significant (p >0.05. The average fat content in chicken meat was lower in the group with a share of 4% alfalfa meal 2.33 g.100g-1 compared to the fat content in meat chickens control group 2.59 g.100g-1. Differences in fat content in meat between the groups were not statistically significant (p >0.05. In our experiment, the average peroxide value of fat in meat under storage conditions 9 months at -18°C was lower in the group with a share of 4% alfalfa meal 2.42 µmol O2.g-1 compared with an average value of peroxide number 5.79 µmol O2.g-1 in the control group. Medicago sativa L. is an interesting object for research. It is characterized by high content of protein and biologically active substances that are effective for the promotion of health, and also an improvement the nutritional value and technological properties of the poultry food, when is used in feed mixtures.

  14. Oxidative stability of chicken meat during storage influenced by the feeding of alfalfa meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tkáčová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our experiment was to determine the effect of the alfalfa meal component in feed mixtures of Ross broiler chickens on oxidative stability of meat. Proportion of alfalfa meal in feed mixtures was 4 and 6%. The results were compared to the control group without alfalfa meal in feed mixtures. At the end of the experiment (day 38, 6 pcs of broiler chickens from each group with an average live body weight over 1 800 g were randomly selected. The samples for chemical analysis consisted of identical proportion of breast and thigh muscle, and about 1 cm2 of skin with subcutaneous fat. Fat from the meat was obtained after the samples drying. A fat was determined by extraction by means of laboratory instrument Det N Gras Selecta P. The oxidative stability of meat on the basis of acid number of fat was determided by chemical analysis. Chicken meat was stored at -18 °C for 12 months and 18 months. The acid number of fat of stored meat for 12 months was 7.38 mg KOH per g in the control group, 7.42 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 4% alfalfa meal, and 11.18 mg KOH per g in the group with proportion 6% alfalfa meal. An acid number of fat of stored meat for 18 months was 5.90 mg KOH per g in the control group, 4.65 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 4% alfalfa meal, and 7.07 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 6% alfalfa meal. Chicken meat is notably sensitive to lipid oxidation because of its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Legislation in Title 5 of Part 3 of the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the Government Regulation No. 286/2003 Coll. in the Annex 4 in Part B provide the requirements for animal fats and meat products. Regulation of the European Parliament and Council (EC No. 853/2004 lays down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. In particular, determination of free fatty acids content of rendered animal fat (tallow, lard, other animal fat. Legislative regulation does

  15. Urgency of further developing alfalfa industry in China%我国苜蓿产业亟待振兴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启忠; 玉柱; 徐春城

    2012-01-01

    随着我国畜牧业的快速发展,特别是奶牛业的崛起,对优质饲草尤其是苜蓿(Medicago sativa)的需求量将会越来越大。目前我国苜蓿产量低、品质差、供应量不足,不能满足市场的需求.进口苜蓿呈增加态势。2010年苜蓿的进口量已达22.72万t,对我国的苜蓿产业造成严重威胁。我国苜蓿产业发展受制于许多因素,一直处于徘徊不前状态,急需振兴。应尽快制定苜蓿产业发展战略规划,完善苜蓿生产补贴政策,鼓励科技创新,积极扶持苜蓿龙头企业。整合苜蓿产业资源,建设现代化苜蓿产业示范基地,推进我国苜蓿布局区域化、种植规模化、作业机械化、管理标准化和经营产业化发展,着力打造苜蓿产业带,增强我国苜蓿的综合生产能力和供应能力。推进奶一草一体化。%The rapid development of animal husbandry in China, especially the prosperous development of dairy farming, greatly increases the need for herbage of high quality, particularly alfalfa. This study pointed out that the alfalfa yield was low, and its quality was poor, and the supply of alfalfa did not meet its market demand in China. Consequently, the total quantity of imported alfalfa showed a increasing trend and came to 227 200 t in 2010, threatening the development of alfalfa industry in China. This study pro- posed that it is urgent to develop the alfalfa industry because alfalfa industry was regulated by many fac- tors. Finally, this study proposed some suggestions for further developing the alfalfa industry. Firstly, it was urgent to make development plan of alfalfa industry; secondly, the compensation package needed to be improved for alfalfa producer; thirdly, it was effort to innovate the utilization technology and support the leading enterprise of alfalfa industry; fourthly, establishing the demonstration base with modern technology was necessary by integrating the alfalfa

  16. Spatial density and movement of the Lygus spp. parasitoid Peristenus relictus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in organic strawberries with alfalfa trap crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Sean L; Nieto, Diego J; Pickett, Charles H; Hagler, James R; Bryer, Janet A; Machtley, Scott A

    2014-04-01

    Alfalfa trap crops are currently used to manage Lygus spp. in organic strawberry fields on the California Central Coast. The retention of Lygus spp. in alfalfa creates aggregated distributions that provide improved opportunities for biological control by the introduced parasitoid Peristenus relictus (Ruthe). The abundance and distribution of P. relictus between two trap crops separated by 50 strawberry rows were analyzed in 2008 and 2010. Parasitism of Lygus spp. nymphs by P. relictus (measured by larval abundance and % parasitism) was greatest in alfalfa trap crops compared with strawberry rows. A significantly positive correlation between host nymphs and P. relictus larvae in and between trap crops was found. Movement of P. relictus adults from a marked alfalfa trap crop into adjacent strawberry rows or trap crops was also studied in 2008 and 2009 using a chicken egg-albumin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay mark-capture technique. In 2008 and 2009, 85 and 49% of protein-marked wasps were captured from central trap crops, respectively, indicating that alfalfa trap crops act as a concentrated "host-density anchor" in organic strawberry fields. PMID:24763093

  17. Effect of absorbed dose and storage length on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal strength in irradiated alfalfa seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A kind of alfalfa seeds was irradiated by 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy at a dose rate of 6.288 kGy. h-1 in a self-shielded irradiator of 137Cs gamma rays. The EPR spectra, which were measured subsequently between 0.3401and 0.3501 T, showed that there was a direct proportional relationship between the EPR signal strength of free radicals produced by gamma irradiation in the alfalfa seeds and absorbed dose. The first derivative EPR spectra of the alfalfa seeds were very clear and easy to identify. However, the EPR signal strength of the peak-to-peak amplitude decreased rapidly and most of them decayed beyond 50% within 3 days after the seeds were irradiated. It tended to stabilize after half a month since the seeds were irradiated. The differences of the EPR signal strength between the irradiated and unirradiated alfalfa seeds still remained. All seeds were stored at ambient temperature for more than 3months. Therefore, using EPR spectrometry technique to measure free radicals in alfalfa seeds as a means to determine whether the seeds have been irradiated or not is feasible, relatively fast and simple.

  18. Effect of absorbed dose and storage length on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal strength in irradiated alfalfa seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kind of alfalfa seeds was irradiated by 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy at a dose rate of 6.288 kGy·h-1 in a self-shielded irradiator of 137Cs gamma rays. The EPR spectra, which were measured subsequently between 0.3401 and 0.3501 T, showed that there was a direct proportional relationship between the EPR signal strength of free radicals produced by gamma irradiation in the alfalfa seeds and absorbed dose. The first derivative EPR spectra of the alfalfa seeds were very clear and easy to identify. However, the EPR signal strength of the peak-to-peak amplitude decreased rapidly and most of them decayed beyond 50% within 3 days after the seeds were irradiated. It tended to stabilize after half a month since the seeds were irradiated. the differences of the EPR signal strength between the irradiated and unirradiated alfalfa seeds still remained. All seeds were stored at ambient temperature for more than 3 months. Therefore, using EPR spectrometry technique to measure free radicals in alfalfa seeds as a means to determine whether the seeds have been irradiated or not is feasible, relatively fast and simple. (authors)

  19. Lignin and Fiber digestibility in Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase Downregulated Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forages in the United States. Increasing alfalfa fiber digestibility would improve forage management and ration formulation flexibility. Currently, growers and breeders rely on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict forage quality tra...

  20. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT RULES OF PRACTICE Rules Applicable to Other Proceedings § 202.44 Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted...

  1. Comparación de dos índices cuantitativos de estimación del estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa Comparison of two quantitative indexes for the estimation of alfalfa development stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Bernáldez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. es una variable de estudio común en evaluaciones de cultivares, dada su relación con la composición química y la tasa de crecimiento de la pastura. La determinación de los índices cuantitativos "estado medio por conteo" y "estado medio por peso" (EMC y EMP respectivamente permite la descripción del estado de desarrollo en pasturas de alfalfa de una manera objetiva y reproducible. Los índices EMC y EMP describen igualmente el estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa cuando la pastura se encuentra próxima al momento de utilización recomendado en la práctica. La ventaja de estimar EMC en relación a EMP, se basa en la rapidez operativa que ofrece la generación de datos para el cálculo del primero.The developmental stage of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is an usual variable of study when evaluating cultivars because of its relationship with chemical composition and pasture growth rate. Determination of quantitative indexes such as "mean stage by count" and "mean stage by weight" (MSC and MSW respectively makes it possible to describe the developmental phenological stages of alfalfa pastures in a more objective and reproducible way. Likewise, both the MSC and MSW indexes, describe the developmental stages of alfalfa when the pasture is close to the recommended utilisation time in practice. The advantage of estimating MSC in relation to MSW is based on the higher operative efficiency offered by the former in data generation for its calculation.

  2. 德钦苜蓿区域适应性研究%Study on Regional Adaptation of Deqin Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马向丽; 毕玉芬; 任健; 赵雁; 邵辰光; 墨继光; 李立

    2012-01-01

    在迪庆州测试了德钦苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.cv.Deqin)和阿尔冈金苜蓿的适应区域和品种生产潜力.结果表明,德钦苜蓿在4个区试点种植,均能正常发育完成生活史.德钦苜蓿较阿尔冈金苜蓿返青期早5~7d,枯黄期晚9~13d,总生育天数长20d.抗性分析表明,德钦苜蓿适应性强,耐贫瘠、耐涝、抗干热能力强,无明显病虫害.德钦苜蓿的茎叶比为1.12 ~1.36,显著低于阿尔冈金苜蓿(P<0.05).产量测定结果表明,3年各试验点德钦苜蓿鲜草、干草产量均极显著高于阿尔冈金苜蓿(P<0.01).总体来看,德钦苜蓿在迪庆州德钦县及类似自然条件地区有较强的适应性和较好的丰产性,是一种值得在生产上推广种植的优良地方牧草品种.%Deqin alfalfa and Algonguin alfalfa varieties were collected and compared in this study. The results showed that Deqin alfalfa could grow healthy and finish the all growing stage in 4 test places. As a whole, the reviving stage of Deqin alfalfa was 5-7 days earlier than Al-gonguin alfalfa; the dry yellow stage of the former was 9-13 days latter than the latter; the growth period of the former was 20 days longer than the latter. The analysis of stress resistance showed that Deqin alfalfa had a strong adaptability and resistance to nutrient-deficient soil, high temperature and humidity, waterlog and disease and insect pest. The ratio of stem wt to Leaf wt of Deqin alfalfa was 1. 12 - 1. 36, which had significant differences between Deqin alfalfa and Algonguin alfalfa (P<0. 05). The yield results indicated that the fresh yields and dry matter yields of Deqin alfalfa were significantly higher than that of Algonguin alfalfa (P <0. 01 ). In a word, Deqin alfalfa had a stong adaptability and high yield, which was a kind of excellent local forage variety and worth planting and popularizing in DiqingTibetan Autonomous Prefecture.

  3. Effect of Graded Levels of Fiber from Alfalfa Meal on Nutrient Digestibility and Flow of Fattening Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2014-01-01

    The ifber level and composition have an important effect on nutrient digestibility of swine diets. Little information is known about the effects of ifber level and composition from alfalfa meal on nutrient digestibility of fattening pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of alfalfa ifber on the growth performance, intestinal nutrient lfow and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in fattening pigs. 24 barrows (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace), body weight=(60.6±0.7) kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 1 pig per replicate. The pigs were provided a control diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20%of alfalfa meal during a 14-d experiment period. Average daily gain (ADG) and the ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent ifber (NDF), acid detergent ifber (ADF) and gross energy (GE) reduced linearly as the level of alfalfa meal in the diet increased (P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both soluble and insoluble ifber intake, explained approximately 70%of the variation in the ATTD of DM, OM, NDF, and GE (P<0.01). In conclusion, alfalfa meal should be limited to less than 5%of the diet in fattening pigs to maximize growth performance and nutrient digestion. Soluble and insoluble ifber from alfalfa meal has the differential roles in nutrient digestion, which may help explain the main variation observed in nutrient digestibility. These ifndings suggest that knowledge of speciifc ifber components is necessary to accurately predict the effects of dietary ifber on nutrient digestibility.

  4. CO2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil root nodules and partitioning of 14C to the plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if nonphotosynthetic CO2 fixation by root nodules contributes carbon for the assimilation of fixed N2 in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and if assimilation products are partitioned to different plant organs. Effective alfalfa nodules excised from or attached to roots had apparent 14CO2 fixation rates of 50 to 80 μg CO2 kg-1s-1 (dry weight) at 0.0012 to 0.0038 mole fraction CO2. Nodule CO2 fixation rates increased six- to seven-fold as ambient CO2 was raised from 0.0038 to 0.0663 mole fraction. Respiration rates of nodules (3 to 4 mg CO2 kg-1s-1) were 10 to 100-fold higher than 14CO2 fixation rates of nodules. Pulse chase experiments with 14CO2 combined with nodule and xylem sap analysis demonstrated the initial products of root and nodule CO2 fixation were organic acids. However, the export of fixed 14C from effective nodules was primarily in the form of amino acids. In contrast, nodule and/or root fixed 14C in ineffectively nodulated alfalfa and denodulated effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil was transported primarily as organic acids. Aspartate, asparagine, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine were the most heavily labeled compounds in the amino acid fraction of both effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil nodules exposed to 14CO2. By contrast, asparate, asparagine, and glutamine were the predominantly labeled amino acids in xylem sap collected from nodulated effective roots exposed to 14CO2. The occurrence of nodule CO2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil and the export of fixed carbon as asparagine and aspartate to roots and shoots is consistent with a role for CO2 fixation by nodules in providing carbon skeletons for assimilation and transport of symbiotically fixed N2

  5. Effect of temperature on post-wintering development and total lipid content of alfalfa leafcutting bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kevin M; O'Neill, Ruth P; Kemp, William P; Delphia, Casey M

    2011-08-01

    Temperature plays an important role in effective management of the alfalfa leafcutting bee [Megachile rotundata (F.); Megachilidae], the major commercial pollinator of seed alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.); Fabaceae] in North America. To improve our understanding of threshold and optimum rearing temperatures of M. rotundata, we examined the effect of temperature on postwintering development by using a greater number of temperature treatments than applied in previous studies (19 versus eight or fewer) and analytical tools formulated to model nonlinear relationships between temperature and insect development rates. We also tested the hypothesis that rearing temperature influences adult body lipid content at emergence, which could affect adult survival, establishment and performance as a pollinator, and reproductive success. We found that the Lactin-2 and Briere-2 models provided the best fits to data and gave reasonable estimates of lower (16-18°C) and upper (36-39°C) developmental thresholds and optimum (33-34°C) rearing temperatures for maximizing development rate. Bees successfully emerged over a broad range of temperatures (22-35°C), but variation in development rate among individuals reared at the same temperature was lowest at 31-33°C. The optimum rearing temperature to maximize the proportion of body lipids in adults was 27-29°C. Our results are discussed in relation to previous findings and speak to the difficulties in designing practical rearing guidelines that simultaneously maximize development rate, survival, and adult condition, while synchronizing adult emergence with alfalfa bloom. PMID:22251693

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of three isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes from alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Long, Ruicai; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun; Zhang, Ze; Zhou, He; Yang, Qingchuan

    2013-02-01

    Isoprenoid is the precursor for the biosynthesis of saponins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, chlorophylls and many other products in plants. Saponins are an important group of bioactive plant natural products. The alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) saponins are glycosides of different triterpene aglycones and possess many biological activities. We isolated three genes (MsFPPS, MsGPPS and MsGGPPS) encoding isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDS) from alfalfa via a homology-based PCR approach. The enzyme activity assay of purified recombined MsFPPS and MsGGPPS expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that they all had IDS activity. Expression analysis of the three genes in different alfalfa tissues using real time PCR displayed that they were expressed in all tissues although they had a different expression patterns. MsFPPS and MsGPS displayed a significant increase in transcript level in response to methyl jasmonate, but the transcript level of MsGGPPS decreased obviously. To elucidate the functions of the three IDSs, their overexpression driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco plants was applied and analyzed. The T(0) transgenic plants of MsFPPS showed high levels of squalene content when compared with control. However, no differences were detected in T(0) transgenic plants of MsGPPS and MsGGPPS. In addition, the overexpression of MsFPPS induced senescence response in transgenic plant leaves. This result may indicate that MsFPPS performs a role not only in phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis, but also in growth regulation. PMID:23238915

  7. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Major Legacy Astronomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; Alfalfa Team

    2015-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. The collaborative nature of the UAT allows faculty and students from a wide ​range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to develop scholarly collaborations. Components of the program include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Alfvin et al., Martens et al., Sanders et al., this meeting). Through this model, faculty and students are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. In the 7 years of the program, 23 faculty and more than 220 undergraduate students have participated at a significant level. 40% of them have been women and members of underrepresented groups. Faculty, many of whom were new to the collaboration and had expertise in other fields, contribute their diverse sets of skills to ALFALFA ​related projects via observing, data reduction, collaborative research, and research with students. 142 undergraduate students have attended the annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 131 summer research projects and 94 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 62 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 46 have presented their results at national meetings. 93% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. Half of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been

  8. Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G.; Jung, H.J.G. [USDA, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-10-30

    A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and ranged from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what would happen if ALM was fed over long periods of time. Also, these results should not be interpreted to suggest either that ALM may used to replace all the hay in the diets or that ALM in meal form may be used to replace hay in the diets. Moreover, feed consumption by cows used in these experiments was rather high and somewhat atypical of most cows.

  9. The drying method affects the organic acid content of alfalfa forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pezzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malic acid (the main organic acid contained in alfalfa; Callaway et al., 1997 is an important metabolite for ruminal microbial population since it improves the uptake of lactic acid by Selenomonas ruminantium (Evans and Martin, 1997 and Megasphaera elsdenii (Rossi and Piva, 1999. Several studies have shown the effect of adding malic acid to the diet of steers and dairy cows on ruminal fermentation (Martin et al., 1999; Martin et al., 2000 and animal performances (Krummrey et al., 1979; Stallcup, 1979; Kung et al., 1982. Aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of drying method.......

  10. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  11. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  12. Impact of disinfecting nesting boards on chalkbrood control in the alfalfa leafcutting bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R R

    2005-08-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), is a solitary, cavity-nesting bee that has been managed in large numbers to pollinate alfalfa, Medicago spp., seed crops since the 1960s. Propagation of these bees from 1 yr to the next has been seriously hampered by chalkbrood, a larval disease caused by the fungus Ascosphaera aggregata Skou. In the United States, attempts to control the disease have been fairly unsuccessful, but include removing nests from the nesting boards and then disinfecting the boards with heat treatments or a fumigant. The problem is that many boards are made of polystyrene (so heat cannot be used), and very few fumigants are registered for this use. In this study, ozone was tested as a fumigant and compared with heat treatments and methyl bromide fumigation. Ozone was found to be inadequate for killing A. aggregata spores and for reducing chalkbrood levels in the field. Methyl bromide and heat treatments did greatly reduce spore viability in the boards, but did not reduce chalkbrood levels in the field. Surprisingly, larvae in new nesting boards (boards free of contamination) and chalkbrood infection levels were similar to those from nests in contaminated, used boards. Disinfecting nesting boards may be necessary for controlling chalkbrood, but the results reported here indicate that it is not sufficient in and of itself. Some other source of spores was present in the field that was greater than the effect of contamination from the boards, but the source still needs to be determined. PMID:16156558

  13. Prediction of MHC binding peptides and epitopes from alfalfa mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomase, Virendra S; Kale, Karbhari V; Chikhale, Nandkishor J; Changbhale, Smruti S

    2007-08-01

    Peptide fragments from alfalfa mosaic virus involved multiple antigenic components directing and empowering the immune system to protect the host from infection. MHC molecules are cell surface proteins, which take active part in host immune reactions and involvement of MHC class-I & II in response to almost all antigens. Coat protein of alfalfa mosaic virus contains 221 aa residues. Analysis found five MHC ligands in coat protein as 64-LSSFNGLGV-72; 86- RILEEDLIY-94; 96-MVFSITPSY-104; 100- ITPSYAGTF-108; 110- LTDDVTTED-118; having rescaled binding affinity and c-terminal cleavage affinity more than 0.5. The predicted binding affinity is normalized by the 1% fractil. The MHC peptide binding is predicted using neural networks trained on c-terminals of known epitopes. In analysis predicted MHC/peptide binding is a log transformed value related to the IC50 values in nM units. Total numbers of peptides found are 213. Predicted MHC binding regions act like red flags for antigen specific and generate immune response against the parent antigen. So a small fragment of antigen can induce immune response against whole antigen. This theme is implemented in designing subunit and synthetic peptide vaccines. The sequence analysis method allows potential drug targets to identify active sites against plant diseases. The method integrates prediction of peptide MHC class I binding; proteosomal c-terminal cleavage and TAP transport efficiency. PMID:17691913

  14. Biodegradation of atrazine by three transgenic grasses and alfalfa expressing a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Andrew W; Wang, Ping; Uefuji, Hirotaka; Samac, Deborah A; Vance, Carroll P; Wackett, Lawrence P; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The widespread use of atrazine and other s-triazine herbicides to control weeds in agricultural production fields has impacted surface and groundwater in the United States and elsewhere. We previously reported the cloning, sequencing, and expression of six genes involved in the atrazine biodegradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, which is initiated by atzA, encoding atrazine chlorohydrolase. Here we explored the use of enhanced expression of a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase, p-AtzA, in transgenic grasses (tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, and switchgrass) and the legume alfalfa for the biodegradation of atrazine. Enhanced expression of p-AtzA was obtained by using combinations of the badnavirus promoter, the maize alcohol dehydrogenase first intron, and the maize ubiquitin promoter. For alfalfa, we used the first intron of the 5'-untranslated region tobacco alcohol dehydrogenase gene and the cassava vein mosaic virus promoter. Resistance of plants to atrazine in agar-based and hydroponic growth assays was correlated with in vivo levels of gene expression and atrazine degradation. The in planta expression of p-atzA enabled transgenic tall fescue to transform atrazine into hydroxyatrazine and other metabolites. Results of our studies highlight the potential use of transgenic plants for bioremediating atrazine in the environment. PMID:25432082

  15. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-Poor Gas-Rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschauer, Alec S; Skillman, Evan D; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Cannon, John M; Gordon, Alex J R; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L; Pogge, Richard W; Croxall, Kevin V; Aver, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with HI masses in the range of 10$^{6}$-10$^{7.2}$~M$_{\\odot}$ discovered by the ALFALFA survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone HII region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) on the Mayall 4-m as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5-m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [OIII]$\\lambda$4363 line and hence the determination of a "direct" oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 $\\pm$ 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind HI surv...

  16. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-poor Gas-rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Gordon, Alex J. R.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Aver, Erik

    2016-05-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H i in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H i masses in the range of 106–107.2 M ⊙, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H ii region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O iii]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H i survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  17. Contribution of the pod wall to seed grain filling in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hou, Longyu; Wang, Mingya; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Three genotypes of alfalfa viz. Medicago sativa (Zhongmu No. 1, Zhongmu No. 2) and M. varia (Caoyuan No. 3) grown in the filed were investigated for the contribution of pod wall and leaves by shading all pods and leaves on July 15, 20 and 25, respectively. Date was recorded for total pod weight (TPW), pod wall weight (PWW), seed weight per pod (SWP), seed number per pod (SNP) and single seed weight (SSW) of one-coil and two-coil spiral pods. TPW, SNP, PWW and SWP were reduced by shading all leaves or pods, whereas SSW was not significantly affected. The relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was 25.6-48.1% in three genotypes on July 15. The pod wall in one-coil spiral pods generated a greater relative contribution to the TPW and SWP than in two-coil spiral pods. In the last stage (July 25), the relative photosynthetic contribution of leaves to SWP sharply decreased, whereas the relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was stable in the late stage (July 20 and 25). In conclusion, the pod wall of alfalfa could carry out photosynthesis and the pod wall played an important role in pod filling at the late growth stage. PMID:27210048

  18. ALFALFA Discovery of the Nearby Gas-Rich Dwarf Galaxy Leo P. I. HI Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Cannon, John M; Rhode, Katherine L; Salzer, John J; Skillman, Evan D; Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z; McQuinn, Kristen B W

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of a previously unknown 21cm HI line source identified as an ultra-compact high velocity cloud in the ALFALFA survey is reported. The HI detection is barely resolved by the Arecibo 305m telescope ~4' beam and has a narrow HI linewidth (HPFW of 24 km/s). Further HI observations at Arecibo and with the VLA corroborate the ALFALFA HI detection, provide an estimate of the HI radius, ~1' at the 5 x 10^19 cm^-2 isophote, and show the cloud to exhibit rotation with an amplitude of ~9.0 +/- 1.5 km/s. In other papers, Rhode et al. (2013) show the HI source to have a resolved stellar counterpart and ongoing star forming activity, while Skillman et al. (2013) reveal it as having extremely low metallicity: 12 + log(O/H) = 7.16 +/- 0.04. The HI mass to stellar mass ratio of the object is found to be 2.6. We use the Tully-Fisher template relation in its baryonic form (McGaugh 2012) to obtain a distance estimate D = 1.3 (+0.9,-0.5) Mpc. Additional constraints on the distance are also provided by the optical da...

  19. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: The Galaxy Population Detected by ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Shan; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2012-01-01

    Making use of HI 21 cm line measurements from the ALFALFA survey (alpha.40) and photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and GALEX, we investigate the global scaling relations and fundamental planes linking stars and gas for a sample of 9417 common galaxies: the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX sample. In addition to their HI properties derived from the ALFALFA dataset, stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived from fitting the UV-optical spectral energy distributions. 96% of the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX galaxies belong to the blue cloud, with the average gas fraction f_HI = M_HI/M_* ~ 1.5. A transition in SF properties is found whereby below M_* ~ 10^9.5 M_sun, the slope of the star forming sequence changes, the dispersion in the specific star formation rate (SSFR) distribution increases and the star formation efficiency (SFE) mildly increases with M_*. The evolutionary track in the SSFR-M_* diagram, as well as that in the color magnitude diagram are linked to the HI content; below this trans...

  20. Efficacy of Rodent Control in Alfalfa and Wheat Crops Using Chemical and Natural Rodenticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Đedović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological efficacy of chemical and natural rodenticides in controlling rodents in alfalfa and wheat crops was investigated. The experiment was set up using a randomized block design with four replicates and 400 m2 plots in compliace with a standard OEPP/EPPO method. Examination was based on the average number of active holes and rodenticide efficacy was measured three, seven, 14 and 28 days after treatment. Rodent numbers were computed from the number of active holes, and rodenticide efficacy using Abbott’s formula.The appearance and arrangement of active holes indicated the presence of common vole (Microtus arvalis Pall and striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius in the plots. The products tested demonstrated satisfactory efficacy in controlling rodents in alfalfa and wheatcrops. Products based on vitamin D3 achieved 87-90% efficacy in both crops. The efficacy of a bromadiolone-based product ranged from 84% to 90%, while a cellulose product displayed the highest variation in efficacy, ranging from 86% to 98%.

  1. Characterization and genetic dissection of resistance to spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii) in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Kamphuis, L. G.

    2013-09-21

    Aphids cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide. Medicago truncatula, a model legume, cultivated pasture species in Australia and close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), was used to study the defence response against Therioaphis trifolii f. maculate [spotted alfalfa aphid (SAA)]. Aphid performance and plant damage were compared among three accessions. A20 is highly susceptible, A17 has moderate resistance, and Jester is strongly resistant. Subsequent analyses using A17 and A20, reciprocal F1s and an A17×A20 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population revealed that this moderate resistance is phloem mediated and involves antibiosis and tolerance but not antixenosis. Electrical penetration graph analysis also identified a novel waveform termed extended potential drop, which occurred following SAA infestation of M. truncatula. Genetic dissection using the RIL population revealed three quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 3, 6, and 7 involved in distinct modes of aphid defence including antibiosis and tolerance. An antibiosis locus resides on linkage group 3 (LG3) and is derived from A17, whereas a plant tolerance and antibiosis locus resides on LG6 and is derived from A20, which exhibits strong temporary tolerance. The loci identified reside in regions harbouring classical resistance genes, and introgression of these loci in current medic cultivars may help provide durable resistance to SAA, while elucidation of their molecular mechanisms may provide valuable insight into other aphid–plant interactions.

  2. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Haynes, Martha P; Finn, Rose A; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5

  3. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Sun

    Full Text Available Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  4. Statistical analysis of ALFALFA galaxies: Insights in galaxy formation & near-field cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergis, Emmanouil

    2013-03-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a blind, extragalactic survey in the 21cm emission line of atomic hydrogen (HI). Presently, sources have been cataloged over ≈4,000 deg2 of sky (~60% of its final area), resulting in the largest HI-selected sample to date. We use the rich ALFALFA dataset to measure the statistical properties of HI-bearing galaxies, such as their mass distribution and clustering characteristics. These statistical distributions are determined by the properties of darkmatter on galactic scales, and by the complex baryonic processes through which galaxies form over cosmic time. As a result, detailed studies of these distributions can lead to important insights in galaxy formation & evolution and near-field cosmology. In particular, we measure the space density of HI-bearing galaxies as a function of the width of their HI profile (i.e. the velocity width function of galaxies), and find substantial disagreement with the distribution expected in a lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) universe. In particular, the number of galaxies with maximum rotational velocities upsilonrot ≈ 35 kms--1 (as judged by their HI velocity width) is about an order of magnitude lower than what predicted based on populating ΛCDM halos with modeled galaxies. We identify two possible solutions to the discrepancy: First, an alternative dark matter scenario in which the formation of low-mass halos is heavily suppressed (e.g. a warm dark matter universe with keV-scale dark matter particles). Secondly, we consider the possibility that rotational velocitites of dwarf galaxies derived from HI velocity widths may systematically underestimate the true mass of the host halo, due to the shape of their rotation curves. In this latter scenario, quantitative predictions for the internal kinematics of dwarf galaxies can be made, which can be checked in the future to probe the nature of dark matter. Furthermore, we take advantage of the overlap of ALFALFA with the Sloan Digital

  5. Modeling the impact of the indigenous microbial population on the maximum population density of Salmonella on alfalfa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijgersberg, H.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Tromp, S.O.; Franz, E.

    2013-01-01

    Within a microbial risk assessment framework, modeling the maximum population density (MPD) of a pathogenic microorganism is important but often not considered. This paper describes a model predicting the MPD of Salmonella on alfalfa as a function of the initial contamination level, the total count

  6. Effects of three-dimensional and color patterns on nest location and progeny mortality in alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédot, Christelle; Bosch, Jordi; James, Rosalind R; Kemp, William P

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT In alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., seed production where high bee densities are released, alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), females may enter several nesting holes before locating their nests. Such levels of "wrong hole" visits lead to an increase in the time spent by females locating their own nests, thereby decreasing alfalfa pollination efficiency and possibly healthy brood production. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of different nesting board configurations in commercial alfalfa leafcutting bee shelters (separating nesting boards, applying a three-dimensional pattern to the boards, applying a color contrast pattern, or applying a combination of three-dimensional and color contrast patterns) on nest location performance, on the incidence of chalkbrood disease, and on the incidence of broodless provisions. Separating the nesting boards inside shelters improved the ability of females to locate their nests. An increase in nest location performance also occurred in boards with the three-dimensional pattern and the combined three-dimensional and color contrast pattern, compared with the uniform board (a standard configuration currently used commercially). The percentage of provisioned cells that were broodless was not statistically different between treatments, but the percentage of larvae infected with chalkbrood decreased by half in the three-dimensional board design, compared with the uniform board. PMID:16813291

  7. The location of coat protein and viral RNAs of alfalfa mosaic virus in infected tobacco leaves and protoplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt-Heerschap, H. van; Verbeek, H.; Slot, J.W.; Vloten-Doting, L. van

    1987-01-01

    The location of coat protein of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) strain 425 was determined in protoplasts isolated from infected tobacco leaves and in in vitro inoculated tobacco protoplasts, using immunocytochemistry on ultrathin frozen sections labeled with colloidal gold. In infected tobacco leaves 5

  8. Changes in ruminal bacterial community composition following feeding of alfalfa silage inoculated with a commercial silage inoculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some silage inoculants promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. In this study, dairy cows fed alfalfa silage treated with the inoculant, Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LPS), were compared to cows fed untreated silage (Ctrl) with the objectives: 1) to de...

  9. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey : X. The HI Mass Function and Omega_HI From the 40% ALFALFA Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Ann M.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Springob, Christopher M.; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey has completed source extraction for 40% of its total sky area, resulting in the largest sample of HI-selected galaxies to date. We measure the HI mass function from a sample of 10,119 galaxies with 6.2

  10. Alfalfa endophytes as novel sources of antimicrobial compounds that inhibit the growth of human and plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes may contribute to plant health and disease protection, yet little is known about their various roles in alfalfa. Also, endophytes from several plant species produce novel antimicrobial compounds that may be useful clinically. We isolated endophytic fungi from over 50 samples from s...

  11. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO VARIA L.) GENETICLALY ENGINEERED TO EXPRESS A HUMAN METALLOTHIONEIN (HMT) GENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of these studies were two-fold: (1) to determine efficacy of low and high expression hMT gene constructs by assessing accumulation of Cu in shoots of parental and transgenic plants of alfalfa (Medicago varia L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO4 by addit...

  12. Extended hypoxia in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, increases survival but causes sub-lethal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many insects are tolerant of hypoxic conditions, but it is unknown whether survival under hypoxia comes at any cost to long-term health. The alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is a solitary cavity-nesting bee. Because juvenile M. rotundata develop in brood cells inside cavities, they may...

  13. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on photosynthesis and productivity of alfalfa in relation to seasonal changes in temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa was grown at ambient and elevated (ambient + 350 ppm) carbon dioxide concentrations at Beltsville, Maryland, using open top chambers in field plots. Periodic harvests and measurements of leaf photosynthesis were used to test the hypothesis that the stimulation of yield and photosynthesis by...

  14. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins P1 and P2 interact and colocalize at the vacuolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.W.; Carette, J.E.; Reinhoud, P.J.; Haegi, A.; Bol, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Replication of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs depends on the virus-encoded proteins P1 and P2. P1 contains methyltransferase- and helicase-like domains, and P2 contains a polymerase-like domain. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between in vitro translated-P1 and P2 and show

  15. In vitro fermentation response of laying hen cecal bacteria to combinations of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) prebiotic with alfalfa and layer ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with an alfalfa molting diet on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal contents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3000 concentration with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes fi...

  16. Differential antifungal activity of alfalfa (Medicago santva L. saponins originated from roots and aerial parts for some ornamental plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins isolated from aerial parts and roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. at the concentration of 0,01%, 0,05% and 0,1% showed differential influence on the mycelium growth of Alternaria zinniae, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Phoma poolensis and Rhizoctonia solani. A higher inhibitory effect on in vitro growth of mycelium of all tested pathogens indicated saponins from roots of alfalfa than from aerial parts. Tested saponins from roots at lhe concentration of 0,1% totally inhibited linear growth of Phoma narcissi, and linear growth of Alternaria zinniae was limited about 67%, Botrytis cinerea about 74%, Botrytis tulipae about 68%, Phoma poolensis about 38%, and Rhizoctonia solani about 74% in comparison to the control. The saponins of alfalfa from roots at the concentration of 0,1% and 0,2% applied as preinoculation sprays evidently inhibited the development of Phoma narcissi on Hippeastrum leaves. This dose of aerial saponins of alfalfa did not effect the development of necrotic spots on the leaves.

  17. Alfalfa leaf protein and stem cell wall polysaccharide yields and theoretical ethanol production under hay and biomass management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been proposed as a biofuel feedstock, where the stems would be processed to produce ethanol and the leaves sold separately as a livestock feed. We propose a different management regime reducing population density, delaying harvest and cutting less frequently per grow...

  18. Construction of two genetic linkage maps in cultivated tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa using microsatellite and AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoni Sylvain

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa is a major forage crop. The genetic progress is slow in this legume species because of its autotetraploidy and allogamy. The genetic structure of this species makes the construction of genetic maps difficult. To reach this objective, and to be able to detect QTLs in segregating populations, we used the available codominant microsatellite markers (SSRs, most of them identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula from EST database. A genetic map was constructed with AFLP and SSR markers using specific mapping procedures for autotetraploids. The tetrasomic inheritance was analysed in an alfalfa mapping population. Results We have demonstrated that 80% of primer pairs defined on each side of SSR motifs in M. truncatula EST database amplify with the alfalfa DNA. Using a F1 mapping population of 168 individuals produced from the cross of 2 heterozygous parental plants from Magali and Mercedes cultivars, we obtained 599 AFLP markers and 107 SSR loci. All but 3 SSR loci showed a clear tetrasomic inheritance. For most of the SSR loci, the double-reduction was not significant. For the other loci no specific genotypes were produced, so the significant double-reduction could arise from segregation distortion. For each parent, the genetic map contained 8 groups of four homologous chromosomes. The lengths of the maps were 2649 and 3045 cM, with an average distance of 7.6 and 9.0 cM between markers, for Magali and Mercedes parents, respectively. Using only the SSR markers, we built a composite map covering 709 cM. Conclusions Compared to diploid alfalfa genetic maps, our maps cover about 88–100% of the genome and are close to saturation. The inheritance of the codominant markers (SSR and the pattern of linkage repulsions between markers within each homology group are consistent with the hypothesis of a tetrasomic meiosis in alfalfa. Except for 2 out of 107 SSR markers, we found a similar order of markers on

  19. POPULATION DENSITY OF PHYTONOMUS VARIABILIS HRBST. AND PHYTODECTA FORNICATA BRUGG. ON MULTIFOLIOLATE AND TRIFOLIOLATE ALFALFA IN RELATION TO ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS ON THEIR LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ATANASOVA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two alfalfa cultivars - the multifoliolate “Mnogolistna 1” and the trifoliolate “Europe” were investigated for their resistance towards two main alfalfa defoliators Phytonomus variabilis Hrbst., 1795 and Phytodecta fornicata Brugg., 1873. The results of the two year study showed that the population density of both pests was higher in the“Mnogolistna 1” fields. The anatomical study of the leaves showed that multifoliolate alfalfa cultivar has narrower palisade and spongy parenchyma and thinner leaves and cuticle which make it less resistant to Ph. variabilis and Ph. fornicata.

  20. Research Progress in Evaluation Method of Nutritional Value of Alfalfa%苜蓿营养价值的评定方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 宋伟红

    2009-01-01

    In order to referencing for reasonable application of alfalfa in feed production, it describes the evaluation method on nutritional value of alfalfa hay and alfalfa silage at home and abroad by sensory, laboratory and feeding test.%本文通过感官评定法、实验室方法和动物饲养试验方法对国内外苜蓿干草和苜蓿青贮营养价值的评定方法进行综述,旨在为苜蓿在饲料生产中的合理应用提供参考依据.

  1. The elicitor-inducible alfalfa isoflavone reductase promoter confers different patterns of developmental expression in homologous and heterologous transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, A; Dixon, R A; Paiva, N L

    1994-01-01

    In legumes, the synthesis of infection- and elicitor-inducible antimicrobial phytoalexins occurs via the isoflavonoid branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To study transcriptional regulation of isoflavonoid pathway-specific genes, we have isolated the gene encoding isoflavone reductase (IFR), which is the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of the phytoalexin medicarpin in alfalfa. Chimeric gene fusions were constructed between 765- and 436-bp promoter fragments of the IFR gene and the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to alfalfa and tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both promoter fragments conferred elicitor-mediated expression in cell suspension cultures derived from transgenic plants of both species and fungal infection-mediated expression in leaves of transgenic alfalfa. Developmental expression directed by both promoter fragments in transgenic alfalfa was observed only in the root meristem, cortex, and nodules, which is consistent with the accumulation of endogenous IFR transcripts. However, in transgenic tobacco, expression from the 765-bp promoter was observed in vegetative tissues (root meristem and cortex, inner vascular tissue of stems and petioles, leaf tips, and stem peripheries adjacent to petioles) and in reproductive tissues (stigma, placenta, base of the ovary, receptacle, seed, tapetal layer, and pollen grains), whereas the 436-bp promoter was expressed only in fruits, seed, and pollen. These data indicate that infection/elicitor inducibility of the IFR promoter in both species and developmental expression in alfalfa are determined by sequences downstream of position -436, whereas sequences between -436 and -765 confer a complex pattern of strong ectopic developmental expression in the heterologous species that lacks the isoflavonoid pathway. PMID:7866024

  2. Molecular identification of a new phytoplasma associated with alfalfa witches'-broom in oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A J; Botti, S; Al-Subhi, A M; Gundersen-Rindal, D E; Bertaccini, A F

    2002-10-01

    ABSTRACT Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants showing witches'-broom symptoms typical of phytoplasmas were observed from Al-Batinah, Al-Sharqiya, Al-Bureimi, and interior regions of the Sultanate of Oman. Phytoplasmas were detected from all symptomatic samples by the specific amplification of their 16S-23S rRNA gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), utilizing phytoplasma-specific universal primer pairs, consistently amplified a product of expected lengths when DNA extract from symptomatic samples was used as template. Asymptomatic plant samples and the negative control yielded no amplification. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA of alfalfa using the P1/P7 primer pair identified phytoplasmas belonging to peanut witches'-broom group (16SrII or faba bean phyllody). Restriction enzyme profiles showed that the phytoplasmas detected in all 300 samples belonged to the same ribosomal group. Extensive comparative analyses on P1/P7 amplimers of 20 phytoplasmas with Tru9I, Tsp509I, HpaII, TaqI, and RsaI clearly indicated that this phytoplasma is different from all the other phytoplasmas employed belonging to subgroup 16SrII, except tomato big bud phytoplasma from Australia, and could be therefore classified in subgroup 16SrII-D. The alfalfa witches'-broom (AlfWB) phytoplasma P1/P7 PCR product was sequenced directly after cloning and yielded a 1,690-bp product. The homology search showed 99% similarity (1,667 of 1,690 base identity) with papaya yellow crinkle (PapayaYC) phytoplasma from New Zealand. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S plus spacer regions sequences of 35 phytoplasmas, mainly from the Southern Hemisphere, showed that AlfWB is a new phytoplasma species, with closest relationships to PapayaYC phytoplasmas from New Zealand and Chinese pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasmas from Taiwan but distinguishable from them considering the different associated plant hosts and the extreme geographical isolation. PMID:18944213

  3. The Sinorhizobium meliloti RNA chaperone Hfq influences central carbon metabolism and the symbiotic interaction with alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Zurdo José I

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial Hfq protein is able to interact with diverse RNA molecules, including regulatory small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs, and thus it is recognized as a global post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Loss of Hfq has an extensive impact in bacterial physiology which in several animal pathogens influences virulence. Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model soil bacterium known for its ability to establish a beneficial nitrogen-fixing intracellular symbiosis with alfalfa. Despite the predicted general involvement of Hfq in the establishment of successful bacteria-eukaryote interactions, its function in S. meliloti has remained unexplored. Results Two independent S. meliloti mutants, 2011-3.4 and 1021Δhfq, were obtained by disruption and deletion of the hfq gene in the wild-type strains 2011 and 1021, respectively, both exhibiting similar growth defects as free-living bacteria. Transcriptomic profiling of 1021Δhfq revealed a general down-regulation of genes of sugar transporters and some enzymes of the central carbon metabolism, whereas transcripts specifying the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen sources (mainly amino acids were more abundant than in the wild-type strain. Proteomic analysis of the 2011-3.4 mutant independently confirmed these observations. Symbiotic tests showed that lack of Hfq led to a delayed nodulation, severely compromised bacterial competitiveness on alfalfa roots and impaired normal plant growth. Furthermore, a large proportion of nodules (55%-64% elicited by the 1021Δhfq mutant were non-fixing, with scarce content in bacteroids and signs of premature senescence of endosymbiotic bacteria. RT-PCR experiments on RNA from bacteria grown under aerobic and microoxic conditions revealed that Hfq contributes to regulation of nifA and fixK1/K2, the genes controlling nitrogen fixation, although the Hfq-mediated regulation of fixK is only aerobiosis dependent. Finally, we found that some of the recently

  4. 苜蓿在奶牛生产中的应用进展研究%Research Progress of Alfalfa in Dairy Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈名灿; 罗佳捷; 张彬

    2014-01-01

    苜蓿是一种优质的奶牛饲草来源,具有非常高的营养价值。本文对从苜蓿产业的发展历史、趋势和苜蓿的营养学特性、加工工艺以及在奶牛生产中的应用情况等方面进行了综述,并展望了苜蓿产业的发展前景。%Alfalfa is a quality herbage resource for dairy cattle,which has high nutritional value. The history and trends of alfalfa industry,the nutritional properties,processing technology of alfalfa and its application in dairy production were summarized,moreover, the prospect of alfalfa industry was prospected in this paper.

  5. Genes related to immunity, as expressed in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, during pathogen challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; James, R

    2009-11-01

    Virtually nothing is known about disease resistance in solitary bees, so expressed sequence tag (EST) databases were developed to search for immune response genes in the alfalfa leafcutting bee. We identified 104 putative immunity-related genes from both healthy and pathogen-challenged bee larvae, and 12 more genes using PCR amplification. The genes identified coded for proteins with a wide variety of innate immune response functions, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the prophenoloxidase cascade, melanization, coagulation and several signalling pathways. Some immune response genes were highly conserved with honey bee genes, and more distantly related to other insects. The data presented provides the first analysis of immune function in a solitary bee and provides a foundation for the further analysis of gene expression patterns in bees. PMID:19863668

  6. ALFALFA and WSRT Imaging of Extended H I Features in the Leo Cloud of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Józsa, Gyula; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Hess, Kelley M.

    2016-08-01

    We present ALFALFA H I observations of a well studied region of the Leo Cloud, which includes the NGC 3227 group and the NGC 3190 group. We detect optically dark H I tails and plumes with extents potentially exceeding 600 kpc, well beyond the field of view of previous observations. These H I features contain ˜40% of the total H I mass in the NGC 3227 group and ˜10% of the NGC 3190 group. We also present WSRT maps which show the complex morphology of the the extended emission in the NGC 3227 group. We comment on previously proposed models of the interactions in these group and the implications for the scale of group processing through interactions. Motivated by the extent of the H I plumes, we place the H I observations in the context of the larger loose group, demonstrating the need for future sensitive, wide field H I surveys to understand the role of group processing in galaxy evolution.

  7. ALFALFA and WSRT Imaging of Extended HI Features in the Leo Cloud of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Leisman, Lukas; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Józsa, Gyula; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Hess, Kelley M

    2016-01-01

    We present ALFALFA HI observations of a well studied region of the Leo Cloud, which includes the NGC 3227 group and the NGC 3190 group. We detect optically dark HI tails and plumes with extents potentially exceeding 600 kpc, well beyond the field of view of previous observations. These HI features contain approximately 40% of the total HI mass in the NGC~3227 group and 10% in the NGC~3190 group. We also present WSRT maps which show the complex morphology of the extended emission in the NGC~3227 group. We comment on previously proposed models of the interactions in these groups and the implications for the scale of group processing through interactions. Motivated by the extent of the HI plumes, we place the HI observations in the context of the larger loose group, demonstrating the need for future sensitive, wide field HI surveys to understand the role of group processing in galaxy evolution.

  8. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (Pmeat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

  9. Effects of nutrient solution pH on growth parameters of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nutrient solution pH (4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 were examined on growth features of 12 alfalfa genotypes in relation to characters: leaf blade, epicotyl, hypocotyl, first leaf petiole, trifoliate leaf petiole and root fresh weight and epicotyl, hypocotyl, first leaf petiole, trifoliate leaf petiole and root length. Significant quadratic effects of pH solution were detected for all studied parameters. The pH value which resulted in maximum growth varied, according to the studied parameter, between 5.0 and 6.0. The genotypes Victoria, Esmeralda, Crioula and F-708 exhibited superior performance when data were pooled for all studied pH values. The results indicate that the initial growth is affected by pH variation in the nutrient solution, and that contrasting genotypes tend to perform alike.

  10. Biological activity of saponins from alfalfa tops and roots against Colorado potato beetle larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryla Szczepaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., included in the diet of Colorado potato beetle larvae reduced their feeding, growth rate and survival. The biological activity of those compounds coming both from the roots and from the aerial parts is closely correlated with the dose. Larvae reared on leaves treated with a 0,5% dose virtually did not feed at all and died after 4-6 days. Lower saponin doses (0,01 and 0,001 % reduced the insects' feeding to a lesser degree. However, they inhibited their growth, caused an extension of the larval stage and mortality at a level of 76,7- 100%. No major differences have been found in saponin activity depending on its localization in the plant.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF ALFALFA LOCAL POPULATIONS FOR CREATION OF NEW BREEDING GERMPLAZM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Čupić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield of dry matter and green mass are important factors in selection of fodder crop cultivars. Low genetic gain was achieved during the long time of fodder crops breeding for yield. Therefore we investigated possibility of using local populations of alfalfa for yield increase with direct and indirect selection. Strong and significant influence of genotypes and environments was recorded for all examined traits and their interactions at the level p<0.01. The highest variability was recorded for green mass yield 48.21%; while the lowest variation was for height 13.18%. High share of genotype variance as well as high heritability were recorded in total variance for the traits number of stem and plant height.

  12. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. II. OPTICAL IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Van Sistine, Angela; Young, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W., E-mail: rhode@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We present results from ground-based optical imaging of a low-mass dwarf galaxy discovered by the ALFALFA 21 cm H I survey. Broadband (BVR) data obtained with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxy's stellar population down to V{sub o} {approx} 25. We also use narrowband H{alpha} imaging from the KPNO 2.1 m telescope to identify a H II region in the galaxy. We use these data to constrain the distance to the galaxy to be between 1.5 and 2.0 Mpc. This places Leo P within the Local Volume but beyond the Local Group. Its properties are extreme: it is the lowest-mass system known that contains significant amounts of gas and is currently forming stars.

  13. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  14. The isoflavone content of two new alfalfa-derived products for instant beverage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Zarazúa, M Guadalupe; Rodrigues, Francisca; Pimentel, Filipa B; Bah, M M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2016-01-01

    The frequent use of plant-based products to promote health leads to the search for scientific information related to efficacy and safety of those products for human consumption. Two alfalfa-derived products (ADP), freeze-dried juice (FDJ) and dehydrated powder (DP), from alfalfa harvested in Mexico, are being developed as new possible nutraceuticals. To the best of our knowledge, any study reports the real composition of such products used to prepare instant beverages in what concerns isoflavone contents. Seven isoflavones (glycitein, formononetin, biochanin A, daidzein, genistein, daidzin and genistin) were assessed by HPLC-DAD analysis as well as its variation in five different batches of these products. Different solvents were tested in order to choose the best one to extract isoflavones. The results showed the presence of daidzein, genistein, genistin and daidzin in most samples while glycitein, formononetin and biochanin A were not detected. Significant differences between isoflavone contents were found with different solvent systems. Water was the best option to extract daidzein (0.40-1.08 mg per unit and 1.30-4.90 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively) whereas the water-methanol-formic acid mixture was efficient to extract genistein (0.19-0.43 mg per unit and 0.15-0.72 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively). In all cases, the total isoflavone content was higher in freeze-dried juices than in dehydrated powders. Genistein and daidzein were the more abundant isoflavones quantified. Further physiological and nutritional studies are needed to complete the validation of effectiveness and safety of these products. PMID:26499901

  15. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  16. Alfalfa leaf meal in finishing steer diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.; Brown, D.B.; Hall, J.M.

    1997-10-30

    Ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 540 lb.) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 167 or 189-day finishing phase, respectively. Treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, 100% of supplemental protein. Finishing diets were formulated to contain .61 Mcal NE{sub g}/lb dry matter, 12.5% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. There were no significant (P >.05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or dry matter required /lb of gain. Steers fed 100 % ALM consumed more (P <.05) dry matter than steers fed either of the other three treatments. Dry matter consumption increased linearly (P >.05) with increasing ALM. There was no significant (P >.05) dietary treatment effect on marbling, KPH %, yield grade, quality grade, or liver abscesses. There was an apparent trend in reduced liver abscess incidence in steers fed 100 % ALM. Steers fed 66 % ALM had significantly (P <.05) greater backfat measurements, backfat also had a cubic effect (P <.05). Hot carcass weight had a quadratic relation (P <.05) with level of ALM. Substituting alfalfa leaf meal for soybean meal in diets of finishing steers increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain which resulted in similar feed efficiency. There may be an advantage in blending ALM and soybean meal as feed efficiency was improved when cattle were fed the blend. Also, feeding ALM may result in lower incidence of liver abscess.

  17. Presence and Molecular Characterization of Alfalfa mosaic virus on Tobacco in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stanković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-year investigation of the presence and distribution of tobacco viruses in Serbia revealed that Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV appeared every year with different frequency in tobacco crops. During 2008, the presence of AMV was detected in most of the tested samples(58.82% and it was the second most common compared to all other viruses which presence was confirmed in Serbia. In 2006 and 2007, AMV was detected in a significantly lower percentage (2.80% and 13.64%, respectively. This study showed that Alfalfa mosaic virus was more commonly found in multiple infections with two, three or even four detected viruses. Single infections were detected only in 2006, in one tobacco field in the locality of Futog. During this investigation, a rapid and simple protocol was optimized and developed for molecular detection of AMV in tobacco leaves, using primers CPAMV1/CPAMV2 and commercially available kits for total RNA extraction as well as for RT-PCR (reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction. Using RT-PCR and these primers that flank the AMV coat protein gene, a DNA fragment of 751 bp was amplified, sequenced, and compared with the sequences available in GenBank database. The sequence of isolate 196-08 (GenBank Acc. No. FJ527749 proved to be identical at the nucleotide level of 99 to 93% withthose from other parts of the world. Phylogenetic analysis of 27 isolates based on 528 bp sequences of the coat protein gene did not show correlation of the isolates with their geographic origin or plant host and showed that these isolates fall into four molecular groups of strains. Serbian AMV isolate from tobacco belongs to group IV, the group that includes most of the isolates selected for phylogenetic analysis.

  18. The HI mass function in ALFALFA 70% and the role of confusion in future HI surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The HI mass function represents a fundamental component of our understanding of the the gas content of galaxies. How its form varies throughout the local Universe and as a function of redshift, is key to developing a complete picture of galaxy evolution.We use the ALFALFA 70% catalog, the largest uniform catalog of extragalactic HI sources to date, to explore the environmental dependence of the HI mass function based on the projected neighbour densities in both SDSS and 2MRS. The Schechter function 'knee' mass is found to increase by approximately 0.2 dex from the lowest to highest density quartiles. However, this dependence is seen only when environment is defined by SDSS neighbours, and not with 2MRS. We interpret this as an indication of local, rather than large scale, environmental depedence. In addition, we find no evidence for any change in the faint-end slope; which is a source of tension with HI surveys of galaxy groups, and DM halo simulations.As HI surveys push deeper in an attempt to assess the HI content of the Universe towards a redshift of order unity, only the integral of the HI mass function will be measurable through stacking. We present an anaytic, and thus computationally cheap, method to estimate the contribution of HI confusion noise to these stacks and explore the design implications for upcoming SKA-precusor surveys.The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF grants AST-0607007 and AST-1107390 to RG and MPH and by grants from the Brinson Foundation.

  19. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose A.; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70 and 160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5<' {log} M/{M}⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger dependence of HI properties on environment, despite a similar dependence of color on environment at fixed stellar mass. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/{R}200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. While both central and satellite galaxies in the blue cloud exhibit a significant dependence of HI content on local density, only centrals show a strong dependence on stellar mass, and only satellites show a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps ram-pressure stripping.

  20. Yield Evaluation of Twenty-Eight Alfalfa Cultivars in Hebei Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tie-jun; KANG Jun-mei; GUO Wen-shan; ZHAO Zhong-xiang; XU Yu-peng; YAN Xu-dong; YANG Qing-chuan

    2014-01-01

    Cultivar selection is important for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay production. From 2009 to 2012, a ifeld study was conducted to evaluate the dry matter yield (DMY) of 28 cultivars in Cangzhou District of Hebei province, China, and to determine the most suitable cultivars for this province and other zones with similar climate conditions. 28 alfalfa cultivars were sown in late March of 2009 and were harvested for hay four times in each subsequent year. The results showed that the climatic conditions resulted in signiifcant differences in annual DMY among years, with the second year being the highest and the ifrst year the lowest. The top ifve cultivars with the highest total DMY were L2750 (62.75 t ha-1), Horn (62.72 t ha-1), 86-266 (61.55 t ha-1), German (61.44 t ha-1) and Zhongmu 1 (61.18 t ha-1), respectively. Across all four years, ifrst harvest had the highest ratios to annual DMY except the cultivar of Rambler, while the fourth harvest had the lowest ratio. There were positive correlation relationships between DMY of each harvest and annual DMY, and the correlation coefifcients were all signiifcant in four years. And the path coefifcients of ifrst harvest were always the highest in four years. The qualities showed small variations among these cultivars and the cultivar L3750 presented the highest crude protein in both years. Crude protein had signiifcant positive correlation with relative feed value (RFV) in both years while crude ifber had signiifcant negative correlation with RFV and crude ifber.

  1. Experimental Study on Characteristics of High Water Plant Alfalfa%高水分植物苜蓿强化干燥特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车刚; 王鑫; 万霖

    2015-01-01

    针对苜蓿为非均一性物质的特性,亟待提高各组分干燥程度的一致性。通过紫花苜蓿的生理和物理特性的试验分析,建立叶片、茎秆和草段的干燥特性曲线。利用基本的物理方法,确定最长干燥存留时间与苜蓿含水率的关系,机械处理次数和草段长度对苜蓿干燥速率的影响规律。试验研究表明:用机械压裂茎秆的方式处理的苜蓿与未处理的相比,干燥速度提高1.5~2倍。选择光滑槽压扁一次和纵向槽重复压扁三次处理的干燥效果最好。%According to the characteristics of uniformity material on alfalfa,the drying consistency of alfalfa components would be improved. Drying characteristic curve of leaf,stem and grass were established by physiological and physical properties of alfalfa. Using the basic physical methods,the relationship of the longest drying time and moisture content of alfalfa was determined,and the effect law of mechanical processing times and grass length to alfalfa drying rate were studied. The experimental study showed the mechanical way of fracturing alfalfa was compared with untreated alfalfa,the drying rate was increased by 1.5-2 times. The best drying effect of squashed alfalfa stem was to use smooth slot one time and longitudinal slot three times.

  2. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes and incubation pH on in vitro degradation of NDF extracts of alfalfa and orchardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two in vitro assays (one with alfalfa and the other with orchardgrass were conducted to evaluate the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme preparation (enzyme and initial incubation pH (5.6, 6.2 and 6.8 on the degradation of NDF extracts. The enzyme increased (P≤0.05 degradation of alfalfa NDF: 1 at 6 h with pH 6.2 and 6.8; 2 at 9 and 12h with pH 5.6 and 6.2; 3 at 24h with all pH values; 4 at 48h with pH 5.6 and 6.8; 5 at 72h with pH 6.2 and 6.8. Alfalfa NDF degradation was changed (P≤0.05 by the enzyme with increasing pH, as follows: 1 a linear increase at 3h; 2 a linear decrease at 6 and 12h; 3 a quadratic effect at 24, 48, and 72h, and the highest value was observed with pH 6.2. Further effects (P≤0.05 of the enzyme on the alfalfa cell wall were the following: 1 with pH 5.6, the undegradable NDF fraction was reduced and the degradation rate was increased; 2 with pH 6.2, the lag phase was decreased; 3 as pH increased there was a quadratic effect on the lag phase, and the lowest value was found at pH 6.2. For orchardgrass the effects (P≤0.05 of the enzyme were as follows: 1 an increased NDF degradation at 24 and 48h; 2 a decreased linear degradation of NDF as pH increased, at 3, 6, and 9h. Scanning electron micrographs of the alfalfa cell wall showed that parenchyma cells appeared broken and the vascular bundles exposed after incubation with the enzyme mixture at pH 6.2 It may be concluded that a fibrolytic enzyme preparation at pH 6.2 enhanced in vitro degradation of alfalfa NDF.

  3. Alfalfa carbon and nitrogen sequestration patterns and effects of temperature and precipitation in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Chang

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a primary and widely cultivated forage crop in China. As a perennial leguminous grass, continuous planted alfalfa may influence carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa, planted for different lengths of time, and temperature and precipitation on soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (TN contents, and estimated soil SOC and TN inventories from 0-60 cm in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China. Alfalfa SOC and TN storage patterns were significantly different with increasing soil depths between the three regions of northern China. Continuous alfalfa grassland planted had a positive effect on accumulation of both SOC and TN in the Northwest region, whereas SOC storage peaked 6-7 years after planting in the Northeast and North region. Moreover, relatively higher TN storage appeared 7 years after planting in the Northeast and North regions. This study controlled as many factors as possible, but we caution that such temporal inferences could be artifacts of site selection. The regression analysis indicated that SOC and TN accumulation was mainly dependent on temperature (≥10°C of effective total accumulated temperature in the North region. Precipitation in the growing season was the main limiting factor for SOC storage in the Northwest region and TN accumulation in the North regions. Therefore, the different climate factors affecting SOC and TN sequestration in alfalfa occurred at a regional scale.

  4. 苜蓿叶部与根部病害研究的评价进展%Research and Resistance Evaluation Progress on Alfalfa Leaf and Root Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宁; 卢欣石

    2012-01-01

    For a better application of the excellent forge grass alfalfa, the alfalfa diseases must be reduced, in order to expand the production of alfalfa. The research and resistance evaluation progress on alfalfa leaf and root diseases were reviewed in this article. Some suggestions were raised about several questions of the research and establishment of alfalfa diseases resistance system in China. This article would also provided some reference for the researchers engaging in alfalfa diseases.%为了更好地应用苜蓿这种优良豆科牧草,减少苜蓿病害就成为当前扩大苜蓿生产的重要途径.针对苜蓿叶部和根部产生病害的研究进展和抗病评价做了综述,并针对当前研究进展为建立中国苜蓿抗病评价体系提出建议,为今后从事苜蓿抗病的研究人员提供了参考.

  5. Impact of Long-Term Alfalfa Cropping on Soil Potassium Content and Clay Minerals in a Semi-Arid Loess Soil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Cheng; B. VELDE; LI Feng-Min; ZHANG Gan-Lin; ZHAO Ming-Song; HUANG Lai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa cropping has been considered an efficient method of increasing soil fertility.Usually nitrogen increase in root nodules is considered to be the major beneficial effect.A 21-year time series (five sampling periods) of alfalfa cultivation plots on a loess soil,initially containing illite and chlorite,in Lanzhou of northwestern China was selected to investigate the relationships among alfalfa cropping,soil potassium (K) content and soil clay minerals.The results indicated that soil K significantly accumulated after cropping,with a peak value at about 15 years,and decreased afterwards.The accumulated K was associated with the K increase in the well-crystallized illite,which was not extracted by the traditional laboratory K extraction methods in assessing bioavailability.The steep decline in soil K content after 15-year cropping was in accord with the observed fertility loss in the alfalfa soil.Plant biomass productivity peaked at near 9 years of culture,whereas soil K and clay minerals continued to increase until cropping for 15 years.This suggested that K increased in the topsoil came from the deep root zone.Thus alfalfa continued to store K in clays even after peak production occurred.Nitrogen did not follow these trends,showing a general decline compared with the native prairie soils that had not been cropped.Therefore,the traditional alfalfa cropping can increase K content in the topsoil.

  6. 中国苜蓿育种的历史、现状与发展趋势%The History, Current Situation and Development of Alfalfa Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青川; 孙彦

    2011-01-01

    The history and current situation of alfalfa breeding in China were introduced. The methods for alfalfa breeding and problems in alfalfa breeding were elaborated. The goal and development direction of alfalfa breeding were put forward.%介绍了中国苜蓿育种的历史、现状,阐述了苜蓿育种的方法和目前中国苜蓿育种中存在的问题,提出了今后苜蓿育种发展的方向与目标.

  7. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay Naing Htoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF supplementation (with or without Alfalfa on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48, 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM. The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g was significantly higher (p<0.05 than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg was significantly higher (p<0.05 than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg and DM (9.9±0.59 kg groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids.

  8. The 5' untranslated region of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 is involved in negative-strand RNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlot, A Corina; Bol, John F

    2003-10-01

    The three genomic RNAs of alfalfa mosaic virus each contain a unique 5' untranslated region (5' UTR). Replacement of the 5' UTR of RNA 1 by that of RNA 2 or 3 yielded infectious replicons. The sequence of a putative 5' stem-loop structure in RNA 1 was found to be required for negative-strand RNA synthesis. A similar putative 5' stem-loop structure is present in RNA 2 but not in RNA 3. PMID:14512577

  9. A CATALOG OF ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY: LOCAL GROUP GALAXY CANDIDATES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P., E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s{sup -1}, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s{sup -1}. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of {approx}1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, H I diameters of {approx}2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of {approx}10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  10. The ALFALFA Hα Survey. I. Project Description and The Local Star-formation Rate Density from the Fall Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sistine, Angela; Salzer, John J.; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALFALFA Hα survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA Hα contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ˜20 and ˜100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband Hα images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of Hα images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[M ⊙ yr‑1 Mpc‑3]) = ‑1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  11. Pollinating bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) of U.S. alfalfa compared for rates of pod and seed set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, James H

    2002-02-01

    Alfalfa (=lucerne) flowers require visiting bees to trip the sexual column, thereby providing pollination and subsequent pod and seed set. Previous studies have compared the pollination values of different bee species solely by the speed with which they handle flowers and the proportion of visited flowers tripped. In this greenhouse study, five species of bees, including the three commercially managed U.S alfalfa pollinators, are likewise compared for their floral tripping frequencies. These bee species are also compared for the pod set and mature seed that results from their single visits to virgin flowers. Regardless of the identity of the pollinating bee, tripped flowers had the same probabilities of pod set and seed set. Thus, differences in the single-visit pollination efficiencies of the various bee species are entirely attributable to the proportion of visited flowers that they trip. Females of the alkali bee, Nomia melanderi Cockerell, and the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F, tripped 81 and 78% of visited flowers, respectively. Males of these species are significantly less effective (61 and 51%, respectively), but still significantly superior to the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (22% of visited flowers tripped). These relationships are supported by field data for tripping frequencies. One candidate pollinator, Osmia sanrafaelae Parker, shows promise (44% tripped), but not the congeneric O. aglaia Sandhouse (13% tripped). PMID:11942760

  12. Chalkbrood transmission in the alfalfa leafcutting bee: the impact of disinfecting bee cocoons in loose cell management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R R

    2011-08-01

    Understanding pathogen transmission could illuminate new methods for disease prevention. A case in point is chalkbrood in the alfalfa leafcutting bee [Megachile rotundata (F.)]. Propagation of this solitary bee is severely hampered by chalkbrood, a larval disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata (Ascomycota). Alfalfa leafcutting bees nest in existing cavities in wood or hollow reeds and overwinter as larvae. In the early summer, emerging adults frequently must chew through dead, diseased siblings that block their exit, becoming contaminated with chalkbrood spores in the process. When alfalfa leafcutting bees are used as a commercial pollinator, the cocoons are removed from nesting boards to reduce chalkbrood transmission, but the disease is still common. To determine if these removed cocoons (called loose cells) are an important source of disease transmission, they were disinfected with a fungicide before bees were incubated, and released in the field. Chalkbrood prevalence among the progeny of the treated bees was reduced up to 50% in one field trial, but not significantly when tested in an on-farm trial. Thus, substantial disease transmission still occurred when the loose cells were disinfected, and even when clean nesting materials were used. In conclusion, pathogen transmission must still be occurring from another source that has yet to be identified. Another possible source of transmission could arise from bees that emerge midsummer in populations with a high percent of multivoltinism, but dirty nesting boards and feral bees also may be minor sources of transmission. PMID:22251678

  13. Circulating fluidized bed combustion product addition to acid soil: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) composition and environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Dick, Warren A; Kost, David

    2006-06-28

    To reduce S emissions, petroleum coke with a high concentration of S was combusted with limestone in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The combustion process creates a bed product that has potential for agricultural uses. This CFB product is often alkaline and enriched in S and other essential plant nutrients, but also contains high concentrations of Ni and V. Agricultural land application of CFB product is encouraged, but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts. CFB product and agricultural lime (ag-lime) were applied at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The 2.0x LR application rate of CFB product was equivalent to 67.2 Mg ha(-1). Alfalfa yield was increased 4.6 times by CFB product and 3.8 times by ag-lime compared to untreated control. Application of CFB product increased the concentration of V in soil and alfalfa tissue, but not in soil water, and increased the concentration of Ni in soil and soil water, but not in alfalfa tissue. However, these concentrations did not reach levels that might cause environmental problems.

  14. Identification of transcriptome involved in atrazine detoxification and degradation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exposed to realistic environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Jing; Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shu Hao; Lu, Feng Fan; Yang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of toxic compounds (or xenobiotics) such as pesticides (or herbicides). Atrazine (ATZ) as herbicide has become one of the environmental contaminants due to its intensive use during crop production. Plants have evolved strategies to cope with the adverse impact of ATZ. However, the mechanism for ATZ degradation and detoxification in plants is largely unknown. Here we employed a global RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) strategy to dissect transcriptome variation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exposed to ATZ. Four libraries were constructed including Root-ATZ (root control, ATZ-free), Shoot-ATZ, Root+ATZ (root treated with ATZ) and Shoot+ATZ. Hierarchical clustering was performed to display the expression patterns for all differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under ATZ exposure. Transcripts involved in ATZ detoxification, stress responses (e.g. oxidation and reduction, conjugation and hydrolytic reactions), and regulations of cysteine biosynthesis were identified. Several genes encoding glycosyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases or ABC transporters were up-regulated notably. Also, many other genes involved in oxidation-reduction, conjugation, and hydrolysis for herbicide degradation were differentially expressed. These results suggest that ATZ in alfalfa can be detoxified or degraded through different pathways. The expression patterns of some DEGs by high-throughput sequencing were well confirmed by qRT-PCR. Our results not only highlight the transcriptional complexity in alfalfa exposed to ATZ but represent a major improvement for analyzing transcriptional changes on a large scale as well. PMID:27092973

  15. Effects of different levels of sunflower residue silage replacement with alfalfa hay on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razzagzadeh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing alfalfa hay with different levels of sunflower residual silage (SRS on fattening performance of Azari male buffalo calves. Thirty calves with 138.33 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 5 groups and 6 replicates. The five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent replacement of alfalfa hay with SRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 5, respectively, however there was no significant difference between the groups 2, 3, and 4 with control. Daily weight gain (DWG was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. Group 5 had significantly lower DWG than groups 1, 2 and 3, furthermore there were no significant difference between groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly different among the groups (p<0.05. There was no significant difference among the groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. But these groups had significantly better FCR than the group 5. The best FCR was obtained for group3. It may conclude that alfalfa hay can be substituted with SRS at 50 % level with no negative effects on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  16. Performance of Three Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera:Miridae) on Flowering and Non-lfowering Cotton and Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen; PAN Hong-sheng; LIU Bing; LU Yan-hui; LIANG Ge-mei

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera:Miridae) is a group of key insect pests in cotton ifelds in China that includes three dominant species:A. suturalis (Jakovlev), A. lineolatus (Goeze) and A. fasciaticollis (Reuter). Previous ifeld surveys have found that adults of these Adelphocoris species usually move onto speciifc host plants when the plants enter the lfowering stage. To determine the potential trade-offs for this host-plant preference behavior, the performance of these three Adelphocoris spp. on lfowering and non-lfowering cotton and alfalfa were compared in the laboratory. The results showed that Adelphocoris spp. had signiifcantly higher nymphal developmental and survival rates, along with increased adult longevity and fecundity on lfowering cotton and alfalfa than on non-lfowering plants of either species. In addition, compared with cotton plants, alfalfa generally promoted better performance of these three Adelphocoris species, especially for A. lineolatus. Simple correlation analysis indicated that female adult longevity was positively correlated to male adult longevity and female fecundity, and female fecundity was positively correlated to nymphal development and survival rates. This study demonstrated a positive correlation between adult preference and offspring/adult performance for all three Adelphocoris species, with no evidence of any trade-offs for this preference for lfowering host plants. These ifndings support the hypothesis that hemimetabolous insects such as mirid bugs have positive adult preference-adult/nymphal performance relationships, which is likely due to the similar feeding habits and nutritional requirements of adults and nymphs.

  17. Assessment of heat shock protein 70 induction by heat in alfalfa varieties and constitutive overexpression in transgenic plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Ferradini

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs are molecular chaperones involved in many cellular functions. It has been shown that mammalian cytosolic HSP70 binds antigenic peptides mediating the activation of the immune system, and that it plays a determining role in tumour immunogenicity. This suggests that HSP70 may be used for the production of conjugated vaccines. Human and plant HSPs share high sequence similarity and some important biological functions in vitro. In addition, plant HSPs have no endotoxic side effects. Extraction of HSP70 from plants for use as vaccine adjuvant requires enhancing its concentration in plant tissues. In this work, we explored the possibility to produce HSP70 in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants, using alfalfa as a model species. First, a transcriptional analysis of a constitutive and an inducible HSP70 genes was conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana. Then the coding sequence of the inducible form was cloned and introduced into alfalfa by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and the accumulation of the protein in leaf tissue of transgenic plants was demonstrated. We also tested diverse alfalfa varieties for heat-inducible expression of endogenous HSP70, revealing variety-specific responses to heat shock.

  18. The ALFALFA Hα Survey. I. Project Description and The Local Star-formation Rate Density from the Fall Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sistine, Angela; Salzer, John J.; Sugden, Arthur; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Janowiecki, Steven; Jaskot, Anne E.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALFALFA Hα survey utilizes a large sample of H i-selected galaxies from the ALFALFA survey to study star formation (SF) in the local universe. ALFALFA Hα contains 1555 galaxies with distances between ∼20 and ∼100 Mpc. We have obtained continuum-subtracted narrowband Hα images and broadband R images for each galaxy, creating one of the largest homogeneous sets of Hα images ever assembled. Our procedures were designed to minimize the uncertainties related to the calculation of the local SF rate density (SFRD). The galaxy sample we constructed is as close to volume-limited as possible, is a robust statistical sample, and spans a wide range of galaxy environments. In this paper, we discuss the properties of our Fall sample of 565 galaxies, our procedure for deriving individual galaxy SF rates, and our method for calculating the local SFRD. We present a preliminary value of log(SFRD[M ⊙ yr‑1 Mpc‑3]) = ‑1.747 ± 0.018 (random) ±0.05 (systematic) based on the 565 galaxies in our Fall sub-sample. Compared to the weighted average of SFRD values around z ≈ 2, our local value indicates a drop in the global SFRD of a factor of 10.2 over that lookback time.

  19. From HI to Stars: HI Depletion in Starbursts and Star-Forming Galaxies in the ALFALFA H-alpha Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jaskot, A E; Salzer, J J; Van Sistine, A; Bell, E F; Haynes, M P

    2015-01-01

    HI in galaxies traces the fuel for future star formation and reveals the effects of feedback on neutral gas. Using a statistically uniform, HI-selected sample of 565 galaxies from the ALFALFA H-alpha survey, we explore HI properties as a function of star formation activity. ALFALFA H-alpha provides R-band and H-alpha imaging for a volume-limited subset of the 21-cm ALFALFA survey. We identify eight starbursts based on H-alpha equivalent width and six with enhanced star formation relative to the main sequence. Both starbursts and non-starbursts have similar HI to stellar mass ratios (MHI/M*), which suggests that feedback is not depleting the starbursts' HI. Consequently, the starbursts do have shorter HI depletion times (t_dep), implying more efficient HI-to-H2 conversion. While major mergers likely drive this enhanced efficiency in some starbursts, the lowest mass starbursts may experience periodic bursts, consistent with enhanced scatter in t_dep at low M*. Two starbursts appear to be pre-coalescence mergers...

  20. The ALFALFA "Almost Darks" Campaign: Pilot VLA HI Observations of Five High Mass-to-Light Ratio Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, John M; Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Janowiecki, Steven; Jones, Michael; Józsa, Gyula I G; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Nichols, Nathan; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Rhode, Katherine L; Salzer, John J; Troischt, Parker

    2014-01-01

    We present VLA HI spectral line imaging of 5 sources discovered by ALFALFA. These targets are drawn from a larger sample of systems that were not uniquely identified with optical counterparts during ALFALFA processing, and as such have unusually high HI mass to light ratios. These candidate "Almost Dark" objects fall into 4 categories: 1) objects with nearby HI neighbors that are likely of tidal origin; 2) objects that appear to be part of a system of multiple HI sources, but which may not be tidal in origin; 3) objects isolated from nearby ALFALFA HI detections, but located near a gas-poor early-type galaxy; 4) apparently isolated sources, with no object of coincident redshift within ~400 kpc. Roughly 75% of the 200 objects without identified counterparts in the $\\alpha$.40 database (Haynes et al. 2011) fall into category 1. This pilot sample contains the first five sources observed as part of a larger effort to characterize HI sources with no readily identifiable optical counterpart at single dish resolutio...

  1. A Catalog of Ultra-compact High Velocity Clouds from the ALFALFA Survey: Local Group Galaxy Candidates?

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Elizabeth A K; Haynes, Martha P

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km/s, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km/s. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of ~1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (HI) masses of ~10^5 -10^6 M_sun, HI diamet...

  2. Antioxidant responses in soybean and alfalfa plants grown in DDTs contaminated soils: Useful variables for selecting plants for soil phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Francesca M; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L; Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Monserrat, José M

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is a low-cost alternative technology based on the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Persistent organic pollutants such as DDTs with a long half-life in soils are attractive candidates for remediation. This study aimed to determine the potential of antioxidant response use in the evaluation of plants' tolerance for selecting species in phytoremediation purposes. Alfalfa and soybean plants were grown in DDT contaminated soils. After 60days, growth, protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity, concentration of proteic and non-proteic thiol groups, chlorophyll content and carotenoid content were measured in plant tissues. Results showed no effect on alfalfa or soybean photosynthetic pigments but different responses in the protein content, antioxidant capacity, GST activity and thiol groups on roots, stems and leaves, indicating that DDTs affected both species. Soybean showed higher susceptibility than alfalfa plants due to the lower antioxidant capacity and GST activity in leaves, in spite of having the lowest DDT accumulation. This study provides new insights into the role of oxidative stress as an important component of the plant's response to DDT exposure. PMID:27155479

  3. Effect of treating alfalfa silage with pistachio by-products extract on Saanen dairy goats performance and microbial nitrogen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarpour, A; Naserian, A A; Pourmollae, F; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-08-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of addition of pistachio by-products extract (PBE) to alfalfa silage (AS) on performance, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition, and microbial nitrogen synthesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (1.8 ± 0.25 kg of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare two types of AS (supplemented with or without PBE) with two levels of dietary crude protein (14% vs. 16% CP). Dietary treatments were (i) AS with 14% CP of DM diet without PBE (14%CP-PBE), (ii) AS with 14% CP of DM diet with PBE (14%CP + PBE), (iii) AS with 16% CP of DM diet without PBE (16%CP-PBE) and (iv) AS with 16% CP of DM diet with PBE (16%CP + PBE). PBE was sprayed on fresh alfalfa at a ratio of 500 ml/kg alfalfa DM to get the final concentration of 1% tannin as tannic acid equivalent on DM basis. Intake of CP was greater (p tannins. PMID:26336063

  4. Identification of transcriptome involved in atrazine detoxification and degradation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exposed to realistic environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Jing; Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shu Hao; Lu, Feng Fan; Yang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of toxic compounds (or xenobiotics) such as pesticides (or herbicides). Atrazine (ATZ) as herbicide has become one of the environmental contaminants due to its intensive use during crop production. Plants have evolved strategies to cope with the adverse impact of ATZ. However, the mechanism for ATZ degradation and detoxification in plants is largely unknown. Here we employed a global RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) strategy to dissect transcriptome variation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exposed to ATZ. Four libraries were constructed including Root-ATZ (root control, ATZ-free), Shoot-ATZ, Root+ATZ (root treated with ATZ) and Shoot+ATZ. Hierarchical clustering was performed to display the expression patterns for all differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under ATZ exposure. Transcripts involved in ATZ detoxification, stress responses (e.g. oxidation and reduction, conjugation and hydrolytic reactions), and regulations of cysteine biosynthesis were identified. Several genes encoding glycosyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases or ABC transporters were up-regulated notably. Also, many other genes involved in oxidation-reduction, conjugation, and hydrolysis for herbicide degradation were differentially expressed. These results suggest that ATZ in alfalfa can be detoxified or degraded through different pathways. The expression patterns of some DEGs by high-throughput sequencing were well confirmed by qRT-PCR. Our results not only highlight the transcriptional complexity in alfalfa exposed to ATZ but represent a major improvement for analyzing transcriptional changes on a large scale as well.

  5. Influence of Environmental Factors on Field Natural Drying of Alfalfa%环境因子对苜蓿田间自然干燥的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹强; 武海霞; 王志军; 荣磊; 贾玉山

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss of alfalfa in the drying process has always been a key technical problem restricting the development of alfalfa industry. Therefore, speeding the drying rate and shortening the drying time become significant for alfalfa hay drying and processing. The moisture contents of 'Golden Queen' alfalfa and major meteorological parameters are determined to investigate the regularity of alfalfa moisture evaporation during drying process and the main factors of alfalfa drying rate. Results showed that in the natural drying process, alfalfa drying rate was initially fast then slow; alfalfa hay would get damp and lose nutrients overnight. Fracturing stalk process could accelerate the drying process of alfalfa effectively. This process shortened the drying time about 24 hours but the compressed alfalfa damped more easily than control. The drying rate of alfalfa had extremely significant positive correlation with solar radiation intensity, air temperature and wind speed, but had extremely significant negative correlation with air humidity and atmosphere water potential and had no significant positive correlation with alfalfa moisture. The influence factors of alfalfa drying rate were ordered as solar radiation intensity>air temperature>atmosphere water potential>air humidity>wind speed>alfalfa moisture.%苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)在干燥过程中的营养损失一直是制约苜蓿产业发展的关键技术难题,如何加快干燥速率,缩短干燥时间成为当今苜蓿干草调制加工研究的热点.试验以‘金皇后’紫花苜蓿为原料,通过对其含水量及主要气象参数的测定,研究了苜蓿干燥过程中的水分散失规律及影响苜蓿干燥速率的主要因子,旨在为探讨加快苜蓿干燥的途径提供依据.结果表明:苜蓿在自然干燥过程中,干燥速率呈先快后慢的变化趋势,而且夜间返潮严重,营养损失较大;压扁处理可有效加快苜蓿干燥,含水量从约80%降至10%左右需56 h,

  6. Excessive ammonia inhibited transcription of MsU2 gene and furthermore affected accumulation distribution of allantoin and amino acids in alfalfa Medicago sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; JIANG Lin-lin; Nomura Mika; Tajima Shigeyuki; CHENG Xian-guo

    2015-01-01

    In legume plants, uricase gene (Nodulin-35) plays a positive role in metabolism of ureide and amide compounds in symbiotic nitrogen-ifxing in the nodules. In this study, a pot experiment was performed to examine the effects of ammonium application on the transcription of MsU2 gene and distribution of major nitrogen compounds in alfalfa Medicago sativa. Data showed that alfalfa plant has a signiifcant difference in contents of nitrogen compounds in xylem saps compared with soybean plant, and belongs to typical amide type legume plants with little ureide accumulation, and the accumulation of asparagines and ureide in the tissues of alfalfa is mainly gathered in the nodules. Northern blotting showed that excessive ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the nodules and roots, and mRNA accumulation of MsU2 gene in the plants exposed to excessive ammonium decreased gradual y with culture time extension, indicating that application of ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the alfalfa plants. Although the application of exces-sive ammonium increased the contents of amino acids in various tissues of alfalfa, the accumulation of al antoin relfecting the strength of uricase activity is remarkably reduced in the xylem saps, stems and nodules when alfalfa plants exposed to excessive ammonium, suggesting that application of excessive ammonium generated a negative effect on symbiosis ifxing-nitrogen system due to inhibition of ammonium ion on uricase activity in the nodules of alfalfa. This result seems to imply that application of excessive ammonium in legume plants should not be proposed to avoid affecting the ability of ifxing nitrogen in the nodules of legume plants, and reasonable dose of ammonium should be recommended to effectively utilize the ifxed N from atmosphere in legume plant production.

  7. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. I. H I OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cannon, John M.; Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W., E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: ebernste@macalester.edu, E-mail: rhode@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The discovery of a previously unknown 21 cm H I line source identified as an ultra-compact high velocity cloud in the ALFALFA survey is reported. The H I detection is barely resolved by the Arecibo 305 m telescope {approx}4' beam and has a narrow H I linewidth (half-power full width of 24 km s{sup -1}). Further H I observations at Arecibo and with the Very Large Array corroborate the ALFALFA H I detection, provide an estimate of the H I radius, {approx}1' at the 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} isophote, and show the cloud to exhibit a velocity field which, if interpreted as disk rotation, has an amplitude of {approx_equal}9.0 {+-} 1.5 km s{sup -1}. In other papers, Rhode et al. show the H I source to have a resolved stellar counterpart and ongoing star forming activity, while Skillman et al. reveal it as having extremely low metallicity: 12 + log (O/H) = 7.16 {+-} 0.04. The H I mass to stellar mass ratio of the object is found to be 2.6. We use the Tully-Fisher template relation in its baryonic form to obtain a distance estimate D{sub Mpc}=1.3{sup +0.9}{sub -0.5}. Additional constraints on the distance are also provided by the optical data of Rhode et al. and McQuinn et al., both indicating a distance in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 Mpc. The three estimates are compatible within their errors. The object appears to be located beyond the dynamical boundaries of, but still in close proximity to the Local Group. Its pristine properties are consistent with the sedate environment of its location. At a nominal distance of 1.75 Mpc, it would have an H I mass of {approx_equal} 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M {sub Sun }, a stellar mass of {approx_equal} 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M {sub Sun }, and a dynamical mass within the H I radius of {approx_equal} 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M {sub Sun }. This discovery supports the idea that optically faint-or altogether dark-low mass halos may be detectable through their non-stellar baryons.

  8. Empirical analysis of factors affecting alfalfa plantation behavior of farmers in Huang-huai-hai region%黄淮海地区农户苜蓿种植行为影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文信; 蔡世攀; 王刚

    2015-01-01

    Planting alfalfa can not only promote the development of animal husbandry and meet the needs of the consumers for livestock, but also improve soil fertility and the ecological environment. Farmers are the main alfalfa growers in Huang-Huai-Hai region, in this paper, a supply response model of alfalfa planting area has been developed, with statistical data and investigation data, the effects of alfalfa prices and alfalfa area in last term were calculated. The results show that alfalfa planting area only depended on the alfalfa production price in last year and this means that the annual alfalfa price will influence the decision of farmers’ willingness of planting alfalfa.The elasticity of alfalfa planting area to alfalfa export price is 0.837, and the T value is 7.528. Above results proved that there was short-term speculation behavior for the alfalfa planting farmers in Huang-Huai-Hai region. Farmers in this area do not follow principle of maximum profit in alfalfa planting. At the same time, it proved that naïve price prediction model can be used to explain the farmers’ alfalfa planting behavior. in the naïve price prediction model, factors affecting the farmers’ planting alfalfa behavior include alfalfa planting area in last year, the prices of other crops in this area, the planting subsidies, the region effect and fixed effect. Because there is no alfalfa price data, the actual export price of alfalfa products was used to replace alfalfa domestic price. The estimation results show that both the R2 and adjust R2 are greater than 0.95, and the F-statistic value is significant at 99%confidence level, and the Durbin-Watson statistic is 2.2, which proved that naive simulation model is very suitable for simulating the factors that may influence alfalfa planting in Huang-Huai-Hai region. According to the calculation results, in short term, if the cotton price rise 10%, the alfalfa planting area will decrease 7.16%. If the wheat price rise 10%, the alfalfa

  9. Effect of microwave irradiation on alfalfa seeds germination and nitrogenase activity of endophytic diazotrophs in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various microwave powers were used to irradiate alfalfa seeds with various time to study the effect of microwave irradiation on nitrogenase activity of endogenous azotobacter and germination of seeds. Germination rate, germination speed and nitrogenase activity of pure cultures that derived from seed-carried azotobacter were tested. The results indicate that : 800 W, 20 s and 500 W, 40 s are found with highest germination rate on the 1st day, which is 122% and 88.9% times higher than the control group (Pth day is 29.8% and 41.9% times longer than the control group, and more sensitive nitrogenase activity is found on condition of various time than various powers. Short time treatments on condition of the two irradiation powers can increase nitrogenase activity conspicuously, and the treatments that treated more than 32 s make nitrogenase activity lower than the control group, conspicuously. Nitrogenase activity is found 104.9% times higher than the control group on condition of 24 s. (authors)

  10. Bioassay for Detection of Dichlorvos Insecticide in Air in Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile Rotundata F. Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdy John R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dichlorvos is an insecticide used in slow-release plastic strips for controlling chalcid wasp parasites, such as Pteromalus venustus Walker, in incubators used to raise alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata F.. Beekeepers need a practical method to detect dichlorvos in air and verify that it has dissipated to levels acceptable for worker re-entry and for the bees to emerge. We evaluated three methods for analysis of the dichlorvos concentration in air. Vapor sampling tubes using a manually operated pump or diffusion collection had insufficient sensitivity in the concentration range of interest. Air samples collected using battery powered pumps were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS, which was accurate and sensitive, but too costly and slow for practical use. Finally, a convenient bioassay for detecting dichlorvos in air was developed using leafcutting bees and verified by comparison with the results obtained by LC/MS/MS for a series of dose levels. The bioassay is simple enough to be done by the beekeeper on-site, is inexpensive, and gives results within 1 h. The LC50 for dichlorvos vapor in air after 1 h of exposure was 273.2 μg/m3 by the probit regression method or 277.3 μg/m3 by the logit regression method.

  11. Environmental dependence of the HI mass function in the ALFALFA 70% catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Michael G; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We search for environmental dependence of the HI mass function in the ALFALFA 70% catalogue. The catalogue is split into quartiles of environment density based on the projected neighbour density of neighbours found in both SDSS and 2MRS volume limited reference catalogues. We find the Schechter function 'knee' mass to be dependent on environment, with the value of $\\log ({M_{*}/\\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}})$ shifting from $9.81 \\pm 0.02$ to $10.00 \\pm 0.03$ between the lowest and highest density quartiles. However, this dependence was only observed when defining environment based on the SDSS reference catalogue, not 2MRS. We interpret these results as meaning that the local environment is the dominant cause of the shift in $M_{*}$, and that the larger scales that 2MRS probes (compared to SDSS) are almost irrelevant. In addition, we also use a fixed aperture method to probe environment, and find tentative evidence that HI-deficiency depresses the value of $M_{*}$ in the highest density regions. We find no significant d...

  12. (Almost) Dark HI Sources in the ALFALFA Survey: The Intriguing Case of HI1232+20

    CERN Document Server

    Janowiecki, Steven; Jozsa, Gyula; Salzer, John J; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Rhode, Katherine L; Cannon, John M; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Janesh, William F

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery and follow-up observations of a system of three objects identified by the ALFALFA extragalactic HI survey, cataloged as (almost) dark extragalactic sources, i.e., extragalactic HI detections with no discernible counterpart in publicly available, wide-field, imaging surveys. We have obtained deep optical imaging with WIYN pODI and HI synthesis maps with WSRT of the HI1232+20 system. The source with the highest HI flux has a newly discovered ultra-low surface brightness (LSB) optical counterpart associated with it, while the other two sources have no detected optical counterparts in our images. Our optical observations show that the detected LSB optical counterpart has a peak surface brightness of ~26.4 mag/arcsec^2 in g', which is exceptionally faint. This source (AGC 229385) has the largest accurately measured HI mass-to-light ratio of an isolated object: MHI/Lg'=46 Msun/Lsun, and has an HI mass of 7.2*10^8 Msun. The other two HI sources (with HI masses 2.0*10^8 and 1.2*10^8 Msun) with...

  13. A study on alfalfa-dodder relationships by 14C-sucrose incorporation in their tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant-parasite relationships between lesser-dodder (Cuscuta epithymum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) are investigated. 14C-sucrose was incorporated via the cut stems of host and parasite into their tissues and the content of the free sugars, keto acids and free amino acids are determined. 14C-sucrose was introduced also in lesser-dodder previously taken from the host-plant and immersed directly into radioactive sucrose. It is shown that the parasite intensively absorbs sucrose from the host-plant tissues using it as a source of energy and as a substrat for different synthetic processes. In the case when the parasite was previously taken away from the host-plant 14C-sucrose taken up directly from the solution was used for the synthesis of various compounds (carbohydrates, amino- and keto acids). The suggestion was made that the respective enzyme systems are present in dodder tissues. The 14C-glucose and 14C-fructose content is an evidence for high invertase hydrolytic activity. The presence of 14C-keto acids shows that the 14C-sucrose incorporated in lesser-dodder tissues without the mediation of the host-plant was used as a respiratory substrate by the degradation following Krebs cycle. (author)

  14. Mapping Alfalfa Yield Using an Energy Monitoring System on a Rectangular Hay Baler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hooshmand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most advanced part of precision agriculture technology is yield monitoring of grain and non-grain crops. In this study, the horizontal pressing force of baling plunger and the angular position of the plunger connecting rod were simultaneously measured by installing a load cell and a shaft encoder on the connecting rod and plunger flywheel of a small rectangular baler, respectively. The signals of these sensors were processed in an electronic board and the output data were recorded on a portable computer for monitoring and further analysis. Before baling the harvested alfalfa from the test field, random samples were collected and weighted to obtain a referenced measure of the yield variation along the entire field. Comparing the yield data with the pressing energy and angular position data indicated a good correlation between the throughput rate of the baler and the horizontal force imparted on the baler plunger. The estimated crop yield variations were geo-referenced by using a GPS receiver. By combining the output data of the installed sensors and the positioning data, the yield map of the test field was prepared.

  15. The importance of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein dimers in the initiation of replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiwon; Kim, Bong-Suk; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Loesch-Fries, Sue

    2003-01-01

    Deletion and substitution mutations affecting the oligomerization of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein (CP) were studied in protoplasts to determine their effect on genome activation, an early step in AMV replication. The CP mutants that formed dimers, CPDeltaC9 and CPC-A(R)F, were highly active in initiating replication with 63-84% of wild-type (wt) CP activity. However, all mutants that did not form dimers, CPDeltaC18, CPDeltaC19, CPC-WFP, and CPC-W, were much less active with 19-33% of wt CP activity. The accumulation and solubility of mutant CPs expressed from a virus-based vector in Nicotiana benthamiana were similar to that of wt CP. Analysis of CP-RNA interactions indicated that CP dimers and CP monomers interacted very differently with AMV RNA 3' ends. These results suggest that CP dimers are more efficient for replication than CP monomers because of differences in RNA binding rather than differences in expression and accumulation of the mutant CPs in infected cells. PMID:12504539

  16. Detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) in pea field in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G H; Mozafari, J

    2005-01-01

    During the spring and summer, in 2003-2004, pea viruses were identified in twenty pea fields of Tehran. Some leaf samples were collected randomly from pea fields of Tehran. Samples were tested by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) technique using polyclonal antiserum of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), AS-0001, DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany). The samples were extracted in 0.1 M Phosphate buffer pH 7 to 7.5 and inoculated on Chenopodium amaranticolor, Chenopodium quina, Phaseolus valgaris, Vicia faba, Vignia unguiculata. Pea cultivars were infected by AMV, causing mild mosaic, translucent veins and a diffuse green-yellow of tender parts and spots may also was involved necrosis of tissue. Infected plants grow slowly and malformed pods produce fewer ovules. In Chenopodium amranticolor, C. quina chlorotic and necrotic flecks, and Vicia faba systemic mosaic had produced. Phaselous vulgaris and Viginia unguiculata are good assay hosts for strains that produce local lesions after 3-5 days in these plants. Back inoculated on Pisum sativum and Vicia faba and tested with DAS-ELISA that had been confirmed the results. This is the first report of AMV on pea from Iran. PMID:16637206

  17. Identification, Characterization, and Molecular Detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus in Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H; Nie, J

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was detected in potato fields in several provinces in Canada and characterized by bioassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The identity of eight Canadian potato AMV isolates was confirmed by sequence analysis of their coat protein (CP) gene. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that these eight AMV potato isolates fell into one strain group, whereas a slight difference between Ca175 and the other Canadian AMV isolates was revealed. The Canadian AMV isolates, except Ca175, clustered together among other strains based on alignment of the CP gene sequence. To detect the virus, a pair of primers, AMV-F and AMV-R, specific to the AMV CP gene, was designed based on the nucleotide sequence alignment of known AMV strains. Evaluations showed that RT-PCR using this primer set was specific and sensitive for detecting AMV in potato leaf and tuber samples. AMV RNAs were easily detected in composite samples of 400 to 800 potato leaves or 200 to 400 tubers. Restriction analysis of PCR amplicons with SacI was a simple method for the confirmation of PCR tests. Thus, RT-PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis may be a useful approach for screening potato samples on a large scale for the presence of AMV. PMID:18943961

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of a Spanish isolate of alfalfa mosaic virus: evidence for additional genetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrella, Giuseppe; Acanfora, Nadia; Orílio, Anelise F; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2011-06-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is a plant virus that is distributed worldwide and can induce necrosis and/or yellow mosaic on a large variety of plant species, including commercially important crops. It is the only virus of the genus Alfamovirus in the family Bromoviridae. AMV isolates can be clustered into two genetic groups that correlate with their geographic origin. Here, we report for the first time the complete nucleotide sequence of a Spanish isolate of AMV found infecting Cape honeysuckle (Tecoma capensis) and named Tec-1. The tripartite genome of Tec-1 is composed of 3643 nucleotides (nt) for RNA1, 2594 nt for RNA2 and 2037 nt for RNA3. Comparative sequence analysis of the coat protein gene revealed that the isolate Tec-1 is distantly related to subgroup I of AMV and more closely related to subgroup II, although forming a distinct phylogenetic clade. Therefore, we propose to split subgroup II of AMV into two subgroups, namely IIA, comprising isolates previously included in subgroup II, and IIB, including the novel Spanish isolate Tec-1. PMID:21327783

  19. Genetic Diversity, Reassortment, and Recombination in Alfalfa mosaic virus Population in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergua, María; Luis-Arteaga, Marisol; Escriu, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The variability and genetic structure of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) in Spain was evaluated through the molecular characterization of 60 isolates collected from different hosts and different geographic areas. Analysis of nucleotide sequences in four coding regions--P1, P2, movement protein (MP), and coat protein (CP)--revealed a low genetic diversity and different restrictions to variation operating on each coding region. Phylogenetic analysis of Spanish isolates along with previously reported AMV sequences showed consistent clustering into types I and II for P1 and types I, IIA, and IIB for MP and CP regions. No clustering was observed for the P2 region. According to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, the Spanish AMV population consisted of seven haplotypes, including two haplotypes generated by reassortment and one involving recombination. The most frequent haplotypes (types for P1, MP, and CP regions, respectively) were I-I-I (37%), II-IIB-IIB (30%), and one of the reassortants, II-I-I (17%). Distribution of haplotypes was not uniform, indicating that AMV population was structured according to the geographic origin of isolates. Our results suggest that agroecological factors are involved in the maintenance of AMV genetic types, including the reassortant one, and in their geographic distribution. PMID:24779352

  20. Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein bridges RNA and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Vienna L; Choi, Mehee; Petrillo, Jessica E; Gehrke, Lee

    2007-07-20

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNA replication requires the viral coat protein (CP). AMV CP is an integral component of the viral replicase; moreover, it binds to the viral RNA 3'-termini and induces the formation of multiple new base pairs that organize the RNA conformation. The results described here suggest that AMV coat protein binding defines template selection by organizing the 3'-terminal RNA conformation and by positioning the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) at the initiation site for minus strand synthesis. RNA-protein interactions were analyzed by using a modified Northwestern blotting protocol that included both viral coat protein and labeled RNA in the probe solution ("far-Northwestern blotting"). We observed that labeled RNA alone bound the replicase proteins poorly; however, complex formation was enhanced significantly in the presence of AMV CP. The RNA-replicase bridging function of the AMV CP may represent a mechanism for accurate de novo initiation in the absence of canonical 3' transfer RNA signals. PMID:17400272

  1. Advances in alfalfa mosaic virus-mediated expression of anthrax antigen in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzik, R; Bandurska, K; Deka, D; Golovkin, M; Koprowski, H

    2005-12-16

    Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP. PMID:16236249

  2. Heavy metal content of alfalfa irrigated with waste and tubewell water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamal Khan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of wastewater on yield and heavy metal uptake of alfalfa along with a tubewell irrigated crop as control at the Agricultural University Peshawar during 2009. The experiment was conducted in small plots (2 x 1m replicated thrice with fertilizer additions. The crop was either irrigated with Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE wastewater or tubewell water. The yield data revealed that shoot dry weight was significantly affected by the irrigation water supplies and higher yield was recorded in wastewater irrigated plots and the increase was consistent with time (different cutting. By comparing the total dry biomass of the two treatments, it was observed that there was about 37% increase in yield over control with application of wastewater. The shoot dry weight increased by a factor of about two to three times from first cutting to third cutting in both the treatment plots and the magnitude of increase in yield was higher in wastewater irrigated plots. The heavy metal uptake by the crop was much higher in wastewater irrigated plots compared to tubewell water. The order of metal uptake was Fe> Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Shoot analysis showed no metal toxicity because the concentration of the metal was less than phytotoxic level and all the metals were within the permissible limits.

  3. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: Atomic Gas and the Regulation of Star Formation in Barred Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Haynes, Martha P; Keel, William C; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' HI content from the ALFALFA blind HI survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas rich disc galaxies than gas poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation, and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangu...

  4. Specific RNA binding by amino-terminal peptides of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, M L; Houser, F; Loesch-Fries, L S; Gehrke, L

    1994-01-01

    Specific RNA-protein interactions and ribonucleoprotein complexes are essential for many biological processes, but our understanding of how ribonucleoprotein particles form and accomplish their biological functions is rudimentary. This paper describes the interaction of alfalfa mosaic virus (A1MV) coat protein or peptides with viral RNA. A1MV coat protein is necessary both for virus particle formation and for the initiation of replication of the three genomic RNAs. We have examined protein determinants required for specific RNA binding and analyzed potential structural changes elicited by complex formation. The results indicate that the amino-terminus of the viral coat protein, which lacks primary sequence homology with recognized RNA binding motifs, is both necessary and sufficient for binding to RNA. Circular dichroism spectra and electrophoretic mobility shift experiments suggest that the RNA conformation is altered when amino-terminal coat protein peptides bind to the viral RNA. The peptide--RNA interaction is functionally significant because the peptides will substitute for A1MV coat protein in initiating RNA replication. The apparent conformational change that accompanies RNA--peptide complex formation may generate a structure which, unlike the viral RNA alone, can be recognized by the viral replicase. Images PMID:8313916

  5. ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS COAT PROTEIN BRIDGES RNA AND RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Vienna L.; Choi, Mehee; Petrillo, Jessica E.; Gehrke, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNA replication requires the viral coat protein (CP). AMV CP is an integral component of the viral replicase; moreover, it binds to the viral RNA 3' termini and induces the formation of multiple new base pairs that organize the RNA conformation. The results described here suggest that AMV coat protein binding defines template selection by organizing the 3'-terminal RNA conformation and by positioning the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) at the initiation site for minus strand synthesis. RNA-protein interactions were analyzed by using a modified northwestern blotting protocol that included both viral coat protein and labeled RNA in the probe solution (“far-northwestern blotting”). We observed that labeled RNA alone bound the replicase proteins poorly; however, complex formation was enhanced significantly in the presence of AMV CP. The RNA-replicase bridging function of the AMV CP may represent a mechanism for accurate de novo initiation in the absence of canonical 3' transfer RNA signals. PMID:17400272

  6. Advances in alfalfa mosaic virus-mediated expression of anthrax antigen in planta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP

  7. Photosynthetic and Molecular Markers of CO2-mediated Photosynthetic Downregulation in Nodulated Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (A)lvaro Sanz-Sáez; Gorka Erice; Iker Aranjuelo; Ricardo Aroca; Juan Manuel Ruíz-Lozano; Jone Aguirreolea; Juan José Irigoyen

    2013-01-01

    Elevated CO2 leads to a decrease in potential net photosynthesis in long-term experiments and thus to a reduction in potential growth.This process is known as photosynthetic downregulation.There is no agreement on the definition of which parameters are the most sensitive for detecting CO2 acclimation.In order to investigate the most sensitive photosynthetic and molecular markers of CO2 acclimation,the effects of elevated CO2,and associated elevated temperature were analyzed in alfalfa plants inoculated with different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains.Plants (Medicago sativa L.cv.Aragón) were grown in summer or autumn in temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG).At the end of the experiment,all plants showed acclimation in both seasons,especially under elevated summer temperatures.This was probably due to the lower nitrogen (N) availability caused by decreased N2-fixation under higher temperatures.Photosynthesis measured at growth CO2 concentration,rubisco in vitro activity and maximum rate of carboxylation were the most sensitive parameters for detecting downregulation.Severe acclimation was also related with decreases in leaf nitrogen content associated with declines in rubisco content (large and small subunits) and activity that resulted in a drop in photosynthesis.Despite the sensitivity of rubisco content as a marker of acclimation,it was not coordinated with gene expression,possibly due to a lag between gene transcription and protein translation.

  8. ALFALFA HI Data Stacking II. HI content of the host galaxies of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Fabello, S; Catinella, B; Giovanelli, R; Haynes, M P; Heckman, T M; Schiminovich, D

    2011-01-01

    We use a stacking technique to measure the average HI content of a volume-limited sample of 1871 AGN host galaxies from a parent sample of galaxies selected from the SDSS and GALEX imaging surveys with stellar masses greater than 10^10 M_sun and redshifts in the range 0.025ALFALFA) survey. In previous work, we found that the HI gas fraction in galaxies correlates most strongly with the combination of optical/UV colour and stellar surface mass density. We therefore build a control sample of non-AGN matched to the AGN hosts in these two properties. We study trends in HI gas mass fraction (M(HI)/M_*), where M_* is the stellar mass) as a function of black hole accretion rate indicator L[OIII]/M(BH). We find no significant difference in HI content between AGN and control samples at all values of black hole accretion rate probed by the galaxies in our sample. This indicates that AGN do not influence the large-scale gaseous properties of galaxie...

  9. Halpha3: Halpha imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Galardo, Vincenzo; Grossetti, Francesco; Boselli, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Fabello, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    We present Halpha3 (acronym for Halpha-alpha-alpha), an Halpha narrow-band imaging survey of ~400 galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) in the Local Supercluster, including the Virgo cluster. By using hydrogen recombination lines as a tracer of recent star formation, we aim to investigate the relationships between atomic neutral gas and newly formed stars in different environments (cluster and field), morphological types (spirals and dwarfs), and over a wide range of stellar masses (~10^7.5-10^11.5 Msun). We image in Halpha+[NII] all the galaxies that contain more than 10^7 Msun of neutral atomic hydrogen in the sky region 11^h < R.A. <16^h 4^o < Dec. <16^o; 350< cz <2000 km/s using the San Pedro Martir 2m telescope. This survey provides a complete census of the star formation in HI rich galaxies of the local universe. We present the properties of the galaxy sample, together with Halpha fluxes and equivalent widths. We find an excellent agreement between the...

  10. Environmental dependence of the H I mass function in the ALFALFA 70% catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    We search for environmental dependence of the H I mass function in the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey (ALFALFA) 70 per cent catalogue. The catalogue is split into quartiles of environment density based on the projected neighbour density of neighbours found in both Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) volume-limited reference catalogues. We find the Schechter function `knee' mass to be dependent on environment, with the value of log (M*/M⊙) shifting from 9.81 ± 0.02 to 10.00 ± 0.03 between the lowest and highest density quartiles. However, this dependence was only observed when defining environment based on the SDSS reference catalogue, not 2MRS. We interpret these results as meaning that the local environment is the dominant cause of the shift in M*, and that the larger scales that 2MRS probes (compared to SDSS) are almost irrelevant. In addition, we also use a fixed aperture method to probe environment, and find tentative evidence that H I-deficiency depresses the value of M* in the highest density regions. We find no significant dependence of the low-mass slope on environment in any test, using either method. Tensions between these results and those from the literature, are discussed and alternative explanations are explored.

  11. The Clustering Characteristics of HI-Selected Galaxies from the 40% ALFALFA Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Ann M; Haynes, Martha P; Guzzo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The 40% Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey catalog (\\alpha.40) of approximately 10,150 HI-selected galaxies is used to analyze the clustering properties of gas-rich galaxies. By employing the Landy-Szalay estimator and a full covariance analysis for the two-point galaxy-galaxy correlation function, we obtain the real-space correlation function and model it as a power law, \\xi(r) = (r/r_0)^(-\\gamma), on scales less than 10 h^{-1} Mpc. As the largest sample of blindly HI-selected galaxies to date, \\alpha.40 provides detailed understanding of the clustering of this population. We find \\gamma = 1.51 +/- 0.09 and r_0 = 3.3 +0.3, -0.2 h^{-1} Mpc, reinforcing the understanding that gas-rich galaxies represent the most weakly clustered galaxy population known; we also observe a departure from a pure power law shape at intermediate scales, as predicted in \\Lambda CDM halo occupation distribution models. Furthermore, we measure the bias parameter for the \\alpha.40 galaxy sample and find that HI galaxies are seve...

  12. Combining -Omics to Unravel the Impact of Copper Nutrition on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Stem Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Bruno; Guerriero, Gea; Sergeant, Kjell; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Guignard, Cédric; Renaut, Jenny; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2016-02-01

    Copper can be found in the environment at concentrations ranging from a shortage up to the threshold of toxicity for plants, with optimal growth conditions situated in between. The plant stem plays a central role in transferring and distributing minerals, water and other solutes throughout the plant. In this study, alfalfa is exposed to different levels of copper availability, from deficiency to slight excess, and the impact on the metabolism of the stem is assessed by a non-targeted proteomics study and by the expression analysis of key genes controlling plant stem development. Under copper deficiency, the plant stem accumulates specific copper chaperones, the expression of genes involved in stem development is decreased and the concentrations of zinc and molybdenum are increased in comparison with the optimum copper level. At the optimal copper level, the expression of cell wall-related genes increases and proteins playing a role in cell wall deposition and in methionine metabolism accumulate, whereas copper excess imposes a reduction in the concentration of iron in the stem and a reduced abundance of ferritins. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis suggests a role for the apoplasm as a copper storage site in the case of copper toxicity. PMID:26865661

  13. Quantitation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from UVB-irradiated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone will increase the solar ultraviolet radiation in the range from 290-320 nm (UVB) that reaches the surface of the earth, placing an increased UV burden on exposed organisms. One consequence of increased UVB may be decreased productivity of crop plants. A principal lesion caused by UV in DNA is the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. We have adapted a method for measuring these dimers in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA for use in UV-irradiated plants. We find that biologically relevant doses of broad band UVB radiation induce easily detectable frequencies of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of irradiated alfalfa sprout leaves and that the dose response for dimer formation is linear up to doses of at least 690 J/m2. We also find easily measurable frequencies of dimers in the leaves of seedlings grown in glass filtered sunlight but not exposed to additional UVB, suggesting that significant number of dimers are formed in plants exposed to normal sunlight. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  15. Nucleotide sequence and structural determinants of specific binding of coat protein or coat protein peptides to the 3' untranslated region of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser-Scott, F; Baer, M L; Liem, K F; Cai, J M; Gehrke, L

    1994-01-01

    The specific binding of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein to viral RNA requires determinants in the 3' untranslated region (UTR). Coat protein and peptide binding sites in the 3' UTR of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 have been analyzed by hydroxyl radical footprinting, deletion mapping, and site-directed mutagenesis experiments. The 3' UTR has several stable hairpins that are flanked by single-stranded (A/U)UGC sequences. Hydroxyl radical footprinting data show that five sites in the 3' UTR of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 are protected by coat protein, and four of the five protected regions contain AUGC or UUGC. Electrophoretic mobility band shift results suggest four coat protein binding sites in the 3' UTR. A 3'-terminal 39-nucleotide RNA fragment containing four AUGC repeats bound coat protein and coat protein peptides with high affinity; however, coat protein bound poorly to antisense 3' UTR transcripts and poly(AUGC)10. Site-directed mutagenesis of AUGC865-868 resulted in a loss of coat protein binding and peptide binding by the RNA fragment. Alignment of alfalfa mosaic RNA sequences with those from several closely related ilarviruses demonstrates that AUGC865-868 is perfectly conserved; moreover, the RNAs are predicted to form similar 3'-terminal secondary structures. The data strongly suggest that alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein and ilavirus coat proteins recognize invariant AUGC sequences in the context of conserved structural elements. Images PMID:8139004

  16. Changes in the chemical properties and swelling coefficient of alfalfa root cell walls in the presence of toluene as a toxic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, M; Khoshgoftarmanesh, A H; Hadadzadeh, H

    2016-04-01

    The influence of toluene pollution on the chemical properties and swelling coefficient of root cell walls in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was investigated. Two sets of alfalfa seedlings were selected and one set was treated with 450 mg L(-1) toluene in the nutrient solution under hydroponic culture. Thirty days after treatment with toluene, alfalfa plants were harvested and the root cell walls were isolated. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out for the characterization of the root cell walls composition. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the swelling coefficient of the root cell walls (Kcw) were estimated at various pH values. The toluene contamination significantly reduced the mass of the cell wall material in the alfalfa roots. According to the FTIR spectra, the toluene pollution can change the alfalfa root cell wall properties by reducing the cell wall functional groups. These functional groups are probably related to the proteins and polysaccharides in the cell wall. Also, toluene pollution strongly reduced CEC and Kcw of the root cell walls. The results show that the decrease in the active sites of adsorption on the root cell walls as a response to toluene pollution can affect the water flow rate and the mineral nutrients uptake by roots. PMID:26728292

  17. Effect of Space Flight Factors on Plant Biomass Developed from Alfalfa Seeds Carried by the Satellite%卫星搭载对紫花苜蓿当代植株生物量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任卫波; 赵亮; 王蜜; 陈立波; 郭慧琴

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of space flight factors on plant biomass in the generation of alfalfa carried by the satellite. [Method] Seeds from three lines of alfalfa were carried by the seed-breeding satellite Shijian-8. After the satellite returned to the ground, stem diameter, primary branch number and current-year individual biomass of alfalfa were studied. [Result] After space flight, primary branch number and current-year individual biomass of alfalfa increased significantly, while the stem diameter had no significant change. Using the value over(the mean value of control + three standard deviation) as a criterion to screen, the variants with enlarged stem diameter, increased primary branch number and individual biomass was two, five and twelve respectively. [Conclusion] The obtained variants can be used in the variety improvement of alfalfa and its new variety breeding, but whether its favorable variation can inherit stably to the progenies needs further study.

  18. Effect of harvest time and physical form of alfalfa silage on chewing time and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornfelt, L. F.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Norgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effects of physical form and harvest time of alfalfa silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in dry cows. The alfalfa crop was harvested at two stages of growth (early: NDF 37 late: NDF 44% in dry matter.......01), physical form (P time (P feeding late-harvested alfalfa silage. Two peaks on the probability density distribution function...... (DM)), and from each harvest, a chopped (theoretical cutting length: 19 mm) and an unchopped crop was ensiled in bales. The silages were fed restrictively to four rumen cannulated non-lactating Jersey cows (391 +/- 26 kg) in a 434 Latin square design. The cows were fed restrictively 80% of their ad...

  19. EFICIENCIA DEL AGUA DE RIEGO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE MAÍZ FORRAJERO (Zea mays L. Y ALFALFA (Medicago sativa: IMPACTO SOCIAL Y ECONÓMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Pedroza Sandoval

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El maíz y la alfalfa, son los dos principales cultivos forrajeros en la Cuenca Lechera de la Laguna de los estados de Coahuila y Durango, México, donde el recurso hídrico es el mayor factor limitante. El objetivo de este estudio fue hacer una evaluación de la eficiencia biológica, económica y social del uso de agua de riego en los cultivos de maíz forrajero (Zea mays L. y alfalfa (Medicago sativa, mediante un análisis económico comparativo y de eficiencia de productividad. El maíz fue más eficiente que la alfalfa, puesto que un m3 de agua subterránea produjo 5.72 kg de biomasa, $0.67 de ganancia por m3 de agua usada y 100 000 m3 de agua produjeron 0.65 empleos durante el ciclo del cultivo; mientras que la alfalfa produjo 0.215 kg de biomasa, $0.90 de ganancia y se generaron 0.43 empleos con los mismos volúmenes de agua indicados en el maíz. El cultivo de maíz forrajero fue más eficiente en producción de biomasa por volumen de agua utilizado y empleos generados, pero menos eficiente en ganancias, donde la alfalfa fue mejor. Una combinación durante el año de cultivos forrajeros con calidad energética y proteica como el maíz y la alfalfa respectivamente, éstos producidos bajo un programa de rotación, habrán de redundar en un equilibrio entre calidad de forraje, productividad del mismo, un mayor beneficio social y un menor impacto ambiental.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci for Salt Tolerance during Germination in Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Liu, Xinchun; Boge, William; Liu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of major abiotic stresses limiting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production in the arid and semi-arid regions in US and other counties. In this study, we used a diverse panel of alfalfa accessions previously described by Zhang et al. (2015) to identify molecular markers associated with salt tolerance during germination using genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Phenotyping was done by germinating alfalfa seeds under different levels of salt stress. Phenotypic data of adjusted germination rates and SNP markers generated by GBS were used for marker-trait association. Thirty six markers were significantly associated with salt tolerance in at least one level of salt treatments. Alignment of sequence tags to the Medicago truncatula genome revealed genetic locations of the markers on all chromosomes except chromosome 3. Most significant markers were found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. BLAST search using the flanking sequences of significant markers identified 14 putative candidate genes linked to 23 significant markers. Most of them were repeatedly identified in two or three salt treatments. Several loci identified in the present study had similar genetic locations to the reported QTL associated with salt tolerance in M. truncatula. A locus identified on chromosome 6 by this study overlapped with that by drought in our previous study. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mapping loci associated with salt tolerance during germination in autotetraploid alfalfa. Further investigation on these loci and their linked genes would provide insight into understanding molecular mechanisms by which salt and drought stresses affect alfalfa growth. Functional markers closely linked to the resistance loci would be useful for MAS to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced resistance to drought and salt stresses. PMID:27446182

  1. Risks and benefits of compost-like materials prepared by the thermal treatment of raw scallop hepatopancreas for supplying cadmium and the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kensuke; Fukushima, Masami; Kanno, Shinya; Kanno, Itoko; Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Scallop hepatopancreas, fishery waste, contains relatively high levels of Cd and organic nitrogen compounds, the latter of which represent a fertilizer. In this study, raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue was thermally treated with sawdust and red loam in the presence of an iron catalyst to produce compost-like materials (CLMs). Two CLM samples were prepared by varying the content of raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue: 46 wt.% for CLM-1 and 18 wt.% for CLM-2. Mixtures of control soil (CTL) and CLMs (CLM content: 10 and 25 wt.%) were examined for the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to evaluate the risks and benefits of using this material for fertilization. The Cd content in shoots and roots of alfalfa, that were grown in the presence of CLMs, was significantly higher than those for the plants grown in the CTL, indicating that Cd had accumulated in the plants from CLMs. The accumulation of Cd in the alfalfa roots was quite high in the case of the 25% CLM-1 sample. However, alfalfa growth was significantly promoted in the presence of 10% CLM-1. This can be attributed to the higher levels of nitrogen and humic substances, which serve as fertilizer components. Although the fertilization effect in case of CLM-1showed a potential benefit, the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa was clearly increased in the presence of both CLMs. In conclusion, the use of CLMs produced from raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue can be considered to have a desirable benefit from standpoint of its use as fertilizer, but is accompanied by a risk of the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa plants.

  2. The Removal and Remediation of Phenanthrene and Pyrene in Soil by Mixed Cropping of Alfalfa and Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Sheng-wang; WEI Shi-qiang; YUAN Xin; CAO Sheng-xian

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms and efficiencies of the removal and remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils by different planting patterns with rape (Brassica campeslris) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were studied by pot experiments in a greenhouse. Results showed that the remediation efficiencies under mixed cropping of alfalfa and rape significantly exceeded those under single cropping when the initial concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene were at 20.05-322.06 mg kg-1 and 20.24-321.42 mg kg-1, respectively. After 70 days plantation of crops, the contents of extractable PAHs in soils under mixed cropping were much lower than those under single cropping. About 65.17-83.52% of phenanthrene and 60.09%-75.34% of pyrene was removed from the soils under mixed cropping, respectively, which were averagely 43.26 and 40.38% for phenanthrene, and 11.03 and 16.29% for pyren higher than those under single cropping. Alfalfa or rape did absorb and accumulate PAHs from the soils apparently; the PAHs concentrations in plants monotonically increased with the increase of initial PAHs concentrations in soil; the accumulations of PAHs in plants showed following sequence as roots> above parts, phenanthrene> pyrene and single cropping> mixed cropping at same contamination level. Despite the presence of vegetation significantly enhanced the remediation of PAHs in soils, contributions of abiotic loss, plant uptake, accumulation and microbial degradation was much lower than those of plant-microbial interactions in the process of phytoremediation. Thus plant-microbial interactions are the main mechanisms for the remediation enhancement of soil PAHs pollution under mixed cropping models. Results suggested a feasibility of the establishment of multi-species phytoremediation for the improvement of remediation efficiencies of PAHs, which may decrease accumulations of PAHs in crops and thus reduce their risks.

  3. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) reproductive success according to location of nests in United States commercial domiciles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. In the managed pollination system, variable microenvironments are experienced by developing M. rotundata during the nesting season that may influence bee reproductive success. In this study, bee cells were produced in a small alfalfa field and collected from domiciles according to nesting boards and different portions of boards. Examination of cells showed that the production of live overwintering prepupae, diseased larvae, other dead eggs and larvae, and cells attacked by natural enemies varied according to board orientations and positions, and portions of the boards. Northeast-facing board samples were significantly heavier and had more pollen balls and chalkbrood compared with southwest-facing boards. Lower boards in stacks had significantly more chalkbrood than upper boards. Outer portions of boards had significantly more live prepupae and less chalkbrood than middle and inner portions, and outer and middle portions had less summer-emerging bees. These results suggest that reproductive success could be altered by changing the orientation of boards within domiciles or changing the designs of domiciles. To accurately assess the quality of bee populations managed in the commercial loose cell system, a sample of bees should be taken from a pooled sample from all boards in each domicile. Each domicile sample should then be evaluated according to its proportional contribution to the whole field's progeny production (e.g., by weight or volume). PMID:23786038

  4. THE CLUSTERING OF ALFALFA GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON H I MASS, RELATIONSHIP WITH OPTICAL SAMPLES, AND CLUES OF HOST HALO PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use a sample of ≈6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to measure the clustering properties of H I-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on galactic atomic hydrogen (H I) mass, over the range MHI ≈ 108.5-1010.5 M☉. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low H I mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that H I-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of H I-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than H I-selected galaxies, a fact that is evident in both the projected as well as the full two-dimensional correlation function. A cross-correlation analysis further reveals that gas-rich galaxies 'avoid' being located within ≈3 Mpc of optical galaxies with red colors. Next, we consider the clustering properties of halo samples selected from the Bolshoi ΛCDM simulation. A comparison with the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies suggests that galactic H I mass is not tightly related to host halo mass and that a sizable fraction of subhalos do not host H I galaxies. Lastly, we find that we can recover fairly well the correlation function of H I galaxies by just excluding halos with low spin parameter. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that halo spin plays a key role in determining the gas content of galaxies

  5. Short communication: The effects of dry matter and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Kung, L

    2016-07-01

    During the ensiling of feeds, various processes result in chemical changes that can affect their ultimate nutritive value at feed out. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged ensiling times on potential changes in in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF-D) of alfalfa ensiled at about 33% [low dry matter (DM), LDM] or 45% (high DM, HDM) whole-plant DM. Alfalfa from the same field (direct chopped or wilted) was chopped with a conventional forage harvester set for a theoretical length of cut of 0.95 cm and ensiled in mini silos for 45, 180, 270, and 360 d. Fresh forages and silages were analyzed for nutrient content, fermentation end-products, and 30-h NDF-D. The pH of the fresh forages ranged from 6.1 to 6.2 and decreased to approximately 4.7 and 4.3 in HDM and LDM silages, respectively. Production of acids and alcohols were less in HDM compared with LDM as expected. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N also increased with time of storage as expected but soluble protein was greater, whereas NH3-N was lower in HDM compared with LDM silage. The effect of length of storage and DM on hemicellulose and NDF concentrations were very small, whereas DM content at harvest tended to slightly increase the concentration of acid detergent fiber in HDM compared with LDM up to 270 d of storage. The NDF-D was greater in fresh forage compared with corresponding silages. However, time of storage between 45 and 360 d had no effect on the NDF-D of alfalfa silage, regardless of DM concentration at ensiling.

  6. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Jing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM, based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD, was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined by using 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid (ABTS and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH methods. The results showed good fit with the proposed models for the total flavonoid extraction (R2 = 0.9849, for the antioxidant extraction assayed by ABTS method (R2 = 0.9764, and by DPPH method (R2 = 0.9806. Optimized extraction conditions for total flavonoids was a ratio of liquid to solid of 57.16 mL/g, 62.33 °C, 57.08 min, and 52.14% ethanol. The optimal extraction parameters of extracts for the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was a ratio of liquid to solid 60.3 mL/g, 54.56 °C, 45.59 min, and 46.67% ethanol, and by ABTS assay was a ratio of liquid to solid 47.29 mL/g, 63.73 °C, 51.62 min, and 60% ethanol concentration. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for total flavonoids and antioxidants from alfalfa.

  7. Alfalfa Cellulose synthase gene expression under abiotic stress: a Hitchhiker's guide to RT-qPCR normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Guerriero

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress represents a serious threat affecting both plant fitness and productivity. One of the promptest responses that plants trigger following abiotic stress is the differential expression of key genes, which enable to face the adverse conditions. It is accepted and shown that the cell wall senses and broadcasts the stress signal to the interior of the cell, by triggering a cascade of reactions leading to resistance. Therefore the study of wall-related genes is particularly relevant to understand the metabolic remodeling triggered by plants in response to exogenous stresses. Despite the agricultural and economical relevance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., no study, to our knowledge, has addressed specifically the wall-related gene expression changes in response to exogenous stresses in this important crop, by monitoring the dynamics of wall biosynthetic gene expression. We here identify and analyze the expression profiles of nine cellulose synthases, together with other wall-related genes, in stems of alfalfa plants subjected to different abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salt stress at various time points (e.g. 0, 24, 72 and 96 h. We identify 2 main responses for specific groups of genes, i.e. a salt/heat-induced and a cold/heat-repressed group of genes. Prior to this analysis we identified appropriate reference genes for expression analyses in alfalfa, by evaluating the stability of 10 candidates across different tissues (namely leaves, stems, roots, under the different abiotic stresses and time points chosen. The results obtained confirm an active role played by the cell wall in response to exogenous stimuli and constitute a step forward in delineating the complex pathways regulating the response of plants to abiotic stresses.

  8. Efficacy of chemical treatments in eliminating Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on scarified and polished alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, S L; Scouten, A J; Beuchat, L R

    2001-10-01

    Alfalfa seeds are sometimes subjected to a scarification treatment to enhance water uptake, which results in more rapid and uniform germination during sprout production. It has been hypothesized that this mechanical abrasion treatment diminishes the efficacy of chemical treatments used to kill or remove pathogenic bacteria from seeds. A study was done to compare the effectiveness of chlorine (20,000 ppm), H2O, (8%), Ca(OH)2 (1%), Ca(OH)2 (1%) plus Tween 80 (1%), and Ca(OH)2 (1%) plus Span 20 (1%) treatments in killing Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto control, scarified, and polished alfalfa seeds obtained from two suppliers. The influence of the presence of organic material in the inoculum carrier on the efficacy of sanitizers was investigated. Overall, treatment with 1% Ca(OH)2 was the most effective in reducing populations of the pathogens. Reduction in populations of pathogens on seeds obtained from supplier I indicate that chemical treatments are less efficacious in eliminating the pathogens on scarified seeds compared to control seeds. However, the effectiveness of chemical treatment in removing Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 from seeds obtained from supplier 2 was not markedly affected by scarification or polishing. The presence of organic material in the inoculum carrier did not have a marked influence on the efficacy of chemicals in reducing populations of test pathogens. Additional lots of control, scarified, and polished alfalfa seeds of additional varieties need to be tested before conclusions can be drawn concerning the impact of mechanical abrasion on the efficacy of chemical treatment in removing or killing Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. PMID:11601695

  9. From H I to Stars: H I Depletion in Starbursts and Star-forming Galaxies in the ALFALFA Hα Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskot, A. E.; Oey, M. S.; Salzer, J. J.; Van Sistine, A.; Bell, E. F.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    H i in galaxies traces the fuel for future star formation and reveals the effects of feedback on neutral gas. Using a statistically uniform, H i-selected sample of 565 galaxies from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Hα survey, we explore H i properties as a function of star formation activity. ALFALFA Hα provides R-band and Hα imaging for a volume-limited subset of the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We identify eight starbursts based on Hα equivalent width and six with enhanced star formation relative to the main sequence. Both starbursts and non-starbursts have similar H i-to-stellar mass ratios ({M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}*), which suggests that feedback is not depleting the starbursts’ H i. Consequently, the starbursts do have shorter H i depletion times ({t}{dep}), implying more efficient H i-to-H2 conversion. While major mergers likely drive this enhanced efficiency in some starbursts, the lowest-mass starbursts may experience periodic bursts, consistent with enhanced scatter in {t}{dep} at low {M}*. Two starbursts appear to be pre-coalescence mergers; their elevated {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* suggest that H i-to-H2 conversion is still ongoing at this stage. By comparing with the GASS sample, we find that {t}{dep} anticorrelates with stellar surface density for disks, while spheroids show no such trend. Among early-type galaxies, {t}{dep} does not correlate with bulge-to-disk ratio; instead, the gas distribution may determine the star formation efficiency. Finally, the weak connection between galaxies’ specific star formation rates and {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* contrasts with the well-known correlation between {M}{{H} {{I}}}/{M}* and color. We show that dust extinction can explain the H i–color trend, which may arise from the relationship between {M}*, {M}{{H} {{I}}}, and metallicity.

  10. Short communication: The effects of dry matter and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Kung, L

    2016-07-01

    During the ensiling of feeds, various processes result in chemical changes that can affect their ultimate nutritive value at feed out. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged ensiling times on potential changes in in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF-D) of alfalfa ensiled at about 33% [low dry matter (DM), LDM] or 45% (high DM, HDM) whole-plant DM. Alfalfa from the same field (direct chopped or wilted) was chopped with a conventional forage harvester set for a theoretical length of cut of 0.95 cm and ensiled in mini silos for 45, 180, 270, and 360 d. Fresh forages and silages were analyzed for nutrient content, fermentation end-products, and 30-h NDF-D. The pH of the fresh forages ranged from 6.1 to 6.2 and decreased to approximately 4.7 and 4.3 in HDM and LDM silages, respectively. Production of acids and alcohols were less in HDM compared with LDM as expected. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N also increased with time of storage as expected but soluble protein was greater, whereas NH3-N was lower in HDM compared with LDM silage. The effect of length of storage and DM on hemicellulose and NDF concentrations were very small, whereas DM content at harvest tended to slightly increase the concentration of acid detergent fiber in HDM compared with LDM up to 270 d of storage. The NDF-D was greater in fresh forage compared with corresponding silages. However, time of storage between 45 and 360 d had no effect on the NDF-D of alfalfa silage, regardless of DM concentration at ensiling. PMID:27179862

  11. Elevated CO{sub 2} enhances plant growth in droughted N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa without improving water status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, I. De; Irigoyen, J.J.; Sanchez-Diaz, M. [Univ. de Navarra, Dept. de Fisiologia Vegetal, Pamplona (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The long-term interaction between elevated CO{sub 2} and soil water deficit was analysed in N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa plants in order to assess the possible drought tolerance effect of CO{sub 2}. Elevated CO{sub 2} could delay the onset of drought stress by decreasing transpiration rates, but this effect was avoided by subjecting plants to the same soil water content. Nodulated alfalfa plants subjected to ambient (400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) or elevated (700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) CO{sub 2} were either well watered or partially watered by restricting water to obtain 30% of the water content at field capacity (approximately 0.55 g water cm{sup -3}). The negative effects of soil water deficit on plant growth were counterbalanced by elevated CO{sub 2}. In droughted plants, elevated CO{sub 2} stimulated carbon fixation and, as a result, biomass production was even greater than in well-watered plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. Below-ground production was preferentially stimulated by elevated CO{sub 2} in droughted plants, increasing nodule biomass production and the availability of photosynthates to the nodules. As a result, total nitrogen content in droughted plants was higher than in well-watered plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. The beneficial effect of elevated CO{sub 2} was not correlated with a better plant water status. It is concluded that elevated CO{sub 2} enhances growth of droughted plants by stimulating carbon fixation, preferentially increasing the availability of photosynthates to below-ground production (roots and nodules) without improving water status. This means that elevated CO{sub 2} enhances the ability to produce more biomass in N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa under given soil water stress, improving drought tolerance. (au)

  12. Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in contaminated alfalfa silage: Effects of silage additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunade, I M; Kim, D H; Jiang, Y; Weinberg, Z G; Jeong, K C; Adesogan, A T

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine if adding microbial inoculants or propionic acid to alfalfa silages contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 would inhibit the growth of the pathogen during or after ensiling. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the early bloom stage, wilted to a dry matter concentration of 54%, chopped to 19-mm lengths, and ensiled after treatment with one of the following: (1) distilled water (control); (2) 1×10(5) cfu/g of E. coli O157:H7 (EC); (3) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum (EC+LP); (4) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri (EC+LB); and (5) EC and 2.2g/kg of propionic acid (EC+PA). Each treatment was ensiled in quadruplicate in laboratory silos for 0, 3, 7, 16, and 100d and analyzed for EC counts, pH, and organic acids. In addition, samples from d 100 were analyzed for chemical composition, ammonia-N, counts of yeasts and molds, and aerobic stability. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected in all silages until d 7, but by d 16 it was not detected in those treated with EC+LB and EC+LP, though it was still detected in EC and EC+PA silages. However, by d 100, the pathogen was not detected in any silage. The rate of pH decrease to 5.0 was fastest for the EC+LP silage (7d), followed by the EC+LB silage (16d). Nevertheless, all silages had attained a pH of or less than 5.0 by d 100. The rapid decrease in pH in EC+LP and EC+LB silages was observed due to higher lactate and acetate concentrations, respectively, relative to the other silages during the early fermentation phase (d 3-16). Propionic acid was only detected in the EC+PA silage. Yeast counts were lowest in EC+LB and EC+PA silages. Subsamples of all d-100 silages were reinoculated with 1×10(5) cfu/g of EC immediately after silo opening. When the pathogen was subsequently enumerated after 168h of aerobic exposure, it was not detected in silages treated with EC+PA, EC+LB, or EC+LP, which all had pH values less than 5.0. Whereas the EC silage had a pH value of 5

  13. INFLUENCE OF pH AND TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION ENERGY, GERMINATION, ROOT AND SEEDLINGS HYPOCOTIL LENGTH OF VARIOUS ALFALFA CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Lović; Anita Liška; Vlatka Rozman; Sonja Grljušić; Gordana Bukvić

    2008-01-01

    The traits of germination energy, seed germination, as well as root and hypocotyls length of domestic alfalfa cultivars (Slavonka, Stela, Vuka) were investigated in a climate chamber. The experiment was set up at two pH levels of water solution (4.00 and 6.00) and temperature levels of 10°C and 20°C using rolled filter paper method. Significant difference between cultivars (p=0.01, p=0.05) was determined for germination energy, seed germination and hypocotyls length. Cultivar Slavonka had the...

  14. The alfalfa “almost darks” campaign: Pilot VLA HI observations of five high mass-to-light ratio systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; Martinkus, Charlotte P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: cmartink@macalester.edu, E-mail: leisman@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: hallenbg@union.edu, E-mail: jonesmg@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present new Very Large Array (VLA) H i spectral line imaging of five sources discovered by the ALFALFA extragalactic survey. These targets are drawn from a larger sample of systems that were not uniquely identified with optical counterparts during ALFALFA processing, and as such have unusually high H i mass to light ratios. The candidate “Almost Dark” objects fall into four broad categories: (1) objects with nearby H i neighbors that are likely of tidal origin; (2) objects that appear to be part of a system of multiple H i sources, but which may not be tidal in origin; (3) objects isolated from nearby ALFALFA H i detections, but located near a gas-poor early type galaxy; (4) apparently isolated sources, with no object of coincident redshift within ∼400 kpc. Roughly 75% of the 200 objects without identified counterparts in the α.40 database (Haynes et al. 2011) fall into category 1 (likely tidal), and were not considered for synthesis follow-up observations. The pilot sample presented here (AGC193953, AGC208602, AGC208399, AGC226178, and AGC233638) contains the first five sources observed as part of a larger effort to characterize H i sources with no readily identifiable optical counterpart at single dish resolution (3.′5). These objects span a range of H i mass [7.41 < log(M{sub Hi}) < 9.51] and H i mass to B-band luminosity ratios (3 < M{sub Hi}/L{sub B} < 9). We compare the H i total intensity and velocity fields to optical imaging drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and to ultraviolet imaging drawn from archival GALEX observations. Four of the sources with uncertain or no optical counterpart in the ALFALFA data are identified with low surface brightness optical counterparts in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging when compared with VLA H i intensity maps, and appear to be galaxies with clear signs of ordered rotation in the H i velocity fields. Three of these are detected in far-ultraviolet GALEX images, a likely indication of star formation within

  15. Using RNA-Seq for gene identification, polymorphism detection and transcript profiling in two alfalfa genotypes with divergent cell wall composition in stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb JoAnn FS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alfalfa, [Medicago sativa (L. sativa], a widely-grown perennial forage has potential for development as a cellulosic ethanol feedstock. However, the genomics of alfalfa, a non-model species, is still in its infancy. The recent advent of RNA-Seq, a massively parallel sequencing method for transcriptome analysis, provides an opportunity to expand the identification of alfalfa genes and polymorphisms, and conduct in-depth transcript profiling. Results Cell walls in stems of alfalfa genotype 708 have higher cellulose and lower lignin concentrations compared to cell walls in stems of genotype 773. Using the Illumina GA-II platform, a total of 198,861,304 expression sequence tags (ESTs, 76 bp in length were generated from cDNA libraries derived from elongating stem (ES and post-elongation stem (PES internodes of 708 and 773. In addition, 341,984 ESTs were generated from ES and PES internodes of genotype 773 using the GS FLX Titanium platform. The first alfalfa (Medicago sativa gene index (MSGI 1.0 was assembled using the Sanger ESTs available from GenBank, the GS FLX Titanium EST sequences, and the de novo assembled Illumina sequences. MSGI 1.0 contains 124,025 unique sequences including 22,729 tentative consensus sequences (TCs, 22,315 singletons and 78,981 pseudo-singletons. We identified a total of 1,294 simple sequence repeats (SSR among the sequences in MSGI 1.0. In addition, a total of 10,826 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were predicted between the two genotypes. Out of 55 SNPs randomly selected for experimental validation, 47 (85% were polymorphic between the two genotypes. We also identified numerous allelic variations within each genotype. Digital gene expression analysis identified numerous candidate genes that may play a role in stem development as well as candidate genes that may contribute to the differences in cell wall composition in stems of the two genotypes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that RNA

  16. Effects of AN Alfalfa (medicago Sativa) Buffer Strip on Leached δ15NNITRATE Values: Implications for Management of Hydrologic N Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. J.; Keller, C. K.; Smith, J. L.; Evans, R. D.; Harlow, B.

    2011-12-01

    Buffer strips are commonly used to decrease agricultural runoff with the objective of limiting sediment and agrochemicals fluxes to surface waters. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an alfalfa buffer strip on the magnitude and source(s) of leached nitrate from a dryland agricultural field. Previous research at the Cook Agronomy Farm has inferred two sources of nitrate in tile drain discharge, a high-discharge-season (January through May) synthetic fertilizer source, and a low-discharge-season (June through December) soil organic nitrogen source. This study examines how a change in management strategy and crop species alters the low discharge season nitrate source. In the spring of 2006 an alfalfa buffer strip approximately 20 m wide was planted running approximately north-south in the lowland portion of a 12 ha tile-drained field bordering a ditch that drains into Missouri Flat Creek. Three-year (2003 through 2005) average NO3--N flux prior to the planting of the alfalfa buffer strip was ~0.40 kg ha-1 year-1. After planting, the three-year (2006 through 2008) average NO3--N flux was ~0.38 kg ha-1 year-1. The lack of evident buffer-strip influence on the fluxes may be due in part to the large variation in precipitation amounts and timing that control water flows through the system. Three-year average δ15Nnitrate values for the tile drain pre and post planting of the alfalfa buffer strip were 6.9 ± 1.1 % and 4.2 ± 0.9 % respectively. We hypothesize that the significant difference indicates that the alfalfa strip affects the source of leached nitrate. Before planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the interpreted source of nitrate was mineralization of soil organic nitrogen from non-N2 fixing crops (spring and summer wheat varieties). After planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the source of nitrate was interpreted to be a mixture of mineralized soil organic nitrogen from N2 fixing alfalfa and non-N2 fixing crops. Further work is needed to test

  17. 优质苜蓿草捆加工生产技术的研究%Study of the production technique of high quality alfalfa bale processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴元

    2001-01-01

    The procedure of alfalfa bale processing is introduced, andthe elements affecting bale processing quality, such as, harvesting time, bale machine, piling up and storage, are analyzed. Meanwhile, the production technique and methods of high quality alfalfa bale pro-cessing are alsoput forward.%介绍了苜蓿打捆加工的工艺过程,分析了苜蓿割晒时间、打捆机具、堆放贮存等影响草捆质量的因素,提出了加工优质苜蓿草捆的技术方法和措施。

  18. Characterization of triacylglycerols from overwintering prepupae of the alfalfa pollinator Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, James S; Kemp, William P; Bosch, Jordi

    2004-09-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata (F.), overwinter as prepupae. The internal lipids were extracted from prepupae that had been wintered at 4 degrees C for 7 months. Megachile rotundata prepupae possessed copious quantities of internal lipids (20% of the fresh weight) that were extracted with CHCl3/methanol (2:1). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that lipids were stored within very large intracellular vacuoles. Separation by silica chromatography revealed that 88% of the internal lipids were triacylglycerols. Ester derivatives of fatty acids from triacylglycerol components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 15 fatty acid constituents were identified. The majority (76%) of the triacylglycerol fatty acids were unsaturated fatty acids. The major triacylglycerol fatty acid constituent (30%) was the C16 monounsaturated fatty acid, palmitoleic acid (16:1, hexadec-9-enoic acid), with substantial amounts of linolenic acid (18:3, octadec-9,12,15-trienoic acid, 15%), palmitic acid (16:0, hexadecanoic acid, 14%) and oleic acid (18:1, octadec-9-enoic acid, 13%). Palmitoleic acid as the major fatty acid of an insect is an unusual occurrence as well as the presence of the 16-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 16:2 and 16:3. The major intact triacylglycerol components were separated and identified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A complex mixture of approximately 40 triacylglycerol components were identified and major components included palmitoyl palmitoleoyl oleoyl glycerol, palmitoyl palmitoleoyl palmitoleoyl glycerol, myristoyl palmitoleoyl palmitoleoyl glycerol, myristoleoyl palmitoyl palmitoleoyl glycerol, and palmitoyl palmitoleoyl linolenoyl glycerol. The function of these internal lipids and their relevance to winter survival and post-wintering development of M. rotundata is discussed. PMID:15352151

  19. (Almost) Dark HI Sources in the ALFALFA Survey: The Intriguing Case of HI1232+20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowiecki, Steven; Leisman, Lukas; Józsa, Gyula; Salzer, John J.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Rhode, Katherine L.; Cannon, John M.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janesh, William F.

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery and follow-up observations of a system of three objects identified by the ALFALFA extragalactic HI survey, cataloged as (almost) dark extragalactic sources, i.e., extragalactic HI detections with no discernible counterpart in publicly available, wide-field, imaging surveys. We have obtained deep optical imaging with WIYN pODI and HI synthesis maps with WSRT of the HI1232+20 system. The source with the highest HI flux has a newly discovered ultra-low surface brightness (LSB) optical counterpart associated with it, while the other two sources have no detected optical counterparts in our images. Our optical observations show that the detected LSB optical counterpart has a peak surface brightness of ˜26.4 mag arcsec-2 in g‧, which is exceptionally faint. This source (AGC 229385) has the largest accurately measured HI mass-to-light ratio of an isolated object: {{M}HI}/{{L}{{g\\prime }}} = 46 {{M}⊙ }/{{L}⊙ }, and has an HI mass of 7.2 × {{10}8} {{M}⊙ }. The other two HI sources (with HI masses 2.0 × 108 and 1.2 × {{10}8} {{M}⊙ }) without optical counterparts have upper limit surface brightnesses of 27.9 and 27.8 mag arcsec-2 in g‧, and lower limits on their gas mass-to-light ratio of {{M}HI}/{{L}{{g\\prime }}} > 57 and > 31 {{M}⊙ }/{{L}⊙ }. This system lies relatively close in projection to the Virgo Cluster, but velocity flow models indicate that it is located at 25 Mpc, substantially beyond Virgo. The system appears to be quite isolated, with no known object closer than ˜500 kpc. These HI sources may represent both sides of the threshold between “dark” star-less galaxies and galaxies with stellar populations. We discuss a variety of possible formation scenarios for the HI1232+20 system.

  20. In vitro and in vivo studies of the RNA conformational switch in Alfalfa mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Cheng; Olsthoorn, René C L

    2010-02-01

    The 3' termini of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs adopt two mutually exclusive conformations, a coat protein binding (CPB) and a tRNA-like (TL) conformer, which consist of a linear array of stem-loop structures and a pseudoknot structure, respectively. Previously, switching between CPB and TL conformers has been proposed as a mechanism to regulate the competing processes of translation and replication of the viral RNA (R. C. L. Olsthoorn et al., EMBO J. 18:4856-4864, 1999). In the present study, the switch between CPB and TL conformers was further investigated. First, we showed that recognition of the AMV 3' untranslated region (UTR) by a tRNA-specific enzyme (CCA-adding enzyme) in vitro is more efficient when the distribution is shifted toward the TL conformation. Second, the recognition of the 3' UTR by the viral replicase was similarly dependent on the ratio of CBP and TL conformers. Furthermore, the addition of CP, which is expected to shift the distribution toward the CPB conformer, inhibited recognition by the CCA-adding enzyme and the replicase. Finally, we monitored how the binding affinity to CP is affected by this conformational switch in the yeast three-hybrid system. Here, disruption of the pseudoknot enhanced the binding affinity to CP by shifting the balance in favor of the CPB conformer, whereas stabilizing the pseudoknot did the reverse. Together, the in vitro and in vivo data clearly demonstrate the existence of the conformational switch in the 3' UTR of AMV RNAs. PMID:19923185

  1. Coat protein activation of alfalfa mosaic virus replication is concentration dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guogas, Laura M; Laforest, Siana M; Gehrke, Lee

    2005-05-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and ilarvirus RNAs are infectious only in the presence of the viral coat protein; therefore, an understanding of coat protein's function is important for defining viral replication mechanisms. Based on in vitro replication experiments, the conformational switch model states that AMV coat protein blocks minus-strand RNA synthesis (R. C. Olsthoorn, S. Mertens, F. T. Brederode, and J. F. Bol, EMBO J. 18:4856-4864, 1999), while another report states that coat protein present in an inoculum is required to permit minus-strand synthesis (L. Neeleman and J. F. Bol, Virology 254:324-333, 1999). Here, we report on experiments that address these contrasting results with a goal of defining coat protein's function in the earliest stages of AMV replication. To detect coat-protein-activated AMV RNA replication, we designed and characterized a subgenomic luciferase reporter construct. We demonstrate that activation of viral RNA replication by coat protein is concentration dependent; that is, replication was strongly stimulated at low coat protein concentrations but decreased progressively at higher concentrations. Genomic RNA3 mutations preventing coat protein mRNA translation or disrupting coat protein's RNA binding domain diminished replication. The data indicate that RNA binding and an ongoing supply of coat protein are required to initiate replication on progeny genomic RNA transcripts. The data do not support the conformational switch model's claim that coat protein inhibits the initial stages of viral RNA replication. Replication activation may correlate with low local coat protein concentrations and low coat protein occupancy on the multiple binding sites present in the 3' untranslated regions of the viral RNAs. PMID:15827190

  2. Spatial determinants of the alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforest, Siana M; Gehrke, Lee

    2004-01-01

    The biological functions of RNA-protein complexes are, for the most part, poorly defined. Here, we describe experiments that are aimed at understanding the functional significance of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA-coat protein binding, an interaction that parallels the initiation of viral RNA replication. Peptides representing the RNA-binding domain of the viral coat protein are biologically active in initiating replication and bind to a 39-nt 3'-terminal RNA with a stoichiometry of two peptides: 1 RNA. To begin to understand how RNA-peptide interactions induce RNA conformational changes and initiate replication, the AMV RNA fragment was experimentally manipulated by increasing the interhelical spacing, by interrupting the apparent nucleotide symmetry, and by extending the binding site. In general, both asymmetric and symmetric insertions between two proposed hairpins diminished binding, whereas 5' and 3' extensions had minimal effects. Exchanging the positions of the binding site hairpins resulted in only a moderate decrease in peptide binding affinity without changing the hydroxyl radical footprint protection pattern. To assess biological relevance in viral RNA replication, the nucleotide changes were transferred into infectious genomic RNA clones. RNA mutations that disrupted coat protein binding also prevented viral RNA replication without diminishing coat protein mRNA (RNA 4) translation. These results, coupled with the highly conserved nature of the AUGC865-868 sequence, suggest that the distance separating the two proposed hairpins is a critical binding determinant. The data may indicate that the 5' and 3' hairpins interact with one of the bound peptides to nucleate the observed RNA conformational changes. PMID:14681584

  3. Evaluation of the conformational switch model for alfalfa mosaic virus RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Jessica E; Rocheleau, Gail; Kelley-Clarke, Brenna; Gehrke, Lee

    2005-05-01

    Key elements of the conformational switch model describing regulation of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) replication (R. C. Olsthoorn, S. Mertens, F. T. Brederode, and J. F. Bol, EMBO J. 18:4856-4864, 1999) have been tested using biochemical assays and functional studies in nontransgenic protoplasts. Although comparative sequence analysis suggests that the 3' untranslated regions of AMV and ilarvirus RNAs have the potential to fold into pseudoknots, we were unable to confirm that a proposed pseudoknot forms or has a functional role in regulating coat protein-RNA binding or viral RNA replication. Published work has suggested that the pseudoknot is part of a tRNA-like structure (TLS); however, we argue that the canonical sequence and functional features that define the TLS are absent. We suggest here that the absence of the TLS correlates directly with the distinctive requirement for coat protein to activate replication in these viruses. Experimental data are evidence that elevated magnesium concentrations proposed to stabilize the pseudoknot structure do not block coat protein binding. Additionally, covarying nucleotide changes proposed to reestablish pseudoknot pairings do not rescue replication. Furthermore, as described in the accompanying paper (L. M. Guogas, S. M. Laforest, and L. Gehrke, J. Virol. 79:5752-5761, 2005), coat protein is not, by definition, inhibitory to minus-strand RNA synthesis. Rather, the activation of viral RNA replication by coat protein is shown to be concentration dependent. We describe the 3' organization model as an alternate model of AMV replication that offers an improved fit to the available data. PMID:15827189

  4. Speciation Matters: Bioavailability of Silver and Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles to Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, John P; Schwab, Fabienne; Colman, Benjamin P; Webb, Samuel M; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Winkler, Christopher; Wiesner, Mark R; Lowry, Gregory V

    2015-07-21

    Terrestrial crops are directly exposed to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their environmentally transformed analog silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) when wastewater treatment biosolids are applied as fertilizer to agricultural soils. This leads to a need to understand their bioavailability to plants. In the present study, the mechanisms of uptake and distribution of silver in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were quantified and visualized upon hydroponic exposure to Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and AgNO3 at 3 mg total Ag/L. Total silver uptake was measured in dried roots and shoots, and the spatial distribution of elements was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based X-ray imaging techniques. Despite large differences in release of Ag(+) ions from the particles, Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and Ag(+) became associated with plant roots to a similar degree, and exhibited similarly limited (XRF) mapping revealed differences in the distribution of Ag into roots for each treatment. Silver nanoparticles mainly accumulated in the (columella) border cells and elongation zone, whereas Ag(+) accumulated more uniformly throughout the root. In contrast, Ag2S-NPs remained largely adhered to the root exterior, and the presence of cytoplasmic nano-SixOy aggregates was observed. Exclusively in roots exposed to particulate silver, NPs smaller than the originally dosed NPs were identified by TEM in the cell walls. The apparent accumulation of Ag in the root apoplast determined by XRF, and the presence of small NPs in root cell walls suggests uptake of partially dissolved NPs and translocation along the apoplast. PMID:26106801

  5. Integrative analysis of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) suggests new metabolic control mechanisms for monolignol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun; Chen, Fang; Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Dixon, Richard A; Voit, Eberhard O

    2011-05-01

    The entanglement of lignin polymers with cellulose and hemicellulose in plant cell walls is a major biological barrier to the economically viable production of biofuels from woody biomass. Recent efforts of reducing this recalcitrance with transgenic techniques have been showing promise for ameliorating or even obviating the need for costly pretreatments that are otherwise required to remove lignin from cellulose and hemicelluloses. At the same time, genetic manipulations of lignin biosynthetic enzymes have sometimes yielded unforeseen consequences on lignin composition, thus raising the question of whether the current understanding of the pathway is indeed correct. To address this question systemically, we developed and applied a novel modeling approach that, instead of analyzing the pathway within a single target context, permits a comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of different datasets in wild type and transgenic plants. Specifically, the proposed approach combines static flux-based analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation in which very many randomly chosen sets of parameter values are evaluated against kinetic models of lignin biosynthesis in different stem internodes of wild type and lignin-modified alfalfa plants. In addition to four new postulates that address the reversibility of some key reactions, the modeling effort led to two novel postulates regarding the control of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. The first posits functionally independent pathways toward the synthesis of different lignin monomers, while the second postulate proposes a novel feedforward regulatory mechanism. Subsequent laboratory experiments have identified the signaling molecule salicylic acid as a potential mediator of the postulated control mechanism. Overall, the results demonstrate that mathematical modeling can be a valuable complement to conventional transgenic approaches and that it can provide biological insights that are otherwise difficult to obtain. PMID:21625579

  6. Speciation Matters: Bioavailability of Silver and Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles to Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, John P; Schwab, Fabienne; Colman, Benjamin P; Webb, Samuel M; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Winkler, Christopher; Wiesner, Mark R; Lowry, Gregory V

    2015-07-21

    Terrestrial crops are directly exposed to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their environmentally transformed analog silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) when wastewater treatment biosolids are applied as fertilizer to agricultural soils. This leads to a need to understand their bioavailability to plants. In the present study, the mechanisms of uptake and distribution of silver in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were quantified and visualized upon hydroponic exposure to Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and AgNO3 at 3 mg total Ag/L. Total silver uptake was measured in dried roots and shoots, and the spatial distribution of elements was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based X-ray imaging techniques. Despite large differences in release of Ag(+) ions from the particles, Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and Ag(+) became associated with plant roots to a similar degree, and exhibited similarly limited (roots for each treatment. Silver nanoparticles mainly accumulated in the (columella) border cells and elongation zone, whereas Ag(+) accumulated more uniformly throughout the root. In contrast, Ag2S-NPs remained largely adhered to the root exterior, and the presence of cytoplasmic nano-SixOy aggregates was observed. Exclusively in roots exposed to particulate silver, NPs smaller than the originally dosed NPs were identified by TEM in the cell walls. The apparent accumulation of Ag in the root apoplast determined by XRF, and the presence of small NPs in root cell walls suggests uptake of partially dissolved NPs and translocation along the apoplast.

  7. Integrative analysis of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. suggests new metabolic control mechanisms for monolignol biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The entanglement of lignin polymers with cellulose and hemicellulose in plant cell walls is a major biological barrier to the economically viable production of biofuels from woody biomass. Recent efforts of reducing this recalcitrance with transgenic techniques have been showing promise for ameliorating or even obviating the need for costly pretreatments that are otherwise required to remove lignin from cellulose and hemicelluloses. At the same time, genetic manipulations of lignin biosynthetic enzymes have sometimes yielded unforeseen consequences on lignin composition, thus raising the question of whether the current understanding of the pathway is indeed correct. To address this question systemically, we developed and applied a novel modeling approach that, instead of analyzing the pathway within a single target context, permits a comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of different datasets in wild type and transgenic plants. Specifically, the proposed approach combines static flux-based analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation in which very many randomly chosen sets of parameter values are evaluated against kinetic models of lignin biosynthesis in different stem internodes of wild type and lignin-modified alfalfa plants. In addition to four new postulates that address the reversibility of some key reactions, the modeling effort led to two novel postulates regarding the control of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. The first posits functionally independent pathways toward the synthesis of different lignin monomers, while the second postulate proposes a novel feedforward regulatory mechanism. Subsequent laboratory experiments have identified the signaling molecule salicylic acid as a potential mediator of the postulated control mechanism. Overall, the results demonstrate that mathematical modeling can be a valuable complement to conventional transgenic approaches and that it can provide biological insights that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  8. Resistance to uprooting of Alfalfa and Avena Sativa and related importance for flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Burlando, P.; Perona, P.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation influences sediment dynamics by stabilizing the alluvial sediment with its root system. Thus, vegetation engineers the riparian ecosystem by contributing to the formation and stabilization of river bars and islands. The resistance to uprooting of young plants in non-cohesive sediment depends on the competition between flow induced drag and root growth timescales. The investigation of flow-sediment-plant interactions in situ is difficult since variables cannot be controlled and material hardly be collected. In order to investigate ecomorphological processes, laboratory experiments are essential and have gained importance in the last decade. To achieve a better understanding of the dependence of resistance to uprooting on the root system (length and structure) we conducted vertical uprooting experiments with Alfalfa and Avena Sativa which are both species that have been used in flume experiments on vegetation-flow interactions (e.g. Tal and Paola, 2010; Perona et al., in press). Seeds were seeded on quartz sand and vertically uprooted with constant velocity whereat the weight force required to uproot a seedling was measured. After uprooting, roots were scanned and analyzed and the correlation of root parameters with the uprooting work was studied. Total root length was found to be the best explanatory variable, in particular the uprooting work increases following a power law with increasing root length. The impact of other root parameters (main root length, root number, tortuosity) on the uprooting work was as well analyzed. Still, not all influencing root parameters could be captured, like the angle between roots or root hair distribution. Environmental conditions like grain size and saturation were also found to have an effect on the uprooting resistance of roots. So, lower saturated sediment results in a higher uprooting work. This work is a first step to better understand the energy regime for vegetation uprooting and its dependence on various

  9. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield, N content, and nitrogen ifxation of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass grown alone or in mixture in greenhouse pots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai-yun; LI Xiang-lin; HE Feng; ZHANG Ying-jun; WAN Li-qiang; David B Hannaway; WANG Dong; QIN Yan; Gamal M A Fadul

    2015-01-01

    Planting grass and legume mixtures on improved grasslands has the potential advantage of realizing both higher yields and lower environmental pol ution by optimizing the balance between applied N fertilizer and the natural process of legume biological nitrogen ifxation. However, the optimal level of N fertilization for grass-legume mixtures, to obtain the highest yield, quality, and contribution of N2 ifxation, varies with species. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the temporal dynamics of N2 ifxation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown alone and in mixture with smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) in response to the addition of fertilizer N. Three levels of N (0, 75, and 150 kg ha–1) were examined using 15N-labeled urea to evaluate N2 ifxation via the 15N isotope dilution method. Treatments were designated N0 (0.001 g per pot), N75 (1.07 g per pot) and N150 (2.14 g per pot). Alfalfa grown alone did not beneift from the addition of fertilizer N;dry matter was not signiifcantly increased. In contrast, dry weight and N content of smooth bromegrass grown alone was increased signiifcantly by N application. When grown as a mixture, smooth bromegrass biomass was increased signiifcantly by N application, resulted in a decrease in alfalfa biomass. In addition, individual alfalfa plant dry weight (shoots+roots) was signiifcantly lower in the mixture than when grown alone at al N levels. Smooth bromegrass shoot and root dry weight were signiifcantly higher when grown with alfalfa than when grown alone, regardless of N application level. When grown alone, alfalfa’s N2 ifxation was reduced with N fertilization (R2=0.9376, P=0.0057). When grown in a mixture with smooth bromegrass, with 75 kg ha–1 of N fertilizer, the percentage of atmospheric N2 ifxation contribution to total N in alfalfa (%Ndfa) had a maximum of 84.07 and 83.05%in the 2nd and 3rd harvests, respectively. Total 3-harvest%Ndfa was higher when alfalfa was grown in a mixture than when

  10. Expression of an evolved engineered variant of a bacterial glycine oxidase leads to glyphosate resistance in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolia, A; Ferradini, N; Molla, G; Biagetti, E; Pollegioni, L; Veronesi, F; Rosellini, D

    2014-08-20

    The main strategy for resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in plants is the overexpression of an herbicide insensitive, bacterial 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). A glyphosate resistance strategy based on the ability to degrade the herbicide can be useful to reduce glyphosate phytotoxicity to the crops. Here we present the characterization of glyphosate resistance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) expressing a plant-optimized variant of glycine oxidase (GO) from Bacillus subtilis, evolved in vitro by a protein engineering approach to efficiently degrade glyphosate. Two constructs were used, one with (GO(TP+)) and one without (GO(TP-)) the pea rbcS plastid transit peptide. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed the stable integration of the transgene and the correct localization of the plastid-imported GO protein. Transgenic alfalfa plants were tested for glyphosate resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Two GO(TP+) lines showed moderate resistance to the herbicide in both conditions. Optimization of expression of this GO variant may allow to attain sufficient field resistance to glyphosate herbicides, thus providing a resistance strategy based on herbicide degradation.

  11. Laboratory bioassays to evaluate fungicides for chalkbrood control in larvae of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, C I; James, R R; Bosch, J; Kemp, W P

    2008-06-01

    Chalkbrood, a fungal disease in bees, is caused by several species of Ascosphaera. A. aggregata is a major mortality factor in populations of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) used in commercial alfalfa seed production. Four formulated fungicides, Benlate 50 WP, Captan, Orbit, and Rovral 50 WP were tested in the laboratory for efficacy against hyphal growth of A. aggregata cultures. The same fungicides, with the addition of Rovral 4 F, were tested for their effects on incidence of chalkbrood disease, and toxicity to M. rotundata larvae. Benlate, Rovral 50 WP, and Rovral 4 F reduced incidence of chalkbrood with minimal mortality on larval bees. Benlate and Rovral 50 WP also reduced hyphal growth. Orbit was effective in reducing hyphal growth, but it did not reduce incidence of chalkbrood and was toxic to bee larvae. Captan was not effective in reducing hyphal growth or chalkbrood incidence, and it was toxic to bee larvae. Fungicides that reduce incidence of chalkbrood and larval mortality in this laboratory study are candidates for further study for chalkbrood control. PMID:18613563

  12. Effects of extended prepupal storage duration on adult flight physiology of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Meghan M; Petersen, Kelsey; Yocum, George; Rinehart, Joseph; Kemp, William; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2013-06-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), is a solitary, cavity-nesting bee and is the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. Bee management practices include cold storage during the prepupal stage. Fluctuating thermal regimes during cold storage increases survival of cold storage and allows a doubling of the cold storage period with no decrease in survival. However, survival, characterized as successful adult emergence, is not qualitative. In this study, we determined whether extended storage affects adult bee respiration or flight physiology. We overwintered bees for a single winter (current management protocol) or for 12 mo longer (extended storage). We used resting and tethered flight metabolic rates and resting critical PO2 (the oxygen partial pressure below which metabolism can no longer be sustained) as indices of adult bee quality. We found no significant differences in body mass, resting or flight metabolic rates, or critical PO2 between the two groups. Together these data indicate that extended storage of M. rotundata produces bees of similar respiratory capacity and flight ability. These findings could increase the use of M. rotundata as an alternative pollinator, allowing for extended storage to time adult emergence with early blooming crops. PMID:23865171

  13. Population Responses of Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to Insecticide in Glandular-Haired and Non-glandular-Haired Alfalfa Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, R Mark; McCormick, John S; Hammond, Ronald B; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been reported on the ability of glandular-haired alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to reduce potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, population abundance in field environments. We measured potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance and yield responses in a cultivar selected for high potato leafhopper resistance ('54H91') and in a non-glandular-haired susceptible cultivar ('54V54') with and without insecticide treatment across 3 yr. Treatments included no insecticide and insecticide applied either early or late in each summer growth cycle. Date × cultivar × treatment interactions were found for potato leafhopper population abundance. In the absence of insecticides, total potato leafhopper abundance (adults + nymphs per sweep) was lower in 54H91 than in 54V54 on 85% of sampling dates; cultivar differences were especially evident as potato leafhopper abundance peaked. Insecticide treatment reduced potato leafhopper populations in both cultivars, but populations recovered and often exceeded the normal action threshold in both cultivars within 2-3 wk of insecticide application. Yield gain from early insecticide treatment of 54V54 was >400 kg/ha in 11 of 14 summer harvests, whereas in 54H91 the yield gain was potato leafhopper resistance significantly suppress potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance, reduce yield losses in the absence of insecticides, and have potential within an integrated pest management strategy to reduce insecticide use in alfalfa production systems. PMID:26470072

  14. Effects of compost organic amendments on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Montemurro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following fertiliser treatments were compared during the years 2002 and 2003 on alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.: compost obtained from the organic fraction of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW; olive pomace compost (OPC; mineral fertiliser (Min. All the treatments allowed a distribution of 75kg ha-1 of P2O5. Three cuttings occurred: at 168, 206 and 351 days after compost application (DAA in 2002; 119, 152 and 320 DAA in 2003. Cumulative biomass and dry matter yields were measured during each experimental year. Furthermore, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DMd, organic matter (OMd, crude protein (CPd and NDF (NDFd were determined. MSW treatment showed a significantly (P<0.01 higher content of ADL than OPC and Min (77.0, 66.0 and 65.0g kg-1 DM, respectively. Fertiliser treatments also affected (P<0.01 digestibility parameters. In fact, DMd and OMd values showed the same trend with lower percentages in MSW treatment than in the OPC and Min ones. The NDFd differed in all treatments having the highest value in OPC (40.1%. The results indicated that the soil distribution of organic materials offer the possibility to reduce the application of mineral fertilisers and production costs without decreasing alfalfa yield, forage chemical composition and in vitro digestibility.

  15. The velocity width function of galaxies from the 40% ALFALFA survey: shedding light on the CDM overabundance problem

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a wide-area, extragalactic HI-line survey conducted at the Arecibo Observatory. Sources have so far been extracted over ~3,000 sq.deg of sky (40% of its final area), resulting in the largest HI-selected sample to date. We measure the space density of HI-bearing galaxies as a function of their observed velocity width (uncorrected for inclination) down to w = 20 km/s, a factor of 2 lower than the previous generation HIPASS survey. We confirm previous results that indicate a substantial discrepancy at low widths between the observational distribution and the theoretical one expected in a CDM Universe. In particular, a comparison with synthetic galaxy samples populating state-of-the-art CDM simulations imply a factor of ~8 difference in the abundance of galaxies with w = 50 km/s (increasing to a factor of ~100 when extrapolated to the ALFALFA limit of w = 20 km/s). We furthermore identify possible solutions, including a ~keV WDM scenario and the fact that H...

  16. The clustering of ALFALFA galaxies: dependence on HI mass, relationship to optical samples & clues on host halo properties

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Jones, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    We use a sample of ~6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21cm survey, to measure the clustering properties of HI-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on the galactic atomic hydrogen (HI) mass, over the range M_HI ~ 10^{8.5} - 10^{10.5} M_sun. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low-HI mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that HI-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of HI-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than HI-selected gala...

  17. The Power of Wide Field HI Surveys: ALFALFA Imaging of Massive Tidal Features in the Leo Cloud of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Luke; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Almost Darks Team

    2016-01-01

    Tidal interactions are well known to play an important role in galactic evolution in group environments, but the extent of these interactions, and their relative impact on the morphology-density relation is still unclear. Neutral hydrogen (HI) mapping can reveal the recent interaction history of group galaxies, but is difficult to execute due to the need for high sensitivity over wide fields. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey (ALFALFA; Giovanelli et al. 2005; Haynes et al. 2011) provides high sensitivity, unbiased, wide field maps of HI in the local volume; here we will present a 50 deg2 ALFALFA map of a well studied region of the Leo Cloud of galaxies, which includes the NGC3226/7 group and HCG44. These observations reveal HI tails and plumes with extents exceeding 1.4 deg (~600 kpc), well beyond the primary beams of previous observations. These tails constitute a significant fraction of the total HI mass in NGC3226/7 (Arp 94) and HCG44. We will also present WSRT maps of the extended emission near Arp 94, which show tail morphologies inconsistent with 2 body interactions. These observations demonstrate that large scale group interactions will be an important science outcome for future sensitive, wide field HI surveys.This work is supported by NSF grants AST-0607007 and AST-1107390 and by grants from the Brinson Foundation.

  18. ALFALFA HI Data Stacking I. Does the Bulge Quench Ongoing Star Formation in Early-Type Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Fabello, Silvia; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Haynes, Martha P; Heckman, Timothy M; Schiminovich, David

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out an HI stacking analysis of a volume-limited sample of ~5000 galaxies with imaging and spectroscopic data from GALEX and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which lie within the current footprint of the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Survey. Our galaxies are selected to have stellar masses greater than 10^10 Msun and redshifts in the range 0.0252.6 and with light profiles that are well fit by a De Vaucouleurs model. We then stack HI line spectra extracted from the ALFALFA data cubes at the 3-D positions of the galaxies from these two samples in bins of stellar mass, stellar mass surface density, central velocity dispersion, and NUV-r colour. We use the stacked spectra to estimate the average HI gas fractions M_HI/M_* of the galaxies in each bin. Our main result is that the HI content of a galaxy is not influenced by its bulge. The average HI gas fractions of galaxies in both our samples correlate most strongly with NUV-r colour and with stellar surface density. The relation between average HI...

  19. Soil bulk electrical resistivity and forage ground cover: nonlinear models in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is a highly productive and fertility-building forage crop; its performance, can be highly variable as influenced by within-field soil spatial variability. Characterising the relations between soil and forage- variation is important for optimal management. The aim of this work was to model the relationship between soil electrical resistivity (ER and plant productivity in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. field in Southern Italy. ER mapping was accomplished by a multi-depth automatic resistivity profiler. Plant productivity was assessed through normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI at 2 dates. A non-linear relationship between NDVI and deep soil ER was modelled within the framework of generalised additive models. The best model explained 70% of the total variability. Soil profiles at six locations selected along a gradient of ER showed differences related to texture (ranging from clay to sandy-clay loam, gravel content (0 to 55% and to the presence of a petrocalcic horizon. Our results prove that multi-depth ER can be used to localise permanent soil features that drive plant productivity.

  20. Halpha3: an Halpha imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. V: The Coma Supercluster survey completion

    CERN Document Server

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Viscardi, Elisa; Fossati, Matteo; Savorgnan, Giulia; Fumagalli, Michele; Gutierrez, Leonel; Toledo, Hector Hernandez; Boselli, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2015-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen represents the major observable baryonic constituent of galaxies that fuels the formation of stars through the transformation in molecular hydrogen. The emission of the hydrogen recombination line Halpha is the most direct tracer of the process that transforms gas (fuel) into stars. We continue to present Halpha3 (acronym for Halpha-alpha-alpha), an extensive Halpha+[NII] narrow-band imaging campaign of galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA), using the instrumentation available at the San Pedro Martir observatory (Mexico). In only four years since 2011 we were able to complete in 48 nights the Halpha imaging observations of 724 galaxies in the region of the Coma supercluster 10^h < R.A. <16^h; 24^o < Dec. <28^o and 3900ALFALFA) and constitute a 97% complete sample. They provide for the first time a complete census of the massive star formation propertie...

  1. Changes of Proline Content,Activity,and Active Isoforms of Antioxidative Enzymes in Two Alfalfa Cultivars Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-shan; HAN Jian-guo

    2009-01-01

    The plants of two alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.)cultivars differing in salt tolerance were subjected to three salt treatments,70,140,and 210 mM NaCl for 7 days.Root,shoot,and leaf growths were inhibited by increased salt treatments in both cultivars,and at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments,Zhongmu 1 had significantly higher root,shoot,and leaf dry weights per plant than Defi.The malondialdehyde(MDA)accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1,indicating a higher degree of lipid peroxidation at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments.The changes in the activity and active isoforms of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase(SOD,EC 1.15.1.1),catalase(CAT,EC 1.11.1.6),peroxidase(POD,EC 1.11.1.7),and ascorbate peroxidase(APOX,EC 1.11.1.11),accumulation of free proline,and rate of lipid peroxidation in leaves of two alfalfa cultivars were also investigated.After stress,the activity and active isoforms of antioxidative enzymes were altered and the extent of alteration varied between the cultivar Deft and Zhongmu 1.The proline accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1 at 210 mM salt treatment.This indicated that proline accumulation may be the result,instead of the cause,of salt tolerance.

  2. 紫花苜蓿人工草地施肥试验%Effect on alfalfa artificial lawn fertilization test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万井尉

    2015-01-01

    在辽宁西部坡地上进行紫花苜蓿不同施肥处理试验,经过1年的研究结果表明,在苜蓿人工草地上无论是单一施用氮肥还是复合肥,均可有效地提高牧草产量并取得较为明显的经济效益,其中以每亩施用尿素15 kg和25 kg效果最好,效益最高,每亩可增经济效益分别是40.74元和40.63元。%Hillsides with a slope in the western liaoning alfalfa different fertilization experi-ment was carried out, after a year of research results show that the artificial grass in alfalfa both single nitrogen fertilizer and compound fertilizer, can effectively improve the forage yield and obtain more obvious economic benefits, the effect of applying urea 15 kg and 25 kg per acre to prepare, the highest efficiency, can increase economic benefit per acre is 40.63 yuan and 40.74 yuan respectively.

  3. 中国的苜蓿草贸易——历史变迁、未来趋势与对策建议%Alfalfa trade of China, historical changes, future trends and suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春; 王明利; 刘亚钊

    2011-01-01

    伴随着国内外苜蓿(Medicago spp.)草市场供需的快速变化,我国苜蓿草产品贸易格局也发生了显著变化。如何准确把握苜蓿草市场的供求变化格局,抓住机遇快速发展我国的苜蓿产业将是草业界关注的一个热点问题。本研究在全面分析我国苜蓿草贸易现状与特点的基础上,深入剖析苜蓿产业的发展机遇与未来趋势,进一步提出推动我国苜蓿产业发展的相关政策建议。%The trade pattern of alfalfa forage products in China is changing due to rapid change of supply and demand of alfalfa products at domestic and international market. How to healthy develop alfalfa industry is a hot issue by taking full advantage of supply and demand pattern of alfalfa forage products. Based on trade characteristics and status of alfalfa forage products, this study pointed out the further developing chance and future direction of alfalfa industry, and further proposed some policy advice of alfalfa industry development.

  4. Transcript Profiling of Two Alfalfa Genotypes with Contrasting Cell Wall Composition in Stems Using a Cross-Species Platform: Optimizing Analysis by Masking Biased Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stem cell walls of alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) ssp. sativa] genotype 252 have high cellulose and lignin concentrations, while stem cell walls of genotype 1283 have low cellulose and lignin concentrations. The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable pla...

  5. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on growth performance and sorting behaviors of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for pregnant Holstein heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake (DMI) by heifers by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems co...

  6. Substitutions of corn silage, alfalfa silage and corn grain in cow rations impact N use and N loss from dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many dairy farms in the USA are growing and feeding more corn silage (CS) and less alfalfa silage (AS) to reduce feed costs. More corn grain (CG)-based concentrates are also being promoted to reduce enteric methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Whole farm simulations illustrate that growing more CS and ...

  7. 试论吉林省苜蓿生产与奶业发展%Discussion on Alfalfa Production and Dairy Industry Development of Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣林; 刘志君

    2011-01-01

    阐述了吉林省奶业生产的现状与差距,提出了扩大苜蓿生产、促进奶业发展的设想,并论述了吉林省发展苜蓿的优势是气候、土地和技术支撑。以大量的数据资料阐明了苜蓿的饲用价值,借鉴已有的研究成果,证明奶牛饲喂苜蓿具有较高的经济效益,值得在生产上推广应用。%This paper describes the status and gap of milk production of Jilin Province and proposes the vision to expand the production of alfalfa for dairy development. It is discussed that the advantages of alfalfa development of Jilin Province contain the climate, land and technical support. A large amount of data is used to clarify the feeding value of alfalfa. It is proved that cows fed alfalfa has a high economic efficiency based on the existing research results, so it is worthy to be popularized and applied in production.

  8. 浅析黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展前景%Development Prospect of Alfalfa in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海娟

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa is nutritious,palatable and high-yield,especially,has an important role in increasing milk production and improving the quality of milk.It is the most potential forage in forage industry.Based on the development planning of alfalfa in Heilongjiang Province.This paper analysed that alfalfa industry has an expansively developing prospects from some aspects:large demand in alfalfa market,good condition in building plant base,stable technology and the support from government.%苜蓿营养丰富、适口性好、产量高,尤其对奶牛提高产奶量、改善乳品质具有特殊作用,是饲草产业中最具发展潜力的牧草。针对黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展规划的出台,文章从黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展市场需求、建设种植基地条件、技术保障、政策扶持等方面分析了黑龙江省苜蓿产业的广阔发展前景。

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci for Salt Tolerance during Germination in Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicargo sativa L.) using Genotyping by Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    : In this study, we used a diverse panel of alfalfa accessions to identify molecular markers associated with salt tolerance during germination by genome-wide association (GWA) mapping and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Three levels of salt treatments were applied during seed germination. Phenotypic...

  10. Growth of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of human illness associated with the consumption of fresh sprouts has increased very sharply during the past decade. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth dynamics of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, an...

  11. Effect of graded levels of ifber from alfalfa meal on apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids of growing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; LIU Li; DING Ze-ming; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ifber level from alfalfa meal and sampling time on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in growing pigs. A total of 24 ileal-can-nulated pigs (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace) with body weight (21.4±1.5) kg) were randomly alotted to 4 treatments. The pigs were provided a corn-soybean meal diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20% of alfalfa meal during two 10-d experimental periods. The AID of AA was measured. Six ileal-cannulated pigs were fed a protein-free diet in order to estimate the en-dogenous protein losses and SID of AA. Ileal AA digestibility was not affected by inclusion of 5 or 10% alfalfa meal in the diet (P>0.05). The AID of His, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Val, Ala, Asp, Cys, Gly, Pro, Ser and Tyr reduced by 2.0–6.8% with the addition level of alfalfa meal (linear,P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both the soluble and insoluble ifber content in the diets, explained more than 36% of variation in SID of Ser and Thr (P<0.05). In conclusion, the corn-soybean meal diet containing 10% of alfalfa meal did not affect ileal AA digestion. The AID and SID of AA were similar between two sampling times. Increasing the concentration of total dietary ifber from 12.3 to 21.4% by adding graded levels of alfalfa meal (0–20%) to a corn-soybean meal control diet induced a linear reduction in AID and SID of most AA. Soluble and insoluble ifbers from alfalfa meal have differential roles in the AA digestion, which may help explain the variation observed in the SID of partial AA. These ifndings would provide important information for dietary ifber level and composition related to AA digestion.

  12. Citric acid- and Tween(®) 80-assisted phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) performance and remediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Huguenot, D; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was designed to assess the phytoremediation potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in a co-contaminated (i.e., heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons) soil and the influence of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 (polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate), applied individually and combined together, for their possible use in chemically assisted phytoremediation. The results showed that alfalfa plants could tolerate and grow in a co-contaminated soil. Over a 90-day experimental time, shoot and root biomass increased and negligible plant mortality occurred. Heavy metals were uptaken by alfalfa to a limited extent, mostly by plant roots, and their concentration in plant tissues were in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb. Microbial population (alkane-degrading microorganisms) and activity (lipase enzyme) were enhanced in the presence of alfalfa with rhizosphere effects of 9.1 and 1.5, respectively, after 90 days. Soil amendments did not significantly enhance plant metal concentration or total uptake. In contrast, the combination of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 significantly improved alkane-degrading microorganisms (2.4-fold increase) and lipase activity (5.3-fold increase) in the rhizosphere of amended plants, after 30 days of experiment. This evidence supports a favorable response of alfalfa in terms of tolerance to a co-contaminated soil and improvement of rhizosphere microbial number and activity, additionally enhanced by the joint application of citric acid and Tween(®) 80, which could be promising for future phytoremediation applications. PMID:26838038

  13. 苜蓿青贮添加剂及其应用进展%Alfalfa Silage Additives and Their Applying Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光耀; 张力君

    2013-01-01

    青贮苜蓿作为一种良好的饲料来源在我国尤其是北方地区对缓解饲料短缺、调剂青绿饲料的丰歉有着十分重要的意义。但是,由于苜蓿具有缓冲能较高、可溶性碳水化合物含量低的特点,直接用其调制青贮饲料很难获得良好的品质。因此,国内外的很多研究都集中于使用添加剂调制来获得优质的苜蓿青贮饲料。就近年来国内外苜蓿青贮添加剂的相关研究和应用现状进行了总结,并对今后的研究趋势进行了展望。%Alfalfa is a kind of perennial herb, and as a favorable fodder resource, the ensiled alfalfa plays an important role in easing up the shortage of fodder and regulating the supply and demand of the green feeding stuff. But because of its high buffer energy and low content of soluble carbohydrate, it′s difficult to get the good effect by mixing alfalfa directly. At present, many researches have focused on using additive to obtain good ensiled alfalfa fodder. The relative researches and applying conditions of alfalfa silage additives at home and abroad in recent years were summarized, and the research trend in the future was looked forward.

  14. Comparative Test on Different Alfalfa Cultivars Planted in Greenhouse%温室种植不同苜蓿品种比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查干; 李通拉嘎

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the production performance of alfalfa cultivars planted in greenhouse, the comparative test on six alfalfa cultivars was made . The results showed that the total hay yield of WL323 alfalfa cultivar was the highest , reaching 18 758.33 kg/hm2. The average regeneration speed of Algonquin alfalfa cultivar was 1.44 cm/d, which was obviously higher than other cultivars. The stem-leaf ratio of cultivar Algonquin with the stubble height of 5 cm was the highest, reaching 0.873 2. The fresh grass-hay ratio of Anti-thrips alfalfa with the stubble height of 5 cm was the highest, reaching 12.846 5. The crude protein content in Alfaking was the highest, being 21.98%.%为了了解温室种植苜蓿的生产性能,对6个苜蓿品种进行了比较试验。结果表明,6个苜蓿品种中, WL323苜蓿的干草总产量最高,为18758.33 kg/hm2;阿尔冈金苜蓿的平均生长速度明显高于其他品种,可达1.44 cm/d;阿尔冈金苜蓿在留茬高度为5 cm时的茎叶比最高,为0.8732;抗蓟马苜蓿在留茬高度为5 cm时的鲜干比最高,为12.8465;苜蓿王的粗蛋白含量最高,为21.98%。

  15. Effect of treating alfalfa silage with pistachio by-products extract on Saanen dairy goats performance and microbial nitrogen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarpour, A; Naserian, A A; Pourmollae, F; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-08-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of addition of pistachio by-products extract (PBE) to alfalfa silage (AS) on performance, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition, and microbial nitrogen synthesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (1.8 ± 0.25 kg of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare two types of AS (supplemented with or without PBE) with two levels of dietary crude protein (14% vs. 16% CP). Dietary treatments were (i) AS with 14% CP of DM diet without PBE (14%CP-PBE), (ii) AS with 14% CP of DM diet with PBE (14%CP + PBE), (iii) AS with 16% CP of DM diet without PBE (16%CP-PBE) and (iv) AS with 16% CP of DM diet with PBE (16%CP + PBE). PBE was sprayed on fresh alfalfa at a ratio of 500 ml/kg alfalfa DM to get the final concentration of 1% tannin as tannic acid equivalent on DM basis. Intake of CP was greater (p < 0.01) in goats fed 16% CP diets than those fed 14% CP diets, regardless of PBE supplementation. Supplementation of PBE tended to decrease (p = 0.09) rumen NH3 -N concentration regardless of the level of CP in the diet. Supplementation of PBE tended (p = 0.09) to decrease total purine derivatives regardless of the level of CP in the diet with no significant change in microbial nitrogen supply. Efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis (EMNS) had a tendency (p = 0.07) to decrease in PBE supplemented diets. There was also a tendency (p = 0.10) for more EMNS in 14% CP fed goats than those fed 16% CP diets. Therefore, AS supplemented with PBE may lead to less concentration of ruminal NH3 -N because of decreased degradation of CP by rumen micro-organisms in response to pistachio by-products tannins.

  16. In situ protein degradation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hays and silages as influenced by condensed tannin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Grabber, J H

    2013-05-01

    Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprising high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because nonprotein N formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, condensed tannins (CT) may reduce proteolysis in the silo and in the rumen, thereby potentially improving the efficiency of crude protein (CP) use in ruminant diets. Two harvests, yielding 12 hays and 12 silages made from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) that varied in concentrations of CT, were evaluated for in situ disappearance kinetics of CP in 6 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 56.3 kg). Prior to conservation, alfalfa contained no detectable CT, whereas CT in fresh lyophilized birdsfoot trefoil ranged from 1.16 to 2.77% of dry matter, as determined by a modified acetone-butanol-HCl assay. Percentages of CP remaining at each incubation time were fitted to nonlinear regression models with or without a discrete lag time. Effective ruminal disappearance of CP (rumen-degradable protein, RDP) was calculated by 3 procedures that included (1) no discrete lag (RDPNL), (2) discrete lag (RDPL), and (3) discrete lag with a lag adjustment (RDPLADJ). Regardless of the calculation method, RDP declined linearly with increasing CT concentrations (R(2)=0.62 to 0.97). Generally, tests of homogeneity showed that conservation type (hay or silage) or harvest (silage only) affected intercepts, but not slopes in regressions of RDP on CT. A positive relationship between lag time and CT suggests that the RDPLADJ approach may be most appropriate for calculating RDP for legumes containing tannins. With this approach, regression intercepts were mainly affected by conservation method, and RDPLADJ averaged 77.5 and 88.7% of CP for hay and silage, respectively, when no CT was present. Greater estimates of RDP for silages were related to extensive proteolysis in

  17. THE CLUSTERING OF ALFALFA GALAXIES: DEPENDENCE ON H I MASS, RELATIONSHIP WITH OPTICAL SAMPLES, AND CLUES OF HOST HALO PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael G. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo, E-mail: papastergis@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jonesmg@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: apuebla@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70-264, 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-10

    We use a sample of ≈6000 galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to measure the clustering properties of H I-selected galaxies. We find no convincing evidence for a dependence of clustering on galactic atomic hydrogen (H I) mass, over the range M{sub H{sub I}} ≈ 10{sup 8.5}-10{sup 10.5} M{sub ☉}. We show that previously reported results of weaker clustering for low H I mass galaxies are probably due to finite-volume effects. In addition, we compare the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies with optically selected samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that H I-selected galaxies cluster more weakly than even relatively optically faint galaxies, when no color selection is applied. Conversely, when SDSS galaxies are split based on their color, we find that the correlation function of blue optical galaxies is practically indistinguishable from that of H I-selected galaxies. At the same time, SDSS galaxies with red colors are found to cluster significantly more than H I-selected galaxies, a fact that is evident in both the projected as well as the full two-dimensional correlation function. A cross-correlation analysis further reveals that gas-rich galaxies 'avoid' being located within ≈3 Mpc of optical galaxies with red colors. Next, we consider the clustering properties of halo samples selected from the Bolshoi ΛCDM simulation. A comparison with the clustering of ALFALFA galaxies suggests that galactic H I mass is not tightly related to host halo mass and that a sizable fraction of subhalos do not host H I galaxies. Lastly, we find that we can recover fairly well the correlation function of H I galaxies by just excluding halos with low spin parameter. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that halo spin plays a key role in determining the gas content of galaxies.

  18. Meat quality of rabbits reared with two different feeding strategies: with or without fresh alfalfa ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Capra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate production performance, carcass characteristics and nutritive value of meat of rabbits reared under the 2 prevailing feeding strategies in Uruguay. One week after weaning, 96 purebred V line rabbits were randomly distributed between 2 treatments: (T1 commercial pelleted food ad libitum and (T2 commercial pelleted food ad libitum plus fresh alfalfa ad libitum. Each treatment included 12 cages containing 4 individuals each (2 males and 2 females. Growth performance characteristics (live weight evolution, commercial food consumption and food/gain ratio were evaluated. The consumption of alfalfa was not measured. Rabbits were slaughtered at a live weight of 2500 g and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Samples of meat and dissectible fat were analysed to determine intramuscular fat content at muscle L. dorsi, dissectible fat and intramuscular fat composition, minerals (Zn, Fe, Mg and Na, vitamin E and purines. Sensory evaluations were conducted to assess the effect of treatments on the consumer’s perception of differences and the existence of attributes determining preferences. Differences between treatments were significant for total commercial food intake (23 356 vs. 20 930 g/cage; P<0.001 and feed conversion ratio (3.82 vs. 3.41; P<0.01 for T1 and T2 respectively. No significant differences were found in average daily gain, age at slaughter and carcass characteristics. There were no significant differences in the intramuscular fat content. The fatty acid composition of dissectible and intramuscular fat was affected the inclusion of alfalfa in the diet increasing the linolenic acid content (1.82 vs. 3.28% and 2.29 vs. 5.15% for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001, and improving the n-6/n-3 relationship (8.60 vs. 5.82 and 11.58 vs. 5.64 for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001. There were no significant differences in vitamin E

  19. 苜蓿的遗传标记技术及其利用的研究进展%Progress in Genetic Mark and its utility Research of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于林清; 王照兰; 萨仁; 卢欣石

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in genetic mark and its utility were reviewed in this paper. The alfalfa research advances in germplasm analysis, introgression, genefic linkage map and heterosis prediction were highlighted.

  20. Developing Diseases and Control Measures of Alfalfa Pests in Yuanzhou County%原州区苜蓿病虫害发生发展动态及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺维琴

    2011-01-01

    通过对2002年~2007年原州区苜蓿病虫害的监测,苜蓿害虫的种群数量和病害的病情指数逐年增加的趋势明显,病虫害对苜蓿的危害程度也在逐年加重,应加强对苜蓿病虫害预测预报工作的开展,重视苜蓿病虫害综合防治措施的实施.%By monitoring alfalfa pests from 2002 to 2007 in Yuanzhou County,aphids,thrips,meadow moth,plant bugs and weevils of alfalfa pests are found,and the alfalfa diseases mainly are leaf spot,rust,powdery mildew and root rot disease.Populations of alfalfa inse

  1. TCP在种植苜蓿土壤中的降解研究%Degradation of TCP in Soil Planted with Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁克强

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究TCP在苜蓿种植土壤中的降解作用,为氯酚类物质污染土壤生物修复技术的实际应用提供依据.[方法]利用玻璃房盆栽试验,研究苜蓿对土壤中2,4,6-三氯酚(TCP)污染的修复作用以及苜蓿的生长情况和TCP对土壤多酚氧化酶、脱氢酶和过氧化氢酶活性的影响.[结果]苜蓿经过75 d的生长后,在低、中、高3个浓度处理中,土壤中TCP含量均在15 d内迅速降低,随后降低速度逐渐变缓;在苜蓿生长30d时,3个处理的苜蓿鲜重与对照间无显著差异(P<0.05),而在生长75 d时,各处理的苜蓿鲜重明显对照低(P<0.05),表明土壤中TCP对苜蓿的生长具有抑制作用;苜蓿能显著提高土壤中多酚氧化酶、脱氢酶和过氧化氢酶的活性,从而提高了土壤植物和微生物对污染物的降解能力.[结论]苜蓿能促进土壤酶活性的提高,促进土壤中有机物的降解,从而可以利用苜蓿进行TCP污染土壤的植物修复.%[Objective]The research aimed to study the degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol(TCP)in soil planted with alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.),as well as to provide references for the Chlorophenols phytoremediation technology in the practical application.[Method]By the use of pot culture experiment in greenhouse,the phytoremediation effect of alfalfa on TCP-contaminated soil,the growth conditions of alfalfa,as well as the effect of TCP on the activity of soil polyphenol oxidase,dehydrogenase and catalase were studied.[Result]After the alfalfa was grown for 75 d,the TCP content in soil of three different concentrations treatments(low,middle and high)decreased dramatically within 15 d,and then the decreasing rate was gradually slow;on the 30th d of cultivation,the fresh weight of treated alfalfa showed no significant difference with the control(P<0.05),indicating that TCP in soil had inhibition effect on the growth of alfalfa;alfalfa could significantly enhance the activities of polyphenol oxidase

  2. [Use of three-hybrid system to detect RNA-binding activity of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, V G; Smirnova, S A; Mel'nichuk, M D

    2003-01-01

    We used yeast three-hybrid system, for studying interaction of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein AMVCP (AMVCP) with RNA4, which codes this protein. We have shown that AMVCP with high affinity is bound to plus-chain of RNA4 in vivo. The mutational analysis has shown, that the N-terminal part of AMVCP (aa 1 to 85) contains RNA-binding domain. C-terminal part of this protein (aa 86 to 221) does not participate in direct interaction with RNA4. However activity of the reporter-gene LacZ, which codes beta-galactosidase, in case of interaction only N-terminal part of AMVCP is five times lower, in comparison with full-length hybrid protein, that confirms that the tertiary structure of full-length AMVCP is more favourable for interaction with RNA4. PMID:14681978

  3. Altered susceptibility to infection by Sinorhizobium meliloti and Nectria haematococca in alfalfa roots with altered cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H-H; Hirsch, A M; Hawes, M C

    2004-07-01

    Most infections of plant roots are initiated in the region of elongation; the mechanism for this tissue-specific localization pattern is unknown. In alfalfa expressing PsUGT1 antisense mRNA under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, the cell cycle in roots is completed in 48 h instead of 24 h, and border cell number is decreased by more than 99%. These plants were found to exhibit increased root-tip infection by a fungal pathogen and reduced nodule formation by a bacterial symbiont. Thus, the frequency of infection in the region of elongation by Nectria haematocca was unaffected, but infection of the root tip was increased by more than 90%; early stages of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection and nodule morphology were normal, but the frequency of nodulation was fourfold lower than in wild-type roots. PMID:15042410

  4. Lixiviación de potasio y contenidos nutrimentales en suelo y alfalfa en respuesta a dosis de vinaza

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Flores Rodríguez; Francisco Gavi Reyes; Elibeth Torres Benites; Elizabeth Hernández Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Bajo condiciones de invernadero y con base a la concentración de potasio (K+) en la caracterización química de la vinaza, se evaluó el efecto de diferentes dosis (0, 250 y 500 kg ha-1de K+) sobre el suelo, en columnas de cloruro de polivinilo (PVC), empleando lisímetros de succión a dos profundidades (23 y 46 cm) y muestras al final de la columna (75 cm). En lixiviados se evaluó la concentración de K, el efecto sobre pH y conductividad eléctrica (CE), como cultivo indicador se uso alfalfa (Me...

  5. Lixiviación de potasio, contenidos nutrimentales en suelo y alfalfa en respuesta a dosis de vinaza.

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Rodríguez, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Bajo condiciones de invernadero y con base a la concentración de potasio (K+) en la caracterización química de la vinaza, se evaluó el efecto de diferentes dosis (0, 250 y 500 kg ha-1 de K+) sobre el suelo, en columnas de cloruro de polivinilo (pvc), empleando lisímetros de succión a dos profundidades (23 y 46 cm) y muestras al final de la columna (75 cm). En lixiviados se evaluó la concentración de K, el efecto sobre pH y conductividad eléctrica (CE), como cultivo indicador se uso alfalfa ...

  6. Altered susceptibility to infection by Sinorhizobium meliloti and Nectria haematococca in alfalfa roots with altered cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H-H; Hirsch, A M; Hawes, M C

    2004-07-01

    Most infections of plant roots are initiated in the region of elongation; the mechanism for this tissue-specific localization pattern is unknown. In alfalfa expressing PsUGT1 antisense mRNA under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, the cell cycle in roots is completed in 48 h instead of 24 h, and border cell number is decreased by more than 99%. These plants were found to exhibit increased root-tip infection by a fungal pathogen and reduced nodule formation by a bacterial symbiont. Thus, the frequency of infection in the region of elongation by Nectria haematocca was unaffected, but infection of the root tip was increased by more than 90%; early stages of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection and nodule morphology were normal, but the frequency of nodulation was fourfold lower than in wild-type roots.

  7. ALFALFA Discovery of the Nearby Gas-Rich Dwarf Galaxy Leo~P. II. Optical Imaging Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rhode, Katherine L; Haurberg, Nathalie C; Van Sistine, Angela; Young, Michael D; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Cannon, John M; Skillman, Evan D; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Adams, Elizabeth A K

    2013-01-01

    We present results from ground-based optical imaging of a low-mass dwarf galaxy discovered by the ALFALFA 21-cm HI survey. Broadband (BVR) data obtained with the WIYN 3.5-m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxy's stellar population down to V_0 ~ 25. We also use narrowband H-alpha imaging from the KPNO 2.1-m telescope to identify an HII region in the galaxy. We use these data to constrain the distance to the galaxy to be between 1.5 and 2.0 Mpc. This places Leo P within the Local Volume but beyond the Local Group. Its properties are extreme: it is the lowest-mass system known that contains significant amounts of gas and is currently forming stars.

  8. Streptomyces alfalfae sp. nov. and comparisons with its closest taxa Streptomyces silaceus, Streptomyces flavofungini and Streptomyces intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Wenqing; Sun, Zhongfeng; Yi, Lei; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    A novel streptomycete strain, designated XY25T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil in an alfalfa field in Jingyang, Shanxi, China. The isolate showed optimal growth at 37 °C, and was capable of growing at pH 6-10 and in the presence of 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl. Mycelia of strain XY25T appeared spiral and developed into white spore chains with long-rod spores and a smooth surface. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of XY25T was determined and was found to be highly similar to those of species of the genus Streptomyces including Streptomyces silaceus DSM 41861T (99.11 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces flavofungini DSM 40366T (98.49 %) and Streptomyces intermedius DSM 40372T (98.43 %), all of which were used for further characterization. Each of the four streptomycetes showed distinctive patterns of carbon usage and fatty acids composition. Analysis of cellular components of strain XY25T revealed ll-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diamino acid and xylose as the major sugar, whereas polar lipids were determined as phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown phospholipid, two unknown phosphatidylinositol mannosides and several unknown lipids. Menaquinones were dominated by MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), and the main fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain XY25T showed relatedness values of 35.2-40.42 % with the closest related species. Based on these results, strain XY25T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces alfalfae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY25T ( = KCTC 39571T = CCTCC AA2015019T).

  9. Effect of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with Moringa species leaves on milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Elfadıl E; Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Mohamed, H E; Abdoun, Khalid A

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate changes in milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes fed 25 % Moringa oleifera (MOD) or Moringa peregrina (MPD) leaf diets as a supplement to alfalfa hay diet (AHD). Thirty ewes (average 55 kg, 2 years old) were randomly sorted into three experimental groups with 10 animals each and were fed for a 6-week period with these diets (AHD, MOD, or MPD). Diets dry matter, crude protein, and crude fiber were comparable, while fat, nitrogen-free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), metabolizable energy (ME), total phenolic, and antioxidant activity varied (p ≤ 0.05) between the diets. Feeding ewes with MOD increased (p ≤ 0.05) the milk yield compared to those fed AHD while milk composition was similar (p ≤ 0.05) between treatments. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ewes' milk and serum was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for MOD, while the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and vitamin C contents were increased (p ≤ 0.05). The serum cholesterol and glucose of the ewes were lower (p ≤ 0.05) for those fed MOD. Moringa diets increased (p ≤ 0.05) average daily weight gain of lambs compared to those fed alfalfa diets. The results obtained showed that the inclusion of Moringa, especially M. oleifera, in the diet of Najdi ewes can improve milk yield and quality.

  10. 肥料配施对苜蓿干物质产量的影响%Effects of Mixed Fertilizer Applications on Hay Yield of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高向培; 李运起; 唐淑霞; 李建国; 曹玉凤; 李秋凤; 于合兴; 李月娥; 杨武

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同元素合理配施对苜蓿产量的影响.[方法]试验采用四元二次回归正交旋转组合设计,研究了硫酸钾、氯化铵、过磷酸钙和氧化镁对苜蓿干物质产量的影响.[结果]试验肥料对苜蓿干物质产量的影响顺序为硫酸钾>氯化铵>氧化镁>过磷酸钙.其中,硫酸钾对苜蓿干物质产量有显著影响,硫酸钾和氧化镁互作时产量影响显著.[结论]获得苜蓿干物质产量为19 224.6 kg/hm以上的优化方案为硫酸钾163.235~181.679 kg/hm;氯化铵155.877~174.258 kg,/hm;过磷酸钙566.177~632.924 kg/hm;氧化镁30.060-33.628 kg/hm.%[ Objective] To study the effects of combined application of different elements on alfalfa hay yield. [ Method] Potassium sulfate,ammonium chloride, superphosphate and magnesium oxide were applied to alfalfa field in the experiment, and quaternary quadratic regression orthogonal combination was used to examine the effects of the experiment factors on hay yield of alfalfa. [ Result] The order of targets based on the effects on hay yield is as follows: potassium sulfate > ammonium chloride > magnesium oxide > superphosphate. Among them, the potas sium sulfate had a significant impact on alfalfa hay yield. The interaction between potassium sulfate and magnesium oxide also had a significant impact on alfalfa hay yield. [ Conclusion] The optimal cultivation measures for alfalfa hay yield of more than 19 224.6 kg/hm2 are as follows:potassium sulfate, 163. 352 - 181. 679 kg/hm2; ammonium chlorie, 155. 877 - 174. 258 kg/hm2; superphosphate, 566. 177 - 632. 924 kg/hm2; and magnesium oxide, 30.060 - 33. 628 kg/hm2.

  11. Effects of lactic acid bacteria with bacteriocinogenic potential on the fermentation profile and chemical composition of alfalfa silage in tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, V P; Pereira, O G; Leandro, E S; Da Silva, T C; Ribeiro, K G; Mantovani, H C; Santos, S A

    2016-03-01

    The fermentation profile, chemical composition, and microbial populations of alfalfa silages treated with microbial inoculants (MI) at different fermentation periods (T) were evaluated in tropical conditions. A 4×6 factorial arrangement was used in a randomized design with 3 replicates. Fresh alfalfa was treated with (1) no treatment (CTRL), (2) commercial inoculant (CIN), (3) Pediococcus acidilactici (strain 10.6, S1), and (4) Pediococcus pentosaceus (strain 6.16, S2). An inoculant application rate of 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage was used. The fermentation periods were 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d. Alfalfa was harvested 82 d after sowing at the early flowering stage, chopped into 1.5-cm particle size, and ensiled in 25 × 35 cm vacuum-sealed plastic bags. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, mold, and yeast in alfalfa before ensiling were 5.42, 5.58, 4.82, and 4.8 log cfu/g, respectively. Silage chemical composition was evaluated only at 56 d. All parameters were affected by the interaction MI × T, except the concentrations of lactic and propionic acids. Alfalfa silage treated with S1 or S2 had lower pH values than CTRL from the first day until 28 d. However, the inoculants resulted in similar pH after 56 d, and these values were lower than the CTRL. The highest concentration of lactic acid was observed in the silage treated with S1 and S2 at 7 and 14 d of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid was lower in the silages treated with S1 and S2 than the CTRL and CIN at 3 and 28 d of fermentation. There was no effect of MI or MI × T interaction on the microbial populations. However, the number of enterobacteria decreased over the fermentation period until 14 d and increased slightly after this time point. The chemical composition of alfalfa silage was not affected by MI at 56 d of ensiling. The strain P. pentosaceus 6.16 was the most efficient in dominating the fermentation process by decreasing the pH more quickly and increasing the concentration

  12. The methods of predicting alfalfa quality in the field%苜蓿质量预测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈谷; 颜俤; 邰建辉; 杨江山; 张颖

    2012-01-01

    Quality is a very significant factor that affects the alfalfa hay price. Harvesting at optimal time is a critical way to obtain high quality hay. With the scientific cultivating, predicting the quality of standing alfalfa in field is important to harvest the targeted quality hay and improve the farmers" profit. In the alfalfa industry developed countries, such as USA, GDD(Growing degree-days)and PEAQ (Predictive Equations for Alfalfa Quality) are usually used to predict the quality of standing alfalfa, and determine the optimal harvesting time at spring. Some related researches showed that alfalfa with averages 40% NDF is at 700~750 GDD (base 5 ~C ). It takes about 220 additional GDD to reach 45% NDF at GDD (base 5℃). With the PEAQ method,NDF and ADF eould be accurately determined in field by measuring height of the tallest stem and maturity of the most mature stem in a sample area. The GDD and PEAQ would be predicted accurately under the situation of the al- falfa field grows well and contains little weeds.%苜蓿(Medicago sativa)质量是影响苜蓿干草价格的重要因素,而适时收获是把握苜蓿干草质量的重要环节。在科学种植管理条件下,对田间苜蓿质量提前判断,对准确收获目标质量苜蓿干草、保证经济效益意义重大。苜蓿产业较为发达的美国常用GDD和PEAQ法来预测田间苜蓿质量,以判断春季苜蓿的收获时间。当GDD为700~750时(5℃以上积温),苜蓿的NDF含量接近40%,当GDD增加220(7d后),NDF含量达到45%;PEAQ法中指出,NDF和ADF含量可以通过在具有随机样方中茎秆最高植株的茎长测量和判断样方中最成熟植株的成熟度来预测。GDD和PEAQ法对杂草较少、长势健康的苜蓿田生产质量预测比较准确。

  13. Combined use of different Gfp reporters for monitoring single-cell activities of a genetically modified PCB degrader in the rhizosphere of alfalfa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, T.S.; Sørensen, J.; Karlsson, U.;

    2004-01-01

    roots using the P. fluorescens F113rifpcb reporter. A small but distinct fraction of the introduced bacteria activated the Pm promoter and thus appeared to sense a PCB-2 degradation product in the alfalfa rhizosphere. The degrading cells, which by design were identical to the sensing cells, were located......-destructive in situ detection of F113rifpcb cells on the entire root system grown in both the presence and absence of 3-chlorobiphenyl (PCB-2). The root tip and sites of lateral root emergence were found to be hotspots for fast-growing cells. In addition, a reporter strain of P. fluorescens F113rifpcb for degradation......Single-cell localization and activity of Pseudomonas,fluorescens F113, colonizing alfalfa roots, were monitored using fusions of the Escherichia coli rrnBP1 ribosomal promoter and gfp genes encoding green fluorescent protein (Gfp) of different stability. The monitoring systems permitted non...

  14. 紫花苜蓿耐盐种质资源的遗传多样性分析%Analysis of genetic diversity of salt tolerant alfalfa germplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜健; 杨宝灵; 夏彤; 于淑梅; 乌云娜

    2011-01-01

    利用RAPD技术分析了25个紫花苜蓿耐盐品种的遗传结构和遗传多样性.结果表明,30条引物在25个紫花苜蓿耐盐品种单株DNA间的多态性位点比率(P)为81.52%,在各品种混合DNA间的多态性位点比率为61.65%,说明采用单株DNA样品比采用混合DNA样品能更好地揭示紫花苜蓿品种内和品种间的遗传变异水平.基因分化系数(Gst)主要反应品种间变异占总变异的比例,中国18个耐盐紫花苜蓿品种和美国7个耐盐紫花苜蓿品种的基因分化系数分别为0.271和0.152,表明中国耐盐紫花苜蓿种质资源品种间基因交流机会比美国品种间交流机会多.紫花苜蓿作为典型的异交植物,其生物群体的遗传结构与其繁育体系具有直接的联系.依据遗传距离(GD)分析结果,25份材料从遗传结构上可以分为9个组群,其中图牧1号和图牧2号遗传距离最小(GD=0.148),捷达和图牧1号遗传距离最大(GD=0.786).紫花苜蓿耐盐种质遗传多样性分析为紫花苜蓿耐盐核心种质库构建和耐盐新品种选育提供了理论依据.%The genetic structure and diversity of 25 alfalfa (Medicago sativa) salt-tolerant varieties was ana lyzed by RAPD technology. Results showed that the polymorphism loci percentages (P) of 30 primers between single-plant DNA of 25 salt-tolerant alfalfa varieties were 81. 52%, and between mixed DNA of various varie ties were 61. 65%, indicating that single-plant DNA sample was a better method than mixed DNA sample, to reveal the level of genetic variation within and between alfalfa varieties. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) mainly reflects the ratio of species variation to total variation, and the Gst of 18 Chinese salt-tolerant al falfa varieties and 7 American salt-tolerant alfalfa varieties were 0. 271 and 0. 152, respectively, showing that there was more interactive gene exchange between Chinese salt-tolerant alfalfa germplasm was than that of A merican germplasm

  15. Optimización de la fertilización nitrogenada del maíz tras un cultivo de alfalfa en zonas semiáridas

    OpenAIRE

    Salmerón Cortasa, Montserrat; Cela, Sebastián; Isla Climente, Ramón; Lloveras, J.; Santiveri, F.; Cavero Campo, José

    2015-01-01

    Se ha estudiado la respuesta del maíz a la fertilización nitrogenada tras un cultivo de alfalfa en siete experimentos de campo en regadíos semiáridos del Valle del Ebro. Se aplicaron seis dosis de N (de 0 a 300 kg N/ha). La alfalfa proporcionó suficiente N para producir de 10,3 a 16,7 Tm/ha de grano de maíz sin fertilizante nitrogenado. En tres de los ensayos no se necesitó N fertilizante para obtener el máximo rendimiento de maíz. En el resto de los ensayos la dosis óptima de N fertilizante ...

  16. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN-XANTHOPHYLL (PX CONCENTRATE OF ALFALFA ADDITIVE TO CRUDE PROTEIN-REDUCED DIETS ON NITROGEN EXCRETION, GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz GRELA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  17. A study on quality of mixed silage of alfalfa and corn%苜蓿与玉米混贮质量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 孙启忠; 张慧杰

    2011-01-01

    以玉米与苜蓿为原料,按不同比例混贮;通过发酵品质和营养成分分析,找出二者混贮的适宜配比.结果表明:1)各混贮处理发酵品质较苜蓿单贮均得到改善,达到优质青贮的目的;2)玉米与苜蓿3:7混贮处理CP和Ash含量高于玉米单贮,低于苜蓿单贮,差异显著(P<0.05),而NDF和ADF含量低于玉米单贮,高于苜蓿单贮,差异显著(P<0.05);3)玉米与苜蓿5:5、7:3混贮处理pH值较苜蓿单贮显著降低(P<0.05);各混贮处理乳酸占总酸百分比均达到60%以上,乙酸、丙酸占总酸百分比较苜蓿单贮降低,丁酸产生较少;4)苜蓿青贮后乳酸菌数达到108 cfu/g FM,玉米青贮前后乳酸菌数差异不明显,青贮后各处理大肠杆菌数明显下降.7:3混贮处理发酵品质最佳.%To assess the best ratio for mixed silage of corn and alfalfa, they were mixed and ensiled in different proportions (0 :10,3 : 7,5 : 5,7 : 3,10:0 respectively) and after 30 days, the nutrition and fermentation quality of all treatments were determined and analyzed. 1) Compared with alfalfa silage, all three treatment improved fermentation quality and attained the goal of excellent silage. 2) CP (crude protein) and Ash (crude ash) contents of the 3 : 7 treatment were significantly higher than corn but lower than alfalfa silage (P< 0.05), NDF (neutral detergent fiber) and ADF (acid detergent fiber) contents were significantly lower than corn but higher than alfalfa silage (P<0. 05). 3) pH values of the 5 : 3 and 7 : 3 treatments were significantly lower than that of alfalfa silage(P<0. 05). Lactic acid contents of all three mixed treatments reached more than 60%, but the contents of acetic acid and propionic acid reduced, and produced little butyric acid compared with alfalfa silage. 4) The number of lactic acid bacteria on alfalfa silage increased to 108 cfu/g FM after ensilling, while that on corn silage stayed the same before and after fermentation. Escherichia coli of

  18. In situ phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and associated soil microbial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming; Fu, Dengqiang; Teng, Ying; Shen, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: A 7-month field experiment was conducted to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) remediation potential of two plant species and changes in counts of soil PAH-degrading bacteria and microbial activity. Materials and methods: Alfalfa and tall fescue were grown in monoculture and intercropped for 7 months in contaminated field soil. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for PAHs. Plant biomass, densities of PAH-degradation soil bacteria, soil microbial biomass C and N, enzyme activities, and the physiological profile of the soil microbial community were determined. Results and discussion: Average removal percentage of total PAHs in intercropping (30.5%) was significantly higher than in monoculture (19.9%) or unplanted soil (-0.6%). About 7.5% of 3-ring, 12.3% of 4-ring, and 17.2% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed from the soil by alfalfa, with corresponding values of 25.1%, 10.4%, and 30.1% for tall fescue. Intercropping significantly enhanced the remediation efficiency. About 18.9% of 3-ring, 30.9% of 4-ring, and 33.4% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed by the intercropping system. Higher counts of soil culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and elevated microbial biomass and enzyme activities were found after intercropping. Soil from intercropping showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) average well-color development obtained by the BIOLOG Ecoplate assay and Shannon-Weaver index compared with monoculture. Conclusions: Cropping promoted the dissipation of soil PAHs. Tall fescue gave greater removal of soil PAHs than alfalfa, and intercropping was more effective than monoculture. Intercropping of alfalfa and tall fescue may be a promising in situ bioremediation strategy for PAH-contaminated soils. (orig.)

  19. N2-Fixation in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seedlings and Rhizobium meliloti L. Grown in Vitro Under Salt and Drought Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Ramzi Muhiddin

    1987-01-01

    Alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., cultivars, breeding lines and germplasm releases (populations) and Rhizobium meliloti L. strains that exhibit nitrogen fixation efficiency and tolerance to salinity and drought stresses should enhance seedling establishment, increase yields, reduce nitrogen dependency on petroleum-based nitrogen fertilizers, and allow wider use of irrigated lands in semiarid and a rid regions. In vitro experiments were conducted to determine relative salt (sodium chloride -- NaCl)...

  20. Soluble methionine enhances accumulation of a 15 kDa zein, a methionine-rich storage protein, in transgenic alfalfa but not in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira, Golan; Ifat, Matityahu; Tal, Avraham; Hana, Badani; Shmuel, Galili; Rachel, Amir

    2005-09-01

    With the general aim of elevating the content of the essential amino acid methionine in vegetative tissues of plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tobacco plants, as well as BY2 tobacco suspension cells, were transformed with a beta-zein::3HA gene under the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus encoding a rumen-stable methionine-rich storage protein of 15 kDa zein. To examine whether soluble methionine content limited the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA, methionine was first added to the growth medium of the different transgenic plants and the level of the alien protein was determined. Results demonstrated that the added methionine enhanced the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA in transgenic alfalfa and tobacco BY2 cells, but not in whole transgenic tobacco plants. Next, the endogenous levels of methionine were elevated in the transgenic tobacco and alfalfa plants by crossing them with plants expressing the Arabidopsis cystathionine gamma-synthase (AtCGS) having significantly higher levels of soluble methionine in their leaves. Compared with plants expressing only the 15 kDa zein::3HA, transgenic alfalfa co-expressing both alien genes showed significantly enhanced levels of this protein concurrently with a reduction in the soluble methionine content, thus implying that soluble methionine was incorporated into the 15 kDa zein::3HA. Similar phenomena also occurred in tobacco, but were considerably less pronounced. The results demonstrate that the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA is regulated in a species-specific manner and that soluble methionine plays a major role in the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein in some plant species but less so in others. PMID:16061510

  1. mRNAs containing the unstructured 5' leader sequence of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 4 translate inefficiently in lysates from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Hann, L E; Gehrke, L

    1995-01-01

    Poliovirus infection is accompanied by translational control that precludes translation of 5'-capped mRNAs and facilitates translation of the uncapped poliovirus RNA by an internal initiation mechanism. Previous reports have suggested that the capped alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein mRNA (AIMV CP RNA), which contains an unstructured 5' leader sequence, is unusual in being functionally active in extracts prepared from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells (PI-extracts). To identify the cis-acting nu...

  2. 苜蓿多糖对小鼠淋巴细胞增殖和NK细胞活性影响的研究%Research of the Effect of Alfalfa Polysaccharides on Mice Spleen Lymphocytes Proliferation and NK Cell Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬双; 刘英姿; 唐雨顺; 王云浩; 吴宗澄; 于洋

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨苜蓿多糖对小鼠免疫功能的影响,从苜蓿中提取苜蓿多糖,通过体外苜蓿多糖对淋巴细胞增殖和NK细胞活性影响的研究,初步确定其免疫调节活性.采用MTT法,检测苜蓿多糖对正常Balb/c小鼠体外脾淋巴细胞增殖的影响和NK细胞对K562细胞杀伤活性的影响.结果表明:苜蓿多糖可以单一刺激促进小鼠脾淋巴细胞的增殖,可以协同ConA刺激T细胞增殖,或协同LPS刺激B细胞增殖,提示苜蓿多糖能够调节机体的细胞免疫和体液免疫功能;苜蓿多糖可以显著地增强NK细胞对K562靶细胞的杀伤活性,提示苜蓿多糖能显著地增强机体非特异性免疫功能.因此,说明苜蓿多糖具有很好的免疫调节效果.%In order to discuss the effect of alfalfa polysaccharides on mice immuno function, alfalfa polysaccharides were extracted from alfalfa, and the research of how lymphopoiesis were affected by alfalfa polysaccharides were set up to determine its immunoregulatory activity. MMT assay were adopted to detect the effect of alfalfa polysaccharides on the proliferation of normal Balb/c mice spleen lymphocytes in vitro as well as the cytotoxicity NK cell to K562 cell. The results indicated that, alfalfa polysaccharides could be activated to enhance the proliferation of mice spleen lymphocytes singly and stimulate T lymphocyte proliferation cooperated with ConA or stimulate B lymphocyte cooperated with LPS, which pointed that the organism' s cellular immunity and humoral immunity function could be regulated by alfalfa polysaccharides; alfalfa polysaccharides could significantly strengthen the killing activity of NK cell to K526 target cell, which indicated that alfalfa polysaccharides could markedly boost organism' s nonspecific immuno function. Consequently, alfalfa polysaccharides possess impressive immuno regulatory function.

  3. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejerman, Nicolás, E-mail: n.bejerman@uq.edu.au [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Giolitti, Fabián; Breuil, Soledad de; Trucco, Verónica; Nome, Claudia; Lenardon, Sergio [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Dietzgen, Ralf G. [Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses.

  4. 超声波提取苜蓿总皂苷优化工艺的研究%Extraction process of Alfalfa saponins with ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 魏广培

    2012-01-01

    用超声波法提取苜蓿皂苷,通过L9(3^4)正交试验,探讨了提取条件对苜蓿总皂苷提取量的影响。结果显示:各试验因素对苜蓿总皂苷类物质提取量的影响依次为超声时间、物料比、超声功率、超声温度;最佳工艺条件为A2B3C2D1,即物料比1:20、超声时间30min、超声功率80W、超声温度20℃。在上述最佳条件下,总皂苷的提取率可达1.975%。%Alfalfa saponins were prepared according to a L 9(3^ 4) orthogonal test plan.The relationship between extracting conditions and yield of saponins extracted from Alfalfa was investigated.The results show that the processing conditions affected the yield,and the effect of each condition decreased in the following order,ultrasonic time,material/extraction solution ratio,ultrasonic power and ultrasonic temperature.Under the above optimum condition,the saponins extracted from Alfalfa yielded 1.975%.

  5. GIS-based assessment of land suitability for alfalfa cultivation: a case study in the dry continental steppes of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Deng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the most valuable perennial forage grass in northern China. We selected 12 ecological criteria and 4 socioeconomic criteria to calculate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation in the Xilingol League of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We combined ecological suitability assessment with fuzzy analysis to standardize the criteria. We used the analytical hierarchy process to determine the weight of these criteria, and used multi-criterion decision analysis (MCDA to aggregate the criteria. We then calculated the suitability score for each evaluation unit. The suitability was divided into highly, moderately, and marginally suitable, or unsuitable, using the geoprocessing module of ArcGIS 9.3 according to the FAO land suitability classification. We found that highly suitable areas covered 10,799.84 km2, accounting for 5.3% of the total area, and unsuitable areas covered 99,235.87 km2, accounting for 48.9% of the total area. Combining the fuzzy analysis method with the theory of ecological suitability and the MCDA method to evaluate the suitability of land for alfalfa cultivation provided insights that can guide decisionmakers and farmers to make more practical and scientific decisions.

  6. Overexpression of Medicago sativa TMT elevates the α-tocopherol content in Arabidopsis seeds, alfalfa leaves, and delays dark-induced leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Jia, Huili; Feng, Guangyan; Wang, Zan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-08-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume for livestock and a target for improving their dietary quality. Vitamin E is an essential vitamin that animals must obtain from their diet for proper growth and development. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), which catalyzes the conversion of δ- and γ-tocopherols (or tocotrienols) to β- and α-tocopherols (or tocotrienols), respectively, is the final enzyme involved in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway. The overexpression of M. sativa L.'s γ-TMT (MsTMT) increased the α-tocopherol content 10-15 fold above that of wild type Arabidopsis seeds without altering the total content of vitamin E. Additionally, in response to osmotic stress, the biomass and the expression levels of several osmotic marker genes were significantly higher in the transgenic lines compared with wild type. Overexpression of MsTMT in alfalfa led to a modest, albeit significant, increase in α-tocopherol in leaves and was also responsible for a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Additionally, the crude protein content was increased, while the acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were unchanged in these transgenic lines. Thus, increased α-tocopherol content occurred in transgenic alfalfa without compromising the nutritional qualities. The targeted metabolic engineering of vitamin E biosynthesis through MsTMT overexpression provides a promising approach to improve the α-tocopherol content of forage crops. PMID:27297993

  7. Investigation on effect of Populus alba stands distance on density of pests and their natural enemies population under poplar/alfalfa agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabir, Z H; Sadeghi, S E; Hanifeh, S; Eivazi, A

    2009-01-15

    This study was carried out in order to distinguish the effect of agroforestry system (combination of agriculture and forestry) on pests and natural enemy's population in poplar research station. Wood is one of the first substances that naturally was used for a long period of time. Forage is an important production of natural resources too. Some factors such as proper lands deficit, lack of economy, pest and disease attacks and faced production of these materials with serious challenges. Agroforestry is a method for decrease of the mentioned problems. The stands of poplar had have planted by complete randomized design with 4 treatments (stand distance) of poplar/alfalfa include 3x4, 3x6.7, 3x8, 3x10 m and 2 control treatments, alfalfa and poplar. The results showed that Chaitophorus populeti had the highest density in poplar and 3x10 m treatments. Monosteira unicostata is another insect pest that had most density in 3x10 m treatment. And alfalfa had high density of Chrysoperla carnea. The density of Coccinella septempunctata, were almost equal in all treatments.

  8. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

  9. Transcript profiling of two alfalfa genotypes with contrasting cell wall composition in stems using a cross-species platform: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hans-Joachim G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable platform for transcript profiling in tetraploid alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L. subsp. sativa]. However, previous research involving cross-species hybridization (CSH has shown that sequence variation between two species can bias transcript profiling by decreasing sensitivity (number of expressed genes detected and the accuracy of measuring fold-differences in gene expression. Results Transcript profiling using the Medicago GeneChip® was conducted with elongating stem (ES and post-elongation stem (PES internodes from alfalfa genotypes 252 and 1283 that differ in stem cell wall concentrations of cellulose and lignin. A protocol was developed that masked probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions of alfalfa transcripts. A probe signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy. After masking for both ISV regions and previously identified single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs, the number of differentially expressed genes between the two genotypes in both ES and PES internodes was approximately 2-fold greater than the number detected prior to masking. Regulatory genes, including transcription factor and receptor kinase genes that may play a role in development of secondary xylem, were significantly over-represented among genes up-regulated in 252 PES internodes compared to 1283 PES internodes. Several cell wall-related genes were also up-regulated in genotype 252 PES internodes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR of differentially expressed regulatory and cell wall-related genes demonstrated increased sensitivity and accuracy after masking for both ISV regions and SFPs. Over 1,000 genes that were differentially expressed in ES and PES internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 were mapped onto putative orthologous loci on M. truncatula chromosomes. Clustering simulation analysis of the differentially expressed genes

  10. Selecting the Electrofusion Condition of Alfalfa Protoplast%苜蓿原生质体电融合适宜条件的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌云; 师尚礼

    2013-01-01

    为改良培育苜蓿(Medicago)新品种,拟建立苜蓿原生质体融合体系.通过电融合方法,使俄罗斯杂花苜蓿(M.varia)原生质体和甘农4号紫花苜蓿(M.sativa‘Gannong No.4’)原生质体进行非对称融合,获得了杂交细胞,研究不同失活处理条件、电场条件、原生质体密度对苜蓿原生质体融合的影响.结果表明:经过紫外灯辐射5min的俄罗斯杂花苜蓿原生质体和6 mmol· L-1 IOA处理的甘农4号紫花苜蓿原生质体,密度调至3×105~5×105个·mL-1,以交流电场强度15~20 V·cm-1、交流频率2000~2500 kHz,直流脉冲场强200~250 V·cm-1、脉冲宽幅40 μs、脉冲个数为3的条件为最适电融合条件,此时一对一有效融合率最高可达13.8%.%The somatic hybridization of asymmetric fusion between protoplasts isolated from callus of Russian variegated alfalfa and ‘Gannong No.4' alfalfa was obtained through electrofusion method.The effects of different inactivation pretreatments,electric field conditions and protoplast densities on alfalfa protoplast fusion were studied.Test results showed that the optimum inactivation pretreatments were that Russian variegated alfalfa protoplast was treated with ultraviolet radiation by 5 min and ‘Gannong No.4'alfalfa protoplast was treated with 6 mmol · L-1 iodoacetamide.The optimum electrofusion parameterswere AC electric field intensity for 15~20 V · cm-1,frequency for 2000~2500 kHz,DC electric field intensity for 200~250 V · cm-1,pulse width for 40 μs and pulse 3 times.The optimum protoplast density is 3 × 105 ~5 ×105 mL-1.The highest protoplast binary fusion frequency reached 13.8% with above conditions.

  11. Extraction and Separation of Alfalfa Flavonoids%紫花苜蓿黄酮的提取与纯化工艺初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成章; 文开新; 史莹华; 严学兵; 樊文娜; 杜红旗

    2013-01-01

    为探讨紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativeL.)黄酮的提取与纯化工艺,采用不同乙醇浓度和不同pH进行提取,然后用不同来源和型号的大孔树脂进行纯化,以得出苜蓿黄酮的最佳提取和纯化方法.结果表明:30%乙醇、水浸提(pH为7.5)对紫花苜蓿黄酮的浸出率最高,分别为0.46%和0.49%,pH在9.0时所得提取物黄酮含量最高为1.61%;pH为2.2~2.4时,对紫花苜蓿黄酮有最好的沉淀效果,所得沉淀物中黄酮含量为9.80%;9种型号的大孔树脂中DS-17对乙醇提取物中紫花苜蓿黄酮有较好的分离效果,所得提取物黄酮为5.87%;在大孔树脂对碱溶酸沉提取物中黄酮的分离中,2组试验均以DM130的效果最好,所得分离物黄酮含量最高分别为24.25%和29.35%.%To optimize the process of extracting and separating flavonoids from alfalfa, different methods were adopted to extract and separate the flavonoids systematically. Results showed that 30% ethanol solution and water (pH=7. 5) had the best effect on alfalfa flavonoids extraction. Leaching efficiency of the flavonoids were 0. 46% and 0. 49%, respectively. The highest content of alfalfa flavonoids extracted with water was 1. 61% when pH was 9. 0. The optimum pH was 2. 2 for separation of alfalfa flavonoids and the content of flavonoids in the extractive was 9. 80%. Different macroporous resins were used to separate alfalfa flavonoids extracted with ethanol solution. DS-17 showed the best separation effect and the content of flavonoids was 5. 87%. The effect of macroporous resins on the separation of alfalfa flavonoids extracted by acid-isolation was analyzed. DM130 had the best effect and the highest contents of alfalfa flavonoids in two treatments were 24. 25% and 29. 35% , respectively.

  12. Some Guiding Experience in Alfalfa Production and Purchase by Quality Determination%利用苜蓿品质测定结果指导苜蓿的生产和收购

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 谭世新; 曹正; 姚远

    2014-01-01

    By measuring routine nutritional components of some alfalfa hay bales from Changji, Tacheng and Bole in Xinjiang, results showed that there were some differences in nutrition among these three areas. The alfalfa quality was best in Changji. There showed a positive correlation of moisture with crude protein content for square bales of alfalfa. The quality for harvest alfalfa but rained before hay was poor. Besides, the quality for alfalfa in different stages (not lfowering, early bloom, and full bloom) was determined and analyzed, it could be drawn a conclusion that alfalfa has the most crude protein content in early bloom stage. The whole plant of alfalfa has obvious advantage in protein content than alfalfa hay bales. It also be the foundation for farmers to purchase alfalfa with better quality.%本次通过对新疆的昌吉、塔城、博乐三个地区若干苜蓿干草捆常规营养成分的测定,得出三个地区苜蓿干草营养成分存在差异,昌吉地区苜蓿干草品质较好,方捆苜蓿含水量与粗蛋白含量呈正相关,黄绿淋雨苜蓿品质较差。另外对整株鲜绿苜蓿在未开花、初花、盛花不同开花期常规营养成分进行检测,得出苜蓿在初花期时粗蛋白含量最高,整株鲜绿苜蓿粗蛋白含量显著高于方捆苜蓿。通过这些检测加深了对苜蓿干草品质的认识,为畜牧养殖户收购高品质苜蓿干草提供依据。

  13. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, E; van der Hulst, J M

    2016-01-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the ALFALFA 21cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M* >~ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. The resulting linewidth-based BTFR has a slope of alpha = 3.58 +- 0.11, a value that is in agreement with previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of +- 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample allows us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small ...

  14. Use of RAPD analyses to estimate population genetic parameters in the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R; Rank, G H

    1996-08-01

    RAPD analyses were performed on five geographically isolated populations of Megachile rotundata. We used haploid males of the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, M. rotundata, to overcome the limitation of the dominance of RAPD markers in the determination of population genetic parameters. Sixteen primers gave rise to 130 polymorphic and 31 monomorphic bands. The unbiased estimators calculated in this study include within- and between-population heterozygosity, nucleotide divergence, and genetic distance. The genetic diversity (H = 0.32-0.35) was found to be about 10 times that of previous estimates (H = 0.033) based on allozyme data. Contrary to the data obtained at the protein level, our results suggest that Hymenoptera do not have a lower level of genetic variability at the DNA level compared with other insect species. Regardless of the different assumptions underlying the calculation of heterozygosity, divergence, and genetic distance, all five populations showed a parallel interrelationship for the three parameters. We conclude that RAPD markers are a convenient tool to estimate population genetic variation in haploid M. rotundata and that with an adequate sample size the technique is applicable to the evaluation of divergence in diploid populations. Key words : Megachile rotundata, RAPD, heterozygosity, genetic distance, nucleotide divergence. PMID:18469925

  15. ALFALFA Discovery of the Nearby Gas-Rich Dwarf Galaxy Leo P. IV. Distance Measurement from LBT Optical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Berg, Danielle; Cannon, John M; Salzer, John J; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Dolphin, Andrew; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Rhode, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. The HI and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with both active star formation and an underlying older population, as well as an extremely low oxygen abundance. Here, we measure the distance to Leo P by applying the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) distance method to photometry of the resolved stellar population from new Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) V and I band imaging. We measure a distance modulus of 26.19 (+0.17/-0.50) mag corresponding to a distance of 1.72 (+0.14/-0.40) Mpc. Although our photometry reaches 3 magnitudes below the TRGB, the sparseness of the red giant branch (RGB) yields higher uncertainties on the lower limit of the distance. Leo P is outside the Local Group with a distance and velocity consistent with the local Hubble flow. While located in a very low-density environment, Leo P lies within ~0.5 Mpc of a loose association of dw...

  16. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Hutchens, Heather M; Berg, R Howard; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast. PMID:22999257

  17. Degenerate in vitro genetic selection reveals mutations that diminish alfalfa mosaic virus RNA replication without affecting coat protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Gail; Petrillo, Jessica; Guogas, Laura; Gehrke, Lee

    2004-08-01

    The alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs are infectious only in the presence of the viral coat protein; however, the mechanisms describing coat protein's role during replication are disputed. We reasoned that mechanistic details might be revealed by identifying RNA mutations in the 3'-terminal coat protein binding domain that increased or decreased RNA replication without affecting coat protein binding. Degenerate (doped) in vitro genetic selection, based on a pool of randomized 39-mers, was used to select 30 variant RNAs that bound coat protein with high affinity. AUGC sequences that are conserved among AMV and ilarvirus RNAs were among the invariant nucleotides in the selected RNAs. Five representative clones were analyzed in functional assays, revealing diminished viral RNA expression resulting from apparent defects in replication and/or translation. These data identify a set of mutations, including G-U wobble pairs and nucleotide mismatches in the 5' hairpin, which affect viral RNA functions without significant impact on coat protein binding. Because the mutations associated with diminished function were scattered over the 3'-terminal nucleotides, we considered the possibility that RNA conformational changes rather than disruption of a precise motif might limit activity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments showed that the 3' RNA conformation was indeed altered by nucleotide substitutions. One interpretation of the data is that coat protein binding to the AUGC sequences determines the orientation of the 3' hairpins relative to one another, while local structural features within these hairpins are also critical determinants of functional activity. PMID:15254175

  18. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Amr [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Present address: Genomics Facility, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Hutchens, Heather M. [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Howard Berg, R. [Integrated Microscopy Facility, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132 (United States); Sue Loesch-Fries, L., E-mail: loeschfr@purdue.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  19. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  20. The second amino acid of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein is critical for coat protein-mediated protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, N E; Kaniewski, W; Haley, L; Gehrke, L; Lodge, J K; Sanders, P

    1991-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing the coat protein (CP) of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) are resistant to infection by AIMV. A mutation was introduced into the second amino acid of the cDNA for the CP of AIMV. Three different transgenic tobacco lines expressing the mutant CP and two different transgenic tobacco lines expressing the wild-type CP at similar levels were challenged with AIMV virions and viral RNA. Whereas the lines expressing the wild-type CP were highly resistant to infection by AIMV virions and viral RNA, the lines expressing the mutant CP were susceptible to infection by both. The binding affinity of the mutant and the wild-type CPs for the 3' terminal protein binding site on AIMV RNAs was similar, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. A mixture of AIMV genomic RNAs 1-3 was infectious on the plants expressing the mutant CP but not on vector control plants or plants expressing the wild-type CP, indicating that the mutant CP can activate the AIMV genomic RNAs for infection. These results demonstrate that the second amino acid of the AIMV CP is critical for protection from AIMV but not for the initial interaction between the AIMV RNA and CP, suggesting that this initial interaction does not play a major role in CP-mediated protection. Images PMID:11607167

  1. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: X. The HI Mass Function and Omega_HI From the 40% ALFALFA Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Ann M; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Springob, Christopher M; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey has completed source extraction for 40% of its total sky area, resulting in the largest sample of HI-selected galaxies to date. We measure the HI mass function from a sample of 10,119 galaxies with 6.2 < log (M_HI/M_Sun) < 11.0 and with well-described mass errors that accurately reflect our knowledge of low-mass systems. We characterize the survey sensitivity and its dependence on profile velocity width, the effect of large-scale structure, and the impact of radio frequency interference in order to calculate the HIMF with both the 1/Vmax and 2DSWML methods. We also assess a flux-limited sample to test the robustness of the methods applied to the full sample. These measurements are in excellent agreement with one another; the derived Schechter function parameters are phi* = 4.8 (+/- 0.3) * 10^-3, log (M*/M_Sun) + 2 log(h_70) = 9.96 (+/- 0.2), and alpha = -1.33 (+/- 0.02). We find Omega_HI = 4.3 (+/- 0.3) * 10^-4, 16% larger than the 2005 HIPASS result, and ou...

  2. The ALFALFA HI Absorption Pilot Survey: A Wide-Area Blind Damped Lyman Alpha System Survey of the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) 21 cm absorption in the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) Survey. This project is a wide-area "blind" search for HI absorption in the local universe, spanning -650 km/s = 2x10^20 cm^-2) is Delta z = 7.0 (129 objects, assuming T_s = 100 K and covering fraction unity); for super-DLAs (N_HI >= 2x10^21 cm^-2) it is Delta z= 128.2 (2353 objects). We re-detect the intrinsic HI absorption line in UGC 6081 but detect no intervening absorption line systems. We compute a 95% confidence upper limit on the column density frequency distribution function f(N_HI,X) spanning four orders of magnitude in column density, 10^19 (T_s/100 K)(1/f) cm^-2 < N_HI < 10^23 (T_s/100 K)(1/f) cm^-2, that is consistent with previous redshifted optical damped Ly alpha surveys and the aggregate HI 21 cm emission in the local universe. The detection rate is in agreement with extant observations. This pilot survey suggests that an absorption line sear...

  3. ALFALFA Discovery of the Nearby Gas-Rich Dwarf Galaxy Leo~P. III. An Extremely Metal Deficient Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Skillman, Evan D; Berg, Danielle A; Pogge, Richard W; Haurberg, Nathalie C; Cannon, John M; Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Adams, Elizabeth A K; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Rhode, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    We present KPNO 4-m and LBT/MODS spectroscopic observations of an HII region in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P discovered recently in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. In both observations, we are able to accurately measure the temperature sensitive [O III] 4363 Angstrom line and determine a "direct" oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.17 +/- 0.04. Thus, Leo P is an extremely metal deficient (XMD) galaxy, and, indeed, one of the most metal deficient star-forming galaxies ever observed. For its estimated luminosity, Leo P is consistent with the relationship between luminosity and oxygen abundance seen in nearby dwarf galaxies. Leo P shows normal alpha element abundance ratios (Ne/O, S/O, and Ar/O) when compared to other XMD galaxies, but elevated N/O, consistent with the "delayed release" hypothesis for N/O abundances. We derive a helium mass fraction of 0.2509 +0.0184 -0.0123 which compares well with the WMAP + BBN prediction of 0.2483 +/- 0.0002 for the primordial helium abundance. We suggest that surve...

  4. The feeding value of the ration based on alfalfa haylage supplemented with high moisture corn in wether sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine the effects of high moisture corn (HMC supplementation to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen (N balance in wether sheep. The study consisted of three feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMC d-1kg-1 body weight of Suffolk wethers. Inclusion of HMC in the AH based ration had negative linear effects on acid detergent fibre (ADF intake (p<0.001 and digestibility (p<0.05 while a positive on the digestibility of dry matter (DM (p<0.05, organic matter (OM (p<0.01 and the digestibility of OM in DM (D-value (p<0.01. A positive associative response of AH and HMC was observed for DM and OM ad libitum intake (g kg-1M0.75d-1 (quadratic, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. Negative linear effects of AH and HMC were observed for nitrogen (N intake (p<0.05. The inclusion of HMC into AH based ration did not influence N balance in wether sheep. It was concluded that a positive associative response of the two forages was recorded for a limited number of parameters, probably due to lower quality of HMC than required for improved utilization of the AH based ration.

  5. Response in two commercial Holstein herds to addition of sodium bicarbonate to alfalfa hay-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, D L; Bishop, S E; Peterson, N G; Hight, W B; De Peters, E J

    1985-07-01

    Feeding trials were conducted in two commercial dairy herds to evaluate the addition of .8% sodium bicarbonate to alfalfa hay-based diets. Approximately half of each herd served as controls and the other half was fed the same diet with sodium bicarbonate. A total of 1280 Dairy Herd Improvement Association lactation records were obtained in the two herds during the trials. Cows in herd 1 were milked three times daily and cows in herd 2 were milked twice daily. In herd 1, milk production from control and bicarbonate groups was: first lactation cows, 7491 and 7748 kg/cow; second lactation cows, 8363 and 8791 kg/cow; and third and higher lactation cows, 8713 and 9562 kg/cow. There were no differences in milkfat or solids-not-fat percentages between treatment groups. In herd 2, milk production from control and bicarbonate groups was: first lactation cows, 6800 and 7158 kg/cow; second lactation cows, 8487 and 8082 kg/cow; and third and higher lactation cows, 8807 and 8216 kg/cow. First lactation cows fed sodium bicarbonate had a lower milk fat percentage than controls. There were no other differences in milk fat or solids-not-fat percentages between treatment groups. PMID:2993391

  6. Study on the Variety Selection and Cultivation Techniques of High-yield Alfalfa Varieties%高产苜蓿品种筛选及栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永华; 张龙

    2013-01-01

    With Suntory alfalfa as control, seven alfalfa varieties (Huangguan, Adina, etc.) were used to make regional test. The hay yield, crude protein content and other indices were determined to find out the appropriate high-quality varieties for east regions of Helanshan Mountain. Combined with its own characteristics of alfalfa, better planting techniques were studied. And the occurrence of common pests in different periods after mowing alfalfa was studied, so as to provide guidance for the control of pests and guarantee the goal of high-quality and high-yield alfalfa production.%以三得利苜蓿为对照,对皇冠、阿迪娜等7个苜蓿品种进行区域试验。通过各品种的干草产量、粗蛋白等指标确定适宜贺兰山东麓种植的优质品种,同时结合苜蓿自身特性,研究及制定出较佳的苜蓿种植技术,并对苜蓿刈割后不同时期常见虫害的发生情况进行了调查,以期为虫害防治提供指导,从而保证苜蓿优质、高产的生产目标。

  7. 接种耐酸根瘤菌对紫花苜蓿生长的影响%Effect of Acid-tolerant Rhizobium on the Growth of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媚佳; 徐淑韵; 徐苏凌; 方勇; 徐根娣

    2011-01-01

    The seeding of alfalfa on the acid soil with acid-tolerant rhizobium is to investigate the effects on the growth of alfalfa, and provide a theoretical and technical basis for the cultivation of alfalfa to the south. The results show that acid-tolerant rhizobium inoculation has promoted the growth of the 2 tested alfalfas, and there is breed difference of alfalfa when establishing symbiosis relationship with rhizobium.%为给南方紫花苜蓿的种植提供一定的理论和技术依据,采用土培法在酸性土壤上接种耐酸根瘤茵以探讨其对紫花苜蓿生长情况的影响.结果表明,接种耐酸根瘤菌对参试的2种紫花苜蓿生长都有促进作用,且紫花苜蓿在与根瘤菌建立共生关系时存在品种差异.

  8. Nutritional Characteristics of Alfalfa and Its Action Mechanism on Ruminants%苜蓿的营养特点及对反刍动物作用机理的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李改英; 刘德稳; 高腾云; 廉红霞

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional characteristics of alfalfa and its action mechanism on ruminants were summarized.Because of the higher nutritional value of alfalfa, after alfalfa was eaten by ruminants, it could improve DMI, promote rumen fermentation and the performance of lactation, especially could enhance the content of conjugated linoleic acid in the milk, but it had little effect on the humoral indicators of ruminants.It is pointed out that how to match alfalfa in the feed to improve the utilization rate of nitrogen and how to store and process alfalfa are the emphases for the future researches.%对苜蓿的营养价值和苜蓿对反刍动物作用机理的研究进行了概述.苜蓿草具有较高的营养价值,反刍动物饲喂苜蓿能提高DMI,促进瘤胃发酵和乳牛的泌乳性能,尤其能提高奶中共轭亚油酸的含量,对体液指标影响不大.指出了今后如何在饲料中合理搭配苜蓿草来提高氮的利用率,以及苜蓿草的贮藏加工的研究重点.

  9. Effects of Water Content, Lactic Acid Bacteria and Sucrose on Alfalfa Silage Quality%水分、乳酸菌和蔗糖对青贮苜蓿品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬彩霞; 汤前; 韩志森; 赵国琦

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa was harvested at early lfowering stage. After 0, 4 and 8 h of exposure to the sun, the water content of alfalfa, lactic acid bacteria and sugar were arranged in an Orthogonal Design to evaluate the effect of these 3 factors on alfalfa silage quality. The results showed that after 4 and 8 h of exposure to the sun, the water content of alfalfal was decreased from 80.82% to 72.54% and 68.63%, respectively. The value of pH and Ammonia-N/TN of the alfalfa silage was not significantly affected by the water content (P>0.05). In the treatments of water content of 72.54% and 68.63%, lactic acid (LA) content of alfalfa silage was signiifcantly higher than the treatment of water content of 80.82%(P0.05).糖添加浓度为20g/kg的青贮苜蓿LA含量最高,pH值最低,NDF和ADF最低,均显著低于蔗糖浓度为0?g/kg的(P<0.05).综合上述结果,苜蓿收获后晾晒4~8h,待水分降到70%左右时,添加107cfu/g的乳酸菌和20g/kg的蔗糖青贮效果最好.

  10. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 12. Sequence analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) cDNA clones and appearance of PAL transcripts in elicitor-treated cell cultures and developing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, G; Paiva, N L; Dixon, R A

    1991-09-01

    An expression library containing cDNAs derived from transcripts from fungal elicitor-treated alfalfa cell suspension cultures was screened with an antiserum raised against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) from alfalfa. A single immunoreactive clone was isolated which encoded a full-length PAL cDNA (APAL1) consisting of a 2175 bp open reading frame, 96 bp 5'-untranslated leader and 128 bp 3'-non-coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence was 86.5% similar to that of the PAL2 gene of bean, and encoded a polypeptide of Mr 78,865. A second PAL cDNA species was isolated, whose 3'-untranslated region was 86% identical to that of APAL1. Southern blot analysis indicated that PAL is encoded by a small multigene family in alfalfa. PAL transcript levels were rapidly and massively induced, and preceded increased PAL extractable activity, on exposure of alfalfa suspension cells to elicitor from baker's yeast. PAL transcripts were most abundant in roots, stems and petioles during growth and development of alfalfa seedlings. These studies provide the basis for an examination of the developmental and environmental control of a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid synthesis in a plant species which is readily amenable to stable genetic transformation.

  11. 德钦苜蓿品种比较试验报告%A Report of Studies on Deqin Alfalfa Variety Comparative Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马向丽; 李立; 毕玉芬; 赵雁; 邵辰光; 墨继光

    2012-01-01

    Deqin and Algonguin alfalfa varieties were collected and compared in this study. The results showed that the cultivated day of Deqin alfalfa ranged from 233-246 days. Planted in 3 test places, the average winter survival rate of Deqin alfalfa was 95.3%, which was significantly different from that of Algonguin (77.4%) (P<0.05). The average plant height of Deqin and Algonguin alfalfa were 38.2 cm and 27.1 cm respectively, the difference between those was especially significant (/kO.Ol). The value of Stem wt to Leaf wt of Deqin alfalfa was lower than that of Algonguin in 2004 (P<0.05), moreover, its values in 2005 and 2006 were obviously lower than those of latter (P<0.01). The yield results indicated that the fresh yields and dry matter yields of Deqin alfalfa were significantly higher than those of Algonguin (P<0.01). Dry matter contents of Deqin alfalfa in early flowering stage and full flowering state were 25.73% and 28.04% respectively, crude protein contents were 24.50% and 19.41% respectively, and IVDMD were 68.03% and 66.56% respectively, which all indicated the nutrition component of Deqin alfalfa was the fist level. The analysis of stress resistance showed that Deqin alfalfa had a strong resistance to high temperature and humidity, nutrient-deficient soil.Considering form the introduction point of view, Deqin alfalfa with a stong adaptability, high yield, good nutrition and palatability, was a kind of excellent forage variety which was worth planting and popularizing in DiqingTibetan Autonomous Prefecture.%以阿尔冈金为对照品种,对德钦苜蓿进行了品种比较试验.结果表明:德钦苜蓿生育天数为233~246天.在3个试验点种植,越冬率平均为95.3%,与对照品种阿尔冈金(均值77.4%)差异显著(P<0.05).德钦苜蓿和阿尔冈金3年3个试验点的平均株高分别为38.2 cm和27.1 cm,差异极显著(P<0.01).其生长速度也与阿尔冈金差异极显著(P<0.01).2004年3个试验点德钦苜蓿的茎叶比

  12. Lixiviación de potasio y contenidos nutrimentales en suelo y alfalfa en respuesta a dosis de vinaza Potassium leaching and nutrient content in soil and alfalfa's response to a dose of vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Flores Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Bajo condiciones de invernadero y con base a la concentración de potasio (K+ en la caracterización química de la vinaza, se evaluó el efecto de diferentes dosis (0, 250 y 500 kg ha-1 de K+ sobre el suelo, en columnas de cloruro de polivinilo (PVC, empleando lisímetros de succión a dos profundidades (23 y 46 cm y muestras al final de la columna (75 cm. En lixiviados se evaluó la concentración de K, el efecto sobre pH y conductividad eléctrica (CE, como cultivo indicador se uso alfalfa (Medicago sativa, efectuándose dos cortes, en un periodo de 120 días y una aplicación de vinaza al inicio del experimento y otra después del primer corte. En muestras de plantas las variables fueron materia seca, N T, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Zn y NO3 en suelo se consideró CE, pH, NH4, NO3, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn Mn y MO (materia orgánica. En el análisis estadístico la dosis 500 kg ha-1 de K tuvo efecto sobre la fertilidad del suelo, registrando un incremento en: MO, NH4, P, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn y K. La CE y K el mayor efecto (pUnder greenhouse conditions and based on the concentration of potassium (K+ in the chemical characterization of Vinasse, the effect of different doses (0. 250 y 500 kg ha-1 de K+ was evaluated in the soil, in columns of polyvinyl chloride (PVC, using suction lysimeters at two depths (23 and 46 cm and samples at the end of the column (75 cm. In Leaching, the K concentration, the effect on pH and the electric conductivity (CE was evaluated; as the crop indicator, alfalfa was used (Medicago sativa, making 2 cuts in a period of 120 days and applying vinasse at the beginning of the experiment and then again after the first cut. In plant samples, the variables were dry material, N T, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Zn and NO3 in soil, CE, pH, NH4, NO3, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn Mn abd MO (organic material was considered. In the statistical analysis of the K dose of 500 kg ha-1 there was an effect on the soil

  13. Study on the slaughter performance effect of alfalfa meal to feed rabbits%添加不同比例苜蓿草粉对肉兔屠宰性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆辉; 卢烈祥; 张蓉; 刘志刚; 柳茜; 敖学成

    2012-01-01

    本试验设置添加25%苜蓿草粉为试1组,添加35%苜蓿草粉为试2组,不加苜蓿组为对照组,分别饲喂3个品种育肥肉兔,观察苜蓿草粉的饲喂效果。结果显示:添加苜蓿草粉后各品种肉兔的育肥增重明显提高.胴体屠宰性能也有所提高。%This paper studied the slaughter performance effect of alfalfa meal to feed rabbits, the added proportions of alfalfa meals were 25%,35%,0%. The results showed that the weight gain of rabbit increased obviously after adding alfalfa meal, and the slaughter performances also improved.

  14. Effect of dietary replacement of alfalfa with urea-treated almond hulls on intake, growth, digestibility, microbial nitrogen, nitrogen retention, ruminal fermentation, and blood parameters in fattening lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, M Imani; Rouzbehan, Y; Rezaei, J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary replacement of alfalfa with urea-treated almond hulls (UAH) on DM and nutrients intakes, growth performance, diet digestibility, microbial N supply (MNS), N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood metabolites in fattening male Shall lambs (29.9 ± 1.9 kg initial BW). Three diets, with equal ME and CP concentrations and a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 40 to 60, were formulated in which alfalfa was replaced by different levels (0, 200, or 400 g/kg of diet DM) of UAH. Experimental diets were randomly assigned to the 3 groups ( = 8/group) in a completely randomized design for a 74-d period (14 d for adaptation and 60 d for data collection). Diets were offered as a total mixed ration to ensure 10% orts. Dry matter and nutrients intakes, animal growth, diet digestibility, MNS, N retention, rumen fermentation parameters, and plasma metabolites were determined. The dietary substitution of UAH for alfalfa had no effects on DMI (linear, = 0.96; quadratic, = 0.86), ADG (linear, = 0.35; quadratic, = 0.19), and G:F (linear, = 0.66; quadratic, = 0.13). In vivo digestibility coefficients of DM (linear, = 0.82; quadratic, = 0.42), OM (linear, = 0.73; quadratic, = 0.95), CP (linear, = 0.24; quadratic, = 0.66), and ash-free NDF (linear, = 0.69; quadratic, = 0.74) were not affected by the dietary treatment. Feeding lambs on diets containing UAH instead of alfalfa had no effects on MNS (linear, = 0.63; quadratic, = 0.68) and N retention (linear, = 0.44; quadratic, = 0.17). Rumen pH (linear, = 0.26; quadratic, = 0.071), ammonia N (linear, = 0.39; quadratic, = 0.13), and VFA (linear, = 0.091; quadratic, = 0.86) concentrations, acetic acid-to-propionic acid ratio (linear, = 0.93; quadratic, = 0.62), and protozoa population (linear, = 0.62; quadratic, = 0.22) were not influenced by the experimental diets. Substituting alfalfa with UAH had no effects on the plasma concentrations of glucose (linear, = 0

  15. 美拉德反应对苜蓿青贮品质的影响%Effect of Maillard Reaction on the Quality of Alfalfa Silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李改英; 傅彤; 孙宇; 廉红霞; 高腾云

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of maillard reaction on the quality of alfalfa silage by adding 5% molasses.The results showed that maillard reaction destroyed the nutrition value of alfalfa silage and the difference was notable for the content of crude protein,crude fat and soluble sugar compared with the silage material and the good alfalfa silagc(P0.05) , but with the silage time prolonging and the occurance of maillard reaction, Cys was ascending and there was no difference(P> 0.05) ,and then the conent of Val and lie of alfalfa silage was more than the content of silage material, while the content of maillard reaction alfalfa silage was less than the content of silage material and alfalfa silage, and the difference was distinct(p<0.05) , for the other 14 kinds of amino acid and total amino acid, the content presented a reducing trend, and the dropping extent of Lys was the most.%试验研究了美拉德反应对添加5%糖蜜的苜蓿青贮品质的影响.结果表明:美拉德反应严重破坏了苜蓿青贮饲料的营养价值,粗蛋白质、粗脂肪和可溶性糖分含量均与青贮原料和正常的青贮料差异显著(P<0.05),且随着青贮时间的延长,正常青贮料的粗蛋白质和粗脂肪也随之发生显著性下降(P<0.05).苜蓿青贮后酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)变化不显著,中性洗涤纤维(NDF)为下降趋势,发生美拉德反应后ADF和NDF均为升高的趋势(P<0.05).17种氨基酸的含量在青贮前期变化不显著(P>0.05),随着青贮时间的延长和美拉德反应的发生,半胱氨酸有升高的趋势,但差异不显著(P>0.05),缬氨酸和异亮氨酸含量青贮料高于青贮原料(P>0.05),发生美拉得反应的苜蓿其含量低于青贮原料和青贮料,且差异显著(P<0.05),其它14种氨基酸和总氨基酸含量均为降低趋势,其中以赖氨酸降幅最大(77%).

  16. Analysis on Nutrient Constituent of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) from Different Areas of Ningxia%宁夏不同地区紫花苜蓿的营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玉霞; 李云

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究紫花苜蓿营养成分对畜牧业发展具有积极作用.[方法]对宁夏9个不同产地的陇东紫花苜蓿营乔成分进行比较,并利用灰色关联理论和层次分析法进行了综合评价.[结果]盐池县的紫花苜蓿在供试样品中养分总体表现最好,其次为贺兰山农牧场等地区的紫花苜蓿,最后为永宁县等地区的紫花苜蓿.[结论]不同产地的紫花苜蓿在养分含量上存在差异,应根据养分含量来选择不同产地的紫花苜蓿.%[ Objective ] Studies on alfalfa nutrient composition had a positive effect for animal husbandry development. [ Method ] Nutrient constituent of Longdong alfalfa from 9 areas in Ningxia were analyzed and compared. By using grey related theory and the hierarchy analysis,comprehensive evaluations of nutrient composition about alfalfa were carried out also. [Result] Nutrient composition of alfalfa from Yanchi County was best, next from Helan Mountain Farm etc. , and finally from Yongning County etc. . [ Conclusion ] There were differences among those alfalfas about their nutrient compositions from different areas. It should according to nutrient compositions to select alfalfa from different areas.

  17. Effects of varying dietary ratios of corn silage to alfalfa silage on digestion of neutral detergent fiber in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study was performed to test an in vitro procedure and model that predicts total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. Corn silage (CS) and alfalfa silage (AS) were used as forages for this study. These forages had similar NDF composition, but fiber in the CS contained less indigestible NDF compared with AS (35.5 and 47.8% of indigestible NDF, respectively). The in vitro method estimated rate of digestion of alfalfa potentially digestible NDF to be approximately 2 times faster than CS fiber (6.11 and 3.21%/h, respectively). Four diets were formulated containing different proportions of CS to AS: 100CS:0AS, 67CS:33AS, 33CS:67AS, and 0CS:100AS, as percentage of diet DM basis. The objective was to construct diets that contained approximately similar levels of NDF but with different pool sizes and rates of digestion of potentially digestible NDF. Diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, lactating dairy cows in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Total-tract fiber digestibility and fiber digestion kinetic parameters observed in vivo were compared with the values predicted by the in vitro assay and model. Total-tract NDF digestibility coefficients were similar (41.8 and 40.6% of total NDF) for the in vitro and in vivo methods, respectively. As the proportion of dietary alfalfa increased, the digestibility of NDF increased. The rate of digestion of potentially digestible NDF predicted from the in vitro assay was also similar to what was observed in vivo. Results suggest that the in vitro total-tract NDF digestibility model could be used to predict rate of fiber digestion and NDF digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26162794

  18. Effects of cereal grain supplementation on apparent digestibility of nutrients and concentrations of fermentation end-products in the feces and serum of horses consuming alfalfa cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H S; Vogedes, L A; Fernandez, G C J; Frankeny, R L

    2004-07-01

    Twenty geldings (five groups; similar age and BW) were used in a completely randomized design experiment to determine effects of grain supplementation of an alfalfa-cube diet on apparent nutrient digestibility and hindgut fermentation. The geldings were housed individually, fed their diets in two equal meals (0600 and 1800), and adapted to five dietary treatments over 6 wk. The treatments were alfalfa cubes (1% of BW; DM basis) without (control) or with one of four rolled cereal grains (i.e., barley, corn, naked oats, or oats) to provide a target level of 0.4% of BW as total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC). Due to acute laminitis, three geldings (one in the control group and two in the barley group) were excluded. Because of this and multiple incidents of gas colic, TNC level was decreased to 0.2% of BW to ensure the geldings' health throughout the adaptation (7 d) and sample collection (5 d) periods. Grain intakes varied (P 0.05) by grain supplementation and averaged 63.2, 63.1, 79.5, 42.7, 39.9, and 50.3%, respectively. Regardless of the source, grain supplementation increased (P oats diets (averaging 11.73), intermediate for the oats diet (8.00), and least for the control and corn diets (averaging 5.00; P oats diet (138), and least for the remaining diets (averaging 100; P oats diet (1.68), intermediate for the barley and oats diets (averaging 0.86), and least for the remaining diets (averaging 0.63; P oats, and oats contributed to 13, 15, 8, and 20% higher (P oats diets (averaging 25.28) than for the corn or oats diets (averaging 22.21). Results suggest that horses consuming alfalfa cubes could be supplemented with rolled barley, corn, naked oats, or oats at levels not exceeding 0.2% of BW as TNC without affecting nutrient digestion or overall health negatively.

  19. 紫花苜蓿换向通风太阳能干燥试验研究%The Reversing Ventilation in the Alfalfa Solar Drying Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱珊珠; 仝川

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the existence of deep alfalfa drying in the dry uneven phenomenon , in vertical solar oven for revers-ing ventilation drying experiment of alfalfa , interpass temperature monitoring in the grass and the distribution of relative humidity and the moisture content of alfalfa .Test results show that the reversing ventilation drying can shorten the drying time and can improve the drying uniformity;Find out influence on the drying rate , ventilation reversing cycle to improve the efficiency of drying , drying quality and save energy , provide reference basis for further optimization of drying process .%针对紫花苜蓿深层干燥存在的干燥不均匀现象,在立式太阳能干燥箱内对紫花苜蓿进行换向通风干燥试验,监测箱内草层间温度及相对湿度的分布情况及苜蓿含水率变化情况。试验结果表明:换向通风干燥可缩短干燥时间且能提高干燥均匀性;找出通风换向周期对干燥速率的影响关系,达到了提高干燥效率、干燥质量及节约能量目的,为进一步优化干燥工艺提供参考依据。

  20. Application of Alfalfa Polysaccharides in Livestock and Poultry Feeds%苜蓿多糖在畜禽饲料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元元; 朱宇旌; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    Alfalfa polysaccharides (APS) is a kind of active polysaccharide extracted from leguminous forage alfalfa, and it is very stable containing glucose, mannose, rhamnose and other active ingredients. APS can improve the immune function of livestock and poultry by promoting the growth of animal immune organs and the proliferation and transformation of lymphocytes, and it also has the antioxidant function by eliminating free radicals in animal. Besides, APS has functions of anti-tumor, anti-infections, lowering blood lipids and glucose, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory, etc. Much more scholars have been attracted by its abundant resources and toxic-free property. This article summarized the research progresses of APS in livestock and poultry feeds.%苜蓿多糖(alfalfa polysaccharides,APS)是豆科牧草紫花苜蓿中提取的植物活性多糖,性质稳定,含葡萄糖、甘露糖、鼠李糖等活性成分,通过促进畜禽免疫器官的生长和淋巴细胞的增殖转化来提高畜禽的免疫功能,通过清除自由基起到抗氧化作用.另外苜蓿多糖还具有抗肿瘤、抗感染、降血脂、降血糖、抗菌、消炎等多种生物学功能.因其提取来源丰富且无毒害作用而倍受学者们的关注,本文对苜蓿多糖在畜禽饲料中的应用研究进展进行综述.

  1. Co-transforming bar and CsALDH genes enhanced resistance to herbicide and drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen eDuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict the productivity of alfalfa. By application of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, an oxidative responsive gene, CsALDH12A1, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica together with the bar gene associated with herbicide resistance, were co-transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. From the all 90 transformants, 16 were positive as screened by spraying 1 mL L-1 10% Basta solution and molecularly diagnosis using PCR. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that drought and salt stress induced high CsALDH expression in the leaves of the transgenic plants. The CsALDH expression levels under drought (15 d and salt stress (200 mM NaCl were 6.11 and 6.87 times higher than in the control plants, respectively. In comparison to the WT plants, no abnormal phenotypes were observed among the transgenic plants, which showed significant enhancement of tolerance to 15 d of drought and 10 d of salinity treatment. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical indices during drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants revealed relatively lower Na+ content and higher K+ content in the leaves relative to the WT plants, a reduction of toxic on effects and maintenance of osmotic adjustment. In addition, the transgenic plants could maintain a higher relative water content (RWC level, higher shoot biomass, fewer changes in the photosystem, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress. These results indicate that the co-expression of the introduced bar and CsALDH genes enhanced the herbicide, drought and salt tolerance of alfalfa and therefore can potentially be used as a novel genetic resource for the future breeding programs to develop new cultivars.

  2. 盐碱地改良剂对紫花苜蓿生长的影响%Influence of Saline-alkali Land Conditioners on Alfalfa Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑普山; 冯悦晨; 郝保平; 李屹峰; 薛志强

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Desulfurized gypsum, Guochan 1, Cuochan 2 conditioners on yield of alfalfa in the waste saline—alkali soil with heavy soda under field conditions. The results showed that, compared with the control, soil pH reduced 0.15 ~ 1.26, the emergence rale of alfalfa increased from 17.8% to 30.5% after application of three soil conditioners. The order of increasing emergence rate was Desulfurized gypsum > Cuochan 2> Cuochan 1. The total fresh biomass of alfalfa were increased by 3 107.5 ~ 6 971.3 kg/hm2, and the order of enhancing fresh biomass was Cuochan 2 > Guochan 1 > Desulfurized gypsum.%通过田间试验,研究了重度苏打盐碱荒地施用脱硫石膏、国产1号和国产2号3种盐碱地改良剂对紫花苜蓿出苗率和鲜草产量的影响.结果表明,与不施土壤改良剂(对照)相比,施用3种盐碱地改良剂的土壤(0~20 cm )pH值降低0.15~1.26,紫花苜蓿出苗率提高17.8% ~ 30.5%,提高出苗率由大到小的顺序为脱硫石膏>国产2号>国产1号;鲜草总产量增加3107.5 ~6971.3 kg/hm2,促进鲜草产量增加由大到小的顺序为国产2号>国产1号>脱硫石膏.

  3. INFLUENCE OF pH AND TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION ENERGY, GERMINATION, ROOT AND SEEDLINGS HYPOCOTIL LENGTH OF VARIOUS ALFALFA CULTIVARS (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Bukvić; Sonja Grljušić; Vlatka Rozman; Anita Liška; Ivan Lović

    2008-01-01

    The traits of germination energy, seed germination, as well as root and hypocotyls length of domestic alfalfa cultivars (Slavonka, Stela, Vuka) were investigated in a climate chamber. The experiment was set up at two pH levels of water solution (4.00 and 6.00) and temperature levels of 10°C and 20°C using rolled filter paper method. Significant difference between cultivars (p=0.01, p=0.05) was determined for germination energy, seed germination and hypocotyls length. Cultivar Slavonka had the...

  4. Leaf Morphology and Development of Multifoliate Alfalfa%多叶苜蓿复叶形态及发育过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武自念; 魏臻武

    2013-01-01

    通过对5个多叶苜蓿(Medicago sativa)品种叶片类型的形态研究,从品种WL323ML中筛选三叶型和五叶型复叶类型的单株为研究材料,利用扫描电镜对三叶型和五叶型苜蓿复叶发育进行对比分析.结果发现:多叶苜蓿主茎上表现有4,5,6,7,8和9叶等多种复叶类型,小叶的着生方式也表现为多种多样.扫描电镜下三叶型苜蓿和五叶型复叶叶原基的形态发育过程可划分为7个阶段.S0阶段,SAM外围形成早期的叶原基;S1阶段,出现条状共同叶原基;S2阶段,三叶型共同叶原基近端两侧产生一对托叶原基(ST),形成3个隆起的组织,而五叶型的则出现7个隆起的组织;S3阶段,三叶型苜蓿托叶原基和共同叶原基中间出现2个侧叶原基,而五叶型出现4个侧叶原基;S4阶段,侧生小叶和顶生小叶原基继续分离,出现明显的分界线,远端小叶的背面出现球状毛状体;S5阶段,侧叶和托叶原基发育出管状毛状体,侧叶、顶生小叶及托叶原基进一步伸长分化,相互之间部分重叠,表现为最初的叶结构;S6阶段,由于细胞的分裂和生长,托叶原基和侧叶原基之间出现叶柄;叶柄及叶柄表面毛状体分化明显.本研究明确了苜蓿叶原基的发育过程,对苜蓿乃至豆科复叶发育特征的研究提供依据,同时为苜蓿分子生物学和发育遗传学的研究奠定基础.%Five multifoliate alfalfa varieties imported from abroad were described. Different leaf developments of a single plant selected from accession WL323ML with trifoliate and quinquefoliolate compound leaves were compared using scanning electron microscopy. Results showed additional compound leaf types from the main stem of mutilfoliolate alfalfa having varied leaflet numbers. Leaf primordium developments of both trifoliate alfalfa and quinquefoliolate alfalfa compound leaves were divided into seven stages as observed by scanning electron microscopy. At SO stage, an incipient

  5. Caracterizaci??n de bacterias del g??nero (sino) rhizobium que nodulan alfalfa en suelos ??cidos de Argentina y Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Segundo L??pez, Eduardo

    1998-01-01

    Este trabajo se encuadra dentro de un proyecto internacional de investigaci??n financiado por la Uni??n Europea ante el problema de acidificaci??n de suelos que est??n sufriendo los alfalfares de Argentina y Uruguay. En estos pa??ses existen unos 5 millones de Ha de prados cultivados con alfalfa (Medicago sativa) que sirven de alimento al ganado vacuno. Debido a la alta fuente proteica que proporciona esta alimentaci??n las carnes de este ganado tienen una gran aceptaci??n mundial. Por otra p...

  6. 全液压山地手扶式苜蓿刈割压扁机设计与试验%A Kind of Full Hydraulic Mountains Alfalfa Cutting and Flattening Machine Design and Test Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建柱; 孙凤涛; 陈宏伟; 孙佳; 王德成

    2017-01-01

    为适应我国山坡、丘陵地带苜蓿收获特殊需求,提高苜蓿收获机械作业操作灵活性和安全性,提出了一款山地手扶式苜蓿刈割压扁机。该机采用全液压驱动,整机液压系统由行走驱动回路、工作装置升降控制回路及工作装置驱动回路3部分组成,可实现自走、工作装置升降和刈割压扁作业;工作装置升降机构采用平行四连杆机构,以保证工作装置升降过程中割刀刀盘倾角不变。同时,进行了样机试制与田间性能试验,试验表明:整机能够有效地实现苜蓿的刈割、压扁作业,爬坡度可达30%,行驶速度可达5km/h,能够实现单边制动转向及原地转向等功能,满足山坡、丘陵地带苜蓿收获的需求。%In order to meet the requirements of alfalfa harvesting on the mountain and hill environment, this paper propo-ses a kind of full hydraulic mountains hand alfalfa cutting and flattening machinery to improve its operation flexibility and safety. The machine adopts full hydraulic pressure drive with hydraulic system,which includes three parts, walking cir-cuit, working device lifting control circuit and driving circuit, to cut and flat the alfalfa, drive the machine and lift the working device. We have produced the prototype machinery and execute the tests to verify its working performance in the alfalfa field. The results indicate that the prototype can effectively complete the alfalfa cutting and flattening operation. The maximum climbable gradient is 30%,and the walking speed is up to 5 km/h. Unilateral braking steering and pivot steering is also achieved. Moreover,it can make flattening operation flexible when the machinery cut the alfalfa. So this alfalfa cutting and flattening machinery can work on the mountains and hills to harvest alfalfa.

  7. Estimation of Biomass and Canopy Height in Bermudagrass, Alfalfa, and Wheat Using Ultrasonic, Laser, and Spectral Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Joshua Pittman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive biomass estimation of vegetation has been performed via remote sensing as well as physical measurements. An effective method for estimating biomass must have accuracy comparable to the accepted standard of destructive removal. Estimation or measurement of height is commonly employed to create a relationship between height and mass. This study examined several types of ground-based mobile sensing strategies for forage biomass estimation. Forage production experiments consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were employed to examine sensor biomass estimation (laser, ultrasonic, and spectral as compared to physical measurements (plate meter and meter stick and the traditional harvest method (clipping. Predictive models were constructed via partial least squares regression and modeled estimates were compared to the physically measured biomass. Least significant difference separated mean estimates were examined to evaluate differences in the physical measurements and sensor estimates for canopy height and biomass. Differences between methods were minimal (average percent error of 11.2% for difference between predicted values versus machine and quadrat harvested biomass values (1.64 and 4.91 t·ha−1, respectively, except at the lowest measured biomass (average percent error of 89% for harvester and quad harvested biomass < 0.79 t·ha−1 and greatest measured biomass (average percent error of 18% for harvester and quad harvested biomass >6.4 t·ha−1. These data suggest that using mobile sensor-based biomass estimation models could be an effective alternative to the traditional clipping method for rapid, accurate in-field biomass estimation.

  8. Extended hypoxia in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, increases survival but causes sub-lethal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, H; Rinehart, J P; Yocum, G D; Greenlee, K J; Helm, B R; Kemp, W P; Schulz, C H; Bowsher, J H

    2014-05-01

    Many insects are tolerant of hypoxic conditions, but survival may come at a cost to long-term health. The alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, develops in brood cells inside natural cavities, and may be exposed to hypoxic conditions for extended periods of time. Whether M. rotundata is tolerant of hypoxia, and whether exposure results in sub-lethal effects, has never been investigated. Overwintering M. rotundata prepupae were exposed to 10%, 13%, 17%, 21% and 24% O2 for 11 months. Once adults emerged, five indicators of quality - emergence weight, body size, feeding activity, flight performance, and adult longevity, - were measured to determine whether adult bees that survived past exposure to hypoxia were competent pollinators. M. rotundata prepupae are tolerant of hypoxic condition and have higher survival rates in hypoxia, than in normoxia. Under hypoxia, adult emergence rates did not decrease over the 11 months of the experiment. In contrast, bees reared in normoxia had decreased emergence rates by 8 months, and were dead by 11 months. M. rotundata prepupae exposed to extended hypoxic conditions had similar emergence weight, head width, and cross-thorax distance compared to bees reared in standard 21% oxygen. Despite no significant morphological differences, hypoxia-exposed bees had lower feeding rates and shorter adult lifespans. Hypoxia may play a role in post-diapause physiology of M. rotundata, with prepupae showing better survival under hypoxic conditions. Extended exposure to hypoxia, while not fatal, causes sub-lethal effects in feeding rates and longevity in the adults, indicating that hypoxia tolerance comes at a cost. PMID:24662466

  9. Effect of plant growth promoting micro organisms on increasing water use efficiency of alfalfa in water-stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of bacterial growth on water use efficiency of alfalfa, a greenhouse experiment, as factorial based on completely randomized blocks design with three replications, was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran, in 2012. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of water stress (75, 55 and 35% of field capacity and seed inoculation at 4 levels (no inoculation (control, inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae, inoculation with rhyzobium S. meliloti, and inoculation with combination of mycorhhiza and rhyzobium. Results showed that water stress and seed inoculation have significant effect (P&le0.01 on leaf nutrients content. Water stress reduced absorption of phosphorus (23%, potassium (8%, iron (4% and increased sodium absorption (14% in non-inoculated seeds. Inoculation of seeds reduced stress effects and combined inoculation had the highest effect. Stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were affected (P&le0.01 by inoculation and water stress. Stomatal conductance was decreased during the stress period and seed inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae was most effective on increasing stomatal conductance (47% at the highest level of stress. Water use efficiency increased as a result of water stress and inoculation. The highest value of water use efficiency (0.166 mg/kg was obtained in the combined inoculation with 35% field capacity treatment. Results of regression equations showed that during the inoculation, contribution of phosphorus and potassium in regulation of stomatal conductance was increased and contribution of sodium was decreased.  However, during the stress period, the share of potassium and sodium was increased in stomatal conductance and the share of phosphorus was reduced. Also, stress increased the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency. However, inoculation reduced the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency.

  10. Viral Coat Protein Peptides with Limited Sequence Homology Bind Similar Domains of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus and Tobacco Streak Virus RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Maud M.; Ansel-McKinney, Patricia; Houser-Scott, Felicia; Yusibov, Vidadi; Loesch-Fries, L. Sue; Gehrke, Lee

    1998-01-01

    An unusual and distinguishing feature of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and ilarviruses such as tobacco streak virus (TSV) is that the viral coat protein is required to activate the early stages of viral RNA replication, a phenomenon known as genome activation. AMV-TSV coat protein homology is limited; however, they are functionally interchangeable in activating virus replication. For example, TSV coat protein will activate AMV RNA replication and vice versa. Although AMV and TSV coat proteins have little obvious amino acid homology, we recently reported that they share an N-terminal RNA binding consensus sequence (Ansel-McKinney et al., EMBO J. 15:5077–5084, 1996). Here, we biochemically compare the binding of chemically synthesized peptides that include the consensus RNA binding sequence and lysine-rich (AMV) or arginine-rich (TSV) environment to 3′-terminal TSV and AMV RNA fragments. The arginine-rich TSV coat protein peptide binds viral RNA with lower affinity than the lysine-rich AMV coat protein peptides; however, the ribose moieties protected from hydroxyl radical attack by the two different peptides are localized in the same area of the predicted RNA structures. When included in an infectious inoculum, both AMV and TSV 3′-terminal RNA fragments inhibited AMV RNA replication, while variant RNAs unable to bind coat protein did not affect replication significantly. The data suggest that RNA binding and genome activation functions may reside in the consensus RNA binding sequence that is apparently unique to AMV and ilarvirus coat proteins. PMID:9525649

  11. Identification of a competitive translation determinant in the 3' untranslated region of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, L E; Webb, A C; Cai, J M; Gehrke, L

    1997-01-01

    We report that the competitive translational activity of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein mRNA (CP RNA), a nonadenylated mRNA, is determined in part by the 3' untranslated region (UTR). Competitive translation was characterized both in vitro, with cotranslation assays, and in vivo, with microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes. In wheat germ extracts, coat protein synthesis was constant when a fixed amount of full-length CP RNA was cotranslated with increasing concentrations of competitor globin mRNA. However, translation of CP RNA lacking the 3' UTR decreased significantly under competitive conditions. RNA stabilities were equivalent. In X. laevis oocytes, which are translationally saturated and are an inherently competitive translational environment, full-length CP RNA assembled into large polysomes and coat protein synthesis was readily detectable. Alternatively, CP RNA lacking the 3' UTR sedimented as small polysomes, and little coat protein was detected. Again, RNA stabilities were equivalent. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to localize RNA sequences or structures required for competitive translation. Since the CP RNA 3' UTR has an unusually large number of AUG nucleotide triplets, two AUG-containing sites were altered in full-length RNA prior to oocyte injections. Nucleotide substitutions at the sequence GAUG, 20 nucleotides downstream of the coat protein termination codon, specifically reduced full-length CP RNA translation, while similar substitutions at the next AUG triplet had little effect on translation. The competitive influence of the 3' UTR could be explained by RNA-protein interactions that affect translation initiation or by ribosome reinitiation at downstream AUG codons, which would increase the number of ribosomes committed to coat protein synthesis. PMID:9121448

  12. Comparison of gas analyzers for quantifying eddy covariance fluxes- results from an irrigated alfalfa field in Davis, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S.; Biraud, S.; Polonik, P.; Billesbach, D.; Hanson, C. V.; Bogoev, I.; Conrad, B.; Alstad, K. P.; Burba, G. G.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    The eddy covariance technique requires simultaneous, rapid measurements of wind components and scalars (e.g., water vapor, carbon dioxide) to calculate the vertical exchange due to turbulent processes. The technique has been used extensively as a non-intrusive means to quantify land-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy. A variety of sensor technologies and gas sampling designs have been tried. Gas concentrations are commonly measured using infrared or laser absorption spectroscopy. Open-path sensors directly sample the ambient environment but suffer when the sample volume is obstructed (e.g., rain, dust). Closed-path sensors utilize pumps to draw air into the analyzer through inlet tubes which can attenuate the signal. Enclosed-path sensors are a newer, hybrid of the open- and closed-path designs where the sensor is mounted in the environment and the sample is drawn through a short inlet tube with short residence time. Five gas analyzers were evaluated as part of this experiment: open-path LI-COR 7500A, enclosed-path LI-COR 7200, closed-path Picarro G2311-f, open-path Campbell Scientific IRGASON, and enclosed-path Campbell Scientific EC155. We compared the relative performance of the gas analyzers over an irrigated alfalfa field in Davis, CA. The field was host to a range of ancillary measurements including below-ground sensors, and a weighing lysimeter. The crop was flood irrigated and harvested monthly. To compare sensors, we evaluated the half-hour mean and variance of gas concentrations (or mole densities). Power spectra for the gas analyzers and turbulent fluxes (from a common sonic anemometer) were also calculated and analyzed. Eddy covariance corrections will be discussed as they relate to sensor design (e.g., density corrections, signal attenuation).

  13. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. III. AN EXTREMELY METAL DEFICIENT GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle A.; Olive, Keith A.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W., E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    We present KPNO 4 m and LBT/MODS spectroscopic observations of an H II region in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P discovered recently in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. In both observations, we are able to accurately measure the temperature sensitive [O III] {lambda}4363 line and determine a ''direct'' oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.17 {+-} 0.04. Thus, Leo P is an extremely metal deficient (XMD) galaxy, and, indeed, one of the most metal deficient star-forming galaxies ever observed. For its estimated luminosity, Leo P is consistent with the relationship between luminosity and oxygen abundance seen in nearby dwarf galaxies. Leo P shows normal {alpha} element abundance ratios (Ne/O, S/O, and Ar/O) when compared to other XMD galaxies, but elevated N/O, consistent with the ''delayed release'' hypothesis for N/O abundances. We derive a helium mass fraction of 0.2509{sup +0.0184}{sub -0.0123}, which compares well with the WMAP + BBN prediction of 0.2483 {+-} 0.0002 for the primordial helium abundance. We suggest that surveys of very low mass galaxies compete well with emission line galaxy surveys for finding XMD galaxies. It is possible that XMD galaxies may be divided into two classes: the relatively rare XMD emission line galaxies which are associated with starbursts triggered by infall of low-metallicity gas and the more common, relatively quiescent XMD galaxies like Leo P, with very low chemical abundances due to their intrinsically small masses.

  14. 地下滴灌条件下紫花苜蓿耗水规律试验研究%Experimental Study of the Water Consumption of Alfalfa Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依江·哈比; 马英杰; 洪明; 赵经华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析不同水分处理对紫花苜蓿植株高度与生长速度、产量、耗水量及耗水规律的影响关系.[方法]通过地下滴灌紫花苜蓿在4种不同水分处理(W1:22.5 mm,W2:30 mm,W3:37.5 mm,W4:45 mm)下产量与土壤含水量的观测试验,得到不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿水分利用效率、耗水量及耗水规律.[结果]不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿植株高度与灌水量呈现线性关系,在生育期内不同水分处理对苜蓿植株高度的影响为W4 >W3 >W2 >W1;随着灌水量的增加紫花苜蓿干物质产量呈先升后降的趋势,苜蓿干物质产量与灌水量 存在二维抛物线关系;不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿水分利用效率为W1>W2>W3>W4,从实现紫花苜蓿高产、优质及节水增效的目标出发,紫花苜蓿在地下滴灌条件下,适宜的灌水处理为W3.[结论]不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿耗水量随灌水量的增加而增大,在全生育期的耗水量变化规律是由小到大,再由大到小.%[Objective ] The purpose of this project was to research and analyze the effects of different soil water treatments on alfalfa plant height and growth rate, yield, water consumption and water consumption regularity. [Method] Through the underground drip irrigation alfalfa in 4 different water treatments, ( W: 22. 5 mm, W2:30 mm, W3:37.5 mm, W4:45 mm ) and the yield and soil moisture observation experiment, the alfalfa water use efficiency and water consumption rule were obtained. [ Result] Under different water treatments in alfalfa plant, height and irrigation quantity showed a linear relationship. In the growth period of different water disposal on alfalfa plant height the influence order was; W4 > W3 > W2 > W,; with the increase in irrigation alfalfa dry matter yield increased at first and then decreased, and alfalfas dry matter yield and irrigation displayed two parabola relationship; under different water treatments, the sequence of alfalfa water use

  15. 半干旱黄土丘陵区施肥对退耕地紫花苜蓿生物量的影响%Effect of fertilization on biomass of alfalfa in returned farmland in semiarid loess hilly area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡国军; 张仁陟; 柴春山

    2012-01-01

    For increasing the aboveground biomass of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in returned farmland and pro-longing its degradation time, the mixed fertilization experiment of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer was conducted two times in 2007-2008, on alfalfa grassland that has been planted for five years in Longtan catchment, Anding district, Dingxi city. The result .showed that nitrogen fertilizer has no obvious effect on increasing the growth conditions and biomass of alfalfa. However, phosphate fertilizer has significant influence on promoting the alfalfa's growth and increasing biomass. And the mean biomass of fertilized alfalfa in 2007 and 2008 was 1. 62 and 1. 15 times the biomass of control alfalfa respectively. The highest biomass of alfalfa was appeared when phosphate fertilizer rate was highest of 12 kg/667 m2. The mean fresh biomass of alfalfa can a-chieve 18 240 kg/ha on seventh year. The growth conditions and biomass of alfalfa on sunny-slopes was better than that on shady-slopes,and its mean fresh and dry biomass were 1. 49 and 1. 43 times the biomass of shady-slopes respectively. In the semiarid loess area with 400 mm annual precipitation, the biomass of alfalfa harvest was mainly produced by the 1st harvest and it accounted for about 75% of annual biomass, whereas the biomass of 2nd harvest was small and accounted for about 25%. So twice per year for alfalfa harvest is optimized in this area.%为了提高退耕地紫花苜蓿的地上生物量并延缓其衰败期,对定西安定区龙滩流域退耕地播种5年后的紫花苜蓿,于2007- 2008年连续2年开展氮肥和磷肥混合撒施施肥试验.结果表明,施N肥对促进苜蓿生长并提高生物量没有明显的效果,施P肥效果明显,2年的施肥苜蓿平均生物量分别是对照的1.62和1.15倍,可显著促进苜蓿生长并提高其生物量,其中P肥最大用量为12 kg/667 m2时的生物量最高.栽培第7年的苜蓿鲜草产量平均可达18 240 kg/hm2.研究区阳坡的苜蓿比

  16. Overexpression of EsMcsu1 from the halophytic plant Eutrema salsugineum promotes abscisic acid biosynthesis and increases drought resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Ma, Z Y; Zhu, L; Guo, J S; Zhu, J; Wang, J F

    2015-01-01

    The stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays pivotal roles in plants' adaptive responses to adverse environments. Molybdenum cofactor sulfurases influence aldehyde oxidase activity and ABA biosynthesis. In this study, we isolated a novel EsMcsu1 gene encoding a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase from Eutrema salsugineum. EsMcus1 transcriptional patterns varied between organs, and its expression was significantly upregulated by abiotic stress or ABA treatment. Alfalfa plants that overexpressed EsMcsu1 had a higher ABA content than wild-type (WT) plants under drought stress conditions. Furthermore, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ion leakage, and malondialdehyde were lower in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants after drought treatment, suggesting that the transgenic plants experienced less ROS-mediated damage. However, the expression of several stress-responsive genes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmolyte (proline and total soluble sugar) levels in the transgenic plants were higher than those in the WT plants after drought treatment. Therefore, EsMcsu1 overexpression improved drought tolerance in alfalfa plants by activating a series of ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:26681214

  17. Expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) peroxidase gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances resistance to NaCl and H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, K; Xiao, G Z; Guo, W E; Yuan, J B; Li, J; Chao, Y H; Han, L B

    2016-01-01

    Peroxidases (PODs) are enzymes that play important roles in catalyzing the reduction of H2O2 and the oxidation of various substrates. They function in many different and important biological processes, such as defense mechanisms, immune responses, and pathogeny. The POD genes have been cloned and identified in many plants, but their function in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is not known, to date. Based on the POD gene sequence (GenBank accession No. L36157.1), we cloned the POD gene in alfalfa, which was named MsPOD. MsPOD expression increased with increasing H2O2. The gene was expressed in all of the tissues, including the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, particularly in stems and leaves under light/dark conditions. A subcellular analysis showed that MsPOD was localized outside the cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis with MsPOD exhibited increased resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. Moreover, POD activity in the transgenic plants was significantly higher than that in wild-type Arabidopsis. These results show that MsPOD plays an important role in resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. PMID:27323080

  18. Aluminium-induced reduction of plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is mediated by interrupting auxin transport and accumulation in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengyin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Huang, Bingru; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate Al(3+)-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al(3+)-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100 μM AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6 mg L(-1) IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress significantly decreased the IAA concentration in apical buds and root tips. The distribution of IAA fluorescence signals in root tips was disturbed, and the IAA transportation from shoot base to root tip was inhibited. The highest intensity of fluorescence signals was detected in the apical meristematic zone. Exogenous application of IAA markedly alleviated the Al(3+)-induced inhibition of root growth by increasing IAA accumulation and recovering the damaged cell structure in root tips. In addition, Al(3+) stress up-regulated expression of AUX1 and PIN2 genes. These results indicate that Al(3+)-induced reduction of root growth could be associated with the inhibitions of IAA synthesis in apical buds and IAA transportation in roots, as well as the imbalance of IAA distribution in root tips. PMID:27435109

  19. Technological parameters optimization for improving quality of heated-air dried alfalfa%提高紫花苜蓿热风干燥品质的工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文明; 陈红意; 赵满全

    2015-01-01

    紫花苜蓿的热风干燥是牧草收获后贮藏、深加工的必要预处理方式,为了研究紫花苜蓿干燥过程中各因素对干燥的影响及变化规律,为实际生产工艺提供参考,解决目前紫花苜蓿干燥加工中存在的营养成分损失大、含水率不稳定等问题,利用GZ-1型干燥试验装置,对紫花苜蓿的热风干燥特性和工艺进行了研究。以新鲜的紫花苜蓿为原料,紫花苜蓿的干品品质(粗蛋白含量、酸性洗涤纤维含量、中性洗涤纤维含量)为指标,在对其有影响的4个因素(热风温度、热风速度、茎秆压扁与切断长度情况、助干剂种类与浓度)进行单因素试验的基础上;采用4因素3水平正交试验进行了优化。通过对试验数据进行极差与方差分析,找出了优化工艺参数组合并得出结论:热风温度是影响苜蓿干品粗蛋白质含量的最主要因素,茎秆压扁与切断长度情况是影响苜蓿干品中酸性洗涤纤维和中性洗涤纤维含量的最主要因素,热风干燥优化后的工艺参数组合为热风温度70℃、热风速度2.5 m/s、茎秆切断长度10 cm且压扁、碳酸钾浓度3%。在此工艺参数条件下,能有效提高干燥效率,并降低干草中营养成分的损失。研究为确定紫花苜蓿热风干燥工艺参数,提高紫花苜蓿热风干燥品质提供参考。%Alfalfa is a perennial herb and it is from the Near East and East Asia. Alfalfa is rich in nutrients and trace elements such as proteins, iron and manganese that is necessary to growing of life. Alfalfa is also the high quality livestock forage. Because alfalfa contains more carbohydrates and less colloidal substances, it is difficult in ensiling. Alfalfa must be dried promptly after hay harvest. With the rapid development of animal husbandry, grass planting area is increasing rapidly. So production and modulation of hay is an important link of hay industrialization in

  20. Natural minus-strand RNAs of alfalfa mosaic virus as in vitro templates for viral RNA polymerase. 3'-Terminal non-coded guanosine and coat protein are insufficient factors for full-size plus-strand synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, C.J.; Huis in 't Veld, M.; Zuidema, D.; Graaff, de M.; Jaspars, E.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Replication complexes of alfalfa mosaic virus produce in vivo large quantities of plus-strand RNAs, but this production is fully dependent on the presence of coat protein. In order to study this process of RNA-dependent and coat protein-regulated RNA synthesis we have isolated the three natural minu

  1. Evaluation of aerated steam treatment of alfalfa and mung bean seeds to eliminate high levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O178:H12, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Patrick; Heller, Werner E; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Drissner, David

    2013-08-01

    Sprouts contaminated with human pathogens are able to cause food-borne diseases due to the favorable growth conditions for bacteria during germination and because of minimal processing steps prior to consumption. We have investigated the potential of hot humid air, i.e., aerated steam, to treat alfalfa and mung bean seeds which have been artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A. In addition, a recently collected E. coli O178:H12 isolate, characterized by a reduced heat sensitivity, was exposed to the treatment described. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica on alfalfa and mung bean seeds could be completely eliminated by a 300-s treatment with steam at 70 ± 1°C as revealed by enrichment studies. L. monocytogenes and E. coli O178:H12 could not be completely eliminated from artificially inoculated seeds. However, bacterial populations were reduced by more than 5 log CFU/g on alfalfa and by more than 4 log CFU/g on mung bean seeds. The germination rate of mung beans was not affected by the 300-s treatment compared to the germination rate of untreated seeds whereas that of alfalfa seeds was significantly lower by 11.9%. This chemical-free method is an effective alternative to the 20,000-ppm hypochlorite treatment presently recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  2. Plant regeneration from proroplasts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa via somatic embryogenesis Regeneração de plantas a partir de protoplastos de alfafa (Medicago sativa via embriogênese somática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Monteiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is one of the most frequently studied species from the production of tissue culture-derived embryos point of view. In this study, five alfalfa cultivars were analyzed with reference to their ability to regenerate plants from protoplast cultures via somatic embryogenesis. Plant regeneration from leaf-derived protoplasts isolated from the cultivar Rangelander was achieved using a protocol defined for alfalfa cell suspension-derived embryogenesis. Because of its high efficiency, this procedure is recommended for protoplast electroporation-mediated genetic transformation of alfalfa.A alfafa é uma das espécies mais freqüentemente estudadas do ponto de vista da produção de embriões somáticos derivados da cultura de tecidos. Neste trabalho, cinco cultivares de alfafa foram analisados com referência à capacidade de regenerar plantas a partir de culturas de protoplastos via embriogênese somática. Regeneração de plantas a partir de protoplastos isolados de folhas da cultivar Rangelander foi obtida usando-se um protocolo definido para embriogênese somática derivada de suspensões celulares de alfafa. Em função da sua alta eficiência, recomenda-se o uso deste procedimento para transformação genética de alfafa mediada por eletroporação de protoplastos.

  3. Influencia del agregado de enmiendas básicas sobre la producción de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en ámbitos templados argentinos Basic amendment application effects on alfalfa production in Argentine temperate areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Vázquez

    2010-12-01

    ,1-0,9 unidad de pH en la capa superficial. La capacidad de intercambio catiónica aumentó de 0,2 a 5,3 cmol kg-1, y el Ca intercambiable hasta un máximo de 2,6 cmol kg-1. Se registró un efecto negativo del encalado sobre el contenido de P extractable, sugiriendo la necesidad de acompañar la práctica con diagnósticos de este elemento.Natural and anthropic factors may produce soil acidification in temperate areas, causing deficiencies/unbalances of basic nutrients, particularly Ca and Mg. This problem requires regional experimentation to generate regulations for the election of the amendment, rate and application form. The aim of this study was to compare the alfalfa yield of three areas in the argentine temperate region, the basic nutrient concentration in the plants, and the changes in edaphic properties caused by the different rates and types of amendments. Two trials were conducted in Typic Argiudolls and one in an Entic Hapludoll of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe and Córdoba provinces. The treatments consisted in the application of 0 and 700, or 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 kg ha-1 of shell/calcite and dolomite, according to the site. The effect of the additional application of 200 kg ha-1 of gypsum was evaluated. Alfalfa dry matter yield, foliar concentration of Ca and Mg and the effect of the treatments on edaphic properties were measured. The smaller rates (700-1,000 kg ha-1, with or without gypsum, produced the greatest yield increases. These increases were of 9, 16.5 and 18.8% respect to the control, for the trial of Santa Fe (C1000; 6 harvests, Buenos Aires (C1000, 5 harvests and Córdoba (C700, 10 harvests, respectively, and of 11.7; 14.4 and 9.1% respect to the control, for the trial of Santa Fe (D1000, Buenos Aires (D1000 and Córdoba (D700, respectively. The residuality extended all along the evaluation time (27 months. The treatments did not produce mayor differences in the foliar concentrations of Ca and Mg, although they increased the availability of both nutrients

  4. Changes in respiratory structure and function during post-diapause development in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owings, Austin A; Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Kemp, William P; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2014-07-01

    Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, is a solitary, cavity-nesting bee. M. rotundata develop from eggs laid inside brood cells constructed from leaf pieces and placed in series in an existing cavity. Due to the cavity nesting behavior of M. rotundata, developing bees may experience hypoxic conditions. The brood cell itself and the position of cell inside the cavity may impact the rates of oxygen diffusion creating hypoxic conditions for developing animals. We hypothesized that bees would be adapted to living in hypoxia and predicted that they would be highly tolerant of hypoxic conditions. To test the hypothesis, we measured critical PO2 (Pcrit) in pupal M. rotundata of varying ages. Defined as the atmospheric O2 level below which metabolic rate cannot be sustained, Pcrit is a measure of an animal's respiratory capacity. Using flow through respirometry, we measured CO2 emission rates of developing bees exposed to 21, 10, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0 kPa PO2 and statistically determined Pcrit. Mean Pcrit was 4 kPa PO2 and ranged from 0 to 10 kPa PO2, similar to those of other insects. Pcrit was positively correlated with age, indicating that as pupae aged, they were less tolerant of hypoxia. To determine if there were developmental changes in tracheal structure that accounted for the increase in Pcrit, we used synchrotron X-ray imaging and measured the diameter of several tracheae in the head and abdomen of developing bees. Analyses of tracheal diameters showed that tracheae increased in size as animals aged, but the magnitude of the increase varied depending on which trachea was measured. Tracheal diameters increased as pupae molted and decreased as they neared adult emergence, possibly accounting for the decrease in hypoxia tolerance. Little is known about respiratory structures during metamorphosis in bees, and this study provides the first description of tracheal system structure and function in developing M. rotundata. Studies such as this are important

  5. The regulation of alfalfa saponin extract on key genes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Shi

    Full Text Available To investigate the cholesterol-lowering effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE and its regulation mechanism on some key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, 40 healthy 7 weeks old male Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups with 10 rats in each group: control group, hyperlipidemic group, ASE treatment group, ASE prevention group. The body weight gain, relative liver weight and serum lipid 1evels of rats were determined. Total cholesterol (TC and total bile acids (TBA levels in liver and feces were also measured. Furthermore, the activity and mRNA expressions of Hmgcr, Acat2, Cyp7a1 and Ldlr were investigated. The results showed the following: (1 The abnormal serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemic rats were ameliorated by ASE administration (both ASE prevention group and treatment group (P<0.05. (2 Both ASE administration to hyperlipidemic rats significantly reduced liver TC and increased liver TBA level (P<0.05. TC and TBA levels in feces of hyperlipidemic rats were remarkably elevated by both ASE administration (P<0.05. (3 mRNA expressions of Hmgcr and Acat2 in the liver of hyperlipidemic rats were remarkably down-regulated (P<0.05, as well as mRNA expressions of Cyp7a1 and Ldlr were dramatically up-regulated by both ASE administration (P<0.05. The activities of these enzymes also paralleled the observed changes in mRNA levels. (4 There was no significant difference between ASE treatment and ASE prevention group for most parameters evaluated. Our present study indicated that ASE had cholesterol-lowering effects. The possible mechanism could be attributed to (1 the down-regulation of Hmgcr and Acat2, as well as up-regulation of Cyp7a1 and Ldlr in the liver of hyperlipidemic rats, which was involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and efflux pathway; (2 the increase in excretion of cholesterol. The findings in our study suggested ASE had great potential usefulness as a natural agent for treating hyperlipidemia.

  6. An accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation with heavily gas-dominated ALFALFA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergis, E.; Adams, E. A. K.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    We use a sample of 97 galaxies selected from the Arecibo legacy fast ALFA (ALFALFA) 21 cm survey to make an accurate measurement of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR). These galaxies are specifically selected to be heavily gas-dominated (Mgas/M∗ ≳ 2.7) and to be oriented edge-on. The former property ensures that the error on the galactic baryonic mass is small, despite the large systematic uncertainty involved in galactic stellar mass estimates. The latter property means that rotational velocities can be derived directly from the width of the 21 cm emission line, without any need for inclination corrections. We measure a slope for the linewidth-based BTFR of α = 3.75 ± 0.11, a value that is somewhat steeper than (but in broad agreement with) previous literature results. The relation is remarkably tight, with almost all galaxies being located within a perpendicular distance of ± 0.1 dex from the best fit line. The low observational error budget for our sample enables us to establish that, despite its tightness, the measured linewidth-based BTFR has some small (i.e., non-zero) intrinsic scatter. We furthermore find a systematic difference in the BTFR of galaxies with "double-horned" 21 cm line profiles - suggestive of flat outer galactic rotation curves - and those with "peaked" profiles - suggestive of rising rotation curves. When we restrict our sample of galaxies to objects in the former category, we measure a slightly steeper slope of α = 4.13 ± 0.15. Overall, the high-accuracy measurement of the BTFR presented in this article is intended as a reliable observational benchmark against which to test theoretical expectations. Here we consider a representative set of semi-analytic models and hydrodynamic simulations in the lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) context, as well as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). In the near future, interferometric follow-up observations of several sample members will enable us to further refine the BTFR measurement, and

  7. Study on Benefits of Intercropping of Maize and Alfalfa on Soil and Water Conservation%玉米苜蓿间作的蓄水保土效益试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成婧; 吴发启; 路培; 王健; 云峰; 吴光艳

    2012-01-01

    为了在种植作物的同时减少水土流失,采用玉米苜蓿间作的种植模式,研究其蓄水保土效益。试验对玉米苜蓿间作与单作玉米的土壤含水量,径流量以及产沙量进行观测,进而研究两者的蓄水保土效益。结果表明:玉米苜蓿间作地的土壤含水量大于玉米单作地的土壤含水量;玉米苜蓿间作的径流量和产沙量均小于玉米单作,说明了玉米苜蓿能够有效地减少径流的冲刷侵蚀,具有良好的拦沙性能;经计算得出玉米苜蓿间作的蓄水效益为87%,保土效益为98%,表明玉米苜蓿间作的蓄水保土效益显著。%In order to grow crops while reducing soil erosion, cropping patterns, maize intercropped with alfalfa, was used to study soil and water conservation benefits. Soil moisture, runoff and sediment yield of intercropping patterns for maize and alfalfa and monoculture maize were observed and both soil and water conser- vation benefits were studied. The results showed that soil moisture of intercropping patterns for maize and alfalfa was more than monoculture maize in soil moisture; runoff and sediment yield of intercropping patterns for maize and alfalfa were less than that of maize monoculture, which indicated that intercropping patterns for maize and alfalfa could effectively reduce runoff erosion and had a good performance of sediment reduc tion; The water storage efficiency of intercropping patterns for maize and alfalfa was 87%, soil conservation efficiency was 98%, which indicated that soil and water conservation benefits of intercropping patterns for maize and alfalfa were significant.

  8. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    with formation of water flow and water storage. The major changes are formed as a result of imposing of the intensity fields on a soil surface and its field capillary infiltration rate. Excess of the first intensity over the second in each point of soil surface leads to formation of a layer of intensity of water not infiltrated in soil. Thus generate the new field of vectors of intensity which can consist of vertically directed vector of speed of evaporation, a quasi horizontal vector of intensity of a surface water flow and quasi vertical vector of intensity of a preferential flow directed downwards. Principal cause of excess of irrigation water application intensity over capillary infiltration rate can be on the one hand spatial non-uniformity of irrigation water application, and with other spatial variability of capillary infiltration rate, connected with spatial variability of water storage in the top layers of soil. As a result the spatial redistribution of irrigation water over irrigated filed forms distortions of ideal model of irrigation water storage in root zone of soil profile. The major differences consist in increasing of water storage in the depressions of a relief of an irrigated field and accordingly in their reduction on elevated zones of a relief, as well as losses of irrigation water outside of boundaries of a root zone of an irrigated field, in vertical, and horizontal directions. One of key parameters characterizing interaction between irrigation technology and soil state an irrigated field are intensity of water application, intensity and volume of a capillary infiltration, the water storage in root zone at the moment of infiltration starting and a topography of an irrigated field. Fnalyzing of spatial links between these characteristics a special research had been carried out on irrigated by sprinkler machine called Fregate at alfalfa field during the summer of 2012. This research carried out at experimental farm of the research institute Volg

  9. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  10. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  11. The tep1 gene of Sinorhizobium meliloti coding for a putative transmembrane efflux protein and N-acetyl glucosamine affect nod gene expression and nodulation of alfalfa plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto María

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil bacteria collectively known as Rhizobium, characterized by their ability to establish beneficial symbiosis with legumes, share several common characteristics with pathogenic bacteria when infecting the host plant. Recently, it was demonstrated that a fadD mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti is altered in the control of swarming, a type of co-ordinated movement previously associated with pathogenicity, and is also impaired in nodulation efficiency on alfalfa roots. In the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris, a fadD homolog (rpfB forms part of a cluster of genes involved in the regulation of pathogenicity factors. In this work, we have investigated the role in swarming and symbiosis of SMc02161, a S. meliloti fadD-linked gene. Results The SMc02161 locus in S. meliloti shows similarities with members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS of transporters. A S. meliloti null-mutant shows increased sensitivity to chloramphenicol. This indication led us to rename the locus tep1 for transmembrane efflux protein. The lack of tep1 does not affect the appearance of swarming motility. Interestingly, nodule formation efficiency on alfalfa plants is improved in the tep1 mutant during the first days of the interaction though nod gene expression is lower than in the wild type strain. Curiously, a nodC mutation or the addition of N-acetyl glucosamine to the wild type strain lead to similar reductions in nod gene expression as in the tep1 mutant. Moreover, aminosugar precursors of Nod factors inhibit nodulation. Conclusion tep1 putatively encodes a transmembrane protein which can confer chloramphenicol resistance in S. meliloti by expelling the antibiotic outside the bacteria. The improved nodulation of alfalfa but reduced nod gene expression observed in the tep1 mutant suggests that Tep1 transports compounds which influence nodulation. In contrast to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, we show that in S. meliloti there is no feedback regulation

  12. Effect of vitamin E supplementation or alfalfa grazing on fatty acid composition and expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Calvo, L; Joy, M; Blanco, M; Dervishi, E; Molino, F; Sarto, P; Ripoll, G; Serrano, M; Calvo, J H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E (VE) supplementation and alfalfa grazing during fattening on fatty acid composition and mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in the LM of Rasa Aragonesa light lambs. After weaning, 48 lambs were kept indoors and fed a commercial concentrate and a VE supplemented concentrate (480 mg DL-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg DM) for 0 (control [CON]), 10 (VE10d), 20 (VE20d), and 30 d (VE30d) before slaughtering at 22 to 24 kg. Simultaneously, 8 unweaned lambs grazed in alfalfa (154 mg α-tocopherol/kg DM) paddocks with their dams and supplemented with the commercial concentrate (ALF). Immediately after slaughter, LM was sampled to determine gene expression. After 24 h of cooling at 4°C, LM was extracted to determine intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition. The IMF content did not differ with the dietary treatment ( = 0.212). Unweaned grazing alfalfa lambs had greater concentration of rumenic acid (C18:2 c9,t11; P < 0.001) and lower oleic acid (C18:1 c9; = 0.001) content and PUFA n-6:n-3 ratio (P < 0.001) but similar expression of genes implicated in lipid metabolism compared to the concentrate-fed lambs. Vitamin E supplementation did not modify muscle fatty acid composition; however, it increased the expression of FADS2 and ELOVL6, which are involved in desaturation of long-chain fatty acid and the elongation of SFA and MUFA. The results showed that a short period of VE supplementation, especially 10 (VE10d) and 20 d (VE20d), modified gene expression. Overall, the results showed that VE may be acting as a regulatory factor for transcriptional control of genes related to lipid metabolism in the muscle of Rasa Aragonesa light lambs (22-24 kg live weight and younger than 90 d old). PMID:26115290

  13. 妊娠母猪饲粮中不同苜蓿鲜草替代量对其生产性能的影响%Effects of fresh alfalfa levels and alfalfa meal in the diet on the production performance of sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宝安; 高永革; 王成章; 王彦华; 张晓霞; 韩明鹏

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of replacing concentrate with different levels of fresh alfalfa (Medicago sati-va) or alfalfa meal on the production performance of sows a single-factor and randomized block design was used. Thirty Large White X Landrace sows, with similar mating date, birth order, superior fetal litter size, and body condition, were divided into six groups with five pigs per group, one pig for each duplicate. The pregnant swine of the control group was fed the basal diet (0% alfalfa), while those of test groupsⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲand Ⅳ were replaced with 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% fresh alfalfa (by dry matter %), respectively, and that of test group V was replaced with 20% alfalfa meal. 1) Compared with the control group, the digestibility of all test groups, including CP (crude protein), Ash (crude ash), NDF (neutral detergent fiber), ADF (acid detergent fiber), Ca and P were improved, and the digestibility of group Ⅲ was significantly higher than that of the control group (P0. 05) between the groups. 3) Fresh alfalfa had a positive influence on the total newborn piglets, newborn live piglets, weaning piglets, weight of weaning litter and daily weight gain of weaning litters; The weights of weaning piglets of the fresh alfalfa groups (except group Ⅲ) were similar to the control group, but the alfalfa meal group of group Ⅴ was significantly higher (P<0. 05) and the weight of weaning piglets and daily gain of group V were significantly higher (P<0. 01) than those of the control and the other groups. In conclusion, replacing concentrate with 30% fresh alfalfa gave the best value of production performance and economic benefits in the pregnant swine diet.%在母猪妊娠期用不同比例的紫花苜蓿鲜草代替部分精料,研究其对生产性能及经济效益的影响.试验选用胎次、配种时间、上胎产仔数、体况等基本一致的大长二元母猪30头,采用单因子完全随机设计,共分为6个组,每组5头猪,每头猪1个重复.对照组

  14. Datura Genus Weeds as an Epidemiological Factor of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Potato virus Y (PVY) on Solanaceus Crops Malezas del Género Datura como Factor Epidemiológico del Virus del mosaico de la alfalfa (AMV), Virus del mosaico del pepino (CMV) y Virus Y de la papa (PVY) en Solanáceas Cultivadas

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ormeño; Paulina Sepúlveda; Ricardo Rojas; Jaime E. Araya

    2006-01-01

    Plant samples of jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) and thornapple (D. ferox L.) were collected to determine the presence of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), and Potato virus Y (PVY) in Santiago, Chile (33º34’ S lat, 70º38’ W long, altitude 625 mosl), using double stranded RNA (dsRNA) analysis and ELISA. Both weeds were positive to the three types of virus with a percentage of infection ranging from 20-30% except for PVY infection in D. stramonium with an incidence of 5...

  15. 不同秋眠级紫花苜蓿品种生产性能的对比分析研究%Comparatively Analysis the Production Performance of Different Dormant Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃栋; 刘自学; 苏爱莲

    2012-01-01

    为获得适宜在北京地区种植的优良休眠型苜蓿品种,并利用苜蓿品种的休眠级数来指导国内苜蓿种植区划.采用随机区组法,进行了7个不同休眠级紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)在北京地区的生产性能对比分析田间试验研究,在2010年8月-2011年10月,连续2年对紫花苜蓿的出苗时间、越冬率、生长速度、再生性、草产量、干鲜比、茎叶比进行测定.结果表明:不同休眠类型的紫花苜蓿生产性能存在显著差异(P<0.05),不同品种草产量存在显著差异(P<0.05),半秋眠苜蓿的鲜草产量显著高于非秋眠苜蓿,秋眠性强的品种越冬存活率高,所有品种草产量第一茬>第二茬>第三茬;在北京地区,应主要考虑秋眠和半秋眠的高产品种的培育与引进,秋眠型和半秋眠型的紫花苜蓿均可安全越冬,生产性能较好,适宜北京地区种植,非秋眠型(7~9级)的紫花苜蓿其越冬率相对较低,植株存活率低,生产性能较低,若要在北京地区种植需采取其他农艺措施提高其越冬存活率.%In order to obtain some dormancy alfalfa varieties that suited in Beijing Region, and used dormancy series of alfalfa to guide the domestic alfalfa planting regionalization. This article adopted a randomized block design, comparatively analysis the production performance of 7 different nondormant alfalfa in the Beijing Region. In 2010 August to 2011 October, the germination time of alfalfa, winter survival rate, growth rate, renewability, grass yield, ratio of dry and fresh weight, leaf stem ratio were determined. The results showed that different types of nondormant alfalfa had significant difference (.Psecond stubble>third stubble. In the Beijing area, we basically should consider the cultivation and the introduction of dormancy and semi-dormant alfalfa of high-yield, the dormant and semi-dormant alfalfa could safely survived over the winter and the production performance were well that were

  16. Resposta da alfafa a fontes de fósforo associadas ao gesso e à calagem Alfalfa response to phosphorus sources associated to gypsum and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sarmento

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O fósforo é um dos nutriente mais importante na produção de alfafa nos solos brasileiros. Diversas fontes de P são disponíveis no mercado e o fosfato de Gafsa (FG é considerado tão eficiente como solúvel. A eficiência dos adubos fosfatados é afetada pela acidez do solo. O uso do gesso associado ao FG pode corrigir o perfil do solo em relação ao alumínio e diminuir a fixação do P no solo. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar num experimento em vasos a eficiência do superfosfato triplo (ST, do FG e do FG com gesso, aplicados antes e depois da calagem, nas doses de 50, 100 e 200 mg P dm-3. Foi utilizado um solo classificado como LATOSSOLO VERMELHO-AMARELO Alumínico. Foram efetuados três plantios de alfafa, realizando-se um corte no primeiro plantio e três cortes no terceiro. Com o ST obteve-se maior produção de matéria seca (MS (3,3 g/vaso do que com o FG (1,0 g/vaso no primeiro plantio. Mas no terceiro plantio ocorreu menor produção de MS com o uso do ST (2,4 g/vaso do que com o FG (6,0 g/vaso. O gesso com FG elevou a produção de MS (7,0 g/vaso em relação ao FG (3,7 g/vaso no terceiro plantio. A aplicação do ST depois da calagem aumentou a produção de MS (5,0 g/vaso comparado a aplicação antes da calagem (3,7 g/vaso, no primeiro plantio. Não houve efeito do momento de calagem para o FG com ou sem gesso.Phosphorus is one of the most important nutrients in alfalfa production in Brazilian soils. Several P sources are available in the market and the Gafsa phosphate (GP is considered as efficient and soluble. The efficiency of phosphate fertilizers is affected by soil acidity. The use of GP associated to gypsum can aliviate Al toxicity and reduce soil phosphorus fixation. Therefore, this study was curried out in a glasshouse experiment, aiming to evaluate the efficiency of the triple superphosphate (TS and GP and GP with gypsum, applied before and after liming at the rates of 50; 100 and 200 mg P dm-3. The

  17. The Am Gene Controlling Resistance to Alfalfa mosaic virus in Tomato Is Located in the Cluster of Dominant Resistance Genes on Chromosome 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrella, Giuseppe; Moretti, André; Gognalons, Patrick; Lesage, Marie-Laure; Marchoux, George; Gebre-Selassie, Kashay; Caranta, Carole

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT The dominant gene Am from Lycopersicon hirsutum f. sp. glabratum PI134417 confers resistance to most strains of Alfalfa mosaic virus, including the recently identified necrotic strains. The phenotypic response includes a lack of symptom development following mechanical inoculation of leaves. To study the resistance mechanism controlled by Am, biological (back-inoculation to susceptible hosts), serological (double-antibody sandwich, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and molecular (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with specific riboprobes) methods of virus detection have been conducted on mechanically inoculated PI134417 leaves. The virus was never recovered, indicating that Am acts by an inhibition of viral accumulation during the early events of the virus life cycle. Am has been mapped genetically to the short arm of tomato chromosome 6 in the resistance hotspot, which includes the R-genes Mi and Cf-2/Cf-5 and the quantitative resistance factors Ty-1, Ol-1, and Bw-5. PMID:18944110

  18. Systemic transport of Alfalfa mosaic virus can be mediated by the movement proteins of several viruses assigned to five genera of the 30K family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Thor V M; Peiró, Ana; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús

    2013-03-01

    We previously showed that the movement protein (MP) gene of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is functionally exchangeable for the cell-to-cell transport of the corresponding genes of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Brome mosaic virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Cucumber mosaic virus and Cowpea mosaic virus. We have analysed the capacity of the heterologous MPs to systemically transport the corresponding chimeric AMV genome. All MPs were competent in systemic transport but required the fusion at their C terminus of the coat protein-interacting C-terminal 44 aa (A44) of the AMV MP. Except for the TMV MP, the presence of the hybrid virus in upper leaves correlated with the capacity to move locally. These results suggest that all the MPs assigned to the 30K superfamily should be exchangeable not only for local virus movement but also for systemic transport when the A44 fragment is present. PMID:23136366

  19. Soil structure degradation in patches of alfalfa fields Degradação da estrutura do solo em "patches" em pastagens de alfafa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Miretti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa is the basic forage resource for milk production in the flat Pampa of the Santa Fe Province of Argentina. However, the presence of microrelief with patches threatens the expansion of the area cultivated with alfalfa. The lower productivity in the patches is attributed to the inferior soil physical quality. The objectives of this study were to quantify indicators of soil physical quality and to establish the soil properties that would affect the alfalfa productivity in patches (PA and normal areas (NA. Additionally, the macro and micro nutrient contents in both areas were determined. The experiment was carried out on an Aquic Argiudoll. Eighteen sampling sites, nine in NA and nine in PA were established. At each site, undisturbed soil samples (5 × 5 cm cores were collected to measure soil bulk density (Bd, soil resistance to root penetration (PR, effective stress (σ, the water release curve and the least limiting water range (LLWR. Disturbed soil samples were also taken to determine macro and micronutrient contents, and particle size distribution. Non differences were detected for soil chemical properties between PA and NA. Aggregate size distribution indicated predominance of small aggregates in PA. Bd, PR and s were higher in PA than in NA, while the LLWR was narrower. Inadequate aeration under conditions of excessive soil moisture and inappropriate soil mechanical resistance when the soil is dry would affect alfalfa productivity. The overall results indicate that the soil physical quality in PA is lower than in NA.A alfafa (Medicago sativa é a pastagem básica na produção de leite na Pampa plana da Província de Santa Fe da Argentina. Entretanto, a presença de microrelevo com "patches" (áreas de menor produção ameaça a expansão da cultura. A menor produtividade nos "patches" foi atribuída â inferior qualidade física do solo. Avaliaram-se indicadores de qualidade física do solo e estabeleceram-se as

  20. Halpha3: an Halpha imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. II. The star formation properties of galaxies in the Virgo cluster and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Fossati, Matteo; Galardo, Vincenzo; Grossetti, Francesco; Boselli, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2013-01-01

    We present the analysis of Halpha3, an Halpha imaging survey of 409 galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo ALFALFA Survey in the Local Supercluster, including the Virgo cluster. We explore the relations between the stellar mass, the HI mass and the current, massive SFR of nearby galaxies in the Virgo cluster and we compare them with those of isolated galaxies in the Local Supercluster, disentangling the role of the environment in shaping the star formation properties of galaxies at the present cosmological epoch. We investigate the relationships between atomic neutral gas and newly formed stars in different environments, across many morphological types, and over a wide range of stellar masses adopting an updated calibration of the HI deficiency parameter. Studying the mean properties of late-type galaxies in the Local Supercluster, we find that galaxies in increasing local galaxy density conditions (or decreasing projected angular separation from M87) show a significant decrease in the HI content and in the me...

  1. Effects of fertilization with liquid extracts of biogas residues on the growth and forage yield of alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) under arid zone conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study liquid extract of biogas residue (LEBR) from date palm waste was used to fertilize soil for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivation. The results revealed that LEBR application significantly increased plant height, number of branches per meter and the contents of crude protein and ash over the control. The largest plant height and number of branches per meter and the highest ash and Phosphorus contents in the plant dry matter were obtained at the application of 3 L/m2 of LEBR solution containing 15% extract, to the soil while a solution containing 10% extract gave the highest fresh and dry biomass yields. Soil treated with LEBR had higher EC and higher contents of NH/sub 4/, NO/sub 3/, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu than the untreated soil. The pH of the soil decreased with increased amount of LEBR applied. (author)

  2. Manejo de água para estabelecimento de alfafa (Medicago sativa L. Water management for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bartolomeu Rassini

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de água para o desenvolvimento da alfafa cv. Crioula foi avaliado a campo, com a finalidade de verificar seus efeitos no estabelecimento da planta, até o 1º corte, em 1997. Para isso, verificou-se o comportamento em três estádios de desenvolvimento (E1 = início do estádio vegetativo, E2 = vegetativo pleno e E3 = reprodutivo até colheita em quatro níveis de água (A = 100%, B = 80%, C = 45-50% e D = 20-25% de uma lâmina de irrigação por aspersão. Foram avaliados oito experimentos: 111, 110, 100, 101, 001, 011, 010, 000, em que o primeiro dígito se refere a E1; o segundo, a E2; e o terceiro, a E3. O valor 0 representa a época em que o estádio não recebeu água, coberto por uma estrututura móvel, que deslizava sobre trilhos, e também protegia contra precipitações pluviais casuais. O valor 1 refere-se à época em que houve aplicação dos níveis de água de irrigação. Os estádios de desenvolvimento da planta, em termos de rendimento de matéria seca, responderam de maneira diferente às condições hídricas, sendo E2 e E3 (planta estabelecida os mais sensíveis e E1 (início do estádio vegetativo, o menos sensível, no qual a água foi prejudicial ao estabelecimento e rendimento da planta.The water management for growth of Crioula alfalfa cultivar was evaluated in a field study, in order to assess the effects in the plant establishment up to the first cut, at 1977. The study was carried out in 1997. So that, the behaviour at three growth stages (E1 = early vegetative stage, E2 = full vegetative stage, and E3 = reproductive stage until harvest in the presence of four water levels (A = 100%, B = 80%, C = 45-50%, and D = 20-25% from a sprinkler irrigation was studied. Eight combinations were evaluated: 111, 110, 100, 101, 001, 011, 010, 000, where the first digit is E1, the second is E2 and the third is E3. The number 0 in the figures represents the period in which growth stage did not receive water, cover by a

  3. Effects of sowing methods and potassium application on the performance of two Alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic University of Omdurman during the period from december 2004 to may 2006 to evaluate the effects of three sowing methods (sowing on flat, ridges and mustaba) and the tow levels of potassium fertilizer, (0 k0 and 50 kg/ha k1) on the performance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). This was carried out using tow cultivars, Hegazi (local) and Alfanafa (introduced). A randomized complete block design with four applications in factorial experiment was used to layout the work field. Sowing was done in the last week of december 2004 at a seed rate of 20 kg/ha by broadcasting the seeds on flat, ridge and mustaba. The first irrigation was applied immediately and the second was done five days after sowing. Subsequent irrigations were performed at an interval of seven days between irrigations during summer and ten days during winter, depending on the weather conditions. A seedling emergence was observed 3 to 5 days after sowing. Weeding was done manually when necessary. The first cut was done 70 days after sowing, when 50% of the plants were in the bloom stage, and the subsequent ones were done monthly, using a sickle, just a above the soil surface. A After the last cut (in Feb 2006), when environmental conditions were favorable, the plants were left were for seed yield which was harvested in April, 2006. Data were collected on plant height, plant population, leaf area index, leaf to stem ratio, fresh weight, dry weight, potassium content in plant, seed-yield and its components. The results revealed that there were significant differences between cultivars, sowing methods, potassium application and all possible interactions between the different treatments for all parameters except number of pods/raceme and total seed-weight in all treatments, leaf to stem ratio, leaf area index, number of racemes/plant, number of seeds/pod and 1000-seed weight in sowing methods and potassium

  4. Analysis on Yield Characteristics of Male Sterile Lines of Alfalfa%苜蓿雄性不育系杂交制种产量性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海玲; 石凤翎; 郝玉光; 徐军; 蔡丽艳; 高翠萍

    2012-01-01

    Eight Male Sterile Lines of Afalfal and three afalfal materials with better characters were get by Backcrossing that used as female and male parent,and carried hybrid seed production test in open pollination and artificial pollination. The results showed: (1) Megachile pollination could Effectively improve male sterile lines of alfalfa seed yield (33.66% ) ,and the per plant seed yield of No. 2 was the highest (3.16 g/plant). (2) Correlation and regression analysis indicated that branches of per plant was the most important factor which influenced the male sterile lines seed yield of alfalfa, and the setting percentage was the secondly.%以回交转育得到8个苜蓿雄性不育株(系)和3个优良苜蓿品种为亲本,分别在开放授粉和人工控制下进行杂交制种试验.结果表明:切叶蜂辅助授粉方式可以有效提高苜蓿雄性不育株(系)的制种产量.综合2种授粉方式下的制种产量,其中2号不育株(系)单株种子产量最高(3.16g/株);通过苜蓿雄性不育株(系)种子产量的相关分析和回归分析,明确了每株生殖枝数对不育株(系)单株种子产量作用影响最大,其次是结实率.

  5. The sky is falling II: Impact of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors on corn and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, William J; Mendenhall, Scout; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin

    2014-06-01

    Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5million kg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts. PMID:24632062

  6. Effects of pistachio by-products in replacement of alfalfa hay on populations of rumen bacteria involved in biohydrogenation and fermentative parameters in the rumen of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, M H; Tahmasbi, A-M; Khorvash, M; Naserian, A-A; Ghaffari, A H; Valizadeh, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sundried pistachio by-products (PBP) as a replacement of alfalfa hay (AH) on blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and populations of rumen bacteria involved in biohydrogenation (BH) in Baluchi sheep. Four adult male Baluchi sheep (41 ± 1.3 kg, BW) fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) control, (ii) 12% PBP (0.33 of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP), (iii) 24% PBP (0.66 of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP) and (iv) 36% PBP (all of AH in basal diet replaced by PBP). The basal diet was 360 g/kg dry matter (DM) alfalfa hay, 160 g/kg DM wheat straw and 480 g/kg DM concentrate. The trial consisted of four periods, each composed of 16 days adaptation and 4 days data collection including measurement of blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and population of bacteria. No differences were observed in rumen pH among the treatments, while rumen ammonia-N concentrations were decreased (p< 0.05) with increasing PBP by up to 36% DM of the diets. Using of 36% PBP in the diet reduced (p < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations and the molar proportion of acetate, while the concentration of propionate, butyrate and acetate to propionate ratio were similar to all other treatments. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) decreased (p < 0.01) with increasing PBP by up to 36% DM in the diets of sheep. However, other blood metabolites were not affected by the experimental diets. It was concluded that PBP in replacement of AH had no effects on the relative abundance of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus in relation to the control diet.

  7. 苜蓿草粉对金属材料的磨料磨损试验%Experiment of Metal Materials Abrasive Wear for Alfalfa Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜; 吴劲锋; 马国军; 黄晓鹏

    2009-01-01

    The abrasive testing machine with operation process similar to the pelleting circular mold was used, taking the alfalfa grass powder as abrasive material. The influences of alfalfa powder on the abrasive properties of four kind of metal materials were examined, by measuring the rigidity and chemical components of the abraded surfaces and analyzing of the microstructures and surface morphologies of the abraded surfaces. It is shown that the abrasive quantities of four samples as below are orderly increased, 3Cr13, 9SiCr, 45~# steel, and HT200, some physical and chemical changes take place on the abraded surfaces, and "the soft abrasive wear" is accompanied by "the hard abrasive wear" feature due to the micro-cutting and strain fatigue.%选用与环模制粒工况相似的磨料磨损试验机,以首蓿草粉为磨料对试样进行磨料磨损试验.通过磨后表面的硬度和化学成分测定、微观结构和表面形貌观察,考察了苜蓿草粉对4种金属材料的磨料磨损.结果表明,4种材料的体积磨损量由小到大依次为3Cr13、9SiCr、45号钢、HT200,试样的磨损表面发生了物理和化学变化."软磨料磨损"中伴有"硬磨料磨损"的特征,显微切削和应变疲劳剥落为其主要磨损形式.

  8. The sky is falling II: Impact of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors on corn and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, William J; Mendenhall, Scout; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin

    2014-06-01

    Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5million kg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts.

  9. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  10. Plant response to heavy metal toxicity: comparative study between the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) and nonaccumulator plants: lettuce, radish, and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-10-01

    Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) is one of the best-known heavy metal (HM) hyperaccumulating plant species. It exhibits the ability to extract and accumulate various HM at extremely high concentrations. In this hydroponic study, the performance of T. caerulescens (ecotype Ganges) to accumulate Cd, Zn, and Cu was compared with that of three nonaccumulator plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Plants were exposed to the separately dissolved HM salts for 7 days at a wide range of increasing concentrations: 0 (control: 1/5 Hoagland nutrient solution), 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM. The comparative study combined chemical, physiological, and ecotoxicological assessments. Excessive concentrations of HM (100 and 1000 microM) affected plant growth, photosynthesis, and phytoaccumulation efficiency. Root exudation for all plant species was highly and significantly correlated to HM concentration in exposure solutions and proved its importance to counter effect toxicity. T. caerulescens resisted better the phytotoxic effects of Cd and Zn (at 1000 microM each), and translocated them significantly within tissues (366 and 1290 microg g(-1), respectively). At the same HM level, T. caerulescens exhibited lower performances in accumulating Cu when compared with the rest of plant species, mainly alfalfa (298 microg g(-1)). Root elongation inhibition test confirmed the selective aptitude of T. caerulescens to better cope with Cd and Zn toxicities. MetPLATE bioassay showed greater sensitivity to HM toxicity with much lower EC(50) values for beta-galactosidase activity in E. coli. Nevertheless, exaggerated HM concentrations coupled with relatively short exposure time did not allow for an efficient metal phytoextraction thus a significant reduction of ecotoxicity. PMID:18528911

  11. 添加初花期骆驼刺改善苜蓿青贮品质%Improve alfalfa silage quality by adding alhagi sparsifolia shap in initial bloom stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧; 方雷; 周小玲; 李胜利

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of mixed silage of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap in initial bloom stage and alfalfa on silage quality, investigate a way of the silage of juicy alfalfa without additive, and provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of A. sparsifolia Shap. 100%of alfalfa (Ⅰ, as a control group) , 100%of A. sparsifolia Shap in initial bloom stage (Ⅱ) , or mixtures of their different percentages (Ⅲ:30%of A. sparsifolia Shap+70%of alfalfa,Ⅳ:50%of A. sparsifolia Shap+50%of alfalfa, Ⅴ:70%of A. sparsifolia Shap+30%of alfalfa) were used in this experiment and each treatment had three replicates. After 90 d of ensiling, silages were sampled, and sensory quality and fermented products (pH, lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, isovaleric, methanol, ethanol, propanol and ammonia nitrogen) were evaluated. Chemical components (dry matter, crude protein, water soluble carbohydrate, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), lactobacillus and yeast living cells were determinated for both fresh forages and silages. The results showed that the contents of dry matter (DM), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) in mixed forages (as raw material to make silage) were higher than in alfalfa (P<0.05);the maximum of DM content was 26.48%in mixed forages and the minimum was 19.52%in alfalfa;and the maximum of WSC content was 6.27%in mixed forages and the minimum was 4.60%in alfalfa. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria living cells in mixed forages were higher than in alfalfa (P<0.05);the maximum in mixed forages was 7.2×105 (Ⅴ), and the minimum was 3.3×104 in alfalfa (Ⅰ). The quantities of yeast living cells in mixed forages were lower than in alfalfa (P<0.05); the maximum was 5.0×1011 in alfalfa (Ⅰ) , and the minimum of yeast living cells was 2.5×1010 in mixed forages (Ⅲ). After 90 d of ensiling, the lactobacillus living cells in silage was more than in forage at harvest (P<0

  12. 添加初花期骆驼刺改善苜蓿青贮品质%Improve alfalfa silage quality by adding alhagi sparsifolia shap in initial bloom stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧; 方雷; 周小玲; 李胜利

    2014-01-01

    为改善苜蓿的发酵品质,软化初花期骆驼刺的刺状花梗,确定二者的适宜混贮比例。采用初花期骆驼刺、紫花苜蓿及其二者不同比例混合料为青贮原料,共5个处理,青贮90 d后,通过分析青贮前、后的化学成分、乳酸菌和酵母菌数量变化;鉴定青贮饲料感官品质和发酵品质,研究骆驼刺与苜蓿混合青贮对青贮品质的影响。结果表明,2种豆科牧草混合后,干物质、可溶性碳水化合物含量、乳酸菌数量和酵母菌数量较苜蓿显著提高(P<0.05);青贮90 d后的所有青贮饲料,乳酸菌数量明显上升,酵母菌数量明显下降;混贮饲料的pH值、氨态氮/总氮、乙酸、丙酸、丁酸、戊酸和甲醇、乙醇、丙醇含量显著低于苜蓿青贮(P<0.05或P<0.01),乳酸含量显著高于苜蓿青贮(P<0.01);混贮饲料的乙酸、丙酸含量显著高于骆驼刺(P<0.01),混贮饲料有氧稳定性好,感官品质优良。骆驼刺占混贮料的30%及以上时,均能改善苜蓿青贮品质。研究结果为骆驼刺资源开发利用,寻找无添加剂高水分苜蓿青贮方法提供理论依据。%The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of mixed silage of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap in initial bloom stage and alfalfa on silage quality, investigate a way of the silage of juicy alfalfa without additive, and provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of A. sparsifolia Shap. 100%of alfalfa (Ⅰ, as a control group) , 100%of A. sparsifolia Shap in initial bloom stage (Ⅱ) , or mixtures of their different percentages (Ⅲ:30%of A. sparsifolia Shap+70%of alfalfa,Ⅳ:50%of A. sparsifolia Shap+50%of alfalfa, Ⅴ:70%of A. sparsifolia Shap+30%of alfalfa) were used in this experiment and each treatment had three replicates. After 90 d of ensiling, silages were sampled, and sensory quality and fermented products (pH, lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid

  13. Relación entre el índice de Turc y el rendimiento de la alfalfa en la España peninsular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez, M. J.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The modernisation of Spanish agrarian insurance demands the use of crops yield prediction models. Many yield prediction models are difficult to apply because data are not available. In this work, we studied the performance of Turc productivity index and its components to model alfalfa yields from climatic data. Data of alfalfa provincial yields from 1979 to 1995 and climatic data from 482 peninsular meteorological stations of 1966-1996 were use. Regression equations between provincial alfalfa jdeld and the Turc index and its components were obtained. A model based on seasonal dryness factors and the product of these by temperature was able to explain a large variability (87%. One component of Turc index, the annual dryness factor, explained larger variance (73% that the Turc index per se, which confirms the importance of water deficit in Mediterranean agriculture. In conclusion, an index of easy calculation, using available climatic data and applied on provincial scale was able to estimate the vegetal mass crops in the conditions of peninsular Spain.

    [es] La modernización del sistema de seguros en España exige el uso de modelos de predicción de rendimientos de cosecha para el conjunto del territorio nacional. Muchos modelos de estimación de rendimientos son de difícil aplicación porque no están disponibles los datos de entrada. En este trabajo, se estudia la capacidad del índice de productividad de Ture y sus componentes para modelizar los rendimientos de la alfalfa a partir de datos climáticos. Para ello, se han usado los datos de rendimiento medio provincial de la alfalfa en secano de la serie 1979-1995 y los datos climáticos de 482 observatorios meteorológicos de la península de la serie 1966-1996. Se han obtenido las ecuaciones de regresión entre el rendimiento provincial de la alfalfa y el índice de Ture o diversos componentes del mismo. Un modelo basado en los factores estacionales de sequedad y en el producto de

  14. Molecular basis of protein structure in proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin-enhanced Lc-transgenic alfalfa in relation to nutritive value using synchrotron-radiation FTIR microspectroscopy: A novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Jonker, Arjan; Gruber, Margaret

    2009-09-01

    To date there has been very little application of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM) to the study of molecular structures in plant forage in relation to livestock digestive behavior and nutrient availability. Protein inherent structure, among other factors such as protein matrix, affects nutritive quality, fermentation and degradation behavior in both humans and animals. The relative percentage of protein secondary structure influences protein value. A high percentage of β-sheets usually reduce the access of gastrointestinal digestive enzymes to the protein. Reduced accessibility results in poor digestibility and as a result, low protein value. The objective of this study was to use SRFTIRM to compare protein molecular structure of alfalfa plant tissues transformed with the maize Lc regulatory gene with non-transgenic alfalfa protein within cellular and subcellular dimensions and to quantify protein inherent structure profiles using Gaussian and Lorentzian methods of multi-component peak modeling. Protein molecular structure revealed by this method included α-helices, β-sheets and other structures such as β-turns and random coils. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the synchrotron data, as well as accurate spectral analysis based on curve fitting, showed that transgenic alfalfa contained a relatively lower ( P 0.05) in the ratio of α-helices to β-sheets (average: 1.4) and higher ( P 0.05) in the vibrational intensity of protein amide I (average of 24) and amide II areas (average of 10) and their ratio (average of 2.4) compared with non-transgenic alfalfa. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed no significant differences between the two genotypes in the broad molecular fingerprint region, amides I and II regions, and the carbohydrate molecular region, indicating they are highly related to each other. The results suggest that transgenic Lc-alfalfa leaves contain

  15. Fermenting Water Extract from Young Alfalfa Stems and Leaves with Lactobacillus acidophilus for Protein Precipitation%嗜酸乳杆菌发酵制备苜蓿叶蛋白的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲敏; 杨大鹏; 梁金钟; 张月学

    2011-01-01

    In the present work,we investigated the growth regularity of Lactobacillus acidophilus,screened out a high yield acid-producing strain and used the strain to ferment water extract from the young stems and leaves of Medicago sativa(alfalfa) cv.Zhaodong to precipitate alfalfa leaf protein by produced acids.The precipitation of alfalfa leaf protein from water extract from the young stems and leaves of Medicago sativa(alfalfa) cv.Zhaodong was studied by adjusting its pH.The effects of fermentation time,inoculum size,material/liquid ratio in raw material extraction on alfalfa leaf protein yield were explored.pH 3.0—3.7 proved optimal for precipitating alfalfa leaf protein.The optimal conditions for preparing alfalfa leaf protein were extraction material/liquid ratio of 1:20,fermentation time of 11 h,and inoculum amount of 107 cells/mL.Under the optimal extraction conditions,the extraction yield of alfalfa leaf protein was up to 45.08%.%以"肇东"紫花苜蓿干草为实验材料,利用嗜酸乳杆菌发酵沉降提取苜蓿叶蛋白,研究嗜酸乳杆菌的生长规律、并筛选高产酸嗜酸乳杆菌,确定苜蓿叶蛋白的等电点;研究发酵时间、接种量、料液比3个因素对叶蛋白得率的影响,确定发酵法提取苜蓿叶蛋白的最佳工艺。结果表明:pH3.0~3.7为苜蓿叶蛋白的最佳沉降范围;最佳发酵条件参数为:发酵时间11h、料液比1:20、接种量为107个/mL;在该条件下,制备的苜蓿叶蛋白粗蛋白含量为45.08%。

  16. Study on Displacement Control of Flaveria bidentis Kuntze with Alfalfa and Sunflower%紫花苜蓿和向日葵对黄顶菊的替代控制机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞海; 付卫东; 张国良; 张衍雷

    2012-01-01

    黄顶菊是2001年新发现的外来入侵杂草,替代控制是控制其蔓延的主要途径之一.为探寻对黄顶菊有替代控制作用的植物,该研究通过室内和大田试验,分析了紫花苜蓿Medicago sativa和向日葵Helianthus annuus对黄顶菊Flaveria bidentis的竞争效应.结果表明:黄顶菊水浸提液对2种植物的种子萌发无抑制作用;而紫花苜蓿水浸提液对黄顶菊的种子萌发具有抑制作用,体积质量分数为0.1g/mL时,黄顶菊种子发芽率降低到32%;紫花苜蓿产生的化感物质主要抑制黄顶菊种子胚根的生长.向日葵水浸提液对黄顶菊种子萌发影响不明显.向日葵与低密度紫花苜蓿和黄顶菊混种,能够使黄顶菊株高、分枝数和生物量受到明显的抑制,并能使每平方米黄顶菊植株数量显著地降低.%Flaveria bidentis Kuntze is a new invasive weed discovered in 2001 in China, and displacement control is a main approach to checking its spread. In a study reported in this paper, the effect of competition between F. bidentis and alfalfa or sunflower was investigated in the lab and in the field. The results showed that the germination of alfalfa and sunflower seeds treated with the aqueous extract of F. bidentis was not inhibited, but the germination of F. bidentis seeds was suppressed by the extract of alfalfa. F. bidentis seeds treated with alfalfa extract at 0. lg/mL gave a germination rate of 32% only. Further investigation revealed that the allelopathic substance produced by alfalfa retarded the growth of the radicle of F. bidentis while the extract of sunflower had no such effect. Branch number, plant height, biomass and plant density of F. bidentis were markedly restrained by low density alfalfa and sunflower planted in the field.

  17. Cultivation and identification of the transgenic alfalfa containing Echinococcus granulosus Eg95 gene%细粒棘球绦虫转Eg95基因苜蓿疫苗的培育及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳菊; 李文桂; 周辉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To cultivate and identify the transgenic affalfa containing Echinococcus granulosus Eg95 gene. Methods The alfalfa plants were transformed by co-cultivating alfalfa cotyledons via recombinant Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring pBI-Eg95. The transgenic alfalfa explants were selected by kanamyein after calli formation, shoots and roots regeneration in the selective medium, the seedlings of transgenic plants were obtained which were finally transplanted into pots containing nutrient soil. After 2-3 months growth, the complete transgenic alfalfa plants containing Echinococcus granulosus Eg95 gene were obtained. To identify the transgenic alfalfa plants, the total DNA, RNA and leaf protein were extracted from fresh leaf tissue of the transgenic alfalfa plants and confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE and Western blot assay. Results A specific band around 471 bp was amplified by PCR with total DNA, and the same band was obtained by RT-PCR with total RNA, which confirmed that the Eg95 gene was stably integrated into the transformed alfalfa genome. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the relative molecular mass(Mr) of the expressed protein was about 16.5×103, consistent with the Eg95 protein, and the level of Eg95 expression was up to 0.06% of total soluble leaf protein by Bio-Rad Quantity one assay. Western blot verified the expressed protein was reactive with the sera of mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus. Conclusion The transgenic alfalfa plants containing Echinococcus granulosus Eg95 gene are successfully cultivated.%目的 培育并鉴定细粒棘球绦虫转Eg95基因苜蓿疫苗.方法 利用转pBI-Eg95质粒的根癌农杆菌LBA4404株介导的苜蓿子叶浸染法,将Eg95基因导人紫花苜蓿基因组,转Eg95基因苜蓿外植体在含有卡那霉素的选择培养基上经愈伤、出芽和生根阶段生长出小苗,最后移栽到装有营养土的花盆中,生长2~3个月,获得完整的转Eg95基因苜蓿疫苗.提取转Eg95基因苜

  18. Molecular Basis of Protein Structure in Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin-Enhanced Lc-transgenic Alfalfa in Relation to Nutritive Value Using Synchrotron-Radiation FTIR Microspectroscopy: A Novel Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, P.; Jonker, A; Gruber, M

    2009-01-01

    To date there has been very little application of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM) to the study of molecular structures in plant forage in relation to livestock digestive behavior and nutrient availability. Protein inherent structure, among other factors such as protein matrix, affects nutritive quality, fermentation and degradation behavior in both humans and animals. The relative percentage of protein secondary structure influences protein value. A high percentage of e-sheets usually reduce the access of gastrointestinal digestive enzymes to the protein. Reduced accessibility results in poor digestibility and as a result, low protein value. The objective of this study was to use SRFTIRM to compare protein molecular structure of alfalfa plant tissues transformed with the maize Lc regulatory gene with non-transgenic alfalfa protein within cellular and subcellular dimensions and to quantify protein inherent structure profiles using Gaussian and Lorentzian methods of multi-component peak modeling. Protein molecular structure revealed by this method included a-helices, e-sheets and other structures such as e-turns and random coils. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the synchrotron data, as well as accurate spectral analysis based on curve fitting, showed that transgenic alfalfa contained a relatively lower (P < 0.05) percentage of the model-fitted a-helices (29 vs. 34) and model-fitted e-sheets (22 vs. 27) and a higher (P < 0.05) percentage of other model-fitted structures (49 vs. 39). Transgenic alfalfa protein displayed no difference (P > 0.05) in the ratio of a-helices to e-sheets (average: 1.4) and higher (P < 0.05) ratios of a-helices to others (0.7 vs. 0.9) and e-sheets to others (0.5 vs. 0.8) than the non-transgenic alfalfa protein. The transgenic protein structures also exhibited no difference (P > 0.05) in the vibrational intensity of protein amide I (average of 24) and amide II

  19. WEEDS AND WEED CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR ALFALFA FIELD IN BEIJING AREA%北京地区大田苜蓿地杂草及其防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕世海

    2001-01-01

    本文在调研、分析北京地区大田苜蓿地杂草种类、发生规律及危害特性基础上,采用土壤耕作、刈割和化学药剂相结合的措施,对苜蓿幼苗地和大田杂草进行综合防治,取得良好效果。%On base of investigating and analyzing,the species,occuring ruleand disserve characteristics of alfalfa field weeds in Beijing area were discussed.And put forward weed control methods of alfalfa seedlings were put forward.

  20. Soil moisture consumption and ecological effects in alfalfa grasslands in Longdong area of Loess Plateau%陇东黄土高原苜蓿草地土壤水分消耗及水分生态效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡守林; 贾志宽; 万素梅

    2009-01-01

    Soil desiccation is the most serious problem, which leads to widespread land degradation in the Loess Plateau of China. Hence, it has important theoretical significance to study the consumption patterns of soil moisture in alfalfa grasslands so as to realize sustainable agricultural development and ecological environment rehabilitation in the entire Loess Plateau. Changes of soil moisture characteristics in 0-1000 cm soil and the effects on ecological environment of soil moisture in alfalfa grasslands were investigated. The results showed that: (1) In 0-1000 cm soil, the grasslands with alfalfa growing for four years, six years had the best soil moisture conditions, while the grasslands with alfalfa growing for twelve years, eighteen years and twenty-six years had the poorest soil moisture conditions. (2) In the Loess Plateau, emerging regional and extent of dry soil layer differed in alfalfa grasslands. (3) The grasslands with alfalfa growing for four years, six years and eight years did not produced unfavorable impacts on ecological environments of soil moisture, but the grasslands with alfalfa growing for twelve years, eighteen years and twenty six years had a profound negative impact on ecological environments of soil moisture. The study considered that in Longdong Loess Plateau, grass-crop rotation should be practiced to recover soil moisture so as continue to raise land productivity, after alfalfa grew for more than six years.%黄土高原地区土壤干化导致林草植被大面积衰退,研究苜蓿草地土壤水分消耗规律对该区农业持续发展及生态环境恢复具有重要的理论意义.该文研究了黄土高原地区不同生长年限苜蓿草地1 000 cm土层土壤水分的变化特征及其对土壤水分生态环境的影响.结果表明:在0~1 000 cm土层,4年、6年生苜蓿草地土壤水分条件最好;12年、18年、26年生苜蓿草地土壤水分条件最差.在黄土高原地区,苜蓿地土壤干层出现的