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Sample records for alfalfa variety development

  1. Growth and Production Characteristics of Different Alfalfa Varieties in Jiamusi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xiaohui; Feng; Peng; Jiang; Cheng; Li; Rulai; Zheng; Haiyan; Li; Zengjie; Wang; Qiang

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The growth and production characteristics of different alfalfa varieties in Jiamusi were explored in the paper,in order to better study their cold resistance in northern regions. [Method]The yield traits in different growth periods were measured using randomized block design method. [Results] The plant height of Longmu 803 was the highest of 66. 80 cm on the seeding year; the numbers of plants and branches per unit length of Longmu 808 were the highest of 94 plants and 184 branches,respectively,and its yield was the highest. The overwintering rate of each variety in the region was 100%. The yield of first mowing successively were Longmu 808 > Longmu 80 > Xunlu alfalfa > Aohan alfalfa > Zhaodong alfalfa > Longmu 807; the yield and 1 000-grain weight of Longmu803 were the highest,which were 20. 24 and 0. 09 g higher than control Zhaodong alfalfa,respectively. [Conclusion]The test alfalfa varieties have higher cold resistance in Jiamusi. Longmu 803 and Longmu 808 have both high grass production performance and excellent production performance.

  2. The radiosensitivity of alfalfa varieties and the fuzzy concentration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dried alfalfa seeds (12.1% moisture) were exposed to 6'0Co γ radiation field with 0∼36.1 C/kg radiation doses (irradiation rate is 2.84 x 10-2 C/(kg·min)) to observe and measure some radio-bio-effectivity. In the range of irradiation doses, vitality index, root length, seedling survival rate, seedling height, plant height and grass yield decreased and pollen sterility, micro-nucleus rate, free radical relative content increased as the amount of radiation increased. The activity of peroxidase increased as the amount of radiation increased within certain range of dose and tended to decreased beyond that range. Vitality index and root length, which dosage effect curve is compatible with multiple targets-single hit model, and seedling survival rate, seedling height, plant height and grass yield, which dosage effect curve is compatible with linear regression model. There were strong co-relations between the seedling height, micro-nucleus cell rate and the free radical relative content (P<0.01). There were very significant difference (P<0.01) between the alfalfa species and varieties. With fuzzy concentration analysis method, the alfalfa sample were classified into five groups: higher sensitive, sensitive, intermediate, resistant, higher resistant. The suitable irradiation doses for the alfalfa species and varieties are between 12.9∼34.8 mCi/kg

  3. Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is an herb. People use the leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine. Alfalfa is used for kidney conditions, bladder and prostate ... bleeding disorder called thrombocytopenic purpura. People also take alfalfa as a source of vitamins A, C, E, ...

  4. Comparative physiological and transcriptional analyses of two contrasting drought tolerant alfalfa varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli eQuan; Xun eLiu; Haiqing eWang; Zhulong eChan

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological and transcriptional levels. Under ...

  5. Comparative Physiological and Transcriptional Analyses of Two Contrasting Drought Tolerant Alfalfa Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Wenli; Liu, Xun; Wang, Haiqing; Chan, Zhulong

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological, and transcriptional levels. Under...

  6. Assessment of heat shock protein 70 induction by heat in alfalfa varieties and constitutive overexpression in transgenic plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Ferradini

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs are molecular chaperones involved in many cellular functions. It has been shown that mammalian cytosolic HSP70 binds antigenic peptides mediating the activation of the immune system, and that it plays a determining role in tumour immunogenicity. This suggests that HSP70 may be used for the production of conjugated vaccines. Human and plant HSPs share high sequence similarity and some important biological functions in vitro. In addition, plant HSPs have no endotoxic side effects. Extraction of HSP70 from plants for use as vaccine adjuvant requires enhancing its concentration in plant tissues. In this work, we explored the possibility to produce HSP70 in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants, using alfalfa as a model species. First, a transcriptional analysis of a constitutive and an inducible HSP70 genes was conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana. Then the coding sequence of the inducible form was cloned and introduced into alfalfa by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and the accumulation of the protein in leaf tissue of transgenic plants was demonstrated. We also tested diverse alfalfa varieties for heat-inducible expression of endogenous HSP70, revealing variety-specific responses to heat shock.

  7. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  8. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (pducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  9. Study on the Variety Selection and Cultivation Techniques of High-yield Alfalfa Varieties%高产苜蓿品种筛选及栽培技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永华; 张龙

    2013-01-01

    With Suntory alfalfa as control, seven alfalfa varieties (Huangguan, Adina, etc.) were used to make regional test. The hay yield, crude protein content and other indices were determined to find out the appropriate high-quality varieties for east regions of Helanshan Mountain. Combined with its own characteristics of alfalfa, better planting techniques were studied. And the occurrence of common pests in different periods after mowing alfalfa was studied, so as to provide guidance for the control of pests and guarantee the goal of high-quality and high-yield alfalfa production.%以三得利苜蓿为对照,对皇冠、阿迪娜等7个苜蓿品种进行区域试验。通过各品种的干草产量、粗蛋白等指标确定适宜贺兰山东麓种植的优质品种,同时结合苜蓿自身特性,研究及制定出较佳的苜蓿种植技术,并对苜蓿刈割后不同时期常见虫害的发生情况进行了调查,以期为虫害防治提供指导,从而保证苜蓿优质、高产的生产目标。

  10. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  11. 苜蓿的药用功效和开发利用%Medicinal Effects, Development and Utilization of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 石杰; 王云云; 尤秋实

    2011-01-01

    The development history of alfalfa, the relationship between the nutrients of alfalfa and the human health and the development and utilization of alfalfa were introduced. And some suggestions on the development of alfalfa were also proposed.%阐述了苜蓿发展的历史、苜蓿所合营养元素与人类健康的关系和苜蓿的开发利用情况,并对苜蓿产业的发展提出了建议。

  12. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors sup

  13. 德钦苜蓿品种比较试验报告%A Report of Studies on Deqin Alfalfa Variety Comparative Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马向丽; 李立; 毕玉芬; 赵雁; 邵辰光; 墨继光

    2012-01-01

    Deqin and Algonguin alfalfa varieties were collected and compared in this study. The results showed that the cultivated day of Deqin alfalfa ranged from 233-246 days. Planted in 3 test places, the average winter survival rate of Deqin alfalfa was 95.3%, which was significantly different from that of Algonguin (77.4%) (P<0.05). The average plant height of Deqin and Algonguin alfalfa were 38.2 cm and 27.1 cm respectively, the difference between those was especially significant (/kO.Ol). The value of Stem wt to Leaf wt of Deqin alfalfa was lower than that of Algonguin in 2004 (P<0.05), moreover, its values in 2005 and 2006 were obviously lower than those of latter (P<0.01). The yield results indicated that the fresh yields and dry matter yields of Deqin alfalfa were significantly higher than those of Algonguin (P<0.01). Dry matter contents of Deqin alfalfa in early flowering stage and full flowering state were 25.73% and 28.04% respectively, crude protein contents were 24.50% and 19.41% respectively, and IVDMD were 68.03% and 66.56% respectively, which all indicated the nutrition component of Deqin alfalfa was the fist level. The analysis of stress resistance showed that Deqin alfalfa had a strong resistance to high temperature and humidity, nutrient-deficient soil.Considering form the introduction point of view, Deqin alfalfa with a stong adaptability, high yield, good nutrition and palatability, was a kind of excellent forage variety which was worth planting and popularizing in DiqingTibetan Autonomous Prefecture.%以阿尔冈金为对照品种,对德钦苜蓿进行了品种比较试验.结果表明:德钦苜蓿生育天数为233~246天.在3个试验点种植,越冬率平均为95.3%,与对照品种阿尔冈金(均值77.4%)差异显著(P<0.05).德钦苜蓿和阿尔冈金3年3个试验点的平均株高分别为38.2 cm和27.1 cm,差异极显著(P<0.01).其生长速度也与阿尔冈金差异极显著(P<0.01).2004年3个试验点德钦苜蓿的茎叶比

  14. Low temperature stress during pupal development and its effects on adult performance in alfalfa leafcutting bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megachile rotundata, commonly known as the alfalfa leafcutting bee, is a key alternative pollinator. Farmers store pupal M. rotundata over the winter inside a 6°C incubator and then place the pupal bees into incubators at 29°C to initiate adult development. Their goal is to time adult bee emergenc...

  15. Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa is compositionally equivalent to conventional alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Melinda C; Rogan, Glennon J; Fitzpatrick, Sharie; Trujillo, William A; Sorbet, Roy; Hartnell, Gary F; Riodan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A

    2006-09-20

    Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa (GTA) was developed to withstand over-the-top applications of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. As a part of the safety assessment, GTA (designated J101 x J163) was grown under controlled field conditions at geographically diverse locations within the United States during the 2001 and 2003 field seasons along with control and other conventional alfalfa varieties for compositional assessment. Field trials were conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replication blocks at each site. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the late bud to early bloom stage from each plot at five field sites in 2001 (establishment year) and from four field sites in 2003 (third year of stand). The concentration of proximate constituents, fibers, amino acids, coumestrol, and minerals in the forage was measured. The results showed that the forage from GTA J101 x J163 is compositionally equivalent to forage from the control and conventional alfalfa varieties.

  16. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Collaboration for Undergraduate Research Opportunities and Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Troischt, Parker; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    Legacy astronomy surveys involve large collaborations over long time periods, making it challenging to involve undergraduates in meaningful projects. Collaborating with faculty at 19 undergraduate-focused institutions across the US and Puerto Rico and with US-NSF funding, the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team has developed the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, an effective model to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. This talk will summarize the main components of the program, which include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Cannon et al., Collins, Elliott et al, Craig et al., Hansen et al., Johnson et al., Morrison et al., O'Donoghue et al., Smith et al., Sylvia et al., Troischt et al., this meeting). This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  17. Effect of temperature on post-wintering development and total lipid content of alfalfa leafcutting bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kevin M; O'Neill, Ruth P; Kemp, William P; Delphia, Casey M

    2011-08-01

    Temperature plays an important role in effective management of the alfalfa leafcutting bee [Megachile rotundata (F.); Megachilidae], the major commercial pollinator of seed alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.); Fabaceae] in North America. To improve our understanding of threshold and optimum rearing temperatures of M. rotundata, we examined the effect of temperature on postwintering development by using a greater number of temperature treatments than applied in previous studies (19 versus eight or fewer) and analytical tools formulated to model nonlinear relationships between temperature and insect development rates. We also tested the hypothesis that rearing temperature influences adult body lipid content at emergence, which could affect adult survival, establishment and performance as a pollinator, and reproductive success. We found that the Lactin-2 and Briere-2 models provided the best fits to data and gave reasonable estimates of lower (16-18°C) and upper (36-39°C) developmental thresholds and optimum (33-34°C) rearing temperatures for maximizing development rate. Bees successfully emerged over a broad range of temperatures (22-35°C), but variation in development rate among individuals reared at the same temperature was lowest at 31-33°C. The optimum rearing temperature to maximize the proportion of body lipids in adults was 27-29°C. Our results are discussed in relation to previous findings and speak to the difficulties in designing practical rearing guidelines that simultaneously maximize development rate, survival, and adult condition, while synchronizing adult emergence with alfalfa bloom. PMID:22251693

  18. Urgency of further developing alfalfa industry in China%我国苜蓿产业亟待振兴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启忠; 玉柱; 徐春城

    2012-01-01

    随着我国畜牧业的快速发展,特别是奶牛业的崛起,对优质饲草尤其是苜蓿(Medicago sativa)的需求量将会越来越大。目前我国苜蓿产量低、品质差、供应量不足,不能满足市场的需求.进口苜蓿呈增加态势。2010年苜蓿的进口量已达22.72万t,对我国的苜蓿产业造成严重威胁。我国苜蓿产业发展受制于许多因素,一直处于徘徊不前状态,急需振兴。应尽快制定苜蓿产业发展战略规划,完善苜蓿生产补贴政策,鼓励科技创新,积极扶持苜蓿龙头企业。整合苜蓿产业资源,建设现代化苜蓿产业示范基地,推进我国苜蓿布局区域化、种植规模化、作业机械化、管理标准化和经营产业化发展,着力打造苜蓿产业带,增强我国苜蓿的综合生产能力和供应能力。推进奶一草一体化。%The rapid development of animal husbandry in China, especially the prosperous development of dairy farming, greatly increases the need for herbage of high quality, particularly alfalfa. This study pointed out that the alfalfa yield was low, and its quality was poor, and the supply of alfalfa did not meet its market demand in China. Consequently, the total quantity of imported alfalfa showed a increasing trend and came to 227 200 t in 2010, threatening the development of alfalfa industry in China. This study pro- posed that it is urgent to develop the alfalfa industry because alfalfa industry was regulated by many fac- tors. Finally, this study proposed some suggestions for further developing the alfalfa industry. Firstly, it was urgent to make development plan of alfalfa industry; secondly, the compensation package needed to be improved for alfalfa producer; thirdly, it was effort to innovate the utilization technology and support the leading enterprise of alfalfa industry; fourthly, establishing the demonstration base with modern technology was necessary by integrating the alfalfa

  19. Leaf Morphology and Development of Multifoliate Alfalfa%多叶苜蓿复叶形态及发育过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武自念; 魏臻武

    2013-01-01

    通过对5个多叶苜蓿(Medicago sativa)品种叶片类型的形态研究,从品种WL323ML中筛选三叶型和五叶型复叶类型的单株为研究材料,利用扫描电镜对三叶型和五叶型苜蓿复叶发育进行对比分析.结果发现:多叶苜蓿主茎上表现有4,5,6,7,8和9叶等多种复叶类型,小叶的着生方式也表现为多种多样.扫描电镜下三叶型苜蓿和五叶型复叶叶原基的形态发育过程可划分为7个阶段.S0阶段,SAM外围形成早期的叶原基;S1阶段,出现条状共同叶原基;S2阶段,三叶型共同叶原基近端两侧产生一对托叶原基(ST),形成3个隆起的组织,而五叶型的则出现7个隆起的组织;S3阶段,三叶型苜蓿托叶原基和共同叶原基中间出现2个侧叶原基,而五叶型出现4个侧叶原基;S4阶段,侧生小叶和顶生小叶原基继续分离,出现明显的分界线,远端小叶的背面出现球状毛状体;S5阶段,侧叶和托叶原基发育出管状毛状体,侧叶、顶生小叶及托叶原基进一步伸长分化,相互之间部分重叠,表现为最初的叶结构;S6阶段,由于细胞的分裂和生长,托叶原基和侧叶原基之间出现叶柄;叶柄及叶柄表面毛状体分化明显.本研究明确了苜蓿叶原基的发育过程,对苜蓿乃至豆科复叶发育特征的研究提供依据,同时为苜蓿分子生物学和发育遗传学的研究奠定基础.%Five multifoliate alfalfa varieties imported from abroad were described. Different leaf developments of a single plant selected from accession WL323ML with trifoliate and quinquefoliolate compound leaves were compared using scanning electron microscopy. Results showed additional compound leaf types from the main stem of mutilfoliolate alfalfa having varied leaflet numbers. Leaf primordium developments of both trifoliate alfalfa and quinquefoliolate alfalfa compound leaves were divided into seven stages as observed by scanning electron microscopy. At SO stage, an incipient

  20. Research on the development of weed-suppressing rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaochuan ZHOU; Decheng LU; Hong LI; Daoqiang HUANG; Ruowei MIAO

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop weed-suppressing rice varieties in a weed-suppressing nursery by specific secondary metabolite markers of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice variety Feng-Hua-Zhan was screened out by a specific secondary metabolite marker of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice No. 1, a new rice line with good quality, was also developed using this method. The genetic backgrounds and research directions of weed-suppressing rice varieties are discussed in this paper.

  1. Effect of Space Flight Factors on Plant Biomass Developed from Alfalfa Seeds Carried by the Satellite%卫星搭载对紫花苜蓿当代植株生物量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任卫波; 赵亮; 王蜜; 陈立波; 郭慧琴

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of space flight factors on plant biomass in the generation of alfalfa carried by the satellite. [Method] Seeds from three lines of alfalfa were carried by the seed-breeding satellite Shijian-8. After the satellite returned to the ground, stem diameter, primary branch number and current-year individual biomass of alfalfa were studied. [Result] After space flight, primary branch number and current-year individual biomass of alfalfa increased significantly, while the stem diameter had no significant change. Using the value over(the mean value of control + three standard deviation) as a criterion to screen, the variants with enlarged stem diameter, increased primary branch number and individual biomass was two, five and twelve respectively. [Conclusion] The obtained variants can be used in the variety improvement of alfalfa and its new variety breeding, but whether its favorable variation can inherit stably to the progenies needs further study.

  2. Transcriptional regulation of temperature stress response during development in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects can be significantly affected by temperature induced stress. While evidence of the physiological consequences of temperature stress is growing, very little is known about how insects respond at the genetic level to these stressors. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, an emergin...

  3. 生育期与品种对紫花苜蓿营养价值及瘤胃降解率的影响%The Effect of Different Growth Period and Variety on Nutrition Value and Its Rumen Degradability of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 辛杭书; 王燕; 夏科; 张永根

    2012-01-01

    Three varieties of alfalfa mowed at squaring stage, initial bloom or full-bloom stage were chosen and air-dried to investigate the effect of different growth period and variety on nutrition value and its rumen degradability of alfalfa. The results showed that the contents such as crude protein (CP) and crude ash(CA),the effective degradation rate and immediately soluble components content (a component) of CP and NDF reduced as the growth period extended; while the nutrient contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF),the slow degradation components (b component) of CP increased. The content of CP and the effective degradation rate of Zhaodong alfalfa and Longmu 803 alfalfa were significantly higher than that of Longmu 801 alfalfa (P<0. 01); the content of ADF and the effective degradation rate of CP reduced according to the order of Zhaodong alfalfa, Longmu 801 alfalfa and Longmu 803 alfalfa (P<0. 05); growth period and variety had significant interaction on the content of CP and the effective degradation rate of NDF. It was concluded that growth period and variety had significant effect on the nutrient content and effective degradation rate of alfalfa.%选用3个品种(肇东、龙牧801和龙牧803)、3个不同生育期(现蕾期、初花期和盛花期)的紫花苜蓿,研究不同生育期与品种对苜蓿营养价值及瘤胃降解特性的影响.结果表明,粗蛋白质(CP)含量、粗灰分(CA)含量、CP和中性洗涤纤维(NDF)的瘤胃有效降解率及快速降解组分(a组分)含量均随生育期的延长而降低;NDF、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)和CP的慢速降解组分(b组分)含量随生育期的延长而升高;肇东和龙牧803的CP含最、NDF有效降解率极显著高于龙牧801(P<0.01);ADF含量、CP有效降解率按肇东、龙牧801、龙牧803顺序显著降低(P<0.05);生育期与品种对CP含量、CA含量及CP、NDF有效降解率均有明显的互作效应.

  4. 中国苜蓿育种的历史、现状与发展趋势%The History, Current Situation and Development of Alfalfa Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨青川; 孙彦

    2011-01-01

    The history and current situation of alfalfa breeding in China were introduced. The methods for alfalfa breeding and problems in alfalfa breeding were elaborated. The goal and development direction of alfalfa breeding were put forward.%介绍了中国苜蓿育种的历史、现状,阐述了苜蓿育种的方法和目前中国苜蓿育种中存在的问题,提出了今后苜蓿育种发展的方向与目标.

  5. Effect of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed development and viability in genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral populations of cultivated crops have the potential to function as bridges and reservoirs that contribute to the unwanted movement of novel genetically engineered (GE) traits. Recognizing that feral alfalfa has the potential to lower genetic purity in alfalfa seed production fields when it is g...

  6. 试论吉林省苜蓿生产与奶业发展%Discussion on Alfalfa Production and Dairy Industry Development of Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荣林; 刘志君

    2011-01-01

    阐述了吉林省奶业生产的现状与差距,提出了扩大苜蓿生产、促进奶业发展的设想,并论述了吉林省发展苜蓿的优势是气候、土地和技术支撑。以大量的数据资料阐明了苜蓿的饲用价值,借鉴已有的研究成果,证明奶牛饲喂苜蓿具有较高的经济效益,值得在生产上推广应用。%This paper describes the status and gap of milk production of Jilin Province and proposes the vision to expand the production of alfalfa for dairy development. It is discussed that the advantages of alfalfa development of Jilin Province contain the climate, land and technical support. A large amount of data is used to clarify the feeding value of alfalfa. It is proved that cows fed alfalfa has a high economic efficiency based on the existing research results, so it is worthy to be popularized and applied in production.

  7. 浅析黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展前景%Development Prospect of Alfalfa in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海娟

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa is nutritious,palatable and high-yield,especially,has an important role in increasing milk production and improving the quality of milk.It is the most potential forage in forage industry.Based on the development planning of alfalfa in Heilongjiang Province.This paper analysed that alfalfa industry has an expansively developing prospects from some aspects:large demand in alfalfa market,good condition in building plant base,stable technology and the support from government.%苜蓿营养丰富、适口性好、产量高,尤其对奶牛提高产奶量、改善乳品质具有特殊作用,是饲草产业中最具发展潜力的牧草。针对黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展规划的出台,文章从黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展市场需求、建设种植基地条件、技术保障、政策扶持等方面分析了黑龙江省苜蓿产业的广阔发展前景。

  8. Development of an early maturing chickpea variety, BINASOLA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chickpea has higher yield potential, more important nutrients and diversified use than all other pulse crops in Bangladesh. Nevertheless, farmers are not very interested in growing this crop because the varieties have a long maturity period, small seed size and poor seed yielding. For this reason huge amounts of chickpea seeds are imported every year in exchange for valuable foreign currency. A mutation-breeding program was undertaken at Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) in 1989 to develop an early maturing, large seeded and high yielding variety of chickpea. Seeds of the two exotic lines G-97 (now Binasola-2) and G-319 were treated with gamma-rays, sodium azide and a combination of the two mutagens. The following doses of gamma rays: 0, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy, concentrations of sodium azide: 0.4 mM, and combined doses: 200 Gy+0.4 mM, 300 Gy+0.4 mM, 400 Gy+0.4 mM and 500 Gy+0.4 mM were used. In the first year, the treated seeds were grown dose-wise and raised as M1 generation during 1989. M2 seeds were harvested from 4,542 individual M1 plants. These were grown in plant- progeny- rows in M2 generation. Eighty-seven individual M2 plants were selected, from which 16 M4 lines were further selected and put into preliminary observation trials in M4. Among them, one elite mutant L-84, which was derived from a single plant in the population of the 200 Gy gamma-ray treated G-97 was tested in M5, M6 and M7 along with other mutants and its parent. Finally the mutant was evaluated in advanced, zonal yield trials and farmers field trials in the following generations from 1995-2001 along with two selected lines and three released varieties (Hyprosola, Binasola-2 and Barisola-3). All the selected lines were grown at different agro-ecological zones in Bangladesh to observe the yield and other potentiality. Mutant performance was evaluated under two management practices i.e., Research management and Farmers' management. In the research management practices, NPK

  9. Development of microsatellite markers for identifying Brazilian coffee arabica varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, E.S.N.; Pinho, Von E.V.R.; Carvalho, M.G.G.; Esselink, G.; Vosman, B.

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats), have proved to be excellent tools for identifying variety and determining genetic relationships. A set of 127 SSR markers was used to analyze genetic similarity in twenty five Coffea arabica varieties. These were composed of ninet

  10. Virginia Tech forms new partnership to develop better wheat varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech and Monsanto announced today a mutually beneficial public-private collaborative agreement that will allow both parties to improve their wheat breeding programs and generate improved wheat varieties for growers in Virginia.

  11. Implications of season and management protocol on the landscape of gene regulation during diapause development in the Alfalfa Leaf Cutting Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    : The alfalfa leaf cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee for commercial pollination. It is the primary pollinator of seed alfalfa, a valuable crop for dairy cow feed. Overwintering bees emerge in the spring during alfalfa bloom to mate an...

  12. Development of new varieties of chrysanthemum by mutagenesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At present, the industry of flower cultivation in Mexico has been demanding new varieties produced locally. There are 6,000 hectares dedicated to the cultivation of flowers for domestic use, however the export is very low. The main production area is located in Villa Guerrero, a small town near Mexico City, where 80% of the total national production is grown. In addition, approximately 10 hectares of greenhouses are dedicated to the production of flowers for export, mainly in the Peninsula de Baja California and the Altiplano Central (Central Plateau). Unfortunately, the production of flowers in Mexico has been affected by two factors: the first, stock plants must be imported from Holland, France and the United States; and the second, there are some government restrictions on their import. Due to these factors, producers are behind in recent innovations related to new varieties. An alternative to solve this problem would be meristem in vitro culture. Plantlets from two varieties 'Polaris Yellow' pompom type and 'Dramatic' margarita type, were obtained through the meristems tip culture in the MS culture medium, to which kinetin 1.0 mg/l and NAA 0.05 mg/l were added. In preliminary studies, the plant material was irradiated with doses between 10 to 60 Gy and it was possible to determine that doses higher than 35 Gy were lethal for both varieties. In this experiment, plantlets were irradiated with seven doses (7.5, 10, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5 Gy) of 60Co gamma rays. They were then subcultured using three types of explants: bud, leaf and internode. The best variety for production of direct organogenesis was Polaris Yellow in a range of doses between 7.5 and 15 Gy, the buds being the best explant, while the internordes and leaves were not so suitable. In contrary, the leaf was considered to be the best explant for the induction of indirect organogenesis in the variety Dramatic, in a range of doses between 10 and 20 Gy. It was possible to obtain some mutants for

  13. Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L As A Promising Forage In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L or Lucerne is a perennial herbaceous legume with superior forage quality. It is the most important forage crop in the world and it was the first domesticated forage crop. Alfalfa is able to fix nitrogen from the air through a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria with N production 7.85 – 10.37 g/m2. Its rooting system can reach 4.5 m that allows it to escape drought. Forage production can reach 15.48 tons of dry matter per ha/year and containing 18.0 – 29.1 % crude protein. Plants can live 3 to 12 years depending on climatic conditions and crop varieties. However, alfalfa is not a tropical plant, thus it has not been widely cultivated in Indonesia. The problem of alfalfa cultivation are high pest attacks and competition with weeds. Therefore, alfalfa cultivation requires attention and good management to obtain optimum yield.

  14. Changes in respiratory structure and function during post-diapause development in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owings, Austin A; Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Kemp, William P; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2014-07-01

    Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, is a solitary, cavity-nesting bee. M. rotundata develop from eggs laid inside brood cells constructed from leaf pieces and placed in series in an existing cavity. Due to the cavity nesting behavior of M. rotundata, developing bees may experience hypoxic conditions. The brood cell itself and the position of cell inside the cavity may impact the rates of oxygen diffusion creating hypoxic conditions for developing animals. We hypothesized that bees would be adapted to living in hypoxia and predicted that they would be highly tolerant of hypoxic conditions. To test the hypothesis, we measured critical PO2 (Pcrit) in pupal M. rotundata of varying ages. Defined as the atmospheric O2 level below which metabolic rate cannot be sustained, Pcrit is a measure of an animal's respiratory capacity. Using flow through respirometry, we measured CO2 emission rates of developing bees exposed to 21, 10, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0 kPa PO2 and statistically determined Pcrit. Mean Pcrit was 4 kPa PO2 and ranged from 0 to 10 kPa PO2, similar to those of other insects. Pcrit was positively correlated with age, indicating that as pupae aged, they were less tolerant of hypoxia. To determine if there were developmental changes in tracheal structure that accounted for the increase in Pcrit, we used synchrotron X-ray imaging and measured the diameter of several tracheae in the head and abdomen of developing bees. Analyses of tracheal diameters showed that tracheae increased in size as animals aged, but the magnitude of the increase varied depending on which trachea was measured. Tracheal diameters increased as pupae molted and decreased as they neared adult emergence, possibly accounting for the decrease in hypoxia tolerance. Little is known about respiratory structures during metamorphosis in bees, and this study provides the first description of tracheal system structure and function in developing M. rotundata. Studies such as this are important

  15. Comparación de dos índices cuantitativos de estimación del estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa Comparison of two quantitative indexes for the estimation of alfalfa development stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Bernáldez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. es una variable de estudio común en evaluaciones de cultivares, dada su relación con la composición química y la tasa de crecimiento de la pastura. La determinación de los índices cuantitativos "estado medio por conteo" y "estado medio por peso" (EMC y EMP respectivamente permite la descripción del estado de desarrollo en pasturas de alfalfa de una manera objetiva y reproducible. Los índices EMC y EMP describen igualmente el estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa cuando la pastura se encuentra próxima al momento de utilización recomendado en la práctica. La ventaja de estimar EMC en relación a EMP, se basa en la rapidez operativa que ofrece la generación de datos para el cálculo del primero.The developmental stage of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is an usual variable of study when evaluating cultivars because of its relationship with chemical composition and pasture growth rate. Determination of quantitative indexes such as "mean stage by count" and "mean stage by weight" (MSC and MSW respectively makes it possible to describe the developmental phenological stages of alfalfa pastures in a more objective and reproducible way. Likewise, both the MSC and MSW indexes, describe the developmental stages of alfalfa when the pasture is close to the recommended utilisation time in practice. The advantage of estimating MSC in relation to MSW is based on the higher operative efficiency offered by the former in data generation for its calculation.

  16. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 12. Sequence analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) cDNA clones and appearance of PAL transcripts in elicitor-treated cell cultures and developing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, G; Paiva, N L; Dixon, R A

    1991-09-01

    An expression library containing cDNAs derived from transcripts from fungal elicitor-treated alfalfa cell suspension cultures was screened with an antiserum raised against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) from alfalfa. A single immunoreactive clone was isolated which encoded a full-length PAL cDNA (APAL1) consisting of a 2175 bp open reading frame, 96 bp 5'-untranslated leader and 128 bp 3'-non-coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence was 86.5% similar to that of the PAL2 gene of bean, and encoded a polypeptide of Mr 78,865. A second PAL cDNA species was isolated, whose 3'-untranslated region was 86% identical to that of APAL1. Southern blot analysis indicated that PAL is encoded by a small multigene family in alfalfa. PAL transcript levels were rapidly and massively induced, and preceded increased PAL extractable activity, on exposure of alfalfa suspension cells to elicitor from baker's yeast. PAL transcripts were most abundant in roots, stems and petioles during growth and development of alfalfa seedlings. These studies provide the basis for an examination of the developmental and environmental control of a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid synthesis in a plant species which is readily amenable to stable genetic transformation.

  17. Varieties of aromatic and medicinal plants developed in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon jr. MUNTEAN

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of aromatic and medicinal plant breeding are complex: of these, the establishment of numerous traits: yield level, raw-material quality (content in active substances, uniformness of the material and reaching of technological maturity of harvesting, ability to adaptation and hardiness to diseases, pests, laying, frost, drought etc., behavior of plant raw-material during processing etc. In Romania, 20 species have been developed and authenticated, all productive and rich in active substances, weather-and pest resistant; of these, seven were authenticated between 1990 and 1997: Unirea (Cynara scolymus L., Record (Mentha crispa L., Silvia (Datura innoxia Mill., Smarald (Thymus vulgaris L., Safir (Papaver somniferum L., Tages (Tagetes patula L., Azur (Vinca minor L.. Seed and planting material with important numbers of species of aromatic and medicinal plants have been developed with years.

  18. VARIETIES OF CAPITALISM AND GOVERNMENT SPENDING IN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    JOACHIM AHRENS; RAINER SCHWEICKERT; JULIANE ZENKER

    2015-01-01

    Empirical papers on the size of government suffer from neglecting preferences for government activity as discussed in the literature on varieties of capitalism. Cross-country evidence for a sample of 126 developed and developing countries reveals a global divide. Among developing countries, Asian countries are closer to continental European economies, i.e., they reveal relatively higher levels of spending dependent on the quality of governance. Latin American countries rather tend towards low...

  19. Evolution of Root Characters of Soybean Varieties Developed in Different Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-hong; WU Zong-pu; ZHANG Guo-dong

    2002-01-01

    It was studied that the evolution of root characteristics among 42 soybean varieties developed in Heilongjiang and Jilin Province in different years. The results showed that there were differences on the root characteristics among soybean varieties. From 1950s to 1990s, root fresh weight, root volume, root surface, root dry weight, lateral root length of main root characters tendedly increased with the variable development years. The root system of the varieties in 1990s was relatively well developed compared with that in the other years. The evolutionary trend of the root system of soybean varieties was increasing in root weight, root volume, root surface and length of lateral root.

  20. Determination of Starch Changes During Growth and Development of Three Plum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Alina Vlaic

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the evaluation of changes which occurred in starch content during the growth and the development of three varieties of plums Stanley, Vânăt de Italia, Tuleu Gras. Depending on variety, the maximum amount of starch was reached in phases 3 and 4; the values have declined as the fruit was approaching the maturity stage. The amount of starch during plum fruit growth and development is influenced by the harvesting phase, variety and the interaction between variety and harvest stage. 

  1. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in monkeys fed alfalfa sprouts: role of a nonprotein amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Bardana, E J; Pirofsky, B; Craig, S; McLaughlin, P

    1982-04-23

    Hematologic and serologic abnormalities similar to those observed in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed in cynomolgus macaques fed alfalfa sprouts. L-Canavanine sulfate, a constituent of alfalfa sprouts, was incorporated into the diet and reactivated the syndrome in monkeys in which an SLE-like syndrome had previously been induced by the ingestion of alfalfa seeds or sprouts. PMID:7071589

  2. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, reproductive success according to location of nests in U.S. commercial domiciles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. Variable microenvironments are experienced by developing alfalfa leafcutt...

  3. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  4. Revisiting the Economic Injury Level and Economic Threshold Model for Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, Elissa M; Undersander, Dan J; Cullen, Eileen M

    2015-08-01

    The economic injury level for potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was developed over 30 yr ago. In response to increasing market value of alfalfa, farmers and consultants are interested in reducing the economic threshold for potato leafhopper in alfalfa. To address this question, caged field trials were established on two consecutive potato leafhopper susceptible crops in 2013. Field cages were infested with a range of potato leafhopper densities to create a linear regression of alfalfa yield response. The slopes, or yield loss per insect, for the linear regressions of both trials were used to calculate an economic injury level for a range of current alfalfa market values and control costs. This yield-loss relationship is the first quantification that could be used to help assess whether the economic threshold should be lowered, given the increased market value of alfalfa.

  5. Erwinia herbicola isolates from alfalfa plants may play a role in nodulation of alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti.

    OpenAIRE

    Handelsman, J; Brill, W J

    1985-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola was isolated from roots of plants derived from surface-sterilized seeds of all alfalfa varieties that were tested. Some of these E. herbicola strains affected nodulation by certain strains of Rhizobium meliloti. In previously published work we presented the isolation of slow-and fast-nodulating variants from a single culture of R. meliloti 102F51. In the absence of E. herbicola, the slow-nodulating variant induced the formation of nodules on alfalfa as rapidly as the faster-...

  6. The Scheme for Development of Improved Variety Base of Holly in Jiangxia,Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wan-de; WU Wen-jing; TAN Jian-wen; ZHOU Ni

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly introduced the overview of Jiangxia in Wuhan,and the biological characteristics about holly,then preliminary analyzed the necessity and feasibility about the development of improved variety base of holly.It also analyzed the benefits from ecology,society and economy.In addition,it proposed some related suggestion about construction scale,base locations,safeguards and superior tree selections and so on.These measures will provide theoretical reference to the development of improved variety base of holly.

  7. [Alfalfa Planting as weed control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter to farming cooperators regarding the stipulations surrounding alfalfa plantings in lieu of small grain plantings to provide weed control,...

  8. Varieties of Male-Sexual-Identity Development in Clinical Practice:A Neuropsychoanalytic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Frans eStortelder

    2014-01-01

    Variations of sexual-identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud, founding father of psychoanalysis, believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy.In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual-ide...

  9. Varieties of male-sexual-identity development in clinical practice: a neuropsychoanalytic model

    OpenAIRE

    Stortelder, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Variations of sexual identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud – founding father of psychoanalysis – believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy. In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual id...

  10. Photosynthesis phased response to salt stress in fall dormancy standard varieties of alfalfa%盐胁迫对不同秋眠等级紫花苜蓿光合作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈托兄

    2015-01-01

    用0、50、100、150和200 mM NaCl溶液处理不同秋眠等级紫花苜蓿标准品种Maver-ick、Archer和CUF101,观察形态特征和盐害级别,测定叶片净光合速率(Pn)、细胞间隙CO2浓度( Ci)和气孔导度( Gs),分析盐胁迫对不同秋眠等级紫花苜蓿光合特性的影响。不同秋眠等级紫花苜蓿植株叶片盐害级别随品种和处理浓度不同而不同,但均随NaCl浓度的增加和胁迫时间的延长而加大。在较低NaCl浓度下Maverick、Archer和CUF101光合响应存在着预警阶段-恢复阶段-耗尽阶段,在高NaCl浓度下,所有的供试品种光合响应直接进入耗尽阶段。%The photosynthetic responses of Maverick, Archer and CUF101 to salinity stress by different NaCl concentrations(0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mM) were studied in this project, observing morphological features and levels of salt injury.The net photosynthetic rate(Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal con-ductance( Gs) were measured using Li-6400 under NaCl stress.with the increase of the NaCl concentration and stress time, the level of salt damage had increased in Maverick, Archer and CUF101, while the level of salt damage was different between the varieties and treatments.The photosynthetic response consisted of alarm phase, phase of resistance or phase of restoration, phase of exhaustion, under 50 and 100 mM NaCl.While the photo-synthetic response had nothing but phase of exhaustion, under 150 and 200 mM NaCl.

  11. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs. PMID:26459376

  12. Development of improved rice varieties through the use of induced mutations in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning in 1972, the use of induced mutations for rice improvement was initiated in Malaysia. The initiative became more significant when, in 1979, UKM and MARDI undertook a major and concerted effort to screen for blast resistance in Mahsuri, a popular variety at the time, which had succumbed to the disease. Mutation breeding has used both EMS and gamma irradiation, which comes from a 60Co source at UKM and MINT facilities, and this approach, has now become part and parcel of the overall national rice breeding and selection programmes. Mutation breeding was aimed at developing inter alia disease resistance, insect resistance, photoperiod insensitivity, short stature, reduced maturity, improved plant type and good grain and eating qualities, and involved many rice genetic resources, ranging from traditional varieties to advanced breeding lines as well as commercial improved varieties. Amongst released varieties e.g. Mahsuri, Muda, Manik, MR 211 and MR 219, mutation breeding had been attempted directly on them for single trait improvements. Generally, induced mutations have yielded mutants which are either used directly or have some interesting and desirable traits for use in further cross breeding. Such mutants include Mahsuri Mutant, Muda 2, PS 1297 and Manik 817, MA03, SPM 29 and SPM 39, Q 34, MRQ 50, SPM 129, SPM 130 and SPM 142. The objectives of this paper are to describe some of these rice mutants which have been developed through mutation breeding until the present time, and also to highlight some of the current activities involving induced mutations. (author)

  13. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs.

  14. A system for identification of candidate genes controlling cell wall synthesis in alfalfa stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usefulness of alfalfa for livestock feeding and production of lignocellulose-derived ethanol would be improved by genetic alteration of stem cell wall concentration and composition. This could be accomplished through selective breeding and transgenic technologies. However, development of alfalfa cel...

  15. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  16. Strategies for Developing Drought Tolerant Cowpea varieties for the Semi-Arid regions of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought, meaning the deviation of the total amount and or distribution of precipitation from the normal is an important factor that cause untold human suffering as well as social and economic loss for any nation. Its effects are often felt by places so remote from the area of occurrence. In the agricultural sector, where its effect are most felt, drought risk greatly reduce investment in agriculture. This will no doubt contribute to national food insecurity and social unrest. Of the measures often prescribed to combat the menace of drought include the development and planting of drought resistant/tolerant crop varieties. This paper discusses the strategies for developing drought tolerant cowpea varieties for the drought-prone regions of Nigeria. These strategies include the introduction and screening of candidate drought tolerant cowpea germplasm and their utilization in developing new improved genotypes. The screening of populations will be carried out by adopting novel screening techniques in the lab as well as in the field. In addition to utilizing existing genetic variation to develop varieties with tolerance to drought, new sources of variation will be created artificially for the various traits known to confer tolerance to drought in cowpea. In creating genetic variability for drought tolerance traits artificially, the potential of irradiation induced mutation will be exploited

  17. M 127- A Promising Tomato Variety Developed Through Induced Mutation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial wilt (BW) is the most serious constraints for tomato cultivation in Sri Lanka. At present, the producers and consumers are more interested in yield and quality of produce. The objective of this study was to develop genotypes having BW resistance, high yield potential (>20 t/ha) with desirable fruit qualities. Application of induced mutations was practiced on the Manik variety. It is a well-adapted variety with BW resistance, large fruit size with low fruit weight (76 g) due to large empty locular cavities. Several beneficial mutants better than the parent variety were identified in the M2 generation and confirmed in the M4 generation. The five most promising mutants were evaluated for BW resistance, fruit quality and yield. During dry and wet seasons, the yield evaluation studies were conducted in research and farmers' fields. The mutant M 127 gave significantly higher yields (32.2 t/ha) than the check variety T 245 (21.7 t/ha) during the both seasons. Bacterial wilt screening in the field and laboratory demonstrated that M 127 was moderately resistant. The National Coordinated Varietal Trials confirmed that it was a promising mutant under different agro-ecological zones in both dry and wet seasons. Farm trials indicated that farmer acceptability was higher for the mutant than the check variety. The mutant M 127 possesses high fruit weight (158.6 g), red, slightly flattened firm fruits. It is highly acceptable for table purposes. In the near future the mutant M 127 will be officially released to farmers and at present, it is utilized as a donor parent in the development of new HF3 hybrid under the heterosis breeding programme. (author)

  18. Use of gamma radiation in floriculture industry for development of new varieties through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear radiation (gamma rays) can create changes in genetic make up of plant material through mutation. Gamma ray induced mutation is now an established method for crop improvement. It is well known that the crops which are propagated vegetatively are very suitable for the application of mutation breeding methods. In floriculture industry there is always demand and necessity of new and novel ornamental varieties. Flower colour and shape are the most important components of novelties. Gamma rays have been most successfully use to produce quite a large number of new promising,varieties in different ornamental (Bougainvillea - 4, Perennial portulaca-6, Chrysanthemum-43, Hibiscus-1, Rose-16, Tuberose-2, Lantana depressa-3 etc.) plants by bringing about genetic changes at Floriculture Section, National Botanical Research. Institute, Lucknow, India. Research carried out covers radiosensitivity, selection of materials, methods of exposure to gamma rays, suitable dose of gamma rays, detection of mutants, isolation of mutants and commercial exploitation of mutants. A good number of mutant varieties have been well accepted in the floriculture industry. The mutant varieties are with new flower colour and shape. More than three decades of applied mutation breeding work has now established beyond doubt that mutation breeding will constitute an excellent supplement to the conventional methods for development of new varieties . Detection of somatic, mutations in flower colour/shape in different vegetative generations (M1V1, M1V2, M1V3 and even in later vegetative generations), mutation frequency and spectrum relationship with dose of gamma radiation have been precisely determined. Studies have clearly proved that mutation breeding technique can be exploited for the creation of new and novel ornamental cultivars of commercial importance by inducing genetic variation in already adapted, modern genotypes and can also enrich the germplasm of ornamental horticulture. (Author)

  19. Varieties of Male-Sexual-Identity Development in Clinical Practice:A Neuropsychoanalytic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans eStortelder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations of sexual-identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud, founding father of psychoanalysis, believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy.In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual-identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship.This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vugnettes from clinical practice.

  20. Development of Isogenic Restorer Line in Extra Long Staple Cotton Variety Suvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manickam, K. N. Gururajan and N. Gopalakrishnan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the most important commercial crop of India and heterosis in cotton is well documented with 7 to 50per cent heterosis in interspecific (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense hybrids, 10 to 138 per cent in intra-hirsutum hybrids andupto 220 per cent in desi (G. herbaceum x G. arboreum hybrids. Currently hybrid cotton, especially Bt cotton hybrids,occupies more than 80 per cent of cultivated area under cotton in India. Male sterility system offers tremendousadvantage to produce quality hybrid seeds at affordable price so that even marginal farmers can take up hybridcultivation. In cotton both GMS and CGMS systems are available. In cotton, two types of male sterility viz., Genic(GMS and Cytoplasmic-Genic (CGMS systems have been identified. Both the systems have been utilized for thecommercial hybrid seed production in India and other countries. In CGMS system, the male parent of the hybrid needsto be converted into Restorer line. In cotton, Suvin is the only extra long staple G. barbadense variety available which iscapable of spinning to 120s count yarn. This variety has been successfully converted into Restorer line through backcross breeding utilizing Pima Restorer as the donor parent. Suvin Restorer is found to stably restore fertility in differentCMS lines of G. hirsutum. The interspecific hybrids developed using Suvin Restorer was found to combine both highyield and superior fibre quality capable of spinning upto 80s count and are comparable with conventional check hybrids.

  1. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  2. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  3. Caryopsis Development and Main Quality Characteristics in Different indica Rice Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Fei; WANG Zhong; CHENG Gang; WANG Jue

    2005-01-01

    A comparison on the caryopsis development, rice quality characteristics and the size, shape, structure of the endosperm amyloplasts (starch granules) between two indica rice varieties was made. The main quality traits in Yangdao 6 were better than those in Xiangzaoxian 33; In the early period after fertilization the dry matter in Yangdao 6 was accumulated more slowly than that in Xiangzaoxian 33 but faster in the later period, and the starch was accumulated strongly in the later period; There were two kinds of amyloplasts: single and compound amyloplasts, being 4.4 μm and 9.5 μm in diameter on average with the range of 2.4-8.0 μm and 5.7-19.5 μm, respectively. In the case of Xiangzaoxian 33, most of the single amyloplasts were elliptic or round with loose arrangement and great difference in size, and the coefficient of variation was high. While in the Yangdao 6, most of the amyloplasts were single, well developed, polyhedral, crystalline and compactly arranged, and the coefficient of variation was low. The amyloplasts in the dorsal region of endosperm were developed better than those in the ventral and central regions. The chalkiness in the endosperm resulted from badly-developed and loose-arranged starch granules, which was closely relevant to the transport of filling materials.

  4. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue proliferatio

  5. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa. PMID:27400509

  6. Molecular Biology Approaches to Solve Forage Crop Limitations: Improving Protein Utilization and Preventing Leaf Loss in Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory is using molecular biology approaches to better understand and develop solutions to some of the current limitations of alfalfa and other forage crops used in animal and bioenergy production systems. A major limitation of alfalfa is that much of its protein is degraded during harvest a...

  7. Development of the variety for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In search for the development of genes for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice, thermal neutrons generated from the Research Reactor at the Kyoto University have been applied to the breeding. In this paper, the developmental outcome is described, and a potential application of thermal neutrons for breeding the variety of resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice is reviewed. When thermal neutrons were delivered to the rice, the ratio of absorbed doses by B-10, which is contained in a small quantity in the plant, was found to be larger than expected. This implies characteristic effects of thermal neutrons on the plant. When boric acid was incorporated into the plant before irradiation, the effect of thermal neutrons per irradiation time was considered to become great. The frequency of mutations for resistance was significantly higher by thermal neutron, as compared with that induced by other mutagens, such as gamma radiation, ethylene-imine, ethyl-methane-sulfonate, and nitroso-methyl-urea. Genetic analysis of mutants for resistance revealed recessive genes and polygenes. Finally, the application of thermal neutrons and other radiations would contribute greatly to a resolution of serious pollution problems in global food and environment. (N.K.)

  8. The effect of nitrogen application on the development of rusts on wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Haggag

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four different levels of nitrogen fertilization on the severity of rusts on three local Egyptian wheat varieties have been investigated. Nitrogen fertilizer was at the rates 0, 40, 60, and 80 kg nitrogen per feddan. Data obtained indicated that resistance of the varieties did not change while percent severity of postules on susceptible, moderately susceptible and moderately resistant varieties was increased as the level of nitrogen fertilization increased. Heavy doses of nitrogen promoted the size and frequency of postules and hence the rust growth and predisposed the plants to higher infection with rusts.

  9. Development of drought tolerant tomato varieties through induced mutation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having in mind the need to have tomato varieties growing under low water input conditions a tomato breeding program using nuclear techniques was started with the purpose of obtaining adequate yielding-potential cultivars under drought conditions. Seeds from INCA 9-1 variety were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays irradiated using of 300 Gy and 500 Gy. Starting from M2 generation, selection of high yield potential genotypes under low water supply conditions was made during 4 generations. Individual selection was done, taking into account the following criteria: healthy plants, determinate growth habit, yield per plant, fruit number per plant, average fruit weight, equatorial and polar fruit diameters were recorded in individually selected plants. The total soluble solids (Brix), acidity, dry matter and water content were evaluated in fruit of M5 generation. Different isoenzymatic systems, the protein concentration as well as the Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPD) were used in order to evaluate the genetic variability between the selected mutants and the donor variety. The most frequent variations observed in each generation were: plant cycle, fruit size, number, shape, colour and yield. It was possible to release two varieties of high yielding under low water input conditions. The tomato mutants Maybel and Mali are being used in tomato production for industrial purposes. These varieties are the firsts tomato varieties obtain from mutation induction in Cuba. (author)

  10. Atomless varieties

    OpenAIRE

    VENEMA, Yde

    2003-01-01

    We define a nontrivial variety of boolean algebras with operators such that every member of the variety is atomless. This shows that not every variety of boolean algebras with operators is generated by its atomic members, and thus establishes a strong incompleteness result in (multi-)modal logic.

  11. Weed management research in alfalfa seed production in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed. Alfalfa seed is produced with wider row and lower plant populations than alfalfa forage requiring greater weed management inputs. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa seed and forage pro...

  12. Genes related to immunity, as expressed in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, during pathogen challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; James, R

    2009-11-01

    Virtually nothing is known about disease resistance in solitary bees, so expressed sequence tag (EST) databases were developed to search for immune response genes in the alfalfa leafcutting bee. We identified 104 putative immunity-related genes from both healthy and pathogen-challenged bee larvae, and 12 more genes using PCR amplification. The genes identified coded for proteins with a wide variety of innate immune response functions, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the prophenoloxidase cascade, melanization, coagulation and several signalling pathways. Some immune response genes were highly conserved with honey bee genes, and more distantly related to other insects. The data presented provides the first analysis of immune function in a solitary bee and provides a foundation for the further analysis of gene expression patterns in bees. PMID:19863668

  13. Developing Diseases and Control Measures of Alfalfa Pests in Yuanzhou County%原州区苜蓿病虫害发生发展动态及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺维琴

    2011-01-01

    通过对2002年~2007年原州区苜蓿病虫害的监测,苜蓿害虫的种群数量和病害的病情指数逐年增加的趋势明显,病虫害对苜蓿的危害程度也在逐年加重,应加强对苜蓿病虫害预测预报工作的开展,重视苜蓿病虫害综合防治措施的实施.%By monitoring alfalfa pests from 2002 to 2007 in Yuanzhou County,aphids,thrips,meadow moth,plant bugs and weevils of alfalfa pests are found,and the alfalfa diseases mainly are leaf spot,rust,powdery mildew and root rot disease.Populations of alfalfa inse

  14. Effects of Different Eucalyptus Varieties(Clones) on Fitness and Development of Leptocybe invasa Fisher et La Salle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang; Wentong; Zhang; Huafeng; Chen; Shunli; Wei; Chujiang; Zhang; Silu

    2014-01-01

    The damage status of L. invasa on different Eucalyptus varieties( clones) were surveyed in the field,and effects of Eucalyptus varieties on fitness,development and reproduction of this pest were studied in the study. Results showed that:( 1) Most of the major Eucalyptus varieties( clones) could be attacked by L. invasa in Fujian Province,and galls formed on E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis DH201-2,E. gradis QG3,E. dunnii,E. urophylla cU6,E. grandis × E. urophylla GL9,E. robusta and E. exserta; L. invasa could develop and complete its life cycle on above varieties.( 2) The damage degree of different Eucalyptus varieties( clones) was different from fitness degree to L. invasa. L. invasa had different selection frequency,fecundity and number of larvae per gall on different Eucalyptus varieties( clones).( 3) In addition to little difference in female ratios,L. invasa feeding different Eucalyptus varieties( clones) had extremely significant differences in the indicators such as number of emerged L. invasa,body mass of female adult,fecundity,longevity,etc.( 4) According to the fitness index( FI),the host plants of L. invasa were divided into 4 types by cluster analysis: suitable host,moderately suitable host,less suitable host and unsuitable host; the fecundity of each female was more than 70 eggs in suitable host,which was adequate to lead to potential population outbreak of the pest. Host fitness index could be used as a comprehensive evaluation index for screening of resistant varieties( clones) in production.

  15. Proteome analysis of alfalfa roots in response to water deifcit stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahman Md Atikur; Kim Yong-Goo; AlamIftekhar; LIU Gong-she; Lee Hyoshin; Lee Jeung Joo; Lee Byung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the response of alfalfa to water deifcit (WD) stress, WD-induced candidates were investigated through a proteomic approach. Alfalfa seedlings were exposed to WD stress for 12 and 15 days respectively, folowed by 3 days re-watering. Water deifcit increased H2O2content, lipid peroxidation, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)-radical scavenging activity, and the free proline level in alfalfa roots. Root proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimentional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 49 WD-responsive proteins were identiifed in alfalfa roots; 25 proteins were reproducibly found to be up-regulated and 24 were down-regulated. Two proteins, namely cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APx2) and putative F-box protein were newly detected on 2-DE maps of WD-treated plants. We identiifed several proteins including agamous-like 65, albumin b-32, inward rectifying potassium channel, and auxin-independent growth promoter. The identiifed proteins are involved in a variety of celular functions including calcium signaling, abacisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation, transcription/ translation, antioxidant/detoxiifcation/stress defense, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and storage. These results indicate the potential candidates were responsible for adaptive response in alfalfa roots.

  16. Influence of variety and growing location on the development of off-flavor in precooked vacuum-packed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K; Petersen, M A; Poll, L; Brockhoff, P B

    1999-03-01

    Development of potato off-flavor (POF) was examined in precooked vacuum-packed potatoes by GC and sensory analyses. The experiments comprised four varieties grown at two locations. Aroma compounds shown to be potential contributors to POF were determined quantitatively, and their relative importance was interpreted by aroma values based on odor detection threshold values determined in water. There were statistically significant differences in the content of POF compounds between the growing locations and among some of the varieties. The results from the sensory analyses concurred roughly with the GC analyses. (E,E)-2,4-Nonadienal and (E, E)-2,4-decadienal were shown to be the most potent of the POF compounds examined, in addition with hexanal, (E)-2-octenal, and (E)-2-nonenal. Lowering the development of POF in precooked vacuum-packed potatoes should be possible by optimizing the environmental conditions and breeding for suitable varieties.

  17. Plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, André Luiz Barros de O.; Célia de Matos Pires, Regina; Yukitaka Pessinati Ohashi, Augusto; Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Rafael; Landell, Marcos Guimarães de Andrade; Aparecida Creste Dias de Souza, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    The biofuel production is a growing concern on modern society due to the agricultural sustainability, in which both food and energy supply should be taken into account. The agroclimatic zoning indicates that sugarcane expansion in Brazil can only take place in marginal lands, where water deficit occurs and irrigation is necessary. The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficit conditions or to attain high yield and to increase longevity of plants. In this context it is necessary to investigate responses of different varieties to water supply. The aim of this work was to evaluate the plant development and yield of four sugarcane varieties irrigated by a subsurface drip irrigation system in Campinas, Brazil in the 1st cane ratoon cycle. The field experiment was carried out in Campinas SP Brazil, with IACSP95-5000, IACSP94-2094, IACSP94-2101 and SP79-1011 cultivars in the 1st cane ratoon cycle, from January (after the harvest of cane plant cycle) to October (harvest the 1st cane ratoon cycle). The plant spacing was 1.5 m between rows. Each cultivar was planted in an area of 0.4 hectares. The irrigation was done by a subsuperficial drip system with one drip line in each plant row installed at 0.25 m deep. During the 1st cane ratoon cycle the parameters were analysed on the 33rd, 123rd, 185th and 277th day. The analysed parameters were: plant yield (m), leaf area index (LAI) and yield (tons per hectare). According to the results from the second sampling (123rd day) the varieties IACSP95-5000 and IACSP94-2101 showed higher plant height when compared to the other varieties. However, from the third sampling (185th day) on the IACSP95-5000 variety grew considerably taller than the other varieties. The varieties SP79-1011and IACSP94-2101 presented lower values of LAI throughout the crop cycle when compared to other varieties. But on the

  18. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  19. Hybrid-breeding of medicinally used valerian (Valeriana officinalis L. s.l.. A possible concept developing new varieties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penzkofer, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop and verify a new concept for breeding new hybrid-varieties of valerian without a male sterility system. For this the cross-pollination rate and the performance of inbreeded plants must be determined.

  20. Alfalfa Hay Quality and Alternative Pricing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Jared A.; Peterson, Hikaru Hanawa; Burton, Robert O., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Price-quality relationships for alfalfa hay were analyzed by hedonic pricing models using 1996-2001 Wisconsin auction data. Individual nutrients included in the analysis all affected alfalfa price, with acid detergent fiber accounting for the largest impact. Alternative pricing models, based on an aggregate quality index or detailed quality information, were similar in their ability to predict price. However, disaggregating price predictions to account for differences in relative feed value (...

  1. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja Vesna; Lević Jelena; Ivanović M.; Tomić Zorica P.

    2005-01-01

    In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum) towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virul...

  2. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja Vesna; Lević Jelena T.; Ivanović Mirko; Tomić Zorica P.

    2005-01-01

    In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum) towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulen...

  3. Biomass yield development of early, medium and late Maize varieties under a future climate in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degener, J. F.; Kappas, M.

    2014-06-01

    Lower Saxony, with a total land area of about 46 500 km2, constitutes one of the most important agricultural areas in Germany and thus within Europe. Roughly one third of its agricultural area is used for maize cultivation and as of today only few information exist on how a future changing climate will affect its local growing conditions. Thus the newly developed carbon-based crop model BioSTAR and a high-resolution regional climate data-set (Wettreg) were used to evaluate the change in biomass yields of an early, medium and late maize variety. The climate input data is based on the SRES A1B scenario, with a potential fertilization effect or better still, an increased water use efficiency due to rising CO2 levels, taken into account. The biomass yield for all varieties was calculated for each year from 2001 until 2099 on a total of 91 014 sites. The results suggest clearly differentiated development paths of all varieties. All three show a significant positive trend until the end of the century. However the medium variety shows a statistical significant decline of 5% during the first 30 years and only a slight recovery towards +5% around the century's end. The late variety has the clearest and strongest positive trend, with partially more than 30% increase of biomass yields around the end of the century or +25% mean increase in the last three decades. The early variety can be seen as in-between, with no negative but also not an as strong positive development path. All varieties have their strongest increase in yields after the mid of the 21st century. Statistical evaluation of these results suggests that the shift from a summer rain to a winter rain climate in Germany will be the main limiting factor for all varieties. In addition summer temperatures will become less optimal for all maize crops. Only if the plants can supply themselves sufficiently with water outside of the increasingly dry summer months, when also temperatures are much more favorable, an increase

  4. Biomass yield development of early, medium and late Maize varieties under a future climate in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Degener

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower Saxony, with a total land area of about 46 500 km2, constitutes one of the most important agricultural areas in Germany and thus within Europe. Roughly one third of its agricultural area is used for maize cultivation and as of today only few information exist on how a future changing climate will affect its local growing conditions. Thus the newly developed carbon-based crop model BioSTAR and a high-resolution regional climate data-set (Wettreg were used to evaluate the change in biomass yields of an early, medium and late maize variety. The climate input data is based on the SRES A1B scenario, with a potential fertilization effect or better still, an increased water use efficiency due to rising CO2 levels, taken into account. The biomass yield for all varieties was calculated for each year from 2001 until 2099 on a total of 91 014 sites. The results suggest clearly differentiated development paths of all varieties. All three show a significant positive trend until the end of the century. However the medium variety shows a statistical significant decline of 5% during the first 30 years and only a slight recovery towards +5% around the century's end. The late variety has the clearest and strongest positive trend, with partially more than 30% increase of biomass yields around the end of the century or +25% mean increase in the last three decades. The early variety can be seen as in-between, with no negative but also not an as strong positive development path. All varieties have their strongest increase in yields after the mid of the 21st century. Statistical evaluation of these results suggests that the shift from a summer rain to a winter rain climate in Germany will be the main limiting factor for all varieties. In addition summer temperatures will become less optimal for all maize crops. Only if the plants can supply themselves sufficiently with water outside of the increasingly dry summer months, when also temperatures are much more

  5. Effectivenes of inoculation in alfalfa breeding in ecological conditions of the Bjelovar and Bilogora county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Development and basic existence of animal production as well as production of high quality milk depends upon possibility of sufficient production of quality and protein sufficient forage. Forage crop that satisfies these demands is alfalfa which is one of the most important perennial forage crop legumes. The aim of this study was to enhance alfalfa production on acid soil by liming and alfalfa seed inoculation with efficient Sinorhizobium meliloti strains in order to reduce the use of mineral nitrogen fertilization and enable qualitative and cost effective production of forage on the dairy farms. Field trial was established at family farm in the area of Bjelovar and Bilogora county. During two years experimental period statistically significant influence of inoculation and liming on forage and dry matteryield was determined. Significantly the lowest yields were determined on untreated plots without liming material. In all untreated plots, significantly lower yields were determined, but significant differences in yields were also obtained by inoculation with different S. meliloti strains, emphasizing the importance of strains selection used for alfalfa inoculation. In both experimental years total forage yield were ranging from 34 t/ha (untreated plots without liming up to 60 t/ha on plots inoculated with strain 2011 and without liming. Values of total dry matter yield for both experimental years ranged from 6.5 t/ha (untreated plots without liming up to 15,7 t/ha on plots inoculated with strain 2011 without liming. Results of this study showed that application of liming materials for acidity removal had positive effect on alfalfa yields in both experimental years and significantly improved alfalfa production on acid soils. The results of this study clearly showed that inoculation with selected S. meliloti strains may improve alfalfa production on acid soils and may contribute to more efficient forage production for dairy farms under particular

  6. Research Progress of Alfalfa Silage%苜蓿青贮研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振宇; 玉柱; 智建飞; 谢楠; 秦文利; 冯伟; 刘忠宽

    2013-01-01

    As an important protein feed resources, alfalfa silage is of great significance for alfalfa industry and the healthy development of animal husbandry in China.In this paper, the research progress of development history and present situation of alfalfa silage, fermentation promotation, fermentation inhibiting and mixed silage were summarized, and the current main problems in alfalfa silage industry development and future research directions were put forward, in order to provide theoretical and practical references for the alfalfa silage research.%苜蓿作为一种重要的蛋白饲料资源,苜蓿青贮对我国苜蓿产业和畜牧业的健康发展具有重要意义。对苜蓿青贮发展历史与现状以及发酵促进、发酵抑制及混合青贮等研究进行了概述,提出了当前苜蓿青贮产业发展中存在的主要问题和今后的研究方向,以期为苜蓿青贮研究提供理论依据与实践参考。

  7. The Relationship Between Palm Oil Index Development and Mechanical Properties in the Ripening Process of Tenera Variety Fresh Fruit Bunches

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin Keshvadi; Johari Bin Endan, Haniff Harun, Desa Ahmad and Farah Saleena

    2011-01-01

    This research has done to determine of the relationship between palm oil development in mesocarp and kernel and Mechanical properties of fresh fruit bunches during the ripening process. For this purpose, Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera) on 8 year- old palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) research station were selected. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested and were divided into three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom) where the...

  8. Correlations among alfalfa yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Olivera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper are the results of our study of correlations among yield components in ten alfalfa genotypes under open pollination (polycross conditions. The study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 at the Rimski Sancevi Experiment Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Highly significant correlations were found between pod number per inflorescence and seed number per inflorescence (r= 0.645 as well as between seed number per pod and seed number per inflorescence (r= 0.685. Similarly, the correlation between inflorescence number per stem and seed yield was significant and positive (r= 0.589. Negative correlations existed between ovule number per ovary on the one hand and seed yield and inflorescence number per stem on the other (r= -0.617 and r= -0.598, respectively. The highest seed yield was achieved with the cultivar Europe (651.4 kg ha-1 and the lowest with the genotype Le-6 (426.25 kg ha-1. The difference was highly significant (CV= 14,93%.

  9. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  10. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from alfalfa and its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Dong, Xiaofang; Tong, Jianming

    2013-11-01

    In this present study, an efficient complex enzyme-assisted extraction technology was developed and optimized to extract polysaccharides from alfalfa using four factors at five levels central composite rotatable response surface design (CCRD). The experimental data was fitted to a second order polynomial equation with high coefficient of determination values (R(2)>0.95). The results of statistical analysis showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects (Penzyme concentration of 2.5%, 2.0%, 3.0% (weight of alfalfa) of cellulase, papain and pectase, extraction temperature 52.7 °C, extraction pH 3.87, ratio of water to raw material 78.92 mL/g and extraction time 2.73 h. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental extraction yield of alfalfa polysaccharides was 5.05 ± 0.02%, which was well matched with the value (5.09%) predicted by the CCRD model. Moreover, evaluation of the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from alfalfa in vitro suggested that the polysaccharides had good antioxidant effect, especially scavenging activity for hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical, which indicated that the polysaccharides from alfalfa may be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  11. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  12. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Jonker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  13. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  14. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivar K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  15. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivars K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings, which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown, lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  16. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  17. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALFALFA INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Clement E.; Dowdy, Alan K.; Berberet, Richard C.; Stritzke, Jimmie F.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IMP) initially focused on insect pest control. More recently, IPM encompasses a broader concept of management, one which crosses several disciplinary boundaries. This article reports results of research dealing with four integrated management decisions for alfalfa (cultivar selection, inset control, weed control, and end-of-season harvest options.

  18. Potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) ecology and integrated pest management focused on alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge to date on biology of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), is summarized, including geographic distribution, development, migration, agricultural host plants, and the mechanism of injury to host plants. Damage to alfalfa, potato, soybean and snap bean, as well as treatment guide...

  19. Forage Quality of Biomass vs. Conventional Alfalfa Cut at Early Bud or Late Flower Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulosic bioenergy systems will result in large areas planted to biomass crops. An important question is whether biomass crops can also be used for livestock feed. This study compared forage quality of an experimental alfalfa germplasm developed for a biomass production system with a conventional ...

  20. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area. PMID:24128927

  1. Effect of the systemic fungicide benodanil on the growth and development of six spring barley varieties in the presence or absence of brown rust infection in the glasshouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeogalanya, A C

    1982-01-01

    When applied at the juvenile growth stage, benodanil significantly reduced the occurrence of rust (Puccinia bordei) on barley plants. This was found in the susceptible varieties Midas, Zephyr, and Mazurka as well as in the slow-rusting varieties Tyra, Emir, and Vada. Benodanil increased the growth of non-infected plants, it reduced however tillering and the total leaf number of the plants. The effect on the growth, development, and yield of infected plants differed between the varieties, with the susceptible varieties reacting better to fungicide application.

  2. Efficacy of a BVDV subunit vaccine produced in alfalfa transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peréz Aguirreburualde, María Sol; Gómez, María Cristina; Ostachuk, Agustín; Wolman, Federico; Albanesi, Guillermo; Pecora, Andrea; Odeon, Anselmo; Ardila, Fernando; Escribano, José M; Dus Santos, María José; Wigdorovitz, Andrés

    2013-02-15

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is considered an important cause of economic loss within bovine herds worldwide. In Argentina, only the use of inactivated vaccines is allowed, however, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. The use of recombinant subunit vaccines has been proposed as an alternative to overcome this difficulty. Different studies on protection against BVDV infection have focused the E2 protein, supporting its putative use in subunit vaccines. Utilization of transgenic plants expressing recombinant antigens for the formulation of experimental vaccines represents an innovative and cost effective alternative to the classical fermentation systems. The aim of this work was to develop transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa, L.) expressing a truncated version of the structural protein E2 from BVDV fused to a molecule named APCH, that target to antigen presenting cells (APCH-tE2). The concentration of recombinant APCH-tE2 in alfalfa leaves was 1 μg/g at fresh weight and its expression remained stable after vegetative propagation. A methodology based an aqueous two phases system was standardized for concentration and partial purification of APCH-tE2 from alfalfa. Guinea pigs parentally immunized with leaf extracts developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. In bovine, the APCH-tE2 subunit vaccine was able to induce BVDV-specific neutralizing antibodies. After challenge, bovines inoculated with 3 μg of APCH-tE2 produced in alfalfa transgenic plants showed complete virological protection. PMID:23291101

  3. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  4. Productive Efficiency of Subsidized Organic Alfalfa Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanos A. Nastis; Papanagiotou, Evangelos; Zamanidis, Savvas

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the efficiency and performance of organic alfalfa farms. Data were obtained from questionnaires collected from forty farms participating in an EU-subsidized program promoting the switch to organic farming. Results obtained using the bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis methodology show that larger farms had lower yields and lower efficiency scores and more experienced farmers had higher efficiency scores. A Tobit analysis of the impact of environmental factors and subsidies...

  5. Extraction of Chlorophyll from Alfalfa Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Khalid Khudair Al-Jomaily; Ahmed Jawad; Isam Kamal

    2006-01-01

    The extraction process of chlorophyll from dehydrated and pulverized alfalfa plant were studied by percolation method. Two solvent systems were used for the extraction namely; Ethanol-water and Hexane-Toluene systems . The effect of circulation rate, solvent concentration, and solvent volume to solid weight ratio were studied. In both ethanol water, and Hexane-Toluene systems it appears that solvent concentration is the most effective variable.

  6. 德钦苜蓿区域适应性研究%Study on Regional Adaptation of Deqin Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马向丽; 毕玉芬; 任健; 赵雁; 邵辰光; 墨继光; 李立

    2012-01-01

    在迪庆州测试了德钦苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.cv.Deqin)和阿尔冈金苜蓿的适应区域和品种生产潜力.结果表明,德钦苜蓿在4个区试点种植,均能正常发育完成生活史.德钦苜蓿较阿尔冈金苜蓿返青期早5~7d,枯黄期晚9~13d,总生育天数长20d.抗性分析表明,德钦苜蓿适应性强,耐贫瘠、耐涝、抗干热能力强,无明显病虫害.德钦苜蓿的茎叶比为1.12 ~1.36,显著低于阿尔冈金苜蓿(P<0.05).产量测定结果表明,3年各试验点德钦苜蓿鲜草、干草产量均极显著高于阿尔冈金苜蓿(P<0.01).总体来看,德钦苜蓿在迪庆州德钦县及类似自然条件地区有较强的适应性和较好的丰产性,是一种值得在生产上推广种植的优良地方牧草品种.%Deqin alfalfa and Algonguin alfalfa varieties were collected and compared in this study. The results showed that Deqin alfalfa could grow healthy and finish the all growing stage in 4 test places. As a whole, the reviving stage of Deqin alfalfa was 5-7 days earlier than Al-gonguin alfalfa; the dry yellow stage of the former was 9-13 days latter than the latter; the growth period of the former was 20 days longer than the latter. The analysis of stress resistance showed that Deqin alfalfa had a strong adaptability and resistance to nutrient-deficient soil, high temperature and humidity, waterlog and disease and insect pest. The ratio of stem wt to Leaf wt of Deqin alfalfa was 1. 12 - 1. 36, which had significant differences between Deqin alfalfa and Algonguin alfalfa (P<0. 05). The yield results indicated that the fresh yields and dry matter yields of Deqin alfalfa were significantly higher than that of Algonguin alfalfa (P <0. 01 ). In a word, Deqin alfalfa had a stong adaptability and high yield, which was a kind of excellent local forage variety and worth planting and popularizing in DiqingTibetan Autonomous Prefecture.

  7. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Sun

    Full Text Available Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  8. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. (Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (USA)); Geno, P.W. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  9. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures

  10. Induced Mutations for Development of B. juncea Canola Quality Varieties Suitable for Indian Agro-climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry and presoaked canola quality 'Heera' seeds were treated with 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% EMS with three and six-hour mutagenic treatments. Five mutants with early maturity (93-95 days) as opposed to 140 days of the parent were evaluated in trials. EH-1 was found superior in yield potential; however, the yield was lower than the control. Several selections with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid and canola quality were identified from the cross, mutant EH-1 and NU-6 (mutant derivative). Selection NUDH-YJ-6 with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid, 3.6g test weight and high oil content (46%) was at par in seed yield but 17% higher in oil yield in the multi-location trials of four years during 2003-04 to 2006-07 at 10 locations in zone III and zone IV of India. The advance selection derived from EH1 x NU6 was crossed with large seed mutant PB7. Several '00' selections were developed and studied for their agronomic characters. Two selections along with checks were evaluated for two years during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Both these selections were resistant to white rust disease and gave seed and oil yield comparable to national check Varuna. Another selection NUD-YJ- 5 with canola characters of maturity like Indian mustard varieties with small seed size has been registered with the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (INGR NO-03034), ICAR, New Delhi. (author)

  11. The Relationship Between Palm Oil Index Development and Mechanical Properties in the Ripening Process of Tenera Variety Fresh Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Keshvadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research has done to determine of the relationship between palm oil development in mesocarp and kernel and Mechanical properties of fresh fruit bunches during the ripening process. For this purpose, Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera on 8 year- old palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB research station were selected. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested and were divided into three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom where the fruits from outer and inner layers of them were removed randomly during the ripening process between 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after anthesis. Fruit firmness test was done by using a Instron Universal Testing Machine to determine the mechanical responses of oil palm fruit under compressive loading of a cylindrical probe with a soft tip at 25ºC (Cylindrical probe diameter = 6 mm, tip thickness = 3.2 mm, and tip elasticity = 3.27 MPa. The soxhlet extraction tubes were used to the palm oil extraction.Calculation of earned data related to ripening time, oil content and mechanical properties has done by MSTAT-C and Microsoft Excel computer programs.

  12. Towards a generic variable column length method development strategy for samples with a large variety in polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabooter, Deirdre; Choikhet, Konstantin; Lestremau, François; Dittmann, Monika; Desmet, Gert

    2014-11-12

    The development of a novel set-up for the sequential analysis of compounds with a large variety in polarity on HILIC and reversed-phase columns, coupled in series, is discussed. For this purpose, a commercially available ultra-high performance LC system, equipped with two switching valves is employed. The switching valves allow connecting the HILIC and reversed-phase columns either in series or in parallel to the system. An interface to couple the HILIC and reversed-phase columns is developed and optimized. The sample is first injected onto a HILIC column. Apolar compounds in the sample are not retained and will elute close to or within the void volume of the HILIC column. Accurate switching of the valves allows redirecting these compounds towards a trap loop while more polar compounds are retained and separated on the HILIC column. After separation and detection of the polar compounds, the configuration of the valves is switched again to direct the apolar compounds from the trap loop towards a reversed-phase column for separation. To deal with the incompatibility of the mobile phases of HILIC and reversed-phase column separations, commercially available Jet weaver mixers are included in the set-up to allow for an intermediate solvent exchange. The proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the analysis of pharmaceuticals that can be found in waste water and surface water. It is demonstrated that the set-up provides robust analyses with peak capacities that are intermediate to one-dimensional and two-dimensional separations.

  13. Growth and yield response of wheat varieties to water stress at booting and anthesis stages of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of 6 bread wheat varieties (Damani, Hashim-8, Gomal-8, DN-73, Zam-04 and Dera-98) were subjected to 2 treatments i.e., control treatment (100% field capacity) and stressed treatment (20 days water stress was given during booting stage and 20 days water stress after anthesis). The findings revealed highly significant differences among means of wheat varieties in all physiological and yield traits. Almost all varieties showed their best adaptation under stressed environment however Hashim-8 and Zam-04 behaved exclusively and indicated higher relative water content (RWC), mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and stress tolerance index (STI) whereas stress susceptibility index (SSI) and tolerance (TOL) was estimated at its lowest, as these traits are recognised beneficial drought tolerance indicators for selection of a stress tolerant variety. Similarly, total grain yield per plant, biological yield per plant and harvest index was also higher in the same wheat varieties that put them as good candidates for selection criteria in wheat breeding program for drought resistant. (author)

  14. Development of an improved and early sowing potential variety of jute - binadeshipat-2 using chemical mutagen sodium azide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jute is the important agricultural and industrial resource of Bangladesh for earning foreign currency. Seeds of the widely cultivated variety, CVL-1 were treated with 4 mM to 20mM of sodium azide (NaN3). The treated seeds were grown in M1 to M10 generations. A single plant (selection number C-278) was selected from M2 segregating population on the basis of early sowing potential and late flowering. Ten fiber quality characters were tested and it was found that the fiber quality of the mutant had been improved. Hence, the mutagen sodium azide showed extra potentiality to induce fiber quality characters of jute. The strain C-278 was also tested through Preliminary, Advanced, Zonal Yield Trial and Farmers field trial at different locations of the jute growing area in Bangladesh. The field evaluation team of the National Seed Board (NSB) visited most of the trials and reported that at early sowing and overall performance of the strain C-278 was found best than that of the mother variety. Besides these the strain produced 7.5% and 20% higher fiber yield than the mother variety CVL-1 and a local cultivar, D-154, respectively. After evaluation of the Technical Committee of NSB recommended that the strain C-278 may be released as a variety. The National Seed Board released the strain C-278 as a National jute variety under the name Binadeshipat-2 for cultivation in Bangladesh

  15. Environmental stability of stem cell wall traits in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem Klason lignin, glucose, xylose, an...

  16. Elimination of toxicity from diets containing alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; McLaughlin, P; Bardana, E J; Craig, S

    1984-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were fed autoclaved alfalfa seeds for up to 1 yr. There were no humoral signs of a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. The data are in contrast to those previously reported in monkeys fed raw alfalfa seeds, in which a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome was induced in a shorter interval. The autoclaved seeds retained antihypercholesterolaemic effects. PMID:6540232

  17. Alfalfa leafcutting bee population dynamics, flower availability, and pollination rates in two Oregon alfalfa fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jordi; Kemp, William P

    2005-08-01

    Since the 1970s, it has become increasingly difficult for U.S. alfalfa seed producers to maintain Megachile rotundata (F.) populations used for alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., pollination. In 1998, we monitored M. rotundata population dynamics and foraging behavior, as well as alfalfa bloom and pollination rates in two fields in eastern Oregon. Despite marked differences in bee management, establishment was very similar in the two fields (approximately 0.5 females per nesting cavity) and lagged peak bloom by approximately 2 wk. Pollination rates increased from 0-10% in the first 3 wk to 80-90% in week 4-5. By then, M. rotundata females had difficulty finding untripped (nonpollinated) flowers and visited large numbers of already tripped or not fully matured flowers. M. rotundata progeny mortality was very high (54-78%). Estimated seed yields were similar in both fields. We contend similar seed yields, and improved bee production, could be accomplished with smaller bee populations, better timed with alfalfa bloom. PMID:16156556

  18. Empirical analysis of factors affecting alfalfa plantation behavior of farmers in Huang-huai-hai region%黄淮海地区农户苜蓿种植行为影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文信; 蔡世攀; 王刚

    2015-01-01

    Planting alfalfa can not only promote the development of animal husbandry and meet the needs of the consumers for livestock, but also improve soil fertility and the ecological environment. Farmers are the main alfalfa growers in Huang-Huai-Hai region, in this paper, a supply response model of alfalfa planting area has been developed, with statistical data and investigation data, the effects of alfalfa prices and alfalfa area in last term were calculated. The results show that alfalfa planting area only depended on the alfalfa production price in last year and this means that the annual alfalfa price will influence the decision of farmers’ willingness of planting alfalfa.The elasticity of alfalfa planting area to alfalfa export price is 0.837, and the T value is 7.528. Above results proved that there was short-term speculation behavior for the alfalfa planting farmers in Huang-Huai-Hai region. Farmers in this area do not follow principle of maximum profit in alfalfa planting. At the same time, it proved that naïve price prediction model can be used to explain the farmers’ alfalfa planting behavior. in the naïve price prediction model, factors affecting the farmers’ planting alfalfa behavior include alfalfa planting area in last year, the prices of other crops in this area, the planting subsidies, the region effect and fixed effect. Because there is no alfalfa price data, the actual export price of alfalfa products was used to replace alfalfa domestic price. The estimation results show that both the R2 and adjust R2 are greater than 0.95, and the F-statistic value is significant at 99%confidence level, and the Durbin-Watson statistic is 2.2, which proved that naive simulation model is very suitable for simulating the factors that may influence alfalfa planting in Huang-Huai-Hai region. According to the calculation results, in short term, if the cotton price rise 10%, the alfalfa planting area will decrease 7.16%. If the wheat price rise 10%, the alfalfa

  19. Arabidopsis thaliana is an asymptomatic host of Alfalfa mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Ibrahim, Amr; Kim, Bong-Suk; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2006-11-01

    The susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to infection by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was evaluated. Thirty-nine ecotypes supported both local and systemic infection, 26 ecotypes supported only local infection, and three ecotypes could not be infected. No obvious symptoms characteristic of virus infection developed on the susceptible ecotypes under standard conditions of culture. Parameters of AMV infection were characterized in ecotype Col-0, which supported systemic infection and accumulated higher levels of AMV than the symptomatic host Nicotiana tabacum. The formation of infectious AMV particles in infected Col-0 was confirmed by infectivity assays on a hypersensitive host and by electron microscopy of purified virions. Replication and transcription of AMV was confirmed by de novo synthesis of AMV subgenomic RNA in Col-0 protoplasts transfected with AMV RNA or plasmids harboring AMV cDNAs. PMID:16875753

  20. [Development and study of spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko with introgression of genetic material from synthetic hexaploid Triticum timopheevii zhuk. x Aegilops tauschii Coss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikova, L I; Belan, I A; Badaeva, E D; Posseeva, L P; Shepelev, S S; Shumny, V K; Pershina, L A

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic hexaploids are bridges for transferring new genes that determine resistance to stress factors from wild-type species to bread wheat. In the present work, the method of developing the spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko and the results of its study are described. This variety was obtained using one of the immune lines produced earlier via the hybridization of the spring bread wheat variety Saratovskaya 29 with the synthetic hexaploid T. timopheevii Zhuk. x Ae. tauschii Coss. The C-staining of chromosomes in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety revealed substitutions of 2B and 6B chromosomes by the homeologous chromosomes of the G genome of T. timopheevii and the substitution of chromosome 1D by an orthologous chromosome ofAe. tauschii. It was found that this variety is characterized by resistance to leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew, and loose smut as well as by high grain and bread-making qualities. The role of the alien genetic material introgressed into the bread-wheat genome in the expression of adaptive and economically valuable traits in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety is discussed.

  1. Clustering of HI galaxies in HIPASS and ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Passmoor, S S; Faltenbacher, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the clustering of HI-selected galaxies in the ALFALFA survey and compare results with those obtained for HIPASS. Measurements of the angular correlation function and the inferred 3D-clustering are compared with results from direct spatial-correlation measurements. We are able to measure clustering on smaller angular scales and for galaxies with lower HI masses than was previously possible. We calculate the expected clustering of dark matter using the redshift distributions of HIPASS and ALFALFA and show that the ALFALFA sample is somewhat more anti-biased with respect to dark matter than the HIPASS sample.

  2. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  3. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.

  4. A Molecular Genetic Approach to Evaluate a Novel Seedless Phenotype Found in Tango, a New Variety of Mandarin Developed From Gamma-Irradiated W. Murcott

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, Jennifer Robyn

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONA Molecular Genetic Approach to Evaluate a Novel Seedless Phenotype Found in Tango, a New Variety of Mandarin Developed From Gamma-Irradiated W. Murcott by Jennifer Robyn CrowleyDoctor of Philosophy, Graduate Program in Genetics, Genomics, Bioinformatics University of California, Riverside, December 2011 Dr. Mikeal Ro...

  5. [Development of a new soybean variety with null trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase 2.3 genes--zhonghuang 16 and its cultivation practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fen-Xia; Ding, An-Lin; Sun, Jun-Ming

    2002-12-01

    Soybean protein is a kind of high-quality protein composed of balanced amino acids, which contains all kinds of amino acid, especially 8 amino acids necessary for human, but also contains some components that are not good for human and affect food quality, such as Trypsin inhibitor and Lipoxygenase. Nutritional value and processing quality of soybean can be improved by means of development of new variety with null Lox and Ti. In this paper, a new soybean variety Zhonghuang 16 (originally name as Zhongzuo 96-952) was developed by Institute of Crop Breeding and Cultivation Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences through years of biochemical marker assistant selection for null trypsin inhibitor by Native-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE) and null lipoxygenase by means of isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE) in the hybrid progenies of "ti15176" (Female parent)--a high-yielding, mosaic virus resistant and null trypsin inhibitor line and "Century-2.3" (Male parent)--a null lipoxygenase near isogene line of an elite American variety "Century". This variety was subjected to Beijing regional trial for summer-sowing soybean during 1999-2000, and to Beijing demonstration test in 2001. In 2002, it was passed the examination and approval by the Beijing Committee of Crop Variety Examination and Approval because of its outstanding characteristics such as high and stable yielding, good quality (high protein and fat content, high protein content and good protein quality-null Ti and Lox2.3), disease resistant and good general character. It is the first new soybean variety with null Ti and Lox2.3 genes in our country. In this paper, the development process and cultivation of Zhonghuang 16 were described. PMID:12693103

  6. Extended hypoxia in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, increases survival but causes sub-lethal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many insects are tolerant of hypoxic conditions, but it is unknown whether survival under hypoxia comes at any cost to long-term health. The alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is a solitary cavity-nesting bee. Because juvenile M. rotundata develop in brood cells inside cavities, they may...

  7. 中国的苜蓿草贸易——历史变迁、未来趋势与对策建议%Alfalfa trade of China, historical changes, future trends and suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春; 王明利; 刘亚钊

    2011-01-01

    伴随着国内外苜蓿(Medicago spp.)草市场供需的快速变化,我国苜蓿草产品贸易格局也发生了显著变化。如何准确把握苜蓿草市场的供求变化格局,抓住机遇快速发展我国的苜蓿产业将是草业界关注的一个热点问题。本研究在全面分析我国苜蓿草贸易现状与特点的基础上,深入剖析苜蓿产业的发展机遇与未来趋势,进一步提出推动我国苜蓿产业发展的相关政策建议。%The trade pattern of alfalfa forage products in China is changing due to rapid change of supply and demand of alfalfa products at domestic and international market. How to healthy develop alfalfa industry is a hot issue by taking full advantage of supply and demand pattern of alfalfa forage products. Based on trade characteristics and status of alfalfa forage products, this study pointed out the further developing chance and future direction of alfalfa industry, and further proposed some policy advice of alfalfa industry development.

  8. Optimizing fluctuating thermal regime storage of developing Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production in North America. Under current management practice developing pupae are incubated at 29ºC until the adults emerge for pollination. If unfavorable spring weather delays peak alfalfa bloom, bee m...

  9. Piecewise algebraic varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Renhong; ZHU Chungang

    2004-01-01

    The piecewise algebraic variety is a generalization of the classical algebraic variety. This paper discusses some properties of piecewise algebraic varieties and their coordinate rings based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry.

  10. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  11. Effects of the susceptibility of rice varieties to Sogatella furcifera on nymphal development and reproduction of Microvelia horvathi through a food chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIE-GUANG XIAO; JIANG-XIA TANG

    2007-01-01

    The effects of four rice varieties highly susceptible ('Xiang-Zao-Xian31' and 'Jia-Yu 164' ), moderately susceptible ('Wei-You402'), and resistant ('Zhu-Liang-You02') to the whitebacked planthopper Sogatella furcifera on the nymphal development, reproduction and survival of Microvelia horoathi were investigated through a food chain using Sogatella furcifera as herbivore prey. Significant longer nymphal developmental time were observed in the 1st, 4th, 5th instar and whole nymphal stage of M. horvathi raised on S.furcifera fed 'ZLY02' and 'WY402' than those of the other two varieties. M. horvathi raised on S. furcifera fed resistant 'ZLY02' showed a significant lower survival of whole nymphal stage than those fed other three susceptible varieties. Moreover, M. horvathi raised on S. furcifera fed resistant 'ZLY02' had shorter female longevity and lower lifetime fecundity than those of on susceptible 'XZX31'. Our results suggest that the S. furcifera-resistant rice variety 'ZLY02' had a negative effect on the growth and development of the predator M. horvathi through a food chain.

  12. Effects of the insect growth regulator, novaluron on immature alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Erin W; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Barbour, James D

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-pollen provisions and adults with novaluron. Immature M. rotundata mortality in all novaluron provision dosing treatments was significantly higher than the water or blank controls, providing evidence that novaluron is toxic to progeny in nest cells. The mean cumulative frequency showed that more eggs and 1st-2nd instars died compared to older instars. Female M. rotundata nested similarly in field cages during the field cage experiment; however, there was greater immature mortality in cages where females were fed sugar-water + novaluron compared to sugar-water only. Although females provided adequate provisions, there was a low percentage of egg hatch and larval development when females ingested novaluron before mating and nesting. Novaluron was also present in egg provision of bees collecting resources from novaluron-sprayed plants. At least 84% of progeny died when the females were allowed to mate and nest 24 hours after a novaluron application. Novaluron could be contributing to poor bee return in alfalfa grown for seed. Timely insecticide applications to suppress Lygus spp. is an important consideration to improve ongoing bee health. PMID:21539417

  13. Differential antifungal activity of alfalfa (Medicago santva L. saponins originated from roots and aerial parts for some ornamental plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins isolated from aerial parts and roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. at the concentration of 0,01%, 0,05% and 0,1% showed differential influence on the mycelium growth of Alternaria zinniae, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Phoma poolensis and Rhizoctonia solani. A higher inhibitory effect on in vitro growth of mycelium of all tested pathogens indicated saponins from roots of alfalfa than from aerial parts. Tested saponins from roots at lhe concentration of 0,1% totally inhibited linear growth of Phoma narcissi, and linear growth of Alternaria zinniae was limited about 67%, Botrytis cinerea about 74%, Botrytis tulipae about 68%, Phoma poolensis about 38%, and Rhizoctonia solani about 74% in comparison to the control. The saponins of alfalfa from roots at the concentration of 0,1% and 0,2% applied as preinoculation sprays evidently inhibited the development of Phoma narcissi on Hippeastrum leaves. This dose of aerial saponins of alfalfa did not effect the development of necrotic spots on the leaves.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host. PMID:24510307

  15. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....” Alfalfa; Bahiagrass; Barley; Bean, field; Beet, field; Brome, smooth; Broomcorn; Clover, crimson; Clover, red; Clover, white; Corn, field; Corn, pop; Cotton; Cowpea; Crambe; Fescue, tall; Flax;...

  16. '... the walls fell down but the blokes just coded ...' - Varieties of stability in software product development during organizational restructurings

    OpenAIRE

    Segercrantz, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Many Finnish IT companies have gone through numerous organizational changes over the past decades. This book draws attention to how stability may be central to software product development experts and IT workers more generally, who continuously have to cope with such change in their workplaces. It does so by analyzing and theorizing change and stability as intertwined and co-existent, thus throwing light on how it is possible that, for example, even if ‘the walls fall down the blokes just c...

  17. Influence of Environmental Factors on Field Natural Drying of Alfalfa%环境因子对苜蓿田间自然干燥的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹强; 武海霞; 王志军; 荣磊; 贾玉山

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss of alfalfa in the drying process has always been a key technical problem restricting the development of alfalfa industry. Therefore, speeding the drying rate and shortening the drying time become significant for alfalfa hay drying and processing. The moisture contents of 'Golden Queen' alfalfa and major meteorological parameters are determined to investigate the regularity of alfalfa moisture evaporation during drying process and the main factors of alfalfa drying rate. Results showed that in the natural drying process, alfalfa drying rate was initially fast then slow; alfalfa hay would get damp and lose nutrients overnight. Fracturing stalk process could accelerate the drying process of alfalfa effectively. This process shortened the drying time about 24 hours but the compressed alfalfa damped more easily than control. The drying rate of alfalfa had extremely significant positive correlation with solar radiation intensity, air temperature and wind speed, but had extremely significant negative correlation with air humidity and atmosphere water potential and had no significant positive correlation with alfalfa moisture. The influence factors of alfalfa drying rate were ordered as solar radiation intensity>air temperature>atmosphere water potential>air humidity>wind speed>alfalfa moisture.%苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)在干燥过程中的营养损失一直是制约苜蓿产业发展的关键技术难题,如何加快干燥速率,缩短干燥时间成为当今苜蓿干草调制加工研究的热点.试验以‘金皇后’紫花苜蓿为原料,通过对其含水量及主要气象参数的测定,研究了苜蓿干燥过程中的水分散失规律及影响苜蓿干燥速率的主要因子,旨在为探讨加快苜蓿干燥的途径提供依据.结果表明:苜蓿在自然干燥过程中,干燥速率呈先快后慢的变化趋势,而且夜间返潮严重,营养损失较大;压扁处理可有效加快苜蓿干燥,含水量从约80%降至10%左右需56 h,

  18. Evaluation of Selection Indices for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of selection indices in alfalfa improvement, an experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2007 at East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Iran. A set of 29 native ecotypes, which were collected in 2000 and 2001 from Azerbaijan (Iran, together with one improved variety were used to conduct a polycross nursery. For the purpose of random mating, a randomized complete block design was used with 12 replications arranged in this nursery. The resulting 30 half-sib families were planted individually in pots and the 30 days old seedlings were transplanted to the field in May, 2004. Each 3-row plot consisted of 45 HS plants. Several traits, such as individual plants� fresh weight and individual plants� dry weight (IPFW, IPDW, number of shoots per plant (NS and plant height (PH in each harvest and also, days until 10% flowering, the ratio of fresh and dry weight of leaves/plant and size of trifoliate leaves were measured for three cropping seasons. The results of analysis of variance showed large variation among polycross progenies. Six selection indices (Ii with different number of traits at adult plant stage were evaluated. Based on the result of this investigation, if number of shoots and height of adult plant, excluding yield, are recorded, I2 is suggested. If, in addition to fresh yield, height of adult plant is measured, I6 is recommended. I4 is useful when number of shoots and plant height with dry yield are included in the index. In conclusion, the importance of mature plant traits in selection indices was in the order of yield > plant height > number of shoots. The results provided more evidence that selection indices incorporating the component of dry yield are more advantageous. The most efficient selection index consisted of NS, IPDW and PH, having a relative efficiency of 280%.

  19. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  20. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  1. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  2. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  3. Effects of AN Alfalfa (medicago Sativa) Buffer Strip on Leached δ15NNITRATE Values: Implications for Management of Hydrologic N Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. J.; Keller, C. K.; Smith, J. L.; Evans, R. D.; Harlow, B.

    2011-12-01

    Buffer strips are commonly used to decrease agricultural runoff with the objective of limiting sediment and agrochemicals fluxes to surface waters. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an alfalfa buffer strip on the magnitude and source(s) of leached nitrate from a dryland agricultural field. Previous research at the Cook Agronomy Farm has inferred two sources of nitrate in tile drain discharge, a high-discharge-season (January through May) synthetic fertilizer source, and a low-discharge-season (June through December) soil organic nitrogen source. This study examines how a change in management strategy and crop species alters the low discharge season nitrate source. In the spring of 2006 an alfalfa buffer strip approximately 20 m wide was planted running approximately north-south in the lowland portion of a 12 ha tile-drained field bordering a ditch that drains into Missouri Flat Creek. Three-year (2003 through 2005) average NO3--N flux prior to the planting of the alfalfa buffer strip was ~0.40 kg ha-1 year-1. After planting, the three-year (2006 through 2008) average NO3--N flux was ~0.38 kg ha-1 year-1. The lack of evident buffer-strip influence on the fluxes may be due in part to the large variation in precipitation amounts and timing that control water flows through the system. Three-year average δ15Nnitrate values for the tile drain pre and post planting of the alfalfa buffer strip were 6.9 ± 1.1 % and 4.2 ± 0.9 % respectively. We hypothesize that the significant difference indicates that the alfalfa strip affects the source of leached nitrate. Before planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the interpreted source of nitrate was mineralization of soil organic nitrogen from non-N2 fixing crops (spring and summer wheat varieties). After planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the source of nitrate was interpreted to be a mixture of mineralized soil organic nitrogen from N2 fixing alfalfa and non-N2 fixing crops. Further work is needed to test

  4. Identification of transcriptome involved in atrazine detoxification and degradation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exposed to realistic environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Jing; Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shu Hao; Lu, Feng Fan; Yang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of toxic compounds (or xenobiotics) such as pesticides (or herbicides). Atrazine (ATZ) as herbicide has become one of the environmental contaminants due to its intensive use during crop production. Plants have evolved strategies to cope with the adverse impact of ATZ. However, the mechanism for ATZ degradation and detoxification in plants is largely unknown. Here we employed a global RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) strategy to dissect transcriptome variation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exposed to ATZ. Four libraries were constructed including Root-ATZ (root control, ATZ-free), Shoot-ATZ, Root+ATZ (root treated with ATZ) and Shoot+ATZ. Hierarchical clustering was performed to display the expression patterns for all differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under ATZ exposure. Transcripts involved in ATZ detoxification, stress responses (e.g. oxidation and reduction, conjugation and hydrolytic reactions), and regulations of cysteine biosynthesis were identified. Several genes encoding glycosyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases or ABC transporters were up-regulated notably. Also, many other genes involved in oxidation-reduction, conjugation, and hydrolysis for herbicide degradation were differentially expressed. These results suggest that ATZ in alfalfa can be detoxified or degraded through different pathways. The expression patterns of some DEGs by high-throughput sequencing were well confirmed by qRT-PCR. Our results not only highlight the transcriptional complexity in alfalfa exposed to ATZ but represent a major improvement for analyzing transcriptional changes on a large scale as well. PMID:27092973

  5. Identification of transcriptome involved in atrazine detoxification and degradation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exposed to realistic environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Jing; Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shu Hao; Lu, Feng Fan; Yang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of toxic compounds (or xenobiotics) such as pesticides (or herbicides). Atrazine (ATZ) as herbicide has become one of the environmental contaminants due to its intensive use during crop production. Plants have evolved strategies to cope with the adverse impact of ATZ. However, the mechanism for ATZ degradation and detoxification in plants is largely unknown. Here we employed a global RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) strategy to dissect transcriptome variation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exposed to ATZ. Four libraries were constructed including Root-ATZ (root control, ATZ-free), Shoot-ATZ, Root+ATZ (root treated with ATZ) and Shoot+ATZ. Hierarchical clustering was performed to display the expression patterns for all differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under ATZ exposure. Transcripts involved in ATZ detoxification, stress responses (e.g. oxidation and reduction, conjugation and hydrolytic reactions), and regulations of cysteine biosynthesis were identified. Several genes encoding glycosyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases or ABC transporters were up-regulated notably. Also, many other genes involved in oxidation-reduction, conjugation, and hydrolysis for herbicide degradation were differentially expressed. These results suggest that ATZ in alfalfa can be detoxified or degraded through different pathways. The expression patterns of some DEGs by high-throughput sequencing were well confirmed by qRT-PCR. Our results not only highlight the transcriptional complexity in alfalfa exposed to ATZ but represent a major improvement for analyzing transcriptional changes on a large scale as well.

  6. Development of potato breeding research for creation new potato varieties for procesing at station for research and development of potato Targu Secuiesc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza MIKE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Potato, from the breeding point of view, presents the following biological physiological specific features: vegetative multiplication, heterogeneity of progenitors’, large plasticity, sterility, incompatible to hybridization, excessive sensibility to diseases. The first three specific features advantage the breeding process on a large scale, but the last two thus complicates the breeding activity and constitutes important problems to success.The breeding of potato has as permanent objective the obtaining new varieties with high yield capacity, with high resistance to diseases and pest, with high quality, which have to give the satisfaction to consumers.The creation of new potato varieties is a continue process, which has to take into account the change of ecological conditions, with increase of aggressively and pathogenity of diseases and pest, apparition of rases, stems, brotypes, pathotipes, as well as the continue increasing of consumers demands.

  7. Multiple centroid method to evaluate the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Nascimento

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of multiple centroids to study the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.. In this method, the genotypes are compared with ideotypes defined by the bissegmented regression model, according to the researcher's interest. Thus, genotype classification is carried out as determined by the objective of the researcher and the proposed recommendation strategy. Despite the great potential of the method, it needs to be evaluated under the biological context (with real data. In this context, we used data on the evaluation of dry matter production of 92 alfalfa cultivars, with 20 cuttings, from an experiment in randomized blocks with two repetitions carried out from November 2004 to June 2006. The multiple centroid method proved efficient for classifying alfalfa genotypes. Moreover, it showed no unambiguous indications and provided that ideotypes were defined according to the researcher's interest, facilitating data interpretation.

  8. Adaptability of Alfalfa and Ryegrass to New Reclamation Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZHAO-FENG; ZHANG Lei-na; FENG Yong-jun; KANG Jing-tao

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the adaptability of the alfalfa and ryegrass to the new artificial soil that was composed of fly ash and furfural residue. The potted experiments were taken to compare the growth conditions, yields, and qualities of both grasses. Some pots were covered with wheat stalks and others without. The medium Fluvo-aquic soil was taken as control. The results indicated that the growth of two grasses in the mixture were inferior to their growth in the control in initial period. With the leaching of rain and irrigation, the two grasses improved gradually. The alfalfa and ryegrass both could grow in the new mixture, and the ryegrass would be better to plant in no covered material and the alfalfa in covered. This will be a new way to reclaim subsided land and to improve the environment in mining area.

  9. Effect of Rain Leaching on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Hay

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia de Hernandez, Mercedes M.

    1981-01-01

    Yield and chemical changes of second-cutting alfalfa hay treated with artificial rain were determined in a 2 x 3 x 2 factorial experiment. Factors were 2 stages of maturity (1 late vegetative; 2 early bloom), 3 levels of artificial rain applied (1 =no rain; 2 =low or approximately 5 mm; 3 =high or approximately 20 mm), and 2 times of applying artificial rain (1 = when drying forage was 40-60% dry matter; 2 =when drying forage was 60-75% dry matter). Thirty samples of alfalfa were collected at...

  10. RAPD analysis of alfalfa DNA mutation via N+ implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-Feng; HUANG Qun-Ce; LIANG Yun-Zhang; YU Zeng-Liang

    2003-01-01

    Germination capacity of alfalfa seeds under low energy N+ implantation manifests oscillations goingdown with dose strength. From analyzing alfalfa genome DNA under low energy N+ implantation by RAPD (RandomAmplified Polymorphous DNA), it is recommended that 30 polymorphic DNA fragments be amplified with 8 primersin total 100 primers, and fluorescence intensity of the identical DNA fragments amplified by RAPD is different be-tween CK and treatments. Number of different polymorphic DNA fragments between treatment and CK via N+ im-plantation manifests going up with dose strength.

  11. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Greene

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1 evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2 determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  12. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  13. Binary Cumulant Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic statistics for binary random variables is concerned with highly structured algebraic varieties in the space of 2x2x...x2-tensors. We demonstrate the advantages of representing such varieties in the coordinate system of binary cumulants. Our primary focus lies on hidden subset models. Parametrizations and implicit equations in cumulants are derived for hyperdeterminants, for secant and tangential varieties of Segre varieties, and for certain context-specific independence models. Extending work of Rota and collaborators, we explore the polynomial inequalities satisfied by cumulants.

  14. 紫花苜蓿耐盐种质资源的遗传多样性分析%Analysis of genetic diversity of salt tolerant alfalfa germplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜健; 杨宝灵; 夏彤; 于淑梅; 乌云娜

    2011-01-01

    利用RAPD技术分析了25个紫花苜蓿耐盐品种的遗传结构和遗传多样性.结果表明,30条引物在25个紫花苜蓿耐盐品种单株DNA间的多态性位点比率(P)为81.52%,在各品种混合DNA间的多态性位点比率为61.65%,说明采用单株DNA样品比采用混合DNA样品能更好地揭示紫花苜蓿品种内和品种间的遗传变异水平.基因分化系数(Gst)主要反应品种间变异占总变异的比例,中国18个耐盐紫花苜蓿品种和美国7个耐盐紫花苜蓿品种的基因分化系数分别为0.271和0.152,表明中国耐盐紫花苜蓿种质资源品种间基因交流机会比美国品种间交流机会多.紫花苜蓿作为典型的异交植物,其生物群体的遗传结构与其繁育体系具有直接的联系.依据遗传距离(GD)分析结果,25份材料从遗传结构上可以分为9个组群,其中图牧1号和图牧2号遗传距离最小(GD=0.148),捷达和图牧1号遗传距离最大(GD=0.786).紫花苜蓿耐盐种质遗传多样性分析为紫花苜蓿耐盐核心种质库构建和耐盐新品种选育提供了理论依据.%The genetic structure and diversity of 25 alfalfa (Medicago sativa) salt-tolerant varieties was ana lyzed by RAPD technology. Results showed that the polymorphism loci percentages (P) of 30 primers between single-plant DNA of 25 salt-tolerant alfalfa varieties were 81. 52%, and between mixed DNA of various varie ties were 61. 65%, indicating that single-plant DNA sample was a better method than mixed DNA sample, to reveal the level of genetic variation within and between alfalfa varieties. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) mainly reflects the ratio of species variation to total variation, and the Gst of 18 Chinese salt-tolerant al falfa varieties and 7 American salt-tolerant alfalfa varieties were 0. 271 and 0. 152, respectively, showing that there was more interactive gene exchange between Chinese salt-tolerant alfalfa germplasm was than that of A merican germplasm

  15. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Major Legacy Astronomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Higdon, Sarah; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kornreich, David A.; Lebron, Mayra E.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; Alfalfa Team

    2015-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. The collaborative nature of the UAT allows faculty and students from a wide ​range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to develop scholarly collaborations. Components of the program include an annual undergraduate workshop at Arecibo Observatory, observing runs at Arecibo, computer infrastructure, summer and academic year research projects, and dissemination at national meetings (e.g., Alfvin et al., Martens et al., Sanders et al., this meeting). Through this model, faculty and students are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. In the 7 years of the program, 23 faculty and more than 220 undergraduate students have participated at a significant level. 40% of them have been women and members of underrepresented groups. Faculty, many of whom were new to the collaboration and had expertise in other fields, contribute their diverse sets of skills to ALFALFA ​related projects via observing, data reduction, collaborative research, and research with students. 142 undergraduate students have attended the annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 131 summer research projects and 94 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 62 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 46 have presented their results at national meetings. 93% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. Half of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been

  16. Computing Tropical Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, D.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, T.;

    2005-01-01

    The tropical variety of a d-dimensional prime ideal in a polynomial ring with complex coefficients is a pure d-dimensional polyhedral fan. This fan is shown to be connected in codimension one. We present algorithmic tools for computing the tropical variety, and we discuss our implementation...

  17. Varieties of Musical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  18. REAL PIECEWISE ALGEBRAIC VARIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-hong Wang; Yi-sheng Lai

    2003-01-01

    We give definitions of real piecewise algebraic variety and its dimension. By using the techniques of real radical ideal, P-radical ideal, affine Hilbert polynomial, Bernstein-net form of polynomials on simplex, and decomposition of semi-algebraic set, etc., we deal with the dimension of the real piecewise algebraic variety and real Nullstellensatz in Cμ spline ring.

  19. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  20. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  1. Assessing disease stress and modeling yield losses in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jie

    Alfalfa is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and worldwide. Fungal foliar diseases are believed to cause significant yield losses in alfalfa, yet, little quantitative information exists regarding the amount of crop loss. Different fungicides and application frequencies were used as tools to generate a range of foliar disease intensities in Ames and Nashua, IA. Visual disease assessments (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation) were obtained weekly for each alfalfa growth cycle (two to three growing cycles per season). Remote sensing assessments were performed using a hand-held, multispectral radiometer to measure the amount and quality of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. Factors such as incident radiation, sun angle, sensor height, and leaf wetness were all found to significantly affect the percentage reflectance of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. The precision of visual and remote sensing assessment methods was quantified. Precision was defined as the intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability of assessment methods. F-tests, slopes, intercepts, and coefficients of determination (R2) were used to compare assessment methods for precision. Results showed that among the three visual disease assessment methods (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation), percentage defoliation had the highest intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Remote sensing assessment method had better precision than the percentage defoliation assessment method based upon higher intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Significant linear relationships between canopy reflectance (810 nm), percentage defoliation and yield were detected using linear regression and percentage reflectance (810 nm) assessments were found to have a stronger relationship with yield than percentage defoliation assessments. There were also significant linear relationships between percentage defoliation, dry

  2. Using RNA-Seq for gene identification, polymorphism detection and transcript profiling in two alfalfa genotypes with divergent cell wall composition in stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb JoAnn FS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alfalfa, [Medicago sativa (L. sativa], a widely-grown perennial forage has potential for development as a cellulosic ethanol feedstock. However, the genomics of alfalfa, a non-model species, is still in its infancy. The recent advent of RNA-Seq, a massively parallel sequencing method for transcriptome analysis, provides an opportunity to expand the identification of alfalfa genes and polymorphisms, and conduct in-depth transcript profiling. Results Cell walls in stems of alfalfa genotype 708 have higher cellulose and lower lignin concentrations compared to cell walls in stems of genotype 773. Using the Illumina GA-II platform, a total of 198,861,304 expression sequence tags (ESTs, 76 bp in length were generated from cDNA libraries derived from elongating stem (ES and post-elongation stem (PES internodes of 708 and 773. In addition, 341,984 ESTs were generated from ES and PES internodes of genotype 773 using the GS FLX Titanium platform. The first alfalfa (Medicago sativa gene index (MSGI 1.0 was assembled using the Sanger ESTs available from GenBank, the GS FLX Titanium EST sequences, and the de novo assembled Illumina sequences. MSGI 1.0 contains 124,025 unique sequences including 22,729 tentative consensus sequences (TCs, 22,315 singletons and 78,981 pseudo-singletons. We identified a total of 1,294 simple sequence repeats (SSR among the sequences in MSGI 1.0. In addition, a total of 10,826 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were predicted between the two genotypes. Out of 55 SNPs randomly selected for experimental validation, 47 (85% were polymorphic between the two genotypes. We also identified numerous allelic variations within each genotype. Digital gene expression analysis identified numerous candidate genes that may play a role in stem development as well as candidate genes that may contribute to the differences in cell wall composition in stems of the two genotypes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that RNA

  3. Geometry of graph varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Jeremy L.

    2003-01-01

    A picture P of a graph G = (V,E) consists of a point P(v) for each vertex v in V and a line P(e) for each edge e in E, all lying in the projective plane over a field k and subject to containment conditions corresponding to incidence in G. A graph variety is an algebraic set whose points parametrize pictures of G. We consider three kinds of graph varieties: the picture space X(G) of all pictures, the picture variety V(G), an irreducible component of X(G) of dimension 2|V|, defined as the closu...

  4. Thermoperiodism Synchronizes Emergence in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, Ian S; Kemp, William P; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2016-02-01

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). M. rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the physical nature of the nest, M. rotundata brood may have limited to no exposure to photoperiodic cues in order to regulate important circadian functions. Therefore, various thermoperiod regimes were used to characterize the possible role of thermoperiodism in synchronizing M. rotundata adult emergence. Adult emergence was monitored using a microprocessor-controlled event logger. Incubating bees under constant 29°C and darkness resulted in an arhythmic adult emergence pattern. Exposing developing M. rotundata to a thermoperiod synchronized emergence to the beginning of the thermophase and decreased the total number of days required for all adults to emerge. The amplitude of the thermoperiod regulated the timing of peak emergence in relationship to the increase in temperature. A thermoperiod amplitude of only 2°C was sufficient to synchronize peak adult emergence to take place during the rise in temperature. Increasing the amplitude of the thermoperiod to 4 or 8°C caused a positively correlated shift in peak emergence to later in the thermophase. Brood stored under constant 29°C and darkness for different durations (May or June early in the growing season or July or August late in the growing season) or under a fluctuating thermal regime (base temperature of 6°C and daily 1-h pulse of 20°C until September or November) maintained their capacity for entraining emergence timing by thermoperiodism. PMID:26385932

  5. Transcript Profiling of Two Alfalfa Genotypes with Contrasting Cell Wall Composition in Stems Using a Cross-Species Platform: Optimizing Analysis by Masking Biased Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stem cell walls of alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) ssp. sativa] genotype 252 have high cellulose and lignin concentrations, while stem cell walls of genotype 1283 have low cellulose and lignin concentrations. The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable pla...

  6. Growth With of Alfalfa Mutant in Different Nitrogen Fertilizer and Defoliation Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyati Slamet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate growth  of alfalfa mutan (plant height increment, number of leaves and dry matter production in different  Nitrogen Fertilizer and defoliation intensity. The design used was randomized block design 4x2 factorial with 3 replications. The first was dosage of Nitrogen fertilizerNitrogen   (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N / ha,  the second factor was defoliation intensity (5 and 10 cm. Variables observed alfalfa growth (plant height increment, number of leaves, the production of dry matter (DM forage. The results showed that different N fertilization did not affect the growth of alfalfa mutants. Defoliation intensity  affectedmnumber of leaves and   DM  production of alfalfa mutant. Fertilization to 90 kg N / ha has not affected the growth and   defoliation  intensity 10 cm gave better growth on alfalfa mutant.   [Keywords: alfalfa mutant; Nitrogen fertilizer; defoliation; growth

  7. Microsatellite genotyping of carnation varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Noordijk, Y.; Rus-Kortekaas, W.; Bredemeijer, G.M.M.; Vosman, B.

    2003-01-01

    A set of 11 sequence-tagged microsatellite markers for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) was developed using a DNA library enriched for microsatellites. Supplemented with three markers derived from sequence database entries, these were used to genotype carnation varieties using a semi-automated fluo

  8. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  9. Population dynamics of overwintering life stages of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal)

    OpenAIRE

    Hilburn, Daniel J.

    1985-01-01

    Virginia is a natural laboratory for studying overwintering habits of the alfalfa weevi1. At higher elevations, winters are relatively harsh and weevil pressure on the alfalfa crop is usually light. Much heavier pressure is the rule at lower elevations where winters are milder. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of fall and winter temperatures, parasites, and fall regrowth management on population dynamics of overwintering stages of this insect. Sixteen commercial alfalfa field...

  10. Impact of Bee Species and Plant Density on Alfalfa Pollination and Potential for Gene Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Johanne Brunet; Stewart, Christy M.

    2010-01-01

    In outcrossing crops like alfalfa, various bee species can contribute to pollination and gene flow in seed production fields. With the increasing use of transgenic crops, it becomes important to determine the role of these distinct pollinators on alfalfa pollination and gene flow. The current study examines the relative contribution of honeybees, three bumble bee species, and three solitary bee species to pollination and gene flow in alfalfa. Two wild solitary bee species and one wild bumble ...

  11. Performance of Three Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera:Miridae) on Flowering and Non-lfowering Cotton and Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen; PAN Hong-sheng; LIU Bing; LU Yan-hui; LIANG Ge-mei

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera:Miridae) is a group of key insect pests in cotton ifelds in China that includes three dominant species:A. suturalis (Jakovlev), A. lineolatus (Goeze) and A. fasciaticollis (Reuter). Previous ifeld surveys have found that adults of these Adelphocoris species usually move onto speciifc host plants when the plants enter the lfowering stage. To determine the potential trade-offs for this host-plant preference behavior, the performance of these three Adelphocoris spp. on lfowering and non-lfowering cotton and alfalfa were compared in the laboratory. The results showed that Adelphocoris spp. had signiifcantly higher nymphal developmental and survival rates, along with increased adult longevity and fecundity on lfowering cotton and alfalfa than on non-lfowering plants of either species. In addition, compared with cotton plants, alfalfa generally promoted better performance of these three Adelphocoris species, especially for A. lineolatus. Simple correlation analysis indicated that female adult longevity was positively correlated to male adult longevity and female fecundity, and female fecundity was positively correlated to nymphal development and survival rates. This study demonstrated a positive correlation between adult preference and offspring/adult performance for all three Adelphocoris species, with no evidence of any trade-offs for this preference for lfowering host plants. These ifndings support the hypothesis that hemimetabolous insects such as mirid bugs have positive adult preference-adult/nymphal performance relationships, which is likely due to the similar feeding habits and nutritional requirements of adults and nymphs.

  12. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield, N content, and nitrogen ifxation of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass grown alone or in mixture in greenhouse pots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai-yun; LI Xiang-lin; HE Feng; ZHANG Ying-jun; WAN Li-qiang; David B Hannaway; WANG Dong; QIN Yan; Gamal M A Fadul

    2015-01-01

    grown alone (shoots:|t|=3.39, P=0.0096;root:|t|=3.57, P=0.0073). We believe this was due to smooth bromegrass being better able to absorb available soil N (due to its ifbrous root system), resulting in lower soil N availability and al owing alfalfa to develop an effective N2 ifxing symbiosis prior to the 1st harvest. Once soil N levels were depleted, alfalfa was able to ifx N2, resulting in the majority of its tissue N being derived from biological nitrogen ifxation (BNF) in the 2nd and 3rd harvests. When grown in a mixture, with added N, alfalfa established an effective symbiosis earlier than when grown alone;in monoculture BNF did not contribute a signiifcant portion of plant N in the N75 and N150 treatments, whereas in the mixture, BNF contributed 17.90 and 16.28%for these treatments respectively. Alfalfa has a higher BNF efifciency when grown in a mixture, initiating BNF earlier, and having higher N2 ifxation due to less inhibition by soil-available N. For the greatest N-use-efifciency and sustainable production, grass-legume mixtures are recommended for improving grasslands, using a moderate amount of N fertilizer (75 kg N ha–1) to provide optimum beneifts.

  13. Bioinformatics Analysis of Zinc Transporter from Baoding Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo WANG; Junyun GUO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to perform the bioinformatics analysis of Zinc transporter (ZnT) from Baoding Alfalfa. [Method] Based on the amino acid sequence, the physical and chemical properties, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, secondary structure of ZnT from Baoding alfalfa were predicted by a series of bioinformatics software. And the transmembrane domains were predicted by using different online tools. [Result] ZnT is a hydrophobic protein containing 408 amino acids with the theoretical pl of 5.94, and it has 7 potential transmembrane hydrophobic regions. In the sec- ondary structure, co-helix (Hh) accounted for 48.04%, extended strand (Ee) for 9.56%, random coil (Cc) for 42.40%, which was accored with the characteristic of transmembrane protein. [Conclusion] mZnT is a member of CDF family, responsible for transporting Zn^2+ out of the cell membrane to reduce the concentration and toxicity of Zn^2+.

  14. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    OpenAIRE

    Neri, I.; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G.; Patrizi, A.

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane.

  15. Questions on Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Marchionna, E

    2011-01-01

    P. Dolbeault: Residus et courants.- D. Mumford: Varieties defined by quadratic equations.- A. Neron: Hauteurs et theorie des intersections.- A. Seidenberg: Report on analytic product.- C.S. Seshadri: Moduli of p-vector bundles over an algebraic curve.- O. Zariski: Contributions to the problem of equi-singularity.

  16. Schubert varieties and generalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springer, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution reviews the main results on Schubert varieties and their generalizations It covers more or less the material of the lectures at the Seminar These were partly expository introducing material needed by other lecturers In particular Section reviews classical material used in several

  17. Logical Varieties in Normative Reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Burgin, Mark; Mestdagh, de Vey

    2011-01-01

    Although conventional logical systems based on logical calculi have been successfully used in mathematics and beyond, they have definite limitations that restrict their application in many cases. For instance, the principal condition for any logical calculus is its consistency. At the same time, knowledge about large object domains (in science or in practice) is essentially inconsistent. Logical prevarieties and varieties were introduced to eliminate these limitations in a logically correct way. In this paper, the Logic of Reasonable Inferences is described. This logic has been applied successfully to model legal reasoning with inconsistent knowledge. It is demonstrated that this logic is a logical variety and properties of logical varieties related to legal reasoning are developed.

  18. Investigation of Endosperm Cell Development of Different Rice Varieties%不同类型水稻品种胚乳发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李栋梁; 李小刚; 顾蕴洁; 王忠

    2014-01-01

    不同部位的分布上,4种水稻品种各自呈现了一定程度的差异与联系。粳稻2个品种与籼稻2个品种间差异更多体现在颖果发育进程上;而糯稻与非糯稻的区别则更多体现在淀粉体的形态与灌浆的充实程度上。%The objective of this research is to clarify the difference of rice endosperm of different varieties during the development process.[Method]Four rice varieties, Nipponbare, Yangdao 6, Wuyunuo16 and Yangfunuo 4 were used as the experimental materials, and their caryopsis development days precisely were precisely recorded and their caryopsis development was closely observed. Starch accumulation and physiological activities were observed by I2-KI and TTC staining. Structure changes of rice starch endosperm cells were observed by applying spur resin embedding and semi-thin sectioning, and light microscopy. The ultrastructure and element analysis of full ripe rice caryopsis were observed under scanning electron microscope and EDS. [Result]Four stages occurred in caryopses development of all the rice varieties tested: formation stage, milky stage, dough stage, and full maturity stage. Compared to development stages of the endosperm, formation stage runs in parallel to the coenocyte and cellurization stages, which are the initial stage of endosperm formation; milky stage corresponds to the differentiation stage of endosperm cells, while the last two stages, dough and full maturity stages, are equivalent to that of the endosperm maturity stage. The shape of two rice sub subspecies, japonica and indica, varies significantly. Of the four rice varieties tested, two indica varieties showed a relatively faster growth rate than two japonica cultivars; Wuyunuo16 and Yangfunuo 4 had almost identical growth rate of dry matter accumulation. Nuclei of starch endosperm cells degenerated with the extension of amyloplasts, while amyloplasts were still enlarging and growing. Amyloplasts in the endosperm cells were compound granules, and their

  19. Development of the Seedless Watermelon Variety “Longfa 88”%无籽西瓜新品种隆发88无籽的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧小球; 邓大成; 孙小武; 莫小平; 左浦阳; 谭秋英; 杨仁喜; 夏立平

    2012-01-01

    隆发88无籽(SA9801×BC219)是湖南省瓜类研究所最新育成的优质、丰产、抗病耐湿无籽西瓜新品种.全生育期105 d左右,果实发育期约35 d.易坐果.单果质量7 kg左右,667 m2产量3 800~4 500 kg.果实圆球形,果形指数1.03~1.05,果皮墨绿色,瓤鲜红色.中心可溶性固形物含量12%.生长势强,适于我国各西瓜栽培区种植.%Seedless watermelon variety "Longfa 88" (SA9801xBC219) was developed by Hunan Cucurbit Research Institute. It produces high quality and high yield with the strong plant under humid condition. The fruit matures 105 days form sowing and 35 days from flowering. Single fruit weigh about 7 kg and the 667 m2 yield is about 3 800-4 500 kg. The sugar content is 12%. It has been grown successfully in many seedless watermelon production areas.

  20. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Suess, Katherine A; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI), OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 HI optical counterparts. Sixty candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colors of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ fro...

  1. Photosynthate partitioning in alfalfa before harvest and during regrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the harvest regrowth cycle of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants, factors such as source to sink distance, sink size, and inter-organ competition continually change. However, consequent changes in the pattern of photosynthate partitioning from leaves to other organs are poorly understood. The authors objective was to examine photosynthate partitioning from upper and lower alfalfa leaves at intervals before herbage harvest and during regrowth after harvest. The uppermost or lowest fully expanded leaf on the longest or dominant stem was labeled with 14CO2. After a 24-h translocation period, the plants were divided into various organs to determine distribution of the radiocarbon. At that time, the upper leaf preferentially partitioned photosynthate to the shoot apex, unexpanded leaves and auxillary shoots of the dominant shoot, whereas the lower leaf preferentially distributed photosynthate to the crown shoots, crown, root, and nodules. Expressions of 14C partitioning were affected differently by organ mass. While the smallest organs such as nodules and unexpanded leaves always ranked higher for 14C based on relative specific activity, the largest organs such as roots and crown shoots accumulated the largest percentage of total plant recovered radioactivity. The results illustrate the importance of growth stage and leaf position in photosynthate partitioning in alfalfa and the dominance of herbage meristems for current photosynthate during regrowth

  2. Varieties of lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Jipsen, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The study of lattice varieties is a field that has experienced rapid growth in the last 30 years, but many of the interesting and deep results discovered in that period have so far only appeared in research papers. The aim of this monograph is to present the main results about modular and nonmodular varieties, equational bases and the amalgamation property in a uniform way. The first chapter covers preliminaries that make the material accessible to anyone who has had an introductory course in universal algebra. Each subsequent chapter begins with a short historical introduction which sites the original references and then presents the results with complete proofs (in nearly all cases). Numerous diagrams illustrate the beauty of lattice theory and aid in the visualization of many proofs. An extensive index and bibliography also make the monograph a useful reference work.

  3. Efficacy of chemical treatments in eliminating Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on scarified and polished alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, S L; Scouten, A J; Beuchat, L R

    2001-10-01

    Alfalfa seeds are sometimes subjected to a scarification treatment to enhance water uptake, which results in more rapid and uniform germination during sprout production. It has been hypothesized that this mechanical abrasion treatment diminishes the efficacy of chemical treatments used to kill or remove pathogenic bacteria from seeds. A study was done to compare the effectiveness of chlorine (20,000 ppm), H2O, (8%), Ca(OH)2 (1%), Ca(OH)2 (1%) plus Tween 80 (1%), and Ca(OH)2 (1%) plus Span 20 (1%) treatments in killing Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto control, scarified, and polished alfalfa seeds obtained from two suppliers. The influence of the presence of organic material in the inoculum carrier on the efficacy of sanitizers was investigated. Overall, treatment with 1% Ca(OH)2 was the most effective in reducing populations of the pathogens. Reduction in populations of pathogens on seeds obtained from supplier I indicate that chemical treatments are less efficacious in eliminating the pathogens on scarified seeds compared to control seeds. However, the effectiveness of chemical treatment in removing Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 from seeds obtained from supplier 2 was not markedly affected by scarification or polishing. The presence of organic material in the inoculum carrier did not have a marked influence on the efficacy of chemicals in reducing populations of test pathogens. Additional lots of control, scarified, and polished alfalfa seeds of additional varieties need to be tested before conclusions can be drawn concerning the impact of mechanical abrasion on the efficacy of chemical treatment in removing or killing Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. PMID:11601695

  4. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can serve as a cover crop and subsequent forage crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...

  5. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  6. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks.

  7. The Productivity and Quality of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in Romanian Forest Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai STAVARACHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative use of alfalfa, for various purposes, including the production of biofuels or food supplement for human alimentation, is a study topic still in its early stages of research. Studying and understanding the biology of alfalfa and the factors with a major influence on it are very important activities. The productivity and quality of alfalfa are two indicators that help determine, in addition to economic value, the way in which alfalfa can be used. Evolution of alfalfa yield and quality depends on many factors, such as the growth stage of alfalfa plants at harvesting. It was observed over three years of vegetation the influence of alfalfa plant growth stage at harvest on plant height, leaves/stems ratio, production of leaves, stems and whole plant (DM - dry matter per hectare and on quality indicators (CP - crude protein, NDF - neutral detergent fiber and ADF - acid detergent fiber. The results showed that, with the advancement of phenological phases, from early bud stage to complete flowering, the total biomass output raised from 2.79 Mg·ha-1 to 4.60 Mg·ha-1, the neutral detergent fiber raised from 48.4-50.6% to 62.0-67.7%, while crude protein content decreased from 21.2-24.0% to 13.3-16.5%. The parameter values were correlated with alfalfa growth stage during the harvesting (significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels.

  8. Developing Method of Standards for Product Variety and Specification%产品品种规格类标准的研制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦绿波

    2014-01-01

    本文分析了品种规格标准的属性、地位、建立、作用等特点,论述了品种规格标准的内容结构及其要素,划分了五种品种规格类标准的类型,分别阐述了每种标准的主要内容、表述方式和作用等,研究了品种规格的分类和命名关系,讨论了标准中优选原则的建立,论述了品种规格优选的方法,提供了标准中管理的典型内容,给出了标准应用指导的设计方法。%The paper analyzes the characteristics of variety and specification, such as attribute, position, establishment, function, etc., expounds the content structures and elements of variety and specification standards, classifies five types of standards for variety and specification, elaborates the main content, expression approach, function of each type, studies the classification and nomenclature relations of varieties and specifications of products, and discusses the construction of the optimum principle in the standards, providing the typical content in the standards management and design method of standard application guide.

  9. Complete genome sequence of a new enamovirus from Argentina infecting alfalfa plants showing dwarfism symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Alfalfa dwarf disease, probably caused by synergistic interactions of mixed virus infections, is a major and emergent disease that threatens alfalfa production in Argentina. Deep sequencing of diseased alfalfa plant samples from the central region of Argentina resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling enamoviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Enamovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "alfalfa enamovirus 1" (AEV-1). The availability of the AEV-1 genome sequence will make it possible to assess the genetic variability of this virus and to construct an infectious clone to investigate its role in alfalfa dwarfism disease. PMID:27068164

  10. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.

  11. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  12. Singularities of the Secant Variety

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeire, Pete

    2007-01-01

    We give positivity conditions on the embedding of a smooth variety which guarantee the normality of the secant variety, generalizing earlier results of the author and others. We also give classes of secant varieties satisfying the Hodge conjecture as well as a result on the singular locus of degenerate secant varieties.

  13. Fungicide tests on adult alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, C I; James, R R; Bosch, J; Kemp, W P

    2008-08-01

    Chalkbrood is a serious disease of alfalfa leafcutting bee Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) larvae, causing upward of 20% infection in the field. The causative agent is the fungus Ascosphaera aggregata. This bee is used extensively for alfalfa seed pollination in the United States. Using laboratory bioassays, we previously demonstrated that fungicides can reduce chalkbrood levels in the larvae. Here, we evaluate the toxicity of four fungicides, Benlate, Captan, Orbit, and Rovral, to adult bees by using three different bioassays. In the first test, fungicides were applied to bees' thoraces. In the second test, mimicking foliage residue, a piece of filter paper soaked in fungicide was placed on the bottom of a container of bees. The third test evaluated oral toxicity by incorporating fungicides into a sugar-water solution that was fed to the bees. The filter paper test did not discriminate among the fungicides well, and the oral test resulted in the greatest mortality. Toxicity to males was greater than to females. The use of fungicides for chalkbrood control is a logical choice, but caution should be used in how they are applied in the presence of bees. PMID:18767714

  14. Gas, Stars and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, S; Giovanelli, R; Brinchmann, J; Stierwalt, S; Neff, S G

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and HI components of 229 low HI mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with HI masses < 10^{7.7} M_sun and HI line widths < 80 km s^{-1}. SDSS data are combined with photometric properties derived from GALEX to derive stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs) and estimates of their SFRs and M_* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M_* < 10^8 M_sun is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of t...

  15. On Some Quiver Determinantal Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Jiarui

    2014-01-01

    We introduce certain quiver analogue of the determinantal variety. We study the Kempf-Lascoux-Weyman's complex associated to a line bundle on the variety. In the case of generalized Kronecker quivers, we give a sufficient condition on when the complex resolves a maximal Cohen-Macaulay module supported on the quiver determinantal variety. This allows us to find the set-theoretical defining equations of these varieties. When the variety has codimension one, the only irreducible polynomial funct...

  16. The isoflavone content of two new alfalfa-derived products for instant beverage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Zarazúa, M Guadalupe; Rodrigues, Francisca; Pimentel, Filipa B; Bah, M M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2016-01-01

    The frequent use of plant-based products to promote health leads to the search for scientific information related to efficacy and safety of those products for human consumption. Two alfalfa-derived products (ADP), freeze-dried juice (FDJ) and dehydrated powder (DP), from alfalfa harvested in Mexico, are being developed as new possible nutraceuticals. To the best of our knowledge, any study reports the real composition of such products used to prepare instant beverages in what concerns isoflavone contents. Seven isoflavones (glycitein, formononetin, biochanin A, daidzein, genistein, daidzin and genistin) were assessed by HPLC-DAD analysis as well as its variation in five different batches of these products. Different solvents were tested in order to choose the best one to extract isoflavones. The results showed the presence of daidzein, genistein, genistin and daidzin in most samples while glycitein, formononetin and biochanin A were not detected. Significant differences between isoflavone contents were found with different solvent systems. Water was the best option to extract daidzein (0.40-1.08 mg per unit and 1.30-4.90 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively) whereas the water-methanol-formic acid mixture was efficient to extract genistein (0.19-0.43 mg per unit and 0.15-0.72 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively). In all cases, the total isoflavone content was higher in freeze-dried juices than in dehydrated powders. Genistein and daidzein were the more abundant isoflavones quantified. Further physiological and nutritional studies are needed to complete the validation of effectiveness and safety of these products. PMID:26499901

  17. Presence and Molecular Characterization of Alfalfa mosaic virus on Tobacco in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stanković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-year investigation of the presence and distribution of tobacco viruses in Serbia revealed that Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV appeared every year with different frequency in tobacco crops. During 2008, the presence of AMV was detected in most of the tested samples(58.82% and it was the second most common compared to all other viruses which presence was confirmed in Serbia. In 2006 and 2007, AMV was detected in a significantly lower percentage (2.80% and 13.64%, respectively. This study showed that Alfalfa mosaic virus was more commonly found in multiple infections with two, three or even four detected viruses. Single infections were detected only in 2006, in one tobacco field in the locality of Futog. During this investigation, a rapid and simple protocol was optimized and developed for molecular detection of AMV in tobacco leaves, using primers CPAMV1/CPAMV2 and commercially available kits for total RNA extraction as well as for RT-PCR (reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction. Using RT-PCR and these primers that flank the AMV coat protein gene, a DNA fragment of 751 bp was amplified, sequenced, and compared with the sequences available in GenBank database. The sequence of isolate 196-08 (GenBank Acc. No. FJ527749 proved to be identical at the nucleotide level of 99 to 93% withthose from other parts of the world. Phylogenetic analysis of 27 isolates based on 528 bp sequences of the coat protein gene did not show correlation of the isolates with their geographic origin or plant host and showed that these isolates fall into four molecular groups of strains. Serbian AMV isolate from tobacco belongs to group IV, the group that includes most of the isolates selected for phylogenetic analysis.

  18. The HI mass function in ALFALFA 70% and the role of confusion in future HI surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The HI mass function represents a fundamental component of our understanding of the the gas content of galaxies. How its form varies throughout the local Universe and as a function of redshift, is key to developing a complete picture of galaxy evolution.We use the ALFALFA 70% catalog, the largest uniform catalog of extragalactic HI sources to date, to explore the environmental dependence of the HI mass function based on the projected neighbour densities in both SDSS and 2MRS. The Schechter function 'knee' mass is found to increase by approximately 0.2 dex from the lowest to highest density quartiles. However, this dependence is seen only when environment is defined by SDSS neighbours, and not with 2MRS. We interpret this as an indication of local, rather than large scale, environmental depedence. In addition, we find no evidence for any change in the faint-end slope; which is a source of tension with HI surveys of galaxy groups, and DM halo simulations.As HI surveys push deeper in an attempt to assess the HI content of the Universe towards a redshift of order unity, only the integral of the HI mass function will be measurable through stacking. We present an anaytic, and thus computationally cheap, method to estimate the contribution of HI confusion noise to these stacks and explore the design implications for upcoming SKA-precusor surveys.The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF grants AST-0607007 and AST-1107390 to RG and MPH and by grants from the Brinson Foundation.

  19. Study on Alfalfa Yield Improved by New Rare Earth Materials for Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Tianwen; Abudukahar; Cui Yingguo; Peng Jianzhang; Wang Jiachen

    2004-01-01

    New rare earth(RE) materials for agriculture including RE entire nutrition agent, amino acid chelated RE fertilizer, RE phosphate were used to alfalfa production in Grassland Working Station of Yili, Xinjiang Province, and repetition was 3 with 7 treatments.The result shows that by using new RE materials, the average treatment height of alfalfa increases by 12.5% compared with traditional cultural, and the yield increases from 21.8% to 41.6% compared with that of traditional cultural.These results show that the new materials have significant good effect on alfalfa production.

  20. Study in mutation of alfalfa genome DNA due to low energy N+ implantation using RAPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After implanted by various dosage N+ beams, germination rate of alfalfa seeds appears to be saddle line with dosage increasing. The authors have studied in mutation of genome DNA due to low energy N+ implantation, and concluded that 30 differential DNA fragments have been amplified by 8 primers (S41, S42, S45, S46, S50, S52, S56, S58) in 100 primers, moreover, number of differential DNA fragments between CK and treatments increases with dosage. Consequently, low energy ion implantation can cause mutation of alfalfa genome DNA. The more dosage it is, the more mutation alfalfa will be

  1. Complete nucleotide sequence of a Spanish isolate of alfalfa mosaic virus: evidence for additional genetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrella, Giuseppe; Acanfora, Nadia; Orílio, Anelise F; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2011-06-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is a plant virus that is distributed worldwide and can induce necrosis and/or yellow mosaic on a large variety of plant species, including commercially important crops. It is the only virus of the genus Alfamovirus in the family Bromoviridae. AMV isolates can be clustered into two genetic groups that correlate with their geographic origin. Here, we report for the first time the complete nucleotide sequence of a Spanish isolate of AMV found infecting Cape honeysuckle (Tecoma capensis) and named Tec-1. The tripartite genome of Tec-1 is composed of 3643 nucleotides (nt) for RNA1, 2594 nt for RNA2 and 2037 nt for RNA3. Comparative sequence analysis of the coat protein gene revealed that the isolate Tec-1 is distantly related to subgroup I of AMV and more closely related to subgroup II, although forming a distinct phylogenetic clade. Therefore, we propose to split subgroup II of AMV into two subgroups, namely IIA, comprising isolates previously included in subgroup II, and IIB, including the novel Spanish isolate Tec-1. PMID:21327783

  2. Development and validation of a triplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species and three celery varieties in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents a triplex real-time PCR assay allowing the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (white, black and brown mustard) and three celery varieties (celery roots, celery stalks and leaf celery) in foodstuffs. The triplex assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae. Low cross-reactivities were observed with fenugreek, cumin, ginger, caraway, turmeric, lovage and rye, the ΔCt values were, however, ⩾ 12 compared to positive controls. The triplex assay allows the detection of traces of DNA of the allergenic components in spite of an excess of the other DNA templates. Analysis of extracts from model sausages containing defined concentrations of mustard and celery showed that the triplex assay is applicable to both raw and processed foods. It was found to allow the detection of 1 ppm black/brown mustard and 50 ppm white mustard and celery in raw and brewed sausages with a probability ⩾ 95%. PMID:25872425

  3. Analysis on Nutrient Constituent of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) from Different Areas of Ningxia%宁夏不同地区紫花苜蓿的营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玉霞; 李云

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究紫花苜蓿营养成分对畜牧业发展具有积极作用.[方法]对宁夏9个不同产地的陇东紫花苜蓿营乔成分进行比较,并利用灰色关联理论和层次分析法进行了综合评价.[结果]盐池县的紫花苜蓿在供试样品中养分总体表现最好,其次为贺兰山农牧场等地区的紫花苜蓿,最后为永宁县等地区的紫花苜蓿.[结论]不同产地的紫花苜蓿在养分含量上存在差异,应根据养分含量来选择不同产地的紫花苜蓿.%[ Objective ] Studies on alfalfa nutrient composition had a positive effect for animal husbandry development. [ Method ] Nutrient constituent of Longdong alfalfa from 9 areas in Ningxia were analyzed and compared. By using grey related theory and the hierarchy analysis,comprehensive evaluations of nutrient composition about alfalfa were carried out also. [Result] Nutrient composition of alfalfa from Yanchi County was best, next from Helan Mountain Farm etc. , and finally from Yongning County etc. . [ Conclusion ] There were differences among those alfalfas about their nutrient compositions from different areas. It should according to nutrient compositions to select alfalfa from different areas.

  4. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) reproductive success according to location of nests in United States commercial domiciles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. In the managed pollination system, variable microenvironments are experienced by developing M. rotundata during the nesting season that may influence bee reproductive success. In this study, bee cells were produced in a small alfalfa field and collected from domiciles according to nesting boards and different portions of boards. Examination of cells showed that the production of live overwintering prepupae, diseased larvae, other dead eggs and larvae, and cells attacked by natural enemies varied according to board orientations and positions, and portions of the boards. Northeast-facing board samples were significantly heavier and had more pollen balls and chalkbrood compared with southwest-facing boards. Lower boards in stacks had significantly more chalkbrood than upper boards. Outer portions of boards had significantly more live prepupae and less chalkbrood than middle and inner portions, and outer and middle portions had less summer-emerging bees. These results suggest that reproductive success could be altered by changing the orientation of boards within domiciles or changing the designs of domiciles. To accurately assess the quality of bee populations managed in the commercial loose cell system, a sample of bees should be taken from a pooled sample from all boards in each domicile. Each domicile sample should then be evaluated according to its proportional contribution to the whole field's progeny production (e.g., by weight or volume). PMID:23786038

  5. The methods of predicting alfalfa quality in the field%苜蓿质量预测方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈谷; 颜俤; 邰建辉; 杨江山; 张颖

    2012-01-01

    Quality is a very significant factor that affects the alfalfa hay price. Harvesting at optimal time is a critical way to obtain high quality hay. With the scientific cultivating, predicting the quality of standing alfalfa in field is important to harvest the targeted quality hay and improve the farmers" profit. In the alfalfa industry developed countries, such as USA, GDD(Growing degree-days)and PEAQ (Predictive Equations for Alfalfa Quality) are usually used to predict the quality of standing alfalfa, and determine the optimal harvesting time at spring. Some related researches showed that alfalfa with averages 40% NDF is at 700~750 GDD (base 5 ~C ). It takes about 220 additional GDD to reach 45% NDF at GDD (base 5℃). With the PEAQ method,NDF and ADF eould be accurately determined in field by measuring height of the tallest stem and maturity of the most mature stem in a sample area. The GDD and PEAQ would be predicted accurately under the situation of the al- falfa field grows well and contains little weeds.%苜蓿(Medicago sativa)质量是影响苜蓿干草价格的重要因素,而适时收获是把握苜蓿干草质量的重要环节。在科学种植管理条件下,对田间苜蓿质量提前判断,对准确收获目标质量苜蓿干草、保证经济效益意义重大。苜蓿产业较为发达的美国常用GDD和PEAQ法来预测田间苜蓿质量,以判断春季苜蓿的收获时间。当GDD为700~750时(5℃以上积温),苜蓿的NDF含量接近40%,当GDD增加220(7d后),NDF含量达到45%;PEAQ法中指出,NDF和ADF含量可以通过在具有随机样方中茎秆最高植株的茎长测量和判断样方中最成熟植株的成熟度来预测。GDD和PEAQ法对杂草较少、长势健康的苜蓿田生产质量预测比较准确。

  6. PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN KECERNAAN BAHAN KERING ALFALFA DENGAN PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sunarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago    sativa    L. as one of legume forage crops for ruminant livestock is very sensitive to the phosphorus deficiency. Phosphorus fertilizers have been used widely to overcome those problem. However, the high cost of superphosphate (SP is now focusing attention on cheaper rock phosphate (RP fertilizer. A field experiment was conducted on a latosolic soil (low pH, and low available Bray II extractable P. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer from difference sources on dry matter production, and in    vitro dry matter digestibility of alfalfa. Completely randomized block design with 7 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this field experiment. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (SP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T2 (SP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T3 (SP, 300 kg P2O5/ha, T4 (RP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T5 (RP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T6 (RP, 300 kg P2O5/ha. Size of each plot was 2 m x 2 m, and fertilized with P fertilizer (SP, RP according to the assigned treatment. All plot received basal fertilizer of urea (50 kg N/ha, KCl (100 kg K2O/ha and poultry manure (2 ton/ha. Medicago    sativa was defoliated on 12 weeks after planting and analyzed for dry matter (DM production and in    vitro DM digestibility. Result showed that DM production significantly influenced by the treatments. Superphosphate fertilization resulted DM production significantly higher compared to control and RP, except on RP 300 kg P2O5/ha was non-significant difference. In    vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of alfalfa was not affected by the treatment. There was non-significant difference in IVDMD between the treatments. Therefore, RP (300 kg P2O5/ha could replace SP to increased DM production and not affected for IVDMD of Medicago    sativa in acid latosolic soil.

  7. Wonderful Varieties: A geometrical realization

    CERN Document Server

    Cupit-Foutou, S

    2009-01-01

    We give a geometrical realization of wonderful varieties by means of a suitable class of invariant Hilbert schemes. Consequently, we prove Luna's conjecture asserting that wonderful varieties can be classified by some triples of combinatorial invariants: the spherical systems.

  8. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  9. Studies on the Alfalfa Growing Effects of Alfalfa Rhizobium%苜蓿根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊川; 杨旭升; 曹亚斌

    2015-01-01

    通过不同剂量苜蓿根瘤菌接种两种紫花苜蓿试验,比较了接种根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长的影响。试验结果表明:接种苜蓿根瘤菌剂能够提高紫花苜蓿结瘤数量和根瘤重,促进紫花苜蓿的生长发育,增加苜蓿草的产草量。在所试验的接种剂量中,以每 kg 苜蓿种子接种12mL 根瘤菌剂为最佳接种量。%This paper studied the alfalfa growing effects of alfalfa rhizobium by inoculated different amounts.The experimental results showed that inoculating rhizobium can raise the nodulating amount of alfalfa and the weight of nodulations,promoting the growth of alfalfas and augment the productions of alfalfas.Among the different inoculated amounts,the amount of 12ml is the best inoculated amount.

  10. Secant Varieties and Birational Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeire, Peter

    1999-01-01

    We show how to use information about the equations defining secant varieties to smooth projective varieties in order to construct a natural collection of birational transformations. These were first constructed as flips in the case of curves by M. Thaddeus via Geometric Invariant Theory, and the first flip in the sequence was constructed by the author for varieties of arbitrary dimension in an earlier paper. We expose the finer structure of a second flip; again for varieties of arbitrary dime...

  11. Variety Seeking Through Brand Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Givon

    1984-01-01

    A concept of variety seeking behavior is modeled as a stochastic brand choice model. The model yields a measure of variety seeking for each individual consumer. Panel data for 28 products are analyzed for each household and the possibility of market segmentation by variety seeking behavior is explored.

  12. Closed surfaces and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Chesebro, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The powerful character variety techniques of Culler and Shalen can be used to find essential surfaces in knot manifolds. We show that module structures on the coordinate ring of the character variety can be used to identify detected boundary slopes as well as when closed surfaces are detected. This approach also yields new number theoretic invariants for the character varieties of knot manifolds.

  13. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata: the world's most intensively managed solitary bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Cane, James H

    2011-01-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (ALCB), Megachile rotundata F. (Megachildae), was accidentally introduced into the United States by the 1940s. Nest management of this Eurasian nonsocial pollinator transformed the alfalfa seed industry in North America, tripling seed production. The most common ALCB management practice is the loose cell system, in which cocooned bees are removed from nesting cavities for cleaning and storage. Traits of ALCBs that favored their commercialization include gregarious nesting; use of leaves for lining nests; ready acceptance of affordable, mass-produced nesting materials; alfalfa pollination efficacy; and emergence synchrony with alfalfa bloom. The ALCB became a commercial success because much of its natural history was understood, targeted research was pursued, and producer ingenuity was encouraged. The ALCB presents a model system for commercializing other solitary bees and for advancing new testable hypotheses in diverse biological disciplines. PMID:20809804

  14. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jiao, E-mail: qujiao@bhu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Luo, Chunqiu, E-mail: fplj_lcq@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Qian; Cong, Qiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Yuan, Xing [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production.

  15. Phosphorylation of alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Suk; Halk, Edward L; Merlo, Donald J; Nelson, Steven E; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2014-07-01

    The 32-kDa movement protein, P3, of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is essential for cell-to-cell spread of the virus in plants. P3 shares many properties with other virus movement proteins (MPs); however, it is not known if P3 is posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which is important for the function of other MPs. When expressed in Nicotiana tabacum, P3 accumulated primarily in the cell walls of older leaves or in the cytosol of younger leaves. When expressed in Pischia pastoris, P3 accumulated primarily in a soluble form. Metabolic labeling indicated that a portion of P3 was phosphorylated in both tobacco and yeast, suggesting that phosphorylation regulates the function of this protein as it does for other virus MPs. PMID:24435161

  16. HI Gas in Early Type Galaxies as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Wendy; Morrison, Ryan; Green, Jarred; Raskin, Mark; Crawford, Connor; Bomer-Lawson, August; Hannan, Joshua; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of 1580 early type galaxies (ETGs) in a total sample of 7747 galaxies that have HI measurements or upper limits from the ALFALFA survey. We find a significant correlation between HI content and local density, with HI detections almost exclusively in low-density environments. Using optical line ratios, we split the population into galaxies with spectral lines dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and dominated by star forming regions. Compared with HI-rich star forming ETGs, HI-rich ETGs with AGN tend to be brighter and redder and to exhibit a stronger correlation between stellar mass and HI mass. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  17. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-06-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones. Based on observations made with the Arecibo Observatory and the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana and the Universities Space Research Association. GALEX is operated for NASA by the California Institute of Technology under NASA contract NAS5-98034.

  18. Transient protein expression in three Pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brian J; Fujiki, Masaaki; Mett, Valentina; Kaczmarczyk, Jon; Shamloul, Moneim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Underkoffler, Susan; Yusibov, Vidadi; Mett, Vadim

    2009-02-01

    The expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. Transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. Expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, Nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the ability to express a wide range of proteins at levels amenable to purification. N. benthamiana has two limitations for its use; one is its relatively slow growth, and the other is its low biomass. To address these limitations we screened a number of legumes for transient protein expression. Using the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vectors, delivered via Agrobacterium, we were able to identify three Pisum sativum varieties that demonstrated protein expression transiently. Expression levels of 420 +/- 26.24 mg GFP/kgFW in the green pea variety speckled pea were achieved. We were also able to express three therapeutic proteins indicating promise for this system in the production of biopharmaceuticals. PMID:19156736

  19. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  20. ALFALFA Hα Reveals How Galaxies Use their HI Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally; Salzer, John; Van Sistine, Angela; Bell, Eric; Haynes, Martha

    2015-08-01

    Atomic hydrogen traces the raw material from which molecular clouds and stars form. With the ALFALFA Hα survey, a statistically complete subset of the ALFALFA survey, we examine the processes that affect galaxies’ abilities to access and consume their HI gas. On galaxy-wide scales, HI gas fractions correlate only weakly with instantaneous specific star formation rates (sSFRs) but tightly with galaxy color. We show that a connection between dust and HI content, arising from the fundamental mass-metallicity-HI relation, leads to this tight color correlation. We find that disk galaxies follow a relation between stellar surface density and HI depletion time, consistent with a scenario in which higher mid-plane pressure leads to more efficient molecular cloud formation from HI. In contrast, spheroids show no such trend. Starbursts, identified by Hα equivalent width, do not show enhanced HI gas fractions relative to similar mass non-starburst galaxies. The starbursts’ shorter HI depletion times indicate more efficient consumption of HI, and galaxy interactions drive this enhanced star formation efficiency in several starbursts. Interestingly, the most disturbed starbursts show greater enhancements in HI gas fraction, which may indicate an excess of HI at early merger stages. At low galaxy stellar masses, the triggering mechanism for starbursts is less clear; the high scatter in efficiency and sSFR among low-mass galaxies may result from periodic bursts. We find no evidence for depleted HI reservoirs in starbursts, which suggests that galaxies may maintain sufficient HI to fuel multiple starburst episodes.

  1. Role of silicon counteracting cadmium toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Kabir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase and MsMT2 (metallothionein] and PC (phytochelatin accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter, MsNramp1 (metal transporter and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants.

  2. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  3. HI Gas in Large-Scale Filaments as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Skye; Phi, An; Shah, Ebrahim; Livecchi, Jack; Yu, Yang; Gengras, Graeme; Wolfe, Pierre-Francois; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Hyman, Mario; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We assess the relationship between galaxy environment and HI content as measured by ALFALFA. In particular, we consider membership in large-scale filaments in order to provide clues to how star formation in galaxies is quenched in different environments. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to define galaxy environments in terms of clusters, filaments, and voids for a sample of galaxies with z ALFALFA. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  4. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  5. Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator, Novaluron on Immature Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    OpenAIRE

    Erin W Hodgson; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L.; James D. Barbour

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-p...

  6. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or perennial ryegrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K; Casler, M D

    1998-01-01

    The nutrient contents of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are reasonably similar. Despite similarities, the lactation performance of dairy cows fed perennial ryegrass has not been compared with the lactation performance of dairy cows fed alfalfa. The present study was implemented to compare the performance of lactating cows fed alfalfa or perennial ryegrass silage. Alfalfa and perennial ryegrass were harvested at late bud and boot stages of maturity, respectively, and ensiled in separate 4.9- x 18.3-m concrete silos. The experimental silages were supplemented with a concentrate mix at 31.1% of dietary dry matter and fed to 18 multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation in a crossover experimental design with 28-d periods. Digestibility and rate of passage of experimental diets were also measured using rare earth markers. The perennial ryegrass contained 3.0 percentage units more neutral detergent fiber than did alfalfa, but in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was 8.8 percentage units higher for perennial ryegrass. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was also higher for perennial ryegrass. Cows fed alfalfa silage produced more milk (31.8 kg/d) than did cows fed perennial ryegrass silage (30.2 kg/d). Cows fed perennial ryegrass silage ate less feed (2.2 kg/d) than did cows fed alfalfa. Because dry matter intake was lower, diet digestibilities were higher, and rate of passage was slower, for cows consuming perennial ryegrass. Based on laboratory evaluations, perennial ryegrass silage has high nutritional quality, but performance of lactating cows indicated that the forage was suboptimal for supporting high milk production when compared with alfalfa. The perennial ryegrass silage was suboptimal because it did not stimulate high amounts of dry matter intake in lactating cows. PMID:9493091

  7. Alfalfa water use pinpointed in saline, shallow water tables of Imperial Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, Khaled M.; Grismer, Mark E.; Snyder, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Although alfalfa is the dominant water user in the Imperial Valley and is planted on 40% of its irrigated acreage, data is incomplete regarding its water use under the most common growing conditions: moderately saline, clay soils with a relatively shallow, moderately saline water table. In a study from 1996 through 1998, we determined the seasonal variation in the alfalfa crop coefficient (Kc), based on measurements of applied water and soil-moisture depletion, and the contribution from the w...

  8. Organic Cereal Variety and Variety Mixture Trials 1999 - 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Aspray, Claire

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the productivity and stability of organic cereal production by identifying cereal varieties and variety mixtures that are best adapted to organic farming systems. The scientific question and objective was to evaluate the relative performance of cereal mixtures against single varieties in organic systems, in terms of consistency, robustness of yield and quality. The project has run over four years on six sites chosen to represent a range of soil types...

  9. Germinación y crecimiento de alfalfa bajo condiciones salinas Germination and growth of alfalfa under saline conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lucía González-Romero

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En México, el cultivo de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. se emplea para la alimentación del ganado bovino, éste cuenta con investigaciones de respuestas a estrés salino en la etapa de germinación; sin embargo, sólo se han usado diferentes niveles de NaCl o de manitol y polietilenglicol; por lo anterior, los objetivos de esta investigación fue estudiar la respuesta a la salinidad, que se presenta en zonas áridas y semiáridas de México de la alfalfa en la etapa de germinación y evaluar su efecto sobre el crecimiento de la radícula y la parte aérea. Para cumplir lo anterior, en el laboratorio de salinidad del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas durante el 2009, las semillas se sometieron a pruebas de germinación en un diseño factorial de 11 soluciones salinas a ocho dosis (0, 2, 4, 8, 11.7, 15, 19 y 28 dS m-1 y tres repeticiones. Se observó que las sales NaHCO3 y sulfático-sódica influyeron más sobre la germinación; y las sales CaCl2 2H2O y sulfática registraron el mayor porcentaje de germinación; para el crecimiento de radícula la sal que más afectó fue el NaHCO3 y la salinidad sulfática; las sales CaCl2 2H2O y sulfático-clorhídrica permitieron mayor desarrollo. El crecimiento de la parte aérea fue más afectado en comparación al desarrollo de la radícula. La mezcla de sales favoreció el porcentaje de germinación, el crecimiento de radícula y parte aérea.In Mexico, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is used for feeding cattle and has been studied for responses to salt stress in the germination phase; however, only NaCl or mannitol and polyethylene glycols have been used in different levels. Due to this, the aims of this research were to study the response of alfalfa in the germination stage to the salinity of the arid and semiarid areas in Mexico, and to evaluate its effect on the growth of the radicle and aerial section. In order to achieve this, in the salinity lab of the Colegio de Postgraduados en

  10. El cultivo de alfalfa utilizando agua de perforación, agua residual urbana y precipitaciones The cultivation of alfalfa using artesian well water, urban wastewater and rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Plevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la producción de biomasa aérea, la eficiencia del uso de agua y el valor nutritivo de alfalfa cultivada aplicando riego con agua residual urbana, agua de perforación y un testigo (precipitaciones, en el Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. Los tratamientos de riego tuvieron un efecto positivo sobre la producción de biomasa aérea obteniéndose un 24% más de producción de biomasa que en la situación de secano (precipitaciones. Entre los tratamientos con riego también se manifestaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La alfalfa regada con aguas residuales urbana supero en un 19% a la cultivada con agua de perforación. La eficiencia del uso del agua por parte del cultivo se incrementó cuando el riego se realizó con aguas residuales urbanas. Además, se determinó que la alfalfa regada con agua residual, supera los valores nutritivos del cultivo que crece en condiciones sin riego; encontrándose 39% más de proteínas, 14% más de digestibilidad e igual porcentaje de energía metabólica. Se puede concluir que el agua residual urbana representa otra posible fuente de agua, factible de ingresar al suelo y estar a disposición para el cultivo de alfalfa.The objective of this study was to analyse the production of alfalfa biomass, the efficiency of water use and the nutritional value of forage, inside an irrigation structure of an experimental facility that uses treated urban wastewater, artesian well water and rainfall, at the campus of the Universidad National de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. The irrigation treatment had a positive effect on the production of biomass of alfalfa. On an average 24% increase in production was observed when compared to dry-land farming. Regarding the quality of the irrigation water, statistical differences in production were observed, the irrigation with urban wastewater produced 19% more than that of well water. The

  11. Effect of replacing alfalfa with panicled-tick clover or sericea lespedeza in corn-alfalfa-based substrates on in vitro ruminal methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, H D; Lambert, B D; Armstrong, S A; Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Muir, J P; Ellersieck, M R

    2015-06-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock contribute to total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reduce metabolizable energy intake by the animal. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenolic plant secondary compounds commonly produced by some perennial forage legumes that characteristically bind to protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. The degree to which CT may affect ruminant nutrition depends upon the concentration, structural composition, and biological activity of the CT. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa in a corn-alfalfa-based substrate with a legume containing CT on in vitro CH4 production and the dynamics of fermentation using an in vitro gas production technique. All fermented substrates contained 50% ground corn as the energy concentrate portion, whereas the forage portion (50%) of each diet was comprised of alfalfa (control) or some combination of alfalfa and sericea lespedeza (SL) or panicled-tick clover (PTC). Our treatments consisted of PTC or SL 15, 30, and 45, which corresponded with 15, 30, or 45% replacement of the diet (alfalfa component) with either PTC or SL. Substrates containing 45% PTC or SL reduced in vitro CH4 production. Treatments did not affect total gas production as compared with that of the control. Replacement of alfalfa with SL or PTC increased fermentable organic matter (FOM). The PTC treatment increased FOM by as much as 1.8% at the 45% replacement level, whereas FOM of SL 45 was increased by less than 1%. The replacement of alfalfa with PTC increased substrate nutritive value greater than replacement with SL. There were no correlations between any physicochemical constituent of the substrates and CH4 production. A combination of factors associated with the inclusion of PTC and SL contributed to the in vitro CH4 production, and CT in these forages was likely a major contributing factor. Further confirmation of these results on in situ or in vivo animal systems is required. If

  12. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards. PMID:23786042

  13. In situ phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and associated soil microbial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming; Fu, Dengqiang; Teng, Ying; Shen, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: A 7-month field experiment was conducted to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) remediation potential of two plant species and changes in counts of soil PAH-degrading bacteria and microbial activity. Materials and methods: Alfalfa and tall fescue were grown in monoculture and intercropped for 7 months in contaminated field soil. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for PAHs. Plant biomass, densities of PAH-degradation soil bacteria, soil microbial biomass C and N, enzyme activities, and the physiological profile of the soil microbial community were determined. Results and discussion: Average removal percentage of total PAHs in intercropping (30.5%) was significantly higher than in monoculture (19.9%) or unplanted soil (-0.6%). About 7.5% of 3-ring, 12.3% of 4-ring, and 17.2% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed from the soil by alfalfa, with corresponding values of 25.1%, 10.4%, and 30.1% for tall fescue. Intercropping significantly enhanced the remediation efficiency. About 18.9% of 3-ring, 30.9% of 4-ring, and 33.4% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed by the intercropping system. Higher counts of soil culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and elevated microbial biomass and enzyme activities were found after intercropping. Soil from intercropping showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) average well-color development obtained by the BIOLOG Ecoplate assay and Shannon-Weaver index compared with monoculture. Conclusions: Cropping promoted the dissipation of soil PAHs. Tall fescue gave greater removal of soil PAHs than alfalfa, and intercropping was more effective than monoculture. Intercropping of alfalfa and tall fescue may be a promising in situ bioremediation strategy for PAH-contaminated soils. (orig.)

  14. Structural Change of the Western United States Alfalfa Hay Market and its Effects of the Western United States Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cann, Joseph Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa is the fourth largest commodity grown in the Western U.S., representing 20% of the crop acreage over the past twenty years. In the last five years alfalfa hay price has doubled from what it was previously, indicating a possible structural change in the market. This research project was completed to test for this structural change using econometric analysis of the important demand components of alfalfa price. In addition to this, simulations of an average Utah dairy were completed to e...

  15. Evolution and Development of Animal Medicine Varieties in China%我国药用动物品种沿革与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天羽; 杨学连; 陆昕怡; 李月; 马维维; 金梦; 邵莹; 吴启南

    2015-01-01

    Animal medicine is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine with a long application history in China. Systematically understanding the history of the development of animal medicine is of great significance to scientific protection and rational use of animal medicine resources. It has certain guiding significance to protection of wild resources, exploitation of new substitutes, standardization and summary of artificial breeding, and artificial reproduction technology. Taking the development of bezoar as an example, this article expounded the following four aspects:the development history of animal medicine, national animal protection, technical development, and prospect forecast by summarizing the Chinese ancient medical books and consulting the relevant laws and regulations. The entire above are about to offer new ideas for the sustainable development, the development of new medicine resources, and the development of animal medicine related preparation product.%动物类中药是中药的重要组成部分,在我国的应用历史悠久。系统了解动物药发展的历史沿革,对动物药资源的科学保护和合理开发利用有重要意义,在加强野生资源保护、论证新代用品开发,以及规范和总结野生变家养、人工繁殖技术等方面有一定的指导意义。本文通过对我国本草古籍的整理归纳,查阅相关法律规定,以牛黄的发展为例,从动物药的发展简史、国家动物保护、科技发展及前景展望4个方面进行阐述,为动物类中药的可持续发展、新药用资源的开发,以及动物药相关制剂产品的开发提供新的思路。

  16. Overexpression of Medicago sativa TMT elevates the α-tocopherol content in Arabidopsis seeds, alfalfa leaves, and delays dark-induced leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Jia, Huili; Feng, Guangyan; Wang, Zan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-08-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume for livestock and a target for improving their dietary quality. Vitamin E is an essential vitamin that animals must obtain from their diet for proper growth and development. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), which catalyzes the conversion of δ- and γ-tocopherols (or tocotrienols) to β- and α-tocopherols (or tocotrienols), respectively, is the final enzyme involved in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway. The overexpression of M. sativa L.'s γ-TMT (MsTMT) increased the α-tocopherol content 10-15 fold above that of wild type Arabidopsis seeds without altering the total content of vitamin E. Additionally, in response to osmotic stress, the biomass and the expression levels of several osmotic marker genes were significantly higher in the transgenic lines compared with wild type. Overexpression of MsTMT in alfalfa led to a modest, albeit significant, increase in α-tocopherol in leaves and was also responsible for a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Additionally, the crude protein content was increased, while the acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were unchanged in these transgenic lines. Thus, increased α-tocopherol content occurred in transgenic alfalfa without compromising the nutritional qualities. The targeted metabolic engineering of vitamin E biosynthesis through MsTMT overexpression provides a promising approach to improve the α-tocopherol content of forage crops. PMID:27297993

  17. China English, a Variety of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卞

    2009-01-01

    With the economic globalization and the increasing interactiom between countries, English is more and more widely used as a means of international communication. It is not singly owned by one country or one nation, but has become an intermediate means of information. Inevitably, various varieties of English appeared as the result of the wide application of English. Theses varieties represent their own national and cultural characteristics. China English is one of these varieties. The paper makes an introduction to China English, analyses its characteristics through examples and points out the future development of China English.

  18. Development of maizeSNP3072, a high-throughput compatible SNP array, for DNA fingerprinting identification of Chinese maize varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Hong-Li; Wang, Feng-Ge; Zhao, Jiu-Ran; Yi, Hong-Mei; Wang, Lu; Wang, Rui; Yang, Yang; Song, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are abundant and evenly distributed throughout the maize (Zea mays L.) genome. SNPs have several advantages over simple sequence repeats, such as ease of data comparison and integration, high-throughput processing of loci, and identification of associated phenotypes. SNPs are thus ideal for DNA fingerprinting, genetic diversity analysis, and marker-assisted breeding. Here, we developed a high-throughput and compatible SNP array, maizeSNP3072, containing ...

  19. Lucerne varieties for continuous grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    severe grazing with heifers in two cutting/grazing managements. Two new varieties, Verbena and Camporegio, and an older variety Luzelle were established in 2009 in pure stands and in two different mixtures with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Camporegio had the lowest yield, the lowest competitive...... strength, the lowest plant density in spring, and the density was most reduced during grazing. The results could not confirm significant differences between the new and the older varieties. The results for Luzelle were generally between Verbena and Camporegio. The varieties did not differ in herbage...

  20. Development of liquid chromatography methods coupled to mass spectrometry for the analysis of substances with a wide variety of polarity in meconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Monath, Marie; Chatellier, Claudine; Cabooter, Deirdre; Rouget, Florence; Morel, Isabelle; Lestremau, Francois

    2015-06-01

    Meconium is the first fecal excretion of newborns. This complex accumulative matrix allows assessing the exposure of the fetus to xenobiotics during the last 6 months of pregnancy. To determine the eventual effect of fetal exposure to micropollutants in this matrix, robust and sensitive analytical methods must be developed. This article describes the method development of liquid chromatography methods coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for relevant pollutants. The 28 selected target compounds had different physico-chemical properties from very polar (glyphosate) to non-polar molecules (pyrethroids). Tests were performed with three different types of columns: reversed phase, ion exchange and HILIC. As a unique method could not be determined for the simultaneous analysis of all compounds, three columns were selected and suitable chromatographic methods were optimized. Similar results were noticed for the separation of the target compounds dissolved in either meconium extract or solvent for reversed phase and ion exchange columns. However, for HILIC, the matrix had a significant influence on the peak shape and robustness of the method. Finally, the analytical methods were applied to "real" meconium samples.

  1. Development of liquid chromatography methods coupled to mass spectrometry for the analysis of substances with a wide variety of polarity in meconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Monath, Marie; Chatellier, Claudine; Cabooter, Deirdre; Rouget, Florence; Morel, Isabelle; Lestremau, Francois

    2015-06-01

    Meconium is the first fecal excretion of newborns. This complex accumulative matrix allows assessing the exposure of the fetus to xenobiotics during the last 6 months of pregnancy. To determine the eventual effect of fetal exposure to micropollutants in this matrix, robust and sensitive analytical methods must be developed. This article describes the method development of liquid chromatography methods coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for relevant pollutants. The 28 selected target compounds had different physico-chemical properties from very polar (glyphosate) to non-polar molecules (pyrethroids). Tests were performed with three different types of columns: reversed phase, ion exchange and HILIC. As a unique method could not be determined for the simultaneous analysis of all compounds, three columns were selected and suitable chromatographic methods were optimized. Similar results were noticed for the separation of the target compounds dissolved in either meconium extract or solvent for reversed phase and ion exchange columns. However, for HILIC, the matrix had a significant influence on the peak shape and robustness of the method. Finally, the analytical methods were applied to "real" meconium samples. PMID:25863396

  2. Transcript profiling of two alfalfa genotypes with contrasting cell wall composition in stems using a cross-species platform: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hans-Joachim G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable platform for transcript profiling in tetraploid alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L. subsp. sativa]. However, previous research involving cross-species hybridization (CSH has shown that sequence variation between two species can bias transcript profiling by decreasing sensitivity (number of expressed genes detected and the accuracy of measuring fold-differences in gene expression. Results Transcript profiling using the Medicago GeneChip® was conducted with elongating stem (ES and post-elongation stem (PES internodes from alfalfa genotypes 252 and 1283 that differ in stem cell wall concentrations of cellulose and lignin. A protocol was developed that masked probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions of alfalfa transcripts. A probe signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy. After masking for both ISV regions and previously identified single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs, the number of differentially expressed genes between the two genotypes in both ES and PES internodes was approximately 2-fold greater than the number detected prior to masking. Regulatory genes, including transcription factor and receptor kinase genes that may play a role in development of secondary xylem, were significantly over-represented among genes up-regulated in 252 PES internodes compared to 1283 PES internodes. Several cell wall-related genes were also up-regulated in genotype 252 PES internodes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR of differentially expressed regulatory and cell wall-related genes demonstrated increased sensitivity and accuracy after masking for both ISV regions and SFPs. Over 1,000 genes that were differentially expressed in ES and PES internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 were mapped onto putative orthologous loci on M. truncatula chromosomes. Clustering simulation analysis of the differentially expressed genes

  3. Social Differences and English Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie

    2001-01-01

    Social varieties has long been taken into consideration, as people in different social group have different social manner and speech behavior. This paper focuses on several aspects, such as sex, age, social class, etc. Which account for language varieties in English. The purpose is to have a good understanding of learning English as second language.

  4. Introducing Variety in Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Lillo; Mantegna, Rosario N.; Jean-Philippe Bouchaud; Marc Potters

    2001-01-01

    We review the recently introduced concept of variety of a financial portfolio and we sketch its importance for risk control purposes. The empirical behaviour of variety, correlation, exceedance correlation and asymmetry of the probability density function of daily returns is discussed. The results obtained are compared with the ones of a one-factor model showing strengths and limitations of this model.

  5. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaojuan, E-mail: xiaojuanwang@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Song, Yu [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Environment Management College of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma Yanhua [Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhuo Renying [Key Lab of Tree Genomics, Research Institute of Subtropical of Forest, Chinese Academy of Forest, Fuyang 311400 (China); Jin Liang [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China)

    2011-12-15

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible. - Highlights: > Evaluate Cd tolerance in wide sources of alfalfa accessions. > Identify Cd-hyperaccumulators potentially useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments. > Cloned differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes. > Characteristics and deduced protein sequence of MsMT2a and MsMT2b were analyzed. > MsMT2a might be a universally gene of alfalfa but MsMT2b might be an inductive gene. - Two Cd tolerant alfalfa genotypes were screened and their metallothionein genes were cloned which showed that MsMT2a was universally expressed but MsMT2b was Cd inducible expression.

  6. Development of tobacco ringspot virus-based vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing in a variety of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fumei; Lim, Seungmo; Igori, Davaajargal; Yoo, Ran Hee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-05-01

    We report here the development of tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV)-based vectors for the transient expression of foreign genes and for the analysis of endogenous gene function in plants using virus-induced gene silencing. The jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was inserted between the TRSV movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP) regions, resulting in high in-frame expression of the RNA2-encoded viral polyprotein. GFP was released from the polyprotein via an N-terminal homologous MP-CP cleavage site and a C-terminal foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2 A catalytic peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana. The VIGS target gene was introduced in the sense and antisense orientations into a SnaBI site, which was created by mutating the sequence following the CP stop codon. VIGS of phytoene desaturase (PDS) in N. benthamiana, Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0, cucurbits and legumes led to obvious photo-bleaching phenotypes. A significant reduction in PDS mRNA levels in silenced plants was confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. PMID:26950504

  7. The Development of “Eldo Ngano 1”: The World’s World’s First Ug99 Resistant Mutant Wheat Variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wheat black stem rust disease is a virulent race of fungus, Puccinia graminis, which affects wheat plants and is caused by a strain of fungus known as Ug99. Named for its place and year of origin, Ug99 was first discovered on wheat in Uganda in 1999. The spores of this plant disease are airborne and can be easily spread by wind. If not prevented, the disease can destroy 70 to 100 per cent of the yield of wheat crops. Annually on average 8.3 million tonnes of wheat grain is lost to this disease, costing US $1.23 billion per year. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are hot spots for this disease. In 2009, growing international concern regarding the horrific impact of Ug99 on wheat led to the establishment of IAEA project INT/5/150, Responding to the Transboundary Threat of Wheat Black Stem Rust (Ug99). This project has involved over 18 countries and 5 national and international institutions, and examined possible mutation induction treatments to deal with the challenges posed by Ug99. Meetings and workshops to facilitate the project efforts have been held in Kenya and Turkey. Ug99 continues to spread globally and has now reached the Islamic Republic of Iran. There are also reports of suspected disease occurrences in Europe. It is essential that work continues on developing mutant lines for further crop protection that can be utilized worldwide to safeguard the wheat crop from this devastating disease

  8. High-Throughput Development of SSR Markers from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Based on Next Generation Sequencing of a Purified Chinese Commercial Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Fang, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jinguo; Bao, Shiying; Hao, Junjie; Li, Ling; He, Yuhua; Jiang, Junye; Wang, Fang; Tian, Shufang; Zong, Xuxiao

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food legume globally, and is the plant species that J.G. Mendel used to lay the foundation of modern genetics. However, genomics resources of pea are limited comparing to other crop species. Application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in pea breeding has lagged behind many other crops. Development of a large number of novel and reliable SSR (simple sequence repeat) or microsatellite markers will help both basic and applied genomics research of this crop. The Illumina HiSeq 2500 System was used to uncover 8,899 putative SSR containing sequences, and 3,275 non-redundant primers were designed to amplify these SSRs. Among the 1,644 SSRs that were randomly selected for primer validation, 841 yielded reliable amplifications of detectable polymorphisms among 24 genotypes of cultivated pea (Pisum sativum L.) and wild relatives (P. fulvum Sm.) originated from diverse geographical locations. The dataset indicated that the allele number per locus ranged from 2 to 10, and that the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 with an average of 0.38. These 1,644 novel SSR markers were also tested for polymorphism between genotypes G0003973 and G0005527. Finally, 33 polymorphic SSR markers were anchored on the genetic linkage map of G0003973 × G0005527 F2 population.

  9. Structural makeup, biopolymer conformation, and biodegradation characteristics of a newly developed super genotype of oats (CDC SO-I versus conventional varieties): a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-02-24

    Recently, a new "super" genotype of oats (CDC SO-I or SO-I) has been developed. The objectives of this study were to determine structural makeup (features) of oat grain in endosperm and pericarp regions and to reveal and identify differences in protein amide I and II and carbohydrate structural makeup (conformation) between SO-I and two conventional oats (CDC Dancer and Derby) grown in western Canada in 2006, using advanced synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM). The SRFTIRM experiments were conducted at National Synchrotron Light Sources, Brookhaven National Laboratory (NSLS, BNL, U.S. Department of Energy). From the results, it was observed that comparison between the new genotype oats and conventional oats showed (1) differences in basic chemical and protein subfraction profiles and energy values with the new SO-I oats containing lower lignin (21 g/kg of DM) and higher soluble crude protein (530 g/kg CP), crude fat (59 g/kg of DM), and energy values (TDN, 820 g/kg of DM; NE(L3x), 7.8 MJ/kg of DM); (2) significant differences in rumen biodegradation kinetics of dry matter, starch, and protein with the new SO-I oats containing lower EDDM (638 g/kg of DM) and higher EDCP (103 g/kg of DM); (3) significant differences in nutrient supply with highest truly absorbed rumen undegraded protein (ARUP, 23 g/kg of DM) and total metabolizable protein supply (MP, 81 g/kg of DM) from the new SO-I oats; and (4) significant differences in structural makeup in terms of protein amide I in the endosperm region (with amide I peak height from 0.13 to 0.22 IR absorbance unit) and cellulosic compounds to carbohydrate ratio in the pericarp region (ratio from 0.02 to 0.06). The results suggest that with the SRFTIRM technique, the structural makeup differences between the new genotype oats (SO-I) and two conventional oats (Dancer and Derby) could be revealed.

  10. Production Technical Rule of Alfalfa under Sprinkler Irrigation on the Thin and Arenaceous Soil at Ili River Basin in Xinjiang%新疆伊犁河流域砂质薄土层苜蓿喷灌生产技术规程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁峰; 秦巧; 蒲胜海; 冯广平; 杨培林; 段生莲; 马雪琴

    2012-01-01

    为了规范新疆伊犁河流域砂质薄土层苜蓿的生产,针对伊犁河流域水土开发区域面临砂质薄土层的灌溉问题和苜蓿生产中存在的问题,依据国家及行业标准,对新疆伊犁河流域砂质薄土层新垦耕地的喷灌苜蓿种植的灌溉生产管理等提出了具体要求.针对新疆伊犁河流域砂质薄土层新垦耕地特殊的地理气候条件,对其苜蓿生产中的品种选择、培肥地力、平整土地、灌溉管理和配套栽培措施等进行了具体规定.该生产技术规程的实施对新疆伊犁河流域砂质薄土层新垦耕地苜蓿喷灌生产具有重要的现实指导意义,将显著提高饲草产量,增加农民收入,促进新疆伊犁州畜牧业的可持续发展和农村经济的快速发展.%In order to regulate the production of alfalfa on thin and arenaceous soil which was newly cultivated at Ili River basin in Xinjiang, a technical rule was presented based on national and industry standard, and the problems in irrigation question and alfalfa production on thin and arenaceous soil at Hi River basin. The technical rule was against the specific geological and climate conditions of the newly cultivated land on thin and arenaceous soil at Ili River basin in Xinjiang. It concluded variety selection, fertilization ability, land levelling, irrigation management and relevant cultivation measures. This production technical rule could be a reference to alfalfa production with sprinkler irrigation on the thin and arenaceous soil at Hi River basin in Xinjiang. With its implementation the yield of forage grass and fanner's income might be largely increased and it might promote sustainable development of animal husbandry and rural economy in Xinjiang.

  11. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  12. (Almost) Dark HI Sources in the ALFALFA Survey: The Intriguing Case of HI1232+20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowiecki, Steven; Leisman, Lukas; Józsa, Gyula; Salzer, John J.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Rhode, Katherine L.; Cannon, John M.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janesh, William F.

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery and follow-up observations of a system of three objects identified by the ALFALFA extragalactic HI survey, cataloged as (almost) dark extragalactic sources, i.e., extragalactic HI detections with no discernible counterpart in publicly available, wide-field, imaging surveys. We have obtained deep optical imaging with WIYN pODI and HI synthesis maps with WSRT of the HI1232+20 system. The source with the highest HI flux has a newly discovered ultra-low surface brightness (LSB) optical counterpart associated with it, while the other two sources have no detected optical counterparts in our images. Our optical observations show that the detected LSB optical counterpart has a peak surface brightness of ˜26.4 mag arcsec-2 in g‧, which is exceptionally faint. This source (AGC 229385) has the largest accurately measured HI mass-to-light ratio of an isolated object: {{M}HI}/{{L}{{g\\prime }}} = 46 {{M}⊙ }/{{L}⊙ }, and has an HI mass of 7.2 × {{10}8} {{M}⊙ }. The other two HI sources (with HI masses 2.0 × 108 and 1.2 × {{10}8} {{M}⊙ }) without optical counterparts have upper limit surface brightnesses of 27.9 and 27.8 mag arcsec-2 in g‧, and lower limits on their gas mass-to-light ratio of {{M}HI}/{{L}{{g\\prime }}} > 57 and > 31 {{M}⊙ }/{{L}⊙ }. This system lies relatively close in projection to the Virgo Cluster, but velocity flow models indicate that it is located at 25 Mpc, substantially beyond Virgo. The system appears to be quite isolated, with no known object closer than ˜500 kpc. These HI sources may represent both sides of the threshold between “dark” star-less galaxies and galaxies with stellar populations. We discuss a variety of possible formation scenarios for the HI1232+20 system.

  13. Technological parameters optimization for improving quality of heated-air dried alfalfa%提高紫花苜蓿热风干燥品质的工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文明; 陈红意; 赵满全

    2015-01-01

    紫花苜蓿的热风干燥是牧草收获后贮藏、深加工的必要预处理方式,为了研究紫花苜蓿干燥过程中各因素对干燥的影响及变化规律,为实际生产工艺提供参考,解决目前紫花苜蓿干燥加工中存在的营养成分损失大、含水率不稳定等问题,利用GZ-1型干燥试验装置,对紫花苜蓿的热风干燥特性和工艺进行了研究。以新鲜的紫花苜蓿为原料,紫花苜蓿的干品品质(粗蛋白含量、酸性洗涤纤维含量、中性洗涤纤维含量)为指标,在对其有影响的4个因素(热风温度、热风速度、茎秆压扁与切断长度情况、助干剂种类与浓度)进行单因素试验的基础上;采用4因素3水平正交试验进行了优化。通过对试验数据进行极差与方差分析,找出了优化工艺参数组合并得出结论:热风温度是影响苜蓿干品粗蛋白质含量的最主要因素,茎秆压扁与切断长度情况是影响苜蓿干品中酸性洗涤纤维和中性洗涤纤维含量的最主要因素,热风干燥优化后的工艺参数组合为热风温度70℃、热风速度2.5 m/s、茎秆切断长度10 cm且压扁、碳酸钾浓度3%。在此工艺参数条件下,能有效提高干燥效率,并降低干草中营养成分的损失。研究为确定紫花苜蓿热风干燥工艺参数,提高紫花苜蓿热风干燥品质提供参考。%Alfalfa is a perennial herb and it is from the Near East and East Asia. Alfalfa is rich in nutrients and trace elements such as proteins, iron and manganese that is necessary to growing of life. Alfalfa is also the high quality livestock forage. Because alfalfa contains more carbohydrates and less colloidal substances, it is difficult in ensiling. Alfalfa must be dried promptly after hay harvest. With the rapid development of animal husbandry, grass planting area is increasing rapidly. So production and modulation of hay is an important link of hay industrialization in

  14. Parabolic Deligne-Lusztig varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Digne, François

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the Brou\\'e conjecture on blocks with abelian defect groups for finite reductive groups, we study "parabolic" Deligne-Lusztig varieties and construct on those which occur in the Brou\\'e conjecture an action of a braid monoid, whose action on their $\\ell$-adic cohomology will conjecturally factor trough a cyclotomic Hecke algebra. In order to construct this action, we need to enlarge the set of varieties we consider to varieties attached to a "ribbon category"; this category is a {\\em Garside category}, which plays an important role in our proof, so we devote the first part of our paper to the necessary background on Garside categories.

  15. Stylistic Analysis on English Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建丽

    2009-01-01

    There are primarily three factors influencing the stylistic varieties: field of discourse, mode of discourse, tenor of discourse. The varieties of social relations may directly work on the speaker' s phonetic, vocabulary, sentence pattern and etc. These varieties consist of formality, politeness, impersonality and accessibility. When a speaker convenes with different subjects in different occasions, the language he has chosen will vary greatly. Regarding this point, the author does not intend to provide the readers with accurate data. But a general analysis of legal documents and advertisements respectively on the following major levels.

  16. Combining -Omics to Unravel the Impact of Copper Nutrition on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Stem Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Bruno; Guerriero, Gea; Sergeant, Kjell; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Guignard, Cédric; Renaut, Jenny; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2016-02-01

    Copper can be found in the environment at concentrations ranging from a shortage up to the threshold of toxicity for plants, with optimal growth conditions situated in between. The plant stem plays a central role in transferring and distributing minerals, water and other solutes throughout the plant. In this study, alfalfa is exposed to different levels of copper availability, from deficiency to slight excess, and the impact on the metabolism of the stem is assessed by a non-targeted proteomics study and by the expression analysis of key genes controlling plant stem development. Under copper deficiency, the plant stem accumulates specific copper chaperones, the expression of genes involved in stem development is decreased and the concentrations of zinc and molybdenum are increased in comparison with the optimum copper level. At the optimal copper level, the expression of cell wall-related genes increases and proteins playing a role in cell wall deposition and in methionine metabolism accumulate, whereas copper excess imposes a reduction in the concentration of iron in the stem and a reduced abundance of ferritins. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis suggests a role for the apoplasm as a copper storage site in the case of copper toxicity. PMID:26865661

  17. 不同秋眠级紫花苜蓿品种生产性能的对比分析研究%Comparatively Analysis the Production Performance of Different Dormant Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃栋; 刘自学; 苏爱莲

    2012-01-01

    为获得适宜在北京地区种植的优良休眠型苜蓿品种,并利用苜蓿品种的休眠级数来指导国内苜蓿种植区划.采用随机区组法,进行了7个不同休眠级紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)在北京地区的生产性能对比分析田间试验研究,在2010年8月-2011年10月,连续2年对紫花苜蓿的出苗时间、越冬率、生长速度、再生性、草产量、干鲜比、茎叶比进行测定.结果表明:不同休眠类型的紫花苜蓿生产性能存在显著差异(P<0.05),不同品种草产量存在显著差异(P<0.05),半秋眠苜蓿的鲜草产量显著高于非秋眠苜蓿,秋眠性强的品种越冬存活率高,所有品种草产量第一茬>第二茬>第三茬;在北京地区,应主要考虑秋眠和半秋眠的高产品种的培育与引进,秋眠型和半秋眠型的紫花苜蓿均可安全越冬,生产性能较好,适宜北京地区种植,非秋眠型(7~9级)的紫花苜蓿其越冬率相对较低,植株存活率低,生产性能较低,若要在北京地区种植需采取其他农艺措施提高其越冬存活率.%In order to obtain some dormancy alfalfa varieties that suited in Beijing Region, and used dormancy series of alfalfa to guide the domestic alfalfa planting regionalization. This article adopted a randomized block design, comparatively analysis the production performance of 7 different nondormant alfalfa in the Beijing Region. In 2010 August to 2011 October, the germination time of alfalfa, winter survival rate, growth rate, renewability, grass yield, ratio of dry and fresh weight, leaf stem ratio were determined. The results showed that different types of nondormant alfalfa had significant difference (.Psecond stubble>third stubble. In the Beijing area, we basically should consider the cultivation and the introduction of dormancy and semi-dormant alfalfa of high-yield, the dormant and semi-dormant alfalfa could safely survived over the winter and the production performance were well that were

  18. Aerobic microorganisms associated with alfalfa leafcutter bees (megachile rotundata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G D; Sigler, L; Goette, M S

    1993-09-01

    Characterization of microorganisms associated with alfalfa leaf-cutter bee (Megachile rotundata) nectar, pollen, provisions, larval guts, and frass (excreta) in Alberta demonstrated a varied aerobic microflora. Yeasts were isolated frequently from nectar, pollen, and provisions but rarely from guts or frass. The most prevalent yeast taxa were: Candida bombicola, Cryptococcus albidus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Rhodotorula glutinis. Although few filamentous fungi were found in nectar, they were frequently isolated from pollen and provisions; the predominant taxa were Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Bacteria, including species of Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and the actinomycete Streptomyces, also were prevalent in provisions and/or on pollen. In general, the diversity of microorganisms isolated from alimentary canals and frass was lower than from nectar, pollen, and provisions. Bacillus firmus, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and Streptomyces spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria, whereas Trichosporonoides megachiliensis was the most common filamentous fungus isolated from larval guts and/or frass. These taxa may be part of the resident microflora of the alimentary canal. Populations of bacteria and filamentous fungi, but not yeasts, were larger from Ascosphaera aggregata-infected larvae than from healthy larvae. However, with the exception of Aspergillus niger and T. megachiliensis in frass from healthy larvae, no taxon of filamentous fungi was conspicuously present or absent in infected larvae, healthy larvae, or their frass. PMID:24190009

  19. Yield, chemical composition and persistence of alfalfa on moderately acidic mountain soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Leto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its excellent nutritional characteristics and high yields, alfalfa is the most important forage crop in roughage production. The main limiting factor in global food production is soil acidification. At the moment, about 40% of world agricultural soils are acidic. It is difficult to grow alfalfa on acid soils (pH 0.05. Average DM yield of all cultivars in the year 2000 was 7.07 t/ha, in the year 2001 it was 10.94 t/ha, and finally in the year 2002 it was 12.78 t/ha. Significant differences in DM yields were recorded between cuttings (P0.05. Mean crude protein content was 28.2%, while contents of crude fat, crude fibers and non nitrogen free extract (NFE were 3.73%, 16.15%, 29.19%, respectively. No significant differences in alfalfa ground cover were recorded between cultivars in autumn or in spring in all experimental years (P>0.05. Significant differences in alfalfa ground cover in autumn (P<0.05 and in spring (P<0.01 were recorded between years. The lowest average ground cover was recorded in last experimental year: in the autumn of the year 2001(72.81% and in the spring of the year 2002 (64.37%. All investigated alfalfa cultivars are suitable for growing in similar agroecological conditions.

  20. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. PMID:21439724

  1. Infinite transitivity on affine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Arzhantsev, Ivan; Flenner, Hubert; Kaliman, Shulim; Kutzschebauch, Frank; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL

    2012-01-01

    In this note we survey recent results on automorphisms of affine algebraic varieties, infinitely transitive group actions and flexibility. We present related constructions and examples, and discuss geometric applications and open problems.

  2. Prym varieties of spectral covers

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    Given a possibly reducible and non-reduced spectral cover X over a smooth projective complex curve C we determine the group of connected components of the Prym variety Prym(X/C). We also describe the sublocus of characteristics a for which the Prym variety Prym(X_a/C) is connected. These results extend special cases of work of Ng\\^o who considered integral spectral curves.

  3. Plant density and maturity stage impacts on stem cell wall composition in high quality and non-lodging alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can affect energy availability in livestock production systems and energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Knowledge of the environmental variability of cell wall concentration and composi...

  4. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  5. Screening of Highly Effective Sinorhizobium meliloti Strains for 'Vector' Alfalfa and Testing of Its Competitive Nodulation Ability in the Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhao-Hai; CHEN Wen-Xin; HU Yue-Gao; SUI Xin-Hua; CHEN Dan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen Sinorhizobium meliloti strains from seven provinces in China were used to screen highly effective strains for alfalfa cultivar in a greenhouse study and their symbiotic relationship and competitive ability were studied in the field.CCBAU30138 was the most effective strain,as evidenced by increase in dry weights.A field experiment showed that the inoculation of alfalfa with CCBAU30138 resulted in increases of 11.9%and 19.6%of dry matter production and crude protein production,respectively,in forage of monocultured plants.The total dry matter yields of alfalfa and tall fescue in binary culture were increased by 16.3%by inoculation of alfalfa with this strain.These results showed that S.Meliloti strain CCBAU30138 was an effective inoculant both in the greenhouse and in the field.The analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD)by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)from nodule extracts showed that the strain CCBAU30138 had high competitiveness in the field.It occupied 47.5%of nodules in alfalfa monoculture and 44.4% of nodules in alfalfa-tall fescue binary culture after 20 weeks of growth.In conclusion,a simple system to select highly effective and competitive symbiotic strains specific to alfalfa was established.Using this system.A strain suitable for the alfalfa cultivar'Vector’grown in Wuqiao County of Hebei Province was obtained.

  6. The genetic components of extended life expectancy in chilled, post-diapause quiescent Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, a solitary bee native to Eurasia, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee and has become the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. These bees, when commercially managed, are overwintered as diapausing prepupae under static ther...

  7. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee (hymenoptera: megachilidae) reproductive success according to location of nests in United States commercial domiciles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  8. Bioassay for Detection of Dichlorvos Insecticide in Air in Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile Rotundata F. Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdy John R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dichlorvos is an insecticide used in slow-release plastic strips for controlling chalcid wasp parasites, such as Pteromalus venustus Walker, in incubators used to raise alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata F.. Beekeepers need a practical method to detect dichlorvos in air and verify that it has dissipated to levels acceptable for worker re-entry and for the bees to emerge. We evaluated three methods for analysis of the dichlorvos concentration in air. Vapor sampling tubes using a manually operated pump or diffusion collection had insufficient sensitivity in the concentration range of interest. Air samples collected using battery powered pumps were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS, which was accurate and sensitive, but too costly and slow for practical use. Finally, a convenient bioassay for detecting dichlorvos in air was developed using leafcutting bees and verified by comparison with the results obtained by LC/MS/MS for a series of dose levels. The bioassay is simple enough to be done by the beekeeper on-site, is inexpensive, and gives results within 1 h. The LC50 for dichlorvos vapor in air after 1 h of exposure was 273.2 μg/m3 by the probit regression method or 277.3 μg/m3 by the logit regression method.

  9. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase Gene, OsAPX2, Increases Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; MA Cui; XUE Xin; XU Ming; LI Jing; WU Jin-xia

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop in the world and it is of great signiifcance for the improvement of its salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance in alfalfa, a rice ascorbate peroxidase gene (OsAPX2) was introduced into alfalfa using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with marker gene bar. The different T-DNA insertions in T1 transgenic alfalfa were identiifed by Southern hybridization. Three independent T2 transgenic lines were selected for stress analysis and the results showed that all of them were salt tolerant compared with wild-type plants. The transgenic plants had low levels of H2O2, malondialdehyde and relative electrical conductivity under salt and drought stresses. Moreover, the contents of chlorophyll and proline, and APX activity were high in transgenic plants under salt and drought stresses. Taken together, the overexpression of OsAPX2 enhances salt tolerance in alfalfa through scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  10. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Large Astronomy Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David W.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. This effort has been made possible through the collaboration of the ALFALFA PIs and graduate students, Arecibo Observatory staff, and the faculty at 19 undergraduate-focussed institutions. In this talk, we will discuss how the UAT model works for the ALFALFA project and lessons learned from our efforts over the 8 years of grant funding. We will provide suggestions on how the model could be applied to other legacy projects, particularly in such areas as online collaboration and software usage by undergraduates. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  11. [Effects of continuous cropping of wheat and alfalfa on soil enzyme activities and nutrients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Qiong; Hao, Ming-De; Zang, Yi-Fei; Li, Li-Xia

    2014-11-01

    Based on a long-term rotation and fertilization experiment in Changwu, Shaanxi, China, we determined the enzymatic activities and nutrients in soils after 27 years continuous cropping of alfalfa and wheat, respectively. The activities of invertase, urease and phosphatase were not affected by fertilization treatment within each cropping system, but they were significantly higher in the alfalfa continuous cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system under each fertilization treatment. The activity of hydrogen peroxidase was not affected by the type of cropping system or fertilization treatment. Across the cropping systems, the activities of soil urease, phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase were higher while soil invertase activity was lower in N, P and manure (NPM) combined treatment compared with the other fertilization treatments. The accumulations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available nitrogen were greater in the alfalfa cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system, and the NPM treatment could improve the soil fertility. PMID:25898616

  12. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayad, Ahmed G.; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M.; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  13. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayad, Ahmed G; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  14. The Optical Luminosity Function of Void Galaxies in the SDSS and ALFALFA Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Hoyle, Fiona; Pan, Danny C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    We measure the r-band galaxy luminosity function (LF) across environments over the redshift range 0 ALFALFA). We find that the global LF of the ALFALFA sample is not well fit by a Schechter function because of the presence of a wide dip in the LF around Mr = -18 and an upturn at fainter magnitudes (α ˜ -1.47). We compare the H i selected r-band LF to various LFs of optically selected populations to determine where the H i selected optical LF obtains its shape. We find that sample selection plays a large role in determining the shape of the LF.

  15. Black Leaf and Stem of Alfalfa Caused by Phoma medicaginis Malbr & Roum. var. medicaginis Boerema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif R. Susuri

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Phoma medicaginis has recently been spreading on alfalfa causing black leaf and stem in irrigation fields near Prizren. The average number of lesions is from 18 up to 30 on leaves with an average diameter of 1-10 mm. The average size of pycnidia from diseased alfalfa leaves, stems and PDA is 325 x 338 μm, whereas the average size of pycnidiospores is 7.3 x 3.6 μm. Maximum spore production in average was on PDA 140.9 x 104/ml.

  16. The spreading of Alfalfa mosaic virus in lavandin in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stanković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available survey was conducted in 2012 and 2013 to detect the presence and distribution of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV in lavandin crops growing in continental parts of Croatia. A total of 73 lavandin samples from six crops in different localities were collected and analyzed for the presence of AMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV using commercial double-antibody sandwich (DAS-ELISA kits. AMV was detected serologically in 62 samples collected at three different localities, and none of the samples tested positive for CMV. For further analyses, six selected samples of naturally infected lavandin plants originating from different localities were mechanically transmitted to test plants: Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, Nicotiana benthamiana and Ocimum basilicum, confirming the infectious nature of the disease. Molecular detection was performed by amplification of a 751 bp fragment in all tested samples, using the specific primers CP AMV1/CP AMV2 that amplify the part of the coat protein (CP gene and 3’-UTR. The RT-PCR products derived from the isolates 371-13 and 373-13 were sequenced (KJ504107 and KJ504108, respectively and compared with the AMV sequences available in GenBank. CP sequence analysis, conducted using the MEGA5 software, revealed that the isolate 371-13 had the highest nucleotide identity of 99.5% (100% amino acid identity with an isolate from Argentina originating from Medicago sativa (KC881010, while the sequence of isolate 373-13 had the highest identity with an Italian AMV isolate from Lavandula stoechas (FN667967 of 98.6% (99% amino acid identity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the clustering of selected isolates into four molecular groups and the lavandin AMV isolates from Croatia grouped into two distinct groups, implying a significant variability within the AMV lavandin population.

  17. The Varieties of Good Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylirisku, Salu; Arvola, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness, instrumen......This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness...

  18. Sensitivity of rice varieties to gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sasikala and R.Kalaiyarasi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Six promising rice varieties viz., CO 43, CO 47, CO 48, CO 49, ADT 43 and Improved White Ponni were treated withgamma irradiation with doses of 100Gy, 200Gy, 250Gy, 300Gy and 350Gy of gamma rays in order to study effect of gammairradiation in seed germination of rice varieties and study the root and shoot length variation. Treated seeds were sownseparately in germination paper and nursery with the two replications. The germination percentage was decreased aftergamma irradiation. But the decrease was neither proportional to the increase in dosage nor definite pattern was found in allthe six rice varieties. At the dose of 350Gy all the six varieties exhibited the low germination percentage especially in thevariety ADT 43 is 33%. The gamma ray dose of 300Gy was causing 42-51% seedling height reductions in CO 43, CO 47,CO 48, CO 49 and ADT43. The seedling height was decreased in decreasing manner with the increase of irradiation dose inthe varieties such as CO 47 and improved white ponni. The root development in seedlings was inhibited higher in the dose of300Gy in all the six varieties. At higher dose of 350Gy root length is very much affected in the varieties viz., CO 43 with76% reduction and 70% reduction in improved white ponni. Plant height and seed fertility percentage were decreased withincrease of gamma radiation dose in linear fashion. Seed fertility decreased with increase of radiation dose was observed inCO 47, ADT 43 and improved white ponni. In ADT 43 seed fertility was reduced approximately 69% at gamma ray dose of350Gy.

  19. Fatty acid profiling of the seed oils of some varieties of field peas (Pisum sativum) by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS: towards the development of an oilseed pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Solis, Manuel Ivan; Patel, Anil; Orsat, Valérie; Singh, Jaswinder; Lefsrud, Mark

    2013-08-15

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS) was used to study the fatty acid profile from the oil of harvested field pea (Pisum sativum) varieties as part of a research project to develop this legume as a commercial oilseed for Canada. The seed oils from pea samples contained palmitic and stearic acids as major saturated fatty acids. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids found. Small percentages of other long chain fatty acids were also detected. This profile suggests that the species of field pea investigated might have the potential to be used as raw materials to develop a future new oilseed crop for the food industry. Fatty acid extracts did not require further manipulation before final analysis by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS, indicating the utility and relative simplicity of this technique for future screening studies.

  20. Varieties of capitalism in crisis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruff, Ian; Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we provide a brief overview of the two distinct but connected meanings of the phrase ‘varieties of capitalism in crisis’: (1) the crisis of empirical political economies under conditions of capitalist diversity; and (2) the crisis of the institutionalist...

  1. Summary of Introduction of Clonal Tea Varieties and Industrial Development%无性系茶树良种引进及产业化开发技术总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施巨盛; 吴昌旺; 刘恒旭

    2011-01-01

    Old tea trees account for a large proportion of the tea garden in Wencheng,it has few varieties,emphasizing the "early market" while ignoring the improvement of internal quality,neglecting the tea of summer and autumn to focus only on the development of spring tea,and other issues,the introduction of breeding to promote Anji white tea,Wuniuzao,Longjing 43,Longjingchangye,Yingshuang clones tea tree cream,etc.,and for industrial development.Through the promotion of optimal varieties,optimization of cultivation,green prevention,summer tea development,mechanical recovery mechanism,product marketing,six integrated supporting industrial development of technology to enhance the tea industry production levels,expansion of the tea industry scale,and achieved significant economic,social and ecological benefits.%针对浙江省文成县老茶园所占比例过大、茶树品种单一、强调"上市早"而忽视内在品质的提升、只注重春茶而忽视夏秋茶的开发等问题,引进繁育推广安吉白茶、乌牛早、龙井43、龙井长叶、迎霜等无性系茶树良种,并进行产业化开发。通过推广优化品种、优化栽培、绿色防治、夏秋茶开发、机采机制、产品营销等6项集成配套产业化开发技术,提升茶叶产业生产水平,扩大茶叶产业规模,取得显著的经济、社会和生态效益。

  2. Classification of Irregular Varieties : Minimal Models and Abelian Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Ciliberto, Ciro

    1992-01-01

    M. Andreatta,E.Ballico,J.Wisniewski: Projective manifolds containing large linear subspaces; - F.Bardelli: Algebraic cohomology classes on some specialthreefolds; - Ch.Birkenhake,H.Lange: Norm-endomorphisms of abelian subvarieties; - C.Ciliberto,G.van der Geer: On the jacobian of ahyperplane section of a surface; - C.Ciliberto,H.Harris,M.Teixidor i Bigas: On the endomorphisms of Jac (W1d(C)) when p=1 and C has general moduli; - B. van Geemen: Projective models of Picard modular varieties; - J.Kollar,Y.Miyaoka,S.Mori: Rational curves on Fano varieties; - R. Salvati Manni: Modular forms of the fourth degree; A. Vistoli: Equivariant Grothendieck groups and equivariant Chow groups; - Trento examples; Open problems

  3. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs.

  4. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs. PMID:27447893

  5. Development of a Wheat Variety Identification System Based on Fluorescently Labeled SSR Markers%基于荧光检测技术的小麦品种SSR鉴定体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永胜; 张晗; 王东建; 孙加梅; 王雪梅; 段丽丽; 李华; 王玮; 李汝玉

    2014-01-01

    小麦育成品种的DNA指纹数据库。【结论】筛选出42对SSR标记引物,建立了基于荧光SSR标记的小麦品种鉴定体系,可用于高通量小麦品种DNA指纹鉴定。%In this study, a wheat variety identification system based on fluorescently labeled SSR markers was developed to provide a high-throughput DNA profiling means for identification of Chinese wheat varieties.[Method]Information on SSR markers which have been mapped to the 21 pairs of wheat chromosomes was collected. Highly polymorphic markers among China released wheat varieties were screened by PCR amplification followed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Markers selected were labeled at the 5′end of forward primer using one of the four fluorescent dyes: TAMRA, HEX, ROX and 6-FAM. DNA Analyzer was employed to detect the fluorescently labeled PCR-amplified fragments. Peak patterns, polymorphism and distribution on linkage maps of these markers were evaluated and makers with simple peak pattern, high polymorphism and even distribution were chosen. The sizes of the alleles at each marker locus were determined and reference variety corresponding to each allele was assigned. A wheat variety identification system based on these selected fluorescently labeled SSR markers was developed.[Result]Eight morphologically diversified China released wheat varieties were PCR amplified using 2 438 mapped SSR markers for screening polymorphic and stably amplifying primer pairs. Two hundred and sixty primer pairs met the criterion. After further screening, 130 out of 260 mapped SSR markers were chosen based on distribution on wheat linkage map, PCR amplification stability and polymorphism revealed in 48 wheat varieties released in China. These 130 markers were labeled with four fluorescent dyes and further screened using DNA Analyzer. Finally, 42 SSR markers with relatively even distribution on linkage map, simple peak patterns, high polymorphism and stable PCR amplification were

  6. Processed Methods of Alfalfa in Rainy Season%雨季苜蓿草加工的几种途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向金城; 曹致中; 仇亨

    2014-01-01

    针对苜蓿草在雨季容易发霉腐烂的问题,笔者提出了青贮、烘干、榨汁后烘干及汁液提取叶蛋白等可行的加工贮存途径。青贮中不论是否添加玉米粉、乳酸、乙酸及乳酸菌接种剂,只要晾晒至半干(含水量50%~60%)铡碎、压紧、隔绝空气,进行半干青贮,都能获得优质青贮苜蓿。%Feasible approaches to preventing alfalfa from decaying during wet seasons were proposed. These approaches include making alfalfa silage, making alfalfa hay and making hay after the juice in alfalfa is extracted. The extracted juice from alfalfa is used to make leaf proteins. When making the alfalfa silage, it is not important whether corn lfour, lactic acid, acetic acid or lactic acid bacteria inoculant are added in the raw materials, as long as alfalfa foliage is pre-dried ( 50%~60%water content), ifnely chopped and ifrmly pressed (to remove air), the high quality foliage/semi-foliage can always be achieved.

  7. Streptomyces alfalfae sp. nov. and comparisons with its closest taxa Streptomyces silaceus, Streptomyces flavofungini and Streptomyces intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Wenqing; Sun, Zhongfeng; Yi, Lei; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    A novel streptomycete strain, designated XY25T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil in an alfalfa field in Jingyang, Shanxi, China. The isolate showed optimal growth at 37 °C, and was capable of growing at pH 6-10 and in the presence of 0-6 % (w/v) NaCl. Mycelia of strain XY25T appeared spiral and developed into white spore chains with long-rod spores and a smooth surface. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of XY25T was determined and was found to be highly similar to those of species of the genus Streptomyces including Streptomyces silaceus DSM 41861T (99.11 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Streptomyces flavofungini DSM 40366T (98.49 %) and Streptomyces intermedius DSM 40372T (98.43 %), all of which were used for further characterization. Each of the four streptomycetes showed distinctive patterns of carbon usage and fatty acids composition. Analysis of cellular components of strain XY25T revealed ll-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diamino acid and xylose as the major sugar, whereas polar lipids were determined as phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown phospholipid, two unknown phosphatidylinositol mannosides and several unknown lipids. Menaquinones were dominated by MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8), and the main fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. DNA-DNA hybridization studies indicated that strain XY25T showed relatedness values of 35.2-40.42 % with the closest related species. Based on these results, strain XY25T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces alfalfae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XY25T ( = KCTC 39571T = CCTCC AA2015019T).

  8. Operator algebras for analytic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Kenneth R; Shalit, Orr Moshe

    2012-01-01

    We study the isomorphism problem for the multiplier algebras of irreducible complete Pick kernels. These are precisely the restrictions $\\cM_V$ of the multiplier algebra $\\cM$ of Drury-Arveson space to a holomorphic subvariety $V$ of the unit ball. The related algebras of continuous multipliers are also considered. We find that $\\cM_V$ is completely isometrically isomorphic to $\\cM_W$ if and only if $W$ is the image of $V$ under a biholomorphic automorphism of the ball. A similar condition characterizes when there exists a unital completely contractive homomorphism from $\\cM_V$ to $\\cM_W$. If one of the varieties is a homogeneous algebraic variety, then isometric isomorphism is shown to imply completely isometric isomorphism of the algebras. The problem of characterizing when two such algebras are (algebraically) isomorphic is also studied. It is shown that if there is an isomorphism between $\\cM_V$ and $\\cM_W$, then there is a biholomorphism (with multiplier coordinates) between the varieties. We present a n...

  9. Best Phd thesis Prize : Statistical analysis of ALFALFA galaxies: insights in galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papastergis, E.

    2013-01-01

    We use the rich dataset of local universe galaxies detected by the ALFALFA 21cm survey to study the statistical properties of gas-bearing galaxies. In particular, we measure the number density of galaxies as a function of their baryonic mass ("baryonic mass function") and rotational velocity ("veloc

  10. Evaluation of subsurface drip irrigation design and management parameters for alfalfa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Kandelous; T. Kamai; J.A. Vrugt; J. Šimůnek; B. Hanson; J.W. Hopmans

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa is one of the most cultivated crops in the US, and is being used as livestock feed for the dairy, beef, and horse industries. About nine percent of that is grown in California, yet there is an increasing concern about the large amounts of irrigation water required to attain maximum yield. We

  11. Enhancing forage yields and soil conservation by interseeding alfalfa into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent field studies have identified prohexadione-calcium (PHD) as an effective plant growth regulator for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into corn as a dual-purpose cover and forage crop. Foliar applications of PHD on seedlings doubled or tripled stand survival of interseeded al...

  12. Correlation of fermentation characteristics with intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage in gestating ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baled silage production provides benefits to farmers because it reduces leaf losses, and requires a shorter wilting time, thereby limiting risks of exposure to rain compared with making hay. Our objective was to investigate the correlation of alfalfa silage fermentation parameters with intake and di...

  13. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  14. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W.D. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Y.G. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn; Liang, Y.C. [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, Institute of Soils and Fertilizers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, J. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F.A. [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, DP 636, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Yang, M. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with V {sub max} of 2.25 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight h{sup -1}, and K {sub m} of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag{sup +}. OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg{sup 2+}, suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg{sup 2+} on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process. - Plant uptake of antibiotic oxytetracycline is energy-dependent.

  15. Alfalfa N credits to second-year corn larger than expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa can provide substantial amounts of nitrogen (N) to the first crop that follows it. Recent field research on first-year corn confirms that it is highly likely that grain yields will not improve with added fertilizer N, except on very sandy and very clayey soils. It is less clear how much fert...

  16. Emergence, forage production, and ion relations of alfalfa in response to saline waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) is an important crop utilized in regions under irrigation commonly impacted by salinity. In this study we evaluate the effect of salinity, as a continual process, from emergence to mature plant growth in successive harvests. We studied emergence, biomass production, salt ...

  17. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) with maralfalfahay (Pennisetum sp.) in diets of lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscioni, P.; Marti, J.V.; Pérez-Baena, I.;

    2016-01-01

    tThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa (Medicagosativa) with maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp.) on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methaneemission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in latelactation (45.7 ± 2.96 kg of...

  18. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  19. Pythium and Fusarium species causing seed rot and damping-off of alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed rot and damping-off is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. This disease may have been overlooked as a cause of poor stand establishment and reduced vigor of adult plants. Globally, 15 Pythium species have been found to cause...

  20. Use of Alfalfa for Soil Phosphorus Removal Following Long-Term Manure Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to examine alfalfa remediation effects on a cornfield treated during a 10-yr period with manure at rates matching either the N (MN) or P (MP) requirements of silage corn (Zea mays L.). A commercial fertilizer (NCK) was used as a control. The site was removed from corn prod...

  1. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  2. The Impact of Distinct Insect Species on Pollination and Gene Flow in Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinator species and plant density can influence pollination and gene flow. The efficacy of different floral visitors at tripping alfalfa flowers was examined in both low and high density patches to determine their potential role in pollination. In addition, for a subset of the floral visitors, th...

  3. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  4. Alfalfa contains substantial 9-hydroperoxide lyase activity and a 3Z:2E-enal isomerase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Noordermeer, M.A.; Veldink, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid hydroperoxides formed by lipoxygenase can be cleaved by hydroperoxide lyase resulting in the formation of short-chain aldehydes and omega-oxo acids. Plant hydroperoxide lyases use 13- or 9-hydroperoxy linoleic and linolenic acid as substrates. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been reporte

  5. The alfalfa N credit: field-specific recommendations may be coming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa can provide all the nitrogen (N) needed for two years of corn. This may sound surprising, but research reports support this statement for about one-half of all trials that have been conducted in the US. However, in other research trials, the need for fertilizer N varied widely and ranged up ...

  6. Incorporation of p-coumarates into the cell walls of alfalfa changes the lignin composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, monocots can contain a significant amount of an ester-linked p-coumarate (pCA) in their cell walls, but its function is unclear. One hypothesis is that pCA aids in the formation of syringyl-rich regions during lignification. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a dicot, is a cultivated perennial f...

  7. Overexpression of malate dehydrogenase in transgenic alfalfa enhances organic acid synthesis and confers tolerance to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, M; Temple, S J; Allan, D L; Vance, C P; Samac, D A

    2001-12-01

    Al toxicity is a severe impediment to production of many crops in acid soil. Toxicity can be reduced through lime application to raise soil pH, however this amendment does not remedy subsoil acidity, and liming may not always be practical or cost-effective. Addition of organic acids to plant nutrient solutions alleviates phytotoxic Al effects, presumably by chelating Al and rendering it less toxic. In an effort to increase organic acid secretion and thereby enhance Al tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), we produced transgenic plants using nodule-enhanced forms of malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase cDNAs under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We report that a 1.6-fold increase in malate dehydrogenase enzyme specific activity in root tips of selected transgenic alfalfa led to a 4.2-fold increase in root concentration as well as a 7.1-fold increase in root exudation of citrate, oxalate, malate, succinate, and acetate compared with untransformed control alfalfa plants. Overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme specific activity in transgenic alfalfa did not result in increased root exudation of organic acids. The degree of Al tolerance by transformed plants in hydroponic solutions and in naturally acid soil corresponded with their patterns of organic acid exudation and supports the concept that enhancing organic acid synthesis in plants may be an effective strategy to cope with soil acidity and Al toxicity. PMID:11743127

  8. ECONOMICS AND ENERGY OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM ALFALFA, CORN, AND SWITCHGRASS IN THE UPPER MIDWEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the U.S., biomass crop systems will be needed to meet future ethanol production goals. We estimated production costs, profits, and energy budgets for three potential crop systems for the Upper Midwest: continuous corn, an alfalfa-corn rotation, and switchgrass. Production costs, profits, and on-f...

  9. Identification of Molecular Marker Linked to Salt Tolerance Gene in Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The study has established the F2 offspring obtained by crossing salt-tolerant with salt-sensitive alfalfa, and appraised the salt-tolerant F2 offspring seedling was evaluated in pot culture. With the F2 segregated population, the research has obtained a molecular marker linked with salt-tolerant genes of alfalfa using the improved BSA combined with RAPD. The RAPD PCR products were excised from the agarose gel and purified using a kit, then were mixed with pMD-18T vector and sequenced. Sequencing result indicated the RAPD marker was 1 438 bp in length. Similarity researches using blast in Genbank indicated that the nucleotide sequence of the RAPD marker showed 93% and 91% similarity with mth2-6el8 gene fragment (347 bp) and mth2-33122 gene fragment (334 bp) of Medicago truncatula respectively. Medicago truncatula is a close relative of alfalfa and Mth2-6e18 is a molecular marker of the gene coding for a cysteine protease which was salt inducible in some plants. These results indicated the RAPD marker was possibly related to cysteine protease genes in alfalfa.

  10. Extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, M J; Glaze, L E

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study to extend AOAC method 44.A06-44.A08 to extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint. A 5 g (spearmint) or 10 g (alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya) test portion is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux apparatus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol, and flotation with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) from Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Each product was spiked at a different level. For rat hairs, recoveries averaged 82.2% from alfalfa, 88.9% from lemon balm, 80.6% from papaya, and 79.6% from spearmint. Recoveries of whole or equivalent insects from these products averaged 66.1, 218.8, 69.4, and 85.4%, respectively; recoveries of insect fragments from these products averaged 89.6, 94.4, 94.1, and 88.1%, respectively. The method has been adopted official first action for extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, papaya, and spearmint. The extension of the method to lemon balm was not recommended because of interferences by intrinsic whole insects, which were the same species as the spike material. PMID:3436916

  11. The effects of perennial ryegrass and alfalfa on microbial abundance and diversity in petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced rhizosphere degradation uses plants to stimulate the rhizosphere microbial community to degrade organic contaminants. We measured changes in microbial communities caused by the addition of two species of plants in a soil contaminated with 31,000 ppm of total petroleum hydrocarbons. Perennial ryegrass and/or alfalfa increased the number of rhizosphere bacteria in the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. These plants also increased the number of bacteria capable of petroleum degradation as estimated by the most probable number (MPN) method. Eco-Biolog plates did not detect changes in metabolic diversity between bulk and rhizosphere samples but denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rDNA sequences indicated a shift in the bacterial community in the rhizosphere samples. Dice coefficient matrices derived from DGGE profiles showed similarities between the rhizospheres of alfalfa and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture in the contaminated soil at week seven. Perennial ryegrass and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture caused the greatest change in the rhizosphere bacterial community as determined by DGGE analysis. We concluded that plants altered the microbial population; these changes were plant-specific and could contribute to degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil. - Plant-specific changes in microbial populations on roots affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil

  12. Analyzing Adoption and Replacement of Rice Varieties in NSW

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Inder Pal; Brennan, John P.

    1997-01-01

    The pattern of adoption and disadoption of a new research outcome has considerable impact on the total benefits to the industry from such research. The aims in this paper are to examine the pattern of adoption of individual rice varieties developed in NSW, and to develop an estimate of the expected adoption curve for different types of rice varieties. The analysis indicates that the pattern of adoption and disadoption of rice varieties can be modeled successfully. A framework is developed for...

  13. A comparison of constitutive promoters for expression of transgenes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah A; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Dornbusch, Melinda; Saruul, Purev; Temple, Stephen J

    2004-08-01

    The activity of constitutive promoters was compared in transgenic alfalfa plants using two marker genes. Three promoters, the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), the cassava vein mosaic virus (CsVMV) promoter, and the sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) promoter were each fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) gene. The highest GUS enzyme activity was obtained using the CsVMV promoter and all alfalfa cells assayed by in situ staining had high levels of enzyme activity. The 35S promoter was expressed in leaves, roots, and stems at moderate levels, but the promoter was not active in stem pith cells, root cortical cells, or in the symbiotic zones of nodules. The ScBV promoter was active primarily in vascular tissues throughout the plant. In leaves, GUS activity driven by the CsVMV promoter was approximately 24-fold greater than the activity from the 35S promoter and 38-fold greater than the activity from the ScBV promoter. Five promoters, the double 35S promoter, figwort mosaic virus (FMV) promoter, CsVMV promoter, ScBV promoter, and alfalfa small subunit Rubisco (RbcS) promoter were used to control expression of a cDNA from Trichoderma atroviride encoding an endochitinase (ech42). Highest chitinase activity in leaves, roots, and root nodules was obtained in plants containing the CsVMV:ech42 transgene. Plants expressing the endochitinase were challenged with Phoma medicaginis var. medicaginis, the causal agent of spring black stem and leaf spot of alfalfa. Although endochitinase activity in leaves of transgenic plants was 50- to 2650-fold greater than activity in control plants, none of the transgenic plants showed a consistent increase in disease resistance compared to controls. The high constitutive levels of both GUS and endochitinase activity obtained demonstrate that the CsVMV promoter is useful for high-level transgene expression in alfalfa. PMID:15517994

  14. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James R; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R; Machtley, Scott A; Van Deynze, Allen

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in a 15.2 km(2) area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready alfalfa seed production fields (totaling 120.2 ha). Each year, honey bee self-marking devices were placed on 112 selected honey bee colonies originating from nine different apiary locations. The foraging bees exiting each apiary location were uniquely marked so that the apiary of origin and the distance traveled by the marked (field-collected) bees into each of the alfalfa fields could be pinpointed. Honey bee self-marking devices were installed on 14.4 and 11.2% of the total hives located within the research area in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The frequency of field-collected bees possessing a distinct mark was similar, averaging 14.0% in 2006 and 12.6% in 2007. A grand total of 12,266 bees were collected from the various alfalfa fields on seven sampling dates over the course of the study. The distances traveled by marked bees ranged from a minimum of 45 m to a maximum of 5983 m. On average, marked bees were recovered ~ 800 m from their apiary of origin and the recovery rate of marked bees decreased exponentially as the distance from the apiary of origin increased. Ultimately, these data will be used to identify the extent of pollen-mediated gene flow from Roundup Ready to conventional alfalfa. PMID:22224495

  15. Co-transforming bar and CsALDH genes enhanced resistance to herbicide and drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen eDuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict the productivity of alfalfa. By application of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, an oxidative responsive gene, CsALDH12A1, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica together with the bar gene associated with herbicide resistance, were co-transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. From the all 90 transformants, 16 were positive as screened by spraying 1 mL L-1 10% Basta solution and molecularly diagnosis using PCR. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that drought and salt stress induced high CsALDH expression in the leaves of the transgenic plants. The CsALDH expression levels under drought (15 d and salt stress (200 mM NaCl were 6.11 and 6.87 times higher than in the control plants, respectively. In comparison to the WT plants, no abnormal phenotypes were observed among the transgenic plants, which showed significant enhancement of tolerance to 15 d of drought and 10 d of salinity treatment. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical indices during drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants revealed relatively lower Na+ content and higher K+ content in the leaves relative to the WT plants, a reduction of toxic on effects and maintenance of osmotic adjustment. In addition, the transgenic plants could maintain a higher relative water content (RWC level, higher shoot biomass, fewer changes in the photosystem, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress. These results indicate that the co-expression of the introduced bar and CsALDH genes enhanced the herbicide, drought and salt tolerance of alfalfa and therefore can potentially be used as a novel genetic resource for the future breeding programs to develop new cultivars.

  16. Characteristic numbers of algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Kotschick, D

    2011-01-01

    A rational linear combination of Chern numbers is an oriented diffeomorphism invariant of smooth complex projective varieties if and only if it is a linear combination of the Euler and Pontryagin numbers. In dimension at least three only multiples of the top Chern number, which is the Euler characteristic, are invariant under diffeomorphisms that are not necessarily orientation-preserving. In the space of Chern numbers there are two distinguished subspaces, one spanned by the Euler and Pontryagin numbers, the other spanned by the Hirzebruch--Todd numbers. Their intersection is the span of the Euler number and the signature.

  17. Flexible varieties and automorphism groups

    CERN Document Server

    Arzhantsev, I; Kaliman, S; Kutzschebauch, F; Zaidenberg, M

    2010-01-01

    Given an affine algebraic variety X of dimension at least 2, we let SAut (X) denote the special automorphism group of X i.e., the subgroup of the full automorphism group Aut (X) generated by all one-parameter unipotent subgroups. We show that if SAut (X) is transitive on the smooth locus of X then it is infinitely transitive on this locus. In turn, the transitivity is equivalent to the flexibility of X. The latter means that for every smooth point x of X the tangent space at x is spanned by the velocity vectors of one-parameter unipotent subgroups of Aut (X). We provide also different variations and applications.

  18. Flexible varieties and automorphism groups

    OpenAIRE

    Arzhantsev, I.; Flenner, H.; Kaliman, S.; Kutzschebauch, F.; Zaidenberg, M

    2013-01-01

    Given an irreducible affine algebraic variety $X$ of dimension $n\\ge2$ , we let $\\operatorname {SAut}(X)$ denote the special automorphism group of $X$ , that is, the subgroup of the full automorphism group $\\operatorname{Aut}(X)$ generated by all one-parameter unipotent subgroups. We show that if $\\operatorname {SAut}(X)$ is transitive on the smooth locus $X_{\\mathrm{reg}}$ , then it is infinitely transitive on $X_{\\mathrm{reg}}$ . In turn, the transitivity is equivalent to the flexibility of...

  19. Varieties of Secularism in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varieties of Secularism is an ethnographically rich, theoretically well-informed, and intellectually coherent volume which builds off the work of Talal Asad, Charles Taylor, and others who have engaged the issue of secularism(s) and in socio-political life. The volume seeks to examine theories...... of the North Atlantic rim. This anthology seeks to begin that task. It does so by suggesting that the kind of secularity described by Taylor is only one amongst others. By attending to the shifting relationship between proper religion and ‘bad faiths’; between politically valorised and embarrassing spiritual...

  20. 添加初花期骆驼刺改善苜蓿青贮品质%Improve alfalfa silage quality by adding alhagi sparsifolia shap in initial bloom stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧; 方雷; 周小玲; 李胜利

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of mixed silage of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap in initial bloom stage and alfalfa on silage quality, investigate a way of the silage of juicy alfalfa without additive, and provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of A. sparsifolia Shap. 100%of alfalfa (Ⅰ, as a control group) , 100%of A. sparsifolia Shap in initial bloom stage (Ⅱ) , or mixtures of their different percentages (Ⅲ:30%of A. sparsifolia Shap+70%of alfalfa,Ⅳ:50%of A. sparsifolia Shap+50%of alfalfa, Ⅴ:70%of A. sparsifolia Shap+30%of alfalfa) were used in this experiment and each treatment had three replicates. After 90 d of ensiling, silages were sampled, and sensory quality and fermented products (pH, lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, isobutyric acid, isovaleric, methanol, ethanol, propanol and ammonia nitrogen) were evaluated. Chemical components (dry matter, crude protein, water soluble carbohydrate, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), lactobacillus and yeast living cells were determinated for both fresh forages and silages. The results showed that the contents of dry matter (DM), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) in mixed forages (as raw material to make silage) were higher than in alfalfa (P<0.05);the maximum of DM content was 26.48%in mixed forages and the minimum was 19.52%in alfalfa;and the maximum of WSC content was 6.27%in mixed forages and the minimum was 4.60%in alfalfa. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria living cells in mixed forages were higher than in alfalfa (P<0.05);the maximum in mixed forages was 7.2×105 (Ⅴ), and the minimum was 3.3×104 in alfalfa (Ⅰ). The quantities of yeast living cells in mixed forages were lower than in alfalfa (P<0.05); the maximum was 5.0×1011 in alfalfa (Ⅰ) , and the minimum of yeast living cells was 2.5×1010 in mixed forages (Ⅲ). After 90 d of ensiling, the lactobacillus living cells in silage was more than in forage at harvest (P<0

  1. 添加初花期骆驼刺改善苜蓿青贮品质%Improve alfalfa silage quality by adding alhagi sparsifolia shap in initial bloom stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧; 方雷; 周小玲; 李胜利

    2014-01-01

    为改善苜蓿的发酵品质,软化初花期骆驼刺的刺状花梗,确定二者的适宜混贮比例。采用初花期骆驼刺、紫花苜蓿及其二者不同比例混合料为青贮原料,共5个处理,青贮90 d后,通过分析青贮前、后的化学成分、乳酸菌和酵母菌数量变化;鉴定青贮饲料感官品质和发酵品质,研究骆驼刺与苜蓿混合青贮对青贮品质的影响。结果表明,2种豆科牧草混合后,干物质、可溶性碳水化合物含量、乳酸菌数量和酵母菌数量较苜蓿显著提高(P<0.05);青贮90 d后的所有青贮饲料,乳酸菌数量明显上升,酵母菌数量明显下降;混贮饲料的pH值、氨态氮/总氮、乙酸、丙酸、丁酸、戊酸和甲醇、乙醇、丙醇含量显著低于苜蓿青贮(P<0.05或P<0.01),乳酸含量显著高于苜蓿青贮(P<0.01);混贮饲料的乙酸、丙酸含量显著高于骆驼刺(P<0.01),混贮饲料有氧稳定性好,感官品质优良。骆驼刺占混贮料的30%及以上时,均能改善苜蓿青贮品质。研究结果为骆驼刺资源开发利用,寻找无添加剂高水分苜蓿青贮方法提供理论依据。%The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of mixed silage of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap in initial bloom stage and alfalfa on silage quality, investigate a way of the silage of juicy alfalfa without additive, and provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of A. sparsifolia Shap. 100%of alfalfa (Ⅰ, as a control group) , 100%of A. sparsifolia Shap in initial bloom stage (Ⅱ) , or mixtures of their different percentages (Ⅲ:30%of A. sparsifolia Shap+70%of alfalfa,Ⅳ:50%of A. sparsifolia Shap+50%of alfalfa, Ⅴ:70%of A. sparsifolia Shap+30%of alfalfa) were used in this experiment and each treatment had three replicates. After 90 d of ensiling, silages were sampled, and sensory quality and fermented products (pH, lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid

  2. Argania spinosa var. mutica and var. apiculata: variation of fatty-acid composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities among varieties, organs, and development stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Adib, Saifeddine; Aissi, Oumayma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Ben Jeddi, Fayçal; Messaoud, Chokri

    2015-09-01

    Argania spinosa includes two varieties, var. apiculata and var. mutica. These argan varieties were introduced into Tunisia in ancient times and are actually cultivated in some botanic gardens. Little is known about the chemical differentiation among these argan varieties. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the fatty-acid composition, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and the antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities of leaf, seed, and pulp extracts of both argan varieties harvested during the months of January to April. The fatty-acid distribution was found to depend on the argan variety, the plant organ, and the harvest time. Significant variations in the phenolic contents were observed between the investigated varieties as well as between leaves, pulps, and seeds of each variety. As expected, phenolic compounds were found to be contributors to the antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities of both argan varieties. The chemical differentiation observed among the two argan varieties, based mainly on the fatty-acid composition, might have some chemotaxonomic value. PMID:26363877

  3. Characterization of triacylglycerols from overwintering prepupae of the alfalfa pollinator Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, James S; Kemp, William P; Bosch, Jordi

    2004-09-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata (F.), overwinter as prepupae. The internal lipids were extracted from prepupae that had been wintered at 4 degrees C for 7 months. Megachile rotundata prepupae possessed copious quantities of internal lipids (20% of the fresh weight) that were extracted with CHCl3/methanol (2:1). Transmission electron microscopy revealed that lipids were stored within very large intracellular vacuoles. Separation by silica chromatography revealed that 88% of the internal lipids were triacylglycerols. Ester derivatives of fatty acids from triacylglycerol components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 15 fatty acid constituents were identified. The majority (76%) of the triacylglycerol fatty acids were unsaturated fatty acids. The major triacylglycerol fatty acid constituent (30%) was the C16 monounsaturated fatty acid, palmitoleic acid (16:1, hexadec-9-enoic acid), with substantial amounts of linolenic acid (18:3, octadec-9,12,15-trienoic acid, 15%), palmitic acid (16:0, hexadecanoic acid, 14%) and oleic acid (18:1, octadec-9-enoic acid, 13%). Palmitoleic acid as the major fatty acid of an insect is an unusual occurrence as well as the presence of the 16-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, 16:2 and 16:3. The major intact triacylglycerol components were separated and identified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A complex mixture of approximately 40 triacylglycerol components were identified and major components included palmitoyl palmitoleoyl oleoyl glycerol, palmitoyl palmitoleoyl palmitoleoyl glycerol, myristoyl palmitoleoyl palmitoleoyl glycerol, myristoleoyl palmitoyl palmitoleoyl glycerol, and palmitoyl palmitoleoyl linolenoyl glycerol. The function of these internal lipids and their relevance to winter survival and post-wintering development of M. rotundata is discussed. PMID:15352151

  4. Integrative analysis of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) suggests new metabolic control mechanisms for monolignol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun; Chen, Fang; Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Dixon, Richard A; Voit, Eberhard O

    2011-05-01

    The entanglement of lignin polymers with cellulose and hemicellulose in plant cell walls is a major biological barrier to the economically viable production of biofuels from woody biomass. Recent efforts of reducing this recalcitrance with transgenic techniques have been showing promise for ameliorating or even obviating the need for costly pretreatments that are otherwise required to remove lignin from cellulose and hemicelluloses. At the same time, genetic manipulations of lignin biosynthetic enzymes have sometimes yielded unforeseen consequences on lignin composition, thus raising the question of whether the current understanding of the pathway is indeed correct. To address this question systemically, we developed and applied a novel modeling approach that, instead of analyzing the pathway within a single target context, permits a comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of different datasets in wild type and transgenic plants. Specifically, the proposed approach combines static flux-based analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation in which very many randomly chosen sets of parameter values are evaluated against kinetic models of lignin biosynthesis in different stem internodes of wild type and lignin-modified alfalfa plants. In addition to four new postulates that address the reversibility of some key reactions, the modeling effort led to two novel postulates regarding the control of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. The first posits functionally independent pathways toward the synthesis of different lignin monomers, while the second postulate proposes a novel feedforward regulatory mechanism. Subsequent laboratory experiments have identified the signaling molecule salicylic acid as a potential mediator of the postulated control mechanism. Overall, the results demonstrate that mathematical modeling can be a valuable complement to conventional transgenic approaches and that it can provide biological insights that are otherwise difficult to obtain. PMID:21625579

  5. Integrative analysis of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. suggests new metabolic control mechanisms for monolignol biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The entanglement of lignin polymers with cellulose and hemicellulose in plant cell walls is a major biological barrier to the economically viable production of biofuels from woody biomass. Recent efforts of reducing this recalcitrance with transgenic techniques have been showing promise for ameliorating or even obviating the need for costly pretreatments that are otherwise required to remove lignin from cellulose and hemicelluloses. At the same time, genetic manipulations of lignin biosynthetic enzymes have sometimes yielded unforeseen consequences on lignin composition, thus raising the question of whether the current understanding of the pathway is indeed correct. To address this question systemically, we developed and applied a novel modeling approach that, instead of analyzing the pathway within a single target context, permits a comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of different datasets in wild type and transgenic plants. Specifically, the proposed approach combines static flux-based analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation in which very many randomly chosen sets of parameter values are evaluated against kinetic models of lignin biosynthesis in different stem internodes of wild type and lignin-modified alfalfa plants. In addition to four new postulates that address the reversibility of some key reactions, the modeling effort led to two novel postulates regarding the control of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. The first posits functionally independent pathways toward the synthesis of different lignin monomers, while the second postulate proposes a novel feedforward regulatory mechanism. Subsequent laboratory experiments have identified the signaling molecule salicylic acid as a potential mediator of the postulated control mechanism. Overall, the results demonstrate that mathematical modeling can be a valuable complement to conventional transgenic approaches and that it can provide biological insights that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  6. Differential antifungal activity of alfalfa (Medicago santva L.) saponins originated from roots and aerial parts for some ornamental plant pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Saniewska; Marian Jurzysta; Zbigniew Biały

    2013-01-01

    The total saponins isolated from aerial parts and roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at the concentration of 0,01%, 0,05% and 0,1% showed differential influence on the mycelium growth of Alternaria zinniae, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Phoma poolensis and Rhizoctonia solani. A higher inhibitory effect on in vitro growth of mycelium of all tested pathogens indicated saponins from roots of alfalfa than from aerial parts. Tested saponins from roots at lhe concentration ...

  7. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Liang Jing; Xiao-Fang Dong; Jian-Ming Tong

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD), was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined b...

  8. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Glomus spp. Inoculation on Alfalfa Growth in Soils with Copper Efecto de la Inoculación con Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares Glomus spp. sobre el Crecimiento de Alfalfa en Suelos con Cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Novoa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils near mining centers usually have high heavy metal (HM levels. It has been found that some plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF improve growth and tolerance to HM in soils. This symbiosis is a biological resource for degraded soil recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculating AMF (Glomus spp. on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth in agricultural soils with different copper (Cu levels for degraded soil recovery. To this effect, alfalfa seeds were grown in soils from the Catemu and Casablanca valleys and inoculated with AMF. Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were measured weekly. Dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu concentration in alfalfa plant tissues were measured after 81 days. Inoculation increased plant height by 24%, stem diameter by 11%, and number of leaves by 34%. Inoculation had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on alfalfa plants that were grown in soil with the highest Cu concentration, but had no effect on Cu accumulation in alfalfa plant tissues. A direct relationship was observed between Cu accumulation in alfalfa and Cu concentration in soils. It was concluded that alfalfa inoculated with Glomus spp. is applicable to the soil recovery process whenever soil properties can ensure inoculum effectiveness on alfalfa growth, and avoid toxicity by excessive Cu in alfalfa plant tissues.Los suelos cercanos a centros de actividad minera suelen presentar altos niveles de metales pesados (HM. Se ha encontrado que algunas plantas asociadas a hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF mejoran su crecimiento y tolerancia a los HM presentes en los suelos. Esta simbiosis constituye un recurso biológico para la recuperación de suelos degradados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la inoculación con AMF (Glomus spp. sobre el crecimiento de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en suelos agrícolas con distintos niveles de cobre (Cu para la recuperación de

  9. Enhanced Resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in Populations of Alfalfa Selected for Quantitative Resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R G; Rowe, D E

    2002-02-01

    ABSTRACT Sclerotinia trifoliorum and Sclerotium rolfsii are pathogens for which similar mechanisms of parasitism have been proposed. This suggested that resistance to these pathogens may be related in a common host plant. This study was undertaken to determine whether selection for quantitative resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum in alfalfa also increases resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii as expressed in excised leaf tissues and whole plants. Resistance in excised leaf tissues was evaluated according to the rate of necrosis induced by Sclerotium rolfsii following inoculation with mycelium. Resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in whole plants was evaluated according to their survival following crown inoculations. Three alfalfa populations previously selected from cv. Delta for quantitative resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum exhibited enhanced resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii, in comparison with Delta or with susceptible populations, in excised leaf tissues. When whole plants of Delta and two of these populations, Sclerotinia trifoliorum resistant (STR) and Mississippi Sclerotinia resistant (MSR), were inoculated with Sclerotium rolfsii at 3 to 8 weeks of age, significant (P = 0.01) differences in survival were attributed to plant age at inoculation and alfalfa populations. Survival of both MSR and STR was significantly (P = 0.05) greater than for Delta; the best differential results were obtained by inoculating plants 5 to 7 weeks old. To evaluate relationships of resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum and Sclerotium rolfsii over a broader genetic background, additional populations were selected for resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum from four other alfalfa cultivars by leaf-inoculation techniques, and this resistance was confirmed by whole-plant inoculations. In excised leaf tissues, all four of these populations also expressed enhanced resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in comparison with either parent cultivars or populations of comparable size selected at random

  10. The effects of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraie, Esmaiel; Farsani, Masome Khosravi; Sadeghi, Leila; Khan, Tayaba Naim; Adavi, Zohrab

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder that is specified by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The use of nonpharmacological treatments (herbal agents) is a new approach in the management of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of alfalfa on blood glucose and serum lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In this study, 32 female rats (210–250 g) were used which were divided randomly into 4 groups including intact control group, diabetic control group, and 2 diabetic groups which received 250 and 500 mg/kg doses of aqueous extract of alfalfa, respectively. In the diabetic groups, alloxan-monohydrate was injected peritoneally to create diabetic condition. The two last groups orally received aqueous extract of alfalfa for 21 days. At the end of experiment, sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured in the samples. Consumption of aqueous alfalfa extract significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in the diabetic rats but enhanced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. ALT and AST liver enzyme levels were also reduced in blood. Histological examination showed that the aqueous alfalfa extract caused reconstruction of damaged liver and enhanced Langerhans islets’ diameter in pancreas. Therefore, all signs of diabetes were improved by oral administration of alfalfa in defined dose. PMID:26525173

  11. Effects of Herbivore Stress by Acyrthosiphon pisum on the Contents of Tannin and Physiological Activity in Different Alfalfa Cultivars%豌豆蚜刺吸胁迫对不同苜蓿品种体内单宁含量及生理活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武德功; 王森山; 刘长仲; 胡桂馨; 杜军利; 贺春贵

    2011-01-01

    It is necessary to study the relationship between aphid stress and physiological activity in different alfalfa yarieties for breeding of resistant alfalfa varieties and sustainable control of aphids. The dynamics of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Tannin contents and the activities of protective enzymes (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD)) were studied in the leaves of four alfalfa cultivars, Gannong No. 5 (G5), Gannong No. 3 (G3), Gloden Empress (JH), and Hunter River (Hu), infested by pea aphid,Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. Results show that the MDA contents of resistant variety (G5) were lower than that of the susceptible variety (Hu) and low resistant varieties (G3) when their leaves were piercingsucked by the aphid. The Tannin contents of resistant variety (G5) and the susceptible variety (Hu) were lower than that of the low resistant ones (G3 and JH), While the SOD and POD activities in the susceptible variety (Hu) appeared lower than that of the resistant variety (G5) and low resistant varieties (G3,JH). Throughout the period of aphid attacks, the activities of SOD and POD of all varieties rose initially then declined, whereas the dynamics of MDA and Tannin contents of four alfalfa cultivars were irregular.Therefore, under the aphid stress, the contents of MDA and the activity of SOD, POD in susceptible, low resistant and resistant varieties are closely related to the aphid-resistance of alfalfa. These biochemical markers may be used as physiological indices for aphid-resistance appraisal. However, the relationship between Tannin contents and aphid-resistance of alfalfa requires further research.%通过对甘农5号(G5)、甘农3号(G3)、金皇后(JH)和猎人河(Hu)4种不同抗蚜苜蓿(Medicago sativa L.)品种受豌豆蚜(Acyrthosiphon pisum)胁迫后其叶片内丙二醛(MDA)和单宁含量及防御性酶(超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD))活性的动态变化研究,以期明确各项生理指标与抗虫性之间的关系.结果表

  12. Modelling the Crop Variety Demand of Semi-subsistence Households: Bananas in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Edmeades, Svetlana; Phaneuf, Daniel J.; Smale, Melinda; Renkow, Mitch

    2008-01-01

    We propose an approach to model the derived demand for crop varieties among semi-subsistence farmers in a developing economy, and apply it to smallholder banana producers in Uganda. We model variety planting decisions as being composed of an extensive margin decision to grow a subset of locally available varieties (variety choice); and an intensive margin decision about the scale or extent of variety cultivation per farm (variety demand). We estimate variety demand equations using a more comp...

  13. Soil moisture consumption and ecological effects in alfalfa grasslands in Longdong area of Loess Plateau%陇东黄土高原苜蓿草地土壤水分消耗及水分生态效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡守林; 贾志宽; 万素梅

    2009-01-01

    Soil desiccation is the most serious problem, which leads to widespread land degradation in the Loess Plateau of China. Hence, it has important theoretical significance to study the consumption patterns of soil moisture in alfalfa grasslands so as to realize sustainable agricultural development and ecological environment rehabilitation in the entire Loess Plateau. Changes of soil moisture characteristics in 0-1000 cm soil and the effects on ecological environment of soil moisture in alfalfa grasslands were investigated. The results showed that: (1) In 0-1000 cm soil, the grasslands with alfalfa growing for four years, six years had the best soil moisture conditions, while the grasslands with alfalfa growing for twelve years, eighteen years and twenty-six years had the poorest soil moisture conditions. (2) In the Loess Plateau, emerging regional and extent of dry soil layer differed in alfalfa grasslands. (3) The grasslands with alfalfa growing for four years, six years and eight years did not produced unfavorable impacts on ecological environments of soil moisture, but the grasslands with alfalfa growing for twelve years, eighteen years and twenty six years had a profound negative impact on ecological environments of soil moisture. The study considered that in Longdong Loess Plateau, grass-crop rotation should be practiced to recover soil moisture so as continue to raise land productivity, after alfalfa grew for more than six years.%黄土高原地区土壤干化导致林草植被大面积衰退,研究苜蓿草地土壤水分消耗规律对该区农业持续发展及生态环境恢复具有重要的理论意义.该文研究了黄土高原地区不同生长年限苜蓿草地1 000 cm土层土壤水分的变化特征及其对土壤水分生态环境的影响.结果表明:在0~1 000 cm土层,4年、6年生苜蓿草地土壤水分条件最好;12年、18年、26年生苜蓿草地土壤水分条件最差.在黄土高原地区,苜蓿地土壤干层出现的

  14. Identification of the Changing Educational Needs of Midwives in Developing New Dimensions of Care in a Variety of Settings and the Development of an Educational Package To Meet These Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Rosemary; And Others

    The changing educational needs of midwives in England were assessed, and an open learning package for midwives was developed based on the findings. Data were collected from the following: questionnaires mailed to 1,100 registered midwives (70% response rate), all 205 coordinating supervisors of midwives in England (83% response rate); 1 randomly…

  15. Best Phd thesis Prize: Statistical analysis of ALFALFA galaxies: insights in galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergis, E.

    2013-09-01

    We use the rich dataset of local universe galaxies detected by the ALFALFA 21cm survey to study the statistical properties of gas-bearing galaxies. In particular, we measure the number density of galaxies as a function of their baryonic mass ("baryonic mass function") and rotational velocity ("velocity width function"), and we characterize their clustering properties ("two-point correlation function"). These statistical distributions are determined by both the properties of dark matter on small scales, as well as by the complex baryonic processes through which galaxies form over cosmic time. We interpret the ALFALFA measurements with the aid of publicly available cosmological N-body simulations and we present some key results related to galaxy formation and small-scale cosmology.

  16. [Molecular identification of intergeneric somatic hybrid plants between alfalfa and sainfoin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z Q; Jia, J F

    2000-03-01

    Somatic hybrid plants between alfalfa and sainfoin were regenerated by protoplast fusion and culture. DNA samples of the hybrid plants, hydroxyproline-resistant sainfoin plants, alfalfa cell line transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens 702 were isolated with a new and simple method. The hybridity was identified by random amplified polymorphic DNAs and Southern hybridization. Significant differences can be seen in the sequences amplified, which are specific for each parent/primer combination under the amplification conditions used. In 20 random oligonucleotide primers used, six could amplified more DNA fragments and had better polymorphisms. The results suggested that besides containing nuclear substances of two parents, the hybrid genome was inclined to eliminate sainfoin chromosome with DNA reconstruction. However, the somatic genome also could produce the sainfoin-specified DNA fragments which further confirmed by Southern hybridization. The hybrids were asymmetric and had certain regeneration ability just because the intervention of sainfoin DNA. PMID:10976321

  17. Cofolding organizes alfalfa mosaic virus RNA and coat protein for replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guogas, Laura M; Filman, David J; Hogle, James M; Gehrke, Lee

    2004-12-17

    Alfalfa mosaic virus genomic RNAs are infectious only when the viral coat protein binds to the RNA 3' termini. The crystal structure of an alfalfa mosaic virus RNA-peptide complex reveals that conserved AUGC repeats and Pro-Thr-x-Arg-Ser-x-x-Tyr coat protein amino acids cofold upon interacting. Alternating AUGC residues have opposite orientation, and they base pair in different adjacent duplexes. Localized RNA backbone reversals stabilized by arginine-guanine interactions place the adenosines and guanines in reverse order in the duplex. The results suggest that a uniform, organized 3' conformation, similar to that found on viral RNAs with transfer RNA-like ends, may be essential for replication. PMID:15604410

  18. ALFALFA HI Content and Star Formation in Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Koopmann, R A; Haynes, M P; Brosch, N

    2009-01-01

    The ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) blind survey is providing a census of HI in galaxies of all types in a range of environments. Here we report on ALFALFA results for Virgo Cluster early-type dwarfs between declinations of 4 and 16 degrees. Less than 2% of the Virgo early-type dwarf population is detected, compared to 70-80% of the Im/BCD dwarf population. Most of the dwarfs detected in HI show evidence for ongoing or recent star formation. Early-type galaxies with HI tend to be located in the outer regions of the cluster and to be brighter. Early-type dwarfs with HI may be undergoing morphological transition due to cluster environmental effects.

  19. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  20. Algebra-Geometry of Piecewise Algebraic Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Gang ZHU; Ren Hong WANG

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic variety is the most important subject in classical algebraic geometry.As the zero set of multivariate splines,the piecewise algebraic variety is a kind generalization of the classical algebraic variety.This paper studies the correspondence between spline ideals and piecewise algebraic varieties based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry and multivariate splines.

  1. Which algebraic groups are Picard varieties?

    OpenAIRE

    Brion, Michel

    2013-01-01

    We show that every connected commutative algebraic group over an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0 is the Picard variety of some projective variety, obtained by pinching a smooth variety along a finite subscheme. In contrast, no Witt group of dimension at least 3 over a perfect field of prime characteristic is isogenous to the Picard variety obtained by this construction.

  2. Assortment Variety : Attribute versus Product-Based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, H.W.I.; Pieters, R.

    2000-01-01

    Retailers need to decide on the content and structure of their product assortments, and thereby on the degree of variety that they offer to their customers.This paper compares measures of assortment variety and relates them to underlying variety components.We conceptualize assortment variety from a

  3. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  4. Effect of Deposition from Static Test Fires on Corn and Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Mendenhall, Scout

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of deposition from static rocket test fires on corn and alfalfa. Seeds were germinated in a wide concentration range of depositional material, called test fire soil (TFS). Additionally, the impact of chloride and aluminum, two major components of test fire soil, on germination was also evaluated. Furthermore, plants were grown in packed columns and exposed to test fire soil, either in the root zone or on foliage. Tissue was weighed and...

  5. Effect of Depostition From Static Rocket Test Fires on Corn and Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Mendenhall, Scout

    2012-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of deposition from static rocket test fires on corn and alfalfa. Seeds were germinated in a wide concentration range of depositional material, called test fire soil (TFS). Additionally, the impact of chloride and aluminum, two major components of test fire soil, on germination was also evaluated. Furthermore, plants were grown in packed columns and exposed to test fire soil, either in the root zone or on foliage. Tissue was weighed and...

  6. The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Survey: An Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael; Craig, David; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way's position in an outer filament of Lanieakea affords us a striking view of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (PPS) arcing roughly from 22h to 4h and 0° to +50° concentrated between cz = 4,000 km/s and cz = 8,000 km/s as a "wall" parallel to the plane of the sky. It is bounded by voids both between Laniakea and PPS and beyond PPS. Within this box, the 70% ALFALFA survey has detected 4,800 galaxies within cz = 8,000 km/s. Of these, 80% have masses greater than 108 M⊙. At the distance of the PPS, galaxies with MHI ≤ 108 M⊙ are below the ALFALFA detection limit. Thus to further explore this rich diversity of galaxy environments and the adjoining voids, the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team is in the process of using the L-band Wide receiver at Arecibo Observatory for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS). We will observe galaxies with 108 M⊙ ≤ MHI ≤ 109 M⊙ chosen from the SDSS DR12 and GALEX catalogs. We are limiting our observations to the PPS ridge in 21h 30m to 3h 15m and 23° to 35°. Since this region lacks SDSS spectroscopy, targets have been selected using photometric criteria derived from SDSS and GALEX observations for galaxies detected by ALFALFA. The results of these observations will allow us to constrain the HI mass function along the PPS ridge. Application of the Tully-Fisher relation will allow a robust measure of the infall velocities of galaxies into the filament. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  7. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, �Seyah-Roud�, �Ahar-Hourand�, �Oskou�, �Malekan� and �Sefida-Khan� were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and �Sefida-Khan� had comparatively less sodium contents than �Oskou�, �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes �Malekan�, Ahar- Hourand and �Oskou� were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes �Malekan� and �Ahar-Hourand� were better.

  8. Bioassay for Detection of Dichlorvos Insecticide in Air in Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile Rotundata F.) Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy John R.; Kevan Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorvos is an insecticide used in slow-release plastic strips for controlling chalcid wasp parasites, such as Pteromalus venustus Walker, in incubators used to raise alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata F.). Beekeepers need a practical method to detect dichlorvos in air and verify that it has dissipated to levels acceptable for worker re-entry and for the bees to emerge. We evaluated three methods for analysis of the dichlorvos concentration in air. Vapor sampling tubes using a ma...

  9. Economic evaluation of biological rodent control using barn owls Tyto alba in alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Motro, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Rodents are common pests in various agricultural cultivations. Utilization of barn owls for rodent pest control has long been used. In Israel, the indirect effect of barn owl predation pressure on alfalfa crop yield has been examined. Using radio-telemetry, barn owls were tracked to form a density-distance function, which was later used to estimate predation pressure on whole fields. This function was utilized on all barn owls nesting in the vicinity to assess accumulated predation pressure o...

  10. Activity screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from alfalfa rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    shahla pashapour; Hossein besharati; Mahmoud rezazadeh; Ahmad Alimadadi; Nadergholi Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Some rhizobacteria by various mechanisms influence plant growth as they are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Scientists identified some PGPR characters involved in promoting plant growth, while all these characters are not able to study. The aim of this study was to evaluate PGP activities of bacterial isolates, (45 isolates belonged to rhizobium and 2 bacterial isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescens), which were isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) r...

  11. Familial varieties of primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowasser, M; Gunasekera, T G; Gordon, R D

    2001-12-01

    1. Improved approaches to screening and diagnosis have revealed primary aldosteronism (PAL) to be much more common than previously thought, with most patients normokalaemic. The spectrum of this disorder has been further broadened by the study of familial varieties. 2. Familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH-I) is a glucocorticoid-remediable form of PAL caused by the inheritance of an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- regulated, hybrid CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene. Diagnosis has been greatly facilitated by the advent of genetic testing. The severity of hypertension varies widely in FH-I, even among members of the same family, and has demonstrated relationships with gender, degree of biochemical disturbance and hybrid gene crossover point position. Hormone "day curve" studies show that the hybrid gene dominates over wild-type CYP11B2 in terms of aldosterone regulation. This may be due, in part, to a defect in wild-type CYP11B2-induced aldosterone production. Control of hypertension in FH-I requires only partial suppression of ACTH and much smaller glucocorticoid doses than previously recommended. 3. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II (FH-II) is not glucocorticoid remediable and is not associated with the hybrid gene mutation. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II is clinically, biochemically and morphologically indistinguishable from apparently non-familial PAL. Linkage studies in one informative family did not show segregation of FH-II with the CYP11B2, AT1 or MEN1 genes, but a genome-wide search has revealed linkage with a locus in chromosome 7. As has already occurred in FH-I, elucidation of causative mutations is likely to facilitate earlier detection of PAL. PMID:11903322

  12. Correlations between environmental factors and wild bee behavior on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Hongping; Li, Xiaoxia; Song, Yu; Chen, Li; Jin, Liang

    2009-10-01

    To discover the effect of environmental factors on pollinator visitation to flowering Medicago sativa, several field experiments were designed to examine the diurnal movement patterns of wild bee species in the Hexi Corridor of northwestern China. Our study results showed that Megachile abluta, M. spissula, and Xylocopa valga showed unimodal diurnal foraging behavior, whereas Andrena parvula and Anthophora melanognatha showed bimodal diurnal foraging behavior. Correlation analysis indicated that diurnal foraging activities of pollinators were significantly correlated with environmental factors. Correlations of foraging activities versus environmental factors for M. abluta, M. spissula, and X. valga best fit a linear model, whereas those of A. parvula and A. melanognatha best fit a parallel quadratic model. Results of this study indicated that solitary wild bees such as M. abluta, M. spissula, X. valga, A. parvula, and A. melanognatha are potential alfalfa pollinators in the Hexi Corridor. An understanding of the environmental factors that affect the behaviors of different wild bees foraging in alfalfa are basic to the utilization of solitary wild bees in a practical way for increased, or more consistent, pollination of alfalfa for seed production. PMID:19825303

  13. Emergence success and sex ratio of commercial alfalfa leafcutting bees from the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; James, Rosalind R

    2005-12-01

    Samples of overwintering alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), cells were sent to the laboratory as loose cells or in nesting boards from bee managers in the United States and in Canada. X-radiographs of cells were used for determining cell contents. Cells containing live prepupae were incubated, and the sex of emerging adults was recorded daily. Cells from which no adult emerged were dissected to determine the developmental stage of dead bees and sex of dead pupae or adults. Bee cells incubated in commercial settings and placed in alfalfa fields by the same bee managers described above also were evaluated to determine adult emergence success. The proportion of live bees in wood nesting boards from the United States was much lower than the live proportion in polystyrene nesting boards from Canada and loose cells overwintered in the United States. For laboratory-incubated loose cells, survival and sex ratios of bees from Canadian sources were statistically higher than those of U.S. bees, but the onset and duration of emergence times were similar. Fewer bees survived in the commercial setting than in the laboratory. Prepupal mortality was significantly higher than pupal or adult mortality, but there was no significant difference between the sexes in the likelihood of survival during incubation. This study supports the commonly held belief that alfalfa leafcutting bees raised in Canada and then sold to the United States represent a more viable source of bees than most bees produced in the United States. PMID:16539094

  14. Evaluation of some weed extracts against field dodder on alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, S A; Rahman, A A

    1988-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of some weed extracts against field dodderCuscuta campestris Yunck. on alfalfa (Medicago stiva L.) and to identify and quantify the phytotoxic agents of these extracts. All concentrations of aqueous extract of every weed showed significant effectiveness on dodder when compared to the untreated plant under lath house and field conditions. Control percentages of the (0.5 g) of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and wall goosefoot (Chenopodium murale) ranged between 83 and 96, and the same concentration caused injury to alfalfa foliage up to 43% when applied in the field. Phytotoxic agents were identified as phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic, isochlorogenic,p-coumaric acids, and scopoletin. Their quantities varied with species; Bermuda grass had the highest content (32.2 μg/g dry weight) followed by Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), well goosefoot, and tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus). These results might aid in screening for effective alternate approaches for controlling dodder on alfalfa planted for seeds.

  15. Inactivation of Human Norovirus and Its Surrogates on Alfalfa Seeds by Aqueous Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Markland, Sarah; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2015-08-01

    Alfalfa sprouts have been associated with numerous foodborne outbreaks. Previous studies investigated the effectiveness of aqueous ozone on bacterially contaminated seeds, yet little is known about the response of human norovirus (huNoV). This study assessed aqueous ozone for the disinfection of alfalfa seeds contaminated with huNoV and its surrogates. The inactivation of viruses without a food matrix was also investigated. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with huNoV genogroup II, Tulane virus (TV), and murine norovirus (MNV); viruses alone or inoculated on seeds were treated in deionized water containing 6.25 ppm of aqueous ozone with agitation at 22°C for 0.5, 1, 5, 15, or 30 min. The data showed that aqueous ozone resulted in reductions of MNV and TV infectivity from 1.66 ± 1.11 to 5.60 ± 1.11 log PFU/g seeds; for all treatment times, significantly higher reductions were observed for MNV (P water was similar to that of huNoV, whereas MNV had significantly greater reductions in genomic copies (P ozone-treated viruses alone, with significantly higher levels of inactivation (P ozone indicates that ozone may be a plausible substitute for chlorine as an alternative treatment for seeds. The behavior of TV was similar to that of huNoV, which makes it a promising surrogate for these types of scenarios.

  16. Mycopopulations of alfalfa silage with particular review on toxigenic Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of alfalfa samples (initial not fermented plant material, as well as silage obtained from unfaded and faded state of the same were performed during the year 2003. Total of 14 fungal species, included in 11 genera, were identified during the present study. The most frequent moulds were Chaetomium piluliferum and their anamorph Botryotrichum piluliferum (83.3% and 66.7% respectively. Potentially toxigenic Fusarium spp. (F. culmorum, F. semitectum and F. sporotrichioides were observed less frequently (from 16.7% to 33.0% and only on initial not fermented alfalfa. From the sample of alfalfa faded state contaminated with 0.25 mg/kg of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS and 1.28 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEA F. semitectum SL-B was isolated. The production of fusariotoxins by this strain was later on tested in vitro conditions. Different aeration treatments in semisynthetic medium with glucose (GPK or sucrose (SPK, as well as cultivation on sterilized corn kernels (moisture content 47% were used. The highest yield of DAS (64.0 mg/l was obtained during submerged cultivation of F. semitectum SL-B in GPK (210 rpms, 3 days room temperature. Production of T-2 toxin, but rather poor (0.08 mg/1, was detected only in SPK (150 rpms, 3 days, room temperature. ZEA was found exclusively after 25 days of cultivation on corn kernels at room temperature (21-25°C.

  17. Simple MCA supports a variety of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greatly enhanced version of the Violinist I, Simple Multichannel analyzer has been developed at Los Alamos. The new instrument includes a more powerful microprocessor, more memory, and a sophisticated set of I/O devices. The combination of these features allow the same basic electronics package to function in a variety of smart sophisticated monitoring instruments. Only the packaging, detector, and software need be changed to change the instrument from a field survey instrument for Pu contamination to a continuous air monitor to a neutron dosimeter. This instrument should spawn a new generation of user-friendly, highly effective instrumentation

  18. Doubly indexed flag variety and fixed point set of a partial flag variety

    OpenAIRE

    FRESSE, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    We define a variety of doubly indexed flags, this is a smooth, projective variety, and we describe it as an iterated over Grassmannian varieties. On the other hand, we consider the variety of partial flags which are stabilized by a given nilpotent endomorphism. We partition this variety into locally closed subvarieties which are vector bundles over varieties of the aforedmentioned type.

  19. Addition of fructooligosaccharides and alfalfa hay to the diet of weaned piglets on the microbiota and the small intestine morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Enrique Lemos Budiño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to verify the effect of the fructooligossaccharide prebiotic (FOS addition in the diet containing varying levels of alfalfa hay, on the microbiology and intestinal morphology of weaned piglets. It was used 72 piglets, crossed, both sexes, with initial weight of 5.95 ± 0.73 Kg, with approximate age of 21 days. It was evaluated the treatment: T1 – Basal feed + 0% FOS; T2 – Basal feed + 0.3% FOS; T3 – Feed with 5% of alfalfa + 0% FOS; T4 – Feed with 5% of alfalfa + 0.3% FOS; T5 – Feed with 10% of alfalfa + 0% FOS; Feed with 10% of alfalfa + 0.3% FOS. In the end of the experimental period one piglet of each replication was slaughtered for the collection of sample aiming to analyze Salmonela sp. and coliformes and intestinal morphology (height of villus and depht of crypt. The analysis for coliformes didn’t show statistic difference among the levels of FOS and alfalfa hay. It wasn’t find Salmonella sp. colonies in the samples. No difference was observe in the crypt depht (P>0.05 among the treatments. The height of villus and the relation of height of villus per depht of crypt, the group without the addition of FOS didn’t show difference (P>0.05, however, the group supplemented with 0.3% of FOS showed a significant improvement (P<0.05 related to levels of 5% and 10% of alfalfa. There was no influence of treatment on the presence of Salmonella sp. and E. Coli. Regarding intestinal morphology data for villus height and villus height ratio/crypt depth showed the best results in the presence of FOS.

  20. Integration of optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to differentiate grassland and alfalfa in Prairie area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gang; Zhang, Aining; Zhou, Fuqun; Brisco, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Alfalfa presents a huge potential biofuel source in the Prairie Provinces of Canada. However, it remains a challenge to find an ideal single satellite sensor to monitor the regional spatial distribution of alfalfa on an annual basis. The primary interest of this study is to identify alfalfa spatial distribution through effectively differentiating alfalfa from grasslands, given their spectral similarity and same growth calendars. MODIS and RADARSAT-2 ScanSAR narrow mode were selected for regional-level grassland and alfalfa differentiation in the Prairie Provinces, due to the high frequency revisit of MODIS, the weather independence of ScanSAR as well as the large area coverage and the complementary characteristics SAR and optical images. Combining MODIS and ScanSAR in differentiating alfalfa and grassland is very challenging, since there is a large spatial resolution difference between MODIS (250 m) and ScanSAR narrow (50 m). This study investigated an innovative image fusion technique for combining MODIS and ScanSAR and obtaining a synthetic image which has the high spatial details derived from ScanSAR and the colour information from MODIS. The field trip was arranged to collect ground truth to label and validate the classification results. The fusion classification result shows significant accuracy improvement when compared with either ScanSAR or MODIS alone or with other commonly-used data combination methods, such as multiple files composites. This study has shown that the image fusion technique used in this study can combine the structural information from high resolution ScanSAR and colour information from MODIS to significantly improve the classification accuracy between alfalfa and grassland.

  1. Ukrainian Market of Varieties: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Motnch.).

    OpenAIRE

    Безручко, О. І.

    2011-01-01

    Directions of use for valuable groat crop, buckwheat, its genesis and history in Ukraine, regions of cultivation, requirements to development of new varieties and economical expediency of their growth are highlighted. Description is also provided for the. Buckwheat verities with Official Description, which are listed in the StateRegister of Varieties Suitable for Dissemi nation in Ukraine in 2010.

  2. Assessment of wheat variety distinctness using SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-xin; QIU Jun; CHANG Li-fang; LIU Li-hua; LI Hong-bo; PANG Bin-shuang; ZHAO Chang-ping

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of variety distinctness is important for both the registration and the protection of particular variety. However, the current testing system, which assesses a range of morphological characters of each pair of varieties grown side-by-side, is time-consuming and is not suitable for the assessment of hundreds of samples. The objective of this study was to develop a procedure for the assessment of wheat variety distinctness using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A comparison between the molecular and morphological proifle of 797 varieties was made. On the basis of the comparison, pairs of va-rieties with a genetic similarity value (GSV) ≤90% were deemed to be distinct, accounting for ~85% of varieties assessed in wheat regional trials. For the remaining ~15% of varieties, GSVs between different varieties were >90%, among which ~35% were not distinct and the other ~65% were distinct. Therefore, if given a GSV>90%, the pairs of varieties should be morphologicaly assessed in the ifeld. To avoid any errors in the assessments, we proposed the elimination of contaminant plants from the sample before comparing the varietal genotypes, scoring of the genotype at each locus with a pair of alele numbers when constructing a molecular proifle, and faithfuly recording two aleles at a non-homozygous locus. To reduce the workload and cost, a three-grade markers comparison among varieties is suggested. In addition, 80 SSR markers and a technical procedure for assessment of wheat variety distinctness have been proposed. Based on the procedure, the distinctness assessment of ~85% of al wheat varieties is completed in our laboratory annualy. Consequently, total ifeld assessment has been reduced considerably.

  3. The effect of dietary alfalfa meal on the chicken meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tkáčová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of feed mixtures with proportion of alflafa meal 4% on body weight of broiler chickens, fat content their meat and oxidative stability meat fat under storage conditions. Final hybrid Cobb 500 chickens were used in the experiment. The broiler chickens were fed with feed mixtures starter from the 1st to the 18th day, grower from the 19th to the 31st day and finisher from the 32nd to the 38th ad libitum. An alfalfa meal of 4% was added in the feed mixtures of experimental group. In our experiment, we used alfalfa meal, which was made from Medicago sativa L. harvested in the bud's phase. The carcasses of broilers were stored at -18° C for a period of nine months. The average weight of chickens at the end of our experiment, the control group was 1685.6 g. In experimental group with addition of 4% alfalfa meal in feed mixtures, the chickens weighed 1709.6 g. The difference in body weight between the groups was not statistically significant (p >0.05. The average fat content in chicken meat was lower in the group with a share of 4% alfalfa meal 2.33 g.100g-1 compared to the fat content in meat chickens control group 2.59 g.100g-1. Differences in fat content in meat between the groups were not statistically significant (p >0.05. In our experiment, the average peroxide value of fat in meat under storage conditions 9 months at -18°C was lower in the group with a share of 4% alfalfa meal 2.42 µmol O2.g-1 compared with an average value of peroxide number 5.79 µmol O2.g-1 in the control group. Medicago sativa L. is an interesting object for research. It is characterized by high content of protein and biologically active substances that are effective for the promotion of health, and also an improvement the nutritional value and technological properties of the poultry food, when is used in feed mixtures.

  4. Peanut Protein Fractions during Seed Development for Different Varieties%不同花生品种籽仁发育过程中蛋白质组分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴良香; 张岱; 闫彩霞; 陈静; 张智猛

    2011-01-01

    The albumin, globulin, gliadin, and glutenin in seeds of four peanut varieties were extracted with the sequence - progression method. The subunit constitutions of all protein fractions were analyzed by SDS - PAGE. Results :Albumin occupies dominance during the development of peanut seeds, accounting for above 70%, even up to 95%, of the total protein content. Globulin content is much lower, accounting for 3%~5% of total protein content. Gliadin content is below 3% ,and glutenin is trace. Albumin content varies significantly among different varieties, and it varies the most compared with the other three protein fractions. The bands of albumin, globulin and gliadin in SDS PAGE map are clear, while that of glutenin is vague after staining. The molecular weights of peanut protein subunits are 14.4 to 97.4 ku. Albumin possesses 10 to 12 subunits and globulin 9 to 10 subunits.%采用蛋白质组分的连续累进提取法提取4个花生品种籽仁的清蛋白、球蛋白、醇溶蛋白和谷蛋白.利用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)技术,对各蛋白组分的亚基组成进行分析.结果表明,花生籽仁发育过程中,清蛋白始终占绝对优势,占花生蛋白质总量的70%以上,最高达95%;球蛋白含量较低,仅占花生蛋白质总量的3%~5,谷蛋白含量最低,其不足3%,醇溶蛋白痕量;在4种组分中,品种之间球蛋白含量差异最大.SDS-PAGE图谱显示,染色后清蛋白、球蛋白条带清晰可见,谷蛋白条带较为模糊,清蛋白含量高,清蛋白和球蛋白成分较丰富.花生蛋白亚基分子质量在14.4~97.4 ku之间,清蛋白有10~12个亚基,球蛋白有9~10个亚基.采用连续累进提取法可将花生蛋白组分分离,利用SDS-PAGE方法可以得到花生籽仁清蛋白、球蛋白的清晰条带且多态性高,而谷蛋白条带模糊.

  5. A Model of Stochastic Variety-Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Minakshi Trivedi; Frank M. Bass; Ram C. Rao

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and test a stochastic model of consumer choice that incorporates attribute-based variety seeking. Our stochastic variety-seeking model (SVS) has nested within it a fixed variety-seeking model, a zero-order model of choice, and a first-order (“pure variety”) model. We compare the SVS model to alternative models. Under stochastic variety seeking, we examine the nature of the variety sought and provide a test of the “satiation” hypothesis. Unlike fixed variety-seeking m...

  6. Oxidative stability of chicken meat during storage influenced by the feeding of alfalfa meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tkáčová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our experiment was to determine the effect of the alfalfa meal component in feed mixtures of Ross broiler chickens on oxidative stability of meat. Proportion of alfalfa meal in feed mixtures was 4 and 6%. The results were compared to the control group without alfalfa meal in feed mixtures. At the end of the experiment (day 38, 6 pcs of broiler chickens from each group with an average live body weight over 1 800 g were randomly selected. The samples for chemical analysis consisted of identical proportion of breast and thigh muscle, and about 1 cm2 of skin with subcutaneous fat. Fat from the meat was obtained after the samples drying. A fat was determined by extraction by means of laboratory instrument Det N Gras Selecta P. The oxidative stability of meat on the basis of acid number of fat was determided by chemical analysis. Chicken meat was stored at -18 °C for 12 months and 18 months. The acid number of fat of stored meat for 12 months was 7.38 mg KOH per g in the control group, 7.42 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 4% alfalfa meal, and 11.18 mg KOH per g in the group with proportion 6% alfalfa meal. An acid number of fat of stored meat for 18 months was 5.90 mg KOH per g in the control group, 4.65 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 4% alfalfa meal, and 7.07 mg KOH per g in the group with a proportion of 6% alfalfa meal. Chicken meat is notably sensitive to lipid oxidation because of its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Legislation in Title 5 of Part 3 of the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the Government Regulation No. 286/2003 Coll. in the Annex 4 in Part B provide the requirements for animal fats and meat products. Regulation of the European Parliament and Council (EC No. 853/2004 lays down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. In particular, determination of free fatty acids content of rendered animal fat (tallow, lard, other animal fat. Legislative regulation does

  7. Comparison of gas analyzers for quantifying eddy covariance fluxes- results from an irrigated alfalfa field in Davis, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S.; Biraud, S.; Polonik, P.; Billesbach, D.; Hanson, C. V.; Bogoev, I.; Conrad, B.; Alstad, K. P.; Burba, G. G.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    The eddy covariance technique requires simultaneous, rapid measurements of wind components and scalars (e.g., water vapor, carbon dioxide) to calculate the vertical exchange due to turbulent processes. The technique has been used extensively as a non-intrusive means to quantify land-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy. A variety of sensor technologies and gas sampling designs have been tried. Gas concentrations are commonly measured using infrared or laser absorption spectroscopy. Open-path sensors directly sample the ambient environment but suffer when the sample volume is obstructed (e.g., rain, dust). Closed-path sensors utilize pumps to draw air into the analyzer through inlet tubes which can attenuate the signal. Enclosed-path sensors are a newer, hybrid of the open- and closed-path designs where the sensor is mounted in the environment and the sample is drawn through a short inlet tube with short residence time. Five gas analyzers were evaluated as part of this experiment: open-path LI-COR 7500A, enclosed-path LI-COR 7200, closed-path Picarro G2311-f, open-path Campbell Scientific IRGASON, and enclosed-path Campbell Scientific EC155. We compared the relative performance of the gas analyzers over an irrigated alfalfa field in Davis, CA. The field was host to a range of ancillary measurements including below-ground sensors, and a weighing lysimeter. The crop was flood irrigated and harvested monthly. To compare sensors, we evaluated the half-hour mean and variance of gas concentrations (or mole densities). Power spectra for the gas analyzers and turbulent fluxes (from a common sonic anemometer) were also calculated and analyzed. Eddy covariance corrections will be discussed as they relate to sensor design (e.g., density corrections, signal attenuation).

  8. Spatial density and movement of the Lygus spp. parasitoid Peristenus relictus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in organic strawberries with alfalfa trap crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Sean L; Nieto, Diego J; Pickett, Charles H; Hagler, James R; Bryer, Janet A; Machtley, Scott A

    2014-04-01

    Alfalfa trap crops are currently used to manage Lygus spp. in organic strawberry fields on the California Central Coast. The retention of Lygus spp. in alfalfa creates aggregated distributions that provide improved opportunities for biological control by the introduced parasitoid Peristenus relictus (Ruthe). The abundance and distribution of P. relictus between two trap crops separated by 50 strawberry rows were analyzed in 2008 and 2010. Parasitism of Lygus spp. nymphs by P. relictus (measured by larval abundance and % parasitism) was greatest in alfalfa trap crops compared with strawberry rows. A significantly positive correlation between host nymphs and P. relictus larvae in and between trap crops was found. Movement of P. relictus adults from a marked alfalfa trap crop into adjacent strawberry rows or trap crops was also studied in 2008 and 2009 using a chicken egg-albumin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay mark-capture technique. In 2008 and 2009, 85 and 49% of protein-marked wasps were captured from central trap crops, respectively, indicating that alfalfa trap crops act as a concentrated "host-density anchor" in organic strawberry fields. PMID:24763093

  9. Effect of absorbed dose and storage length on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal strength in irradiated alfalfa seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A kind of alfalfa seeds was irradiated by 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy at a dose rate of 6.288 kGy. h-1 in a self-shielded irradiator of 137Cs gamma rays. The EPR spectra, which were measured subsequently between 0.3401and 0.3501 T, showed that there was a direct proportional relationship between the EPR signal strength of free radicals produced by gamma irradiation in the alfalfa seeds and absorbed dose. The first derivative EPR spectra of the alfalfa seeds were very clear and easy to identify. However, the EPR signal strength of the peak-to-peak amplitude decreased rapidly and most of them decayed beyond 50% within 3 days after the seeds were irradiated. It tended to stabilize after half a month since the seeds were irradiated. The differences of the EPR signal strength between the irradiated and unirradiated alfalfa seeds still remained. All seeds were stored at ambient temperature for more than 3months. Therefore, using EPR spectrometry technique to measure free radicals in alfalfa seeds as a means to determine whether the seeds have been irradiated or not is feasible, relatively fast and simple.

  10. Effect of absorbed dose and storage length on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal strength in irradiated alfalfa seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kind of alfalfa seeds was irradiated by 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy at a dose rate of 6.288 kGy·h-1 in a self-shielded irradiator of 137Cs gamma rays. The EPR spectra, which were measured subsequently between 0.3401 and 0.3501 T, showed that there was a direct proportional relationship between the EPR signal strength of free radicals produced by gamma irradiation in the alfalfa seeds and absorbed dose. The first derivative EPR spectra of the alfalfa seeds were very clear and easy to identify. However, the EPR signal strength of the peak-to-peak amplitude decreased rapidly and most of them decayed beyond 50% within 3 days after the seeds were irradiated. It tended to stabilize after half a month since the seeds were irradiated. the differences of the EPR signal strength between the irradiated and unirradiated alfalfa seeds still remained. All seeds were stored at ambient temperature for more than 3 months. Therefore, using EPR spectrometry technique to measure free radicals in alfalfa seeds as a means to determine whether the seeds have been irradiated or not is feasible, relatively fast and simple. (authors)

  11. AFLP fingerprinting of elite varieties (clones) from the genus Populus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jianming; ZHANG Shougong; QI Liwang; ZHANG Yong; WANG Chunguo; CHEN Ruiyang; SONG Wenqin

    2007-01-01

    Accurate identification of varieties (clones) and knowledge of their genetic relationships are essential for poplar breeding and variety management.In this study,21 elite poplar varieties of Tacamahaca and Aigeiros in China were fingerprinted using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers.Four AFLP primer pairs developed generated totally 181 AFLP polymorphic fragments,and in particular,each primer pair generated fingerprint profiles specific to each of the tested varieties.The genetic relationships among the varieties were evaluated by dendrograms and multidimensional scaling (MDS).The results showed that the tested poplar can be classified into five groups,and indicated the clear separation of varieties of different sections of poplar and the primary distinction between native and exotic poplar varieties.This study indicated that tested poplar varieties could be identified by their fingerprint profiles and that genetic relationships deduced from the study were consistent with their genealogy.In addition,our results demonstrated that AFLP could be used to construct DNA fingerprints of poplar clones at a large-scale level and to determine genetic relationships of poplar varieties.

  12. Vertical Differentiation with Variety-Seeking Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Zeithammer; Raphael Thomadsen

    2013-01-01

    We analyze price and quality competition in a vertically differentiated duopoly in which consumers have a preference for variety. The preference for variety is a consequence of diminishing marginal utility for repeated experiences with the same product. We find consumer variety seeking can either soften or intensify price competition, depending on the difference in firm qualities and the strength of consumer preference for variety. When the qualities are similar (or the consumer preference fo...

  13. Higher Gauss Maps of Veronese Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    KAJI, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    The image of the higher Gauss map for a projective variety is discussed. The notion of higher Gauss maps here was introduced by Fyodor L. Zak as a generalization of both ordinary Gauss maps and conormal maps. The main result is a closed formula for the degree of those images for Veronese varieties. This yields a generalization of a classical formula by George Boole on the degree of the dual varieties of Veronese varieties.

  14. Korean Adults' Attitudes towards Varieties of English

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Soo

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates 43 Korean adults’ attitudes towards native and non-native varieties of English in relation to the perspective of EIL (English as an international language). This study addresses three research questions: 1) do Korean adults prefer certain varieties of English? 2) do Korean adults at least accept non-native varieties of English?, and 3) are Korean adults aware of different varieties of English? In order to examine participants’ language attitudes, this study employed bo...

  15. Maize variety and method of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  16. On Spinor Varieties and Their Secants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Manivel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the secant variety of the spinor variety, focusing on its equations of degree three and four. We show that in type Dn, cubic equations exist if and only if n ≥ 9. In general the ideal has generators in degrees at least three and four. Finally we observe that the other Freudenthal varieties exhibit strikingly similar behaviors.

  17. On varieties with higher osculating defect

    CERN Document Server

    De Poi, Pietro; Ilardi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, using the method of moving frames, we generalise some of Terracini's results on varieties with tangent defect. In particular, we characterise varieties with higher order osculating defect in terms of Jacobians of higher fundamental forms and moreover we characterise varieties with "small" higher fundamental forms as contained in scrolls.

  18. On Some Varieties of Soluble Lie Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN JI-ZHU; WANG CHENG-CHENG; LI HAI-LING

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study a class of soluble Lie algebras with variety relations that the commutator of m and n is zero.The aim of the paper is to consider the relationship between the Lie algebra L with the variety relations and the Lie algebra L which satisfies the permutation variety relations for the permutation φ of {3,….,k}.

  19. Lignin and Fiber digestibility in Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase Downregulated Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forages in the United States. Increasing alfalfa fiber digestibility would improve forage management and ration formulation flexibility. Currently, growers and breeders rely on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict forage quality tra...

  20. 7 CFR 202.44 - Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted for general agricultural use in the United States. 202...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT RULES OF PRACTICE Rules Applicable to Other Proceedings § 202.44 Proceedings under section 305(b) to determine whether foreign alfalfa or red clover seed is not adapted...

  1. Ten New Crop Varieties(Lines) Released Recently in HAAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Two-line Hybrid Glutinous Sorghum Xiangliangyou Nuoliang 1 It is the first two-line hybrid glutinous sorghum variety with good quality and high yield in the world developed by the Sorghum Research & Development Center,HAAS. It was appraised to release by Hunan Provincial Crop Variety Release Committee (HPCVRC) in 1996,and listed as an important achievement being popularized in the"Ninth Five-Year Plan" period in China.

  2. Unification and projectivity in Fregean varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Słomczyńska, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    In some varieties of algebras one can reduce the question of finding most general unifiers (mgus) to the problem of the existence of unifiers that fulfill the additional condition called projectivity. In this paper we study this problem for Fregean (1-regular and orderable) varieties that arise from the algebraization of fragments of intuitionistic or intermediate logics. We investigate properties of Fregean varieties, guaranteeing either for a given unifiable term or for all unifiable terms, that projective unifiers exist. We indicate the identities which fully characterize congruence permutable Fregean varieties having projective unifiers. In particular, we show that for such a variety there exists the largest subvariety that have projective unifiers.

  3. Evaluation of Supa and Salama rice mutant lines for development of a suitable rice variety as candidate to improve food security and contribute to poverty reduction among small holder rice farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice is the most preferred staple food in Zanzibar. It is grown by most household in rural areas and forms a very important crop terms of food security. The main ecology of its production is rain fed condition which is faced with so many constraints such as low yield potential (with an average yield of 1.5t/ha), weed infestations, stem bores attack, RYMV and rice blasts. The objective of this trial was to evaluate rice mutant lines to determine suitable varieties for recommendation to farmers. On-station and on-farm field experiments were conducted both in Pemba and Unguja to evaluate rice mutant materials under rain fed lowland conditions. This trial was part of rice improvement programme through IAEA/URT/5/020 project 'enhancing crop productivity through radiation technology'. Twenty-four mutant lines of Supa and Salama were obtained from Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) and were grown in the first season when twelve lines were selected for a second season evaluation. Six superior lines were then evaluated under farmers' fields in Pemba and Unguja. The results of yield and yield components showed that Supa BC line ( a back cross of mutant 100 with Supa) was the best line (p=0.05). Many farmers in the tested rice irrigated schemes are now using Supa BC as their new preferred variety even though it has not been released officially. It is therefore recommended that more sites are tried with the variety so that it can be officially released as a new variety and therefore recommended to be used nationwide.(author)

  4. [Discrimination of varieties of peony in Huangqin decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu-ming; Hao, Jin-da

    2015-11-01

    By studying the varieties of peony and analyzing the prescription of Huangqin decoction, the authors explored the differences between Paeoniae Radix Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra in varieties, origin, processing method and clinical efficacy and compare their efficacies to define Paeoniae Radix Alba or Paeoniae Radix Rubra in Huangqin decoction recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases. In the study, the authors clarified the development and change of the variety in various historical periods according to the earliest ancient herbal book recording the variety and the development sequence of main herbs, and made clear the relations between Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. The modern application of Paeoniae Radix Alba started in the Song Dynasty. Although it was processed in different ways from Paeoniae radix Rubra, they shared the same original plant varieties. On the basis of the historical origin, botanical origin, producing place and processing method, the authors made clear the evolvement of peony varieties, discussed and analyzed the developments and changes for the combined to the separate administration of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra and defined the peony variety in Huangqin decoction. Through the textual research on ancient herbal books, the authors confirmed that more than 2 000 years ago, Paeoniae Radix Alba didn't appear when Treatise on Febrile Diseases was written. According to the records in Miscellaneous Records of Famous Physicians that "its roots were collected and dried in February and August", it was inferred that the use of Paeoniae Radix Rubra conformed to the historical facts. PMID:27097432

  5. Arithmetic properties of the first secant variety to a projective variety

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeire, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Under an explicit positivity condition, we show the first secant variety of a linearly normal smooth variety is projectively normal, give results on the regularity of the ideal of the secant variety, and give conditions on the variety that are equivalent to the secant variety being arithmetically Cohen-Macaulay. Under this same condition, we then show that if $X$ satisfies $N_{p+2\\dim(X)}$, then the secant variety satisfies $N_{3,p}$.

  6. Effect of Graded Levels of Fiber from Alfalfa Meal on Nutrient Digestibility and Flow of Fattening Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2014-01-01

    The ifber level and composition have an important effect on nutrient digestibility of swine diets. Little information is known about the effects of ifber level and composition from alfalfa meal on nutrient digestibility of fattening pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of alfalfa ifber on the growth performance, intestinal nutrient lfow and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in fattening pigs. 24 barrows (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace), body weight=(60.6±0.7) kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 1 pig per replicate. The pigs were provided a control diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20%of alfalfa meal during a 14-d experiment period. Average daily gain (ADG) and the ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent ifber (NDF), acid detergent ifber (ADF) and gross energy (GE) reduced linearly as the level of alfalfa meal in the diet increased (P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both soluble and insoluble ifber intake, explained approximately 70%of the variation in the ATTD of DM, OM, NDF, and GE (P<0.01). In conclusion, alfalfa meal should be limited to less than 5%of the diet in fattening pigs to maximize growth performance and nutrient digestion. Soluble and insoluble ifber from alfalfa meal has the differential roles in nutrient digestion, which may help explain the main variation observed in nutrient digestibility. These ifndings suggest that knowledge of speciifc ifber components is necessary to accurately predict the effects of dietary ifber on nutrient digestibility.

  7. CO2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil root nodules and partitioning of 14C to the plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if nonphotosynthetic CO2 fixation by root nodules contributes carbon for the assimilation of fixed N2 in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and if assimilation products are partitioned to different plant organs. Effective alfalfa nodules excised from or attached to roots had apparent 14CO2 fixation rates of 50 to 80 μg CO2 kg-1s-1 (dry weight) at 0.0012 to 0.0038 mole fraction CO2. Nodule CO2 fixation rates increased six- to seven-fold as ambient CO2 was raised from 0.0038 to 0.0663 mole fraction. Respiration rates of nodules (3 to 4 mg CO2 kg-1s-1) were 10 to 100-fold higher than 14CO2 fixation rates of nodules. Pulse chase experiments with 14CO2 combined with nodule and xylem sap analysis demonstrated the initial products of root and nodule CO2 fixation were organic acids. However, the export of fixed 14C from effective nodules was primarily in the form of amino acids. In contrast, nodule and/or root fixed 14C in ineffectively nodulated alfalfa and denodulated effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil was transported primarily as organic acids. Aspartate, asparagine, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine were the most heavily labeled compounds in the amino acid fraction of both effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil nodules exposed to 14CO2. By contrast, asparate, asparagine, and glutamine were the predominantly labeled amino acids in xylem sap collected from nodulated effective roots exposed to 14CO2. The occurrence of nodule CO2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil and the export of fixed carbon as asparagine and aspartate to roots and shoots is consistent with a role for CO2 fixation by nodules in providing carbon skeletons for assimilation and transport of symbiotically fixed N2

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of three isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes from alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Long, Ruicai; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun; Zhang, Ze; Zhou, He; Yang, Qingchuan

    2013-02-01

    Isoprenoid is the precursor for the biosynthesis of saponins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, chlorophylls and many other products in plants. Saponins are an important group of bioactive plant natural products. The alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) saponins are glycosides of different triterpene aglycones and possess many biological activities. We isolated three genes (MsFPPS, MsGPPS and MsGGPPS) encoding isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDS) from alfalfa via a homology-based PCR approach. The enzyme activity assay of purified recombined MsFPPS and MsGGPPS expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that they all had IDS activity. Expression analysis of the three genes in different alfalfa tissues using real time PCR displayed that they were expressed in all tissues although they had a different expression patterns. MsFPPS and MsGPS displayed a significant increase in transcript level in response to methyl jasmonate, but the transcript level of MsGGPPS decreased obviously. To elucidate the functions of the three IDSs, their overexpression driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco plants was applied and analyzed. The T(0) transgenic plants of MsFPPS showed high levels of squalene content when compared with control. However, no differences were detected in T(0) transgenic plants of MsGPPS and MsGGPPS. In addition, the overexpression of MsFPPS induced senescence response in transgenic plant leaves. This result may indicate that MsFPPS performs a role not only in phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis, but also in growth regulation. PMID:23238915

  9. ‘七月鲜’苹果不同着色度果实主要组成成分及其变化%Composition and changes of fruit main components during fruit developments of apple variety ‘ Qiyuexian'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣景宏; 王冬梅; 刘志; 伊凯; 吕德国

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study is to determine the appropriate harvest time for ‘Qiyuexian'. [Method] Fruits with different shade of skin colour were used to investigate the dynamic changes in the fruit composition during its development. [Result]The results showed that there was not obvious difference in average single fruit weight and fruit shape index among green-ripe, commercial-ripe and full ripe fruit, but the soluble solids, total sugar, tannin, and anthocyanin contents were significantly higher while the fruit firmness and titratable acid content decreased significantly as the fruit was getting ripe. Fruit respiratory rate at the green ripe stage and full ripe stage was low, and reached the highest at the commercial ripe stage. There were 53 kinds of aroma components detected, mainly esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes, and benzene, and the characteristic aroma components were butanoic acid ethyl ester, butanoic acid-2- methyl-ethyl ester, hexanoic acid ethyl ester, propanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl alcohol, styrene, 3-methyl- 4-oxo-Pentanoic acid, toluene, o-xylene and ethylbenzene. [Conclusion]‘Qiyuexian' is a ester aroma variety and the optimum harvest time for it is at commercial-riDe state.%【目的】为了确定‘七月鲜’苹果的最佳采收时期,【方法】以该品种不同着色度果实为试材,通过室内测定研究了果实主要组成成分在果实发育过程的变化动态。【结果】结果表明,绿熟、商熟、完熟3种成熟度果实的平均单果质量、果形指数差异不明显,随果实成熟,可溶性固形物含量、总糖含量、单宁含量、果皮花青苷含量显著升高.果肉硬度、可滴定酸含量显著下降;果实呼吸速率在绿熟期和完熟期较低,商熟期达到最高。主要香气成分为酯类、醇类、醛类、酮类、萜烯类和苯类;特征香气成分为丁酸乙酯、2一甲基丁酸乙酯、已酸乙酯、丙酸乙酯、乙醇、苯乙烯、3

  10. The Determinants of Plant Variety Protection Applications in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ruifa; Huang Jie; Carl Prày; Huang Jikun

    2007-01-01

    China passed its Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) in 1997 which allowed us to do some initial testing of this proposition. We used a unique dataset on the applications of the new Plant Variety Protection (PVP), morphological characteristics, and institutional sources of all the important varieties of rice in three provinces of China to estimate the determinants of plant variety protection applications in China. The evidence suggests that both the government and private research programs are responding to economic and policy incentives and investing in plant variety protection as economists would expect profit maximizing firms to invest. The discussion of the evolution of the seed industry suggested that the combination of the new seed law in 2000 and the new plant variety protection regulation had changed the structure of the seed industry and provided an important incentive to invest in PVPs both by public research institutes and commercial firms. Finally, there is some preliminary evidence that private firms have smaller incentives to develop new varieties than to purchase the new varieties.

  11. Evaluation of alfalfa leaf meal for dairy cows. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akayezu, J.M.; Jorgensen, M.A.; Linn, J.G.; Jung, H.J.G. [USDA, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-10-30

    A series of laboratory tests and two feeding experiments were conducted to determine the quality and evaluate the feeding value of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) for dairy cows. An experiment was also conducted to enhance the protein value of ALM for ruminants. The fiber content of 6 different samples obtained from the processing plant from November 1996 to August 1997 were variable, ranging from 28.8 to 44.5% of DM for NDF, and from 16.0 to 28.6% of DM for ADF. Ash content ranged from 10.1 to 13.8% of the DM. The protein content of ALM was fairly constant and ranged from 21.8 to 23.6% of DM. Amino acids comprise at least 70% of the total CP in ALM, but essential amino acids comprise only about 35% of the total CP. The amino acid profile of ALM is similar to that of alfalfa hay, but markedly different from that of soybean meal. Overall, ALM produced to date is similar in nutrient content to prime alfalfa hay. In one of the feeding trials, ALM pellets were used to replace part of the hay in diets for early lactation cows. The results indicate that ALM pellets can make up as much as 16% of the diet DM in replacement of an equivalent amount of high quality chopped alfalfa hay without adverse effects on production or rumen health. In an other study, ALM replaced soybean meal to supply up to 3 3 % of the total CP in the diet without any detrimental effect on production. However, in each study, dry matter intake was reduced when ALM was included in the diet at or above 15 to 16% of the DM. Although this reduction in feed intake did not influence milk production over the short duration of these studies, it is not known what would happen if ALM was fed over long periods of time. Also, these results should not be interpreted to suggest either that ALM may used to replace all the hay in the diets or that ALM in meal form may be used to replace hay in the diets. Moreover, feed consumption by cows used in these experiments was rather high and somewhat atypical of most cows.

  12. The drying method affects the organic acid content of alfalfa forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pezzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malic acid (the main organic acid contained in alfalfa; Callaway et al., 1997 is an important metabolite for ruminal microbial population since it improves the uptake of lactic acid by Selenomonas ruminantium (Evans and Martin, 1997 and Megasphaera elsdenii (Rossi and Piva, 1999. Several studies have shown the effect of adding malic acid to the diet of steers and dairy cows on ruminal fermentation (Martin et al., 1999; Martin et al., 2000 and animal performances (Krummrey et al., 1979; Stallcup, 1979; Kung et al., 1982. Aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of drying method.......

  13. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  14. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  15. The Am Gene Controlling Resistance to Alfalfa mosaic virus in Tomato Is Located in the Cluster of Dominant Resistance Genes on Chromosome 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrella, Giuseppe; Moretti, André; Gognalons, Patrick; Lesage, Marie-Laure; Marchoux, George; Gebre-Selassie, Kashay; Caranta, Carole

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT The dominant gene Am from Lycopersicon hirsutum f. sp. glabratum PI134417 confers resistance to most strains of Alfalfa mosaic virus, including the recently identified necrotic strains. The phenotypic response includes a lack of symptom development following mechanical inoculation of leaves. To study the resistance mechanism controlled by Am, biological (back-inoculation to susceptible hosts), serological (double-antibody sandwich, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and molecular (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with specific riboprobes) methods of virus detection have been conducted on mechanically inoculated PI134417 leaves. The virus was never recovered, indicating that Am acts by an inhibition of viral accumulation during the early events of the virus life cycle. Am has been mapped genetically to the short arm of tomato chromosome 6 in the resistance hotspot, which includes the R-genes Mi and Cf-2/Cf-5 and the quantitative resistance factors Ty-1, Ol-1, and Bw-5. PMID:18944110

  16. Trade in Ideal Varieties: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    David Hummels; Volodymyr Lugovskyy

    2005-01-01

    Models with constant-elasticity of substitution (CES) preferences are commonly employed in the international trade literature because they provide a tractable way to handle product differentiation in general equilibrium. However this tractability comes at the cost of generating a set of counter-factual predictions regarding cross-country variation in export and import variety, output per variety, and prices. We examine whether a generalized version of Lancaster's 'ideal variety' model can bet...

  17. Managing product variety in quotation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bramham, Jo; MacCarthy, Bart L.; Guinery, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Manufacturers across many sectors increasingly operate in high variety environments. Research evidence suggests that variety has a negative impact on performance. However, the research literature is limited on the enablers that allow variety to be managed effectively and efficiently at the “front-end” of an organisation and in quotation processes in particular. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents case analysis of the quotation processes from manufacturers operating ...

  18. Requisite Variety, Autopoiesis, and Self-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Ashby's law of requisite variety states that a controller must have at least as much variety (complexity) as the controlled. Maturana and Varela proposed autopoiesis (self-production) to define living systems. Living systems also require to fulfill the law of requisite variety. A measure of autopoiesis has been proposed as the ratio between the complexity of a system and the complexity of its environment. Self-organization can be used as a concept to guide the design of systems towards higher...

  19. Affine Patches on Positroid Varieties and Affine Pipe Dreams (Thesis)

    CERN Document Server

    Snider, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The objects of interest in this thesis are positroid varieties in the Grassmannian, which are indexed by juggling patterns. In particular, we study affine patches on these positroid varieties. Our main result corresponds these affine patches to Kazhdan-Lusztig varieties in the affine Grassmannian. We develop a new term order and study how these spaces are related to subword complexes and Stanley-Reisner ideals. We define an extension of pipe dreams to the affine case and conclude by showing how our affine pipe dreams are generalizations of Cauchon and Le diagrams.

  20. Semi-dwarf rice varieties in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semi-dwarf rice varieties are grown extensively in California and are beginning to be adopted in the northern United States. Their background is varied. Some derive their semi-dwarf status from Asian ancestors. Use has been made of TN-1, IR8, IR659-10-8-3 and IR1318 (containing TN1). Other semi-dwarfs in California derive their short stature from induced mutants. The principal parent is Calrose 76 derived from an induced mutation in Calrose (released in 1976). The first US semi-dwarf variety was LA 110, developed at the Rice Experiment Station at Crowley, Louisiana from a cross TN-I x M4 (from Sri Lanka) released in 1974. The next group of semidwarf varieties was developed in cooperation between the California Coop. Rice Research Foundation, The California Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA Agric. Research Service. These are listed. Semidwarf long grain varieties were developed in Texas: Bellemont (1981) and Lemont (1983), both using IR659-10-8-3 as source of semidwarf culm. Two other long grain varieties Leah (1982) and Toro-2 (1984) released by the Rice Research Station in Crowley, Louisiana, derive their short stature form C19902, a line developed at Crowley, but still reaching a height of 89-94 cm. There are other short statured varieties in the US which are not truly semidwarfs, such as Bond and Newbonnet in Arkansas, Skybonnet and Pecos in Texas. The general trend is towards shorter varieties. Calrose 76 and M7 are being replaced. M-201 and L-202 are the shortest and have excellent lodging resistance. Their background is IR8 or TN1. Too short varieties like Bellemont may have seedling emergence problems. The area of cultivated varieties can only be estimated based upon seed production. According to such estimates, total rice area in California 1984 was 184,100 ha, of which 178,100 (ca. 97%) were under semidwarf varieties. The total rice area in the US 1984 was 1.139,000 ha, of which 249,500 ha or 21,9% were under semidwarf varieties. The rice

  1. Preliminary assessment of fall dormancy in 45 alfalfa cultivars%45个苜蓿品种秋眠级初步评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方珊珊; 孙启忠; 闫亚飞; 刘志英; 陶雅; 李峰

    2015-01-01

    Following the methods of Teuber and using 11 different American fall dormancy standard alfalfa cultivars as contrasts,we assessed the fall dormancy class of 45 alfalfa cultivars from the drought area of western Inner Mongolia in 2013 and 2014.We conducted a regression analysis of the relationship between fall dormancy class and natural plant height after final clipping and compared results with the 11 American cultivars.Results showed that natural plant height at 21 days after autumn clipping and fall dormancy class had a linear relationship with R 2 of 0.9643 and 0.9867 respectively.Analysis showed that the correlation coefficient between actual fall dormancy class and the 11 comparator varieties is 0.994.The correlation coefficient for 13 known fall dormancy introduced varieties is 0.969.Cluster analysis showed that 90% of 21 domestic alfalfa cultivars are either dormant or highly dormant types.The actual fall dormancy classes of Yumu No.1, Gannong No.5 and Liangmu No.1 were 6.8,7.4 and 8.5,indicating that they belong to the non-dormant type.%以美国11个苜蓿秋眠性标准品种为对照,依据 Teuber 等方法连续两年(2013年和2014年)在内蒙古西部干旱地区评定国内和国外引进的共45个苜蓿品种的秋眠级,建立了11个标准品种秋眠级与秋季再生株高的回归关系。结果表明,苜蓿秋季刈割后第21天的再生自然株高与原秋眠级存在真实的线性回归关系,R 2分别为0.9643和0.9867。相关性分析表明,11个标准对照品种的实际秋眠级与原秋眠级之间相关系数为0.994,存在极显著正相关;13个已知原秋眠级的引进品种的实际秋眠级与原秋眠级之间的相关系数为0.969,存在显著正相关。聚类分析表明,21个国内苜蓿品种中90%的为秋眠和极秋眠类型,其中渝苜1号、甘农5号和凉苜1号实际秋眠级评定结果分别为6.8,7.4和8.5,属于非秋眠类型,国外引进品种秋眠类

  2. Impact of disinfecting nesting boards on chalkbrood control in the alfalfa leafcutting bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R R

    2005-08-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), is a solitary, cavity-nesting bee that has been managed in large numbers to pollinate alfalfa, Medicago spp., seed crops since the 1960s. Propagation of these bees from 1 yr to the next has been seriously hampered by chalkbrood, a larval disease caused by the fungus Ascosphaera aggregata Skou. In the United States, attempts to control the disease have been fairly unsuccessful, but include removing nests from the nesting boards and then disinfecting the boards with heat treatments or a fumigant. The problem is that many boards are made of polystyrene (so heat cannot be used), and very few fumigants are registered for this use. In this study, ozone was tested as a fumigant and compared with heat treatments and methyl bromide fumigation. Ozone was found to be inadequate for killing A. aggregata spores and for reducing chalkbrood levels in the field. Methyl bromide and heat treatments did greatly reduce spore viability in the boards, but did not reduce chalkbrood levels in the field. Surprisingly, larvae in new nesting boards (boards free of contamination) and chalkbrood infection levels were similar to those from nests in contaminated, used boards. Disinfecting nesting boards may be necessary for controlling chalkbrood, but the results reported here indicate that it is not sufficient in and of itself. Some other source of spores was present in the field that was greater than the effect of contamination from the boards, but the source still needs to be determined. PMID:16156558

  3. Prediction of MHC binding peptides and epitopes from alfalfa mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomase, Virendra S; Kale, Karbhari V; Chikhale, Nandkishor J; Changbhale, Smruti S

    2007-08-01

    Peptide fragments from alfalfa mosaic virus involved multiple antigenic components directing and empowering the immune system to protect the host from infection. MHC molecules are cell surface proteins, which take active part in host immune reactions and involvement of MHC class-I & II in response to almost all antigens. Coat protein of alfalfa mosaic virus contains 221 aa residues. Analysis found five MHC ligands in coat protein as 64-LSSFNGLGV-72; 86- RILEEDLIY-94; 96-MVFSITPSY-104; 100- ITPSYAGTF-108; 110- LTDDVTTED-118; having rescaled binding affinity and c-terminal cleavage affinity more than 0.5. The predicted binding affinity is normalized by the 1% fractil. The MHC peptide binding is predicted using neural networks trained on c-terminals of known epitopes. In analysis predicted MHC/peptide binding is a log transformed value related to the IC50 values in nM units. Total numbers of peptides found are 213. Predicted MHC binding regions act like red flags for antigen specific and generate immune response against the parent antigen. So a small fragment of antigen can induce immune response against whole antigen. This theme is implemented in designing subunit and synthetic peptide vaccines. The sequence analysis method allows potential drug targets to identify active sites against plant diseases. The method integrates prediction of peptide MHC class I binding; proteosomal c-terminal cleavage and TAP transport efficiency. PMID:17691913

  4. Biodegradation of atrazine by three transgenic grasses and alfalfa expressing a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Andrew W; Wang, Ping; Uefuji, Hirotaka; Samac, Deborah A; Vance, Carroll P; Wackett, Lawrence P; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The widespread use of atrazine and other s-triazine herbicides to control weeds in agricultural production fields has impacted surface and groundwater in the United States and elsewhere. We previously reported the cloning, sequencing, and expression of six genes involved in the atrazine biodegradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, which is initiated by atzA, encoding atrazine chlorohydrolase. Here we explored the use of enhanced expression of a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase, p-AtzA, in transgenic grasses (tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, and switchgrass) and the legume alfalfa for the biodegradation of atrazine. Enhanced expression of p-AtzA was obtained by using combinations of the badnavirus promoter, the maize alcohol dehydrogenase first intron, and the maize ubiquitin promoter. For alfalfa, we used the first intron of the 5'-untranslated region tobacco alcohol dehydrogenase gene and the cassava vein mosaic virus promoter. Resistance of plants to atrazine in agar-based and hydroponic growth assays was correlated with in vivo levels of gene expression and atrazine degradation. The in planta expression of p-atzA enabled transgenic tall fescue to transform atrazine into hydroxyatrazine and other metabolites. Results of our studies highlight the potential use of transgenic plants for bioremediating atrazine in the environment. PMID:25432082

  5. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-Poor Gas-Rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschauer, Alec S; Skillman, Evan D; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Cannon, John M; Gordon, Alex J R; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L; Pogge, Richard W; Croxall, Kevin V; Aver, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with HI masses in the range of 10$^{6}$-10$^{7.2}$~M$_{\\odot}$ discovered by the ALFALFA survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone HII region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) on the Mayall 4-m as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5-m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [OIII]$\\lambda$4363 line and hence the determination of a "direct" oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 $\\pm$ 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind HI surv...

  6. ALFALFA Discovery of the Most Metal-poor Gas-rich Galaxy Known: AGC 198691

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschauer, Alec S.; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Cannon, John M.; Gordon, Alex J. R.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Janowiecki, Steven; Rhode, Katherine L.; Pogge, Richard W.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Aver, Erik

    2016-05-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy AGC 198691. This object is part of the Survey of H i in Extremely Low-Mass Dwarfs project, which is a multi-wavelength study of galaxies with H i masses in the range of 106–107.2 M ⊙, discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We have obtained spectra of the lone H ii region in AGC 198691 with the new high-throughput KPNO Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Mayall 4 m, as well as with the Blue Channel spectrograph on the MMT 6.5 m telescope. These observations enable the measurement of the temperature-sensitive [O iii]λ4363 line and hence the determination of a “direct” oxygen abundance for AGC 198691. We find this system to be an extremely metal-deficient (XMD) system with an oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.02 ± 0.03, making AGC 198691 the lowest-abundance star-forming galaxy known in the local universe. Two of the five lowest-abundance galaxies known have been discovered by the ALFALFA blind H i survey; this high yield of XMD galaxies represents a paradigm shift in the search for extremely metal-poor galaxies.

  7. Contribution of the pod wall to seed grain filling in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hou, Longyu; Wang, Mingya; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Three genotypes of alfalfa viz. Medicago sativa (Zhongmu No. 1, Zhongmu No. 2) and M. varia (Caoyuan No. 3) grown in the filed were investigated for the contribution of pod wall and leaves by shading all pods and leaves on July 15, 20 and 25, respectively. Date was recorded for total pod weight (TPW), pod wall weight (PWW), seed weight per pod (SWP), seed number per pod (SNP) and single seed weight (SSW) of one-coil and two-coil spiral pods. TPW, SNP, PWW and SWP were reduced by shading all leaves or pods, whereas SSW was not significantly affected. The relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was 25.6-48.1% in three genotypes on July 15. The pod wall in one-coil spiral pods generated a greater relative contribution to the TPW and SWP than in two-coil spiral pods. In the last stage (July 25), the relative photosynthetic contribution of leaves to SWP sharply decreased, whereas the relative photosynthetic contribution of pod wall to SWP was stable in the late stage (July 20 and 25). In conclusion, the pod wall of alfalfa could carry out photosynthesis and the pod wall played an important role in pod filling at the late growth stage. PMID:27210048

  8. ALFALFA Discovery of the Nearby Gas-Rich Dwarf Galaxy Leo P. I. HI Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Cannon, John M; Rhode, Katherine L; Salzer, John J; Skillman, Evan D; Bernstein-Cooper, Elijah Z; McQuinn, Kristen B W

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of a previously unknown 21cm HI line source identified as an ultra-compact high velocity cloud in the ALFALFA survey is reported. The HI detection is barely resolved by the Arecibo 305m telescope ~4' beam and has a narrow HI linewidth (HPFW of 24 km/s). Further HI observations at Arecibo and with the VLA corroborate the ALFALFA HI detection, provide an estimate of the HI radius, ~1' at the 5 x 10^19 cm^-2 isophote, and show the cloud to exhibit rotation with an amplitude of ~9.0 +/- 1.5 km/s. In other papers, Rhode et al. (2013) show the HI source to have a resolved stellar counterpart and ongoing star forming activity, while Skillman et al. (2013) reveal it as having extremely low metallicity: 12 + log(O/H) = 7.16 +/- 0.04. The HI mass to stellar mass ratio of the object is found to be 2.6. We use the Tully-Fisher template relation in its baryonic form (McGaugh 2012) to obtain a distance estimate D = 1.3 (+0.9,-0.5) Mpc. Additional constraints on the distance are also provided by the optical da...

  9. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: The Galaxy Population Detected by ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Shan; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2012-01-01

    Making use of HI 21 cm line measurements from the ALFALFA survey (alpha.40) and photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and GALEX, we investigate the global scaling relations and fundamental planes linking stars and gas for a sample of 9417 common galaxies: the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX sample. In addition to their HI properties derived from the ALFALFA dataset, stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived from fitting the UV-optical spectral energy distributions. 96% of the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX galaxies belong to the blue cloud, with the average gas fraction f_HI = M_HI/M_* ~ 1.5. A transition in SF properties is found whereby below M_* ~ 10^9.5 M_sun, the slope of the star forming sequence changes, the dispersion in the specific star formation rate (SSFR) distribution increases and the star formation efficiency (SFE) mildly increases with M_*. The evolutionary track in the SSFR-M_* diagram, as well as that in the color magnitude diagram are linked to the HI content; below this trans...

  10. Efficacy of Rodent Control in Alfalfa and Wheat Crops Using Chemical and Natural Rodenticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Đedović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological efficacy of chemical and natural rodenticides in controlling rodents in alfalfa and wheat crops was investigated. The experiment was set up using a randomized block design with four replicates and 400 m2 plots in compliace with a standard OEPP/EPPO method. Examination was based on the average number of active holes and rodenticide efficacy was measured three, seven, 14 and 28 days after treatment. Rodent numbers were computed from the number of active holes, and rodenticide efficacy using Abbott’s formula.The appearance and arrangement of active holes indicated the presence of common vole (Microtus arvalis Pall and striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius in the plots. The products tested demonstrated satisfactory efficacy in controlling rodents in alfalfa and wheatcrops. Products based on vitamin D3 achieved 87-90% efficacy in both crops. The efficacy of a bromadiolone-based product ranged from 84% to 90%, while a cellulose product displayed the highest variation in efficacy, ranging from 86% to 98%.

  11. Characterization and genetic dissection of resistance to spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii) in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Kamphuis, L. G.

    2013-09-21

    Aphids cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide. Medicago truncatula, a model legume, cultivated pasture species in Australia and close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), was used to study the defence response against Therioaphis trifolii f. maculate [spotted alfalfa aphid (SAA)]. Aphid performance and plant damage were compared among three accessions. A20 is highly susceptible, A17 has moderate resistance, and Jester is strongly resistant. Subsequent analyses using A17 and A20, reciprocal F1s and an A17×A20 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population revealed that this moderate resistance is phloem mediated and involves antibiosis and tolerance but not antixenosis. Electrical penetration graph analysis also identified a novel waveform termed extended potential drop, which occurred following SAA infestation of M. truncatula. Genetic dissection using the RIL population revealed three quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 3, 6, and 7 involved in distinct modes of aphid defence including antibiosis and tolerance. An antibiosis locus resides on linkage group 3 (LG3) and is derived from A17, whereas a plant tolerance and antibiosis locus resides on LG6 and is derived from A20, which exhibits strong temporary tolerance. The loci identified reside in regions harbouring classical resistance genes, and introgression of these loci in current medic cultivars may help provide durable resistance to SAA, while elucidation of their molecular mechanisms may provide valuable insight into other aphid–plant interactions.

  12. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Haynes, Martha P; Finn, Rose A; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5

  13. Linear codes associated to determinantal varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir R.; Hasan, Sartaj Ul

    2015-01-01

    We consider a class of linear codes associated to projective algebraic varieties defined by the vanishing of minors of a fixed size of a generic matrix. It is seen that the resulting code has only a small number of distinct weights. The case of varieties defined by the vanishing of 2×2 minors is ...

  14. Classification of rank 2 cluster varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandel, Travis

    We classify rank 2 cluster varieties (those whose corresponding skew-form has rank 2) according to the deformation type of a generic fiber U of their X-spaces, as defined by Fock and Goncharov. Our approach is based on the work of Gross, Hacking, and Keel for cluster varieties and log Calabi-Yau ...

  15. Picard Groups of Hypersurfaces in Toric Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Roan, Shi-shyr

    2011-01-01

    We study the structure of rational Picard groups of hypersurfaces of toric varieties. By using the fan structure associated to the ambient toric variety, an explicit basis of the Picard group is described by certain combinatorial data. We shall also discuss the application to Calabi-Yau spaces.

  16. Related variety and regional growth in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Minondo, A.; Navarro, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether related variety, among other types of spatial externalities, affected regional growth in Spain at the NUTS 3 level during the period 1995–2007. We found evidence that related variety matters for growth across regions, especially when using two new methods that measure

  17. Statistical analysis of ALFALFA galaxies: Insights in galaxy formation & near-field cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergis, Emmanouil

    2013-03-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a blind, extragalactic survey in the 21cm emission line of atomic hydrogen (HI). Presently, sources have been cataloged over ≈4,000 deg2 of sky (~60% of its final area), resulting in the largest HI-selected sample to date. We use the rich ALFALFA dataset to measure the statistical properties of HI-bearing galaxies, such as their mass distribution and clustering characteristics. These statistical distributions are determined by the properties of darkmatter on galactic scales, and by the complex baryonic processes through which galaxies form over cosmic time. As a result, detailed studies of these distributions can lead to important insights in galaxy formation & evolution and near-field cosmology. In particular, we measure the space density of HI-bearing galaxies as a function of the width of their HI profile (i.e. the velocity width function of galaxies), and find substantial disagreement with the distribution expected in a lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) universe. In particular, the number of galaxies with maximum rotational velocities upsilonrot ≈ 35 kms--1 (as judged by their HI velocity width) is about an order of magnitude lower than what predicted based on populating ΛCDM halos with modeled galaxies. We identify two possible solutions to the discrepancy: First, an alternative dark matter scenario in which the formation of low-mass halos is heavily suppressed (e.g. a warm dark matter universe with keV-scale dark matter particles). Secondly, we consider the possibility that rotational velocitites of dwarf galaxies derived from HI velocity widths may systematically underestimate the true mass of the host halo, due to the shape of their rotation curves. In this latter scenario, quantitative predictions for the internal kinematics of dwarf galaxies can be made, which can be checked in the future to probe the nature of dark matter. Furthermore, we take advantage of the overlap of ALFALFA with the Sloan Digital

  18. COMPARATIVE TEST OF FENUGREEK / TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM L. / VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter MAKAI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in connection with Fenugreek have been carried out at our university for two decades. As a part of this work the variety Óvári-4 was awarded with a state certifi cate in 1994. The variety and the developed production technology were given patent protection. At the beginning testing concentrated on the plant as leguminous roughage (28 t/ha yield and as protein plant (the protein content of the seed is between 30-33%, however recently the tests were extended to assess the use of the plant as medicinal plant. Plants from various ecological environments were obtained from institutes abroad, these plants were propagated, selected and compared to each other with respect to average yield, inner content value. As for today two new national variety candidates were bred, their introduction for qualifi cation is planned for 2004. In our studies the comparative examination of 10 foreign varieties, the variety Óvári-4 and the variety candidate named Óvári Gold is evaluated. In the experiment the effect of optimal germ number on yield was examined for the variety Óvári-4.

  19. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  20. TABLE GRAPE VARIETIES CULTURE TO NRDIBH STEFANESTI, OVER TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Costescu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At NRDIBH Stefanesti-Arges, in the past decades extensive work has been done to improve the grape-vine, which yielded some remarkable results. The first concerns the improvement of grape-vines to NRDIBH Stefanesti-Arges (then SCPVV Stefanesti were initiated by the breeder engineer Baditescu Margareta, improvement in the Laboratory in 1982, was its founder, who has dedicated so much to obtain new varieties by crossing sexual and clonal selection to. Improvement work was continued by researchers: Smaranda Julia, Smaranda George, Camelia Popa. After lengthy activity at SCDVV Stefanesti were obtained clones new to old varieties of wine, but also at the table. Thus, clonal selections have been approved for 13 red and white wines. For table varieties were approved Argessis and Golden Stefanesti varieties and clones Stefanesti, Muscat Adda 22 and Perlette 10. Varieties approved quality characteristics that allow for superior wines, varieties of wine for the table and the quality of the grapes is good looks for Romania to meet the demands of markets in developed countries. Spread production of new varieties of table grapes, can effectively contribute to the recovery in activity in wine country by increasing efficiency and profitability.

  1. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional compounds (fat, sugars, crude protein, soluble fiber, ash and starch of four emmer wheat varieties grown under the conditions of organic farming system. The experiment was established on Scientific Research base Dolná Malanta, near Nitra in Slovakia during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 growing seasons. Nutritional parameters, except crude protein content, were not influenced by the variety and weather conditions. Agnone variety had the highest content of fat, crude protein and starch but the lowest content of soluble dietary fiber. The lowest values of fat, crude protein had Molise sel Colli variety; Farvento variety had the lowest sugars and starch content. Emmer wheat as ancient wheat has a unique composition in secondary components, such as starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredients.

  2. The sky is falling II: Impact of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors on corn and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, William J; Mendenhall, Scout; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin

    2014-06-01

    Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5million kg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts. PMID:24632062

  3. The sky is falling II: Impact of deposition produced during the static testing of solid rocket motors on corn and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, William J; Mendenhall, Scout; McNeill, Laurie S; Heavilin, Justin

    2014-06-01

    Tests of horizontally restrained rocket motors at the ATK facility in Promontory, Utah, USA result in the deposition of an estimated 1.5million kg of entrained soil and combustion products (mainly aluminum oxide, gaseous hydrogen chloride and water) on the surrounding area. The deposition is referred to as test fire soil (TFS). Farmers observing TFS deposited on their crops expressed concerns regarding the impact of this material. To address these concerns, we exposed corn and alfalfa to TFS collected during a September 2009 test. The impact was evaluated by comparing the growth and tissue composition of controls relative to the treatments. Exposure to TFS, containing elevated levels of chloride (1000 times) and aluminum (2 times) relative to native soils, affected the germination, growth and tissue concentrations of various elements, depending on the type and level of exposure. Germination was inhibited by high concentrations of TFS in soil, but the impact was reduced if the TFS was pre-leached with water. Biomass production was reduced in the TFS amended soils and corn grown in TFS amended soils did not develop kernels. Chloride concentrations in corn and alfalfa grown in TFS amended soils were two orders of magnitude greater than controls. TFS exposed plants contained higher concentrations of several cations, although the concentrations were well below livestock feed recommendations. Foliar applications of TFS had no impact on biomass, but some differences in the elemental composition of leaves relative to controls were observed. Washing the TFS off the leaves lessened the impact. Results indicate that the TFS deposition could have an effect, depending on the amount and growth stage of the crops, but the impact could be mitigated with rainfall or the application of additional irrigation water. The high level of chloride associated with the TFS is the main cause of the observed impacts.

  4. Modeling the impact of the indigenous microbial population on the maximum population density of Salmonella on alfalfa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijgersberg, H.; Nierop Groot, M.N.; Tromp, S.O.; Franz, E.

    2013-01-01

    Within a microbial risk assessment framework, modeling the maximum population density (MPD) of a pathogenic microorganism is important but often not considered. This paper describes a model predicting the MPD of Salmonella on alfalfa as a function of the initial contamination level, the total count

  5. Effects of three-dimensional and color patterns on nest location and progeny mortality in alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédot, Christelle; Bosch, Jordi; James, Rosalind R; Kemp, William P

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT In alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., seed production where high bee densities are released, alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), females may enter several nesting holes before locating their nests. Such levels of "wrong hole" visits lead to an increase in the time spent by females locating their own nests, thereby decreasing alfalfa pollination efficiency and possibly healthy brood production. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of different nesting board configurations in commercial alfalfa leafcutting bee shelters (separating nesting boards, applying a three-dimensional pattern to the boards, applying a color contrast pattern, or applying a combination of three-dimensional and color contrast patterns) on nest location performance, on the incidence of chalkbrood disease, and on the incidence of broodless provisions. Separating the nesting boards inside shelters improved the ability of females to locate their nests. An increase in nest location performance also occurred in boards with the three-dimensional pattern and the combined three-dimensional and color contrast pattern, compared with the uniform board (a standard configuration currently used commercially). The percentage of provisioned cells that were broodless was not statistically different between treatments, but the percentage of larvae infected with chalkbrood decreased by half in the three-dimensional board design, compared with the uniform board. PMID:16813291

  6. The location of coat protein and viral RNAs of alfalfa mosaic virus in infected tobacco leaves and protoplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt-Heerschap, H. van; Verbeek, H.; Slot, J.W.; Vloten-Doting, L. van

    1987-01-01

    The location of coat protein of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) strain 425 was determined in protoplasts isolated from infected tobacco leaves and in in vitro inoculated tobacco protoplasts, using immunocytochemistry on ultrathin frozen sections labeled with colloidal gold. In infected tobacco leaves 5

  7. Changes in ruminal bacterial community composition following feeding of alfalfa silage inoculated with a commercial silage inoculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some silage inoculants promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. In this study, dairy cows fed alfalfa silage treated with the inoculant, Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LPS), were compared to cows fed untreated silage (Ctrl) with the objectives: 1) to de...

  8. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey : X. The HI Mass Function and Omega_HI From the 40% ALFALFA Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Ann M.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Springob, Christopher M.; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey has completed source extraction for 40% of its total sky area, resulting in the largest sample of HI-selected galaxies to date. We measure the HI mass function from a sample of 10,119 galaxies with 6.2

  9. Alfalfa endophytes as novel sources of antimicrobial compounds that inhibit the growth of human and plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes may contribute to plant health and disease protection, yet little is known about their various roles in alfalfa. Also, endophytes from several plant species produce novel antimicrobial compounds that may be useful clinically. We isolated endophytic fungi from over 50 samples from s...

  10. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO VARIA L.) GENETICLALY ENGINEERED TO EXPRESS A HUMAN METALLOTHIONEIN (HMT) GENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of these studies were two-fold: (1) to determine efficacy of low and high expression hMT gene constructs by assessing accumulation of Cu in shoots of parental and transgenic plants of alfalfa (Medicago varia L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO4 by addit...

  11. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on photosynthesis and productivity of alfalfa in relation to seasonal changes in temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa was grown at ambient and elevated (ambient + 350 ppm) carbon dioxide concentrations at Beltsville, Maryland, using open top chambers in field plots. Periodic harvests and measurements of leaf photosynthesis were used to test the hypothesis that the stimulation of yield and photosynthesis by...

  12. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins P1 and P2 interact and colocalize at the vacuolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.W.; Carette, J.E.; Reinhoud, P.J.; Haegi, A.; Bol, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Replication of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs depends on the virus-encoded proteins P1 and P2. P1 contains methyltransferase- and helicase-like domains, and P2 contains a polymerase-like domain. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between in vitro translated-P1 and P2 and show

  13. In vitro fermentation response of laying hen cecal bacteria to combinations of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) prebiotic with alfalfa and layer ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with an alfalfa molting diet on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal contents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3000 concentration with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes fi...

  14. Alfalfa leaf protein and stem cell wall polysaccharide yields and theoretical ethanol production under hay and biomass management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been proposed as a biofuel feedstock, where the stems would be processed to produce ethanol and the leaves sold separately as a livestock feed. We propose a different management regime reducing population density, delaying harvest and cutting less frequently per grow...

  15. 紫花苜蓿光能及叶片水分利用效率影响因子分析%Analysis on the influnce factors to utilizing efficiency of light and water for alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙明秀; 吴振; 高景慧; 高阳; 杨宏新

    2009-01-01

    To explore the influence factors of light use efficiency (LUE) and water use efficiency (WUE) of alfalfa, the related physiological ecology indexes (Pn, Tr, Gs, Ci, Ta, Tl, RH and PAR) were measured using portable C-340df photosynthesis instrument in the morning of sunny days at early flowering period on 12 four-year-old alfalfa varieties under field conditions. The results showed that: 1) The physiological factors (Ci and Gs) are the key factors that affect the LUE of Alfalfa, while some external enviornmental factors (PAR, Ta and RH) played a role effect on WUE;2) WUE and LUE of a variety, Medicago sativa cv. Pondus, were significantly (P<0.05) higher than others, and with highest dry matter.%大田条件下,利用C-340df光合仪,对12个紫花苜蓿Medicago sativa品种(初花期)的净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)及生态因子(光合有效辐射、大气温度、大气湿度)和生理因子(胞间CO_2浓度、气孔导度、叶温)进行测定,探讨影响其光能利用效率(LUE)和叶片水分利用效率(WUE)的主要因子.结果表明:1)品种胖多单株干质量最高,且LUE、WUE显著高于其他品种(P<0.05),属于高光合、低蒸腾、高水分利用品种;2)影响LUE的主要是生理因子(胞间CO_2浓度、气孔导度),而影响WUE的则为外界环境因子(光合有效辐射、大气温度、大气湿度).

  16. Construction of two genetic linkage maps in cultivated tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa using microsatellite and AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoni Sylvain

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa is a major forage crop. The genetic progress is slow in this legume species because of its autotetraploidy and allogamy. The genetic structure of this species makes the construction of genetic maps difficult. To reach this objective, and to be able to detect QTLs in segregating populations, we used the available codominant microsatellite markers (SSRs, most of them identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula from EST database. A genetic map was constructed with AFLP and SSR markers using specific mapping procedures for autotetraploids. The tetrasomic inheritance was analysed in an alfalfa mapping population. Results We have demonstrated that 80% of primer pairs defined on each side of SSR motifs in M. truncatula EST database amplify with the alfalfa DNA. Using a F1 mapping population of 168 individuals produced from the cross of 2 heterozygous parental plants from Magali and Mercedes cultivars, we obtained 599 AFLP markers and 107 SSR loci. All but 3 SSR loci showed a clear tetrasomic inheritance. For most of the SSR loci, the double-reduction was not significant. For the other loci no specific genotypes were produced, so the significant double-reduction could arise from segregation distortion. For each parent, the genetic map contained 8 groups of four homologous chromosomes. The lengths of the maps were 2649 and 3045 cM, with an average distance of 7.6 and 9.0 cM between markers, for Magali and Mercedes parents, respectively. Using only the SSR markers, we built a composite map covering 709 cM. Conclusions Compared to diploid alfalfa genetic maps, our maps cover about 88–100% of the genome and are close to saturation. The inheritance of the codominant markers (SSR and the pattern of linkage repulsions between markers within each homology group are consistent with the hypothesis of a tetrasomic meiosis in alfalfa. Except for 2 out of 107 SSR markers, we found a similar order of markers on

  17. Model of high-productive varieties in forage pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kosev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A linear equation of regression was used for establishment of the influence of quantitative characteristics on the grain productivity in forage pea and for development of a model for breeding work. The model for pea plant with high productivity was characterized by average height of 60–70 cm, 8–10 formed pods, 30–40 seeds per plant and 160–260 g in regard to 1000-seed weight. The obtained results showed that the greatest effect on grain productivity had the seed number per plant, first pod height and 1000-seed weight. Kristal variety had high ecological plasticity and could be considered as close to an ideal type, suitable for growing under wide range of environments. Pleven 4 and Rezonator were determined as high-productive varieties and with low stability, Kerpo and Pikardi - as low-productive but stable varieties. Druzba was identified as unstable and low-productive variety.

  18. POPULATION DENSITY OF PHYTONOMUS VARIABILIS HRBST. AND PHYTODECTA FORNICATA BRUGG. ON MULTIFOLIOLATE AND TRIFOLIOLATE ALFALFA IN RELATION TO ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS ON THEIR LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ATANASOVA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two alfalfa cultivars - the multifoliolate “Mnogolistna 1” and the trifoliolate “Europe” were investigated for their resistance towards two main alfalfa defoliators Phytonomus variabilis Hrbst., 1795 and Phytodecta fornicata Brugg., 1873. The results of the two year study showed that the population density of both pests was higher in the“Mnogolistna 1” fields. The anatomical study of the leaves showed that multifoliolate alfalfa cultivar has narrower palisade and spongy parenchyma and thinner leaves and cuticle which make it less resistant to Ph. variabilis and Ph. fornicata.

  19. Research Progress in Evaluation Method of Nutritional Value of Alfalfa%苜蓿营养价值的评定方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 宋伟红

    2009-01-01

    In order to referencing for reasonable application of alfalfa in feed production, it describes the evaluation method on nutritional value of alfalfa hay and alfalfa silage at home and abroad by sensory, laboratory and feeding test.%本文通过感官评定法、实验室方法和动物饲养试验方法对国内外苜蓿干草和苜蓿青贮营养价值的评定方法进行综述,旨在为苜蓿在饲料生产中的合理应用提供参考依据.

  20. Enhanced tolerance and remediation to mixed contaminates of PCBs and 2,4-DCP by transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ren, Hejun; Pan, Hongyu; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Lanying

    2015-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) generally led to mixed contamination of soils as a result of commercial and agricultural activities. Their accumulation in the environment poses great risks to human and animal health. Therefore, the effective strategies for disposal of these pollutants are urgently needed. In this study, genetic engineering to enhance PCBs/2,4-DCP phytoremediation is a focus. We cloned the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase (BphC.B) from a soil metagenomic library, which is the key enzyme of aerobic catabolism of a variety of aromatic compounds, and then it was expressed in alfalfa driven by CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic line BB11 was selected out through PCR, Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays. Its disposal and tolerance to both PCBs and 2,4-DCP were examined. The tolerance capability of transgenic line BB11 towards complex contaminants of PCBs/2,4-DCP significantly increased compared with non-transgenic plants. Strong dissipation of PCBs and high removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP were exhibited in a short time. It was confirmed expressing BphC.B would be a feasible strategy to help achieving phytoremediation in mixed contaminated soils with PCBs and 2,4-DCP.

  1. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  2. Equations defining secant varieties: geometry and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Sidman, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    In the 1980's, work of Green and Lazarsfeld helped to uncover the beautiful interplay between the geometry of the embedding of a curve and the syzygies of its defining equations. Similar results hold for the first secant variety of a curve, and there is a natural conjectural picture extending to higher secant varieties as well. We present an introduction to the algebra and geometry used in previous work of the authors to study syzygies of secant varieties of curves with an emphasis on examples of explicit computations and elementary cases that illustrate the geometric principles at work.

  3. Varieties of English in the Swedish Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtig, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Many English teachers see British English as the standard variety and teach this variety in the classroom. Their students are, however, also exposed to a great deal of American English in today’s media. As a result, there are a lot of students who use a mixture of these varieties because of the double input, both from media and from the teachers in school. In this paper, I interviewed teachers from Swedish secondary and upper secondary schools to find out what their attitudes towards British ...

  4. The elicitor-inducible alfalfa isoflavone reductase promoter confers different patterns of developmental expression in homologous and heterologous transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, A; Dixon, R A; Paiva, N L

    1994-01-01

    In legumes, the synthesis of infection- and elicitor-inducible antimicrobial phytoalexins occurs via the isoflavonoid branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To study transcriptional regulation of isoflavonoid pathway-specific genes, we have isolated the gene encoding isoflavone reductase (IFR), which is the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of the phytoalexin medicarpin in alfalfa. Chimeric gene fusions were constructed between 765- and 436-bp promoter fragments of the IFR gene and the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to alfalfa and tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both promoter fragments conferred elicitor-mediated expression in cell suspension cultures derived from transgenic plants of both species and fungal infection-mediated expression in leaves of transgenic alfalfa. Developmental expression directed by both promoter fragments in transgenic alfalfa was observed only in the root meristem, cortex, and nodules, which is consistent with the accumulation of endogenous IFR transcripts. However, in transgenic tobacco, expression from the 765-bp promoter was observed in vegetative tissues (root meristem and cortex, inner vascular tissue of stems and petioles, leaf tips, and stem peripheries adjacent to petioles) and in reproductive tissues (stigma, placenta, base of the ovary, receptacle, seed, tapetal layer, and pollen grains), whereas the 436-bp promoter was expressed only in fruits, seed, and pollen. These data indicate that infection/elicitor inducibility of the IFR promoter in both species and developmental expression in alfalfa are determined by sequences downstream of position -436, whereas sequences between -436 and -765 confer a complex pattern of strong ectopic developmental expression in the heterologous species that lacks the isoflavonoid pathway. PMID:7866024

  5. Open problems on open algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gurjar, R V; Kumar, N M; Miyanishi, M; Russell, P; Sakai, F; Wright, D; Zaidenberg, M G; Kaliman, Shulim; Kumar, N Mohan; Miyanishi, Masayoshi; Russell, Peter; Sakai, Fumio; Wright, David; Zaidenberg, Mikhail

    1995-01-01

    This report records a large number of open problems in Affine Algebraic Geometry that were proposed by participants in a Conference on Open Algebraic Varieties at the Centre de Recherches en Mathematiques in Montreal at December 1994.

  6. Product variety and the demographic transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    Why does the rate of population growth decline in the face of economic growth? We show that growing product variety may induce a permanent reduction in the demand for children and a continuous rise in income and consumption....

  7. Product Variety and the Demographic Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    Why does the rate of population growth decline in the face of economic growth? We show that growing product variety may induce a permanent reduction in the demand for children and a continuous rise in income and consumption....

  8. Plant Variety Protection and DUS Testing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-hui; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Shi-huang; LI Ming-shun; LI Wen-hua

    2002-01-01

    DUS testing technique used for plant variety protection was reviewed in the paper, and somesuggestions were made on how to establish the appropriate technology system in China. Meanwhile, the poten-tial exploitation of the technique was discussed.

  9. Tuberculosis of the foot: An osteolytic variety

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Mandeep S; Sameer Aggarwal; Sharad Prabhakar; Vikas Bachhal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Foot involvement in osteoarticular tuberculosis is uncommon and isolated bony involvement of foot bones with an osteolytic defect is even more rare; diagnostic and therapeutic delays can occur, worsening the prognosis. We present a retrospective series of osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: We present 24 osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis (Eleven calcaneus, four cuboid, two cunieforms, one talus, three metatarsals, three phalanges) out of 92 fo...

  10. The Taste for Variety: A Hedonic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Larissa S.; Thiele, Silke; Christoph R. Weiss

    2006-01-01

    Based on the model of consumers' variety-seeking behavior introduced by Anderson et al. (1992), this paper derives a hedonic price function for a households' consumption bundle. The price a consumer pays for her consumption bundle reflects the values of the underlying attributes of goods purchased but also accounts for any preference for variety that she might have. The empirical analysis is conducted for 3,240 German households and their expenditure on 182 different soft drinks over a six-mo...

  11. Integral canonical models for Spin Shimura varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Pera, Keerthi Madapusi

    2012-01-01

    We construct regular integral canonical models for Shimura varieties attached to Spin groups at (possibly ramified) odd primes. We exhibit these models as schemes of 'relative PEL type' over integral canonical models of larger Spin Shimura varieties with good reduction. Work of Vasiu-Zink then shows that the classical Kuga-Satake construction extends over the integral model and that the integral models we construct are canonical in a very precise sense. We also construct good compactification...

  12. Virtual Betti numbers of real algebraic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    McCrory, Clint; Parusinski, Adam

    2002-01-01

    The weak factorization theorem for birational maps is used to prove that for all nonnegative i the ith mod 2 Betti number of compact nonsingular real algebraic varieties has a unique extension to a "virtual Betti number" beta_i defined for all real algebraic varieties, such that if Y is a closed subvariety of X, then beta_i(X) = beta_i(X\\Y) + beta_i(Y).

  13. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Welson Lima Simões; Marcelo Calgaro; Daniela Siqueira Coelho; Delfran Batista dos Santos; Moisés Alves de Souza

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design ...

  14. Molecular identification of a new phytoplasma associated with alfalfa witches'-broom in oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A J; Botti, S; Al-Subhi, A M; Gundersen-Rindal, D E; Bertaccini, A F

    2002-10-01

    ABSTRACT Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants showing witches'-broom symptoms typical of phytoplasmas were observed from Al-Batinah, Al-Sharqiya, Al-Bureimi, and interior regions of the Sultanate of Oman. Phytoplasmas were detected from all symptomatic samples by the specific amplification of their 16S-23S rRNA gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), utilizing phytoplasma-specific universal primer pairs, consistently amplified a product of expected lengths when DNA extract from symptomatic samples was used as template. Asymptomatic plant samples and the negative control yielded no amplification. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA of alfalfa using the P1/P7 primer pair identified phytoplasmas belonging to peanut witches'-broom group (16SrII or faba bean phyllody). Restriction enzyme profiles showed that the phytoplasmas detected in all 300 samples belonged to the same ribosomal group. Extensive comparative analyses on P1/P7 amplimers of 20 phytoplasmas with Tru9I, Tsp509I, HpaII, TaqI, and RsaI clearly indicated that this phytoplasma is different from all the other phytoplasmas employed belonging to subgroup 16SrII, except tomato big bud phytoplasma from Australia, and could be therefore classified in subgroup 16SrII-D. The alfalfa witches'-broom (AlfWB) phytoplasma P1/P7 PCR product was sequenced directly after cloning and yielded a 1,690-bp product. The homology search showed 99% similarity (1,667 of 1,690 base identity) with papaya yellow crinkle (PapayaYC) phytoplasma from New Zealand. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S plus spacer regions sequences of 35 phytoplasmas, mainly from the Southern Hemisphere, showed that AlfWB is a new phytoplasma species, with closest relationships to PapayaYC phytoplasmas from New Zealand and Chinese pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasmas from Taiwan but distinguishable from them considering the different associated plant hosts and the extreme geographical isolation. PMID:18944213

  15. The Sinorhizobium meliloti RNA chaperone Hfq influences central carbon metabolism and the symbiotic interaction with alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Zurdo José I

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial Hfq protein is able to interact with diverse RNA molecules, including regulatory small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs, and thus it is recognized as a global post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Loss of Hfq has an extensive impact in bacterial physiology which in several animal pathogens influences virulence. Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model soil bacterium known for its ability to establish a beneficial nitrogen-fixing intracellular symbiosis with alfalfa. Despite the predicted general involvement of Hfq in the establishment of successful bacteria-eukaryote interactions, its function in S. meliloti has remained unexplored. Results Two independent S. meliloti mutants, 2011-3.4 and 1021Δhfq, were obtained by disruption and deletion of the hfq gene in the wild-type strains 2011 and 1021, respectively, both exhibiting similar growth defects as free-living bacteria. Transcriptomic profiling of 1021Δhfq revealed a general down-regulation of genes of sugar transporters and some enzymes of the central carbon metabolism, whereas transcripts specifying the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen sources (mainly amino acids were more abundant than in the wild-type strain. Proteomic analysis of the 2011-3.4 mutant independently confirmed these observations. Symbiotic tests showed that lack of Hfq led to a delayed nodulation, severely compromised bacterial competitiveness on alfalfa roots and impaired normal plant growth. Furthermore, a large proportion of nodules (55%-64% elicited by the 1021Δhfq mutant were non-fixing, with scarce content in bacteroids and signs of premature senescence of endosymbiotic bacteria. RT-PCR experiments on RNA from bacteria grown under aerobic and microoxic conditions revealed that Hfq contributes to regulation of nifA and fixK1/K2, the genes controlling nitrogen fixation, although the Hfq-mediated regulation of fixK is only aerobiosis dependent. Finally, we found that some of the recently

  16. Regeneration of foreign genes co-transformed plants of Medicago sativa L by Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕德扬; 曹学远; 唐顺学; 田霞

    2000-01-01

    Gene encoding sulphur amino acid-rich protein (HNP) and rol genes were transferred into Medicago sativa L (alfalfa) mediated by Agrobacterium tumafeciens. Regeneration of trans-genie plants was induced successfully from hairy root tissue of cotyledon in alfalfa. Cotyledon tissues were an ideally transformed recipient. There was a negative correlation between age of hairy roots and embryogenesis frequency in alfalfa. Production of co-transformed plants with greater yield and super quality was important for development of new alfalfa varieties.

  17. Regeneration of foreign genes co-transformed plants of Medicago sativa L by Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Gene encoding sulphur amino acid-rich protein (HNP) and rol genes were transferred into Medicago sativa L (alfalfa) mediated by Agrobacterium tumafeciens. Regeneration of transgenic plants was induced successfully from hairy root tissue of cotyledon in alfalfa. Cotyledon tissues were an ideally transformed recipient. There was a negative correlation between age of hairy roots and embryogenesis frequency in alfalfa. Production of co-transformed plants with greater yield and super quality was important for development of new alfalfa varieties.

  18. Isozyme Analysis on Different Varieties of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Isozymic and protein diversity among five sugarcane varieties viz., Co 6304, Co 85019, Co 8371, Co 89003 and Co 91010 were studied to understand the varietal interrelationship and to identify the biochemical marker for the disease resistance and stress tolerance. The standard technique of vertical gel electrophoresis PAGE was employed for size separation of isozymes. The gel was stained with different staining solutions for different isozyme systems viz. peroxidase, esterase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and proteins. Rf values of the banding profiles, similarity index and variation between the varieties were analysed. Among the four enzyme systems, peroxidase profile reveals the difference between the disease resistant / susceptible and abiotic stress tolerant / non tolerant varieties. The two isoperoxidase bands with Rf values 0.62 and 0.66 showed their presence in disease resistant and abiotic tolerant varieties. The presence of two marker bands (0.62, 0.66 of resistant and stress tolerant varieties suggest that the variety Co 6304 may also be resistant to smut, wilt and moderately resistant to red rot and tolerant to drought.

  19. Position and quantity of endogensis rhizobia in alfalfa plant%苜蓿内生根瘤菌分布部位与数量变化动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑峰; 张淑卿; 师尚礼; 霍平慧

    2009-01-01

    gradually increases with source-sink transportation trend of plant photosynthate. Most endogenous rhizobia are distributed in alfalfa root, mainly in the hair roots. In main root, more endogenous rhizobia exist in the epidermis and cortex areas compared with stele. Regarding the above-ground plant parts, endogenous rhizobia are mainly distributed in flower buds at vegetative stage [8.6~9.6×10~3 cfu · g~(-1) (FW)], and in ovary walls of pistils at budding and floral stage. For pod-bearing stage, endogenous rhizobia are mainly in the pericarp of legumes (1.07×10~3 cfu · pod~(-1)), and in newborn seeds at mature stage. Rhizobium abundance in stalk is less than 2×10~2 cfu ·g~(-1) (FW) at vegetative and pod-bearing stages, which vanishes at budding and floral stages. Rhizobia are not found in leaves. Temporally, rhizobium abundance in root and pericarp is obviously higher at pod-bearing stage than any other growth stage. Rhizobium abundance in various floral organs (except pedicle) rapidly increases after pollination. During ovary-to-legume germina-tive process, rhizobium abundance in ovary wall and ovule increases logarithmically. Endogenous rhizobia are found in ovule only after fertilization, and rhizobium abundance in young seeds is higher than in fertilized ovule. This implies that endogenous rhizobia can be transported and colonized in early germinated seedlings. Rhizobium abundance in mature seeds of the two alfalfa varieties stored for 120 d after harvest are 131.46 ("Longdong") and 11.76 ("Eureka") times higher than in newly harvested seeds. This suggests continuous proliferation of rhizobia after seeds are infested.

  20. Extended hypoxia in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, increases survival but causes sub-lethal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, H; Rinehart, J P; Yocum, G D; Greenlee, K J; Helm, B R; Kemp, W P; Schulz, C H; Bowsher, J H

    2014-05-01

    Many insects are tolerant of hypoxic conditions, but survival may come at a cost to long-term health. The alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, develops in brood cells inside natural cavities, and may be exposed to hypoxic conditions for extended periods of time. Whether M. rotundata is tolerant of hypoxia, and whether exposure results in sub-lethal effects, has never been investigated. Overwintering M. rotundata prepupae were exposed to 10%, 13%, 17%, 21% and 24% O2 for 11 months. Once adults emerged, five indicators of quality - emergence weight, body size, feeding activity, flight performance, and adult longevity, - were measured to determine whether adult bees that survived past exposure to hypoxia were competent pollinators. M. rotundata prepupae are tolerant of hypoxic condition and have higher survival rates in hypoxia, than in normoxia. Under hypoxia, adult emergence rates did not decrease over the 11 months of the experiment. In contrast, bees reared in normoxia had decreased emergence rates by 8 months, and were dead by 11 months. M. rotundata prepupae exposed to extended hypoxic conditions had similar emergence weight, head width, and cross-thorax distance compared to bees reared in standard 21% oxygen. Despite no significant morphological differences, hypoxia-exposed bees had lower feeding rates and shorter adult lifespans. Hypoxia may play a role in post-diapause physiology of M. rotundata, with prepupae showing better survival under hypoxic conditions. Extended exposure to hypoxia, while not fatal, causes sub-lethal effects in feeding rates and longevity in the adults, indicating that hypoxia tolerance comes at a cost. PMID:24662466

  1. Experimental Precision and Variety Comparison Precision in Regional Crop Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-ling; ZHANG Qun-yuan; GE Zhi-nan; YANG Fu-xin; ZHANG De-gui; LIU Wen-xin

    2002-01-01

    According to the basic concepts of precision and the principles of analysis of variance (ANOVA), precision types for experiments and variety comparison in regional crop trials (RCT) were studied and developed; expected variety comparison precision (EVCP) and realized variety comparison precision (RVCP) and the corresponding statistical indexes of them were proposed. It was explained that experimental precision (EP) and variety comparison precision (VCP) are two kinds of precision of RCT; EP includes error precision and variety mean precision, which can be measured respectively by the coefficient of variation of single observation's error (CVe) and the coefficient of variation of variety mean's error (CVY); VCP includes EVCP and RVCP, which can be measured respectively by the detectable least relative difference (DLRD) and the relative least significant distance (RLSD); EP is an important factor of VCP but not identical to it; RVCP is the realization of EVCP. Besides error, experimental design and GE interaction and ANOVA model affect VCP. Several application examples for these precision indexes were presented, and the precision of regional cotton trials in the Yellow River Valley and the Changjiang Valley were investigated through the historical data of RCTs from 1980 to 1999.

  2. Officially released mutant varieties - the FAO/IAEA Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the approximately 70 year-old history of induced mutations, there are many examples on the development of new and valuable alteration in plant characters significantly contributing to increased yield potential of specific crops. However, knowledge on the success of induced mutations in crop improvement among geneticists and breeders is usually limited to species of their interest. The present paper contains a comprehensive list of officially released mutant varieties, based on information from plant breeders. The number of mutant varieties officially released and recorded in the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database before the end of 2000 is 2,252. Almost half of these varieties have been released during the last 15 years. Considering a significant delay in the dissemination of information on newly released varieties and difficulties in the collection of such data, there has been a renaissance in the use of mutation techniques in crop improvement. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists, for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the MVD was transferred to the web site of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division. The MVD will be available on our web pages early in 2001. (author)

  3. Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Technological Breakthroughs: An analysis of US State-Level Patenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Frenken, K.; Los, B.

    2015-01-01

    Castaldi C., Frenken K. and Los B. Related variety, unrelated variety and technological breakthroughs: an analysis of US state-level patenting, Regional Studies. This paper investigates how variety affects the innovation output of a region. Borrowing arguments from theories of recombinant innovation

  4. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection... Agriculture intends to reestablish the Plant Variety Protection Board. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paul....regulations.gov or by e-mail: Paul.Zankowski@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Plant...

  5. 苜蓿在奶牛生产中的应用进展研究%Research Progress of Alfalfa in Dairy Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈名灿; 罗佳捷; 张彬

    2014-01-01

    苜蓿是一种优质的奶牛饲草来源,具有非常高的营养价值。本文对从苜蓿产业的发展历史、趋势和苜蓿的营养学特性、加工工艺以及在奶牛生产中的应用情况等方面进行了综述,并展望了苜蓿产业的发展前景。%Alfalfa is a quality herbage resource for dairy cattle,which has high nutritional value. The history and trends of alfalfa industry,the nutritional properties,processing technology of alfalfa and its application in dairy production were summarized,moreover, the prospect of alfalfa industry was prospected in this paper.

  6. [Nixtamalization cooking characteristics of 11 maize varieties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeb de Sinibaldi, A C; Bressani, R

    2001-03-01

    In the present study, 11 maize varieties were analyzed for their nixtamalization cooking quality. The 11 varieties were grown in the same locality and in the same year. The samples were evaluated for their physical characteristics, such as moisture content averaging 13.3%, average 1000 kernel weight (312.5 g), grain hardness through density (1.28 g/ml) and percent floaters (9.5%). These data indicated that all maize varieties had a hard endosperm which is recommended for the nixtamalization cooking process. The 11 varieties were formed on the average by 5.7% seed coat, 11.5% germ and 82.8% endosperm. The low seed coat content suggest a low solids loss during processing. Cooking quality evaluation was done by applying a standard lime cooking procedure to all varieties. An average solid loss of 3.2% was measured, with 0.8% of seed coat still attached to the endosperm. Water absorption at the end of cooking was 40.8% without soaking and 46.9% at the end of soaking. Nixtamal moisture was 47.9% after soaking and only 41.5% at the end of cooking. Cooking time with soaking for 50% moisture in the grain varied from 69 to 122 minutes at 1500 meters over sea level. The cooked grain was dried with hot air and ground however, the particle size obtained was not as that in commercial nixtamalized maize flour. However, the cooking quality parameters to make dough and tortillas were acceptable, with a penetration index of hydrated flour of 178.6 mm, pH 7.97, water absorption index (WAI) of 3.23 g gel/g flour and 4.11% water solubility index (WSI). All flours from the 11 varieties of maize gave acceptable tortillas as evaluated by physical characteristics and sensory quality. However of the 11 varieties 7 including the control were superior for nixtamalization cooking quality. PMID:11515238

  7. ALFALFA and WSRT Imaging of Extended H I Features in the Leo Cloud of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Lukas; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Józsa, Gyula; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Hess, Kelley M.

    2016-08-01

    We present ALFALFA H I observations of a well studied region of the Leo Cloud, which includes the NGC 3227 group and the NGC 3190 group. We detect optically dark H I tails and plumes with extents potentially exceeding 600 kpc, well beyond the field of view of previous observations. These H I features contain ˜40% of the total H I mass in the NGC 3227 group and ˜10% of the NGC 3190 group. We also present WSRT maps which show the complex morphology of the the extended emission in the NGC 3227 group. We comment on previously proposed models of the interactions in these group and the implications for the scale of group processing through interactions. Motivated by the extent of the H I plumes, we place the H I observations in the context of the larger loose group, demonstrating the need for future sensitive, wide field H I surveys to understand the role of group processing in galaxy evolution.

  8. ALFALFA and WSRT Imaging of Extended HI Features in the Leo Cloud of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Leisman, Lukas; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Józsa, Gyula; Adams, Elizabeth A K; Hess, Kelley M

    2016-01-01

    We present ALFALFA HI observations of a well studied region of the Leo Cloud, which includes the NGC 3227 group and the NGC 3190 group. We detect optically dark HI tails and plumes with extents potentially exceeding 600 kpc, well beyond the field of view of previous observations. These HI features contain approximately 40% of the total HI mass in the NGC~3227 group and 10% in the NGC~3190 group. We also present WSRT maps which show the complex morphology of the extended emission in the NGC~3227 group. We comment on previously proposed models of the interactions in these groups and the implications for the scale of group processing through interactions. Motivated by the extent of the HI plumes, we place the HI observations in the context of the larger loose group, demonstrating the need for future sensitive, wide field HI surveys to understand the role of group processing in galaxy evolution.

  9. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (Pmeat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. PMID:25089787

  10. Effects of nutrient solution pH on growth parameters of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nutrient solution pH (4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0 were examined on growth features of 12 alfalfa genotypes in relation to characters: leaf blade, epicotyl, hypocotyl, first leaf petiole, trifoliate leaf petiole and root fresh weight and epicotyl, hypocotyl, first leaf petiole, trifoliate leaf petiole and root length. Significant quadratic effects of pH solution were detected for all studied parameters. The pH value which resulted in maximum growth varied, according to the studied parameter, between 5.0 and 6.0. The genotypes Victoria, Esmeralda, Crioula and F-708 exhibited superior performance when data were pooled for all studied pH values. The results indicate that the initial growth is affected by pH variation in the nutrient solution, and that contrasting genotypes tend to perform alike.

  11. Biological activity of saponins from alfalfa tops and roots against Colorado potato beetle larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryla Szczepaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., included in the diet of Colorado potato beetle larvae reduced their feeding, growth rate and survival. The biological activity of those compounds coming both from the roots and from the aerial parts is closely correlated with the dose. Larvae reared on leaves treated with a 0,5% dose virtually did not feed at all and died after 4-6 days. Lower saponin doses (0,01 and 0,001 % reduced the insects' feeding to a lesser degree. However, they inhibited their growth, caused an extension of the larval stage and mortality at a level of 76,7- 100%. No major differences have been found in saponin activity depending on its localization in the plant.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF ALFALFA LOCAL POPULATIONS FOR CREATION OF NEW BREEDING GERMPLAZM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Čupić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield of dry matter and green mass are important factors in selection of fodder crop cultivars. Low genetic gain was achieved during the long time of fodder crops breeding for yield. Therefore we investigated possibility of using local populations of alfalfa for yield increase with direct and indirect selection. Strong and significant influence of genotypes and environments was recorded for all examined traits and their interactions at the level p<0.01. The highest variability was recorded for green mass yield 48.21%; while the lowest variation was for height 13.18%. High share of genotype variance as well as high heritability were recorded in total variance for the traits number of stem and plant height.

  13. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. II. OPTICAL IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Van Sistine, Angela; Young, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W., E-mail: rhode@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We present results from ground-based optical imaging of a low-mass dwarf galaxy discovered by the ALFALFA 21 cm H I survey. Broadband (BVR) data obtained with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxy's stellar population down to V{sub o} {approx} 25. We also use narrowband H{alpha} imaging from the KPNO 2.1 m telescope to identify a H II region in the galaxy. We use these data to constrain the distance to the galaxy to be between 1.5 and 2.0 Mpc. This places Leo P within the Local Volume but beyond the Local Group. Its properties are extreme: it is the lowest-mass system known that contains significant amounts of gas and is currently forming stars.

  14. NEW VARIETIES AND FORMATIONS OF GRAPES ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov A. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the modern wine growing, for fighting against root phylloxera an inoculation of European-Asian grapes varieties on rootstocks steady against this wrecker is used. In this article we present the information about the types of rootstocks of domestic and foreign breeding used in the modern branch of wine growing. The area of their use is described; the useful properties of rootstocks and their demerits are highlighted. The purpose of this work is creating new grapes rootstocks which wouldn't have the merits of existing rootstocks. The short description of the grapes rootstocks which were created in the Anapa Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking such as AZOS-1, AZOS-2, AZOS-3, AZOS-4, AZOS-5 and AZOS-6 is given in the article. It is indicated that these rootstocks have a high resistance to a leaf form of phylloxera, to chlorosis and to some other diseases of a grapes bush. They have the short period of vegetation, high quantity of standard cutting from hectare and other useful properties. In the article the description of a new formation of rootstocks grapes bushes of "AOS- 1" and "AOS-2" with a free trail shoots is given. This construction of grapes bush is developed by the Anapa's Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking. We have also given all the advantages of this forming in comparison with other designs of grapes bushes. It is especially noted that use of this forming of bushes increases the productivity per men in the process of bushes scrap and preparation of cutting; the expenditures on the struggle against diseases and wreckers on the vineyards are reduced; the quantity standard of grapes cutting increases by 27-33%

  15. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  16. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  17. Alfalfa leaf meal in finishing steer diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.; Brown, D.B.; Hall, J.M.

    1997-10-30

    Ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 540 lb.) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 167 or 189-day finishing phase, respectively. Treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, 100% of supplemental protein. Finishing diets were formulated to contain .61 Mcal NE{sub g}/lb dry matter, 12.5% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. There were no significant (P >.05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or dry matter required /lb of gain. Steers fed 100 % ALM consumed more (P <.05) dry matter than steers fed either of the other three treatments. Dry matter consumption increased linearly (P >.05) with increasing ALM. There was no significant (P >.05) dietary treatment effect on marbling, KPH %, yield grade, quality grade, or liver abscesses. There was an apparent trend in reduced liver abscess incidence in steers fed 100 % ALM. Steers fed 66 % ALM had significantly (P <.05) greater backfat measurements, backfat also had a cubic effect (P <.05). Hot carcass weight had a quadratic relation (P <.05) with level of ALM. Substituting alfalfa leaf meal for soybean meal in diets of finishing steers increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain which resulted in similar feed efficiency. There may be an advantage in blending ALM and soybean meal as feed efficiency was improved when cattle were fed the blend. Also, feeding ALM may result in lower incidence of liver abscess.

  18. The HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odekon, Mary Crone; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose A.; McGowan, Christopher; Micula, Adina; Reed, Lyle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory

    2016-06-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 systems at distances between 70 and 160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5<' {log} M/{M}⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger dependence of HI properties on environment, despite a similar dependence of color on environment at fixed stellar mass. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/{R}200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. While both central and satellite galaxies in the blue cloud exhibit a significant dependence of HI content on local density, only centrals show a strong dependence on stellar mass, and only satellites show a strong dependence on halo mass. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps ram-pressure stripping.

  19. Yield Evaluation of Twenty-Eight Alfalfa Cultivars in Hebei Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tie-jun; KANG Jun-mei; GUO Wen-shan; ZHAO Zhong-xiang; XU Yu-peng; YAN Xu-dong; YANG Qing-chuan

    2014-01-01

    Cultivar selection is important for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay production. From 2009 to 2012, a ifeld study was conducted to evaluate the dry matter yield (DMY) of 28 cultivars in Cangzhou District of Hebei province, China, and to determine the most suitable cultivars for this province and other zones with similar climate conditions. 28 alfalfa cultivars were sown in late March of 2009 and were harvested for hay four times in each subsequent year. The results showed that the climatic conditions resulted in signiifcant differences in annual DMY among years, with the second year being the highest and the ifrst year the lowest. The top ifve cultivars with the highest total DMY were L2750 (62.75 t ha-1), Horn (62.72 t ha-1), 86-266 (61.55 t ha-1), German (61.44 t ha-1) and Zhongmu 1 (61.18 t ha-1), respectively. Across all four years, ifrst harvest had the highest ratios to annual DMY except the cultivar of Rambler, while the fourth harvest had the lowest ratio. There were positive correlation relationships between DMY of each harvest and annual DMY, and the correlation coefifcients were all signiifcant in four years. And the path coefifcients of ifrst harvest were always the highest in four years. The qualities showed small variations among these cultivars and the cultivar L3750 presented the highest crude protein in both years. Crude protein had signiifcant positive correlation with relative feed value (RFV) in both years while crude ifber had signiifcant negative correlation with RFV and crude ifber.

  20. Experimental Study on Characteristics of High Water Plant Alfalfa%高水分植物苜蓿强化干燥特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车刚; 王鑫; 万霖

    2015-01-01

    针对苜蓿为非均一性物质的特性,亟待提高各组分干燥程度的一致性。通过紫花苜蓿的生理和物理特性的试验分析,建立叶片、茎秆和草段的干燥特性曲线。利用基本的物理方法,确定最长干燥存留时间与苜蓿含水率的关系,机械处理次数和草段长度对苜蓿干燥速率的影响规律。试验研究表明:用机械压裂茎秆的方式处理的苜蓿与未处理的相比,干燥速度提高1.5~2倍。选择光滑槽压扁一次和纵向槽重复压扁三次处理的干燥效果最好。%According to the characteristics of uniformity material on alfalfa,the drying consistency of alfalfa components would be improved. Drying characteristic curve of leaf,stem and grass were established by physiological and physical properties of alfalfa. Using the basic physical methods,the relationship of the longest drying time and moisture content of alfalfa was determined,and the effect law of mechanical processing times and grass length to alfalfa drying rate were studied. The experimental study showed the mechanical way of fracturing alfalfa was compared with untreated alfalfa,the drying rate was increased by 1.5-2 times. The best drying effect of squashed alfalfa stem was to use smooth slot one time and longitudinal slot three times.

  1. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes and incubation pH on in vitro degradation of NDF extracts of alfalfa and orchardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two in vitro assays (one with alfalfa and the other with orchardgrass were conducted to evaluate the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme preparation (enzyme and initial incubation pH (5.6, 6.2 and 6.8 on the degradation of NDF extracts. The enzyme increased (P≤0.05 degradation of alfalfa NDF: 1 at 6 h with pH 6.2 and 6.8; 2 at 9 and 12h with pH 5.6 and 6.2; 3 at 24h with all pH values; 4 at 48h with pH 5.6 and 6.8; 5 at 72h with pH 6.2 and 6.8. Alfalfa NDF degradation was changed (P≤0.05 by the enzyme with increasing pH, as follows: 1 a linear increase at 3h; 2 a linear decrease at 6 and 12h; 3 a quadratic effect at 24, 48, and 72h, and the highest value was observed with pH 6.2. Further effects (P≤0.05 of the enzyme on the alfalfa cell wall were the following: 1 with pH 5.6, the undegradable NDF fraction was reduced and the degradation rate was increased; 2 with pH 6.2, the lag phase was decreased; 3 as pH increased there was a quadratic effect on the lag phase, and the lowest value was found at pH 6.2. For orchardgrass the effects (P≤0.05 of the enzyme were as follows: 1 an increased NDF degradation at 24 and 48h; 2 a decreased linear degradation of NDF as pH increased, at 3, 6, and 9h. Scanning electron micrographs of the alfalfa cell wall showed that parenchyma cells appeared broken and the vascular bundles exposed after incubation with the enzyme mixture at pH 6.2 It may be concluded that a fibrolytic enzyme preparation at pH 6.2 enhanced in vitro degradation of alfalfa NDF.

  2. Spatial regression between soil surface elevation, water storage in root zone and biomass productivity of alfalfa within an irrigated field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Efficiency of water use for the irrigation purposes is connected to the variety of circumstances, factors and processes appearing along the transportation path of water from its sources to the root zone of the plant. Water efficiency of agricultural irrigation is connected with variety of circumstances, the impacts and the processes occurring during the transportation of water from water sources to plant root zone. Agrohydrological processes occur directly at the irrigated field, these processes linked to the infiltration of the applied water subsequent redistribution of the infiltrated water within the root zone. One of them are agrohydrological processes occurring directly on an irrigated field, connected with infiltration of water applied for irrigation to the soil, and the subsequent redistribution of infiltrated water in the root zone. These processes have the strongly pronounced spatial character depending on the one hand from a spatial variation of some hydrological characteristics of soils, and from other hand with distribution of volume of irrigation water on a surface of the area of an irrigated field closely linked with irrigation technology used. The combination of water application parameters with agrohydrological characteristics of soils and agricultural vegetation in each point at the surface of an irrigated field leads to formation of a vector field of intensity of irrigation water. In an ideal situation, such velocity field on a soil surface should represent uniform set of vertically directed collinear vectors. Thus values of these vectors should be equal to infiltration intensities of water inflows on a soil surface. In soil profile the field of formed intensities of a water flow should lead to formation in it of a water storage accessible to root system of irrigated crops. In practice this ideal scheme undergoes a lot of changes. These changes have the different nature, the reasons of occurrence and degree of influence on the processes connected

  3. Trivalent graphs, volume conjectures and character varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Nawata, Satoshi; Zodinmawia,

    2014-01-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to $U_q(sl_2)$ colored quantum invariants of trivalent graphs. The SL(2,C) character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with $E$ edges in $S^3$ is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus $g=E/3+1$. The configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety. In particular, we investigate both the conjectures for the theta and tetrahedron graphs.

  4. Alfalfa carbon and nitrogen sequestration patterns and effects of temperature and precipitation in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Chang

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a primary and widely cultivated forage crop in China. As a perennial leguminous grass, continuous planted alfalfa may influence carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa, planted for different lengths of time, and temperature and precipitation on soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (TN contents, and estimated soil SOC and TN inventories from 0-60 cm in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China. Alfalfa SOC and TN storage patterns were significantly different with increasing soil depths between the three regions of northern China. Continuous alfalfa grassland planted had a positive effect on accumulation of both SOC and TN in the Northwest region, whereas SOC storage peaked 6-7 years after planting in the Northeast and North region. Moreover, relatively higher TN storage appeared 7 years after planting in the Northeast and North regions. This study controlled as many factors as possible, but we caution that such temporal inferences could be artifacts of site selection. The regression analysis indicated that SOC and TN accumulation was mainly dependent on temperature (≥10°C of effective total accumulated temperature in the North region. Precipitation in the growing season was the main limiting factor for SOC storage in the Northwest region and TN accumulation in the North regions. Therefore, the different climate factors affecting SOC and TN sequestration in alfalfa occurred at a regional scale.

  5. 苜蓿叶部与根部病害研究的评价进展%Research and Resistance Evaluation Progress on Alfalfa Leaf and Root Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宁; 卢欣石

    2012-01-01

    For a better application of the excellent forge grass alfalfa, the alfalfa diseases must be reduced, in order to expand the production of alfalfa. The research and resistance evaluation progress on alfalfa leaf and root diseases were reviewed in this article. Some suggestions were raised about several questions of the research and establishment of alfalfa diseases resistance system in China. This article would also provided some reference for the researchers engaging in alfalfa diseases.%为了更好地应用苜蓿这种优良豆科牧草,减少苜蓿病害就成为当前扩大苜蓿生产的重要途径.针对苜蓿叶部和根部产生病害的研究进展和抗病评价做了综述,并针对当前研究进展为建立中国苜蓿抗病评价体系提出建议,为今后从事苜蓿抗病的研究人员提供了参考.

  6. Impact of Long-Term Alfalfa Cropping on Soil Potassium Content and Clay Minerals in a Semi-Arid Loess Soil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Cheng; B. VELDE; LI Feng-Min; ZHANG Gan-Lin; ZHAO Ming-Song; HUANG Lai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa cropping has been considered an efficient method of increasing soil fertility.Usually nitrogen increase in root nodules is considered to be the major beneficial effect.A 21-year time series (five sampling periods) of alfalfa cultivation plots on a loess soil,initially containing illite and chlorite,in Lanzhou of northwestern China was selected to investigate the relationships among alfalfa cropping,soil potassium (K) content and soil clay minerals.The results indicated that soil K significantly accumulated after cropping,with a peak value at about 15 years,and decreased afterwards.The accumulated K was associated with the K increase in the well-crystallized illite,which was not extracted by the traditional laboratory K extraction methods in assessing bioavailability.The steep decline in soil K content after 15-year cropping was in accord with the observed fertility loss in the alfalfa soil.Plant biomass productivity peaked at near 9 years of culture,whereas soil K and clay minerals continued to increase until cropping for 15 years.This suggested that K increased in the topsoil came from the deep root zone.Thus alfalfa continued to store K in clays even after peak production occurred.Nitrogen did not follow these trends,showing a general decline compared with the native prairie soils that had not been cropped.Therefore,the traditional alfalfa cropping can increase K content in the topsoil.

  7. Officially released mutant varieties in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of mutation techniques for crop improvement in China has a long and well-established tradition of more than 50 years. As the result of intensive research in many institutes dealing with application of nuclear technologies more than 620 cultivars of 44 crop species have been released. Numerous mutant varieties have been grown on a large scale bringing significant economic impact, sustaining crop production and greatly contributing to increase of food production also in stress prone areas of the country. However, there is still missing information not only on the number of mutant varieties released in particular crop species but also on mutagens applied, selection approaches and on the use of mutants in cross breeding. Numerous Chinese scientists collected and systematized this information. Results of their work were often published in local scientific journals in the Chinese language and as such were unavailable to breeders from other countries. Having this in mind, we requested Dr. Liu Luxiang, the Director of the Department of Plant Mutation Breeding and Genetics, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing to help us in finding as much information as possible on mutant varieties officially released in China. The data has been collected in close collaboration with his colleagues from various institutions all over the country and then evaluated, edited and prepared for publication by our team responsible for the FAO/IAEA Database of Officially Released Mutant Varieties. We would like to thank all Chinese colleagues who contributed to this list of Chinese mutant varieties. We hope that this publication will stimulate plant breeders in China to collect more information on released mutant varieties and especially on the use of mutated genes in cross breeding. (author)

  8. Geometry of Shimura varieties of Hodge type over finite fields

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiu, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    We present a general and comprehensive overview of recent developments in the theory of integral models of Shimura varieties of Hodge type. The paper covers the following topics: construction of integral models, their possible moduli interpretations, their uniqueness, their smoothness, their properness, and basic stratifications of their special fibres.

  9. New technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUPeiliang

    1994-01-01

    After 8 yrs lab experiments and field tests, an advanced technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast was developed by a research group in Plant Protection Institute, Zhejiang Academy of AgricuLltural Sciences. With this technique, the inoculum was prepared on a maizc-rice-straw-agar media which was suitable for sporulation of most rice blast pathogen isolates.

  10. genetics applied to the creation of new varieties of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic improvement of plants intended to create new varieties, as well as the study of the principles and techniques to get them, meet the real needs of farmers. The varietal improvement through breeding programs have enabled the development of new genetic variation in which you have the chance 'to select new lines, combining the favorable traits of the parents.

  11. Sensitivity of rice varieties to gamma irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    R.Sasikala and R.Kalaiyarasi

    2010-01-01

    Six promising rice varieties viz., CO 43, CO 47, CO 48, CO 49, ADT 43 and Improved White Ponni were treated withgamma irradiation with doses of 100Gy, 200Gy, 250Gy, 300Gy and 350Gy of gamma rays in order to study effect of gammairradiation in seed germination of rice varieties and study the root and shoot length variation. Treated seeds were sownseparately in germination paper and nursery with the two replications. The germination percentage was decreased aftergamma irradiation. But the decre...

  12. The lattice of idempotent distributive semiring varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Pastijn; 郭聿琦

    1999-01-01

    A solution is given for the word problem for free idempotent distributive semirings. Using this solution the lattice L(ID) of subvarieties of the variety ID of idempotent distributive semirings is determined. It turns out that L(ID) is isomorphic to the direct product of a four-element lattice and a lattice which is itself a subdirect product of four copies of the lattice L (B) of all band varieties. Therefore L(ID) is countably infinite and distributive. Every subvariety of ID is finitely based.

  13. 气象因子对北京不同秋眠等级苜蓿秋季刈割后再生高度的影响%Effect of Meteorological Factors on Fall Mowing Height of Alfalfa with Different Fall Dormancy in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高菲; 卢欣石

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of meteorological factors on different fall dormancy alfalfa after regeneration performance influence, using a completely randomized block design of the United States, 11 standard control fall dormancy alfalfa Varieties in autumn cutting regeneration relationship with meteorological factors. The results showed that in Beijing Area each fall dormancy alfalfa cutting in autumn two weeks after regeneration appeared significant differences, different fall dormancy alfalfa plant regeneration of height change and three meteorological factors of residual effect was smaller, descriptions of other factors on alfalfa fall cutting plantlet regeneration of high impact was not significant, it could be accumulated temperature, photoperiod and precipitation on fall dormancy of alfalfa as the main factor of influence. The effects were accumulated temperature> sunshine time > precipitation. The accumulated temperature and photoperiod on alfalfa fall cutting height had the greatest effect on regeneration after. Effects of accumulated temperature on regeneration to direct effects, there was a significant positive relationship; light hours and precipitation by accumulated temperature on the regeneration of highly positive effects, and its regeneration the direct effects of negative effect.%为了研究气象因子对不同秋眠等级苜蓿秋后再生性能的影响,采用完全随机区组设计,研究了美国11个标准对照秋眠等级苜蓿品种秋季刈割后再生高度与气象因子的关系.结果表明:北京地区各秋眠等级的苜蓿在秋后刈割2周后再生高度便出现显著差异,各秋眠等级苜蓿植株再生高度的变化与3个气象因子的剩余效应较小,说明其他因子对苜蓿秋季刈割后植株再生高度的影响并不显著,因此可将积温、光照时数及降水量作为研究苜蓿秋眠性的主要影响因子.其影响程度依次为积温>光照时数>降水量.积温和光照时数对苜蓿

  14. Sweet, red and Danish: New strawberry varieties on their way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Fjord, Thomas Ahle

    2000-01-01

    , the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration and MAPP participated. Danish strawberry growers initiated the project and the purpose is to assure the quality of strawberries and to improve the distribution and sale. In order to get consumers to evaluate both new and existing varieties the MAPP Centre carried......A strawberry isn't just a strawberry. Some are sweeter than others, more fragrant and juicier. It is therefore a difficult task to develop a strawberry that tastes like in childhood memories of endless sunny days, and which also is suitablefor the distribution system of today. But new varieties...

  15. Robust varieties and vigorous propagation material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Research on organic plant breeding and propagation material in the Netherlands is booming. This research is carried out in close cooperation with growers, breeders and the seed industry. Is organic breeding and propagation really different from the conventional system? And which types of varieties a

  16. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed varieties. 51.2112 Section 51.2112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  18. "Legal Language": Varieties, Genres, Registers, Discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzon, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes classification of "legal language," clarifying terms such as "variety,""genre,""register," and "discourse," and related issues in languages for special purposes, particularly as they apply to professions. Argues that "genre," not "register," is the most appropriate term for legal language, and that study of legal discourse should focus on…

  19. Phonological Convergence in a Contracting Language Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Barbara E.; Gerfen, Chip

    2004-01-01

    Most work investigating the role of convergence in situations of language attrition has focused on the morpho-syntactic restructuring of the dying language variety. A central concern of such research has been untangling the factors driving the restructuring with an eye towards establishing whether the changes observed are best viewed as externally…

  20. Three sibs with mild variety of osteopetrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah A

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available We report three sibs with mild autosomal recessive variety of osteopetrosis. The prominent clinical features were short stature, malocclusion of teeth, hepatosplenomegaly and a typical facial appearance. The only atypical features were microcephaly, a normal upper segment to lower segment ratio and a normal arm span.