WorldWideScience

Sample records for alfalfa nodules increases

  1. CO2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil root nodules and partitioning of 14C to the plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if nonphotosynthetic CO2 fixation by root nodules contributes carbon for the assimilation of fixed N2 in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and if assimilation products are partitioned to different plant organs. Effective alfalfa nodules excised from or attached to roots had apparent 14CO2 fixation rates of 50 to 80 μg CO2 kg-1s-1 (dry weight) at 0.0012 to 0.0038 mole fraction CO2. Nodule CO2 fixation rates increased six- to seven-fold as ambient CO2 was raised from 0.0038 to 0.0663 mole fraction. Respiration rates of nodules (3 to 4 mg CO2 kg-1s-1) were 10 to 100-fold higher than 14CO2 fixation rates of nodules. Pulse chase experiments with 14CO2 combined with nodule and xylem sap analysis demonstrated the initial products of root and nodule CO2 fixation were organic acids. However, the export of fixed 14C from effective nodules was primarily in the form of amino acids. In contrast, nodule and/or root fixed 14C in ineffectively nodulated alfalfa and denodulated effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil was transported primarily as organic acids. Aspartate, asparagine, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine were the most heavily labeled compounds in the amino acid fraction of both effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil nodules exposed to 14CO2. By contrast, asparate, asparagine, and glutamine were the predominantly labeled amino acids in xylem sap collected from nodulated effective roots exposed to 14CO2. The occurrence of nodule CO2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil and the export of fixed carbon as asparagine and aspartate to roots and shoots is consistent with a role for CO2 fixation by nodules in providing carbon skeletons for assimilation and transport of symbiotically fixed N2

  2. Screening of Highly Effective Sinorhizobium meliloti Strains for 'Vector' Alfalfa and Testing of Its Competitive Nodulation Ability in the Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhao-Hai; CHEN Wen-Xin; HU Yue-Gao; SUI Xin-Hua; CHEN Dan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen Sinorhizobium meliloti strains from seven provinces in China were used to screen highly effective strains for alfalfa cultivar in a greenhouse study and their symbiotic relationship and competitive ability were studied in the field.CCBAU30138 was the most effective strain,as evidenced by increase in dry weights.A field experiment showed that the inoculation of alfalfa with CCBAU30138 resulted in increases of 11.9%and 19.6%of dry matter production and crude protein production,respectively,in forage of monocultured plants.The total dry matter yields of alfalfa and tall fescue in binary culture were increased by 16.3%by inoculation of alfalfa with this strain.These results showed that S.Meliloti strain CCBAU30138 was an effective inoculant both in the greenhouse and in the field.The analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD)by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)from nodule extracts showed that the strain CCBAU30138 had high competitiveness in the field.It occupied 47.5%of nodules in alfalfa monoculture and 44.4% of nodules in alfalfa-tall fescue binary culture after 20 weeks of growth.In conclusion,a simple system to select highly effective and competitive symbiotic strains specific to alfalfa was established.Using this system.A strain suitable for the alfalfa cultivar'Vector’grown in Wuqiao County of Hebei Province was obtained.

  3. Erwinia herbicola isolates from alfalfa plants may play a role in nodulation of alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti.

    OpenAIRE

    Handelsman, J; Brill, W J

    1985-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola was isolated from roots of plants derived from surface-sterilized seeds of all alfalfa varieties that were tested. Some of these E. herbicola strains affected nodulation by certain strains of Rhizobium meliloti. In previously published work we presented the isolation of slow-and fast-nodulating variants from a single culture of R. meliloti 102F51. In the absence of E. herbicola, the slow-nodulating variant induced the formation of nodules on alfalfa as rapidly as the faster-...

  4. Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is an herb. People use the leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine. Alfalfa is used for kidney conditions, bladder and prostate ... bleeding disorder called thrombocytopenic purpura. People also take alfalfa as a source of vitamins A, C, E, ...

  5. The tep1 gene of Sinorhizobium meliloti coding for a putative transmembrane efflux protein and N-acetyl glucosamine affect nod gene expression and nodulation of alfalfa plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto María

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil bacteria collectively known as Rhizobium, characterized by their ability to establish beneficial symbiosis with legumes, share several common characteristics with pathogenic bacteria when infecting the host plant. Recently, it was demonstrated that a fadD mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti is altered in the control of swarming, a type of co-ordinated movement previously associated with pathogenicity, and is also impaired in nodulation efficiency on alfalfa roots. In the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris, a fadD homolog (rpfB forms part of a cluster of genes involved in the regulation of pathogenicity factors. In this work, we have investigated the role in swarming and symbiosis of SMc02161, a S. meliloti fadD-linked gene. Results The SMc02161 locus in S. meliloti shows similarities with members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS of transporters. A S. meliloti null-mutant shows increased sensitivity to chloramphenicol. This indication led us to rename the locus tep1 for transmembrane efflux protein. The lack of tep1 does not affect the appearance of swarming motility. Interestingly, nodule formation efficiency on alfalfa plants is improved in the tep1 mutant during the first days of the interaction though nod gene expression is lower than in the wild type strain. Curiously, a nodC mutation or the addition of N-acetyl glucosamine to the wild type strain lead to similar reductions in nod gene expression as in the tep1 mutant. Moreover, aminosugar precursors of Nod factors inhibit nodulation. Conclusion tep1 putatively encodes a transmembrane protein which can confer chloramphenicol resistance in S. meliloti by expelling the antibiotic outside the bacteria. The improved nodulation of alfalfa but reduced nod gene expression observed in the tep1 mutant suggests that Tep1 transports compounds which influence nodulation. In contrast to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, we show that in S. meliloti there is no feedback regulation

  6. Regulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) infected with Rhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberger, W

    1977-10-24

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium meliloti bacteroids in Medicago sativa root nodules was suppressed by several inorganic nitrogen sources. Amino acids like glutamine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which can serve as sole nitrogen sources for the unnodulated plant did not influence nitrogenase activity of effective nodules, even at high concetrations. Ammonia and nitrate suppressed symbiotic nitrogen fixation in vivo only at concentrations much higher than those needed for suppression of nitrogenase activity in free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. The kinetics of suppression were slow compared with that of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. On the other hand, nitrite, which acts as a direct inhibitor of nitrogenase, suppressed very quickly and at low concentrations. Glutamic acid and glutamine enhanced the effect of ammonia dramatically, while the suppression by nitrate was enhanced only slightly.

  7. Photosynthetic and Molecular Markers of CO2-mediated Photosynthetic Downregulation in Nodulated Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (A)lvaro Sanz-Sáez; Gorka Erice; Iker Aranjuelo; Ricardo Aroca; Juan Manuel Ruíz-Lozano; Jone Aguirreolea; Juan José Irigoyen

    2013-01-01

    Elevated CO2 leads to a decrease in potential net photosynthesis in long-term experiments and thus to a reduction in potential growth.This process is known as photosynthetic downregulation.There is no agreement on the definition of which parameters are the most sensitive for detecting CO2 acclimation.In order to investigate the most sensitive photosynthetic and molecular markers of CO2 acclimation,the effects of elevated CO2,and associated elevated temperature were analyzed in alfalfa plants inoculated with different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains.Plants (Medicago sativa L.cv.Aragón) were grown in summer or autumn in temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG).At the end of the experiment,all plants showed acclimation in both seasons,especially under elevated summer temperatures.This was probably due to the lower nitrogen (N) availability caused by decreased N2-fixation under higher temperatures.Photosynthesis measured at growth CO2 concentration,rubisco in vitro activity and maximum rate of carboxylation were the most sensitive parameters for detecting downregulation.Severe acclimation was also related with decreases in leaf nitrogen content associated with declines in rubisco content (large and small subunits) and activity that resulted in a drop in photosynthesis.Despite the sensitivity of rubisco content as a marker of acclimation,it was not coordinated with gene expression,possibly due to a lag between gene transcription and protein translation.

  8. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  9. Short-Term Molecular Acclimation Processes of Legume Nodules to Increased External Oxygen Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenhaus, Ulrike; Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; Dittert, Klaus; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Schulze, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier (ODB) located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the ODB is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30% oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about 2 min of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about 8 min later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency toward upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 min, corresponding to approximately 90% of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050) showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds) of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased neoformation of the enzyme. This reaction might be

  10. Excessive ammonia inhibited transcription of MsU2 gene and furthermore affected accumulation distribution of allantoin and amino acids in alfalfa Medicago sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; JIANG Lin-lin; Nomura Mika; Tajima Shigeyuki; CHENG Xian-guo

    2015-01-01

    In legume plants, uricase gene (Nodulin-35) plays a positive role in metabolism of ureide and amide compounds in symbiotic nitrogen-ifxing in the nodules. In this study, a pot experiment was performed to examine the effects of ammonium application on the transcription of MsU2 gene and distribution of major nitrogen compounds in alfalfa Medicago sativa. Data showed that alfalfa plant has a signiifcant difference in contents of nitrogen compounds in xylem saps compared with soybean plant, and belongs to typical amide type legume plants with little ureide accumulation, and the accumulation of asparagines and ureide in the tissues of alfalfa is mainly gathered in the nodules. Northern blotting showed that excessive ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the nodules and roots, and mRNA accumulation of MsU2 gene in the plants exposed to excessive ammonium decreased gradual y with culture time extension, indicating that application of ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the alfalfa plants. Although the application of exces-sive ammonium increased the contents of amino acids in various tissues of alfalfa, the accumulation of al antoin relfecting the strength of uricase activity is remarkably reduced in the xylem saps, stems and nodules when alfalfa plants exposed to excessive ammonium, suggesting that application of excessive ammonium generated a negative effect on symbiosis ifxing-nitrogen system due to inhibition of ammonium ion on uricase activity in the nodules of alfalfa. This result seems to imply that application of excessive ammonium in legume plants should not be proposed to avoid affecting the ability of ifxing nitrogen in the nodules of legume plants, and reasonable dose of ammonium should be recommended to effectively utilize the ifxed N from atmosphere in legume plant production.

  11. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase Gene, OsAPX2, Increases Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; MA Cui; XUE Xin; XU Ming; LI Jing; WU Jin-xia

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop in the world and it is of great signiifcance for the improvement of its salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance in alfalfa, a rice ascorbate peroxidase gene (OsAPX2) was introduced into alfalfa using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with marker gene bar. The different T-DNA insertions in T1 transgenic alfalfa were identiifed by Southern hybridization. Three independent T2 transgenic lines were selected for stress analysis and the results showed that all of them were salt tolerant compared with wild-type plants. The transgenic plants had low levels of H2O2, malondialdehyde and relative electrical conductivity under salt and drought stresses. Moreover, the contents of chlorophyll and proline, and APX activity were high in transgenic plants under salt and drought stresses. Taken together, the overexpression of OsAPX2 enhances salt tolerance in alfalfa through scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  12. Effect of plant growth promoting micro organisms on increasing water use efficiency of alfalfa in water-stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of bacterial growth on water use efficiency of alfalfa, a greenhouse experiment, as factorial based on completely randomized blocks design with three replications, was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran, in 2012. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of water stress (75, 55 and 35% of field capacity and seed inoculation at 4 levels (no inoculation (control, inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae, inoculation with rhyzobium S. meliloti, and inoculation with combination of mycorhhiza and rhyzobium. Results showed that water stress and seed inoculation have significant effect (P&le0.01 on leaf nutrients content. Water stress reduced absorption of phosphorus (23%, potassium (8%, iron (4% and increased sodium absorption (14% in non-inoculated seeds. Inoculation of seeds reduced stress effects and combined inoculation had the highest effect. Stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were affected (P&le0.01 by inoculation and water stress. Stomatal conductance was decreased during the stress period and seed inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae was most effective on increasing stomatal conductance (47% at the highest level of stress. Water use efficiency increased as a result of water stress and inoculation. The highest value of water use efficiency (0.166 mg/kg was obtained in the combined inoculation with 35% field capacity treatment. Results of regression equations showed that during the inoculation, contribution of phosphorus and potassium in regulation of stomatal conductance was increased and contribution of sodium was decreased.  However, during the stress period, the share of potassium and sodium was increased in stomatal conductance and the share of phosphorus was reduced. Also, stress increased the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency. However, inoculation reduced the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency.

  13. Extended hypoxia in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, increases survival but causes sub-lethal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many insects are tolerant of hypoxic conditions, but it is unknown whether survival under hypoxia comes at any cost to long-term health. The alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is a solitary cavity-nesting bee. Because juvenile M. rotundata develop in brood cells inside cavities, they may...

  14. Fixação do nitrogênio em alfafa nodulada sob supressão e ressuprimento de fósforo Nitrogen fixation in alfalfa nodulated under phosphorus supression and resupply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Gomes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da supressão e do ressuprimento de fósforo (Pi sobre a fixação biológica do nitrogênio atmosférico (N2 em plantas de alfafa cv. Flórida 77 inoculadas com Sinorhizobium meliloti, em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento vegetativo (V3 e V4 e reprodutivo (R6 e R8. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e as plantas cultivadas em solução nutritiva. O período de supressão de Pi por dez dias reduziu os teores de Pi nas folhas e nos nódulos em todos os estádios do desenvolvimento, enquanto nas raízes essa redução somente foi observada nos estádios vegetativos. Após o ressuprimento de Pi à solução nutritiva por igual período, dez dias, foi observada a recuperação nos teores de Pi nos estádios R6 e R8 para folhas, V3 e V4 para raízes e V3 para os nódulos. A supressão de Pi alterou o processo de fixação do N2, estimado pela concentração de aminoácidos totais nas folhas e nas raízes. Os teores de aminoácidos nas folhas e nas raízes foram significativamente menores nas plantas sob supressão de Pi, em relação aos das plantas do tratamento controle. Após o ressuprimento os teores de aminoácidos totais nas raízes, em todos os estádios do desenvolvimento, alcançaram valores similares àqueles das plantas do tratamento controle, enquanto nas folhas isso só ocorreu nos estádios vegetativos. A supressão de Pi não influenciou a proporção de aminoácidos livres na seiva do xilema.Phosphorus (Pi suppression and resupply effects were studied on nitrogen biological fixation (N2 in alfalfa cv. Florida 77 inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti in different vegetative (V3 and V4 and reproductive (R6 and R8 stages. The experiment was carried in greenhouse and the plants cultivated in nutritive solution. The inorganic phosphorus (Pi ten days suppression period decreased Pi levels in leaves and nodules in all growth stages, whereas in the roots this decrease was observed only in the

  15. Pulmonary Ground-Glass Nodules : Increase in Mass as an Early Indicator of Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, Bartjan; Gietema, Hester; van de Vorst, Saskia; Murphy, Keelin; van Klaveren, Rob J.; Prokop, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare manual measurements of diameter, volume, and mass of pulmonary ground-glass nodules (GGNs) to establish which method is best for identifying malignant GGNs by determining change across time. Materials and Methods: In this ethics committee-approved retrospective study, baseline an

  16. Pulmonary ground-glass nodules: increase in mass as an early indicator of growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, B. de; Gietema, H.; Vorst, S. van de; Murphy, K.; Klaveren, R.J.J. van; Prokop, M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare manual measurements of diameter, volume, and mass of pulmonary ground-glass nodules (GGNs) to establish which method is best for identifying malignant GGNs by determining change across time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this ethics committee-approved retrospective study, baseline an

  17. Pulmonary ground-glass nodules: Increase in mass as an early indicator of growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Hoop (Bartjan); H.A. Gietema; S. van de Vorst (Saskia); K. Murphy (Keelin); R.J. van Klaveren (Rob); M. Prokop (Mathias)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To compare manual measurements of diameter, volume, and mass of pulmonary ground-glass nodules (GGNs) to establish which method is best for identifying malignant GGNs by determining change across time. Materials and Methods: In this ethics committee - approved retrospective stud

  18. Impact of Long-Term Alfalfa Cropping on Soil Potassium Content and Clay Minerals in a Semi-Arid Loess Soil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Cheng; B. VELDE; LI Feng-Min; ZHANG Gan-Lin; ZHAO Ming-Song; HUANG Lai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa cropping has been considered an efficient method of increasing soil fertility.Usually nitrogen increase in root nodules is considered to be the major beneficial effect.A 21-year time series (five sampling periods) of alfalfa cultivation plots on a loess soil,initially containing illite and chlorite,in Lanzhou of northwestern China was selected to investigate the relationships among alfalfa cropping,soil potassium (K) content and soil clay minerals.The results indicated that soil K significantly accumulated after cropping,with a peak value at about 15 years,and decreased afterwards.The accumulated K was associated with the K increase in the well-crystallized illite,which was not extracted by the traditional laboratory K extraction methods in assessing bioavailability.The steep decline in soil K content after 15-year cropping was in accord with the observed fertility loss in the alfalfa soil.Plant biomass productivity peaked at near 9 years of culture,whereas soil K and clay minerals continued to increase until cropping for 15 years.This suggested that K increased in the topsoil came from the deep root zone.Thus alfalfa continued to store K in clays even after peak production occurred.Nitrogen did not follow these trends,showing a general decline compared with the native prairie soils that had not been cropped.Therefore,the traditional alfalfa cropping can increase K content in the topsoil.

  19. [Genetic resources of nodule bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantseva, M L

    2009-09-01

    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) form highly specific symbiosis with leguminous plants. The efficiency of accumulation of biological nitrogen depends on molecular-genetic interaction between the host plant and rhizobia. Genetic characteristics of microsymbiotic strains are crucial in developing highly productive and stress-resistant symbiotic pairs: rhizobium strain-host plant cultivar (species). The present review considers the issue of studying genetic resources of nodule bacteria to identify genes and their blocks, responsible for the ability of rhizobia to form highly effective symbiosis in various agroecological conditions. The main approaches to investigation of intraspecific and interspecific genetic and genomic diversity of nodule bacteria are considered, from MLEE analysis to the recent methods of genomic DNA analysis using biochips. The data are presented showing that gene centers of host plants are centers of genetic diversification of nodule bacteria, because the intraspecific polymorphism of genetic markers of the core and the accessory rhizobial genomes is extremely high in them. Genotypic features of trapped and nodule subpopulations of alfalfa nodule bacteria are discussed. A survey of literature showed that the genomes of natural strains in alfalfa gene centers exhibit significant differences in genes involved in control of metabolism, replication, recombination, and the formation of defense response (hsd genes). Natural populations of rhizobia are regarded as a huge gene pool serving as a source of evolutionary innovations.

  20. Overexpression of malate dehydrogenase in transgenic alfalfa enhances organic acid synthesis and confers tolerance to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, M; Temple, S J; Allan, D L; Vance, C P; Samac, D A

    2001-12-01

    Al toxicity is a severe impediment to production of many crops in acid soil. Toxicity can be reduced through lime application to raise soil pH, however this amendment does not remedy subsoil acidity, and liming may not always be practical or cost-effective. Addition of organic acids to plant nutrient solutions alleviates phytotoxic Al effects, presumably by chelating Al and rendering it less toxic. In an effort to increase organic acid secretion and thereby enhance Al tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), we produced transgenic plants using nodule-enhanced forms of malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase cDNAs under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We report that a 1.6-fold increase in malate dehydrogenase enzyme specific activity in root tips of selected transgenic alfalfa led to a 4.2-fold increase in root concentration as well as a 7.1-fold increase in root exudation of citrate, oxalate, malate, succinate, and acetate compared with untransformed control alfalfa plants. Overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme specific activity in transgenic alfalfa did not result in increased root exudation of organic acids. The degree of Al tolerance by transformed plants in hydroponic solutions and in naturally acid soil corresponded with their patterns of organic acid exudation and supports the concept that enhancing organic acid synthesis in plants may be an effective strategy to cope with soil acidity and Al toxicity. PMID:11743127

  1. A comparison of constitutive promoters for expression of transgenes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah A; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Dornbusch, Melinda; Saruul, Purev; Temple, Stephen J

    2004-08-01

    The activity of constitutive promoters was compared in transgenic alfalfa plants using two marker genes. Three promoters, the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), the cassava vein mosaic virus (CsVMV) promoter, and the sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) promoter were each fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) gene. The highest GUS enzyme activity was obtained using the CsVMV promoter and all alfalfa cells assayed by in situ staining had high levels of enzyme activity. The 35S promoter was expressed in leaves, roots, and stems at moderate levels, but the promoter was not active in stem pith cells, root cortical cells, or in the symbiotic zones of nodules. The ScBV promoter was active primarily in vascular tissues throughout the plant. In leaves, GUS activity driven by the CsVMV promoter was approximately 24-fold greater than the activity from the 35S promoter and 38-fold greater than the activity from the ScBV promoter. Five promoters, the double 35S promoter, figwort mosaic virus (FMV) promoter, CsVMV promoter, ScBV promoter, and alfalfa small subunit Rubisco (RbcS) promoter were used to control expression of a cDNA from Trichoderma atroviride encoding an endochitinase (ech42). Highest chitinase activity in leaves, roots, and root nodules was obtained in plants containing the CsVMV:ech42 transgene. Plants expressing the endochitinase were challenged with Phoma medicaginis var. medicaginis, the causal agent of spring black stem and leaf spot of alfalfa. Although endochitinase activity in leaves of transgenic plants was 50- to 2650-fold greater than activity in control plants, none of the transgenic plants showed a consistent increase in disease resistance compared to controls. The high constitutive levels of both GUS and endochitinase activity obtained demonstrate that the CsVMV promoter is useful for high-level transgene expression in alfalfa. PMID:15517994

  2. Altered susceptibility to infection by Sinorhizobium meliloti and Nectria haematococca in alfalfa roots with altered cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H-H; Hirsch, A M; Hawes, M C

    2004-07-01

    Most infections of plant roots are initiated in the region of elongation; the mechanism for this tissue-specific localization pattern is unknown. In alfalfa expressing PsUGT1 antisense mRNA under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, the cell cycle in roots is completed in 48 h instead of 24 h, and border cell number is decreased by more than 99%. These plants were found to exhibit increased root-tip infection by a fungal pathogen and reduced nodule formation by a bacterial symbiont. Thus, the frequency of infection in the region of elongation by Nectria haematocca was unaffected, but infection of the root tip was increased by more than 90%; early stages of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection and nodule morphology were normal, but the frequency of nodulation was fourfold lower than in wild-type roots. PMID:15042410

  3. Altered susceptibility to infection by Sinorhizobium meliloti and Nectria haematococca in alfalfa roots with altered cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H-H; Hirsch, A M; Hawes, M C

    2004-07-01

    Most infections of plant roots are initiated in the region of elongation; the mechanism for this tissue-specific localization pattern is unknown. In alfalfa expressing PsUGT1 antisense mRNA under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, the cell cycle in roots is completed in 48 h instead of 24 h, and border cell number is decreased by more than 99%. These plants were found to exhibit increased root-tip infection by a fungal pathogen and reduced nodule formation by a bacterial symbiont. Thus, the frequency of infection in the region of elongation by Nectria haematocca was unaffected, but infection of the root tip was increased by more than 90%; early stages of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection and nodule morphology were normal, but the frequency of nodulation was fourfold lower than in wild-type roots.

  4. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Body in Balance › Thyroid Nodules Fact Sheet Thyroid Nodules March 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Hindi ... Singer, MD Leonard Wartofsky, MD What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped ...

  5. Elevated CO{sub 2} enhances plant growth in droughted N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa without improving water status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, I. De; Irigoyen, J.J.; Sanchez-Diaz, M. [Univ. de Navarra, Dept. de Fisiologia Vegetal, Pamplona (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The long-term interaction between elevated CO{sub 2} and soil water deficit was analysed in N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa plants in order to assess the possible drought tolerance effect of CO{sub 2}. Elevated CO{sub 2} could delay the onset of drought stress by decreasing transpiration rates, but this effect was avoided by subjecting plants to the same soil water content. Nodulated alfalfa plants subjected to ambient (400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) or elevated (700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) CO{sub 2} were either well watered or partially watered by restricting water to obtain 30% of the water content at field capacity (approximately 0.55 g water cm{sup -3}). The negative effects of soil water deficit on plant growth were counterbalanced by elevated CO{sub 2}. In droughted plants, elevated CO{sub 2} stimulated carbon fixation and, as a result, biomass production was even greater than in well-watered plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. Below-ground production was preferentially stimulated by elevated CO{sub 2} in droughted plants, increasing nodule biomass production and the availability of photosynthates to the nodules. As a result, total nitrogen content in droughted plants was higher than in well-watered plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. The beneficial effect of elevated CO{sub 2} was not correlated with a better plant water status. It is concluded that elevated CO{sub 2} enhances growth of droughted plants by stimulating carbon fixation, preferentially increasing the availability of photosynthates to below-ground production (roots and nodules) without improving water status. This means that elevated CO{sub 2} enhances the ability to produce more biomass in N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa under given soil water stress, improving drought tolerance. (au)

  6. Extended hypoxia in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, increases survival but causes sub-lethal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, H; Rinehart, J P; Yocum, G D; Greenlee, K J; Helm, B R; Kemp, W P; Schulz, C H; Bowsher, J H

    2014-05-01

    Many insects are tolerant of hypoxic conditions, but survival may come at a cost to long-term health. The alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, develops in brood cells inside natural cavities, and may be exposed to hypoxic conditions for extended periods of time. Whether M. rotundata is tolerant of hypoxia, and whether exposure results in sub-lethal effects, has never been investigated. Overwintering M. rotundata prepupae were exposed to 10%, 13%, 17%, 21% and 24% O2 for 11 months. Once adults emerged, five indicators of quality - emergence weight, body size, feeding activity, flight performance, and adult longevity, - were measured to determine whether adult bees that survived past exposure to hypoxia were competent pollinators. M. rotundata prepupae are tolerant of hypoxic condition and have higher survival rates in hypoxia, than in normoxia. Under hypoxia, adult emergence rates did not decrease over the 11 months of the experiment. In contrast, bees reared in normoxia had decreased emergence rates by 8 months, and were dead by 11 months. M. rotundata prepupae exposed to extended hypoxic conditions had similar emergence weight, head width, and cross-thorax distance compared to bees reared in standard 21% oxygen. Despite no significant morphological differences, hypoxia-exposed bees had lower feeding rates and shorter adult lifespans. Hypoxia may play a role in post-diapause physiology of M. rotundata, with prepupae showing better survival under hypoxic conditions. Extended exposure to hypoxia, while not fatal, causes sub-lethal effects in feeding rates and longevity in the adults, indicating that hypoxia tolerance comes at a cost. PMID:24662466

  7. Overexpression of an alfalfa GDP-mannose 3, 5-epimerase gene enhances acid, drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Zhipeng

    2014-11-01

    GDP-mannose 3', 5'-epimerase (GME) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment (MsGME) encoding a GME protein was isolated and characterised from alfalfa (Medicago sativa). An expression analysis confirmed that MsGME expression was induced by salinity, PEG and acidity stresses. MsGME overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to salt, drought and acid. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), L-galactose-phosphate 1-P phosphatase (GP) and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis (T3 generation). Moreover, the ascorbate content was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that MsGME can effectively enhance tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to acid, drought and salt by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

  8. Lung Nodules: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count You are here: Health Information > Condition Information Lung Nodule: Overview What is a lung nodule? A lung nodule is also called a ... better outcome. What are the symptoms of a lung nodule? Nearly 90% of all lung nodules are ...

  9. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg−1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg−1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g−1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  10. Overexpression of EsMcsu1 from the halophytic plant Eutrema salsugineum promotes abscisic acid biosynthesis and increases drought resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Ma, Z Y; Zhu, L; Guo, J S; Zhu, J; Wang, J F

    2015-01-01

    The stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays pivotal roles in plants' adaptive responses to adverse environments. Molybdenum cofactor sulfurases influence aldehyde oxidase activity and ABA biosynthesis. In this study, we isolated a novel EsMcsu1 gene encoding a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase from Eutrema salsugineum. EsMcus1 transcriptional patterns varied between organs, and its expression was significantly upregulated by abiotic stress or ABA treatment. Alfalfa plants that overexpressed EsMcsu1 had a higher ABA content than wild-type (WT) plants under drought stress conditions. Furthermore, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ion leakage, and malondialdehyde were lower in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants after drought treatment, suggesting that the transgenic plants experienced less ROS-mediated damage. However, the expression of several stress-responsive genes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmolyte (proline and total soluble sugar) levels in the transgenic plants were higher than those in the WT plants after drought treatment. Therefore, EsMcsu1 overexpression improved drought tolerance in alfalfa plants by activating a series of ABA-mediated stress responses. PMID:26681214

  11. Studies on the Alfalfa Growing Effects of Alfalfa Rhizobium%苜蓿根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊川; 杨旭升; 曹亚斌

    2015-01-01

    通过不同剂量苜蓿根瘤菌接种两种紫花苜蓿试验,比较了接种根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长的影响。试验结果表明:接种苜蓿根瘤菌剂能够提高紫花苜蓿结瘤数量和根瘤重,促进紫花苜蓿的生长发育,增加苜蓿草的产草量。在所试验的接种剂量中,以每 kg 苜蓿种子接种12mL 根瘤菌剂为最佳接种量。%This paper studied the alfalfa growing effects of alfalfa rhizobium by inoculated different amounts.The experimental results showed that inoculating rhizobium can raise the nodulating amount of alfalfa and the weight of nodulations,promoting the growth of alfalfas and augment the productions of alfalfas.Among the different inoculated amounts,the amount of 12ml is the best inoculated amount.

  12. Photosynthate partitioning in alfalfa before harvest and during regrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the harvest regrowth cycle of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants, factors such as source to sink distance, sink size, and inter-organ competition continually change. However, consequent changes in the pattern of photosynthate partitioning from leaves to other organs are poorly understood. The authors objective was to examine photosynthate partitioning from upper and lower alfalfa leaves at intervals before herbage harvest and during regrowth after harvest. The uppermost or lowest fully expanded leaf on the longest or dominant stem was labeled with 14CO2. After a 24-h translocation period, the plants were divided into various organs to determine distribution of the radiocarbon. At that time, the upper leaf preferentially partitioned photosynthate to the shoot apex, unexpanded leaves and auxillary shoots of the dominant shoot, whereas the lower leaf preferentially distributed photosynthate to the crown shoots, crown, root, and nodules. Expressions of 14C partitioning were affected differently by organ mass. While the smallest organs such as nodules and unexpanded leaves always ranked higher for 14C based on relative specific activity, the largest organs such as roots and crown shoots accumulated the largest percentage of total plant recovered radioactivity. The results illustrate the importance of growth stage and leaf position in photosynthate partitioning in alfalfa and the dominance of herbage meristems for current photosynthate during regrowth

  13. Health status of alfalfa leafcutting bee larvae (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in United States alfalfa seed fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R R; Pitts-Singer, T L

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a broad geographic survey in the northwestern United States to quantify production losses in the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata (F.), Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), a solitary pollinator used extensively in alfalfa seed production. Viable larvae were found in only 47.1% of the nest cells collected at the end of the season. Most of the rest of the cells contained pollen balls (typified by a provision but no larva; 16.7%), unknown causes of mortality (15.5%), or larvae killed by chalkbrood (8.0%). Prevalence of pollen balls was correlated positively with bee release rates and negatively with alfalfa stand age. The unknown mortality was correlated with the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Plant Hardiness Zone, and thus, some of the mortality may be caused by high temperature extremes, although the nesting season degree-days were not correlated with this mortality. Chalkbrood prevalence was correlated with possible nesting-resource or crowding-related factors, such as the number of bees released per hectare and the number of shelters used, but not with nesting board disinfection practices. Vapona is used to control parasitoids when the parent bees are incubated before release, and use of this fumigant was associated with an increase in both chalkbrood and diapausing offspring, although any reason for these correlations are unknown. This survey quantifies the variation in the quality of alfalfa leafcutting bee cocoons produced across much of the U.S. alfalfa seed production area. PMID:24128927

  14. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  15. Revisiting the Economic Injury Level and Economic Threshold Model for Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, Elissa M; Undersander, Dan J; Cullen, Eileen M

    2015-08-01

    The economic injury level for potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was developed over 30 yr ago. In response to increasing market value of alfalfa, farmers and consultants are interested in reducing the economic threshold for potato leafhopper in alfalfa. To address this question, caged field trials were established on two consecutive potato leafhopper susceptible crops in 2013. Field cages were infested with a range of potato leafhopper densities to create a linear regression of alfalfa yield response. The slopes, or yield loss per insect, for the linear regressions of both trials were used to calculate an economic injury level for a range of current alfalfa market values and control costs. This yield-loss relationship is the first quantification that could be used to help assess whether the economic threshold should be lowered, given the increased market value of alfalfa.

  16. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M.; Pozo, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antif...

  17. Impact of Bee Species and Plant Density on Alfalfa Pollination and Potential for Gene Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Johanne Brunet; Stewart, Christy M.

    2010-01-01

    In outcrossing crops like alfalfa, various bee species can contribute to pollination and gene flow in seed production fields. With the increasing use of transgenic crops, it becomes important to determine the role of these distinct pollinators on alfalfa pollination and gene flow. The current study examines the relative contribution of honeybees, three bumble bee species, and three solitary bee species to pollination and gene flow in alfalfa. Two wild solitary bee species and one wild bumble ...

  18. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (pducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  19. Alfalfa leafcutting bee population dynamics, flower availability, and pollination rates in two Oregon alfalfa fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jordi; Kemp, William P

    2005-08-01

    Since the 1970s, it has become increasingly difficult for U.S. alfalfa seed producers to maintain Megachile rotundata (F.) populations used for alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., pollination. In 1998, we monitored M. rotundata population dynamics and foraging behavior, as well as alfalfa bloom and pollination rates in two fields in eastern Oregon. Despite marked differences in bee management, establishment was very similar in the two fields (approximately 0.5 females per nesting cavity) and lagged peak bloom by approximately 2 wk. Pollination rates increased from 0-10% in the first 3 wk to 80-90% in week 4-5. By then, M. rotundata females had difficulty finding untripped (nonpollinated) flowers and visited large numbers of already tripped or not fully matured flowers. M. rotundata progeny mortality was very high (54-78%). Estimated seed yields were similar in both fields. We contend similar seed yields, and improved bee production, could be accomplished with smaller bee populations, better timed with alfalfa bloom. PMID:16156556

  20. Nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining soil alleviates Cd toxicity and increases Cd-phytoextraction in Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghnaya, Tahar; Mnassri, Majda; Ghabriche, Rim; Wali, Mariem; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-01-01

    Besides their role in nitrogen supply to the host plants as a result of symbiotic N fixation, the association between legumes and Rhizobium could be useful for the rehabilitation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction. A major limitation presents the metal-sensitivity of the bacterial strains. The aim of this work was to explore the usefulness of Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining site for Cd phytoextraction by Medicago sativa. Inoculated and non-inoculated plants were cultivated for 60 d on soils containing 50 and/or 100 mg Cd kg−1 soil. The inoculation hindered the occurrence of Cd- induced toxicity symptoms that appeared in the shoots of non-inoculated plants. This positive effect of S. meliloti colonization was accompanied by an increase in biomass production and improved nutrient acquisition comparatively to non-inoculated plants. Nodulation enhanced Cd absorption by the roots and Cd translocation to the shoots. The increase of plant biomass concomitantly with the increase of Cd shoot concentration in inoculated plants led to higher potential of Cd-phytoextraction in these plants. In the presence of 50 mg Cd kg−1 in the soil, the amounts of Cd extracted in the shoots were 58 and 178 μg plant−1 in non-inoculated and inoculated plants, respectively. This study demonstrates that this association M. sativa-S. meliloti may be an efficient biological system to extract Cd from contaminated soils. PMID:26528320

  1. [Alfalfa Planting as weed control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter to farming cooperators regarding the stipulations surrounding alfalfa plantings in lieu of small grain plantings to provide weed control,...

  2. Evidence for the formation of different-sized nodules by different accretionary processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    Studies on different-sized polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin reveal that chemical composition is largely related to the nodule diameter which show systematic decrease in Mn, Cu, and Ni content with increase in nodule size...

  3. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. (Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (USA)); Geno, P.W. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  4. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures

  5. Scintigraphy and thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scintigraphy indications are: definition of the functional character in the multi nodules impairments, exploration of low T.S.H. (131I irradiation-therapy, cytological selection of hypo contrasted nodules. The comparison of the 123I fixation and the T.S.H. rate allows to identify the autonomous nodules and the autoimmune nodules hyperplasia. The longitudinal surveillance of nodules (97% of benign pathology) is simplified by scintigraphy: in lack of empowerment, the T.S.H surveillance is useless, in presence of hyper functional areas, the cytology is little useful but a surveillance or an etiologic treatment are required. (IT4, 131I, or surgery). (N.C.)

  6. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  7. Relation between soybean nodulation byBradyrhizobium japonicum and intensity of infestation with the spider miteTetranychus cucurbitacearum (Saved) under different sowing dates and increasing amounts of nitrogenous fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Y G; Hassan, A A; El-Beheiry, M M; Hassan, M E

    1991-01-01

    Inoculation of soybeans withBradyrhizobium japonicum and also the time of sowing of soybeans were studied under N-fertilization with urea at 0, 96 and 192 kg N/ha. Intensity of infestation with the spider miteTetranychus cucurbitacearum (Saved) was followed over six weeks. Inoculation greatly enhanced nodule numbers and weight, dry weight and N content of 65-day-old plant, seed yield, seed N content, 100-seed weight and efficiency of use of N from urea. Counts of the spider mite were increased by inoculation and N fertilization but decreased sharply under late plantation. Fertilizer N proportionally decreased nodulation, N2-fixation and productivity of chemical fertilizer. A late sowing date gave the least seed production but the maximum percentage increase in seed yield if inoculated. This indicated a lower efficiency of chemical fertilizer N utilization and the necessity for inoculation.

  8. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks.

  9. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris Have Characteristics in Common with Sinorhizobium meliloti Isolates from Mainland Spain▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; Van Berkum, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 ...

  10. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  11. The radiosensitivity of alfalfa varieties and the fuzzy concentration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dried alfalfa seeds (12.1% moisture) were exposed to 6'0Co γ radiation field with 0∼36.1 C/kg radiation doses (irradiation rate is 2.84 x 10-2 C/(kg·min)) to observe and measure some radio-bio-effectivity. In the range of irradiation doses, vitality index, root length, seedling survival rate, seedling height, plant height and grass yield decreased and pollen sterility, micro-nucleus rate, free radical relative content increased as the amount of radiation increased. The activity of peroxidase increased as the amount of radiation increased within certain range of dose and tended to decreased beyond that range. Vitality index and root length, which dosage effect curve is compatible with multiple targets-single hit model, and seedling survival rate, seedling height, plant height and grass yield, which dosage effect curve is compatible with linear regression model. There were strong co-relations between the seedling height, micro-nucleus cell rate and the free radical relative content (P<0.01). There were very significant difference (P<0.01) between the alfalfa species and varieties. With fuzzy concentration analysis method, the alfalfa sample were classified into five groups: higher sensitive, sensitive, intermediate, resistant, higher resistant. The suitable irradiation doses for the alfalfa species and varieties are between 12.9∼34.8 mCi/kg

  12. Study on Alfalfa Yield Improved by New Rare Earth Materials for Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Tianwen; Abudukahar; Cui Yingguo; Peng Jianzhang; Wang Jiachen

    2004-01-01

    New rare earth(RE) materials for agriculture including RE entire nutrition agent, amino acid chelated RE fertilizer, RE phosphate were used to alfalfa production in Grassland Working Station of Yili, Xinjiang Province, and repetition was 3 with 7 treatments.The result shows that by using new RE materials, the average treatment height of alfalfa increases by 12.5% compared with traditional cultural, and the yield increases from 21.8% to 41.6% compared with that of traditional cultural.These results show that the new materials have significant good effect on alfalfa production.

  13. Study in mutation of alfalfa genome DNA due to low energy N+ implantation using RAPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After implanted by various dosage N+ beams, germination rate of alfalfa seeds appears to be saddle line with dosage increasing. The authors have studied in mutation of genome DNA due to low energy N+ implantation, and concluded that 30 differential DNA fragments have been amplified by 8 primers (S41, S42, S45, S46, S50, S52, S56, S58) in 100 primers, moreover, number of differential DNA fragments between CK and treatments increases with dosage. Consequently, low energy ion implantation can cause mutation of alfalfa genome DNA. The more dosage it is, the more mutation alfalfa will be

  14. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue proliferatio

  15. N abundance of nodules as an indicator of N metabolism in n(2)-fixing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, G; Feldman, L; Bryan, B A; Skeeters, J L; Kohl, D H; Amarger, N; Mariotti, F; Mariotti, A

    1982-08-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of (15)N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N(2)-fixing plants. N(2)-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in (15)N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N(2)-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in (15)N. Thus, (15)N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N(2)-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of (15)N enrichment in N(2)-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N(2) and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit (15)N enrichment. PMID:16662517

  16. Detection of pulmonary nodule growth with dose reduced chest tomosynthesis: a human observer study using simulated nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderman, Christina; Johnsson, Ã. se; Vikgren, Jenny; Rossi Norrlund, Rauni; Molnar, David; Mirzai, Maral; Svalkvist, Angelica; Mânsson, Lars Gunnar; Bâth, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Chest tomosynthesis may be a suitable alternative to computed tomography for the clinical task of follow up of pulmonary nodules. The aim of the present study was to investigate the detection of pulmonary nodule growth suggestive of malignancy using chest tomosynthesis. Previous studies have indicated remained levels of detection of pulmonary nodules at dose levels corresponding to that of a conventional lateral radiograph, approximately 0.04 mSv, which motivated to perform the present study this dose level. Pairs of chest tomosynthesis image sets, where the image sets in each pair were acquired of the same patient at two separate occasions, were included in the study. Simulated nodules with original diameters of approximately 8 mm were inserted in the pairs of image sets, simulating situations where the nodule had remained stable in size or increased isotropically in size between the two different imaging occasions. Four different categories of nodule growth were included, corresponding to a volume increase of approximately 21 %, 68 %, 108 % and 250 %. All nodules were centered in the depth direction in the tomosynthesis images. All images were subjected to a simulated dose reduction, resulting in images corresponding to an effective dose of 0.04 mSv. Four observers were given the task of rating their confidence that the nodule was stable in size or not on a five-level rating scale. This was done both before any size measurements were made of the nodule as well as after measurements were performed. Using Receiver operating characteristic analysis, the rating data for the nodules that were stable in size was compared to the rating data for the nodules simulated to have increased in size. Statistically significant differences between the rating distributions for the stable nodules and all of the four nodule growth categories were found. For the three largest nodule growths, nearly perfect detection of nodule growth was seen. In conclusion, the present study

  17. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  18. [Benign thyroid nodules: diagnostic and therapeutic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Cosimo; Cava, Francesco; Paciaroni, Alessandra; Filetti, Sebastiano

    2008-05-01

    In the last years an increase in thyroid nodules detection has been reported from several epidemiological studies. This trend is largely due to the routine use of diagnostic sonography procedures in clinical practice. Thyroid nodules, both palpable or not palpable, rarely turn out to be malignant. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAc) plays a central role in establishing the nature of the nodule. Excluded the presence of malignant lesions, which are generally treated with surgery, physicians are faced with a variety of therapeutic options, and choosing the optimal approach can be a difficult task. These include a periodic follow-up alone without treatment, the iodine supplementation, the thyroid-hormone suppressive therapy, the radioiodine administration, the percutaneous ethanol injections, and the new technique of laser photocoagulation. In all cases, decisions on the management of benign thyroid nodules should always be based on clinical target and a careful analysis of benefits and risks to the patient. PMID:18581970

  19. Relationship between size and geochemistry of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Significance in selection of high grade nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Ambre, N.V.

    and moisture contents and indicate their formation at deeper depths by a hydrogenous process. N/n (size of nodule/nucleus) ratios and nucleus size increase with increase in nodule size, supporting the view that smaller and larger nodules were formed differently...

  20. Weed management research in alfalfa seed production in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed. Alfalfa seed is produced with wider row and lower plant populations than alfalfa forage requiring greater weed management inputs. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa seed and forage pro...

  1. Promise and pitfalls of molecular markers of thyroid nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav, S.; Anurag Lila; Tushar Bandgar; Nalini Shah

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a prevalence of 5-7% The initial evaluation of thyroid nodules commonly involves thyroid function tests, an ultrasound (USG) and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The optimal management of patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology is plagued by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities In this article we attempt to review the available literature on the molecular markers which are increasingly ...

  2. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N;

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...

  3. Nodules size: An important factor in nodule mining?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    A study of about 850 different sized nodules from 234 sites in the Central Indian Basin (CIB) showed a clear inverse relationship between size and grade of nodules. Among the different sized nodules, only the small (less than 2 cm) and medium (2...

  4. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  5. Role of silicon counteracting cadmium toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Kabir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase and MsMT2 (metallothionein] and PC (phytochelatin accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter, MsNramp1 (metal transporter and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants.

  6. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  7. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  8. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  9. [Management of subsolid pulmonary nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenhuber, E.; Mostbeck, G.; Prosch, H.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The finding of subsolid pulmonary nodules poses a frequent problem in the daily routine of the radiologist. The biological behavior of such subsolid lesions differs significantly from solid nodules. The risk of malignancy is significantly higher in subsolid nodules as compared to solid or purely gro

  10. An infiltrating rheumatoid nodule?

    OpenAIRE

    Isdale, A H; Helliwell, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    The case is presented of a patient with mild rheumatoid arthritis who developed an enlarged painful tissue mass in the left lower leg. Although the history, clinical, and imaging appearances suggested that it was a soft tissue sarcoma, a biopsy specimen showed histological features consistent with either a rheumatoid nodule or subcutaneous granuloma annulare.

  11. Alfalfa Hay Quality and Alternative Pricing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Jared A.; Peterson, Hikaru Hanawa; Burton, Robert O., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Price-quality relationships for alfalfa hay were analyzed by hedonic pricing models using 1996-2001 Wisconsin auction data. Individual nutrients included in the analysis all affected alfalfa price, with acid detergent fiber accounting for the largest impact. Alternative pricing models, based on an aggregate quality index or detailed quality information, were similar in their ability to predict price. However, disaggregating price predictions to account for differences in relative feed value (...

  12. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja Vesna; Lević Jelena; Ivanović M.; Tomić Zorica P.

    2005-01-01

    In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum) towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virul...

  13. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja Vesna; Lević Jelena T.; Ivanović Mirko; Tomić Zorica P.

    2005-01-01

    In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum) towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulen...

  14. Different cytokinin histidine kinase receptors regulate nodule initiation as well as later nodule developmental stages in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Stéphane; Kazmierczak, Théophile; Brault, Mathias; Wen, Jiangqi; Gamas, Pascal; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Frugier, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Legume plants adapt to low nitrogen by developing an endosymbiosis with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria to form a new specific organ: the nitrogen-fixing nodule. In the Medicago truncatula model legume, the MtCRE1 cytokinin receptor is essential for this symbiotic interaction. As three other putative CHASE-domain containing histidine kinase (CHK) cytokinin receptors exist in M. truncatula, we determined their potential contribution to this symbiotic interaction. The four CHKs have extensive redundant expression patterns at early nodulation stages but diverge in differentiated nodules, even though MtCHK1/MtCRE1 has the strongest expression at all stages. Mutant and knock-down analyses revealed that other CHKs than MtCHK1/CRE1 are positively involved in nodule initiation, which explains the delayed nodulation phenotype of the chk1/cre1 mutant. In addition, cre1 nodules exhibit an increased growth, whereas other chk mutants have no detectable phenotype, and the maintained nitrogen fixation capacity in cre1 requires other CHK genes. Interestingly, an AHK4/CRE1 genomic locus from the aposymbiotic Arabidopsis plant rescues nodule initiation but not the nitrogen fixation capacity. This indicates that different CHK cytokinin signalling pathways regulate not only nodule initiation but also later developmental stages, and that legume-specific determinants encoded by the MtCRE1 gene are required for later nodulation stages than initiation. PMID:27341695

  15. Diagnosis and management of pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochmal, Rebecca; Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny; Feller-Kopman, David; Lee, Hans

    2014-12-01

    There are an increased number of pulmonary nodules discovered on CT scan images in part due to those performed for lung cancer screening. Risk stratification and patient involvement is critical in determining management ranging from interval imaging to invasive biopsy or surgery. A definitive diagnosis requires tissue biopsy. The choice of a particular biopsy technique depends on the risks/benefits of the procedure, the diagnostic yield and local expertise. This review will focus on the evaluation and management of pulmonary nodules based on the Fleischner Society and American College of Chest Physician guidelines. There have been recent changes to both societies' recommendations for incidental detection of solid and subsolid nodules, risk stratification, imaging, minimally invasive diagnostic techniques and definitive surgical options. PMID:25152306

  16. Screening of highly-effective rhizobial strains on Alfalfa (Medicago polymorpha)in soil%南苜蓿高效共生根瘤菌土壤的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓云; 郭振国; 李乔仙; 刘桂霞; 薛世明; 王易鹏

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa ( Medicago polymorpha) is an annual herbal plant in the pea family Fabaceae, has the highest feeding value as forage for its soft and highly digestible fiber and high protein content fiber up to 24. 5%. Therefore, it recommended to cultivate widely and productively as an ideal forage plant. Inoculated with thizobia, alfalfa ( Medicago polymorpha) can formed effective symbiotic system to fix nitrogen, and subsequently produce high plant growth dry weigh. The inoculation effect on alfalfa ( Medicago polymorpha) was performed in three different type of soils from Yingjiang county of Yunnan province by using twelve distinct thizobial strains such as SWF67523, SWF67409, SWF67456, SWF67394, SWF67501 , etc. respectively which were isolated from root nodules of Medicago polymorpha , M. sativa and M. lupulina from Yingjiang and other area of Yunnan. The results showed that the thizobial nodulation rate, plant height, dry weight and total nitrogen content of plant were all increased significantly after harvested in condition that plant were inoculated with thizobia ( P<O. 05 ) , the thizobial nodulation rate are up to 98. 41% , 97. 78% , 97. 50% and 96. 56% by inoculated with strain SWF67523, SWF67501, SWF67394 and SWF67350, respectively; Contrasting to the control, the plant height increasing 40. 2% , 27. 3% and 25. 0% by SWF67523 , SWF67409 and SWF67394 respectively ; The dry weight per plant was raised up 106. 5% by inoculated with SWF67409 and raised 100. 1% , 78. 3% and 74. 3% by the other strains SWF67523, SWF67394 and HBU07001 respectively; Besides, the inoculated strains increased the nitrogen content obviously as well, the alfalfa plant have higher nitrogen content by inoculated with strain SWF67409, SWF67523 and SWF67394 than other test strains. Among 12 strains grew in three types of soils revealed by the whole production of the plant inoculation, strain SWF67523 ,SWF67409 and SWF67394 were more effective than others; Of the three

  17. Effect of replacing alfalfa with panicled-tick clover or sericea lespedeza in corn-alfalfa-based substrates on in vitro ruminal methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, H D; Lambert, B D; Armstrong, S A; Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Muir, J P; Ellersieck, M R

    2015-06-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock contribute to total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reduce metabolizable energy intake by the animal. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenolic plant secondary compounds commonly produced by some perennial forage legumes that characteristically bind to protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. The degree to which CT may affect ruminant nutrition depends upon the concentration, structural composition, and biological activity of the CT. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa in a corn-alfalfa-based substrate with a legume containing CT on in vitro CH4 production and the dynamics of fermentation using an in vitro gas production technique. All fermented substrates contained 50% ground corn as the energy concentrate portion, whereas the forage portion (50%) of each diet was comprised of alfalfa (control) or some combination of alfalfa and sericea lespedeza (SL) or panicled-tick clover (PTC). Our treatments consisted of PTC or SL 15, 30, and 45, which corresponded with 15, 30, or 45% replacement of the diet (alfalfa component) with either PTC or SL. Substrates containing 45% PTC or SL reduced in vitro CH4 production. Treatments did not affect total gas production as compared with that of the control. Replacement of alfalfa with SL or PTC increased fermentable organic matter (FOM). The PTC treatment increased FOM by as much as 1.8% at the 45% replacement level, whereas FOM of SL 45 was increased by less than 1%. The replacement of alfalfa with PTC increased substrate nutritive value greater than replacement with SL. There were no correlations between any physicochemical constituent of the substrates and CH4 production. A combination of factors associated with the inclusion of PTC and SL contributed to the in vitro CH4 production, and CT in these forages was likely a major contributing factor. Further confirmation of these results on in situ or in vivo animal systems is required. If

  18. Lignin and Fiber digestibility in Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase Downregulated Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forages in the United States. Increasing alfalfa fiber digestibility would improve forage management and ration formulation flexibility. Currently, growers and breeders rely on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict forage quality tra...

  19. El cultivo de alfalfa utilizando agua de perforación, agua residual urbana y precipitaciones The cultivation of alfalfa using artesian well water, urban wastewater and rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Plevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la producción de biomasa aérea, la eficiencia del uso de agua y el valor nutritivo de alfalfa cultivada aplicando riego con agua residual urbana, agua de perforación y un testigo (precipitaciones, en el Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. Los tratamientos de riego tuvieron un efecto positivo sobre la producción de biomasa aérea obteniéndose un 24% más de producción de biomasa que en la situación de secano (precipitaciones. Entre los tratamientos con riego también se manifestaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La alfalfa regada con aguas residuales urbana supero en un 19% a la cultivada con agua de perforación. La eficiencia del uso del agua por parte del cultivo se incrementó cuando el riego se realizó con aguas residuales urbanas. Además, se determinó que la alfalfa regada con agua residual, supera los valores nutritivos del cultivo que crece en condiciones sin riego; encontrándose 39% más de proteínas, 14% más de digestibilidad e igual porcentaje de energía metabólica. Se puede concluir que el agua residual urbana representa otra posible fuente de agua, factible de ingresar al suelo y estar a disposición para el cultivo de alfalfa.The objective of this study was to analyse the production of alfalfa biomass, the efficiency of water use and the nutritional value of forage, inside an irrigation structure of an experimental facility that uses treated urban wastewater, artesian well water and rainfall, at the campus of the Universidad National de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. The irrigation treatment had a positive effect on the production of biomass of alfalfa. On an average 24% increase in production was observed when compared to dry-land farming. Regarding the quality of the irrigation water, statistical differences in production were observed, the irrigation with urban wastewater produced 19% more than that of well water. The

  20. Long-term follow-up of thyroid nodule growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadbeck, B; Pruellage, J; Roggenbuck, U; Hirche, H; Janssen, O E; Mann, K; Hoermann, R

    2002-10-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are common in iodine deficient countries. Although many recent studies have addressed the molecular basis and short-term outcome of treatment in nodular thyroid disease, data on the long-term follow-up of thyroid nodule growth are widely lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term behaviour of benign thyroid nodules growth. We followed 109 consecutive patients seen at yearly intervals in our Outpatient Clinic for at least 3 years (range 3-12 years, mean 4.9 +/- 2.6 years) presenting with 139 benign nodules in uni- or multinodular goiters. The size of the nodules and thyroid glands was analysed retrospectively. The study included a spectrum of benign thyroid nodules, 86 functioning and 53 non-functioning. 27 patients were treated with levothyroxine, 8 with iodide and 16 with a combination of both. 58 patients were not treated mainly because of thyroid functional autonomy. Patients with overt hyperthyroidism or suspected malignancy by fine-needle aspiration were excluded from the study. The nodules and glands were assessed by ultrasonography at yearly intervals and documented by photoprints. Relevant growth was defined as an increase in nodule volume of at least 30%. For statistical analyses, Cox Proportional Hazard Model and life-table analyses according to Kaplan-Meier were performed. Most thyroid nodules grew slowly but continuously during follow-up. After about 3 years, half of the nodules had increased their volume by at least 30%. Growth of the nodules was significantly faster than of the corresponding thyroid glands (p < 0.0001). Age and sex of the patients and size or function of the nodules at initial presentation were not significantly related to their growth. Suppression of TSH did not affect growth of the nodules irrespective of the source of thyroid hormones, endogenous or by administration of levothyroxine. In conclusion, benign thyroid nodules have a slow intrinsic growth potential, which is apparently

  1. Strategy for polymetallic nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Strategy for Polymetallic Nodule Mining Rahul Sharma Introduction Mining of nearshore and shallow water minerals on a commercial scale l as well as the exploration of deep seabed minerals is being extensively carried out by various countries ..lid wns... revenues, and providing preferential technical assistance to developing countries adversely affected by seabed production to help them broaden their economic base. Strategy for nodule mining A long term strategy needs to be worked out for large-scale nodule...

  2. Multiple chronic benign pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalifa, L G; Schimmel, D H; Gamsu, G

    1976-11-01

    Four cases are discussed in which were found unusual multiple chronic pulmonary nodules: leiomyomatous hamartomas, rheumatoid nodules, multiple histoplasmomas, and possible multiple plasma cell granulomas (hyalinizing pulmonary nodules). In each case the initial impression of metastic malignancy was countered by more than 2 years' observation, during which time the lesions appeared to be benign. Histologic examination is necessary to exclude malignancy, although a definitive diagnosis may be difficult to establish. PMID:981596

  3. Correlations among alfalfa yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Olivera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper are the results of our study of correlations among yield components in ten alfalfa genotypes under open pollination (polycross conditions. The study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 at the Rimski Sancevi Experiment Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Highly significant correlations were found between pod number per inflorescence and seed number per inflorescence (r= 0.645 as well as between seed number per pod and seed number per inflorescence (r= 0.685. Similarly, the correlation between inflorescence number per stem and seed yield was significant and positive (r= 0.589. Negative correlations existed between ovule number per ovary on the one hand and seed yield and inflorescence number per stem on the other (r= -0.617 and r= -0.598, respectively. The highest seed yield was achieved with the cultivar Europe (651.4 kg ha-1 and the lowest with the genotype Le-6 (426.25 kg ha-1. The difference was highly significant (CV= 14,93%.

  4. Proteome analysis of alfalfa roots in response to water deifcit stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahman Md Atikur; Kim Yong-Goo; AlamIftekhar; LIU Gong-she; Lee Hyoshin; Lee Jeung Joo; Lee Byung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the response of alfalfa to water deifcit (WD) stress, WD-induced candidates were investigated through a proteomic approach. Alfalfa seedlings were exposed to WD stress for 12 and 15 days respectively, folowed by 3 days re-watering. Water deifcit increased H2O2content, lipid peroxidation, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)-radical scavenging activity, and the free proline level in alfalfa roots. Root proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimentional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 49 WD-responsive proteins were identiifed in alfalfa roots; 25 proteins were reproducibly found to be up-regulated and 24 were down-regulated. Two proteins, namely cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APx2) and putative F-box protein were newly detected on 2-DE maps of WD-treated plants. We identiifed several proteins including agamous-like 65, albumin b-32, inward rectifying potassium channel, and auxin-independent growth promoter. The identiifed proteins are involved in a variety of celular functions including calcium signaling, abacisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation, transcription/ translation, antioxidant/detoxiifcation/stress defense, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and storage. These results indicate the potential candidates were responsible for adaptive response in alfalfa roots.

  5. Multiple pulmonary rheumatoid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Gokhan; Senturk, Taskin

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of 45-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, who was admitted to our rheumatology department with exacerbation of the disease. The patient's disease activity score (DAS 28) was 6.9. Physical examination revealed changes in the lung auscultation as a rough breathing sound at the middle and lower lobe of the right lung. Chest X-ray revealed multiple nodular densities in both lungs. Lung biopsy was performed for the diagnosis and revealed necrotizing granulomas with central fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells. Such a histopathological picture is typical for rheumatoid nodules. Finally the patient was treated with rituximab, with significant improvement.

  6. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Zeng, Rensen; Liao, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean.

  7. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  8. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivar K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  9. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivars K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings, which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown, lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  10. The elicitor-inducible alfalfa isoflavone reductase promoter confers different patterns of developmental expression in homologous and heterologous transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, A; Dixon, R A; Paiva, N L

    1994-01-01

    In legumes, the synthesis of infection- and elicitor-inducible antimicrobial phytoalexins occurs via the isoflavonoid branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To study transcriptional regulation of isoflavonoid pathway-specific genes, we have isolated the gene encoding isoflavone reductase (IFR), which is the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of the phytoalexin medicarpin in alfalfa. Chimeric gene fusions were constructed between 765- and 436-bp promoter fragments of the IFR gene and the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to alfalfa and tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both promoter fragments conferred elicitor-mediated expression in cell suspension cultures derived from transgenic plants of both species and fungal infection-mediated expression in leaves of transgenic alfalfa. Developmental expression directed by both promoter fragments in transgenic alfalfa was observed only in the root meristem, cortex, and nodules, which is consistent with the accumulation of endogenous IFR transcripts. However, in transgenic tobacco, expression from the 765-bp promoter was observed in vegetative tissues (root meristem and cortex, inner vascular tissue of stems and petioles, leaf tips, and stem peripheries adjacent to petioles) and in reproductive tissues (stigma, placenta, base of the ovary, receptacle, seed, tapetal layer, and pollen grains), whereas the 436-bp promoter was expressed only in fruits, seed, and pollen. These data indicate that infection/elicitor inducibility of the IFR promoter in both species and developmental expression in alfalfa are determined by sequences downstream of position -436, whereas sequences between -436 and -765 confer a complex pattern of strong ectopic developmental expression in the heterologous species that lacks the isoflavonoid pathway. PMID:7866024

  11. Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa is compositionally equivalent to conventional alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Melinda C; Rogan, Glennon J; Fitzpatrick, Sharie; Trujillo, William A; Sorbet, Roy; Hartnell, Gary F; Riodan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A

    2006-09-20

    Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa (GTA) was developed to withstand over-the-top applications of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. As a part of the safety assessment, GTA (designated J101 x J163) was grown under controlled field conditions at geographically diverse locations within the United States during the 2001 and 2003 field seasons along with control and other conventional alfalfa varieties for compositional assessment. Field trials were conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replication blocks at each site. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the late bud to early bloom stage from each plot at five field sites in 2001 (establishment year) and from four field sites in 2003 (third year of stand). The concentration of proximate constituents, fibers, amino acids, coumestrol, and minerals in the forage was measured. The results showed that the forage from GTA J101 x J163 is compositionally equivalent to forage from the control and conventional alfalfa varieties.

  12. The Sinorhizobium meliloti RNA chaperone Hfq influences central carbon metabolism and the symbiotic interaction with alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Zurdo José I

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial Hfq protein is able to interact with diverse RNA molecules, including regulatory small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs, and thus it is recognized as a global post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Loss of Hfq has an extensive impact in bacterial physiology which in several animal pathogens influences virulence. Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model soil bacterium known for its ability to establish a beneficial nitrogen-fixing intracellular symbiosis with alfalfa. Despite the predicted general involvement of Hfq in the establishment of successful bacteria-eukaryote interactions, its function in S. meliloti has remained unexplored. Results Two independent S. meliloti mutants, 2011-3.4 and 1021Δhfq, were obtained by disruption and deletion of the hfq gene in the wild-type strains 2011 and 1021, respectively, both exhibiting similar growth defects as free-living bacteria. Transcriptomic profiling of 1021Δhfq revealed a general down-regulation of genes of sugar transporters and some enzymes of the central carbon metabolism, whereas transcripts specifying the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen sources (mainly amino acids were more abundant than in the wild-type strain. Proteomic analysis of the 2011-3.4 mutant independently confirmed these observations. Symbiotic tests showed that lack of Hfq led to a delayed nodulation, severely compromised bacterial competitiveness on alfalfa roots and impaired normal plant growth. Furthermore, a large proportion of nodules (55%-64% elicited by the 1021Δhfq mutant were non-fixing, with scarce content in bacteroids and signs of premature senescence of endosymbiotic bacteria. RT-PCR experiments on RNA from bacteria grown under aerobic and microoxic conditions revealed that Hfq contributes to regulation of nifA and fixK1/K2, the genes controlling nitrogen fixation, although the Hfq-mediated regulation of fixK is only aerobiosis dependent. Finally, we found that some of the recently

  13. Frequency of Thyroid Nodules among Patients with Colonic Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Duran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Colonic polyps and thyroid nodules are common diseases and their frequency increases with age. In the literature, there is no study investigating the coexistence of colonic polyps and thyroid nodules. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate thyroid nodule prevalence in patients with colonic polyps. Material and Methods. Sixty-six patients with colonic polyps and 146 patients without colonic polyps enrolled into the study. Age and sex matched control group was composed from patients without colonic polyps. Colonoscopic examinations, thyroid ultrasonographies were performed in all patients, and TSH were measured. Results. Male/female ratio in polyp and control groups were 40/26 versus 68/78, respectively (P=0.058. Mean ages were similar in both groups (53.3±11.4 versus, 51.8±11.4, P=0.373. Thyroid nodule was detected in 44 (66.7% patients with polyps and in 61 (41.8% controls (P=0.001. Patients with adenomatous polyps had 5 or more thyroid nodules compared to patients with hyperplastic polyps (P=0.03. Thyroid nodules were more prevalent among patients aged 50 or older compared to 50 years or less (P=0.023. Conclusion. Thyroid nodules were detected more common in patients with colonic polyps. Further studies are needed to clarify this coexistence.

  14. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  15. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALFALFA INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Clement E.; Dowdy, Alan K.; Berberet, Richard C.; Stritzke, Jimmie F.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IMP) initially focused on insect pest control. More recently, IPM encompasses a broader concept of management, one which crosses several disciplinary boundaries. This article reports results of research dealing with four integrated management decisions for alfalfa (cultivar selection, inset control, weed control, and end-of-season harvest options.

  16. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.

  17. Evaluation of subsurface drip irrigation design and management parameters for alfalfa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Kandelous; T. Kamai; J.A. Vrugt; J. Šimůnek; B. Hanson; J.W. Hopmans

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa is one of the most cultivated crops in the US, and is being used as livestock feed for the dairy, beef, and horse industries. About nine percent of that is grown in California, yet there is an increasing concern about the large amounts of irrigation water required to attain maximum yield. We

  18. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  19. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Glomus spp. Inoculation on Alfalfa Growth in Soils with Copper Efecto de la Inoculación con Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares Glomus spp. sobre el Crecimiento de Alfalfa en Suelos con Cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Novoa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils near mining centers usually have high heavy metal (HM levels. It has been found that some plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF improve growth and tolerance to HM in soils. This symbiosis is a biological resource for degraded soil recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculating AMF (Glomus spp. on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth in agricultural soils with different copper (Cu levels for degraded soil recovery. To this effect, alfalfa seeds were grown in soils from the Catemu and Casablanca valleys and inoculated with AMF. Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were measured weekly. Dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu concentration in alfalfa plant tissues were measured after 81 days. Inoculation increased plant height by 24%, stem diameter by 11%, and number of leaves by 34%. Inoculation had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on alfalfa plants that were grown in soil with the highest Cu concentration, but had no effect on Cu accumulation in alfalfa plant tissues. A direct relationship was observed between Cu accumulation in alfalfa and Cu concentration in soils. It was concluded that alfalfa inoculated with Glomus spp. is applicable to the soil recovery process whenever soil properties can ensure inoculum effectiveness on alfalfa growth, and avoid toxicity by excessive Cu in alfalfa plant tissues.Los suelos cercanos a centros de actividad minera suelen presentar altos niveles de metales pesados (HM. Se ha encontrado que algunas plantas asociadas a hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF mejoran su crecimiento y tolerancia a los HM presentes en los suelos. Esta simbiosis constituye un recurso biológico para la recuperación de suelos degradados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la inoculación con AMF (Glomus spp. sobre el crecimiento de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en suelos agrícolas con distintos niveles de cobre (Cu para la recuperación de

  20. Management strategy of solitary pulmonary nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Ping ZHAN; XIE, HAIYAN; Xu, Chunhua; Hao, Keke; Hou, Zhibo; Song, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) are increasingly detected with the widespread use of chest computed tomography (CT) scans. The management of patients with SPN should begin with estimating the probability of cancer from the patient’s clinical risk factors and CT characteristics. The decision-making process need to incorporate the probability of cancer, the potential benefits and harms of surgery, the accuracy of the available diagnostic tests and patient preferences. For patients with a very...

  1. Final Report: Regulation and Function of Two Cell Wall protein Genes in Me Dicago Roots and Root Nodules, August 1, 1995 - January 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, James B.

    2000-05-08

    During the period of DOE funding we synthesized several PRP peptides, generated rabbit antisera against two PRP repeats found in early nodulin PRPs, and developed confocal microscopy methods for root immunohistochemistry. Using the antibodies, we completed extensive descriptive studies of PRP deposition in medic and alfalfa roots showing that PRPs deposition is developmentally regulated in roots and spatially restricted within the walls of specific root tissues. Domain-specific antibodies were isolated from polyclonal sera using peptide affinity chromatography and were then used to demonstrate that nodule-specific epitopes are shared by several nodule-specific proteins. The following provides a more detailed summary of this work.

  2. Thyroid Nodules in Children: A Single Institution's Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nini Khozeimeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules in children are uncommon but often present an increased risk of malignancy in comparison to their adult counterpart. Multiple diagnostic modalities are frequently employed to characterize these nodules including ultrasound, radionuclide scans, fine needle aspiration (FNA, thyroid function tests, and evaluation of patient demographics. We chose to evaluate if any of these modalities influence treatment or signify a tendency for a nodule to represent a malignant lesion. A retrospective review of patients <21 years of age who underwent partial or total thyroidectomy from 2004 to 2009 was performed (IRB no. 4695. Other than an FNA indicating a malignancy, there does not appear to be any value to extensive preoperative imaging, nor can patient risk be stratified based upon age. We conclude that there is minimal utility in an extensive preoperative workup in a child with a thyroid nodule.

  3. Promise and pitfalls of molecular markers of thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jadhav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a prevalence of 5-7% The initial evaluation of thyroid nodules commonly involves thyroid function tests, an ultrasound (USG and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. The optimal management of patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology is plagued by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities In this article we attempt to review the available literature on the molecular markers which are increasingly being studied for their diagnostic utility in assessing thyroid nodules. The various molecular markers consist of gene mutations, gene re arrangements, RNA based assays and immunohistochemical markers. The molecular markers definitely would help to optimise the management of such patients.

  4. Scintigraphic study of regenerative nodules due to fulminant hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomohiro; Kondo, Masahiko; Hirasa, Masahiro; Shirane, Hirofumi; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Ibuki, Yasuyoshi; Tomita, Shusuke; Orino, Akio; Todo, Akio; Wakatsuki, Yoshio; Chiba, Tsutomu; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old woman with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Liver scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) and (99m)Tc-phytate produced interesting findings; regenerative nodules appeared as nodules of increased accumulation of (99m)Tc-GSA, whereas these nodules were expressed as defects of accumulation of (99m)Tc-phytate. These scintigraphic findings suggested that the functions of hepatocytes in regenerative nodules were maintained, whereas those of Kupffer cells were impaired. Although (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy indicated hepatic functional reserve enough to survive, she died despite intensive therapy including plasma exchange. Based on this case, it is recommended that not only (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy but also (99m)Tc-phytate scintigraphy is required to evaluate the prognosis of patients with FHF. PMID:12898364

  5. Uranium-throium isotopes and transition metal fluxes in two oriented manganese nodules from the Central Indian Basin: implications for nodule turnover

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    side of the (Moore et al., 1981 ) has provided an insight nodule are dominated by diagenetic processes for explaining nodule genesis. The very slow (Calvert and Price, 1977) with distinctly accretion rate for deep-sea manganese nodules higher Mn... increasing and decreasing trend in the (Moore, 1984). Mn/Fe ratio could be expected. The similar The 23°Thexc flux to the tops and bottoms of rate of accretion, the uniformity in transition the nodules is nearly the same (0.19 gg/cm2/ metal distribution...

  6. The effects of perennial ryegrass and alfalfa on microbial abundance and diversity in petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced rhizosphere degradation uses plants to stimulate the rhizosphere microbial community to degrade organic contaminants. We measured changes in microbial communities caused by the addition of two species of plants in a soil contaminated with 31,000 ppm of total petroleum hydrocarbons. Perennial ryegrass and/or alfalfa increased the number of rhizosphere bacteria in the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. These plants also increased the number of bacteria capable of petroleum degradation as estimated by the most probable number (MPN) method. Eco-Biolog plates did not detect changes in metabolic diversity between bulk and rhizosphere samples but denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rDNA sequences indicated a shift in the bacterial community in the rhizosphere samples. Dice coefficient matrices derived from DGGE profiles showed similarities between the rhizospheres of alfalfa and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture in the contaminated soil at week seven. Perennial ryegrass and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture caused the greatest change in the rhizosphere bacterial community as determined by DGGE analysis. We concluded that plants altered the microbial population; these changes were plant-specific and could contribute to degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil. - Plant-specific changes in microbial populations on roots affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil

  7. Prognosis of thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Hayashida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. RESULTS: Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy, was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that a thyroid nodule in childhood is a prognostic factor associated with an increase in the number and size of nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

  8. Gas, Stars and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, S; Giovanelli, R; Brinchmann, J; Stierwalt, S; Neff, S G

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and HI components of 229 low HI mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with HI masses < 10^{7.7} M_sun and HI line widths < 80 km s^{-1}. SDSS data are combined with photometric properties derived from GALEX to derive stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs) and estimates of their SFRs and M_* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M_* < 10^8 M_sun is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of t...

  9. Regenerative nodules in patients with chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome: A longitudinal study using multiphase contrast-enhanced multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor, Nicola [Unita Operativa di Radiologia Diagnostica Interventistica, University of Milan School of Medicine, Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: flornic@hotmail.com; Zuin, Massimo [Unita Operativa di Epatologia e Gastroenterologia Medica, University of Milan School of Medicine, Ospedale San Paolo, Via A. di Rudini 8, 20142 Milan (Italy); Brovelli, Francesca [Department of Radiology, Centro Diagnostico Italiano, Milan (Italy); Maggioni, Marco [Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy); Tentori, Augusta [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale di Voghera (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Cornalba, Gian Paolo [Unita Operativa di Radiologia Diagnostica Interventistica, University of Milan School of Medicine, Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the serial evolution of regenerative nodules in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) treated with portal-systemic shunts, using multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: Five patients each underwent three MDCT exams over an extended period ranging from 36 to 42 months. Two radiologists in consensus retrospectively reviewed each exam for each patient. Individual nodules were grouped according to size (size I: nodules with diameter {<=}15 mm; size II: >15 mm but <30 mm; size III: {>=}30 mm), pattern of enhancement (A: homogeneously hypervascular or B: with central scar), and segmental location. Four nodules classified as size II, which increased in size over time, were needle-biopsied. Results: We detected 61 nodules at the first exam, 66 nodules at the second exam (7 nodules disappeared and 12 new nodules), and 85 nodules at the third exam (8 disappeared and 27 new) for a total of 212 findings. Nodules were mostly found in the right hepatic lobe. Fourteen of the 15 nodules that disappeared over time were size I and enhancement pattern A. At unenhanced MDCT, 204 (96%) of the 212 findings were isodense. Overall, 100 nodules, including the 61 initially detected, were considered newly diagnosed; of these 84 (84%) were size I and pattern A. Of 57 nodules considered size I and pattern A at the first or second exam, 24 (42%) changed to pattern B at the third exam and either size II (n = 18) or III (n = 6). The four biopsied nodules were each confirmed as benign regenerative nodule. No patient developed HCC at 5-year follow-up period. Conclusion: Hepatic nodules in BCS patients not only increase in number over time but may also increase in size and develop a central scar.

  10. Regenerative nodules in patients with chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome: A longitudinal study using multiphase contrast-enhanced multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the serial evolution of regenerative nodules in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) treated with portal-systemic shunts, using multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: Five patients each underwent three MDCT exams over an extended period ranging from 36 to 42 months. Two radiologists in consensus retrospectively reviewed each exam for each patient. Individual nodules were grouped according to size (size I: nodules with diameter ≤15 mm; size II: >15 mm but <30 mm; size III: ≥30 mm), pattern of enhancement (A: homogeneously hypervascular or B: with central scar), and segmental location. Four nodules classified as size II, which increased in size over time, were needle-biopsied. Results: We detected 61 nodules at the first exam, 66 nodules at the second exam (7 nodules disappeared and 12 new nodules), and 85 nodules at the third exam (8 disappeared and 27 new) for a total of 212 findings. Nodules were mostly found in the right hepatic lobe. Fourteen of the 15 nodules that disappeared over time were size I and enhancement pattern A. At unenhanced MDCT, 204 (96%) of the 212 findings were isodense. Overall, 100 nodules, including the 61 initially detected, were considered newly diagnosed; of these 84 (84%) were size I and pattern A. Of 57 nodules considered size I and pattern A at the first or second exam, 24 (42%) changed to pattern B at the third exam and either size II (n = 18) or III (n = 6). The four biopsied nodules were each confirmed as benign regenerative nodule. No patient developed HCC at 5-year follow-up period. Conclusion: Hepatic nodules in BCS patients not only increase in number over time but may also increase in size and develop a central scar.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics of thyroid nodules and risk factors for malignant nodules: a retrospective study from 6 304 surgical cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Qin; Wang Kun; Lou Fuchen; Zhang Li; Huang Qingxian; Han Yunfeng; Sun Hancheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of thyroid nodules (TN) is increasing rapidly.This study analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of TN in surgically treated patients and identified the risk factors for malignant nodules (MN) to provide more understanding of the differential diagnosis of TN.Methods A total of 6 304 TN cases who underwent thyroid surgery were included in this retrospective study.The clinical data were collected to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and related risk factors for MN.The nature of TN (benign nodules (BN) or MN),medical records,laboratory data,and imaging data were analyzed.The risk factors for MN were screened using Spearman's rank correlation analysis and nonconditional binary Logistic regression analysis.Results The number of surgically treated TN cases increased yearly.A total of 34.33% of cases were MN and 65.67% were BN.Up to 56.74% of these cases underwent unnecessary surgery.Among the MN cases,papillary thyroid carcinoma accounted for 94%,in which 46.71% coexisted with benign thyroid disease and 32.28% with multiple foci.Single-related factor analysis showed that age,employment,disease duration,history of breast nodules and/or hypertension,the levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb),and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPoAb),and ultrasound features of TN were related to MN.Stepwise nonconditional binary Logistic regression analysis showed that 13 factors may be the independent risk factors for MN,including <40 years old,previous history of breast nodules and/or hypertension,disease duration <1 month,employment,hypoechoic nodule,irregular nodules,nodule calcification,solid echo nodule,fuzzy boundary,rich blood flow within nodules,abnormal lymph nodes around the neck,nodule diameter <1 cm,and abnormally high TgAb.Conclusions Our results demonstrate a rapid increase in surgically treated TN cases and ratio of MN and indicate unnecessary

  12. Study of the basis for the competitiveness of Rhizobium japonicum in the nodulation of soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W.

    1990-06-01

    The overall goal of our studies was to identify cellular and molecular characteristics of rhizobia that are important to root colonization and symbiotic infection in competition with indigenous soil microbes. Rhizobia were found to respond to specific host flavonoids as chemoattractants as well as nodulation gene inducers. Motility and chemotaxis contributed significantly to the efficiency of symbiotic interactions, but not to colonization of root tips, where bacterial dispersal depended primarily on passive movement by root cell elongation. Co-inoculation of Rhizobium nod gene mutants with each other and with the wild-type showed that the mutants could help the wild-type, but not each other, to initiate nodules. Mutants with defective host specificity genes were the only ones capable of helping the wild-type in an additive or synergistic manner. Alfalfa was shown to have rapid, systemic feedback regulation suppressing nodule formation in younger parts of the root system in response to initiation of the first nodules. Root mucilage and exudate components were found to affect attachment of rhizobia to root surfaces. Methods for optimal surface sterilization of legume seeds were examined. 5 refs.

  13. Genetic characterization of fast-growing rhizobia able to nodulate Prosopis alba in North Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Olga; Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Abril, Adriana; Mateos, Pedro F; Martinez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2007-12-01

    Prosopis is a Mimosaceae legume tree indigenous to South America and not naturalized in Europe. In this work 18 rhizobial strains nodulating Prosopis alba roots were isolated from a soil in North Spain that belong to eight different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA groups phylogenetically related to Sinorhizobium medicae, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium giardinii according to their intergenic spacer and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The nodC genes of isolates close to S. medicae and S. meliloti were identical to those of S. medicae USDA 1,037(T) and S. meliloti LMG 6,133(T) and accordingly all these strains were able to nodulate both alfalfa and Prosopis. These nodC genes were phylogenetically divergent from those of the isolates close to R. giardinii that were identical to that of R. giardinii H152(T) and therefore all these strains formed nodules in common beans and Prosopis. The nodC genes of the strains isolated in Spain were phylogenetically divergent from that carried by Mesorhizobium chacoense Pr-5(T) and Sinorhizobium arboris LMG 1,4919(T) nodulating Prosopis in America and Africa, respectively. Therefore, Prosopis is a promiscuous host which can establish symbiosis with strains carrying very divergent nodC genes and this promiscuity may be an important advantage for this legume tree to be used in reforestation.

  14. Productive Efficiency of Subsidized Organic Alfalfa Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanos A. Nastis; Papanagiotou, Evangelos; Zamanidis, Savvas

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the efficiency and performance of organic alfalfa farms. Data were obtained from questionnaires collected from forty farms participating in an EU-subsidized program promoting the switch to organic farming. Results obtained using the bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis methodology show that larger farms had lower yields and lower efficiency scores and more experienced farmers had higher efficiency scores. A Tobit analysis of the impact of environmental factors and subsidies...

  15. Extraction of Chlorophyll from Alfalfa Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Khalid Khudair Al-Jomaily; Ahmed Jawad; Isam Kamal

    2006-01-01

    The extraction process of chlorophyll from dehydrated and pulverized alfalfa plant were studied by percolation method. Two solvent systems were used for the extraction namely; Ethanol-water and Hexane-Toluene systems . The effect of circulation rate, solvent concentration, and solvent volume to solid weight ratio were studied. In both ethanol water, and Hexane-Toluene systems it appears that solvent concentration is the most effective variable.

  16. Relation between nodule size and 18F-FDG-PET SUV for malignant and benign pulmonary nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yiping

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most common semiquantitative method of evaluation of pulmonary lesions using 18F-FDG PET is FDG standardized uptake value (SUV. An SUV cutoff of 2.5 or greater has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules. The goal of our study was to investigate the correlation between the size of pulmonary nodules and the SUV for benign as well as for malignant nodules. Methods Retrospectively, 173 patients were selected from 420 referrals for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. All patients selected had a positive CT and PET scans and histopathology biopsy. A linear regression equation was fitted to a scatter plot of size and SUVmax for malignant and benign nodules together. A dot diagram was created to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. Results The linear regression equations and (R2s as well as the trendlines for malignant and benign nodules demonstrated that the slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Twenty-eight nodules of group one (≤ 1.0 cm are plotted in a dot diagram using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated to be 85%, 36% and 54% respectively. Similarly, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 and found to be 91%, 47%, and 79% respectively for group 2 (1.1–2.0 cm; 94%, 23%, and 76%, respectively for group 3 (2.1–3.0 cm; and 100%, 17%, and 82%,, respectively for group 4 (> 3.0 cm. The previous results of the dot diagram indicating that the sensitivity and the accuracy of the test using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 are increased with an increase in the diameter of pulmonary nodules. Conclusion The slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Although, the SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 is a useful tool in the evaluation of large pulmonary nodules (> 1.0 cm, it has no or minimal value in the evaluation of small

  17. Nodulation and mycorrhization of transgenic soybean after glyphosate application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria like Bradyrhizobium spp with in relation to glyphosate can be influenced by the concentration of the herbicide. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two formulations of glyphosate, in two application periods, on nodulation and mycorrhization in a soybean of variety RR P98Y11, using greenhouse, in pots with capacity of 4 L with savanna soils. Six treatments were utilized using Roundup Ultra and Roundup Original with one and two applications, witness without herbicide and witness only with mineral nitrogen, in a completely randomized design. Four evaluations were done, every 15 days, to determine the plant height, shoot and root dry weight, number of nodules, nodule dry weigh and mycorrhizae. It was observed an increase on the number of nodules, with the use of Roundup Ultra until 15 days after the first application. After this period, the witness only with inoculants showed a larger number of nodules. Roundup Ultra had positive influences on the dry weight of nodules, regardless the number of applications. There was no influence of glyphosate formulation considering the mycorrhizal colonization.

  18. Morphometric characteristics of bacteroidal tissue in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L. nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Golinowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric methods were used to analyse the bacteroidal tissue in yellow lupine nodules. Volume fraction - Vv, surface area - Sv and ratio of surface area to its volume - R, were calculated from electron micrographs for some selected cell structures in 9, 13, 15, 20, 29 and 60 day-old nodules. The rate at which bacteroid Vv increased varied in time. Between days 13 and 20 of nodule development, bacteroid Vv increased in geometrical progression. Rough endoplasmic reticulum was active in nodule development and/or protein manufacturing necessary for the functioning of the system whereas the role of mitochondria was apparently limited.

  19. Positioning the nodule, the hormone dictum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yiliang; Oldroyd, Giles E D

    2009-02-01

    The formation of a nitrogen-fixing nodule involves two diverse developmental processes in the legume root: infection thread initiation in epidermal cells and nodule primordia formation in the cortex. Several plant hormones have been reported to positively or negatively regulate nodulation. These hormones function at different stages in the nodulation process and may facilitate the coordinated development of the epidermal and cortical developmental programs that are necessary to allow bacterial infection into the developing nodule. In this paper, we review and discuss how the tissue specific nature of hormonal action dictates where, when and how a nodule is formed. PMID:19649179

  20. microRNA160 dictates stage-specific auxin and cytokinin sensitivities and directs soybean nodule development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizampatnam, Narasimha Rao; Schreier, Spencer John; Damodaran, Suresh; Adhikari, Sajag; Subramanian, Senthil

    2015-10-01

    Legume nodules result from coordinated interactions between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The phytohormone cytokinin promotes nodule formation, and recent findings suggest that the phytohormone auxin inhibits nodule formation. Here we show that microRNA160 (miR160) is a key signaling element that determines the auxin/cytokinin balance during nodule development in soybean (Glycine max). miR160 appears to promote auxin activity by suppressing the levels of the ARF10/16/17 family of repressor ARF transcription factors. Using quantitative PCR assays and a fluorescence miRNA sensor, we show that miR160 levels are relatively low early during nodule formation and high in mature nodules. We had previously shown that ectopic expression of miR160 in soybean roots led to a severe reduction in nodule formation, coupled with enhanced sensitivity to auxin and reduced sensitivity to cytokinin. Here we show that exogenous cytokinin restores nodule formation in miR160 over-expressing roots. Therefore, low miR160 levels early during nodule development favor cytokinin activity required for nodule formation. Suppression of miR160 levels using a short tandem target mimic (STTM160) resulted in reduced sensitivity to auxin and enhanced sensitivity to cytokinin. In contrast to miR160 over-expressing roots, STTM160 roots had increased nodule formation, but nodule maturation was significantly delayed. Exogenous auxin partially restored proper nodule formation and maturation in STTM160 roots, suggesting that high miR160 activity later during nodule development favors auxin activity and promotes nodule maturation. Therefore, miR160 dictates developmental stage-specific sensitivities to auxin and cytokinin to direct proper nodule formation and maturation in soybean. PMID:26287653

  1. Urgency of further developing alfalfa industry in China%我国苜蓿产业亟待振兴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启忠; 玉柱; 徐春城

    2012-01-01

    随着我国畜牧业的快速发展,特别是奶牛业的崛起,对优质饲草尤其是苜蓿(Medicago sativa)的需求量将会越来越大。目前我国苜蓿产量低、品质差、供应量不足,不能满足市场的需求.进口苜蓿呈增加态势。2010年苜蓿的进口量已达22.72万t,对我国的苜蓿产业造成严重威胁。我国苜蓿产业发展受制于许多因素,一直处于徘徊不前状态,急需振兴。应尽快制定苜蓿产业发展战略规划,完善苜蓿生产补贴政策,鼓励科技创新,积极扶持苜蓿龙头企业。整合苜蓿产业资源,建设现代化苜蓿产业示范基地,推进我国苜蓿布局区域化、种植规模化、作业机械化、管理标准化和经营产业化发展,着力打造苜蓿产业带,增强我国苜蓿的综合生产能力和供应能力。推进奶一草一体化。%The rapid development of animal husbandry in China, especially the prosperous development of dairy farming, greatly increases the need for herbage of high quality, particularly alfalfa. This study pointed out that the alfalfa yield was low, and its quality was poor, and the supply of alfalfa did not meet its market demand in China. Consequently, the total quantity of imported alfalfa showed a increasing trend and came to 227 200 t in 2010, threatening the development of alfalfa industry in China. This study pro- posed that it is urgent to develop the alfalfa industry because alfalfa industry was regulated by many fac- tors. Finally, this study proposed some suggestions for further developing the alfalfa industry. Firstly, it was urgent to make development plan of alfalfa industry; secondly, the compensation package needed to be improved for alfalfa producer; thirdly, it was effort to innovate the utilization technology and support the leading enterprise of alfalfa industry; fourthly, establishing the demonstration base with modern technology was necessary by integrating the alfalfa

  2. Red nodule on the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Colucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman living in the countryside referred to our department with a 2-month history of a red nodule localized on the right breast. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analyses and serologic evaluation conducted with ELISA and Western blot were performed. Clinical diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma was not possible solely on the clinical presentation of a classical nodular form without lymphoadenopathy. An absence of a referred prior tick bite and a previous or concomitant erythema migrans at clinical presentation rendered a more challenging diagnosis. The fact that the patient lived in the countryside, the appearance of the breast nodule in September, and serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical analysis facilitated the diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma. We report this case to highlight the importance of an investigation of Lyme borreliosis when a patient living in the countryside presents with a red nodule of the nipple and areola.

  3. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James R; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R; Machtley, Scott A; Van Deynze, Allen

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in a 15.2 km(2) area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready alfalfa seed production fields (totaling 120.2 ha). Each year, honey bee self-marking devices were placed on 112 selected honey bee colonies originating from nine different apiary locations. The foraging bees exiting each apiary location were uniquely marked so that the apiary of origin and the distance traveled by the marked (field-collected) bees into each of the alfalfa fields could be pinpointed. Honey bee self-marking devices were installed on 14.4 and 11.2% of the total hives located within the research area in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The frequency of field-collected bees possessing a distinct mark was similar, averaging 14.0% in 2006 and 12.6% in 2007. A grand total of 12,266 bees were collected from the various alfalfa fields on seven sampling dates over the course of the study. The distances traveled by marked bees ranged from a minimum of 45 m to a maximum of 5983 m. On average, marked bees were recovered ~ 800 m from their apiary of origin and the recovery rate of marked bees decreased exponentially as the distance from the apiary of origin increased. Ultimately, these data will be used to identify the extent of pollen-mediated gene flow from Roundup Ready to conventional alfalfa. PMID:22224495

  4. Effect of Space Flight Factors on Plant Biomass Developed from Alfalfa Seeds Carried by the Satellite%卫星搭载对紫花苜蓿当代植株生物量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任卫波; 赵亮; 王蜜; 陈立波; 郭慧琴

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of space flight factors on plant biomass in the generation of alfalfa carried by the satellite. [Method] Seeds from three lines of alfalfa were carried by the seed-breeding satellite Shijian-8. After the satellite returned to the ground, stem diameter, primary branch number and current-year individual biomass of alfalfa were studied. [Result] After space flight, primary branch number and current-year individual biomass of alfalfa increased significantly, while the stem diameter had no significant change. Using the value over(the mean value of control + three standard deviation) as a criterion to screen, the variants with enlarged stem diameter, increased primary branch number and individual biomass was two, five and twelve respectively. [Conclusion] The obtained variants can be used in the variety improvement of alfalfa and its new variety breeding, but whether its favorable variation can inherit stably to the progenies needs further study.

  5. Empirical analysis of factors affecting alfalfa plantation behavior of farmers in Huang-huai-hai region%黄淮海地区农户苜蓿种植行为影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文信; 蔡世攀; 王刚

    2015-01-01

    planting area will decrease 7.38%, and it will take 2 years to achieve the target from the old status to new balance. In long term, if the cotton price rise 10%, the alfalfa planting area will decrease 14.32%, and if the wheat price rise 10%, the alfalfa planting area will decrease 14.76%. These mean that the goal of alfalfa growers in Huang-Huai-Hai region is to make the expected return maximum;this is consistent with the expected results. In short term, if maize price rise 10%, the alfalfa planting area will increase 11.44%. and in long term, the alfalfa planting area will increase 22.88%.This is not consistent with the expected results. This is because that maize is mainly used as animal feed, as the same as alfalfa. The results also show that the planting subsides for other crops do not significantly affect planting alfalfa. Increasing the supply of alfalfa can effectively decrease the maize price in this region. According to the calculation results and investigation, this study suggests the government should reduce administrative intervention, provide the supply of improved seed, practical technology, information services, and increase the number of professional farmers planting alfalfa. According to characteristics of alfalfa demand and the goals of animal husbandry development and environmental improvement, government should develop the alfalfa production plan.%为分析黄淮海地区农户种植苜蓿的影响因素,该研究以黄淮海地区的苜蓿种植主体—农户为研究对象,通过建立苜蓿种植面积供给反应模型,利用统计数据及调查数据,证明黄淮海地区农户苜蓿种植并不遵循种植周期内收益最大化原则。通过建立幼稚价格预期模型,计算了各因素对黄淮海地区苜蓿种植面积的影响程度,证明针对其他作物的种植补贴不会显著影响苜蓿种植面积,增加苜蓿供给能有效降低饲料粮供给压力。该研究提出苜蓿种植应当减少行政干预,增

  6. Environmental stability of stem cell wall traits in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem Klason lignin, glucose, xylose, an...

  7. Elimination of toxicity from diets containing alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; McLaughlin, P; Bardana, E J; Craig, S

    1984-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were fed autoclaved alfalfa seeds for up to 1 yr. There were no humoral signs of a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. The data are in contrast to those previously reported in monkeys fed raw alfalfa seeds, in which a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome was induced in a shorter interval. The autoclaved seeds retained antihypercholesterolaemic effects. PMID:6540232

  8. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler;

    2016-01-01

    , the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the British Thoracic Society. In addition, we discuss the management and follow-up of GGO nodules in the light of experience from screening trials. Minimally invasive tissue biopsies and the marking of GGO nodules for surgery are new and rapidly developing fields...... correct diagnosis and optimal management. Here we present the latest advances in the radiologic imaging and pathology of GGO nodules, demonstrating that radiologic features are increasingly predictive of the pathology of GGO nodules. We review the current guidelines from the Fleischner Society...

  9. Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L As A Promising Forage In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L or Lucerne is a perennial herbaceous legume with superior forage quality. It is the most important forage crop in the world and it was the first domesticated forage crop. Alfalfa is able to fix nitrogen from the air through a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria with N production 7.85 – 10.37 g/m2. Its rooting system can reach 4.5 m that allows it to escape drought. Forage production can reach 15.48 tons of dry matter per ha/year and containing 18.0 – 29.1 % crude protein. Plants can live 3 to 12 years depending on climatic conditions and crop varieties. However, alfalfa is not a tropical plant, thus it has not been widely cultivated in Indonesia. The problem of alfalfa cultivation are high pest attacks and competition with weeds. Therefore, alfalfa cultivation requires attention and good management to obtain optimum yield.

  10. Thyroid Nodule Imaging, Status and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Durre Sabih; Kashif Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common, occurring in almost two-thirds of some populations; among these only about 7% are malignant. The most important question with any new discovered thyroid nodule is, “is this malignant?” The main arbiter of malignancy or benignity remains fine needle aspiration and the mainstay of treatment surgery. But given the resources involved, doing an FNAC or surgery in every discovered nodule would be prohibitive to impossible. The clinician must decide which nodule to invest...

  11. PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN KECERNAAN BAHAN KERING ALFALFA DENGAN PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sunarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago    sativa    L. as one of legume forage crops for ruminant livestock is very sensitive to the phosphorus deficiency. Phosphorus fertilizers have been used widely to overcome those problem. However, the high cost of superphosphate (SP is now focusing attention on cheaper rock phosphate (RP fertilizer. A field experiment was conducted on a latosolic soil (low pH, and low available Bray II extractable P. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer from difference sources on dry matter production, and in    vitro dry matter digestibility of alfalfa. Completely randomized block design with 7 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this field experiment. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (SP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T2 (SP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T3 (SP, 300 kg P2O5/ha, T4 (RP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T5 (RP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T6 (RP, 300 kg P2O5/ha. Size of each plot was 2 m x 2 m, and fertilized with P fertilizer (SP, RP according to the assigned treatment. All plot received basal fertilizer of urea (50 kg N/ha, KCl (100 kg K2O/ha and poultry manure (2 ton/ha. Medicago    sativa was defoliated on 12 weeks after planting and analyzed for dry matter (DM production and in    vitro DM digestibility. Result showed that DM production significantly influenced by the treatments. Superphosphate fertilization resulted DM production significantly higher compared to control and RP, except on RP 300 kg P2O5/ha was non-significant difference. In    vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of alfalfa was not affected by the treatment. There was non-significant difference in IVDMD between the treatments. Therefore, RP (300 kg P2O5/ha could replace SP to increased DM production and not affected for IVDMD of Medicago    sativa in acid latosolic soil.

  12. Benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Karstrup, Steen;

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ultrasonography (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on the volume of benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules and any nodule-related symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ILP was performed in 16 patients with normal thyroid function and a solid...... solitary solid cold thyroid nodule in patients who cannot or will not undergo surgery....

  13. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  14. Experimental Study on Characteristics of High Water Plant Alfalfa%高水分植物苜蓿强化干燥特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车刚; 王鑫; 万霖

    2015-01-01

    针对苜蓿为非均一性物质的特性,亟待提高各组分干燥程度的一致性。通过紫花苜蓿的生理和物理特性的试验分析,建立叶片、茎秆和草段的干燥特性曲线。利用基本的物理方法,确定最长干燥存留时间与苜蓿含水率的关系,机械处理次数和草段长度对苜蓿干燥速率的影响规律。试验研究表明:用机械压裂茎秆的方式处理的苜蓿与未处理的相比,干燥速度提高1.5~2倍。选择光滑槽压扁一次和纵向槽重复压扁三次处理的干燥效果最好。%According to the characteristics of uniformity material on alfalfa,the drying consistency of alfalfa components would be improved. Drying characteristic curve of leaf,stem and grass were established by physiological and physical properties of alfalfa. Using the basic physical methods,the relationship of the longest drying time and moisture content of alfalfa was determined,and the effect law of mechanical processing times and grass length to alfalfa drying rate were studied. The experimental study showed the mechanical way of fracturing alfalfa was compared with untreated alfalfa,the drying rate was increased by 1.5-2 times. The best drying effect of squashed alfalfa stem was to use smooth slot one time and longitudinal slot three times.

  15. Thyroid Nodule Imaging. Status and Limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durre Sabih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules are common, occurring in almost two-thirds of some populations; among these only about 7% are malignant. The most important question with any new discovered thyroid nodule is, “is this malignant?” The main arbiter of malignancy or benignity remains fine needle aspiration and the mainstay of treatment surgery. But given the resources involved, doing an FNAC or surgery in every discovered nodule would be prohibitive to impossible. The clinician must decide which nodule to investigate and which to watch in the hope that this will never turn out to be malignant. FNACs are used basically to decide which nodule to operate upon (or more importantly which to not operate upon and clinical and imaging features are used to decide which nodule to investigate by FNAC and which to leave alone. This paper describes the various imaging options for looking at thyroid nodules and briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages with each.

  16. Rhizobial gibberellin negatively regulates host nodule number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In legume-rhizobia symbiosis, the nodule number is controlled to ensure optimal growth of the host. In Lotus japonicus, the nodule number has been considered to be tightly regulated by host-derived phytohormones and glycopeptides. However, we have discovered a symbiont-derived phytohormonal regulation of nodule number in Mesorhizobium loti. In this study, we found that M. loti synthesized gibberellic acid (GA) under symbiosis. Hosts inoculated with a GA-synthesis-deficient M. loti mutant formed more nodules than those inoculated with the wild-type form at four weeks post inoculation, indicating that GA from already-incorporated rhizobia prevents new nodule formation. Interestingly, the genes for GA synthesis are only found in rhizobial species that inhabit determinate nodules. Our findings suggest that the already-incorporated rhizobia perform GA-associated negative regulation of nodule number to prevent delayed infection by other rhizobia. PMID:27307029

  17. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eMartínez-Hidalgo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation.In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity.

  18. Diversity and numbers of root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia in Polish soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a sand pouch-plant infection method, populations of several species of root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia were enumerated in eighty soils collected throughout Poland. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae (symbionts of pea, faba bean, vetch and R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii (symbionts of clover were detected in 77 and 76 soils, respectively. Most of these soils contained moderate and high numbers of these species of the rhizobia. Symbionts of beans, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, were assessed in 76 soils; of this number 15 soils had no detectable populations of bean rhizobia and in 40 soils high or moderate numbers of these bacteria were found. Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus, root-nodule bacteria of lupine and serradella, were absent in 19 soils, out of 80 tested, and 34 soils were colonised by high or moderate populations of bradyrhizobia. Sinorhizobium meliloti, rhizobia nodulating alfalfa, were sparse in the examined soils; with 56 soil containing no detectable numbers of S. meliloti and only 6 soils harbouring high or moderate populations of this species. The estimated numbers of the rhizobia in the studied soils were also related to some physical and chemical properties of these soils.

  19. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M; Pozo, María J

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation. In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity. PMID:26388861

  20. Alfalfa carbon and nitrogen sequestration patterns and effects of temperature and precipitation in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Chang

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a primary and widely cultivated forage crop in China. As a perennial leguminous grass, continuous planted alfalfa may influence carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa, planted for different lengths of time, and temperature and precipitation on soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (TN contents, and estimated soil SOC and TN inventories from 0-60 cm in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China. Alfalfa SOC and TN storage patterns were significantly different with increasing soil depths between the three regions of northern China. Continuous alfalfa grassland planted had a positive effect on accumulation of both SOC and TN in the Northwest region, whereas SOC storage peaked 6-7 years after planting in the Northeast and North region. Moreover, relatively higher TN storage appeared 7 years after planting in the Northeast and North regions. This study controlled as many factors as possible, but we caution that such temporal inferences could be artifacts of site selection. The regression analysis indicated that SOC and TN accumulation was mainly dependent on temperature (≥10°C of effective total accumulated temperature in the North region. Precipitation in the growing season was the main limiting factor for SOC storage in the Northwest region and TN accumulation in the North regions. Therefore, the different climate factors affecting SOC and TN sequestration in alfalfa occurred at a regional scale.

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspirations of Thyroid Nodules: Assessment of Nondiagnostic Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Min Ho; Lee, Ji Hye; Bae, Il Hun; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Kil Sun; Koong, Sung Soo [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To determine the frequency of malignancy among the nondiagnostic specimens by ultrasound-guided, fine needle aspiration (US-FNA) and to analyze the factors which cause the nondiagnostic specimens of thyroid nodules. Data were collected from 425 patients (58 male, 367 female) who underwent US-FNA of the thyroid nodule between February, 2002 and October, 2003. The study included 784 nodules from 425 patients. US-FNA was performed 1 to 3 times by two radiologists using a 10MHz linear probe and a 21-gauge fine needle. The percentage of total nondiagnostic specimens was obtained and the percentage of nondiagnostic specimens according to the thyroid nodule's size and nature was analyzed. Thyroid nodules were classified according to their sizes and natures. The nodules were divided by size as either 1cm or more, or less than 1cm in diameter. Each nodule was classified as cystic (pure cystic), mixed (solid portion of nodule<2/3) or solid (solid portion of nodule >2/3). The percentage of malignancy among nondiagnostic specimens was determined and compared to the malignancy rate among diagnostic specimens. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical significance. Among the 784 nodules, 95 (12.1%) were nondiagnostic. The percentage of nondiagnostic specimens increased as the cystic content increased (p<0.0001). The malignancy rate of the diagnostic specimens was higher than that of the nondiagnostic specimens, but the difference was not significant. The cystic content of each nodule was the only significant predictor of nondiagnostic specimens. There was no significant difference in malignancy rate between nondiagnostic and diagnostic specimens. It is suggested that when evaluating an initially nondiagnostic US-FNA, repetitive US-FNA or follow-up USG should be performed

  2. Effect of Graded Levels of Fiber from Alfalfa Meal on Nutrient Digestibility and Flow of Fattening Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2014-01-01

    The ifber level and composition have an important effect on nutrient digestibility of swine diets. Little information is known about the effects of ifber level and composition from alfalfa meal on nutrient digestibility of fattening pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of alfalfa ifber on the growth performance, intestinal nutrient lfow and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in fattening pigs. 24 barrows (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace), body weight=(60.6±0.7) kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 1 pig per replicate. The pigs were provided a control diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20%of alfalfa meal during a 14-d experiment period. Average daily gain (ADG) and the ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent ifber (NDF), acid detergent ifber (ADF) and gross energy (GE) reduced linearly as the level of alfalfa meal in the diet increased (P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both soluble and insoluble ifber intake, explained approximately 70%of the variation in the ATTD of DM, OM, NDF, and GE (P<0.01). In conclusion, alfalfa meal should be limited to less than 5%of the diet in fattening pigs to maximize growth performance and nutrient digestion. Soluble and insoluble ifber from alfalfa meal has the differential roles in nutrient digestion, which may help explain the main variation observed in nutrient digestibility. These ifndings suggest that knowledge of speciifc ifber components is necessary to accurately predict the effects of dietary ifber on nutrient digestibility.

  3. Clustering of HI galaxies in HIPASS and ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Passmoor, S S; Faltenbacher, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the clustering of HI-selected galaxies in the ALFALFA survey and compare results with those obtained for HIPASS. Measurements of the angular correlation function and the inferred 3D-clustering are compared with results from direct spatial-correlation measurements. We are able to measure clustering on smaller angular scales and for galaxies with lower HI masses than was previously possible. We calculate the expected clustering of dark matter using the redshift distributions of HIPASS and ALFALFA and show that the ALFALFA sample is somewhat more anti-biased with respect to dark matter than the HIPASS sample.

  4. RNA-seq transcriptome profiling reveals that Medicago truncatula nodules acclimate N2 fixation before emerging P deficiency reaches the nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; von Stieglitz, Ilsabe; Neumann, Janice; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legume nodules are plant tissues with an exceptionally high concentration of phosphorus (P), which, when there is scarcity of P, is preferentially maintained there rather than being allocated to other plant organs. The hypothesis of this study was that nodules are affected before the P concentration in the organ declines during whole-plant P depletion. Nitrogen (N2) fixation and P concentration in various organs were monitored during a whole-plant P-depletion process in Medicago truncatula. Nodule gene expression was profiled through RNA-seq at day 5 of P depletion. Until that point in time P concentration in leaves reached a lower threshold but was maintained in nodules. N2-fixation activity per plant diverged from that of fully nourished plants beginning at day 5 of the P-depletion process, primarily because fewer nodules were being formed, while the activity of the existing nodules was maintained for as long as two weeks into P depletion. RNA-seq revealed nodule acclimation on a molecular level with a total of 1140 differentially expressed genes. Numerous genes for P remobilization from organic structures were increasingly expressed. Various genes involved in nodule malate formation were upregulated, while genes involved in fermentation were downregulated. The fact that nodule formation was strongly repressed with the onset of P deficiency is reflected in the differential expression of various genes involved in nodulation. It is concluded that plants follow a strategy to maintain N2 fixation and viable leaf tissue as long as possible during whole-plant P depletion to maintain their ability to react to emerging new P sources (e.g. through active P acquisition by roots). PMID:25151618

  5. Enhanced Resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in Populations of Alfalfa Selected for Quantitative Resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R G; Rowe, D E

    2002-02-01

    ABSTRACT Sclerotinia trifoliorum and Sclerotium rolfsii are pathogens for which similar mechanisms of parasitism have been proposed. This suggested that resistance to these pathogens may be related in a common host plant. This study was undertaken to determine whether selection for quantitative resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum in alfalfa also increases resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii as expressed in excised leaf tissues and whole plants. Resistance in excised leaf tissues was evaluated according to the rate of necrosis induced by Sclerotium rolfsii following inoculation with mycelium. Resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in whole plants was evaluated according to their survival following crown inoculations. Three alfalfa populations previously selected from cv. Delta for quantitative resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum exhibited enhanced resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii, in comparison with Delta or with susceptible populations, in excised leaf tissues. When whole plants of Delta and two of these populations, Sclerotinia trifoliorum resistant (STR) and Mississippi Sclerotinia resistant (MSR), were inoculated with Sclerotium rolfsii at 3 to 8 weeks of age, significant (P = 0.01) differences in survival were attributed to plant age at inoculation and alfalfa populations. Survival of both MSR and STR was significantly (P = 0.05) greater than for Delta; the best differential results were obtained by inoculating plants 5 to 7 weeks old. To evaluate relationships of resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum and Sclerotium rolfsii over a broader genetic background, additional populations were selected for resistance to Sclerotinia trifoliorum from four other alfalfa cultivars by leaf-inoculation techniques, and this resistance was confirmed by whole-plant inoculations. In excised leaf tissues, all four of these populations also expressed enhanced resistance to Sclerotium rolfsii in comparison with either parent cultivars or populations of comparable size selected at random

  6. Positron emission tomography of incidentally detected small pulmonary nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, B M; Mortensen, J; Dirksen, A;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging of small pulmonary nodules incidentally detected by spiral computed tomography (CT) in a high-risk population. Ten patients (five females, five males, aged 54-72 years) were recruited...... (approx. 3.3% of the entire study population). The prevalence of malignancy in this group was 50%. The accuracy of PET was high, in spite of the fact that seven patients had nodules smaller than 15 mm and two patients had bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma. This small prospective study indicates...... that subsequent assessment with FDG PET of small pulmonary nodules incidentally detected by CT has the potential to minimize the numbers of invasive procedures performed in individuals with a benign pulmonary lesion. FDG PET also increases the possibility of an early diagnosis as compared to the strategy...

  7. Cytokinin and Auxin Participation in Nodulation Process Regulation in Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.К. Glyan’ko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the data on physiological role of phytohormones – cytokinin and auxin - in initiation of root cortical cells division resulting in formation of root nodule primordium and its further organogenesis. High level of cytokinin and low level of auxin have been proven to be a prerequisite for this process. The mechanism providing the increase in cytokinin : auxin ratio is linked to inhibiting auxin transport from aerial organs to the root with the involvement of cytokinin signaling. Decrease in cytokinin : auxin ratio at the background of inhibiting cytokinin signaling initiates formation of lateral roots. Alternative role of rhizobial Nod-factor, cytokinin and flavonoids in root nodule organogenesis is discussed. Schemes of reactions and compounds participating in initiating of nodule primordium and lateral roots formation are presented.

  8. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  9. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Encapsulation and nodulation in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovskiy IM; Kryukova NA; Glupov VV; Ratcliffe NA

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of the insect immune system led to the creation of a comprehensive cellular defense system, not only involving phagocytosis, but also encapsulation and nodulation (both often referred to as capsule formation) allowing the isolation and neutralization of invading pathogens and parasites. Such reactions are closely related to the anatomical and physiological characteristics in insects with their external skeleton and open circulatory blood system. Encapsulation and nodulat...

  11. Changes in ruminal bacterial community composition following feeding of alfalfa silage inoculated with a commercial silage inoculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some silage inoculants promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. In this study, dairy cows fed alfalfa silage treated with the inoculant, Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LPS), were compared to cows fed untreated silage (Ctrl) with the objectives: 1) to de...

  12. Approach and management of thyroid nodule. A literature review = Nódulo tiroideo, enfoque y manejo. Revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Román-González, Alejandro; Restrepo Giraldo, Lina; Alzate Monsalve, Catalina; Vélez, Alejandro; Gutiérrez Restrepo, Johnayro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroid nodules are commonly found, and their incidence is increasing. The main objective during the evaluation of these nodules is to determine if they are benign or malignant. Materials and methods: We made a narrative review of the literature by searching Ovid, Medline and Lilacs from 1950 to 2010. Results: Most thyroid nodules are benign, but in 4% to 8% of cases they may be malignant, hence the importance of appropriate study and management. Nodules larger than 1 cm should ...

  13. Automatic lung nodule classification with radiomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingchen; Wang, Qian; Ren, Yacheng; Hu, Haibo; Zhao, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the first killer among the cancer deaths. Malignant lung nodules have extremely high mortality while some of the benign nodules don't need any treatment .Thus, the accuracy of diagnosis between benign or malignant nodules diagnosis is necessary. Notably, although currently additional invasive biopsy or second CT scan in 3 months later may help radiologists to make judgments, easier diagnosis approaches are imminently needed. In this paper, we propose a novel CAD method to distinguish the benign and malignant lung cancer from CT images directly, which can not only improve the efficiency of rumor diagnosis but also greatly decrease the pain and risk of patients in biopsy collecting process. Briefly, according to the state-of-the-art radiomics approach, 583 features were used at the first step for measurement of nodules' intensity, shape, heterogeneity and information in multi-frequencies. Further, with Random Forest method, we distinguish the benign nodules from malignant nodules by analyzing all these features. Notably, our proposed scheme was tested on all 79 CT scans with diagnosis data available in The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) which contain 127 nodules and each nodule is annotated by at least one of four radiologists participating in the project. Satisfactorily, this method achieved 82.7% accuracy in classification of malignant primary lung nodules and benign nodules. We believe it would bring much value for routine lung cancer diagnosis in CT imaging and provide improvement in decision-support with much lower cost.

  14. Liming influence on soil chemical properties, nutritional status and yield of alfalfa grown in acid soil Influência da calagem nas propriedades químicas do solo, estado nutricional e produção da alfafa em um solo ácido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is an important forage crop with high nutritive value, although highly susceptible to soil acidity. Liming is one of the most efficient and prevailing practices to correct soil acidity and improve alfalfa yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate response to liming of alfalfa grown in a greenhouse on a Typic Quartzipsamment soil. The treatments consisted of four lime rates (0, 3.8, 6.6 and 10.3 Mg ha-1 and two cuts. Alfalfa dry matter increased quadratically with increasing lime rates. In general, dry matter yield was maximized by a lime rate of 8.0 Mg ha-1. Except for the control, the dry matter nutrient contents in the treatments were adequate. The positive linear correlation between root and nodule dry matter with lime rates indicated improvement of these plant traits with decreasing soil acidity. The soil acidity indices pH, base saturation, Ca2+ concentration, Mg2+ concentration, and H + Al were relevant factors in the assessment of alfalfa yield. The magnitude of influence of these soil acidity indices on yield as determined by the coefficient of determination (R² varied and decreased in the order: base saturation, H + Al, pH, Ca and Mg concentrations. Optimum values of selected soil chemical properties were defined for maximum shoot dry matter; these values can serve as a guideline for alfalfa liming to improve the yield of this forage on acid soils.A alfafa é uma importante forrageira com alto valor nutritivo, porém é altamente suscetível à acidez do solo. A calagem é uma das mais eficientes práticas para corrigir esse problema e melhorar a produtividade da alfafa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta à calagem da alfafa cultivada em Neossolo Quartzarênico em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro doses de calcário (0; 3,8; 6,6 e 10,3 Mg ha-1 e duas épocas de corte. A produção de matéria seca foi significativamente aumentada com a adição de calcário, com o m

  15. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, �Seyah-Roud�, �Ahar-Hourand�, �Oskou�, �Malekan� and �Sefida-Khan� were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and �Sefida-Khan� had comparatively less sodium contents than �Oskou�, �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes �Malekan�, Ahar- Hourand and �Oskou� were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes �Malekan� and �Ahar-Hourand� were better.

  16. Leaf d15N as a physiological indicator of the responsiveness of N2-fixing alfalfa plants to elevated [CO2], temperature and low water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia eAriz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural 15N/14N isotope composition (δ15N of a tissue is a consequence of its N source and N physiological mechanisms in response to the environment. It could potentially be used as a tracer of N metabolism in plants under changing environmental conditions, where primary N metabolism may be complex, and losses and gains of N fluctuate over time. In order to test the utility of δ15N as an indicator of plant N status in N2-fixing plants grown under various environmental conditions, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were subjected to distinct conditions of [CO2] (400 versus 700 mol mol-1, temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4ºC and water availability (fully watered versus water deficiency - WD. As expected, increased [CO2] and temperature stimulated photosynthetic rates and plant growth, whereas these parameters were negatively affected by WD. The determination of δ15N in leaves, stems, roots and nodules showed that leaves were the most representative organs of the plant response to increased [CO2] and WD. Depletion of heavier N isotopes in plants grown under higher [CO2] and WD conditions reflected decreased transpiration rates, but could also be related to a higher N demand in leaves, as suggested by the decreased leaf N and total soluble protein (TSP contents detected at 700 mol mol-1 [CO2] and WD conditions. In summary, leaf δ15N provides relevant information integrating parameters which condition plant responsiveness (e.g. photosynthesis, TSP, N demand and water transpiration to environmental conditions.

  17. A Report of 10 Individuals with Weathering Nodules and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udkoff, Jeremy; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Weathering nodules are a benign skin condition that usually present as papules on the helices of patients with significant prior sun exposure. They are easily recognized clinically and blanch upon application of pressure to the adjacent helical rim: a positive blanch sign. We describe the clinical presentation of weathering nodules in 10 patients, nine men and one woman, aging from 38 to 70 (median 59), and their associated risk factors. Eight patients had a history of actinic keratosis, three had a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and all patients had increased Sun exposure through outdoor activities. Weathering nodules are rarely mentioned in the literature and may be confused with other cutaneous disorders. Therefore, it is paramount for clinicians to become familiar with weathering nodules and include them in the differential diagnosis of ear nodules. Appropriate diagnosis will help avoid unnecessary biopsies while reassuring the patient that the lesions are benign. PMID:27512191

  18. A Report of 10 Individuals with Weathering Nodules and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udkoff, Jeremy; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Weathering nodules are a benign skin condition that usually present as papules on the helices of patients with significant prior sun exposure. They are easily recognized clinically and blanch upon application of pressure to the adjacent helical rim: a positive blanch sign. We describe the clinical presentation of weathering nodules in 10 patients, nine men and one woman, aging from 38 to 70 (median 59), and their associated risk factors. Eight patients had a history of actinic keratosis, three had a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and all patients had increased Sun exposure through outdoor activities. Weathering nodules are rarely mentioned in the literature and may be confused with other cutaneous disorders. Therefore, it is paramount for clinicians to become familiar with weathering nodules and include them in the differential diagnosis of ear nodules. Appropriate diagnosis will help avoid unnecessary biopsies while reassuring the patient that the lesions are benign.

  19. Incidentally found thyroid nodules in women with no previous thyroid disease: its significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Park, Cheong Soo; Chung, Woung Youn; Oh, Ki Keun; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of thyroid nodules discovered incidentally at ultrasonography and to reassess their significance. During a six-month period and using a high-frequency transducer, 1033 subjects with suspected breast disease underwent a prospective study of the thyroid. We determined the prevalence of thyroid nodules according to age, and the malignancy rate. Focal thyroid nodules were detected in 291 women (28.2%), their prevalence increasing with age (p<0.01). The nodules, totalling 337, were single in 260 cases (89.3%) and multiple in 31 (10.7%); 271 were less than 1 cm in diameter, 53 were 1-2 cm, and 13 were more than 2 cm (mean, 7.1(range, 2-34) mm); 126 (37.4%) were pure cysts, 62 (18.4%) were mixed, and 149 (44.2%) were solid. Of the 149 solid nodules, 139 were hypoechoic. Eighty women (with 106 nodules) underwent fine-needle aspiration bipsy, and 35 (with 45 nodules) underwent surgery. It was discovered, finally, that 29 women (2.8%) had 35 malignancies, of which 33 were papillary carcinomas and two were carcinomas which had metastasized from a breast malignancy. Eleven women (37.9%) had extrathyroidal invasion and 6 (20.7%) had cervical lymph node metastasis despite incidentaloma. The prevalence of incidentally found thyroid nodules was 28.2%. Since the malignancy rate of these was relatively high, at 10.4%, the clinical significance of this finding should be reassessed.

  20. Growth and Production Characteristics of Different Alfalfa Varieties in Jiamusi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xiaohui; Feng; Peng; Jiang; Cheng; Li; Rulai; Zheng; Haiyan; Li; Zengjie; Wang; Qiang

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The growth and production characteristics of different alfalfa varieties in Jiamusi were explored in the paper,in order to better study their cold resistance in northern regions. [Method]The yield traits in different growth periods were measured using randomized block design method. [Results] The plant height of Longmu 803 was the highest of 66. 80 cm on the seeding year; the numbers of plants and branches per unit length of Longmu 808 were the highest of 94 plants and 184 branches,respectively,and its yield was the highest. The overwintering rate of each variety in the region was 100%. The yield of first mowing successively were Longmu 808 > Longmu 80 > Xunlu alfalfa > Aohan alfalfa > Zhaodong alfalfa > Longmu 807; the yield and 1 000-grain weight of Longmu803 were the highest,which were 20. 24 and 0. 09 g higher than control Zhaodong alfalfa,respectively. [Conclusion]The test alfalfa varieties have higher cold resistance in Jiamusi. Longmu 803 and Longmu 808 have both high grass production performance and excellent production performance.

  1. Investigating the low-dose limits of multidetector CT in lung nodule surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, N S; Siewerdsen, J H; Patsios, D; Chung, T B

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors limiting nodule detection in thoracic computed tomography (CT) and to determine whether prior knowledge of nodule size and attenuation, available from a baseline CT study, influences the minimum radiation dose at which nodule surveillance CT scans can be performed while maintaining current levels of nodule detectability. Multiple nodules varying in attenuation (-509 to + 110 HU) and diameter (1.6 to 9.5 mm) were layered in random and ordered sequences within 2 lung cylinders made of Rando lung material and suspended within a custom-built CT phantom. Multiple CT scans were performed at varying kVp (120, 100, and 80), mA (200, 150, 100, 50, 20, and 10), and beam collimation (5, 2.5, and 1.25 mm) on a four-row multidetector scanner (Lightspeed, General Electric, Milwaukee, WI) using 0.8 s gantry rotation. The corresponding range of radiation dose over which images were acquired was 0.3-26.4 mGy. Nine observers independently performed three specific tasks, namely: (1) To detect a 3.2 mm nodule of 23 HU; (2) To detect 3.2 mm nodules of varying attenuation (-509 to -154 HU); and (3) To detect nodules varying in size (1.6-9 mm) and attenuation (-509 to 110 HU). A two-alternative forced-choice test was used in order to determine the limits of nodule detection in terms of the proportion of correct responses (Pcorr, related to the area under the ROC curve) as a summary metric of observer performance. The radiation dose levels for detection of 99% of nodules in each task were as follows: Task 1 (1 mGy); Task 2 (5 mGy); and Task 3 (7 mGy). The corresponding interobserver confidence limits were 1, 5, and 10 mGy for Tasks 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was a fivefold increase in the radiation dose required for detection of lower-density nodules (Tasks 1 to 2). Absence of prior knowledge of the nodule size and density (Task 3) corresponds to a significant increase in the minimum required radiation dose. Significant image

  2. Correlations between environmental factors and wild bee behavior on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Hongping; Li, Xiaoxia; Song, Yu; Chen, Li; Jin, Liang

    2009-10-01

    To discover the effect of environmental factors on pollinator visitation to flowering Medicago sativa, several field experiments were designed to examine the diurnal movement patterns of wild bee species in the Hexi Corridor of northwestern China. Our study results showed that Megachile abluta, M. spissula, and Xylocopa valga showed unimodal diurnal foraging behavior, whereas Andrena parvula and Anthophora melanognatha showed bimodal diurnal foraging behavior. Correlation analysis indicated that diurnal foraging activities of pollinators were significantly correlated with environmental factors. Correlations of foraging activities versus environmental factors for M. abluta, M. spissula, and X. valga best fit a linear model, whereas those of A. parvula and A. melanognatha best fit a parallel quadratic model. Results of this study indicated that solitary wild bees such as M. abluta, M. spissula, X. valga, A. parvula, and A. melanognatha are potential alfalfa pollinators in the Hexi Corridor. An understanding of the environmental factors that affect the behaviors of different wild bees foraging in alfalfa are basic to the utilization of solitary wild bees in a practical way for increased, or more consistent, pollination of alfalfa for seed production. PMID:19825303

  3. Effects of three-dimensional and color patterns on nest location and progeny mortality in alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédot, Christelle; Bosch, Jordi; James, Rosalind R; Kemp, William P

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT In alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., seed production where high bee densities are released, alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), females may enter several nesting holes before locating their nests. Such levels of "wrong hole" visits lead to an increase in the time spent by females locating their own nests, thereby decreasing alfalfa pollination efficiency and possibly healthy brood production. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of different nesting board configurations in commercial alfalfa leafcutting bee shelters (separating nesting boards, applying a three-dimensional pattern to the boards, applying a color contrast pattern, or applying a combination of three-dimensional and color contrast patterns) on nest location performance, on the incidence of chalkbrood disease, and on the incidence of broodless provisions. Separating the nesting boards inside shelters improved the ability of females to locate their nests. An increase in nest location performance also occurred in boards with the three-dimensional pattern and the combined three-dimensional and color contrast pattern, compared with the uniform board (a standard configuration currently used commercially). The percentage of provisioned cells that were broodless was not statistically different between treatments, but the percentage of larvae infected with chalkbrood decreased by half in the three-dimensional board design, compared with the uniform board. PMID:16813291

  4. Differential Regulation of the Nodulation Zone by Silver Ions, L--(2-Amino-Ethoxyvinyl-Glycine, and the skl Mutation in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOKO PRAYITNO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nodule formation in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis is negatively regulated by ethylene. Ethylene inhibitors such as L--(2-amino-ethoxyvinyl-glycine (AVG and silver ions (Ag+, the ethylene-insensitive sickle mutant, and transgenic plants were used to study ethylene-mediated responses in nodulation. The mode of action of ethylene inhibitors AVG and Ag+, and the skl mutation occur at different steps in ethylene biosynthesis and perception. Their effects on root growth and nodulation phenotypes, in particular nodule distribution along the primary root, were compared in this study. Ag+ and AVG treatments showed similar root growth responses to skl mutant. However, nodule distribution in the hypernodulating skl mutant is different from that of wild-type plants grown on either AVG or Ag+. AVG increased nodule numbers and widened the nodulation zone, while the skl mutant had an increased number of nodules within the susceptible zone of nodulation. Ag+ reduced nodule numbers, restricted the nodulation zone, and restored the nodulation phenotype of skl to that of the wild type.

  5. Novel penalised likelihood reconstruction of PET in the assessment of histologically verified small pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teoh, Eugene J.; Gleeson, Fergus V. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McGowan, Daniel R. [University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiation Physics and Protection, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Kevin M. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Belcher, Elizabeth; Black, Edward [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Thoracic Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Investigate the effect of a novel Bayesian penalised likelihood (BPL) reconstruction algorithm on analysis of pulmonary nodules examined with 18F-FDG PET/CT, and to determine its effect on small, sub-10-mm nodules. 18F-FDG PET/CTs performed for nodule evaluation in 104 patients (121 nodules) were retrospectively reconstructed using the new algorithm, and compared to time-of-flight ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction. Nodule and background parameters were analysed semi-quantitatively and visually. BPL compared to OSEM resulted in statistically significant increases in nodule SUV{sub max} (mean 5.3 to 8.1, p < 0.00001), signal-to-background (mean 3.6 to 5.3, p < 0.00001) and signal-to-noise (mean 24 to 41, p < 0.00001). Mean percentage increase in SUV{sub max} (%ΔSUV{sub max}) was significantly higher in nodules ≤10 mm (n = 31, mean 73 %) compared to >10 mm (n = 90, mean 42 %) (p = 0.025). Increase in signal-to-noise was higher in nodules ≤10 mm (224 %, mean 12 to 27) compared to >10 mm (165 %, mean 28 to 46). When applying optimum SUV{sub max} thresholds for detecting malignancy, the sensitivity and accuracy increased using BPL, with the greatest improvements in nodules ≤10 mm. BPL results in a significant increase in signal-to-background and signal-to-noise compared to OSEM. When semi-quantitative analyses to diagnose malignancy are applied, higher SUV{sub max} thresholds may be warranted owing to the SUV{sub max} increase compared to OSEM. (orig.)

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host. PMID:24510307

  7. Sinorhizobium meliloti nifA gene exerts a pleiotropic effect on nodulation through the enhanced plant defense response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti nifA gene is required for the expression of a bunch of nif and fix genes. Here, we report its pleiotropic effects on the nodule formation. Compared with wild type strain, nifA mutant significantly reduced nodule suppression rate in split-root system. The plants inoculated with mutant strain produced lower amount of daidzein and less necrotic cells on their roots. In addition, the defense genes failed to be evoked by nifA mutant at the early nodulation stage. These findings indicated that host defense response was one of the mechanisms mediated by nifA gene to regulate nodule formation during symbiosis. Even though nifA mutant could increase the number of nodules in host plant, it synthesized lower Nod factors than wild type. This suggested that nifA gene mediated multiple and diverse instances in nodulation formation.

  8. Effect of lime, organic and inorganic fertilizer on nodulation and yield of soybean (Glycine max varieties in Ultisol soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryantini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the effect of soil ameliorant and inorganic fertilizers on nodulation and yield of some soybean varieties. Study was conducted under greenhouse condition in acid soils. Results revealed that all the tested varieties were compatible with native rhizobium at both study areas and showing the formation of nodules. A positive correlation was reported between the number of nodules and soybean grain yield. The number of nodules and final yield production was higher in the area where soybean cultivated regularly as compare to the new area of soybean production. Inorganic fertilizers increased nodulation and grain yield but the highest yields were generally obtained in the treatment of inorganic fertilizer combined with lime or manure. Soybean variety Kaba and Sinabung showed the highest nodulation and grain yield and it was followed by Panderman and Anjasmoro

  9. Ultrasonography diagnosis and imaging-based management of thyroid nodules: Revised Korean society of thyroid radiology consensus statement and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hee [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-06-15

    The rate of detection of thyroid nodules and carcinomas has increased with the widespread use of ultrasonography (US), which is the mainstay for the detection and risk stratification of thyroid nodules as well as for providing guidance for their biopsy and nonsurgical treatment. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) published their first recommendations for the US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in 2011. These recommendations have been used as the standard guidelines for the past several years in Korea. Lately, the application of US has been further emphasized for the personalized management of patients with thyroid nodules. The Task Force on Thyroid Nodules of the KSThR has revised the recommendations for the ultrasound diagnosis and imaging-based management of thyroid nodules. The review and recommendations in this report have been based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and the consensus of experts.

  10. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sativa L.), inoculated or not with an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices) and fertilized with Hewitt solution. Control non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants were included. There was four replicates per treatment. After 2 months, plant survival and growth was measured, as well as mycorrhizal colonization of roots. PAH in rhizosphere soils was analyzed using ASE and GC-FID. Major and trace elements in plants were analyzed after acid digestion using ICP. AM fungal and bacterial communities present in roots and rhizosphere were also analysed after DNA extraction with a PCR-TGGE technique. Plant survival rate was significantly lower in the soil treated with bio-pile than in untreated soil. Non-inoculated and non fertilized alfalfa biomass was lower with soil treated with bio-pile and thermal desorption than with untreated soil. Mycorrhizal inoculation as well as fertilization significantly improved alfalfa growth in the soil treated with bio-pile. In the soil treated with thermal desorption, shoot and root biomass were significantly higher with mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilization. Estimation of root colonization showed that the roots of un-inoculated plants growing on the untreated contaminated soil contained indigenous mycorrhizal fungi. With the soil treated with bio-pile, mycorrhizal colonization of un-inoculated plants was significantly lower, while no colonization was observed in the roots in the soil treated with thermal desorption. Inoculation with a mycorrhizal fungus increased root colonization rate in both treated soils. It also significantly increased the number of rhizobia nodules. Phosphorus concentration in plant roots and shoots was significantly improved by mycorrhizal inoculation in soil treated with thermal desorption. Data on PAH concentration in soils and fungal and bacterial communities will be also presented and discussed

  11. Management strategy of solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ping; Xie, Haiyan; Xu, Chunhua; Hao, Keke; Hou, Zhibo; Song, Yong

    2013-12-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) are increasingly detected with the widespread use of chest computed tomography (CT) scans. The management of patients with SPN should begin with estimating the probability of cancer from the patient's clinical risk factors and CT characteristics. The decision-making process need to incorporate the probability of cancer, the potential benefits and harms of surgery, the accuracy of the available diagnostic tests and patient preferences. For patients with a very low probability of cancer, careful observation with serial CT is warranted. For patients in the intermediate range of probabilities, either CT-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) or positron emission tomography (PET), is recommended. For those with a high probability of cancer, surgical diagnosis is warranted. PMID:24409361

  12. Role of baseline nodule density and changes in density and nodule features in the discrimination between benign and malignant solid indeterminate pulmonary nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, D.M.; van Klaveren, R.J.; de Bock, G.H.; Leusveld, A.L.M.; Dorrius, M.D.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y.; de Koning, H.J.; Scholten, E.T.; Verschakelen, J.; Prokop, M.; Oudkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate whether baseline nodule density or changes in density or nodule features could be used to discriminate between benign and malignant solid indeterminate nodules. Materials and methods: Solid indeterminate nodules between 50 and 500 mm(3) (4.6-9.8 mm) were assessed

  13. Pulmonary nodule detection using a cascaded SVM classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtholdt, Martin; Wiemker, Rafael; Klinder, Tobias

    2016-03-01

    Automatic detection of lung nodules from chest CT has been researched intensively over the last decades resulting also in several commercial products. However, solutions are adopted only slowly into daily clinical routine as many current CAD systems still potentially miss true nodules while at the same time generating too many false positives (FP). While many earlier approaches had to rely on rather few cases for development, larger databases become now available and can be used for algorithmic development. In this paper, we address the problem of lung nodule detection via a cascaded SVM classifier. The idea is to sequentially perform two classification tasks in order to select from an extremely large pool of potential candidates the few most likely ones. As the initial pool is allowed to contain thousands of candidates, very loose criteria could be applied during this pre-selection. In this way, the chances that a true nodule is falsely rejected as a candidate are reduced significantly. The final algorithm is trained and tested on the full LIDC/IDRI database. Comparison is done against two previously published CAD systems. Overall, the algorithm achieved sensitivity of 0.859 at 2.5 FP/volume where the other two achieved sensitivity values of 0.321 and 0.625, respectively. On low dose data sets, only slight increase in the number of FP/volume was observed, while the sensitivity was not affected.

  14. Multiple Cavitary Pulmonary Nodules Caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Seo Ree; Choi, Joon Young; Choi, Jae Woo; Ko, Yu Mi; Jang, Sun Hee; Park, Jun Kyu; Sung, Ye Gyu; Park, Yun Jung; Oh, Su Yun; Bahk, Se Young; Lee, Ju Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). There have been several previous reports of SPN due to MAC infection in the United States, Japan, and Korea. In 2009, Sekine and colleagues reported a case of MAC pulmonary infection presenting with multiple nodules. To date, however, there have been no cases of NTM lung infection with multiple cavitary pulmonary nodules, and neither a fibrotic change nor nodular bronchiectasis. The present case showed a multiple cavitating nodular lung infection due to MAC, which is very rare and different from the typical presentation of MAC pulmonary infections. We also showed that percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration can be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate a case of multiple cavitary nodules. PMID:27468344

  15. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  16. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N;

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  17. Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Orlo H.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with thyroid nodules must be treated selectively because these nodules develop far more frequently than does thyroid cancer. A thorough clinical history, family history and history of radiation, as well as an accurate physical examination, are very important in determining whether surgical treatment is indicated. Thyroid function tests, a radioactive isotope scan, a thyroid echogram and fine-needle biopsy are also useful.

  18. Design improvements in box dredges to enhance the collection of manganese nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernando, V.; Sonawane, A.V.

    in significant increase of the dredge haul. Consequent field data is included. Design of a simple feeding concept to enhance the concentration of nodules at the dredge mouth is briefly dealt with for future application....

  19. Incidentally detected lung nodules: clinical predictors of adherence to fleischner society surveillance guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2014-02-28

    The objective of this study was to determine adherence to incidentally detected lung nodule computed tomographic (CT) surveillance recommendations and identify demographic and clinical factors that increase the likelihood of CT surveillance.

  20. Rheumatoid nodule presenting as Morton's neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, S; Joshy, S; Hariharan, K; Rashid, M

    2013-09-01

    Among 101 feet that presented with symptoms and signs similar to Morton's neuroma, intermetatarsal rheumatoid nodules were found in five feet (three patients). Two patients had bilateral involvement. Histology of the excised tissue showed the presence of a rheumatoid nodule and Morton's neuroma in four feet and a rheumatoid nodule with unremarkable nerve bundles in one. A rheumatoid nodule can coexist with Morton's neuroma, as seen in our patients, and the presentation is often similar to that of a Morton's neuroma. Our patients were rendered asymptomatic with surgical treatment and went on to have appropriate management of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid nodule should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Morton's neuroma in not only rheumatoid arthritis patients but also asymptomatic patients who have never been tested for rheumatoid antibodies. PMID:23135058

  1. Different Pathways Act Downstream of the CEP Peptide Receptor CRA2 to Regulate Lateral Root and Nodule Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A; Laffont, Carole; Ivanovici, Ariel; Patel, Neha; Reid, Dugald; Stougaard, Jens; Frugier, Florian; Imin, Nijat; Djordjevic, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDEs (CEPs) control root system architecture in a non-cell-autonomous manner. In Medicago truncatula, MtCEP1 affects root development by increasing nodule formation and inhibiting lateral root emergence by unknown pathways. Here, we show that the MtCEP1 peptide-dependent increase in nodulation requires the symbiotic signaling pathway and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2)/SICKLE (SKL), but acts independently of SUPER NUMERIC NODULES. MtCEP1-dependent inhibition of lateral root development acts through an EIN2-independent mechanism. MtCEP1 increases nodulation by promoting rhizobial infections, the developmental competency of roots for nodulation, the formation of fused nodules, and an increase in frequency of nodule development that initiates at proto-phloem poles. These phenotypes are similar to those of the ein2/skl mutant and support that MtCEP1 modulates EIN2-dependent symbiotic responses. Accordingly, MtCEP1 counteracts the reduction in nodulation induced by increasing ethylene precursor concentrations, and an ethylene synthesis inhibitor treatment antagonizes MtCEP1 root phenotypes. MtCEP1 also inhibits the development of EIN2-dependent pseudonodule formation. Finally, mutants affecting the COMPACT ROOT ARCHITECTURE2 (CRA2) receptor, which is closely related to the Arabidopsis CEP Receptor1, are unresponsive to MtCEP1 effects on lateral root and nodule formation, suggesting that CRA2 is a CEP peptide receptor mediating both organogenesis programs. In addition, an ethylene inhibitor treatment counteracts the cra2 nodulation phenotype. These results indicate that MtCEP1 and its likely receptor, CRA2, mediate nodulation and lateral root development through different pathways. PMID:27342310

  2. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  3. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  4. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  5. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  6. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes and incubation pH on in vitro degradation of NDF extracts of alfalfa and orchardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two in vitro assays (one with alfalfa and the other with orchardgrass were conducted to evaluate the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme preparation (enzyme and initial incubation pH (5.6, 6.2 and 6.8 on the degradation of NDF extracts. The enzyme increased (P≤0.05 degradation of alfalfa NDF: 1 at 6 h with pH 6.2 and 6.8; 2 at 9 and 12h with pH 5.6 and 6.2; 3 at 24h with all pH values; 4 at 48h with pH 5.6 and 6.8; 5 at 72h with pH 6.2 and 6.8. Alfalfa NDF degradation was changed (P≤0.05 by the enzyme with increasing pH, as follows: 1 a linear increase at 3h; 2 a linear decrease at 6 and 12h; 3 a quadratic effect at 24, 48, and 72h, and the highest value was observed with pH 6.2. Further effects (P≤0.05 of the enzyme on the alfalfa cell wall were the following: 1 with pH 5.6, the undegradable NDF fraction was reduced and the degradation rate was increased; 2 with pH 6.2, the lag phase was decreased; 3 as pH increased there was a quadratic effect on the lag phase, and the lowest value was found at pH 6.2. For orchardgrass the effects (P≤0.05 of the enzyme were as follows: 1 an increased NDF degradation at 24 and 48h; 2 a decreased linear degradation of NDF as pH increased, at 3, 6, and 9h. Scanning electron micrographs of the alfalfa cell wall showed that parenchyma cells appeared broken and the vascular bundles exposed after incubation with the enzyme mixture at pH 6.2 It may be concluded that a fibrolytic enzyme preparation at pH 6.2 enhanced in vitro degradation of alfalfa NDF.

  7. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. Bilateral pulmonary nodules associated with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, Mohamed B; Batouk, Abdelnasir A; Abdelaziz, Muntasir M; Ahmad, Mohamed F; Abdelaal, Mohamed A

    2005-09-01

    We report a case of a 30-year-old female who had been treated periodically with steroids for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura ITP over the last 10 years. Recently, during the course of investigation, she was found to have incidental asymptomatic multiple pulmonary nodules on chest CT. Following a needle biopsy to exclude malignancy, 2 nodules were excised and were histologically confirmed as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma PHG. The remaining 2 nodules regressed on increasing her dose of steroids. The case is discussed with emphasis on the histological and radiological differential diagnosis, in addition to including ITP among the spectrum of immunologic conditions associated with PHG. PMID:16155671

  8. A Nodule-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein AsE246 Participates in Transport of Plant-Synthesized Lipids to Symbiosome Membrane and Is Essential for Nodule Organogenesis in Chinese Milk Vetch1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Ling; Shi, Xiaofeng; Li, Yixing; Wang, Jianyun; Chen, Dasong; Xie, Fuli; Li, Youguo

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobia in legume root nodules fix nitrogen in symbiosomes, organelle-like structures in which a membrane from the host plant surrounds the symbiotic bacteria. However, the components that transport plant-synthesized lipids to the symbiosome membrane remain unknown. This study identified and functionally characterized the Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus) lipid transfer protein AsE246, which is specifically expressed in nodules. It was found that AsE246 can bind lipids in vitro. More importantly, AsE246 can bind the plant-synthesized membrane lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol in vivo. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that AsE246 and digalactosyldiacylglycerol localize in the symbiosome membrane and are present in infection threads. Overexpression of AsE246 resulted in increased nodule numbers; knockdown of AsE246 resulted in reduced nodule numbers, decreased lipids contents in nodules, diminished nitrogen fixation activity, and abnormal development of symbiosomes. AsE246 knockdown also resulted in fewer infection threads, nodule primordia, and nodules, while AsE246 overexpression resulted in more infection threads and nodule primordia, suggesting that AsE246 affects nodule organogenesis associated with infection thread formation. Taken together, these results indicate that AsE246 contributes to lipids transport to the symbiosome membrane, and this transport is required for effective legume-rhizobium symbiosis. PMID:24367021

  9. Role of digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography in detecting pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Accuracy of digital tomosynthesis for nodule detection is substantially higher. • Improvement in diagnostic accuracy is most pronounced for nodules <10 mm. • There is five times increase in radiation dose compared to DR. - Abstract: Objective: Digital tomosynthesis (DT) and dual-energy subtraction digital radiography (DES-DR) are known to perform better than conventional radiography in the detection of pulmonary nodules. Yet the comparative diagnostic performances of DT, DES-DR and digital radiography (DR) is not known. The present study compares the diagnostic performances of DT, DES-DR and DR in detecting pulmonary nodules. Subjects and methods: The institutional Review Board approved the study and informed written consent was obtained. Fifty-five patients (30 with pulmonary nodules, 25 with non-nodular focal chest pathology) were included in the study. DT and DES-DR were performed within14 days of MDCT. Composite images acquired at high kVp as part of DES-DR were used as DR images. Images were analyzed for presence of nodules and calcification in nodules. Interpretations were assigned confidence levels from 1 to 5 according to Five-Point rating scale. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were compared using Z test. Results: A total of 110 (88 non-calcified, 22 calcified) nodules were identified on MDCT. For detection of nodules, DR showed cumulative sensitivity and specificity of 25.45% and 67.97%, respectively. DT showed a cumulative sensitivity and specificity of 60.9% and 85.07%, respectively. The performance was significantly better than DR (p < 0.003). DES-DR showed sensitivity and specificity of 27.75% and 82.64%, not statistically different from those of DR (p—0.92). In detection of calcification, there was no statistically significant difference between DT, DES-DR and DR. Conclusions: DT performs significantly better than DES-DR and DR at the cost of moderate increase in radiation dose

  10. Role of digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography in detecting pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvana G. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Garg, Mandeep Kumar, E-mail: gargmandeep01@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan; Gupta, Pankaj [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Gupta, Dheeraj; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Bansal, Subash Chand [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Accuracy of digital tomosynthesis for nodule detection is substantially higher. • Improvement in diagnostic accuracy is most pronounced for nodules <10 mm. • There is five times increase in radiation dose compared to DR. - Abstract: Objective: Digital tomosynthesis (DT) and dual-energy subtraction digital radiography (DES-DR) are known to perform better than conventional radiography in the detection of pulmonary nodules. Yet the comparative diagnostic performances of DT, DES-DR and digital radiography (DR) is not known. The present study compares the diagnostic performances of DT, DES-DR and DR in detecting pulmonary nodules. Subjects and methods: The institutional Review Board approved the study and informed written consent was obtained. Fifty-five patients (30 with pulmonary nodules, 25 with non-nodular focal chest pathology) were included in the study. DT and DES-DR were performed within14 days of MDCT. Composite images acquired at high kVp as part of DES-DR were used as DR images. Images were analyzed for presence of nodules and calcification in nodules. Interpretations were assigned confidence levels from 1 to 5 according to Five-Point rating scale. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were compared using Z test. Results: A total of 110 (88 non-calcified, 22 calcified) nodules were identified on MDCT. For detection of nodules, DR showed cumulative sensitivity and specificity of 25.45% and 67.97%, respectively. DT showed a cumulative sensitivity and specificity of 60.9% and 85.07%, respectively. The performance was significantly better than DR (p < 0.003). DES-DR showed sensitivity and specificity of 27.75% and 82.64%, not statistically different from those of DR (p—0.92). In detection of calcification, there was no statistically significant difference between DT, DES-DR and DR. Conclusions: DT performs significantly better than DES-DR and DR at the cost of moderate increase in radiation dose.

  11. Radiation exposure and thyroid nodules. Survey of related studies and analysis of thyroid test in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid nodules, this study overviewed the relevant studies, and then analyzed the results of thyroid test in Fukushima. In the studies on atomic bomb survivors, medical exposure, and Chernobyl accident, the positive correlation between exposure and nodule prevalence, and high thyroid cancer incidence in the nodule group were known. Although cancer was said to have increased 4 years after the Chernobyl accident, nodules as cancer's previous step was likely to have been seen prior to it. The authors analyzed the thyroid test data in Fukushima Prefecture, including the results of 'priority review' by the 'citizens' health survey' study committee as of the end of February 2015, as well as the test data of total 299,000 people during FY2011 and 2013. As the exposure dose, thyroid dose estimates for 10-year-old children announced by UNSCEAR were used. Positive correlation trend was seen between the thyroid dose estimates of municipalities and nodule (5 mm or smaller) prevalence. As for the nodule prevalence according to Poisson regression analysis, thyroid dose was positive, average age during exposure was negative, and average age at the time of test was positive, as the statistically significant data. From the examination data by Fukushima Prefecture, significantly positive correlation was also shown between exposure amounts and nodule morbidity, but it is necessary to pay attention to the uncertainty of dose estimation. (A.O.)

  12. CT evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodule : value of additional HRCT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of high-resolution CT scans in addition to helical CT for characterizing a solitary pulmonary nodule. Our study included 49 patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule ; in each patient this was evaluated by both additional high-resolution CT and helical scanning. Images were evaluated by three independent observers, each of whom read them twice : initially with helical CT images only and then with helical images plus high-resolution CT images. After analysis, the observers recorded the following : histologic diagnosis, benignancy or malignancy of a nodule, and confidence in their diagnosis (three scales). In differentiating benign and malignant nodules, the accuracy of helical scans only was 75% (110/147 readings) whereas that of helical plus high-resolution CT scans was 82% (121/147 readings)(ρ=0.001). Correct histologic diagnosis was made in 47% of cases (69/147 readings) when helical scans only had been evaluated and in 48% of cases (71/147 readings) for which both helical and high-resolotion CT scans were available (ρ=0.815). Diagnosis was more often highly confident on the basis of additional high-resolution CT scans (25%) than helical scans only (5%) (ρ=0.001). By enhancing differential diagnostic accuracy between benign and malignant nodules and by increasing confidence in the histologic diagnosis of a pulmonary nodule, additional high-resolution CT scans are valuable for the evaluation of a solitary pulmonary nodule

  13. Pleiotropic effect of fluoranthene on anthocyanin synthesis and nodulation of Medicago sativa is reversed by the plant flavone luteolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, A.; Parniske, M.; Werner, D. [Univ. of Marburg (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    The symbiosis between leguminous plants and soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium is of considerable agronominal importance. Recently it has been found, that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; e.g. anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene), occurring as ubiquitous environmental contaminants can inhibit nodulation of Medicago sativa. Fluoranthene is one of the dominant PAHs found in urban particulate matter, sewage sludge or beside motorways. Several organisms have been shown to be able to metabolize and mineralize fluoranthene but the uptake of fluoranthene is limited due to low solubility of fluoranthene in water and strong adsorption to humic substances in soil. Rhizobium meliloti cannot degrade fluoranthene. Toxic effects of fluoranthene on bacterial growth have never been observed. In contrast to their rhizobial symbiotic partners, alfalfa plants grown on a solidified fluoranthene-containing medium, exhibited symptoms of toxicity. They showed a dose-responsive decrease in shoot length and, if inoculated with R. meliloti, inhibition of nodule formation. Growth retardation is accompanied by a decrease in anthocyanin pigmentation of shoots, and an atypical accumulation of anthocyanins in roots. Plant flavonoids are known to play a central role in the signal exchange of the Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis. Phenylpropane derived compounds and flavonoids have been implicated in nodule development. Since fluoranthene impairs nodulation and induces the production of anthocyanins, it is possible that these events are causally linked via phenylpropanoid metabolism. These experiments attempt to overcome the inhibitory effects of fluoranthene by exogeneous application of the flavonoid luteolin. This paper demonstrates that luteolin antagonizes the fluoranthene mediated inhibition of nodule formation and prevents the accumulation of anthocyanins in roots. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Multiple centroid method to evaluate the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Nascimento

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of multiple centroids to study the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.. In this method, the genotypes are compared with ideotypes defined by the bissegmented regression model, according to the researcher's interest. Thus, genotype classification is carried out as determined by the objective of the researcher and the proposed recommendation strategy. Despite the great potential of the method, it needs to be evaluated under the biological context (with real data. In this context, we used data on the evaluation of dry matter production of 92 alfalfa cultivars, with 20 cuttings, from an experiment in randomized blocks with two repetitions carried out from November 2004 to June 2006. The multiple centroid method proved efficient for classifying alfalfa genotypes. Moreover, it showed no unambiguous indications and provided that ideotypes were defined according to the researcher's interest, facilitating data interpretation.

  15. Adaptability of Alfalfa and Ryegrass to New Reclamation Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZHAO-FENG; ZHANG Lei-na; FENG Yong-jun; KANG Jing-tao

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the adaptability of the alfalfa and ryegrass to the new artificial soil that was composed of fly ash and furfural residue. The potted experiments were taken to compare the growth conditions, yields, and qualities of both grasses. Some pots were covered with wheat stalks and others without. The medium Fluvo-aquic soil was taken as control. The results indicated that the growth of two grasses in the mixture were inferior to their growth in the control in initial period. With the leaching of rain and irrigation, the two grasses improved gradually. The alfalfa and ryegrass both could grow in the new mixture, and the ryegrass would be better to plant in no covered material and the alfalfa in covered. This will be a new way to reclaim subsided land and to improve the environment in mining area.

  16. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: Nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, < or = 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p < 0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) values at the initial session were > 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  17. 使用PGPR菌剂及苜蓿培肥新垦地土壤研究%Improving Fertility of Newly Reclaimed Soil by PGPR Inoculums in Combination with Alfalfa Growing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱勤; 张磊; 韩光; 石杰; 胡正峰

    2011-01-01

    The split plot design was adopted in a one-year field experiment to investigate the effects of alfalfa planting in combination with PGPR inoculation on soil microbiological characteristics, alfalfa growth and soil properties in a newly reclaimed soil in Beibei, Chongqing, China. The PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) involved in the study included alfalfa rhizobium, associative nitrogen fixation bacterium, silicate bacterium and Bacillus magatherium. The experiment included four treatments; alfalfa planting (A), alfalfa planting and rhizobium inoculation (A+R), alfalfa planting and PGPR inoculation (with rhizobium as well) (A+PGPR) and no crop planting (CK). Determined at the end of the experiment, the effects of the treatments on agronomic qualities of alfalfa, the amount of soil microorganisms and soil microbial biomass N (SMBN) were in the order of A + PGPR>A+R>A>CK, while those on soil microbial biomass C (SMBC) was in the order of A>A+PGPR>A+R>CK. Compared with CK, A +PGPR significantly raised nodule weight, plant height, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and total nitrogen (Pincrease the amount of microorganisms and the fertility of newly reclaimed soil.%本研究以重庆北碚新垦坡耕地中性土壤为对象,采用裂区设计法研究种植紫花苜蓿并配施根际有盖微生物(PGPR)对紫花苜蓿生长度土壤微生物的影响.本研究涉及的PGPR菌包括根瘤菌、联合固氮菌、硅酸盐细菌和巨大芽孢杆菌.设置种植紫花苜蓿不接种(A)、种植紫花苜蓿接种根瘤菌(A+R)、种植紫花苜蓿接

  18. Effect of Rain Leaching on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Hay

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia de Hernandez, Mercedes M.

    1981-01-01

    Yield and chemical changes of second-cutting alfalfa hay treated with artificial rain were determined in a 2 x 3 x 2 factorial experiment. Factors were 2 stages of maturity (1 late vegetative; 2 early bloom), 3 levels of artificial rain applied (1 =no rain; 2 =low or approximately 5 mm; 3 =high or approximately 20 mm), and 2 times of applying artificial rain (1 = when drying forage was 40-60% dry matter; 2 =when drying forage was 60-75% dry matter). Thirty samples of alfalfa were collected at...

  19. RAPD analysis of alfalfa DNA mutation via N+ implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-Feng; HUANG Qun-Ce; LIANG Yun-Zhang; YU Zeng-Liang

    2003-01-01

    Germination capacity of alfalfa seeds under low energy N+ implantation manifests oscillations goingdown with dose strength. From analyzing alfalfa genome DNA under low energy N+ implantation by RAPD (RandomAmplified Polymorphous DNA), it is recommended that 30 polymorphic DNA fragments be amplified with 8 primersin total 100 primers, and fluorescence intensity of the identical DNA fragments amplified by RAPD is different be-tween CK and treatments. Number of different polymorphic DNA fragments between treatment and CK via N+ im-plantation manifests going up with dose strength.

  20. Diagnostic potential of ancillary molecular testing in differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Parisha; Deniwar, Ahmed; Friedlander, Paul; Aslam, Rizwan; Kandil, Emad

    2015-03-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, being the mainstay to diagnose thyroid nodules, does not provide definitive results in a subset of patients. The use of molecular markers testing has been described as a useful aid in differentiation of thyroid nodules that present with an indeterminate cytodiagnosis. Molecular tests, such as the Afirma gene classifier, mutational assay and immunohistochemical markers have been increasingly used to further increase the accuracy and defer unnecessary surgeries for benign thyroid nodules. However, in light of the current literature, their emerging roles in clinical practice are limited due to financial and technical limitations. Nevertheless, their synergistic implementation can predict the risk of malignancy and yield an accurate diagnosis. This review discusses the clinical utility of various molecular tests done on FNA indeterminate nodules to avoid diagnostic thyroidectomies and warrant the need of future multi-Institutional studies. PMID:25750270

  1. Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield Risk Management of Adenocarcinoma: The Future of Imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Finbar; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Boland, Jennifer M; Karwoski, Ronald A; Maldonado, Fabien; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Increased clinical use of chest high-resolution computed tomography results in increased identification of lung adenocarcinomas and persistent subsolid opacities. However, these lesions range from very indolent to extremely aggressive tumors. Clinically relevant diagnostic tools to noninvasively risk stratify and guide individualized management of these lesions are lacking. Research efforts investigating semiquantitative measures to decrease interrater and intrarater variability are emerging, and in some cases steps have been taken to automate this process. However, many such methods currently are still suboptimal, require validation and are not yet clinically applicable. The computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield software application represents a validated tool for the automated, quantitative, and noninvasive tool for risk stratification of adenocarcinoma lung nodules. Computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield correlates well with consensus histology and postsurgical patient outcomes, and therefore may help to guide individualized patient management, for example, in identification of nodules amenable to radiological surveillance, or in need of adjunctive therapy. PMID:27568149

  2. The chemical properties of soil for alfalfa production after biofertiliser application
    Atributos químicos no solo e produção de alfafa sob doses de biofertilizante

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Luis Lemes; Cecílio Viega Soares Filho; Manoel Garcia Neto; Reges Heinrichs

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of biofertilisers for the production of alfalfa shoot, root and nodule dry matter, and also, to evaluate the chemical properties of the soil. This study was conducted in the greenhouse of the Support Department, Animal Production and Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/UNESP, Araçatuba – SP, from May to October 2010. The experimental design was completely randomised with six biofertiliser doses (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 m3 ha-1) and fi...

  3. Different pathways act downstream of the peptide receptor CRA2 to regulate lateral root and nodule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A; Laffont, Carole; Ivanovici, Ariel;

    2016-01-01

    C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDEs (CEPs) control root system architecture non-cell-autonomously. In Medicago truncatula, MtCEP1 affects root development by increasing nodule formation and inhibiting lateral root emergence by unknown pathways. Here, we show that the MtCEP1 peptide-dependent increase......, mutants affecting the MtCRA2 (COMPACT ROOT ARCHITECTURE 2) receptor, which is closely related to the Arabidopsis CEP Receptor 1, are unresponsive to MtCEP1 effects on lateral root and nodule formation, suggesting that CRA2 is a CEP peptide receptor mediating both organogenesis programs. In addition...... in nodulation requires the symbiotic (SYM) signalling pathway and MtEIN2 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2)/SKL (SICKLE), but acts independently of SUNN (SUPER NUMERIC NODULES). MtCEP1-dependent inhibition of lateral root development acts through an MtEIN2-independent mechanism. MtCEP1 increases nodulation by promoting...

  4. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Greene

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1 evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2 determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  5. Acoustic properties of Indian Ocean manganese nodules in relation to physical constitution and chemical composition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ramana, Y.V.

    in siliceous clay. In addition, one manganese crust sample with thin oxide coating surrounding a basaltic fragmentary core was collected from pelagic clay. Standard procedures (MuKHOPADHYAY, 1987, 1988; MUKHOPADHYAY and NAGENDER N^TH, 1988; GaEENSLATE, 1977... density and lowering attenuation. Larger nodules often have nuclei composed of large weathered, porous rock fragments or hard clay which could reduce density and increase attenuation. Thick oxide coating in these nodules (containing high Acoustic...

  6. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  7. Retrospective epidemiological study of thyroid nodules by ultrasound in asymptomatic subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharen Gaowa; Zhang Bo; Zhao Ruina; Sun Jie; Gai Xiaorong; Lou Huiping

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to conduct thyroid ultrasound examinations on a large sample of subjects and explore the occurrence,distribution,and characteristics of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer to provide some information on the epidemic trend of thyroid nodules and cancer.Methods The thyroid ultrasonic examination results of 19 895 healthy physical examinees who visited the Department of Health Management,Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively to determine the detection rate and characteristics of thyroid nodules.Fine needle aspiration or surgical resection was suggested to subjects suspected of having thyroid cancer.Results The detection rate of thyroid nodules was 42.6% (8 480/19 895),40.0% (4 661/11 678) in men and 46.5% (3 819/8 217) in women.The detection rate noticeably increased with increasing age.The detection rate of thyroid nodules by palpation was obviously lower than by ultrasonic examination in various age groups.Among those with thyroid nodules,61.3% were multiple and 38.7% were solitary; multiple nodule was the major type both in men and women.Twenty-nine cases of malignant nodules were solitary,and 30 cases of malignant nodules were multiple.There was no significant difference.The detection rate of thyroid cancer was 0.30% for the entire group of examinees,and 0.15% in men and 0.50% in women.Among all sex and age groups,30-to 40-year-old women had the highest detection rate (0.76%).The detection rate of thyroid nodules correlated with age,systolic blood pressure,height,and weight.Increasing age and/or higher systolic blood pressure correlated with a higher detection rate,while smaller height and weight also correlated with a higher detection rate with significant differences.However,there were no significant correlations between the detection rate and diastolic blood pressure or body mass index.Conclusions The detection of thyroid cancer increased

  8. Extraterrestrial 3He in marine polymetallic nodules: a potential method for measuring growth rate of nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延河; 宋鹤彬; 李金城

    2002-01-01

    The comparative measurements of helium isotope compositions between marine polymetallic nodules and their surrounding sediments, their magnetic fractions and bulk from C-C Zone of the East Pacific Basin are reported. The 4He content and 3He/4He ratio of polymetallic nodules and their surrounding sediments are extremely high; the 3He, 4He concentrations and most 3He/4He ratios of magnetic fractions in nodules and sediments are apparently higher than those in bulk. The helium isotope data points of nodules and sediments are all distributed along or closely to the mixing curve of the interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and the terrigenous sediments in the chart of 3He-3He/4He. In the same sampling site, the 3He/4He ratios of nodules and their surrounding sediments are very similar, and the changes of both ratios are synchronous. It shows that the high 3He/4He ratios in nodules and sediments may all result from IDPs. So, if the flux of extraterrestrial 3He into the nodules and sediments is constant, the growth rate of polymetallic nodules and the sedimentation rate of sediments can be independently calculated according to the concentration of extraterrestrial 3He in nodules and sediments.

  9. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  10. Nodule bottom backscattering study using multibeam echosounder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Raju, Y.S.N.; Nair, R.R.

    A study is carried out to observe the angular dependence of backscattering strength at nodule area where grab sample and photographic data is available. Theoretical study along with the experimentally observed data shows that the backscattering...

  11. The importance of nodule CO2 fixation for the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea at vegetative growth and during pod formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischinger, Stephanie Anastasia; Schulze, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation is of pivotal importance for N2 fixation. The process provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for nitrogen assimilation. The hypothesis of the present paper was that grain legume nodules would adapt to higher plant N demand and more restricted carbon availability at pod formation through increased nodule CO2 fixation and a more efficient N2 fixation. Growth, N2 fixation, and nodule composition during vegetative growth and at pod formation were studied in pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). In parallel experiments, 15N2 and 13CO2 uptake, as well as nodule hydrogen and CO2 release, was measured. Plants at pod formation showed higher growth rates and N2 fixation per plant when compared with vegetative growth. The specific activity of active nodules was about 25% higher at pod formation. The higher nodule activity was accompanied by higher amino acid concentration in nodules and xylem sap with a higher share of asparagine. Nodule 13CO2 fixation was increased at pod formation, both per plant and per 15N2 fixed unit. However, malate concentration in nodules was only 40% of that during vegetative growth and succinate was no longer detectable. The data indicate that increased N2 fixation at pod formation is connected with strongly increased nodule CO2 fixation. While the sugar concentration in nodules at pod formation was not altered, the concentration of organic acids, namely malate and succinate, was significantly lower. It is concluded that strategies to improve the capability of nodules to fix CO2 and form organic acids might prolong intensive N2 fixation into the later stages of pod formation and pod filling in grain legumes.

  12. A rapid method of ferromanganese nodule mounting

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, R.

    GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF INDIA Vol. 36. Aug. 1990. pp. 173 to 174 A Rapid Method of Ferromanganese Nodule Mounting S. MUKHOPADHYAYl AND R. BANERJEE2 1 Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700032 2 National Institute of Oceanography.... Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 Abstract. A rapid method of sample preparation for ferromanganese nodules andcrusts mounting is presented here. by using laminated polyester resin. cobalt napthanate and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide. With- this technique vacuum...

  13. Lung Nodule Detection in Screening Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, I; Cerello, P; Cheran, S C; De Nunzio, G; Fantacci, M E; Kasae, P; Masala, G L; Pérez-Martínez, A; Retico, A

    2007-01-01

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the identification of pulmonary nodules in low-dose multi-detector helical Computed Tomography (CT) images with 1.25 mm slice thickness is presented. The basic modules of our lung-CAD system, a dot-enhancement filter for nodule candidate selection and a neural classifier for false-positive finding reduction, are described. The results obtained on the collected database of lung CT scans are discussed.

  14. Thermoperiodism Synchronizes Emergence in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, George D; Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, Ian S; Kemp, William P; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2016-02-01

    Alfalfa seed production in the northwestern United States and western Canada is heavily dependent upon the pollinating services of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). M. rotundata females nest in cavities either naturally occurring or in artificial nesting blocks. Because of the physical nature of the nest, M. rotundata brood may have limited to no exposure to photoperiodic cues in order to regulate important circadian functions. Therefore, various thermoperiod regimes were used to characterize the possible role of thermoperiodism in synchronizing M. rotundata adult emergence. Adult emergence was monitored using a microprocessor-controlled event logger. Incubating bees under constant 29°C and darkness resulted in an arhythmic adult emergence pattern. Exposing developing M. rotundata to a thermoperiod synchronized emergence to the beginning of the thermophase and decreased the total number of days required for all adults to emerge. The amplitude of the thermoperiod regulated the timing of peak emergence in relationship to the increase in temperature. A thermoperiod amplitude of only 2°C was sufficient to synchronize peak adult emergence to take place during the rise in temperature. Increasing the amplitude of the thermoperiod to 4 or 8°C caused a positively correlated shift in peak emergence to later in the thermophase. Brood stored under constant 29°C and darkness for different durations (May or June early in the growing season or July or August late in the growing season) or under a fluctuating thermal regime (base temperature of 6°C and daily 1-h pulse of 20°C until September or November) maintained their capacity for entraining emergence timing by thermoperiodism. PMID:26385932

  15. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  16. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  17. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  18. Evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodule detected during computed tomography examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) has always been a diagnostic challenge for the radiologists. Currently, with increased utilization of computed tomography (CT) greater number of nodules is being discovered, with numerous indeterminate lesions, which frequently cannot be immediately classified into benign or malignant category. In this article we review the imaging features of benign and malignant round opacities; we demonstrate currently used standards and also more advanced techniques that are helpful in evaluating SPNs such as contrast-enhanced CT, PET/CT imaging and also pathologic sampling with biopsy or surgical resection. We also summarize the methods of evaluating and managing SPNs based on the latest guidelines from the Fleischner Society and American College of Chest Physicians

  19. Assessing disease stress and modeling yield losses in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jie

    Alfalfa is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and worldwide. Fungal foliar diseases are believed to cause significant yield losses in alfalfa, yet, little quantitative information exists regarding the amount of crop loss. Different fungicides and application frequencies were used as tools to generate a range of foliar disease intensities in Ames and Nashua, IA. Visual disease assessments (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation) were obtained weekly for each alfalfa growth cycle (two to three growing cycles per season). Remote sensing assessments were performed using a hand-held, multispectral radiometer to measure the amount and quality of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. Factors such as incident radiation, sun angle, sensor height, and leaf wetness were all found to significantly affect the percentage reflectance of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. The precision of visual and remote sensing assessment methods was quantified. Precision was defined as the intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability of assessment methods. F-tests, slopes, intercepts, and coefficients of determination (R2) were used to compare assessment methods for precision. Results showed that among the three visual disease assessment methods (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation), percentage defoliation had the highest intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Remote sensing assessment method had better precision than the percentage defoliation assessment method based upon higher intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Significant linear relationships between canopy reflectance (810 nm), percentage defoliation and yield were detected using linear regression and percentage reflectance (810 nm) assessments were found to have a stronger relationship with yield than percentage defoliation assessments. There were also significant linear relationships between percentage defoliation, dry

  20. Risks and benefits of compost-like materials prepared by the thermal treatment of raw scallop hepatopancreas for supplying cadmium and the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kensuke; Fukushima, Masami; Kanno, Shinya; Kanno, Itoko; Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Scallop hepatopancreas, fishery waste, contains relatively high levels of Cd and organic nitrogen compounds, the latter of which represent a fertilizer. In this study, raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue was thermally treated with sawdust and red loam in the presence of an iron catalyst to produce compost-like materials (CLMs). Two CLM samples were prepared by varying the content of raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue: 46 wt.% for CLM-1 and 18 wt.% for CLM-2. Mixtures of control soil (CTL) and CLMs (CLM content: 10 and 25 wt.%) were examined for the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to evaluate the risks and benefits of using this material for fertilization. The Cd content in shoots and roots of alfalfa, that were grown in the presence of CLMs, was significantly higher than those for the plants grown in the CTL, indicating that Cd had accumulated in the plants from CLMs. The accumulation of Cd in the alfalfa roots was quite high in the case of the 25% CLM-1 sample. However, alfalfa growth was significantly promoted in the presence of 10% CLM-1. This can be attributed to the higher levels of nitrogen and humic substances, which serve as fertilizer components. Although the fertilization effect in case of CLM-1showed a potential benefit, the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa was clearly increased in the presence of both CLMs. In conclusion, the use of CLMs produced from raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue can be considered to have a desirable benefit from standpoint of its use as fertilizer, but is accompanied by a risk of the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa plants.

  1. Correlations between choroidal abnormalities, Lisch nodules, and age in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shinji Makino, Hironobu Tampo, Yusuke Arai, Hiroto ObataDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: To evaluate correlations between choroidal abnormalities, Lisch nodules, and age in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, we examined ten cases with NF1 using near-infrared reflectance imaging. Patients ranged in age from 4 to 39 years. The angle used for near-infrared reflectance imaging was 55°. We counted the total number of choroidal abnormalities in an area within a 55° angle centered on the fovea and the total number of Lisch nodules on the iris by slit-lamp examination. No positive correlation was found between the number of Lisch nodules and patient age (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ρ=0.117, P=0.7414. Choroidal abnormalities tended to increase with age (ρ=0.6150, but this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.0650. A positive correlation was found between the number of choroidal abnormalities and Lisch nodules (ρ=0.783, P=0.0267. In conclusion, choroidal abnormalities tend to increase with patient age and are correlated with the number of Lisch nodules.Keywords: neurofibromatosis type 1, near-infrared reflectance, choroidal abnormality, Lisch nodule, age

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of three isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes from alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Long, Ruicai; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun; Zhang, Ze; Zhou, He; Yang, Qingchuan

    2013-02-01

    Isoprenoid is the precursor for the biosynthesis of saponins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, chlorophylls and many other products in plants. Saponins are an important group of bioactive plant natural products. The alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) saponins are glycosides of different triterpene aglycones and possess many biological activities. We isolated three genes (MsFPPS, MsGPPS and MsGGPPS) encoding isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDS) from alfalfa via a homology-based PCR approach. The enzyme activity assay of purified recombined MsFPPS and MsGGPPS expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that they all had IDS activity. Expression analysis of the three genes in different alfalfa tissues using real time PCR displayed that they were expressed in all tissues although they had a different expression patterns. MsFPPS and MsGPS displayed a significant increase in transcript level in response to methyl jasmonate, but the transcript level of MsGGPPS decreased obviously. To elucidate the functions of the three IDSs, their overexpression driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco plants was applied and analyzed. The T(0) transgenic plants of MsFPPS showed high levels of squalene content when compared with control. However, no differences were detected in T(0) transgenic plants of MsGPPS and MsGGPPS. In addition, the overexpression of MsFPPS induced senescence response in transgenic plant leaves. This result may indicate that MsFPPS performs a role not only in phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis, but also in growth regulation. PMID:23238915

  3. F-18 FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seek Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    F-18 FDG PET has become an important diagnostic imaging modality of various malignancies including thyroid cancer. Focal hypermetabolic lesion in the thyroid gland is usually considered malignant (Fig.1), although some benign lesions are also hypermetabolic. The aim of our poster presentation is to demonstrate F-18- FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN) and to avoid confusion in the interpretation of F-18-FDG PET performed for the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Two patients with ATN (one with toxic and the other with nontoxic) underwent F-18-PET. ATN was proven by Tc-99m pertechnate thyroid scan (TS) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) were performed. First patient with ATN was asymptomatic and had a long history of thyroid nodule. Second patient was suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and he was mildly thyrotoxic clinically and chemically. Gamma camera based F-18 FDG PET was performed utilizing Elscints Varicam (Haifa, Israel) one hour after IV administration of 111 MBq (3mCi) F-18 FDG. Patients were fasting more than 6 hours prior ot FDG injection. First patients was scanned the neck and second patient had scan of the whole trunk including neck for the evaluation of AML. Both nontoxic and toxic ATNs were hypermetabolic and it was impossible to differentiate benign from malignancy. Biopsy of nodule of the first patient and surgical removal of the nodule in the second patient was benign. Benign nontoxic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The reason for this is that ATN has increased glycolysis and iodide metabolism. Therefore, focal increased FDG uptake within the thyroid gland should be interpreted with TS and TFTs for an accurate diagnosis when F-18 FDG PET is used in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy.

  4. Circulating fluidized bed combustion product addition to acid soil: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) composition and environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Dick, Warren A; Kost, David

    2006-06-28

    To reduce S emissions, petroleum coke with a high concentration of S was combusted with limestone in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The combustion process creates a bed product that has potential for agricultural uses. This CFB product is often alkaline and enriched in S and other essential plant nutrients, but also contains high concentrations of Ni and V. Agricultural land application of CFB product is encouraged, but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts. CFB product and agricultural lime (ag-lime) were applied at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The 2.0x LR application rate of CFB product was equivalent to 67.2 Mg ha(-1). Alfalfa yield was increased 4.6 times by CFB product and 3.8 times by ag-lime compared to untreated control. Application of CFB product increased the concentration of V in soil and alfalfa tissue, but not in soil water, and increased the concentration of Ni in soil and soil water, but not in alfalfa tissue. However, these concentrations did not reach levels that might cause environmental problems.

  5. Growth of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of human illness associated with the consumption of fresh sprouts has increased very sharply during the past decade. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth dynamics of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, an...

  6. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancini, A. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fioravanti, M. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Tomei, G. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Tomei, F., E-mail: francesco.tomei@uniroma1.it [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM{sub 10}, NO{sub 2} and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid

  7. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  8. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  9. False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

    2007-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

  10. A Rare Presentation of Autonomously Functioning Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Malignancy in Marine-Lenhart Syndrome Nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Mehmet; Aygun, Nurcihan; Ozel, Alper; Yener Ozturk, Feyza; Karasu, Rabia; Ozguven, Banu Yilmaz; Citgez, Bulent; Mihmanli, Mehmet; Isgor, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Marine-Lenhart Syndrome (MLS) is defined as concomitant occurrence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN) with Graves' disease (GD). Malignancy in a functional nodule is rare. We aimed to present an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid cancer in a MLS nodule with lateral lymph node metastases. Case. A 43-year-old male presented with hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy. On Tc99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, a hyperactive nodule in the left upper thyroid pole was detected and the remaining tissue showed a mildly increased uptake. The ultrasonography demonstrated 15.5 × 13.5 × 12 mm sized hypoechoic nodule in the left upper pole of the thyroid and round lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the nodule and lymph node revealed cytological findings consistent with papillary cancer. Total thyroidectomy with central and left modified radical neck dissection was performed. On pathologic examination, two foci of micropapillary cancer were detected. The skip metastases were present in three lymph nodes on the neck. Conclusion. AFTN can be seen rarely in association with GD. It is not possible to exclude malignancy due to the clinical and imaging findings. In the presence of suspicious clinical and sonographic features, FNAB should be performed. PMID:27110424

  11. A Rare Presentation of Autonomously Functioning Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Malignancy in Marine-Lenhart Syndrome Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Uludag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Marine-Lenhart Syndrome (MLS is defined as concomitant occurrence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN with Graves’ disease (GD. Malignancy in a functional nodule is rare. We aimed to present an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid cancer in a MLS nodule with lateral lymph node metastases. Case. A 43-year-old male presented with hyperthyroidism and Graves’ ophthalmopathy. On Tc99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, a hyperactive nodule in the left upper thyroid pole was detected and the remaining tissue showed a mildly increased uptake. The ultrasonography demonstrated 15.5 × 13.5 × 12 mm sized hypoechoic nodule in the left upper pole of the thyroid and round lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB of the nodule and lymph node revealed cytological findings consistent with papillary cancer. Total thyroidectomy with central and left modified radical neck dissection was performed. On pathologic examination, two foci of micropapillary cancer were detected. The skip metastases were present in three lymph nodes on the neck. Conclusion. AFTN can be seen rarely in association with GD. It is not possible to exclude malignancy due to the clinical and imaging findings. In the presence of suspicious clinical and sonographic features, FNAB should be performed.

  12. Root exudates drive interspecific facilitation by enhancing nodulation and N2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; Li, Yu-Ying; Wu, Hua-Mao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Chun-Jie; Li, Xue-Xian; Lambers, Hans; Li, Long

    2016-06-01

    Plant diversity in experimental systems often enhances ecosystem productivity, but the mechanisms causing this overyielding are only partly understood. Intercropping faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) result in overyielding and also, enhanced nodulation by faba beans. By using permeable and impermeable root barriers in a 2-y field experiment, we show that root-root interactions between faba bean and maize significantly increase both nodulation and symbiotic N2 fixation in intercropped faba bean. Furthermore, root exudates from maize promote faba bean nodulation, whereas root exudates from wheat and barley do not. Thus, a decline of soil nitrate concentrations caused by intercropped cereals is not the sole mechanism for maize promoting faba bean nodulation. Intercropped maize also caused a twofold increase in exudation of flavonoids (signaling compounds for rhizobia) in the systems. Roots of faba bean treated with maize root exudates exhibited an immediate 11-fold increase in the expression of chalcone-flavanone isomerase (involved in flavonoid synthesis) gene together with a significantly increased expression of genes mediating nodulation and auxin response. After 35 d, faba beans treated with maize root exudate continued to show up-regulation of key nodulation genes, such as early nodulin 93 (ENOD93), and promoted nitrogen fixation. Our results reveal a mechanism for how intercropped maize promotes nitrogen fixation of faba bean, where maize root exudates promote flavonoid synthesis in faba bean, increase nodulation, and stimulate nitrogen fixation after enhanced gene expression. These results indicate facilitative root-root interactions and provide a mechanism for a positive relationship between species diversity and ecosystem productivity. PMID:27217575

  13. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield, N content, and nitrogen ifxation of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass grown alone or in mixture in greenhouse pots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai-yun; LI Xiang-lin; HE Feng; ZHANG Ying-jun; WAN Li-qiang; David B Hannaway; WANG Dong; QIN Yan; Gamal M A Fadul

    2015-01-01

    Planting grass and legume mixtures on improved grasslands has the potential advantage of realizing both higher yields and lower environmental pol ution by optimizing the balance between applied N fertilizer and the natural process of legume biological nitrogen ifxation. However, the optimal level of N fertilization for grass-legume mixtures, to obtain the highest yield, quality, and contribution of N2 ifxation, varies with species. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the temporal dynamics of N2 ifxation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown alone and in mixture with smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) in response to the addition of fertilizer N. Three levels of N (0, 75, and 150 kg ha–1) were examined using 15N-labeled urea to evaluate N2 ifxation via the 15N isotope dilution method. Treatments were designated N0 (0.001 g per pot), N75 (1.07 g per pot) and N150 (2.14 g per pot). Alfalfa grown alone did not beneift from the addition of fertilizer N;dry matter was not signiifcantly increased. In contrast, dry weight and N content of smooth bromegrass grown alone was increased signiifcantly by N application. When grown as a mixture, smooth bromegrass biomass was increased signiifcantly by N application, resulted in a decrease in alfalfa biomass. In addition, individual alfalfa plant dry weight (shoots+roots) was signiifcantly lower in the mixture than when grown alone at al N levels. Smooth bromegrass shoot and root dry weight were signiifcantly higher when grown with alfalfa than when grown alone, regardless of N application level. When grown alone, alfalfa’s N2 ifxation was reduced with N fertilization (R2=0.9376, P=0.0057). When grown in a mixture with smooth bromegrass, with 75 kg ha–1 of N fertilizer, the percentage of atmospheric N2 ifxation contribution to total N in alfalfa (%Ndfa) had a maximum of 84.07 and 83.05%in the 2nd and 3rd harvests, respectively. Total 3-harvest%Ndfa was higher when alfalfa was grown in a mixture than when

  14. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: The Galaxy Population Detected by ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Shan; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2012-01-01

    Making use of HI 21 cm line measurements from the ALFALFA survey (alpha.40) and photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and GALEX, we investigate the global scaling relations and fundamental planes linking stars and gas for a sample of 9417 common galaxies: the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX sample. In addition to their HI properties derived from the ALFALFA dataset, stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived from fitting the UV-optical spectral energy distributions. 96% of the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX galaxies belong to the blue cloud, with the average gas fraction f_HI = M_HI/M_* ~ 1.5. A transition in SF properties is found whereby below M_* ~ 10^9.5 M_sun, the slope of the star forming sequence changes, the dispersion in the specific star formation rate (SSFR) distribution increases and the star formation efficiency (SFE) mildly increases with M_*. The evolutionary track in the SSFR-M_* diagram, as well as that in the color magnitude diagram are linked to the HI content; below this trans...

  15. Growth With of Alfalfa Mutant in Different Nitrogen Fertilizer and Defoliation Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyati Slamet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate growth  of alfalfa mutan (plant height increment, number of leaves and dry matter production in different  Nitrogen Fertilizer and defoliation intensity. The design used was randomized block design 4x2 factorial with 3 replications. The first was dosage of Nitrogen fertilizerNitrogen   (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N / ha,  the second factor was defoliation intensity (5 and 10 cm. Variables observed alfalfa growth (plant height increment, number of leaves, the production of dry matter (DM forage. The results showed that different N fertilization did not affect the growth of alfalfa mutants. Defoliation intensity  affectedmnumber of leaves and   DM  production of alfalfa mutant. Fertilization to 90 kg N / ha has not affected the growth and   defoliation  intensity 10 cm gave better growth on alfalfa mutant.   [Keywords: alfalfa mutant; Nitrogen fertilizer; defoliation; growth

  16. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    prevalence of and risk factors for SPCM in a Danish nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed CRC from 2001 to 2011. SPCM were detected in 7.5% of the patients and in 37% of these cases the metastatic spread was confined to the lungs. The prevalence of SPCM increased with the implementation of thoracic CT in CRC staging. SPCM impaired survival significantly and was associated with increasing age and rectal cancer. Resection of the primary tumour, resection of the SPCM and treatment with chemotherapy were associated with improved survival. Unfortunately, however, only very few patients were subjected to all three treatment measures, and the improved prognosis could simply be the result of a selection bias. The inter-observer variation in classification of findings at thoracic CT scans was investigated in study III and was based on staging CT scans from a local cohort of patients with newly diagnosed CRC. Based on an experienced thoracic radiologist's assessment of the scans, we searched for radiological characteristics of IPN that could predict malignancy of the nodule. There was a significant difference in the number of IPNs detected between the primary and the thoracic radiologist's assessment. The thoracic radiologist classified fewer nodules as IPN and even reported with higher specificity and sensitivity for SPCM. More than 20% of IPNs (as classified by the thoracic radiologist) proved to be SPCM. Unfortunately, no radiological characteristics could be associated with a malignant outcome. In continuation of these findings we suggested a secondary review of scans with IPN be a group of dedicated thoracic radiologists. This approach might reduce the need for additional work-up for IPN and calls for clarification in future prospective studies. Identification of patients in particular risk of SPCM could be of value in the assessment of pulmonary nodules. Several biomarkers have been proposed for differential metastatic patterns in CRC. In study IV we investigated

  17. Performance of Three Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera:Miridae) on Flowering and Non-lfowering Cotton and Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen; PAN Hong-sheng; LIU Bing; LU Yan-hui; LIANG Ge-mei

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera:Miridae) is a group of key insect pests in cotton ifelds in China that includes three dominant species:A. suturalis (Jakovlev), A. lineolatus (Goeze) and A. fasciaticollis (Reuter). Previous ifeld surveys have found that adults of these Adelphocoris species usually move onto speciifc host plants when the plants enter the lfowering stage. To determine the potential trade-offs for this host-plant preference behavior, the performance of these three Adelphocoris spp. on lfowering and non-lfowering cotton and alfalfa were compared in the laboratory. The results showed that Adelphocoris spp. had signiifcantly higher nymphal developmental and survival rates, along with increased adult longevity and fecundity on lfowering cotton and alfalfa than on non-lfowering plants of either species. In addition, compared with cotton plants, alfalfa generally promoted better performance of these three Adelphocoris species, especially for A. lineolatus. Simple correlation analysis indicated that female adult longevity was positively correlated to male adult longevity and female fecundity, and female fecundity was positively correlated to nymphal development and survival rates. This study demonstrated a positive correlation between adult preference and offspring/adult performance for all three Adelphocoris species, with no evidence of any trade-offs for this preference for lfowering host plants. These ifndings support the hypothesis that hemimetabolous insects such as mirid bugs have positive adult preference-adult/nymphal performance relationships, which is likely due to the similar feeding habits and nutritional requirements of adults and nymphs.

  18. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Ussatjuk, Anna; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Ventosa, Miguel; Lorentzen, Andrea; Gupta, Vikas; Andersen, Stig U; Enghild, Jan J; Ronson, Clive W; Roepstorff, Peter; Stougaard, Jens

    2014-02-01

    Legume symbiosis with rhizobia results in the formation of a specialized organ, the root nodule, where atmospheric dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia. In Lotus japonicus (Lotus), several genes involved in nodule development or nodule function have been defined using biochemistry, genetic approaches, and high-throughput transcriptomics. We have employed proteomics to further understand nodule development. Two developmental stages representing nodules prior to nitrogen fixation (white) and mature nitrogen fixing nodules (red) were compared with roots. In addition, the proteome of a spontaneous nodule formation mutant (snf1) was determined. From nodules and roots, 780 and 790 protein spots from 2D gels were identified and approximately 45% of the corresponding unique gene accessions were common. Including a previous proteomics set from Lotus pod and seed, the common gene accessions were decreased to 7%. Interestingly, an indication of more pronounced PTMs in nodules than in roots was determined. Between the two nodule developmental stages, higher levels of pathogen-related 10 proteins, HSPs, and proteins involved in redox processes were found in white nodules, suggesting a higher stress level at this developmental stage. In contrast, protein spots corresponding to nodulins such as leghemoglobin, asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase, and glutamine synthetase were prevalent in red nodules. The distinct biochemical state of nodules was further highlighted by the conspicuous presence of several nitrilases, ascorbate metabolic enzymes, and putative rhizobial effectors.

  19. Evaluation of pure ground glass pulmonary nodule: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Jin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulmonary nodule is a single, nearly spherical, well-circumscribed pulmonary opacity up to 30 mm in diameter and surrounded by aerated lung tissue. In radiographs, pulmonary nodules may appear as solid, completely obscuring the lung parenchyma, or as subsolid, not completely obscuring adjacent tissues. A subsolid pulmonary nodule may be further subclassified as a pure ground glass nodule (pGGN or a part solid nodule, a mixture of ground glass components and focal opacity obscuring the adjacent tissues. Guidelines for evaluation of solid pulmonary nodules are based on nodule size, recommending vigilance and non-operative management for small nodules (less than 8 mm in diameter and diagnostic biopsy for nodules with a diameter of 8 mm or more. However, subsolid ground glass pulmonary nodules are an exception to this rule. Although small in size, persistent subsolid nodules are potentially premalignant or malignant. We present the case of a non-smoker who was found to have an incidental pulmonary pGGN. We then discuss the radiologic appearance, histology, clinical outcomes, and evaluation and management strategy of subsolid pulmonary nodules compared with solid nodules.

  20. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  1. Population dynamics of overwintering life stages of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal)

    OpenAIRE

    Hilburn, Daniel J.

    1985-01-01

    Virginia is a natural laboratory for studying overwintering habits of the alfalfa weevi1. At higher elevations, winters are relatively harsh and weevil pressure on the alfalfa crop is usually light. Much heavier pressure is the rule at lower elevations where winters are milder. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of fall and winter temperatures, parasites, and fall regrowth management on population dynamics of overwintering stages of this insect. Sixteen commercial alfalfa field...

  2. Multiple cutaneous, oropharyngeal and pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraitch, O; Bhargava, K; Moriarty, B; Calonje, E; Mallipeddi, R; Whittaker, S

    2015-08-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis defined by heterogeneous multiorgan involvement. Due to the rarity of this disease strong evidence-based therapies have yet to be established and prognosis has previously been considered to be poor, with more than half of patients dying within 3 years of initial presentation. We describe an 86-year-old woman with a 34-year history of extensive cutaneous and internal nodules with typical pathological and immunophenotypical (CD68(+) /CD1a(-) ) features of ECD without evidence of the BRAF V600E mutation. The cosmetic appearance of cutaneous nodules and hoarse voice caused by vocal cord nodules has been managed surgically. More aggressive therapies reported for ECD were trialled for this patient, such as radiotherapy and interferon-α, with no response. This case demonstrates a relatively good prognosis in ECD that has been managed conservatively. PMID:25639756

  3. Endometrial Stromal Nodule: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Z. Fdili Alaoui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal nodule (ESN is the least common of the endometrial stromal tumors. They are rare neoplasms which are diagnosed in most instances by light microscopy. Although such nodules are benign, hysterectomy has been considered the treatment of choice to determine the margins of the tumor required for diagnosis and to differentiate it from invasive stromal sarcoma Whose prognosis is totally different. We report a case of a 45 years old woman, with presurgical diagnosis of adnexal mass or uterine tumor. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy. Pathologic examination revealed an endometrial stromal nodule. Through this observation, we insist on the fact that the ESNs are rare and benign entities which must be differentiated from the other invasive malignant stromal tumors; this can change the final prognosis.

  4. Endometrial stromal nodule: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdili Alaoui, F Z; Chaara, H; Bouguern, H; Melhouf, M A; Fatemi, H; Belmlih, A; Amarti, A

    2011-01-01

    Endometrial stromal nodule (ESN) is the least common of the endometrial stromal tumors. They are rare neoplasms which are diagnosed in most instances by light microscopy. Although such nodules are benign, hysterectomy has been considered the treatment of choice to determine the margins of the tumor required for diagnosis and to differentiate it from invasive stromal sarcoma Whose prognosis is totally different. We report a case of a 45 years old woman, with presurgical diagnosis of adnexal mass or uterine tumor. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy. Pathologic examination revealed an endometrial stromal nodule. Through this observation, we insist on the fact that the ESNs are rare and benign entities which must be differentiated from the other invasive malignant stromal tumors; this can change the final prognosis. PMID:21423543

  5. Possibilities of nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules treatment by percutaneous ethanol injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the current principles, autonomous functional thyroid nodules are treated by surgery or by radioiodin therapy. Ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection into solid tumors of the soft tissues was a starting point in attempts to treat the thyroid nodules by the same method. The aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of percutaneous injection in treating solitary, nontoxic, autonomous thyroid nodules of up to 15 mL volume. Methods. In 25 patients with solitary nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules diagnosed by tehnetium-99m scanning as an intensive area having a complete supremacy in the paranodal tissue, an ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection was applied. The procedure was carried out repeatedly once a week until the reduction in nodule size to 50% of the initial size was achieved. Results. An average size of the nodule before curing was 9.68 ± 5.01 mL. An average quantity of the injected ethanol was 9.52 ± 5.08 mL, ie 1.06 ± 0.48 mL/mg of the tissue. The regression of the nodule size in the successfully (Δvol% u = - 57.09 ± 13.75%, p < 0.001 and partly successfully cured (Δvol du = -48.45 ± 14.35%, p < 0.05 was statistically significant compared to the size before the treatment. After ceasing ethanol injection, 18 months later, a further size regression (Δvol% = -79.20 ± 9.89% compared to the initial one (p < 0.001 was noticed. Soon, after the procedure was finished, a statistically significant concentration increase of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH was noticed compared to the initial values (0.18 ± 0.16 vs 0.34 ± 0.31 mU/L, p < 0.01. According to the given criteria, in two female patients satisfactory results were not achieved, but, a year later, in one of them the nodule was not seen by repeated scintigram. The number and frequency of side effects were insignificant. Conclusion. Repeated percutaneous ethanol injections into nontoxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules result in

  6. Value of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in judging benignancy or malignancy of nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yun Zhao; Hai-Xia Liu; Wei Tong; Jin-Zhong Huang; Chun Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the value of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in judging benignancy or malignancy of nodules.Methods: Patients diagnosed with thyroid nodule and receiving ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in our hospital were selected for study and divided into benign group and malignant group according to fine needle biopsy or the pathological results after surgical resection; mean strain values of quantitative indicators, blue region area and disorder of ultrasonic strain elastography, expression levels of malignant biological molecules in nodule tissue as well as the contents of serum tumor markers were detected.Results:Mean strain value of malignant group was lower than that of benign group, blue region area and disorder were higher than those of benign group, and standard deviation, complexity, kurtosis, skewness, contrast, equality, consistency and correlation were without significant differences; mRNA contents ofFascin-1, S100A4, STAT3, TC-1, MUC1 andMUC15 in thyroid nodules as well as serum Midkine, Galectin-3, CEACAM1 and TFF3 contents of malignant group were significantly higher than those of benign group, negatively correlated with mean strain value and positively correlated with blue region area and disorder.Conclusions:Mean strain values of quantitative indicators, blue region area and disorder of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography can judge benign or malignant nodules and assess the malignant degree.

  7. Effects of Seawater Salinity on Seedling Growth Nodulation and Tissue Nitrogen in Acacia nilotica (L. Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mahmood

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sea water salinity on growth, nodulation and nitrogen content of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile seedlings. Eight weeks old seedlings were irrigated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% sea water for one month. After 12 weeks the plants were uprooted and the nodules were observed for their frequency, shapes and sizes. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape in different salinity levels. The root-shoot ratio, nitrogen contents in the leaf, stem and root were analyzed. In general salt stress resulted in a decrease of plant growth, nodulation and percent tissue nitrogen in A. nilotica plants. Root-shoot ratio showed gradual increase with increasing sea water concentrations. Nitrogen contents decreased in leaf and stem, whereas it increased in roots. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape with increasing salinity. A. nilotica accumulated NaCl in the xylem of the roots that may be considered as a preliminary salt tolerant mechanism adopted by the plant.

  8. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  9. Bioinformatics Analysis of Zinc Transporter from Baoding Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo WANG; Junyun GUO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to perform the bioinformatics analysis of Zinc transporter (ZnT) from Baoding Alfalfa. [Method] Based on the amino acid sequence, the physical and chemical properties, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, secondary structure of ZnT from Baoding alfalfa were predicted by a series of bioinformatics software. And the transmembrane domains were predicted by using different online tools. [Result] ZnT is a hydrophobic protein containing 408 amino acids with the theoretical pl of 5.94, and it has 7 potential transmembrane hydrophobic regions. In the sec- ondary structure, co-helix (Hh) accounted for 48.04%, extended strand (Ee) for 9.56%, random coil (Cc) for 42.40%, which was accored with the characteristic of transmembrane protein. [Conclusion] mZnT is a member of CDF family, responsible for transporting Zn^2+ out of the cell membrane to reduce the concentration and toxicity of Zn^2+.

  10. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  11. Seabed topography and distribution of manganese nodules in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Kodagali, V.N.

    The relationship between seabed topography and distribution of nodules, recovery of free fall grab samplers, nodule size and chemical composition of manganese nodules in the Central Indian Ocean have been studied. Nodule abundance was greater (4...

  12. Management of subsolid pulmonary nodules; Management subsolider pulmonaler Rundherde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhuber, E. [Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Mostbeck, G. [Otto-Wagner-Spital, Wilhelminenspital, Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Institut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Wien (Austria); Prosch, H. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Schaefer-Prokop, C. [Amersfoort und Radboud University, Radiologie, Meander Medical Center, Nijmegen, (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    The finding of subsolid pulmonary nodules poses a frequent problem in the daily routine of the radiologist. The biological behavior of such subsolid lesions differs significantly from solid nodules. The risk of malignancy is significantly higher in subsolid nodules as compared to solid or purely ground glass opacities or nodules. The recommendations regarding the diagnostic management of subsolid nodules have been adapted according to the tendency of growth and the risk of malignancy. A benign etiology is also seen quite often in subsolid lesions and in this case they will show a reduction of size or disappear completely by the follow-up examination. Therefore, in many cases a short-term follow-up examination is primarily recommended. As the findings will often show no changes for a long period of time, further annual follow-up examinations over a longer, not yet specified period of time are recommended. Subsolid lesions that grow in size and/or show an increase in density or develop a solid part within a ground glass lesion should remain as suspected malignancies until proven otherwise. (orig.) [German] Der Nachweis subsolider intrapulmonaler Rundherde stellt ein haeufiges Problem in der taeglichen klinisch-radiologischen Routine dar. Das biologische Verhalten subsolider Rundherde unterscheidet sich wesentlich von soliden intrapulmonalen Rundherden. Das Risiko fuer Malignitaet ist fuer subsolide Rundherde deutlich hoeher im Vergleich zu soliden oder reinen Milchglasrundherden. Die Empfehlungen fuer das diagnostische Management subsolider Rundherde wurden entsprechend der Wachstumstendenz sowie des Malignitaetsrisikos adaptiert. Eine benigne Aetiologie ist bei subsoliden Rundherden ebenfalls oft zu finden. Diese weisen haeufig in der Verlaufsuntersuchung eine Groessenreduktion auf oder bilden sich spontan zurueck. Daher wird fuer viele subsolide Rundherde primaer eine kurzfristige Verlaufskontrolle empfohlen. Da sowohl benigne als auch maligne Veraenderungen ueber

  13. Dynamics of formation of ferromanganese nodules in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, A.K.

    in the world oceans, extensive exploration for nodules has been undertaken during the last four decades. The possibility of harvesting an inexhaustible supply of nodules from oceans has resulted in formulation of several national and international programs...

  14. Ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Pattan, J.N.

    the highest contents of Mn, Cu, and Ni, while those from hilltops have the lowest concentrations of these metals. There exists an inverse relationship between nodule abundance and their grade. Nodules are associated with practically all types of sediment...

  15. Citric acid- and Tween(®) 80-assisted phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) performance and remediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Huguenot, D; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was designed to assess the phytoremediation potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in a co-contaminated (i.e., heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons) soil and the influence of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 (polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate), applied individually and combined together, for their possible use in chemically assisted phytoremediation. The results showed that alfalfa plants could tolerate and grow in a co-contaminated soil. Over a 90-day experimental time, shoot and root biomass increased and negligible plant mortality occurred. Heavy metals were uptaken by alfalfa to a limited extent, mostly by plant roots, and their concentration in plant tissues were in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb. Microbial population (alkane-degrading microorganisms) and activity (lipase enzyme) were enhanced in the presence of alfalfa with rhizosphere effects of 9.1 and 1.5, respectively, after 90 days. Soil amendments did not significantly enhance plant metal concentration or total uptake. In contrast, the combination of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 significantly improved alkane-degrading microorganisms (2.4-fold increase) and lipase activity (5.3-fold increase) in the rhizosphere of amended plants, after 30 days of experiment. This evidence supports a favorable response of alfalfa in terms of tolerance to a co-contaminated soil and improvement of rhizosphere microbial number and activity, additionally enhanced by the joint application of citric acid and Tween(®) 80, which could be promising for future phytoremediation applications. PMID:26838038

  16. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Suess, Katherine A; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI), OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 HI optical counterparts. Sixty candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colors of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ fro...

  17. Bone suppressed images improve radiologists’ detection performance for pulmonary nodules in chest radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalekamp, Steven, E-mail: steven.schalekamp@gmail.com [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ginneken, Bram van, E-mail: b.vanginneken@rad.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meiss, Louis, E-mail: L.Meiss@meandermc.nl [Meander Medical Centre, Utrechtseweg 160, 3800 BM Amersfoort (Netherlands); Peters-Bax, Liesbeth, E-mail: l.petersbax@rad.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Quekel, Lorentz G.B.A., E-mail: Lgba.quekel@meandermc.nl [Meander Medical Centre, Utrechtseweg 160, 3800 BM Amersfoort (Netherlands); Snoeren, Miranda M., E-mail: m.snoeren@rad.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Tiehuis, Audrey M., E-mail: am.tiehuis@meandermc.nl [Meander Medical Centre, Utrechtseweg 160, 3800 BM Amersfoort (Netherlands); Wittenberg, Rianne, E-mail: rianne_wittenberg@hotmail.com [Meander Medical Centre, Utrechtseweg 160, 3800 BM Amersfoort (Netherlands); Karssemeijer, Nico, E-mail: n.karssemeijer@rad.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M., E-mail: cornelia.schaeferprokop@gmail.com [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meander Medical Centre, Utrechtseweg 160, 3800 BM Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of bone suppression imaging on observer performance in detecting lung nodules in chest radiographs. Materials and methods: Posteroanterior (PA) and lateral digital chest radiographs of 111 (average age 65) patients with a CT proven solitary nodule (median diameter 15 mm), and 189 (average age 63) controls were read by 5 radiologists and 3 residents. Conspicuity of nodules on the radiographs was classified in obvious (n = 32), moderate (n = 32), subtle (n = 29) and very subtle (n = 18). Observers read the PA and lateral chest radiographs without and with an additional PA bone suppressed image (BSI) (ClearRead Bone Suppression 2.4, Riverain Technologies, Ohio) within one reading session. Multi reader multi case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were used for statistical analysis. Results: ROC analysis showed improved detection with use of BSI compared to chest radiographs alone (AUC = 0.883 versus 0.855; p = 0.004). Performance also increased at high specificities exceeding 80% (pAUC = 0.136 versus 0.124; p = 0.0007). Operating at a specificity of 90%, sensitivity increased with BSI from 66% to 71% (p = 0.0004). Increase of detection performance was highest for nodules with moderate and subtle conspicuity (p = 0.02; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Bone suppressed images improve radiologists’ detection performance for pulmonary nodules, especially for those of moderate and subtle conspicuity.

  18. Waterlogging-induced changes in fermentative metabolism in roots and nodules of soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Borella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging blocks the oxygen supply to the root system which inhibits respiration, and greatly reduces the energy status of cells that affect important metabolic processes. This study evaluated fermentative metabolism and carbohydrate contents in the root system of two soybean (Glycine max L. Merril genotypes under hypoxic and post-hypoxic conditions. Nodulated plants (genotypes Fundacep 53 RR and BRS Macota were grown in vermiculite and transferred to a hydroponic system at the reproductive stage. The root system was submitted to hypoxia by flowing N2 (nitrogen gas in a solution for 24 and 72 h. For recovery, plants returned to normoxia condition by transfer to vermiculite for 24 and 72 h. Fermentative enzyme activity, levels of anaerobic metabolites and carbohydrate content were all quantified in roots and nodules. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes, as well as the content of ethanol and lactate, increased with hypoxia in roots and nodules, and subsequently returned to pre-hypoxic levels in the recovery phase in both genotypes. Pyruvate content increased in nodules and decreased in roots. Sugar and sucrose levels increased in roots and decreased in nodules under hypoxia in both genotypes. Fundacep RR 53 was more responsive to the metabolic effects caused by hypoxia and post-hypoxia than BRS Macota, and it is likely that these characteristics contribute positively to improving adaptation to oxygen deficiency.

  19. Impact of image quality, radiologists, lung segments, and Gunnar eyewear on detectability of lung nodules in chest CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christe, Andreas [Dept. of Radiology, Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford (United States); Dept. of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Inselspital, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)], e-mail: andreas.christe@insel.ch; Ebner, Lukas; Steiger, Philipp; Vock, Peter [Dept. of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Inselspital, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Parikh, Sachin R. [Dept. of Radiology, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta (United States); Shah, Akash D. [Proscan Imaging, Cincinnati (United States); Roychoudhury, Kingshuk [Statistics Dept., Univ. Coll. Cork, Cork (Ireland); Roos, Justus E. [Dept. of Radiology, Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Background: Despite the increasingly higher spatial and contrast resolution of CT, nodular lesions are prone to be missed on chest CT. Tinted lenses increase visual acuity and contrast sensitivity by filtering short wavelength light of solar and artificial origin. Purpose: To test the impact of Gunnar eyewear, image quality (standard versus low dose CT) and nodule location on detectability of lung nodules in CT and to compare their individual influence. Material and Methods: A pre-existing database of CT images of patients with lung nodules >5 mm, scanned with standard does image quality (150 ref mAs/120 kVp) and lower dose/quality (40 ref mAs/120 kVp), was used. Five radiologists read 60 chest CTs twice: once with Gunnar glasses and once without glasses with a 1 month break between. At both read-outs the cases were shown at lower dose or standard dose level to quantify the influence of both variables (eyewear vs. image quality) on nodule sensitivity. Results: The sensitivity of CT for lung nodules increased significantly using Gunnar eyewear for two readers and insignificantly for two other readers. Over all, the mean sensitivity of all radiologist raised significantly from 50% to 53%, using the glasses (P value = 0.034). In contrast, sensitivity for lung nodules was not significantly affected by lowering the image quality from 150 to 40 ref mAs. The average sensitivity was 52% at low dose level, that was even 0.7 % higher than at standard dose level (P value = 0.40). The strongest impact on sensitivity had the factors readers and nodule location (lung segments). Conclusion: Sensitivity for lung nodules was significantly enhanced by Gunnar eyewear (+3 %), while lower image quality (40 ref mAs) had no impact on nodule sensitivity. Not using the glasses had a bigger impact on sensitivity than lowering the image quality.

  20. Investigation of lung nodule detectability in low-dose 320-slice computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J. D.; Paul, N. S.; Siewerdsen, J. H. [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C6 (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada) and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Low-dose imaging protocols in chest CT are important in the screening and surveillance of suspicious and indeterminate lung nodules. Techniques that maintain nodule detectability yet permit dose reduction, particularly for large body habitus, were investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which radiation dose can be minimized while maintaining diagnostic performance through knowledgeable selection of reconstruction techniques. A 320-slice volumetric CT scanner (Aquilion ONE, Toshiba Medical Systems) was used to scan an anthropomorphic phantom at doses ranging from {approx}0.1 mGy up to that typical of low-dose CT (LDCT, {approx}5 mGy) and diagnostic CT ({approx}10 mGy). Radiation dose was measured via Farmer chamber and MOSFET dosimetry. The phantom presented simulated nodules of varying size and contrast within a heterogeneous background, and chest thickness was varied through addition of tissue-equivalent bolus about the chest. Detectability of a small solid lung nodule (3.2 mm diameter, -37 HU, typically the smallest nodule of clinical significance in screening and surveillance) was evaluated as a function of dose, patient size, reconstruction filter, and slice thickness by means of nine-alternative forced-choice (9AFC) observer tests to quantify nodule detectability. For a given reconstruction filter, nodule detectability decreased sharply below a threshold dose level due to increased image noise, especially for large body size. However, nodule detectability could be maintained at lower doses through knowledgeable selection of (smoother) reconstruction filters. For large body habitus, optimal filter selection reduced the dose required for nodule detection by up to a factor of {approx}3 (from {approx}3.3 mGy for sharp filters to {approx}1.0 mGy for the optimal filter). The results indicate that radiation dose can be reduced below the current low-dose (5 mGy) and ultralow-dose (1 mGy) levels with knowledgeable selection of

  1. 浅析黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展前景%Development Prospect of Alfalfa in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海娟

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa is nutritious,palatable and high-yield,especially,has an important role in increasing milk production and improving the quality of milk.It is the most potential forage in forage industry.Based on the development planning of alfalfa in Heilongjiang Province.This paper analysed that alfalfa industry has an expansively developing prospects from some aspects:large demand in alfalfa market,good condition in building plant base,stable technology and the support from government.%苜蓿营养丰富、适口性好、产量高,尤其对奶牛提高产奶量、改善乳品质具有特殊作用,是饲草产业中最具发展潜力的牧草。针对黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展规划的出台,文章从黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展市场需求、建设种植基地条件、技术保障、政策扶持等方面分析了黑龙江省苜蓿产业的广阔发展前景。

  2. Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma with mural nodule of anaplastic carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, S. R.; Chun, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Lim, K. T.; Kim, H S

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of malignant mural nodule in benign cystic common epithelial tumor of the ovary have been reported in only three cases; the case one was mucinous cystadenoma with a mural nodule of fibrosarcoma and the others were of carcinomas. Our case was another rare case of ovarian mucinous cystadenoma with mural nodule of anaplastic carcinoma in a 42-year-old woman. The cystadenoma had an unilocular cystic cavity and a mural nodule with thick multinodular solid wall. The internal cystic w...

  3. Short communication. Growth and nodulation of cowpea after 5 years of consecutive composted tannery sludge amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. L. Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tannery industry releases high amounts of tannery sludge which are currently composted and used in agricultural soils. The consecutive amendment of such composted tannery sludge (CTS may affect soil microrganisms, such as rhizobia. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. CTS was applied in different amounts (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg/ha to a sandy soil. Amendment of CTS increased soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC, sodium and chromium content. Plant growth, nodulation, N accumulation, and cowpea yield increased up to 10 Mg/ha; however, above this rate, these variables decreased. After 5 years of CTS amendment, the increase in soil chemical properties, particularly EC and Na content, exerted negative effects on the growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea.

  4. The hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine kinetic studies, using a double label (131I- and T4-125I), were performed on 8 patients with hot thyroid nodules, 3 diffuse toxic goiters and one normal control. This investigation was complemented by partial kinetic studies done on 62 other subjetcs, including normal controls and euthyroid or hyperthyroid patients with diffuse or nodular goiter

  5. Hierarchical and binary spatial descriptors for lung nodule image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gillian; Song, Yang; Cai, Weidong; Zhou, Yun; Liu, Sidong; Feng, David Dagan

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing amount of image data available for cancer staging and diagnosis, it is clear that content-based image retrieval techniques are becoming more important to assist physicians in making diagnoses and tracking disease. Domain-specific feature descriptors have been previously shown to be effective in the retrieval of lung tumors. This work proposes a method to improve the rotation invariance of the hierarchical spatial descriptor, as well as presents a new binary descriptor for the retrieval of lung nodule images. The descriptors were evaluated on the ELCAP public access database, exhibiting good performance overall. PMID:25571476

  6. Shear Wave Elastography May Add a New Dimension to Ultrasound Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules: Case Series with Comparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Z. Slapa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although elastography can enhance the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, its diagnostic performance is not ideal at present. Further improvements in the technique and creation of robust diagnostic criteria are necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of strain elastography and a new generation of elasticity imaging called supersonic shear wave elastography (SSWE in differential evaluation of thyroid nodules. Six thyroid nodules in 4 patients were studied. SSWE yielded 1 true-positive and 5 true-negative results. Strain elastography yielded 5 false-positive results and 1 false-negative result. A novel finding appreciated with SSWE, were punctate foci of increased stiffness corresponding to microcalcifications in 4 nodules, some not visible on B-mode ultrasound, as opposed to soft, colloid-inspissated areas visible on B-mode ultrasound in 2 nodules. This preliminary paper indicates that SSWE may outperform strain elastography in differentiation of thyroid nodules with regard to their stiffness. SSWE showed the possibility of differentiation of high echogenic foci into microcalcifications and inspissated colloid, adding a new dimension to thyroid elastography. Further multicenter large-scale studies of thyroid nodules evaluating different elastographic methods are warranted.

  7. The incidental pulmonary nodule in a child. Part 2: Commentary and suggestions for clinical management, risk communication and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidental detection of small lung nodules in children is a vexing consequence of an increased reliance on CT. We present an algorithm for the management of lung nodules detected on CT in children, based on the presence or absence of symptoms, the presence or absence of elements in the clinical history that might explain these nodules, and the imaging characteristics of the nodules (such as attenuation measurements within the nodule). We provide suggestions on how to perform a thoughtfully directed and focused search for clinically occult extrathoracic disease processes (including malignant disease) that may present as an incidentally detected lung nodule on CT. This algorithm emphasizes that because of the lack of definitive information on the natural history of small solid nodules that are truly detected incidentally, their clinical management is highly dependent on the caregivers' individual risk tolerance. In addition, we present strategies to reduce the prevalence of these incidental findings, by preventing unnecessary chest CT scans or inadvertent inclusion of portions of the lungs in scans of adjacent body parts. Application of these guidelines provides pediatric radiologists with an important opportunity to practice patient-centered and evidence-based medicine. (orig.)

  8. Effect of Co-Inoculation with Mycorrhiza and Rhizobia on the Nodule Trehalose Content of Different Bean Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Almanza, L; Altamirano-Hernandez, J; Peña-Cabriales, J.J; Santoyo, G; Sanchez-Yañez, J.M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Macias-Rodriguez, L; Lopez-Bucio, J; Cardenas-Navarro, R; Farias-Rodriguez, R

    2010-01-01

    Studies on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis show that trehalose content in nodules under drought stress correlates positively with an increase in plant tolerance to this stress. Fewer reports describe trehalose accumulation in mycorrhiza where, in contrast with rhizobia, there is no flux of carbohydrates from the microsymbiont to the plant. However, the trehalose dynamics in the Mycorrhiza-Rhizobium-Legume tripartite symbiosis is unknown. The present study explores the role of this tripartite symbiosis in the trehalose content of nodules grown under contrasting moisture conditions. Three wild genotypes (P. filiformis, P. acutifolis and P. vulgaris) and two commercial genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto villa and Flor de Mayo) were used. Co-inoculation treatments were conducted with Glomus intraradices and a mixture of seven native rhizobial strains, and trehalose content was determined by GC/MS. The results showed a negative effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on nodule development, as mycorrhized plants showed fewer nodules and lower nodule dry weight compared to plants inoculated only with Rhizobium. Mycorrhizal colonization was also higher in plants inoculated only with Glomus as compared to plants co-inoculated with both microsymbionts. In regard to trehalose, co-inoculation negatively affects its accumulation in the nodules of each genotype tested. However, the correlation analysis showed a significantly positive correlation between mycorrhizal colonization and nodule trehalose content. PMID:21253462

  9. The incidental pulmonary nodule in a child. Part 2: Commentary and suggestions for clinical management, risk communication and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Thacker, Paul G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Podberesky, Daniel J. [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Iyer, Ramesh S. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Hegde, Shilpa V. [Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Guillerman, R.P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The incidental detection of small lung nodules in children is a vexing consequence of an increased reliance on CT. We present an algorithm for the management of lung nodules detected on CT in children, based on the presence or absence of symptoms, the presence or absence of elements in the clinical history that might explain these nodules, and the imaging characteristics of the nodules (such as attenuation measurements within the nodule). We provide suggestions on how to perform a thoughtfully directed and focused search for clinically occult extrathoracic disease processes (including malignant disease) that may present as an incidentally detected lung nodule on CT. This algorithm emphasizes that because of the lack of definitive information on the natural history of small solid nodules that are truly detected incidentally, their clinical management is highly dependent on the caregivers' individual risk tolerance. In addition, we present strategies to reduce the prevalence of these incidental findings, by preventing unnecessary chest CT scans or inadvertent inclusion of portions of the lungs in scans of adjacent body parts. Application of these guidelines provides pediatric radiologists with an important opportunity to practice patient-centered and evidence-based medicine. (orig.)

  10. Approach and management of thyroid nodule. A literature review = Nódulo tiroideo, enfoque y manejo. Revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-González, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid nodules are commonly found, and their incidence is increasing. The main objective during the evaluation of these nodules is to determine if they are benign or malignant. Materials and methods: We made a narrative review of the literature by searching Ovid, Medline and Lilacs from 1950 to 2010. Results: Most thyroid nodules are benign, but in 4% to 8% of cases they may be malignant, hence the importance of appropriate study and management. Nodules larger than 1 cm should undergo fine needle aspirate; however, the clinical features of the patient and the characteristics of the nodule on ultrasound assessment should always be taken into account. The following are risk factors associated with the presence of thyroid nodules: age over 45 years, female gender and smoking. The measurement of tumor markers in the initial study of patients with thyroid nodule is not recommended.Conclusion: Ultrasound and thyroid fine needle aspirate are the most important diagnostic methods in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, because they enable to make changes in therapeutic decisions thus decreasing the number of unnecessary thyroidectomies. Treatment and prognosis of thyroid nodules will depend on the patient´s risk factors and the cytological and pathological findings.

  11. Effect of graded levels of ifber from alfalfa meal on apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids of growing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; LIU Li; DING Ze-ming; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ifber level from alfalfa meal and sampling time on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in growing pigs. A total of 24 ileal-can-nulated pigs (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace) with body weight (21.4±1.5) kg) were randomly alotted to 4 treatments. The pigs were provided a corn-soybean meal diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20% of alfalfa meal during two 10-d experimental periods. The AID of AA was measured. Six ileal-cannulated pigs were fed a protein-free diet in order to estimate the en-dogenous protein losses and SID of AA. Ileal AA digestibility was not affected by inclusion of 5 or 10% alfalfa meal in the diet (P>0.05). The AID of His, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Val, Ala, Asp, Cys, Gly, Pro, Ser and Tyr reduced by 2.0–6.8% with the addition level of alfalfa meal (linear,P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both the soluble and insoluble ifber content in the diets, explained more than 36% of variation in SID of Ser and Thr (P<0.05). In conclusion, the corn-soybean meal diet containing 10% of alfalfa meal did not affect ileal AA digestion. The AID and SID of AA were similar between two sampling times. Increasing the concentration of total dietary ifber from 12.3 to 21.4% by adding graded levels of alfalfa meal (0–20%) to a corn-soybean meal control diet induced a linear reduction in AID and SID of most AA. Soluble and insoluble ifbers from alfalfa meal have differential roles in the AA digestion, which may help explain the variation observed in the SID of partial AA. These ifndings would provide important information for dietary ifber level and composition related to AA digestion.

  12. Alfalfa leaf meal in finishing steer diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.; Brown, D.B.; Hall, J.M.

    1997-10-30

    Ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 540 lb.) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 167 or 189-day finishing phase, respectively. Treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, 100% of supplemental protein. Finishing diets were formulated to contain .61 Mcal NE{sub g}/lb dry matter, 12.5% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. There were no significant (P >.05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or dry matter required /lb of gain. Steers fed 100 % ALM consumed more (P <.05) dry matter than steers fed either of the other three treatments. Dry matter consumption increased linearly (P >.05) with increasing ALM. There was no significant (P >.05) dietary treatment effect on marbling, KPH %, yield grade, quality grade, or liver abscesses. There was an apparent trend in reduced liver abscess incidence in steers fed 100 % ALM. Steers fed 66 % ALM had significantly (P <.05) greater backfat measurements, backfat also had a cubic effect (P <.05). Hot carcass weight had a quadratic relation (P <.05) with level of ALM. Substituting alfalfa leaf meal for soybean meal in diets of finishing steers increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain which resulted in similar feed efficiency. There may be an advantage in blending ALM and soybean meal as feed efficiency was improved when cattle were fed the blend. Also, feeding ALM may result in lower incidence of liver abscess.

  13. US Diagnosis for Thyroid Nodules with an Indeterminate Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong Geun; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Woo [Saegyaero Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to assess the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid ultrasound (US) for evaluating thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. Among 1865 nodules in 1278 patients who received a prospective US diagnosis of their thyroid nodule(s) and who subsequently underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration, 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology were enrolled in the study. Each thyroid nodule was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 5 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'probably benign', 'indeterminate', 'suspicious for malignancy' and 'malignant.' The solid nodules were classified using all 5 categories and the partially cystic nodules classified using 4 categories ('indeterminate' was omitted). We calculated the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid US by comparing the US diagnoses with the pathology results. Of 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology (130/1865, 7.0%), 62 nodules were surgically removed. Nineteen nodules were assigned to the indeterminate category on US. The malignantly rate of the US-indeterminate category was 56.5% (35/62). The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 81.0%, 81.8%, 81.0%, 81.8% and 81.4%, respectively, when US-indeterminate nodules were excluded. There was no significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as malignant, but there was a significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as benign. Our US classification may be a feasible method for managing thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology

  14. GROWTH AND NODULATION OF LEUCAENA AND PROSOPIS SEEDLINGS IN SOIL PLUS TANNERY SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to evaluate the growth and nodulation of Leucaena and Prosopis seedlings in soil plus tannery sludge. The study was conducted in a greenhouse, using bags containing soil plus tannery sludge. Seedlings of Leucaena and Prosopis inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp were used. Results were evaluated 90 days after plant emergency. The application of tannery sludge, in the rate of 11.250 kg per hectare significantly increased plant height, stem diameter, and above ground dry mass ofLeucaena. Regarding Prosopis, there were no significant increases in these variables with tannery sludge application, except for aerial dry mass. No significant differences were seen between the treatments with sludge and inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. as to nodule number and dry mass. Tannery sludge evaluated in this work did not affect nodulation, besides favoring Leucaena and Prosopis seedling growth.

  15. Coordinating nodule morphogenesis with rhizobial infection in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Giles E D; Downie, J Allan

    2008-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on legumes requires an integration of infection by rhizobia at the root epidermis and the initiation of cell division in the cortex, several cell layers away from the sites of infection. Several recent developments have added to our understanding of the signaling events in the epidermis associated with the perception of rhizobial nodulation factors and the role of plant hormones in the activation of cell division leading to nodule morphogenesis. This review focuses on the tissue-specific nature of the developmental processes associated with nodulation and the mechanisms by which these processes are coordinated during the formation of a nodule. PMID:18444906

  16. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in monkeys fed alfalfa sprouts: role of a nonprotein amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Bardana, E J; Pirofsky, B; Craig, S; McLaughlin, P

    1982-04-23

    Hematologic and serologic abnormalities similar to those observed in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed in cynomolgus macaques fed alfalfa sprouts. L-Canavanine sulfate, a constituent of alfalfa sprouts, was incorporated into the diet and reactivated the syndrome in monkeys in which an SLE-like syndrome had previously been induced by the ingestion of alfalfa seeds or sprouts. PMID:7071589

  17. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, reproductive success according to location of nests in U.S. commercial domiciles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. Variable microenvironments are experienced by developing alfalfa leafcutt...

  18. Computer-aided detection of lung cancer: combining pulmonary nodule detection systems with a tumor risk prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setio, Arnaud A. A.; Jacobs, Colin; Ciompi, Francesco; van Riel, Sarah J.; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) has been shown to be a promising tool for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules from computed tomography (CT) images. However, the vast majority of detected nodules are benign and do not require any treatment. For effective implementation of lung cancer screening programs, accurate identification of malignant nodules is the key. We investigate strategies to improve the performance of a CAD system in detecting nodules with a high probability of being cancers. Two strategies were proposed: (1) combining CAD detections with a recently published lung cancer risk prediction model and (2) the combination of multiple CAD systems. First, CAD systems were used to detect the nodules. Each CAD system produces markers with a certain degree of suspicion. Next, the malignancy probability was automatically computed for each marker, given nodule characteristics measured by the CAD system. Last, CAD degree of suspicion and malignancy probability were combined using the product rule. We evaluated the method using 62 nodules which were proven to be malignant cancers, from 180 scans of the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The malignant nodules were considered as positive samples, while all other findings were considered negative. Using a product rule, the best proposed system achieved an improvement in sensitivity, compared to the best individual CAD system, from 41.9% to 72.6% at 2 false positives (FPs)/scan and from 56.5% to 88.7% at 8 FPs/scan. Our experiment shows that combining a nodule malignancy probability with multiple CAD systems can increase the performance of computerized detection of lung cancer.

  19. Detectable change of lung nodule volume with CT in a phantom study with high and low signal to background contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrielides, Marios A.; Li, Qin; Zeng, Rongping; Gong, Qi; Myers, Kyle; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    In previous work we developed a method for predicting the minimum detectable change (MDC) in nodule volume based on volumetric CT measurements. MDC was defined as the minimum increase/decrease in a nodule volume distinguishable from the baseline measurement at a specified level of detection performance, assessed using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). In this work we derived volume estimates of a set of synthetic nodules and calculated the detection performance for distinguishing them from baseline measurements. Eight spherical objects of 100HU radio density ranging in diameter from 5.0mm to 5.75mm and 8.0mm to 8.75mm with 0.25mm increments were placed in an anthropomorphic phantom with either no background (high-contrast task) or gelatin background (low-contrast task). The baseline was defined as 5.0mm for the first set of nodules and 8.0mm for the second set. The phantom was scanned using varying exposures, and reconstructed with slice thickness of 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0mm and two reconstruction kernels (standard and smooth). Volume measurements were derived using a previously developed matched- filter approach. Results showed that nodule size, slice thickness, and nodule-to-background contrast affected detectable change in nodule volume when using our volume estimator and the acquisition settings from our study. We also compared our experimental results to the values estimated by our previously-developed MDC prediction method. We found that experimental data for the 8mm baseline nodules matched very well with our predicted values of MDC. These results support considering the use of this metric when standardizing imaging protocols for lung nodule size change assessment.

  20. A Multicenter Prospective Validation Study for the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in Patients with Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Eun Ju; Na, Dong Gyu; Lee, Young Hen; Choi, Nami; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Jae Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To validate a new risk stratification system for thyroid nodules, the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS), using a prospective design. Materials and Methods From June 2013 to May 2015, 902 thyroid nodules were enrolled from four institutions. The type and predictive value of ultrasonography (US) predictors were analyzed according to the combination of the solidity and echogenicity of nodules; in addition, we determined malignancy risk and diagnostic performance for each category of K-TIRADS, and compared the efficacy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with a three-tier risk categorization system published in 2011. Results The malignancy risk was significantly higher in solid hypoechoic nodules, as compared to partially cystic or isohyperechoic nodules (each p < 0.001). The presence of any suspicious US features had a significantly higher malignancy risk (73.4%) in solid hypoechoic nodules than in partially cystic or isohyperechoic nodules (4.3–38.5%; p < 0.001). The calculated malignancy risk in K-TIRADS categories 5, 4, 3, and 2 nodules were 73.4, 19.0, 3.5, and 0.0%, respectively; and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for malignancy were 95.5, 58.6, 44.5, 96.9, and 69.5%, respectively, in K-TIRADS categories 4 and 5. The efficacy of FNA for detecting malignancy based on K-TIRADS was increased from 18.6% (101/544) to 22.5% (101/449), as compared with the three-tier risk categorization system (p < 0.001). Conclusion The proposed new risk stratification system based on solidity and echogenicity was useful for risk stratification of thyroid nodules and the decision for FNA. The malignancy risk of K-TIRADS was in agreement with the findings of a previous retrospective study. PMID:27587972

  1. Clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of solitary ground-glass opacity lung nodules on high-resolution computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhi-Xin; Cheng, Yue; Liu, Dan; Wang, Wei-Ya; Wu, Xia; Wu, Wei-Lu; Li, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung nodules are being detected at an increasing rate year by year with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) being widely used. Ground-glass opacity nodule is one of the special types of pulmonary nodules that is confirmed to be closely associated with early stage of lung cancer. Very little is known about solitary ground-glass opacity nodules (SGGNs). In this study, we analyzed the clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of SGGNs on HRCT. Methods A total of 95 resected SGGNs were evaluated with HRCT scan. The clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of these cases were analyzed. Results Eighty-one adenocarcinoma and 14 benign nodules were observed. The nodules included 12 (15%) adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), 14 (17%) minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and 55 (68%) invasive adenocarcinoma (IA). No patients with recurrence till date have been identified. The positive expression rates of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and ROS-1 (proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS) were only 2.5% and 8.6%, respectively. The specificity and accuracy of HRCT of invasive lung adenocarcinoma were 85.2% and 87.4%. The standard uptake values of only two patients determined by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) were above 2.5. The size, density, shape, and pleural tag of nodules were significant factors that differentiated IA from AIS and MIA. Moreover, the size, shape, margin, pleural tag, vascular cluster, bubble-like sign, and air bronchogram of nodules were significant determinants for mixed ground-glass opacity nodules (all P<0.05). Conclusion We analyzed the clinical, pathological, and radiological characteristics of SGGNs on HRCT and found that the size, density, shape, and pleural tag of SGGNs on HRCT are found to be the determinant factors of IA. In conclusion, detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase expression and performance of PET/CT scan are not routinely recommended.

  2. A system for identification of candidate genes controlling cell wall synthesis in alfalfa stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usefulness of alfalfa for livestock feeding and production of lignocellulose-derived ethanol would be improved by genetic alteration of stem cell wall concentration and composition. This could be accomplished through selective breeding and transgenic technologies. However, development of alfalfa cel...

  3. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can serve as a cover crop and subsequent forage crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...

  4. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  5. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  6. The Productivity and Quality of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in Romanian Forest Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai STAVARACHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative use of alfalfa, for various purposes, including the production of biofuels or food supplement for human alimentation, is a study topic still in its early stages of research. Studying and understanding the biology of alfalfa and the factors with a major influence on it are very important activities. The productivity and quality of alfalfa are two indicators that help determine, in addition to economic value, the way in which alfalfa can be used. Evolution of alfalfa yield and quality depends on many factors, such as the growth stage of alfalfa plants at harvesting. It was observed over three years of vegetation the influence of alfalfa plant growth stage at harvest on plant height, leaves/stems ratio, production of leaves, stems and whole plant (DM - dry matter per hectare and on quality indicators (CP - crude protein, NDF - neutral detergent fiber and ADF - acid detergent fiber. The results showed that, with the advancement of phenological phases, from early bud stage to complete flowering, the total biomass output raised from 2.79 Mg·ha-1 to 4.60 Mg·ha-1, the neutral detergent fiber raised from 48.4-50.6% to 62.0-67.7%, while crude protein content decreased from 21.2-24.0% to 13.3-16.5%. The parameter values were correlated with alfalfa growth stage during the harvesting (significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels.

  7. Seasonal changes in oleosomic lipids and fatty acids of perennial root nodules of beach pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnasamy, Gurusamy; Davis, Philip James; Bal, Arya Kumar

    2003-04-01

    Seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition of phospholipids (PL), monoglycerides (MG), diglycerides (DG), free fatty acids (FA) and triglycerides (TG) separated from oleosomes (lipid bodies) of perennial root nodules of beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus) were analysed. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that PL and MG are the major lipids in nodule oleosomes. The fatty acid profile and overall double bond index (DBI) varied among lipid classes depending upon the season. High DBI in PL and MG found during late winter and early spring indicated that they may play a major role in winter survival and regeneration of perennial nodules. The DBI of DG was high at the end of the fall season and the DBI of FA and TG was high in summer months. The dominant fatty acids are C16:0 followed by C18:0 and C18:1. The levels of many unsaturated fatty acids such as C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 increased while saturated fatty acid C18:0 decreased during winter. These unsaturated fatty acids possibly play an important role in the protection of nodule cells from cold stress. Nodules seem to retain some fatty acids and selectively utilize specific fatty acids to survive the winter and regenerate in spring. PMID:12756915

  8. The Carbon-Nitrogen Balance of the Nodule and Its Regulation under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Libault

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2. In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  9. Comparative scanning of thyroid nodules with technetium-99m pertechnetate and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foeldes, I.; Levay, A. (Central Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Stotz, G. (Central Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Pathology)

    1993-04-01

    Thyroid imaging was performed using technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile and technetium-99m pertechnetate in 58 patients. The [sup 99m]Tc-pertechnetate scans showed a total of 77 nodules: 60 cold, 13 hot and 4 of normal acitivity. There was no [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI accumulation in 46.4% of [sup 99m]TC-pertechnetate cold nodules; 27 (45%) of these nodules showed [sup 99m]TC-MIBI uptake with the same intensity as the surrounding normal tissue, and five (8.6%) became hot with [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI. Of the [sup 99m]TC-pertechnetate hot nodules 11 (84.6%) could not be differentiated from the normal extranodular tissue on the [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI scan. The histopathology of 34 surgically removed nodules proved that increased, normal or decreased [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI accumulation is not specific for thyroid malignance and that the [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI uptake depends mainly on the viability of thyroid tissue. (orig.).

  10. The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dorcas Quain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Almost all protease families have been associated with plant development, particularly senescence, which is the final developmental stage of every organ before cell death. Proteolysis remobilizes and recycles nitrogen from senescent organs that is required, for example, seed development. Senescence-associated expression of proteases has recently been characterized using large-scale gene expression analysis seeking to identify and characterize senescence-related genes. Increasing activities of proteolytic enzymes, particularly cysteine proteases, are observed during the senescence of legume nodules, in which a symbiotic relationship between the host plant and bacteria (Rhizobia facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. It is generally considered that cysteine proteases are compartmentalized to prevent uncontrolled proteolysis in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In addition, the activities of cysteine proteases are regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors called cystatins. These small proteins form reversible complexes with cysteine proteases, leading to inactivation. However, very little is currently known about how the cysteine protease-cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin system is regulated during nodule development. Moreover, our current understanding of the expression and functions of proteases and protease inhibitors in nodules is fragmented. To address this issue, we have summarized the current knowledge and techniques used for studying proteases and their inhibitors including the application of “omics” tools, with a particular focus on changes in the cysteine protease-cystatin system during nodule development.

  11. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 12. Sequence analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) cDNA clones and appearance of PAL transcripts in elicitor-treated cell cultures and developing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, G; Paiva, N L; Dixon, R A

    1991-09-01

    An expression library containing cDNAs derived from transcripts from fungal elicitor-treated alfalfa cell suspension cultures was screened with an antiserum raised against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) from alfalfa. A single immunoreactive clone was isolated which encoded a full-length PAL cDNA (APAL1) consisting of a 2175 bp open reading frame, 96 bp 5'-untranslated leader and 128 bp 3'-non-coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence was 86.5% similar to that of the PAL2 gene of bean, and encoded a polypeptide of Mr 78,865. A second PAL cDNA species was isolated, whose 3'-untranslated region was 86% identical to that of APAL1. Southern blot analysis indicated that PAL is encoded by a small multigene family in alfalfa. PAL transcript levels were rapidly and massively induced, and preceded increased PAL extractable activity, on exposure of alfalfa suspension cells to elicitor from baker's yeast. PAL transcripts were most abundant in roots, stems and petioles during growth and development of alfalfa seedlings. These studies provide the basis for an examination of the developmental and environmental control of a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid synthesis in a plant species which is readily amenable to stable genetic transformation.

  12. [An ovarian mucinous borderline tumour with mixed mural nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhouibi, A; Denoux, Y; Touil, N; Devouassoux Shisheboran, M; Carbonnel, M; Baglin, A C

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of mural nodules in serous or mucinous ovarian tumours is not frequent. Mural nodule can be developed in benign, borderline or malignant tumours. They can be benign, malignant or mixed type. Thus the prognosis of the ovarian tumour can be dramatically modified by the presence if these nodules. Eighty-two cases of mural nodules were reported in the literature, among which we account four cases of mixed nodules type. We report an additional case of mixed type mural nodules of anaplastic carcinoma and sarcoma-like developed in an ovarian mucinous borderline tumour at a 60-year-old woman.We give details about the classification, the differential diagnosis and prognosis of theses nodules.

  13. Complete genome sequence of a new enamovirus from Argentina infecting alfalfa plants showing dwarfism symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Alfalfa dwarf disease, probably caused by synergistic interactions of mixed virus infections, is a major and emergent disease that threatens alfalfa production in Argentina. Deep sequencing of diseased alfalfa plant samples from the central region of Argentina resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling enamoviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Enamovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "alfalfa enamovirus 1" (AEV-1). The availability of the AEV-1 genome sequence will make it possible to assess the genetic variability of this virus and to construct an infectious clone to investigate its role in alfalfa dwarfism disease. PMID:27068164

  14. INVESTIGATION OF ALFALFA LOCAL POPULATIONS FOR CREATION OF NEW BREEDING GERMPLAZM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Čupić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield of dry matter and green mass are important factors in selection of fodder crop cultivars. Low genetic gain was achieved during the long time of fodder crops breeding for yield. Therefore we investigated possibility of using local populations of alfalfa for yield increase with direct and indirect selection. Strong and significant influence of genotypes and environments was recorded for all examined traits and their interactions at the level p<0.01. The highest variability was recorded for green mass yield 48.21%; while the lowest variation was for height 13.18%. High share of genotype variance as well as high heritability were recorded in total variance for the traits number of stem and plant height.

  15. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Leguminous plants engage into symbiotic relationships with soil bacteria, rhizobia, and develop root nodules. This process initiates with recognition of bacteria derived signalling molecules called nod factors. The subsequent events lead to symbiotic infection and, occurring in parallel, de novo...... was shown to require auxin signalling. Cytokinin, in contrast, exert a negative regulation of bacterial entry into the root. During organogenesis, auxin and cytokinin maxima are known to accompany nodule primordia development and together regulate progression through the cell cycle. Moreover, application...... observations of the DR5 reporter showed activity maxima situated in pericycle and endodermis cells specifically below infection sites. Using gravitropic bending auxin responses in the pericycle could be induced, specifically on the outer side of the gravitropic bend in uninoculated plants. When conducted...

  16. Pulmonary nodule registration in serial CT scans based on rib anatomy and nodule template matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated method is being developed in order to identify corresponding nodules in serial thoracic CT scans for interval change analysis. The method uses the rib centerlines as the reference for initial nodule registration. A spatially adaptive rib segmentation method first locates the regions where the ribs join the spine, which define the starting locations for rib tracking. Each rib is tracked and locally segmented by expectation-maximization. The ribs are automatically labeled, and the centerlines are estimated using skeletonization. For a given nodule in the source scan, the closest three ribs are identified. A three-dimensional (3D) rigid affine transformation guided by simplex optimization aligns the centerlines of each of the three rib pairs in the source and target CT volumes. Automatically defined control points along the centerlines of the three ribs in the source scan and the registered ribs in the target scan are used to guide an initial registration using a second 3D rigid affine transformation. A search volume of interest (VOI) is then located in the target scan. Nodule candidate locations within the search VOI are identified as regions with high Hessian responses. The initial registration is refined by searching for the maximum cross-correlation between the nodule template from the source scan and the candidate locations. The method was evaluated on 48 CT scans from 20 patients. Experienced radiologists identified 101 pairs of corresponding nodules. Three metrics were used for performance evaluation. The first metric was the Euclidean distance between the nodule centers identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, the second metric was a volume overlap measure between the nodule VOIs identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, and the third metric was the hit rate, which measures the fraction of nodules whose centroid computed by the computer registration in the target scan falls within the VOI identified by the

  17. Effects of phosphorous fertilizer on seedlings growth and nodulation capabilities of some popular agroforestry tree species of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Belal Uddin; Sharif Ahmed Mukul; Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin Khan; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Phosphorous (P) fertilizer (I.e. TSP or triple super phosphate @ 80 kg/hm2) on seedling growth and nodulation capabilities of three potentially important agroforestry tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Albizia lebbeck and Albizia procera) of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in nursery beds with six-month-old polybag seedlings of A. Auriculi formis, A. Lebbeck and A. Procera. The effects of P fertilizer on seedling growth and nodulation were compared with that of the seedlings grown in control (I.e. Unfertilized soil). The observations revealed that the seedling growth was enhanced significantly with the application of P fertilizer.hegrowth was found more pronounced in A. Auriculiformis, whereas it was not apparent and shows depressed growth in case of A. Lebbeck. The study also suggests that the nodulation in terms of nodule number and size was also increased significantly with the application of P fertilizer.

  18. Seedling response of three agroforestry tree species to phosphorous fertilizer application in Bangladesh: growth and nodulation capabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Belal Uddin; Sharif Ahmed Mukul; Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin Khan; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2009-01-01

    Triple Super Phosphate, TSP fertilizer, was applied @ 80 kg(ha-1 as the source of phosphorous on six months old polybag seedlings of Albizia chinensis, Albizia saman and Pongamia pinnta in nursery beds in Bangladesh. The effects of P-fertilizer on seedling growth and nodulation were compared to that of seedlings grown in unfertilized soil or in control at different harvesting intervals. The study revealed that, seedling growth was enhanced significantly with the application of P-fertilizer. The growth was found more pronounced in cases of A. saman and P. pinnata, whereas it was not noticeable and showed depressed growth in case of A. chinensis. The study also suggests that nodulation in terms of nodule number and size was also increased significantly with P-fertilization except in case of P. pinnata, where higher harvesting intervals lowered the nodulation performance of that species

  19. Solitary pulmonary nodule: medical approach and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Montes-Farah Juan Manuel; Ojeda-Rodríguez Kelman Hanael; Segovia-Fuentes Javier Ignacio; Henao-Castrillón Julio César

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: the detection of the solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is usually casual.Benign injuries must be differentiated from malignant injuries to establish the adequatemedical monitoring and therapeutic interventions.Objective: to check the current condition of the diagnosis and treatment of SPN.Methods: databases PubMed, Science Direct, OvidSP, EBSCOhost and Scielo werereviewed. The search included systematic reviews, meta-analysis, guidelines, consensusand reviews with keywords got fro...

  20. Benign Papules and Nodules of Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Gürel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the more common benign oral papules and nodules of oral mucosa with emphasis on their etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathology, and treatment. These lesions include mucocele, traumatic fibroma, epulis, pyogenic granuloma, oral papilloma, oral warts, lymphangioma, hemangioma, lipoma, oral nevi and some soft tissue benign tumors. These benign lesions must be separated clinically and histologically from precancerous and malign neoplastic lesions. Accurate clinico-pathological diagnosis is mandatory to insure appropriate therapy.

  1. CT Guided Needle Biopsies in Pulmonary Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Afzali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available determine the prevalence of pulmonary pathologies"nby CT-guided needle biopsy in pulmonary nodules."nPatients and Methods: We performed CT guided"nneedle biopsy on 78 cases of pulmonary nodules. Lung"nCT scan with a 64-Slice MSCT was done for all patients"nbefore the needle biopsy. All biopsies were performed"nby one experienced interventional radiologist by"nusing a semiautomatic coaxial 18 guage needle. The"nresults were confirmed by two pathologists who were"nunaware of each other's reports. Because of different"npathologic diagnosis two cases were excluded from the"nstudy."nResults: The study population included 43 men and"n33 women with the mean age of 62 years. The mean"nlesion diameter was 22 mm (±7 mm. Thirty-nine"ncases were diagnosed as malignant lesions. Benign"npulmonary conditions were diagnosed in 37 patients."nThe most common malignant lesion was pulmonary"nadenocarcinoma (26%, squamous cell carcinoma"nand bronchoalveolar carcinoma were the next ones."nPulmonary metastasis was seen in three cases and non"nHodgkin lymphoma in three patients. The prevalence"nof adenocarcinoma was not significantly different"nbetween men and women (p value=0.01. The mean age"nof the patients with malignant lesions was 74 years and"n56 years in the others. The difference was significant"n(p=0.05. Tuberculosis was the most common cause of"nbenign lesions (14.4% of all cases, intersitial fibrosis"nand anthracosis were the next most common."nConclusion: Most pulmonary nodules were malignant"nand pulmonary adenocarcinoma was the most"nfrequent. Among benign lesions tuberculosis was the"nmost common."nKeywords: Pulmonary Nodules, Needle Biopsy, CT"nGuide

  2. Large philipsite crystal as ferromanganese nodule nucleus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    and Kastner 1978; Honnorez 1978). Alteration (hydration) of volcanic glass in the sediments and that of the rocks was likely to have been brought about by hydro- thermal fluids (Iyer and Sudhakar 1993b) or seawater un- der low temperature conditions.... In fact, the factors that generate these low-temperature fluids are widespread in the CIOB (Iyer and Sudhakar 1993b). The present crystal of phillipsite at the nodule core may have been originally basaltic volcanic debris, which, on reaction with hydro...

  3. Decision Making in Patients with Pulmonary Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Ost, David E.; Gould, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating current evidence with fundamental concepts from decision analysis suggests that management of patients with pulmonary nodules should begin with estimating the pretest probability of cancer from the patient's clinical risk factors and computed tomography characteristics. Then, the consequences of treatment should be considered, by comparing the benefits of surgery if the patient has lung cancer with the potential harm if the patient does not have cancer. This analysis determines th...

  4. Study on the slaughter performance effect of alfalfa meal to feed rabbits%添加不同比例苜蓿草粉对肉兔屠宰性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆辉; 卢烈祥; 张蓉; 刘志刚; 柳茜; 敖学成

    2012-01-01

    本试验设置添加25%苜蓿草粉为试1组,添加35%苜蓿草粉为试2组,不加苜蓿组为对照组,分别饲喂3个品种育肥肉兔,观察苜蓿草粉的饲喂效果。结果显示:添加苜蓿草粉后各品种肉兔的育肥增重明显提高.胴体屠宰性能也有所提高。%This paper studied the slaughter performance effect of alfalfa meal to feed rabbits, the added proportions of alfalfa meals were 25%,35%,0%. The results showed that the weight gain of rabbit increased obviously after adding alfalfa meal, and the slaughter performances also improved.

  5. Detecting hepatic nodules and identifying feeding arteries of hepatocellular carcinoma:efifcacy of cone-beam computed tomography in transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiro Ushijima; Tsuyoshi Tajima; Akihiro Nishie; Yoshiki Asayama; Kousei Ishigami; Masakazu Hirakawa; Daisuke Kakihara; Daisuke Okamoto; Hiroshi Honda

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) to detect hapatocelular carcinoma (HCC) nodules and their feeding arteries.Methods: Twenty-four patients with HCCs who underwent TACE using CBCT in addition to conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were enroled. After both conventional DSA and CBCT through the hepatic artery were acquired, TACE were performed. The nodules were deifned as an HCC when dense accumulation of iodized oil was found within the nodule on CT obtained 2 weeks after the TACE. The number of detected nodules and identiifed feeding arteries, and their correlations with anatomical locations were assessed.Results: A total of 39 HCC nodules (tumor diameter, 7-40 mm; mean, 17.4 ± 7.9 mm) were detected. Thirty-one nodules were detected by DSA alone but 8 nodules were additionaly detected by adding CBCT to DSA. There were 53 feeding arteries associated with the 39 HCC nodules. Among these arteries, 21 were identiifed by DSA alone; however, 47 were identiifed by combining CBCT with DSA. Additional feeding arteries, especialy for the nodules located at the right and caudate lobes, were identiifed by CBCT. On the other hand, there was no difference in detection of nodules between the anatomical locations by CBCT.Conclusion: The use of CBCT in addition to DSA offers potential for increasing the number of detected nodules, and the number of their feeding arteries at the right and caudate lobes. CBCT might improve the quality of TACE procedure for HCC than DSA alone.

  6. Pemphigus Vulgaris with Solitary Toxic Thyroid Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Alfishawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is reported to be associated with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases. However we report herein a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with autonomous toxic nodule. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old woman was evaluated for blisters and erosions that develop on her trunk, face, and extremities, with a five-year history of progressively enlarging neck mass, and a past medical history of pemphigus vulgaris seven years ago. The condition was associated with palpitation, dyspnea, and heat intolerance. Thyroid function tests and thyroid scan were compatible with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis due to autonomous toxic nodule. Exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris was proved by skin biopsy from the patient which revealed histologic picture of pemphigus vulgaris. Conclusion. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are reported to associate pemphigus vulgaris. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the English literature to report association between pemphigus vulgaris and autonomous toxic nodule and highlights the possibility of occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris with a nonautoimmune thyroid disease raising the question: is it just a coincidence or is there an explanation for the occurrence of both conditions together?

  7. Distribution of N within Pea, Lupin, and Soybean Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, D H; Reynolds, P H; Shearer, G

    1989-06-01

    The (15)N abundance of some, but not all, legume root nodules is significantly elevated compared to that of the whole plant. It seems probable that differences in (15)N enrichment reflect differences in the assimilatory pathway of fixed N. In that context, we have determined the distribution of naturally occurring (15)N in structural fractions of nodules from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), and pea (Pisum sativum) nodules and in chemical components from soybean nodules and to a lesser extent, pea and lupin nodules. None of the fractions of pea nodules (cortex, bacteriod, or host plant cytoplasm) was enriched in (15)N. The differences among bacteriods, cortex, and plant cytoplasm were smaller in lupin than in soybean nodules, but in both, bacteriods had the highest (15)N enrichment. In soybean nodules, the (15)N abundance of bacteriods and cortex was higher than plant cytoplasm, but all three fractions were more enriched in (15)N than the entire plant. Plant cytoplasm from soybean nodules was fractionated into protein-rich material, nonprotein alcohol precipitable material (NA), and a low molecular weight fraction. The N of the latter was further separated into N of ureides, nucleotides and free amino acids. Most of these components were either similar to or lower in (15)N abundance than the plant cytoplasm as a whole, but the NA fraction showed unusual (15)N enrichment. However, the percentage of nodule N in this fraction was small. NA fractions from yellow lupin and pea nodules and from soybean leaves were not enriched in (15)N. Nor was the NA fraction in ruptured bacteriods and cortical tissue of soybean nodules. Variation among soybean nodule fractions in the preponderance in protein of different amino acids was not large enough to explain the differences in (15)N abundances among them. A hypothesis, consistent with all known data, concerning the mechanism leading to the observed excess (15)N of lupin and soybean bacteriods is

  8. The Removal and Remediation of Phenanthrene and Pyrene in Soil by Mixed Cropping of Alfalfa and Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Sheng-wang; WEI Shi-qiang; YUAN Xin; CAO Sheng-xian

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms and efficiencies of the removal and remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils by different planting patterns with rape (Brassica campeslris) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were studied by pot experiments in a greenhouse. Results showed that the remediation efficiencies under mixed cropping of alfalfa and rape significantly exceeded those under single cropping when the initial concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene were at 20.05-322.06 mg kg-1 and 20.24-321.42 mg kg-1, respectively. After 70 days plantation of crops, the contents of extractable PAHs in soils under mixed cropping were much lower than those under single cropping. About 65.17-83.52% of phenanthrene and 60.09%-75.34% of pyrene was removed from the soils under mixed cropping, respectively, which were averagely 43.26 and 40.38% for phenanthrene, and 11.03 and 16.29% for pyren higher than those under single cropping. Alfalfa or rape did absorb and accumulate PAHs from the soils apparently; the PAHs concentrations in plants monotonically increased with the increase of initial PAHs concentrations in soil; the accumulations of PAHs in plants showed following sequence as roots> above parts, phenanthrene> pyrene and single cropping> mixed cropping at same contamination level. Despite the presence of vegetation significantly enhanced the remediation of PAHs in soils, contributions of abiotic loss, plant uptake, accumulation and microbial degradation was much lower than those of plant-microbial interactions in the process of phytoremediation. Thus plant-microbial interactions are the main mechanisms for the remediation enhancement of soil PAHs pollution under mixed cropping models. Results suggested a feasibility of the establishment of multi-species phytoremediation for the improvement of remediation efficiencies of PAHs, which may decrease accumulations of PAHs in crops and thus reduce their risks.

  9. Short communication: The effects of dry matter and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Kung, L

    2016-07-01

    During the ensiling of feeds, various processes result in chemical changes that can affect their ultimate nutritive value at feed out. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged ensiling times on potential changes in in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF-D) of alfalfa ensiled at about 33% [low dry matter (DM), LDM] or 45% (high DM, HDM) whole-plant DM. Alfalfa from the same field (direct chopped or wilted) was chopped with a conventional forage harvester set for a theoretical length of cut of 0.95 cm and ensiled in mini silos for 45, 180, 270, and 360 d. Fresh forages and silages were analyzed for nutrient content, fermentation end-products, and 30-h NDF-D. The pH of the fresh forages ranged from 6.1 to 6.2 and decreased to approximately 4.7 and 4.3 in HDM and LDM silages, respectively. Production of acids and alcohols were less in HDM compared with LDM as expected. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N also increased with time of storage as expected but soluble protein was greater, whereas NH3-N was lower in HDM compared with LDM silage. The effect of length of storage and DM on hemicellulose and NDF concentrations were very small, whereas DM content at harvest tended to slightly increase the concentration of acid detergent fiber in HDM compared with LDM up to 270 d of storage. The NDF-D was greater in fresh forage compared with corresponding silages. However, time of storage between 45 and 360 d had no effect on the NDF-D of alfalfa silage, regardless of DM concentration at ensiling.

  10. Short communication: The effects of dry matter and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Kung, L

    2016-07-01

    During the ensiling of feeds, various processes result in chemical changes that can affect their ultimate nutritive value at feed out. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged ensiling times on potential changes in in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF-D) of alfalfa ensiled at about 33% [low dry matter (DM), LDM] or 45% (high DM, HDM) whole-plant DM. Alfalfa from the same field (direct chopped or wilted) was chopped with a conventional forage harvester set for a theoretical length of cut of 0.95 cm and ensiled in mini silos for 45, 180, 270, and 360 d. Fresh forages and silages were analyzed for nutrient content, fermentation end-products, and 30-h NDF-D. The pH of the fresh forages ranged from 6.1 to 6.2 and decreased to approximately 4.7 and 4.3 in HDM and LDM silages, respectively. Production of acids and alcohols were less in HDM compared with LDM as expected. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N also increased with time of storage as expected but soluble protein was greater, whereas NH3-N was lower in HDM compared with LDM silage. The effect of length of storage and DM on hemicellulose and NDF concentrations were very small, whereas DM content at harvest tended to slightly increase the concentration of acid detergent fiber in HDM compared with LDM up to 270 d of storage. The NDF-D was greater in fresh forage compared with corresponding silages. However, time of storage between 45 and 360 d had no effect on the NDF-D of alfalfa silage, regardless of DM concentration at ensiling. PMID:27179862

  11. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Presenting as an Enlarging Solitary Pulmonary Nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krunal Bharat; Gleason, James Benjamin; Diacovo, Maria Julia; Martinez-Galvez, Nydia

    2016-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia is a life threatening infection that usually presents with diffuse bilateral ground-glass infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a single nodular granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia in a male with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after R-CHOP therapy. He presented with symptoms of productive cough, dyspnea, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain that failed to resolve despite treatment with multiple antibiotics. Chest X-ray revealed right lower lobe atelectasis and CT of chest showed development of 2 cm nodular opacity with ground-glass opacities. Patient underwent bronchoscopy and biopsy that revealed granulomatous inflammation in a background of organizing pneumonia pattern with negative cultures. Respiratory symptoms resolved but the solitary nodular opacity increased in size prompting a surgical wedge resection which revealed granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia infection. This case is the third documented report of Pneumocystis pneumonia infection within a solitary pulmonary nodule in an individual with hematologic neoplasm. Although Pneumocystis pneumonia most commonly occurs in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and with diffuse infiltrates, the diagnosis should not be overlooked when only a solitary nodule is present. PMID:27648318

  12. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Presenting as an Enlarging Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunal Bharat Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis pneumonia is a life threatening infection that usually presents with diffuse bilateral ground-glass infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a single nodular granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia in a male with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after R-CHOP therapy. He presented with symptoms of productive cough, dyspnea, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain that failed to resolve despite treatment with multiple antibiotics. Chest X-ray revealed right lower lobe atelectasis and CT of chest showed development of 2 cm nodular opacity with ground-glass opacities. Patient underwent bronchoscopy and biopsy that revealed granulomatous inflammation in a background of organizing pneumonia pattern with negative cultures. Respiratory symptoms resolved but the solitary nodular opacity increased in size prompting a surgical wedge resection which revealed granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia infection. This case is the third documented report of Pneumocystis pneumonia infection within a solitary pulmonary nodule in an individual with hematologic neoplasm. Although Pneumocystis pneumonia most commonly occurs in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and with diffuse infiltrates, the diagnosis should not be overlooked when only a solitary nodule is present.

  13. Fungicide tests on adult alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, C I; James, R R; Bosch, J; Kemp, W P

    2008-08-01

    Chalkbrood is a serious disease of alfalfa leafcutting bee Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) larvae, causing upward of 20% infection in the field. The causative agent is the fungus Ascosphaera aggregata. This bee is used extensively for alfalfa seed pollination in the United States. Using laboratory bioassays, we previously demonstrated that fungicides can reduce chalkbrood levels in the larvae. Here, we evaluate the toxicity of four fungicides, Benlate, Captan, Orbit, and Rovral, to adult bees by using three different bioassays. In the first test, fungicides were applied to bees' thoraces. In the second test, mimicking foliage residue, a piece of filter paper soaked in fungicide was placed on the bottom of a container of bees. The third test evaluated oral toxicity by incorporating fungicides into a sugar-water solution that was fed to the bees. The filter paper test did not discriminate among the fungicides well, and the oral test resulted in the greatest mortality. Toxicity to males was greater than to females. The use of fungicides for chalkbrood control is a logical choice, but caution should be used in how they are applied in the presence of bees. PMID:18767714

  14. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  15. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  16. The HI mass function in ALFALFA 70% and the role of confusion in future HI surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The HI mass function represents a fundamental component of our understanding of the the gas content of galaxies. How its form varies throughout the local Universe and as a function of redshift, is key to developing a complete picture of galaxy evolution.We use the ALFALFA 70% catalog, the largest uniform catalog of extragalactic HI sources to date, to explore the environmental dependence of the HI mass function based on the projected neighbour densities in both SDSS and 2MRS. The Schechter function 'knee' mass is found to increase by approximately 0.2 dex from the lowest to highest density quartiles. However, this dependence is seen only when environment is defined by SDSS neighbours, and not with 2MRS. We interpret this as an indication of local, rather than large scale, environmental depedence. In addition, we find no evidence for any change in the faint-end slope; which is a source of tension with HI surveys of galaxy groups, and DM halo simulations.As HI surveys push deeper in an attempt to assess the HI content of the Universe towards a redshift of order unity, only the integral of the HI mass function will be measurable through stacking. We present an anaytic, and thus computationally cheap, method to estimate the contribution of HI confusion noise to these stacks and explore the design implications for upcoming SKA-precusor surveys.The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF grants AST-0607007 and AST-1107390 to RG and MPH and by grants from the Brinson Foundation.

  17. Effects of lactic acid bacteria with bacteriocinogenic potential on the fermentation profile and chemical composition of alfalfa silage in tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, V P; Pereira, O G; Leandro, E S; Da Silva, T C; Ribeiro, K G; Mantovani, H C; Santos, S A

    2016-03-01

    The fermentation profile, chemical composition, and microbial populations of alfalfa silages treated with microbial inoculants (MI) at different fermentation periods (T) were evaluated in tropical conditions. A 4×6 factorial arrangement was used in a randomized design with 3 replicates. Fresh alfalfa was treated with (1) no treatment (CTRL), (2) commercial inoculant (CIN), (3) Pediococcus acidilactici (strain 10.6, S1), and (4) Pediococcus pentosaceus (strain 6.16, S2). An inoculant application rate of 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage was used. The fermentation periods were 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d. Alfalfa was harvested 82 d after sowing at the early flowering stage, chopped into 1.5-cm particle size, and ensiled in 25 × 35 cm vacuum-sealed plastic bags. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, mold, and yeast in alfalfa before ensiling were 5.42, 5.58, 4.82, and 4.8 log cfu/g, respectively. Silage chemical composition was evaluated only at 56 d. All parameters were affected by the interaction MI × T, except the concentrations of lactic and propionic acids. Alfalfa silage treated with S1 or S2 had lower pH values than CTRL from the first day until 28 d. However, the inoculants resulted in similar pH after 56 d, and these values were lower than the CTRL. The highest concentration of lactic acid was observed in the silage treated with S1 and S2 at 7 and 14 d of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid was lower in the silages treated with S1 and S2 than the CTRL and CIN at 3 and 28 d of fermentation. There was no effect of MI or MI × T interaction on the microbial populations. However, the number of enterobacteria decreased over the fermentation period until 14 d and increased slightly after this time point. The chemical composition of alfalfa silage was not affected by MI at 56 d of ensiling. The strain P. pentosaceus 6.16 was the most efficient in dominating the fermentation process by decreasing the pH more quickly and increasing the concentration

  18. Overexpression of Medicago sativa TMT elevates the α-tocopherol content in Arabidopsis seeds, alfalfa leaves, and delays dark-induced leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Jia, Huili; Feng, Guangyan; Wang, Zan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-08-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume for livestock and a target for improving their dietary quality. Vitamin E is an essential vitamin that animals must obtain from their diet for proper growth and development. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), which catalyzes the conversion of δ- and γ-tocopherols (or tocotrienols) to β- and α-tocopherols (or tocotrienols), respectively, is the final enzyme involved in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway. The overexpression of M. sativa L.'s γ-TMT (MsTMT) increased the α-tocopherol content 10-15 fold above that of wild type Arabidopsis seeds without altering the total content of vitamin E. Additionally, in response to osmotic stress, the biomass and the expression levels of several osmotic marker genes were significantly higher in the transgenic lines compared with wild type. Overexpression of MsTMT in alfalfa led to a modest, albeit significant, increase in α-tocopherol in leaves and was also responsible for a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Additionally, the crude protein content was increased, while the acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were unchanged in these transgenic lines. Thus, increased α-tocopherol content occurred in transgenic alfalfa without compromising the nutritional qualities. The targeted metabolic engineering of vitamin E biosynthesis through MsTMT overexpression provides a promising approach to improve the α-tocopherol content of forage crops. PMID:27297993

  19. N2-Fixation in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seedlings and Rhizobium meliloti L. Grown in Vitro Under Salt and Drought Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Ramzi Muhiddin

    1987-01-01

    Alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., cultivars, breeding lines and germplasm releases (populations) and Rhizobium meliloti L. strains that exhibit nitrogen fixation efficiency and tolerance to salinity and drought stresses should enhance seedling establishment, increase yields, reduce nitrogen dependency on petroleum-based nitrogen fertilizers, and allow wider use of irrigated lands in semiarid and a rid regions. In vitro experiments were conducted to determine relative salt (sodium chloride -- NaCl)...

  20. CEUS: An essential component in a multimodality approach to small nodules in patients at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyun-Jung, E-mail: Hyun-Jung.jang@uhn.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Kim, Tae Kyoung, E-mail: Taekyoung.Kim@uhn.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Burns, Peter N, E-mail: burns@sri.utoronto.ca [Department of Imaging Research, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto ON M4 N 3M5 (Canada); Wilson, Stephanie R, E-mail: Stephanie.wilson@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Foothills Medical Centre, 1403 29 Street NW, Calgary, AB T2R 1M5 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • CEUS resolves hypervascular pseudolesions, frequent on CT and MR, from vascular shunts. • US has the advantage of showing a baseline nodule for characterization. • CEUS shows excellent sensitivity to contrast agents, providing superior arterial phase sensitivity. • Real-time CEUS performance shows optimally perfusion patterns of benign tumor nodules. • CEUS performed at surveillance detection of nodules is efficient and effective. - Abstract: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) plays an essential role in the evaluation of small nodules in livers at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and offers unique advantages over CT/MRI. These include the sensitive depiction of arterial hypervascularity of HCC, better demonstration of rapid washout for non-HCC malignancy as well as of very late washout of HCC. Visualization of early vascular filling patterns for benign hypervascular lesions is of indisputable value. A frequently uncounted benefit of CEUS includes the value of its performance following nodule detection at ultrasound surveillance, including one-stop exclusion of typical benignancy, preclusion of arterial pseudolesions shown on CT/MR, and the avoidance of miscorrelation of a nodule on surveillance and subsequent diagnostic imaging. Therefore, CEUS can effectively be used in the diagnostic algorithm for new liver nodules detected during HCC surveillance. Despite the fact that CEUS is actively used as a major diagnostic test for HCC in Asia, Europe, and Canada with increasing demands in clinical practice, CEUS is not included in the diagnostic tests for HCC in some major practice guidelines. In this manuscript, we focus on small nodules in patients at high-risk for HCC, and review some of the unique advantages of CEUS that contribute to lesion characterization and subsequent patient management, showing why CEUS should be an essential component of the diagnostic algorithm for HCC.

  1. Diversity pattern of nitrogen fixing microbes in nodules of Trifolium arvense (L. at different initial stages of ecosystem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schloter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes can be considered as pioneer plants during ecosystem development, as they form a symbiosis with different nitrogen fixing rhizobia species, which enable the plants to grow on soils with low available nitrogen content. In this study we compared the abundance and diversity of nitrogen fixing microbes based on the functional marker gene nifH, which codes for a subunit of the Fe-protein of the dinitrogenase reductase, in nodules of different size classes of Trifolium arvense (L.. Additionally, carbon and nitrogen contents of the bulk soil and plant material were measured. Plants were harvested from different sites, reflecting 2 (2a and 5 (5a yr of ecosystem development, of an opencast lignite mining area in the south of Cottbus, Lower Lusatia (Germany where the artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" was constructed to study the development of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants from the 5a site revealed higher amounts of carbon and nitrogen, although nifH gene abundances in the nodules and carbon and nitrogen contents between the two soils did not differ significantly. Analysis of the nifH clone libraries showed a significant effect of the nodule size on the community composition of nitrogen fixing microbes. Medium sized nodules (2–5 mm contained a uniform community composed of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, whereas the small nodules (Rhizobium nifH gene sequences. Regarding the impact of the soil age on the community composition a clear distinction between the small and the medium nodules can be made. While clone libraries from the medium nodules were pretty similar at both soil ages, soil age had a significant effect on the community compositions of the small nodules, where the proportion of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii increased with soil age.

  2. Diversity pattern of nitrogen fixing microbes in nodules of Trifolium arvense (L. at different initial stages of ecosystem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schloter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Legumes can be considered as pioneer plants during ecosystem development, as they form a symbiosis with different nitrogen fixing rhizobia species, which enable the plants to grow on soils with low available nitrogen content. In this study we compared the abundance and diversity of nitrogen fixing microbes based on the functional marker gene nifH, which codes for a subunit of the Fe-protein of the dinitrogenase reductase, in nodules of different size classes of Trifolium arvense (L.. Additionally, carbon and nitrogen contents of the bulk soil and plant material were measured. Plants were harvested from different sites, reflecting 2 (2a and 5 (5a yr of ecosystem development, of an opencast lignite mining area in the south of Cottbus, Lower Lusatia (Germany where the artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" was constructed to study the development of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants from the 5a site revealed higher amounts of carbon and nitrogen, although nifH gene abundances in the nodules and carbon and nitrogen contents between the two soils did not differ significantly. Analysis of the nifH clone libraries showed a significant effect of the nodule size on the community composition of nitrogen fixing microbes. Medium sized nodules (2–5 mm contained a uniform community composed of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, whereas the small nodules (Rhizobium nifH gene sequences. Regarding the impact of the soil age on the community composition a clear distinction between the small and the medium nodules can be made. While clone libraries from the medium nodules were pretty similar at both soil ages, soil age had a significant effect on the community compositions of the small nodules, where the proportion of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii increased with soil age.

  3. Origin of Phosphorite Nodules of Lebedinsky Iron Deposit in Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA) of the Russian Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tourba Kamaye; Phillip Romanovitch

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorite has become increasingly important as the raw material for phosphatic fertilizer. Phosphorite nodules are widespread in the Kursk complex deposit (Russian platform). Genesis of these nodules has long been a matter of debate, and this has hampered understanding of the mechanism and controls in the formation of the nodules. In this paper, we report the petrographical, mineralogical, and geochemical data of the Lebedinsky phosphorite nodules. Petrographic study reveals complex phosphatic cement resulting in the replacement of apatite minerals around quartz grains. The main mineral composition consists of quartz, phosphate minerals (apatite, francolite mainly), feldspar, iron hydroxides and carbonate minerals. These results, when combined with available data, are used to address the origin of the phosphorite nodules. The nodules are characterized by the universal presence of biogenic and chemical signatures which is phosphorus crown around crystal grains. The structure of the nodules is massive. Their texture is depicted by basaltic cement and concretion, which consists mainly of apatite and its varieties, with general formula: Ca10 (PO4, CO3) 6(F,OH,Cl). Variation of mineralogy appears dependent on geological setting. Microscopic observations of biogenic fossils in Lebedinsky phosphorite favor a chemical and biogenic origin of phosphorites. Weathering has been suggested to be capable of liberating as much as 20 %-35 % P2O5 from sedimentary rocks. Previous investigations demonstrate that weathering of the Proterozoic substratum was the main cause in the formation of Fe, Mo, Mn, Pb, Zn, and P in the Russian platform. We therefore suggest that both weathering and biochemical processes have been positive in the formation of the Lebedinsky phosporite nodules. However, whether continental weathering or oceanic bio-chemical processes are more relevant in the phosphorite accumulation remains undetermined.

  4. Ethylene, a hormone at the centre-stage of nodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Frederique Catherine Guinel

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenou...

  5. Ethylene, a Hormone at the Center-Stage of Nodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Guinel, Frédérique C.

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenous c...

  6. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Valcavi, Roberto [Endocrinology Division and Thyroid Disease Center, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Pacella, Claudio M. [Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology Department, Ospedale Regina Apostolorum, Albano Laziale-Rome (IT); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Kyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation.

  7. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Yoon Suk; Kwak, Min Sook; Chang, Sun Hee [Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 {+-} SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 {+-} SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland.

  8. Successful nodulation of Casuarina by Frankia in axenic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Echbab, H.; Arahou, M.; Ducousso, M.; Nourissier Mountou, S.; Duponnois, Robin; Lahlou, H.; Prin, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: In order to depict the fine interactions that lead to nodulation, absolute microbiological control of the symbiotic partners is required, i.e. the ability to obtain in vitro axenic nodulation, a condition that has never been fulfilled with the Casuarina-Frankia symbiosis. The effects of culture conditions on plant growth and nodule formation by Casuarina cunninghamiana were investigated. Methods and Results: Axenic (capped tubes with different substrates), and nonaxenic cultures (Gibson...

  9. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Valcavi, Roberto; Pacella, Claudio M.; Rhim, Hyunchul; Na, Dong Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation.

  10. Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: Basic Principles and Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Hoon Shin; Jung Hwan Baek; Eun Ju Ha; Jeong Hyun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been gaining popularity as a minimally invasive treatment for benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. RF ablation of benign nodules demonstrated volume reductions of 33–58% after one month and 51–85% after six months, while solving nodule-related clinical problems. RF ablation has recently shown positive short-term results for locoregional control as well as symptom improvement in patients with recurrent thyroid cancers. This pa...

  11. Cryptococcus gattii: An Emerging Cause of Pulmonary Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Gary J Dewar; James K Kelly

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the fall of 1999, a new endemic focus of Cryptococcus gattii serotype B infection has emerged on Vancouver Island (Victoria, British Columbia), with infections occurring in both animals and humans. In the human cases, symptoms have manifested as pulmonary nodules, meningitis or both. This organism has added a new nonmalignant cause of pulmonary nodules to the literature, resulting in a change in the management of these nodules by health care professionals.METHODS: A search o...

  12. Multiple cavitating nodules in a renal transplant recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Sharla-Rae J; Mohit Bhutani

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary nodules are common following solid organ transplantation and vary in etiology. Nodules with central cavitation are most likely to be of infectious origin in the post-transplant population. A novel presentation of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder manifesting as multiple cavitating pulmonary nodules is described. The patient, a 45-year-old female renal transplant recipient, presented with constitutional symptoms and a chest x-ray showing multiple bilateral cavitating lesio...

  13. Work-up of the solitary pulmonary nodule

    OpenAIRE

    Quint, Leslie Eisenbud

    2015-01-01

    Although the solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is a common presentation of lung cancer, most SPNs are benign. The challenge in evaluating SPNs is to avoid invasive procedures in patients who have benign nodules, without allowing potentially curable bronchogenic carcinomas the time to progress to more advanced or even unresectable disease. Various approaches include assessment of nodule morphology, interval growth and contrast enhancement, as well as techniques such as percutaneous biopsy, posit...

  14. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  15. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

  16. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Cabeza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules, was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants.

  17. Value of TIRADS, BSRTC and FNA-BRAFV600E mutation analysis in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-zhi; Xu, Ting; Cui, Dai; Li, Xiao; Yao, Qing; Gong, Hai-yan; Liu, Xiao-yun; Chen, Huan-huan; Jiang, Lin; Ye, Xin-hua; Zhang, Zhi-hong; Shen, Mei-ping; Duan, Yu; Yang, Tao; Wu, Xiao-hong

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) and Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology (BSRTC) have been used for interpretation of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results of thyroid nodules. BRAFV600E mutation analysis is a molecular tool in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic value of these methods in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. Total 220 patients with high-risk thyroid nodules were recruited in this prospective study. They all underwent ultrasound, FNAC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of TIRADS were 73.1% and 88.4%. BSRTC had higher specificity (97.7%) and similar sensitivity (77.6%) compared with TIRADS. The sensitivity and specificity of BRAFV600E mutation (85.1%, 100%) were the highest. The combination of BSRTC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis significantly increased the efficiency, with 97.8% sensitivity, 97.7% specificity. In patients with BSRTC I-III, the mutation rate of BRAFV600E was 64.5% in nodules with TIRADS 4B compared with 8.4% in nodules with TIRADS 3 or 4A (P < 0.001). Our study indicated that combination of BSRTC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis bears a great value in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. The TIRADS is useful in selecting high-risk patients for FNAB and patients with BSRTC I-III for BRAFV600E mutation analysis. PMID:26597052

  18. The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in the Development of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Karadayı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the role of IGF-1 in the development of nodular thyroid disease. Material and Methods: A total number of 100 consecutive patients operated for nodular thyroid disease in our institution were included in this prospective study. In addition to classical pathological examinations, nodules and extranodular healthy tissues were sampled and immunochemically stained for IGF-1. The materials were independently evaluated using an Allred Scoring System ranging from 0 to 8. If the score was ≥1, the tissue was accepted as IGF-1 positive.Results: IGF-1 positivity was observed in 88% and 58% of the samples obtained from nodules and extranodular healthy tissues, respectively. Allred 8-unit scores were higher in benign nodules (n=89; 4.1±2.3 and papillary carcinomas (n=7; 6.7±1.3, than in extranodular healthy tissues in the same patients (2.3±2.3 and 3.3±1.9, respectively; and higher in papillary carcinomas than in benign nodules, when the scores were compared to each other (p<0.01 for all comparisons. Conclusions: Allred 8-unit scores for IGF-1 increase in the presence of benign thyroid nodules, papillary cancer. The results of our study support the findings of previous studies demonstrating the role of IGF-1 in the development of thyroidal nodules.

  19. Segmentation of ultrasound images of thyroid nodule for assisting fine needle aspiration cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Li; Tian, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid nodule is very high and generally increases with the age. Thyroid nodule may presage the emergence of thyroid cancer. Most thyroid nodules are asymptomatic which makes thyroid cancer different from other cancers. The thyroid nodule can be completely cured if detected early. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly classify the thyroid nodule to be benign or malignant. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a recognized early diagnosis method of thyroid nodule. There are still some limitations in the fine needle aspiration cytology, such as the difficulty in location and the insufficient cytology specimen. The accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis of thyroid nodule improves constantly, and it has become the first choice for auxiliary examination of thyroid nodular disease. If we could combine medical imaging technology and fine needle aspiration cytology, the diagnostic rate of thyroid nodule would be improved significantly. The properties of ultrasound, such as echo, shadow, and reflection, will degrade the image quality, which makes it difficult to recognize the edges for physicians. Image segmentation technique based on graph theory has become a research hotspot at present. Normalized cut (Ncut) is a representative one, whose biggest advantage is not prone to small region segmentation but suitable for segmentation of feature parts of medical image. However, how to solve the normalized cut has become a problem, which needs large memory capacity and heavy calculation of weight matrix. It always generates over segmentation or less segmentation which leads to inaccurate in the segmentation. The speckle noise produced in the formation process of B ultrasound image of thyroid tumor makes the quality of the image deteriorate. In the light of this characteristic, we combine the anisotropic diffusion model with the normalized cut in this paper. After the enhancement of anisotropic diffusion model, it removes the noise in the B ultrasound image while

  20. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Ussatjuk, Anna;

    2014-01-01

    formation mutant (snf1) was determined. From nodules and roots, 780 and 790 protein spots from 2D gels were identified and approximately 45% of the corresponding unique gene accessions were common. Including a previous proteomics set from Lotus pod and seed, the common gene accessions were decreased to 7......Legume symbiosis with rhizobia results in the formation of a specialized organ, the root nodule, where atmospheric dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia. In Lotus japonicus (Lotus), several genes involved in nodule development or nodule function have been defined using biochemistry, genetic approaches...

  1. Rheumatoid nodule presenting as Morton’s neuroma

    OpenAIRE

    Chaganti, S.; Joshy, S.; Hariharan, K; M Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Among 101 feet that presented with symptoms and signs similar to Morton’s neuroma, intermetatarsal rheumatoid nodules were found in five feet (three patients). Two patients had bilateral involvement. Histology of the excised tissue showed the presence of a rheumatoid nodule and Morton’s neuroma in four feet and a rheumatoid nodule with unremarkable nerve bundles in one. A rheumatoid nodule can coexist with Morton’s neuroma, as seen in our patients, and the presentation is often similar to tha...

  2. Initial application of digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the value of digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules. Methods: Thirty patients suspected of having pulmonary nodules underwent chest radiography, digital tomosynthesis and CT examination. Above image data were transferred to postprocessing work station and were reviewed by 2 radiologists with 3 years of chest-radiology diagnosis experience in a double-blind method. The number, location and size of nodules were recorded. Then, 2 radiologists reviewed the all images once more, and discuss in consensus. The sensitivities of chest radiography and digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules were respectively calculated according to the CT results. Chi-square test was used for radiography, digital tomosynthesis and CT examination. Results: Of 30 patients, 21 were detected having pulmonary nodules by X-ray radiography and 9 were negative, the total number of 40 nodules was detected, while 89 nodules in 26 patients were detected by digital tomosynthesis, and only 4 patients were negative. CT demonstrated 102 nodules in 27 patients, and 3 patients were negative. Taking CT as 'gold standard', the sensitivities of X-ray radiography and digital tomosynthesis were 27.4%(28/102)and 87.2%(89/102), X2=4.35, P<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: Digital tomosynthesis has a high sensitivity for detection of pulmonary nodules compared with X-ray radiography, and could be an excellent and necessary supplementary technique of X-ray radiography. (authors)

  3. Effects of fertilizer and Rhizobium inoculation on alfalfa growth on mine tailings and the physicochemical properties of iron tailings%施肥和苜蓿接种根瘤菌对苜蓿生长及铁尾矿砂基质理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨何宝; 李继泉; 王俊娟; 李玉灵

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of fertilizer application (iron tailings and organic fertilizer)and Rhizobium inoculation with different strains on the growth of alfalfa planted in iron mine tailings and the physicochemical properties of the soil-plant system in outdoor pots.Rhizobium inoculation significantly increased height growth,root growth,above ground fresh weight,root fresh weight,total biomass and fresh nodule weight.The most effective Rhizobium was strain No.17676.Inoculated alfalfa also influenced the phys-icochemical properties of iron mine tailings,but the effect was not significant in the first year of the study.Fer-tilizer application markedly promoted alfalfa growth.Increasing fertilizer rates increased plant height,above ground fresh weight and total biomass.The N2 fertilizer treatment produced the greatest increase in root noduleweight.Fertilizer application significantly reduced soil bulk density and pH but increased organic matter,avail-able nitrogen,available phosphorus,and available potassium in the mine tailings soil.These effects were sig-nificantly higher for the N3 treatment compared to lower fertilizer rates.%本研究采用室外盆栽的方式,探讨了施肥水平和苜蓿接种不同根瘤菌菌株对紫花苜蓿生长及铁尾矿砂基质理化性质的影响。结果表明,接种根瘤菌可显著促进紫花苜蓿株高、根长、地上鲜重、根鲜重、总生物量和瘤鲜重的增加,其中以接种菌株17676的效果最佳。而接种根瘤菌的苜蓿在种植当年对铁尾矿砂基质理化性质的改善有一定的促进作用,但效果不显著。施肥明显促进了苜蓿生长,随着施肥水平的提高,苜蓿株高、根长、地上鲜重、根鲜重和总生物量逐渐增大,在 N3施肥水平时最高,并且 N3施肥水平条件下的株高、地上部鲜重和总生物量与 N2和N1两个施肥水平间差异显著。在促进根瘤重的增加方面,N2施

  4. [Diagnostic work-up of pulmonary nodules : Management of pulmonary nodules detected with low‑dose CT screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormanns, D

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary nodules are the most frequent pathological finding in low-dose computed tomography (CT) scanning for early detection of lung cancer. Early stages of lung cancer are often manifested as pulmonary nodules; however, the very commonly occurring small nodules are predominantly benign. These benign nodules are responsible for the high percentage of false positive test results in screening studies. Appropriate diagnostic algorithms are necessary to reduce false positive screening results and to improve the specificity of lung cancer screening. Such algorithms are based on some of the basic principles comprehensively described in this article. Firstly, the diameter of nodules allows a differentiation between large (>8 mm) probably malignant and small (management of pulmonary nodules, which reflects the current state of knowledge. The main features of some international and American recommendations are briefly presented in this article from which conclusions for the daily clinical use are derived. PMID:27495787

  5. DROUGHT-INDUCED EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF NITRATE ASSIMILATION AND NODULE ACTIVITY IN COWPEA PLANTS INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. UNDER MODERATE NITRATE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to establish comparative effects of drought and recovery on the nitrate assimilation and nodule activity related to N2 fixation in cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] previously inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. BR-3256 (CB-756 strain in the presence of 5 mol m-3 NO-3. Twenty-eight-day-old nodulated plants were submitted to water deprivation during 4 consecutive days and afterwards resupplied with nutrient solution during 2 days. The water deprivation caused a rapid increase in the nitrate content in root and a marked reduction in leaf nitrate reductase (NR activity. In contrast nodule NR activity was slightly increased by water deprivation. Concomitantly, in nodules of water stressed plants, leghemoglobin and glutamine synthetase (GS activity declined and a progressive reduction in ureide-N concentration in xylem sap was observed. Leaf-NR activity increased rapidly after rehydration while leaf nitrate content declined. In contrast both GS activity and soluble protein content in the nodule continued to decline in rewatered plants. In addition the concentration of leghemoglobin recovered well, while the xylem ureide-N content experienced a slight increase after rehydration. Despite the nitrate assimilation in leaves and the nodule activity had been both severely affected by water stress, the rapid recovery of nitrate reductase activity suggests that the nitrate assimilation process is less sensitive to drought/rehydration cycle when cowpea plants are nodulated in presence of moderate nitrate level.

  6. Pectins esterification in the apoplast of aluminum-treated pea root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena; Borucki, Wojciech

    2015-07-20

    Aiming to elucidate the possible involvement of pectins in aluminum-mediated growth inhibition the distribution of pectins in the apoplast of root nodules was investigated. Experiments were performed on the pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules treated with aluminum (50 μM AlCl3, for 2 or 24h). For histochemical acidic pectin localization we used ruthenium red staining. Immunolabeling techniques with monoclonal antibodies specific to high methyl-esterified pectin (JIM7), low methyl-esterified pectin (JIM5) and calcium cross-linked pectin (2F4) were used to re-examine the pattern of pectin esterification and distribution. After immunolabeling the samples were observed using a fluorescent and transmission electron microscope. Ruthenium red staining showed that acid pectin content increased in the apoplast of Al-treated nodules and immunolocalization of pectin epitopes revealed that the fraction of de-esterified pectins increased significantly under Al stress. JIM5 and 2F4 epitopes were located on the inner surface of the primary cell wall with higher intensity at cell corners lining the intercellular spaces and at infection threads (ITs) walls. By contrast, JIM 7 labels all walls uniformly throughout the nodule. In the presence of Al, the increase of JIM5 and 2F4 labeling in thick plant and IT walls, together with a decrease of JIM7 labeling was observed. These results indicate a specific role for pectin de-esterification in the process of wall thickening and growth inhibition. In particular, Al-dependent increase in pectin content and their low methyl esterification degree correlate with wall thickness and higher rigidity, and in this way, may affect IT and nodules growth.

  7. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using 15N2 and allopurinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed [15N]xanthine from 15N2 at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible 15N -labeling of asparagine from 15N2 was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery

  8. Recent developments in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for pulmonary nodule management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Simon C Y; Ng, Calvin S H

    2016-07-01

    In the modern era when screening and early surveillance of pulmonary nodules is increasing in importance, the management of the pulmonary nodule represents a different challenge to thoracic surgeons. The difficulty lies in the merging of sound surgical and oncological principles with more minimally invasive and appropriate lung sparing surgery. Furthermore, the intra-operative identification and surgical management of small and sometimes multi-focal pulmonary lesions remain challenging. There have been many developments and innovations in the field of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) to cater for the demands from increasing incidence of pulmonary nodules with associated paradigm shift in their surgical management. Recently, uniportal VATS and non-intubated VATS represent an even less invasive alternative to the conventional multiport VATS. The emergence of image guided VATS, hybrid operating theatre and fluorescence thoracoscopy have all contributed to improved precision of VATS lung resection, and are becoming important adjuncts to lung sparing surgery. In this chapter, some of these recent developments in VATS with emphasize on their importance in surgical management of the pulmonary nodule will be discussed. PMID:27606081

  9. Recent developments in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for pulmonary nodule management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Simon C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    In the modern era when screening and early surveillance of pulmonary nodules is increasing in importance, the management of the pulmonary nodule represents a different challenge to thoracic surgeons. The difficulty lies in the merging of sound surgical and oncological principles with more minimally invasive and appropriate lung sparing surgery. Furthermore, the intra-operative identification and surgical management of small and sometimes multi-focal pulmonary lesions remain challenging. There have been many developments and innovations in the field of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) to cater for the demands from increasing incidence of pulmonary nodules with associated paradigm shift in their surgical management. Recently, uniportal VATS and non-intubated VATS represent an even less invasive alternative to the conventional multiport VATS. The emergence of image guided VATS, hybrid operating theatre and fluorescence thoracoscopy have all contributed to improved precision of VATS lung resection, and are becoming important adjuncts to lung sparing surgery. In this chapter, some of these recent developments in VATS with emphasize on their importance in surgical management of the pulmonary nodule will be discussed. PMID:27606081

  10. Rhizobia Isolated from Coal Mining Areas in the Nodulation and Growth of Leguminous Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginaini Grazielli Doin de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An alternative for recovery of areas degraded by coal mining is revegetation with rapidly growing leguminous trees, which often do not establish in low fertility soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of native rhizobia isolated from coal mining areas in the nodulation and growth of leguminous trees. We isolated 19 strains of rhizobia from a degraded soil near Criciúma, SC, Brazil, and evaluated the nodulation and growth-promoting capacity of the inoculated isolates for bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella, maricá (M. bimucronata and angico-vermelho (Parapiptadenia rigida. Isolates UFSC-B2, B6, B8, B9, B11 and B16 were able to nodulate bracatinga, providing average increases of 165 % in shoot dry matter, with a significant contribution to N accumulation. Isolates UFSC-B5, B12, and M8 favored nodulation and growth of maricá, especially isolate UFSC-B12, which promoted increases of 370 % in N accumulation compared to treatment with N fertilizer. All strains were inefficient in promoting growth and N uptake by angico-vermelho. In conclusion, isolation and use of selected rhizobia for bracatinga and maricá plant inoculation can contribute to the growth and accumulation of N, with prospects for use in programs for revegetation of degraded soils in coal mining areas.

  11. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN-XANTHOPHYLL (PX CONCENTRATE OF ALFALFA ADDITIVE TO CRUDE PROTEIN-REDUCED DIETS ON NITROGEN EXCRETION, GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz GRELA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  12. Penile nodules in the penal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jack; Horowitz, David

    2012-05-01

    The insertion of inert spherical objects under the skin of the penile shaft with the intent of enhancing the sexual experience of one's partner has been reported mostly among Southeast Asian men. This practice is gaining popularity among the Hispanic jail population and prison inmates in southern California. We present a case series of 4 inmate patients with genital modifications (artificial penis nodules [APNs]), including one patient with vitiligo that was induced by his APN. Additionally, we review the literature pertaining to this practice and the relevant clinical implications.

  13. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    significance of IPN and SPCM detected at the primary staging in CRC. Study I was a systematic review of published studies on IPN in CRC focusing on the prevalence and radiological characteristics of IPN proving to be malignant. This knowledge would be of value in management strategies for IPN. On average 9....... This approach might reduce the need for additional work-up for IPN and calls for clarification in future prospective studies. Identification of patients in particular risk of SPCM could be of value in the assessment of pulmonary nodules. Several biomarkers have been proposed for differential metastatic patterns...

  14. 地下滴灌条件下紫花苜蓿耗水规律试验研究%Experimental Study of the Water Consumption of Alfalfa Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依江·哈比; 马英杰; 洪明; 赵经华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析不同水分处理对紫花苜蓿植株高度与生长速度、产量、耗水量及耗水规律的影响关系.[方法]通过地下滴灌紫花苜蓿在4种不同水分处理(W1:22.5 mm,W2:30 mm,W3:37.5 mm,W4:45 mm)下产量与土壤含水量的观测试验,得到不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿水分利用效率、耗水量及耗水规律.[结果]不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿植株高度与灌水量呈现线性关系,在生育期内不同水分处理对苜蓿植株高度的影响为W4 >W3 >W2 >W1;随着灌水量的增加紫花苜蓿干物质产量呈先升后降的趋势,苜蓿干物质产量与灌水量 存在二维抛物线关系;不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿水分利用效率为W1>W2>W3>W4,从实现紫花苜蓿高产、优质及节水增效的目标出发,紫花苜蓿在地下滴灌条件下,适宜的灌水处理为W3.[结论]不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿耗水量随灌水量的增加而增大,在全生育期的耗水量变化规律是由小到大,再由大到小.%[Objective ] The purpose of this project was to research and analyze the effects of different soil water treatments on alfalfa plant height and growth rate, yield, water consumption and water consumption regularity. [Method] Through the underground drip irrigation alfalfa in 4 different water treatments, ( W: 22. 5 mm, W2:30 mm, W3:37.5 mm, W4:45 mm ) and the yield and soil moisture observation experiment, the alfalfa water use efficiency and water consumption rule were obtained. [ Result] Under different water treatments in alfalfa plant, height and irrigation quantity showed a linear relationship. In the growth period of different water disposal on alfalfa plant height the influence order was; W4 > W3 > W2 > W,; with the increase in irrigation alfalfa dry matter yield increased at first and then decreased, and alfalfas dry matter yield and irrigation displayed two parabola relationship; under different water treatments, the sequence of alfalfa water use

  15. Comparison of muscle-to-nodule and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: Which one should we use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Ramazan, E-mail: raydin1984@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Samsun Education and Research Hospital, Samsun (Turkey); Elmali, Muzaffer, E-mail: muzafel@yahoo.com.tr [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Polat, Ahmet Veysel, E-mail: veyselp@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Danaci, Murat, E-mail: danacim55@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Akpolat, Ilkser, E-mail: ilkserakpolat@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of muscle-to-nodule strain ratio (MNSR) in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to see if there was a difference between MNSR and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios (PNSR) in diagnosis. Methods: A total of 106 consecutive patients (88 women and 18 men; age range 19–79 years) with thyroid nodules were prospectively examined using ultrasound and sonoelastography before the fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The mean MNSR and PNSR were calculated for each nodule and the elasticity score was determined according to four-point scoring system. Results: According to the four-point scoring system, 44 of the 83 benign nodules had a score of one or two while 22 of the 23 malignant nodules had a score of three or four (p < 0.001). Using ROC analysis, the best cutoff point for MNSR 1.85 and for PNSR 3.14 was calculated. The sensitivity and specificity for the MNSR were 95.6%, 92.8%, respectively; for the PNSR were 95.6%, 93.4%, respectively, when the best cutoff points were used (p < 0.001). The κ value for the PNSR and MNSR methods was 0.87, which indicated an almost perfect agreement (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Sonoelastography has a high diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. There was no significant difference between MNSR and PNSR in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Therefore, we think that MNSR could safely be used in situations where PNSR could not be used.

  16. Genetic diversity of root nodule bacteria nodulating Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2011-06-01

    Very little is known about the genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia nodulating Lotus species in northern temperate regions. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity among a total of 61 root nodule bacteria isolated from Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria from different geographic sites and habitats in Sweden by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer between their 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA (IGS) region. A high diversity consisting of 26 IGS types from 54 L. corniculatus isolates and five IGS types from seven A. vulneraria isolates was found. The 16S rRNA sequences and phylogeny of representatives of the different IGS types showed four interesting exceptions from the majority of the isolates belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium: Two isolates were both found to be closely related to Rhodococcus spp., and two other isolates showed close relationship with Geobacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp., respectively. The nodA sequences and phylogeny showed that all the isolates, including those not belonging to the traditional rhizobia genera, harbored nodA sequences which were typical of Mesorhizobium loti. Generally, the 16S rRNA and nodA phylogenetic trees were not congruent in that isolates with similar 16S rRNA sequences were associated with isolates harboring different nodA sequences. All the isolates were confirmed to nodulate L. corniculatus in an inoculation test. This is the first report of members of these non-rhizobia genera being able to nodulate legumes, and we suggest that they may have acquired their nodulating properties through lateral gene transfer.

  17. 半干旱黄土丘陵区施肥对退耕地紫花苜蓿生物量的影响%Effect of fertilization on biomass of alfalfa in returned farmland in semiarid loess hilly area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡国军; 张仁陟; 柴春山

    2012-01-01

    For increasing the aboveground biomass of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in returned farmland and pro-longing its degradation time, the mixed fertilization experiment of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer was conducted two times in 2007-2008, on alfalfa grassland that has been planted for five years in Longtan catchment, Anding district, Dingxi city. The result .showed that nitrogen fertilizer has no obvious effect on increasing the growth conditions and biomass of alfalfa. However, phosphate fertilizer has significant influence on promoting the alfalfa's growth and increasing biomass. And the mean biomass of fertilized alfalfa in 2007 and 2008 was 1. 62 and 1. 15 times the biomass of control alfalfa respectively. The highest biomass of alfalfa was appeared when phosphate fertilizer rate was highest of 12 kg/667 m2. The mean fresh biomass of alfalfa can a-chieve 18 240 kg/ha on seventh year. The growth conditions and biomass of alfalfa on sunny-slopes was better than that on shady-slopes,and its mean fresh and dry biomass were 1. 49 and 1. 43 times the biomass of shady-slopes respectively. In the semiarid loess area with 400 mm annual precipitation, the biomass of alfalfa harvest was mainly produced by the 1st harvest and it accounted for about 75% of annual biomass, whereas the biomass of 2nd harvest was small and accounted for about 25%. So twice per year for alfalfa harvest is optimized in this area.%为了提高退耕地紫花苜蓿的地上生物量并延缓其衰败期,对定西安定区龙滩流域退耕地播种5年后的紫花苜蓿,于2007- 2008年连续2年开展氮肥和磷肥混合撒施施肥试验.结果表明,施N肥对促进苜蓿生长并提高生物量没有明显的效果,施P肥效果明显,2年的施肥苜蓿平均生物量分别是对照的1.62和1.15倍,可显著促进苜蓿生长并提高其生物量,其中P肥最大用量为12 kg/667 m2时的生物量最高.栽培第7年的苜蓿鲜草产量平均可达18 240 kg/hm2.研究区阳坡的苜蓿比

  18. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata: the world's most intensively managed solitary bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Cane, James H

    2011-01-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (ALCB), Megachile rotundata F. (Megachildae), was accidentally introduced into the United States by the 1940s. Nest management of this Eurasian nonsocial pollinator transformed the alfalfa seed industry in North America, tripling seed production. The most common ALCB management practice is the loose cell system, in which cocooned bees are removed from nesting cavities for cleaning and storage. Traits of ALCBs that favored their commercialization include gregarious nesting; use of leaves for lining nests; ready acceptance of affordable, mass-produced nesting materials; alfalfa pollination efficacy; and emergence synchrony with alfalfa bloom. The ALCB became a commercial success because much of its natural history was understood, targeted research was pursued, and producer ingenuity was encouraged. The ALCB presents a model system for commercializing other solitary bees and for advancing new testable hypotheses in diverse biological disciplines. PMID:20809804

  19. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jiao, E-mail: qujiao@bhu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Luo, Chunqiu, E-mail: fplj_lcq@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Qian; Cong, Qiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Yuan, Xing [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production.

  20. Effects of extended prepupal storage duration on adult flight physiology of the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Meghan M; Petersen, Kelsey; Yocum, George; Rinehart, Joseph; Kemp, William; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2013-06-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), is a solitary, cavity-nesting bee and is the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. Bee management practices include cold storage during the prepupal stage. Fluctuating thermal regimes during cold storage increases survival of cold storage and allows a doubling of the cold storage period with no decrease in survival. However, survival, characterized as successful adult emergence, is not qualitative. In this study, we determined whether extended storage affects adult bee respiration or flight physiology. We overwintered bees for a single winter (current management protocol) or for 12 mo longer (extended storage). We used resting and tethered flight metabolic rates and resting critical PO2 (the oxygen partial pressure below which metabolism can no longer be sustained) as indices of adult bee quality. We found no significant differences in body mass, resting or flight metabolic rates, or critical PO2 between the two groups. Together these data indicate that extended storage of M. rotundata produces bees of similar respiratory capacity and flight ability. These findings could increase the use of M. rotundata as an alternative pollinator, allowing for extended storage to time adult emergence with early blooming crops. PMID:23865171

  1. Phosphorylation of alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Suk; Halk, Edward L; Merlo, Donald J; Nelson, Steven E; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2014-07-01

    The 32-kDa movement protein, P3, of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is essential for cell-to-cell spread of the virus in plants. P3 shares many properties with other virus movement proteins (MPs); however, it is not known if P3 is posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which is important for the function of other MPs. When expressed in Nicotiana tabacum, P3 accumulated primarily in the cell walls of older leaves or in the cytosol of younger leaves. When expressed in Pischia pastoris, P3 accumulated primarily in a soluble form. Metabolic labeling indicated that a portion of P3 was phosphorylated in both tobacco and yeast, suggesting that phosphorylation regulates the function of this protein as it does for other virus MPs. PMID:24435161

  2. Arabidopsis thaliana is an asymptomatic host of Alfalfa mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Ibrahim, Amr; Kim, Bong-Suk; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2006-11-01

    The susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to infection by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was evaluated. Thirty-nine ecotypes supported both local and systemic infection, 26 ecotypes supported only local infection, and three ecotypes could not be infected. No obvious symptoms characteristic of virus infection developed on the susceptible ecotypes under standard conditions of culture. Parameters of AMV infection were characterized in ecotype Col-0, which supported systemic infection and accumulated higher levels of AMV than the symptomatic host Nicotiana tabacum. The formation of infectious AMV particles in infected Col-0 was confirmed by infectivity assays on a hypersensitive host and by electron microscopy of purified virions. Replication and transcription of AMV was confirmed by de novo synthesis of AMV subgenomic RNA in Col-0 protoplasts transfected with AMV RNA or plasmids harboring AMV cDNAs. PMID:16875753

  3. HI Gas in Early Type Galaxies as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Wendy; Morrison, Ryan; Green, Jarred; Raskin, Mark; Crawford, Connor; Bomer-Lawson, August; Hannan, Joshua; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of 1580 early type galaxies (ETGs) in a total sample of 7747 galaxies that have HI measurements or upper limits from the ALFALFA survey. We find a significant correlation between HI content and local density, with HI detections almost exclusively in low-density environments. Using optical line ratios, we split the population into galaxies with spectral lines dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and dominated by star forming regions. Compared with HI-rich star forming ETGs, HI-rich ETGs with AGN tend to be brighter and redder and to exhibit a stronger correlation between stellar mass and HI mass. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  4. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-06-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones. Based on observations made with the Arecibo Observatory and the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana and the Universities Space Research Association. GALEX is operated for NASA by the California Institute of Technology under NASA contract NAS5-98034.

  5. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  6. ALFALFA Hα Reveals How Galaxies Use their HI Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally; Salzer, John; Van Sistine, Angela; Bell, Eric; Haynes, Martha

    2015-08-01

    Atomic hydrogen traces the raw material from which molecular clouds and stars form. With the ALFALFA Hα survey, a statistically complete subset of the ALFALFA survey, we examine the processes that affect galaxies’ abilities to access and consume their HI gas. On galaxy-wide scales, HI gas fractions correlate only weakly with instantaneous specific star formation rates (sSFRs) but tightly with galaxy color. We show that a connection between dust and HI content, arising from the fundamental mass-metallicity-HI relation, leads to this tight color correlation. We find that disk galaxies follow a relation between stellar surface density and HI depletion time, consistent with a scenario in which higher mid-plane pressure leads to more efficient molecular cloud formation from HI. In contrast, spheroids show no such trend. Starbursts, identified by Hα equivalent width, do not show enhanced HI gas fractions relative to similar mass non-starburst galaxies. The starbursts’ shorter HI depletion times indicate more efficient consumption of HI, and galaxy interactions drive this enhanced star formation efficiency in several starbursts. Interestingly, the most disturbed starbursts show greater enhancements in HI gas fraction, which may indicate an excess of HI at early merger stages. At low galaxy stellar masses, the triggering mechanism for starbursts is less clear; the high scatter in efficiency and sSFR among low-mass galaxies may result from periodic bursts. We find no evidence for depleted HI reservoirs in starbursts, which suggests that galaxies may maintain sufficient HI to fuel multiple starburst episodes.

  7. Imaging diagnosis of the grade of malignancy of hepatocytic nodules associated with liver cirrhosis. Usefulness of the evaluation of intranodular blood supply by arteriographic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the correlation between intranodular blood supply evaluated by CT during arterial portography (CTAP) and CT during hepatic arteriography (CTA) and the grade of malignancy of hepatocytic nodules associated with liver cirrhosis, and to evaluate the appropriateness of this correlation in comparison with the natural course of the nodules. On CTAP, adenomatous hyperplasia (AH) mainly demonstrated almost the same portal supply relative to the surrounding liver (group A), atypical AH (AAH) decreased portal flow (group B), well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (wd-HCC), partial absence of portal supply (group C), and moderately or poorly differentiated HCC (mp-HCC), absence of portal supply (group D), respectively. CTA findings were also divided into four groups: the same arterial supply (group I), decreased arterial supply (group II), partially increased arterial supply (group III), and increased arterial supply (group IV). The tendency was for AHs to be in group I, AAHs in group II, and wd-HCCs in group III, respectively. All of mp-HCCs were identified as group IV. The malignant transformation ratios of the nodules in each group in 176 nodules in which natural course was observed, were compared. With increase in the grade of malignancy of CTAP findings, malignant transformation ratio was increased. On the other hand, the nodules with group I on CTA showed poorer prognosis than that in the nodules with group II, because group I had a tendency to include AH and AAH or early wd-HCCs. On the combination of CTAP and CTA, malignant transformation was seen in none of the nodules with group A and I, in 30% of the nodules with group B or II, and in more than 90% of the nodules with group C or III, respectively, during 24 months follow-up. These results corresponded well with the grade of malignancy diagnosed by CTAP and CTA. (K.H.)

  8. HI Gas in Large-Scale Filaments as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Skye; Phi, An; Shah, Ebrahim; Livecchi, Jack; Yu, Yang; Gengras, Graeme; Wolfe, Pierre-Francois; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Hyman, Mario; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We assess the relationship between galaxy environment and HI content as measured by ALFALFA. In particular, we consider membership in large-scale filaments in order to provide clues to how star formation in galaxies is quenched in different environments. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to define galaxy environments in terms of clusters, filaments, and voids for a sample of galaxies with z ALFALFA. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  9. Comparative physiological and transcriptional analyses of two contrasting drought tolerant alfalfa varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli eQuan; Xun eLiu; Haiqing eWang; Zhulong eChan

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological and transcriptional levels. Under ...

  10. Comparative Physiological and Transcriptional Analyses of Two Contrasting Drought Tolerant Alfalfa Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Wenli; Liu, Xun; Wang, Haiqing; Chan, Zhulong

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological, and transcriptional levels. Under...

  11. Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator, Novaluron on Immature Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    OpenAIRE

    Erin W Hodgson; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L.; James D. Barbour

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-p...

  12. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or perennial ryegrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K; Casler, M D

    1998-01-01

    The nutrient contents of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are reasonably similar. Despite similarities, the lactation performance of dairy cows fed perennial ryegrass has not been compared with the lactation performance of dairy cows fed alfalfa. The present study was implemented to compare the performance of lactating cows fed alfalfa or perennial ryegrass silage. Alfalfa and perennial ryegrass were harvested at late bud and boot stages of maturity, respectively, and ensiled in separate 4.9- x 18.3-m concrete silos. The experimental silages were supplemented with a concentrate mix at 31.1% of dietary dry matter and fed to 18 multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation in a crossover experimental design with 28-d periods. Digestibility and rate of passage of experimental diets were also measured using rare earth markers. The perennial ryegrass contained 3.0 percentage units more neutral detergent fiber than did alfalfa, but in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was 8.8 percentage units higher for perennial ryegrass. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was also higher for perennial ryegrass. Cows fed alfalfa silage produced more milk (31.8 kg/d) than did cows fed perennial ryegrass silage (30.2 kg/d). Cows fed perennial ryegrass silage ate less feed (2.2 kg/d) than did cows fed alfalfa. Because dry matter intake was lower, diet digestibilities were higher, and rate of passage was slower, for cows consuming perennial ryegrass. Based on laboratory evaluations, perennial ryegrass silage has high nutritional quality, but performance of lactating cows indicated that the forage was suboptimal for supporting high milk production when compared with alfalfa. The perennial ryegrass silage was suboptimal because it did not stimulate high amounts of dry matter intake in lactating cows. PMID:9493091

  13. Alfalfa water use pinpointed in saline, shallow water tables of Imperial Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, Khaled M.; Grismer, Mark E.; Snyder, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Although alfalfa is the dominant water user in the Imperial Valley and is planted on 40% of its irrigated acreage, data is incomplete regarding its water use under the most common growing conditions: moderately saline, clay soils with a relatively shallow, moderately saline water table. In a study from 1996 through 1998, we determined the seasonal variation in the alfalfa crop coefficient (Kc), based on measurements of applied water and soil-moisture depletion, and the contribution from the w...

  14. Decision making in patients with pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, David E; Gould, Michael K

    2012-02-15

    Integrating current evidence with fundamental concepts from decision analysis suggests that management of patients with pulmonary nodules should begin with estimating the pretest probability of cancer from the patient's clinical risk factors and computed tomography characteristics. Then, the consequences of treatment should be considered, by comparing the benefits of surgery if the patient has lung cancer with the potential harm if the patient does not have cancer. This analysis determines the "treatment threshold," which is the point around which the decision centers. This varies widely among patients depending on their cardiopulmonary reserve, comorbidities, and individual preferences. For patients with a very low probability of cancer, careful observation with serial computed tomography is warranted. For those with a high probability of cancer, surgical diagnosis is warranted. For patients in the intermediate range of probabilities, either computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy or positron emission tomography, possibly followed by computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, is best. Patient preferences should be considered because the absolute difference in outcome between strategies may be small. The optimal approach to the management of patients with pulmonary nodules is evolving as technologies develop. Areas of uncertainty include quantifying the hazard of delayed diagnosis; determining the optimal duration of follow-up for ground-glass and semisolid opacities; establishing the roles of volumetric imaging, advanced bronchoscopic technologies, and limited surgical resections; and calculating the cost-effectiveness of different strategies. PMID:21980032

  15. Strain selection for improvement of Bradyrhizobium japonicum competitiveness for nodulation of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althabegoiti, María Julia; López-García, Silvina L; Piccinetti, Carlos; Mongiardini, Elías J; Pérez-Giménez, Julieta; Quelas, Juan Ignacio; Perticari, Alejandro; Lodeiro, Aníbal R

    2008-05-01

    A Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110-derived strain able to produce wider halos in soft-agar medium than its parental strain was obtained by recurrent selection. It was more chemotactic than the wild type towards mannitol and three amino acids. When cultured in minimal medium with mannitol as a single carbon-source, it had one thick subpolar flagellum as the wild type, plus several other flagella that were thinner and sinusoidal. Root adsorption and infectivity in liquid media were 50-100% higher for the selected strain, but root colonization in water-unsaturated vermiculite was similar to the wild type. A field experiment was then carried out in a soil with a naturalized population of 1.8 x 10(5) soybean-nodulating rhizobia g of soil(-1). Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains were inoculated either on the soybean seeds or in the sowing furrows. Nodule occupation was doubled when the strains were inoculated in the sowing furrows with respect to seed inoculation (significant with P<0.05). On comparing strains, nodule occupation with seed inoculation was 6% or 10% for the wild type or selected strains, respectively, without a statistically significant difference, while when inoculated in the sowing furrows, nodule occupation increased to 12% and 22%, respectively (differences significant with P<0.05). PMID:18336548

  16. Partially Cystic Thyroid Nodules: Ultrasound Findings of Malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Mi; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kwag, Hyon Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To seek for the ultrasound (US) findings of partially cystic thyroid nodules that are associated with malignancy. We reviewed the US characteristics of 22 surgically confirmed partially cystic papillary carcinomas, and compared them with those of 80 benign partially cystic nodules. The review cases were selected in a random order from a total of 1029 partially cystic nodules that were diagnosed with an US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy over a period of 8 years (June 2003 to October 2010) at our institution. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, a taller-than-wide shape (100%, p<0.001) and spiculated or microlobulated margin (58.3%, p 0.003) were significantly associated with malignancy. In terms of internal solid portion of the nodule, eccentric configuration (68.0%, p<0.001), non-smooth margin (81.3%, p<0.001), hypoechogenecity (30.0%, p<0.042), and microcalcification (89.5%, p<0.001) were more frequently demonstrated in malignant nodules than benign ones. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, understanding the characteristics of US findings is important to make a precise diagnosis of malignant nodules.

  17. Buried nodules from the central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    are recovered only by sediment cores. Despite, the slower growth rates of nodules (few mm/Ma) compared to associated sediment (few mm/ka), the phenomena of keeping nodules at the sediment surface still remains an enigma. More than 60 sediment cores (spade...

  18. Geochemistry of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Khadge, N.H.; Desa, J.A.E.

    ( 4 cm) which have high Fe and moisture and low todorokite contents are formed mainly by hydrogenesis. (3) The mixing model indicates shifting of the smaller nodules (formed close to the CCD) to deep-sea regions and mixing with larger nodules formed...

  19. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presenting as multiple cavitary calcified nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Y; Ishikawa, S; MacDonnell, K F

    1991-12-01

    We describe a patient with PHG who presented with multiple cavitary calcified nodules. Laboratory evaluations revealed that she had serum immune abnormalities, and a histoplasmin skin test yielded positive results. Her Histoplasma infection may have produced a hyperimmune reaction that resulted in PHG and the calcified nodules. PMID:1720371

  20. Management of subsolid pulmonary nodules in CT lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The distinct appearance and behavior of subsolid pulmonary nodules (SSNs) has resulted in separate recommendations for the management of solitary SSNs, both for incidentally detected as well as for screen detected nodules. However, these guidelines have been based primarily on expert opinion. Recent

  1. Surgical and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Dobrinja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA has been recently advocated as an effective technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. It is not known to what extent it may affect any subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 64 symptomatic Thy2 nodules (benign nodules and 6 symptomatic Thy3 nodules (follicular lesions/follicular neoplasms. Two Thy3 nodules regrew after the procedure, and these patients accepted to undergo a total thyroidectomy. Here we present how RFA has affected the operation and the final pathological features of the surgically removed nodules. Results and Conclusions. RFA is effective for the treatment of Thy2 nodules, but it should not be recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of Thy3 nodules (irrespective of their mutational status, as it delays surgery in case of malignancy. Moreover, it is unknown whether RFA might promote residual tumor progression or neoplastic progression of Thy3 lesions. Nevertheless, here we show for the first time that one session of RFA does not affect subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis.

  2. Uranium in Pacific Deep-Sea Sediments and Manganese Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Pluger, W. L.; Friedrich, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1344 manganese nodules and 187 pelagic sediments from 9 areas in the North and the South Pacific were analyzed for U by the delayed-neutron counting technique. A strong positive correlation between U and Fe in nodules and sediments suggests a co-precipitative removal from sea water int...

  3. Surgical and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrinja, Chiara; Bernardi, Stella; Fabris, Bruno; Eramo, Rita; Makovac, Petra; Bazzocchi, Gabriele; Piscopello, Lanfranco; Barro, Enrica; de Manzini, Nicolò; Bonazza, Deborah; Pinamonti, Maurizio; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Stacul, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been recently advocated as an effective technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. It is not known to what extent it may affect any subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 64 symptomatic Thy2 nodules (benign nodules) and 6 symptomatic Thy3 nodules (follicular lesions/follicular neoplasms). Two Thy3 nodules regrew after the procedure, and these patients accepted to undergo a total thyroidectomy. Here we present how RFA has affected the operation and the final pathological features of the surgically removed nodules. Results and Conclusions. RFA is effective for the treatment of Thy2 nodules, but it should not be recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of Thy3 nodules (irrespective of their mutational status), as it delays surgery in case of malignancy. Moreover, it is unknown whether RFA might promote residual tumor progression or neoplastic progression of Thy3 lesions. Nevertheless, here we show for the first time that one session of RFA does not affect subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. PMID:26265914

  4. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa. PMID:27400509

  5. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas appearing as part-solid ground-glass nodules: Is measuring solid component size a better prognostic indicator?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Eui Jin; Ryu, Youngjin; Lee, Sang Min [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, 101, Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, 101, Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Tae [Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Whan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Lung Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-02

    To assess whether measuring the solid portion of adenocarcinomas appearing as part-solid ground-glass nodules (GGNs) can predict a patient's prognosis accurately and how the prognosis corresponds to that of solid nodules. 501 patients (solid nodule group, 304; part-solid GGN group, 197) underwent curative surgery for stage I adenocarcinomas. Maximal diameters of the whole lesion including ground-glass opacities (D{sub whole}) and solid components only (D{sub solid}) were measured on CT. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from the date of surgery. D{sub solid} was a significant prognostic factor in the part-solid GGN group, while D{sub whole} was not. Part-solid GGNs with D{sub solid} ≤2 cm showed significantly better DFS (P = 0.016) and OS (P = 0.004) than solid nodules; however, those with D{sub solid} >2 cm did not show a significant difference. Hazard ratio (HR) for increase in D{sub solid} was significantly greater in part-solid GGNs than in solid nodules (P = 0.009). For OS, HR for increase in D{sub solid} was greater in part-solid GGNs than in solid nodule, which was marginally not significant (P = 0.060). D{sub solid} was better than D{sub whole} for prognosis prediction of adenocarcinomas appearing as part-solid GGNs. In addition, the influence of D{sub solid} on prognosis in the part-solid GGN group was greater than in the solid nodule group. (orig.)

  6. Lung Nodule Detection Using Fuzzy Clustering and Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.C.Chandrasekar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the primary cause of tumor deaths for both sexes in most countries. Lung nodule, an abnormality which leads to lung cancer is detected by various medical imaging techniques like X-ray, Computerized Tomography (CT, etc. Detection of lung nodules is a challenging task since the nodules are commonly attached to the blood vessels. Many studies have shown that early diagnosis is the most efficient way to cure this disease. This paper aims to develop an efficient lung nodule detection scheme by performing nodule segmentation through fuzzy based clustering models; classification byusing a machine learning technique called Support Vector Machine (SVM. This methodology uses three different types of kernels among these RBF kernel gives better class performance.

  7. Germinación y crecimiento de alfalfa bajo condiciones salinas Germination and growth of alfalfa under saline conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lucía González-Romero

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En México, el cultivo de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. se emplea para la alimentación del ganado bovino, éste cuenta con investigaciones de respuestas a estrés salino en la etapa de germinación; sin embargo, sólo se han usado diferentes niveles de NaCl o de manitol y polietilenglicol; por lo anterior, los objetivos de esta investigación fue estudiar la respuesta a la salinidad, que se presenta en zonas áridas y semiáridas de México de la alfalfa en la etapa de germinación y evaluar su efecto sobre el crecimiento de la radícula y la parte aérea. Para cumplir lo anterior, en el laboratorio de salinidad del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas durante el 2009, las semillas se sometieron a pruebas de germinación en un diseño factorial de 11 soluciones salinas a ocho dosis (0, 2, 4, 8, 11.7, 15, 19 y 28 dS m-1 y tres repeticiones. Se observó que las sales NaHCO3 y sulfático-sódica influyeron más sobre la germinación; y las sales CaCl2 2H2O y sulfática registraron el mayor porcentaje de germinación; para el crecimiento de radícula la sal que más afectó fue el NaHCO3 y la salinidad sulfática; las sales CaCl2 2H2O y sulfático-clorhídrica permitieron mayor desarrollo. El crecimiento de la parte aérea fue más afectado en comparación al desarrollo de la radícula. La mezcla de sales favoreció el porcentaje de germinación, el crecimiento de radícula y parte aérea.In Mexico, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is used for feeding cattle and has been studied for responses to salt stress in the germination phase; however, only NaCl or mannitol and polyethylene glycols have been used in different levels. Due to this, the aims of this research were to study the response of alfalfa in the germination stage to the salinity of the arid and semiarid areas in Mexico, and to evaluate its effect on the growth of the radicle and aerial section. In order to achieve this, in the salinity lab of the Colegio de Postgraduados en

  8. A study on quality of mixed silage of alfalfa and corn%苜蓿与玉米混贮质量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 孙启忠; 张慧杰

    2011-01-01

    以玉米与苜蓿为原料,按不同比例混贮;通过发酵品质和营养成分分析,找出二者混贮的适宜配比.结果表明:1)各混贮处理发酵品质较苜蓿单贮均得到改善,达到优质青贮的目的;2)玉米与苜蓿3:7混贮处理CP和Ash含量高于玉米单贮,低于苜蓿单贮,差异显著(P<0.05),而NDF和ADF含量低于玉米单贮,高于苜蓿单贮,差异显著(P<0.05);3)玉米与苜蓿5:5、7:3混贮处理pH值较苜蓿单贮显著降低(P<0.05);各混贮处理乳酸占总酸百分比均达到60%以上,乙酸、丙酸占总酸百分比较苜蓿单贮降低,丁酸产生较少;4)苜蓿青贮后乳酸菌数达到108 cfu/g FM,玉米青贮前后乳酸菌数差异不明显,青贮后各处理大肠杆菌数明显下降.7:3混贮处理发酵品质最佳.%To assess the best ratio for mixed silage of corn and alfalfa, they were mixed and ensiled in different proportions (0 :10,3 : 7,5 : 5,7 : 3,10:0 respectively) and after 30 days, the nutrition and fermentation quality of all treatments were determined and analyzed. 1) Compared with alfalfa silage, all three treatment improved fermentation quality and attained the goal of excellent silage. 2) CP (crude protein) and Ash (crude ash) contents of the 3 : 7 treatment were significantly higher than corn but lower than alfalfa silage (P< 0.05), NDF (neutral detergent fiber) and ADF (acid detergent fiber) contents were significantly lower than corn but higher than alfalfa silage (P<0. 05). 3) pH values of the 5 : 3 and 7 : 3 treatments were significantly lower than that of alfalfa silage(P<0. 05). Lactic acid contents of all three mixed treatments reached more than 60%, but the contents of acetic acid and propionic acid reduced, and produced little butyric acid compared with alfalfa silage. 4) The number of lactic acid bacteria on alfalfa silage increased to 108 cfu/g FM after ensilling, while that on corn silage stayed the same before and after fermentation. Escherichia coli of

  9. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2013-04-01

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities (15,000; 30,000; and 45,000-50,000 bees per acre, respectively) of Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over 4 yr in three research plots of Utah alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae), planted at seed-production rates. A low percentage of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field-emergence processes; of those bees, the number of females that established at the nesting sites was 25-100%. Of the three field sites, one site consistently retained more females and produced more completed nests than the other sites, all of which usually had poor female establishment and progeny production. In addition, floral resources were depleted over time, but many flowers remained unvisited over the season. Nest production decreased over time, as numbers of flowers and female bees declined. Significant positive relationships were found between the intended stocking densities and 1) the number of females that actually survived incubation and field emergence and 2) the number of females that established nests. The number of females that established nests was positively affected by the number of females that survived to emerge in the field. The percentage of females that established was not significantly affected by the intended number of released bees, countering a prediction that the release of fewer bees would allow more females to establish nests and achieve high reproductive success. For growers, it may be more frugal to use modest numbers of M. rotundata for pollination, because many of the bees at medium and high stocking densities do not nest in grower-provided bee boards. PMID:23786042

  10. The velocity width function of galaxies from the 40% ALFALFA survey: shedding light on the CDM overabundance problem

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a wide-area, extragalactic HI-line survey conducted at the Arecibo Observatory. Sources have so far been extracted over ~3,000 sq.deg of sky (40% of its final area), resulting in the largest HI-selected sample to date. We measure the space density of HI-bearing galaxies as a function of their observed velocity width (uncorrected for inclination) down to w = 20 km/s, a factor of 2 lower than the previous generation HIPASS survey. We confirm previous results that indicate a substantial discrepancy at low widths between the observational distribution and the theoretical one expected in a CDM Universe. In particular, a comparison with synthetic galaxy samples populating state-of-the-art CDM simulations imply a factor of ~8 difference in the abundance of galaxies with w = 50 km/s (increasing to a factor of ~100 when extrapolated to the ALFALFA limit of w = 20 km/s). We furthermore identify possible solutions, including a ~keV WDM scenario and the fact that H...

  11. Changes of Proline Content,Activity,and Active Isoforms of Antioxidative Enzymes in Two Alfalfa Cultivars Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-shan; HAN Jian-guo

    2009-01-01

    The plants of two alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.)cultivars differing in salt tolerance were subjected to three salt treatments,70,140,and 210 mM NaCl for 7 days.Root,shoot,and leaf growths were inhibited by increased salt treatments in both cultivars,and at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments,Zhongmu 1 had significantly higher root,shoot,and leaf dry weights per plant than Defi.The malondialdehyde(MDA)accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1,indicating a higher degree of lipid peroxidation at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments.The changes in the activity and active isoforms of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase(SOD,EC 1.15.1.1),catalase(CAT,EC 1.11.1.6),peroxidase(POD,EC 1.11.1.7),and ascorbate peroxidase(APOX,EC 1.11.1.11),accumulation of free proline,and rate of lipid peroxidation in leaves of two alfalfa cultivars were also investigated.After stress,the activity and active isoforms of antioxidative enzymes were altered and the extent of alteration varied between the cultivar Deft and Zhongmu 1.The proline accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1 at 210 mM salt treatment.This indicated that proline accumulation may be the result,instead of the cause,of salt tolerance.

  12. 紫花苜蓿人工草地施肥试验%Effect on alfalfa artificial lawn fertilization test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万井尉

    2015-01-01

    在辽宁西部坡地上进行紫花苜蓿不同施肥处理试验,经过1年的研究结果表明,在苜蓿人工草地上无论是单一施用氮肥还是复合肥,均可有效地提高牧草产量并取得较为明显的经济效益,其中以每亩施用尿素15 kg和25 kg效果最好,效益最高,每亩可增经济效益分别是40.74元和40.63元。%Hillsides with a slope in the western liaoning alfalfa different fertilization experi-ment was carried out, after a year of research results show that the artificial grass in alfalfa both single nitrogen fertilizer and compound fertilizer, can effectively improve the forage yield and obtain more obvious economic benefits, the effect of applying urea 15 kg and 25 kg per acre to prepare, the highest efficiency, can increase economic benefit per acre is 40.63 yuan and 40.74 yuan respectively.

  13. Heavy metal content of alfalfa irrigated with waste and tubewell water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamal Khan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of wastewater on yield and heavy metal uptake of alfalfa along with a tubewell irrigated crop as control at the Agricultural University Peshawar during 2009. The experiment was conducted in small plots (2 x 1m replicated thrice with fertilizer additions. The crop was either irrigated with Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE wastewater or tubewell water. The yield data revealed that shoot dry weight was significantly affected by the irrigation water supplies and higher yield was recorded in wastewater irrigated plots and the increase was consistent with time (different cutting. By comparing the total dry biomass of the two treatments, it was observed that there was about 37% increase in yield over control with application of wastewater. The shoot dry weight increased by a factor of about two to three times from first cutting to third cutting in both the treatment plots and the magnitude of increase in yield was higher in wastewater irrigated plots. The heavy metal uptake by the crop was much higher in wastewater irrigated plots compared to tubewell water. The order of metal uptake was Fe> Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Shoot analysis showed no metal toxicity because the concentration of the metal was less than phytotoxic level and all the metals were within the permissible limits.

  14. Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules: variability in automated analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juluru, Krishna; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William; King, Tara; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2007-03-01

    Over the past decade, several computerized tools have been developed for detection of lung nodules and for providing volumetric analysis. Incidentally detected lung nodules have traditionally been followed over time by measurements of their axial dimensions on CT scans to ensure stability or document progression. A recently published article by the Fleischner Society offers guidelines on the management of incidentally detected nodules based on size criteria. For this reason, differences in measurements obtained by automated tools from various vendors may have significant implications on management, yet the degree of variability in these measurements is not well understood. The goal of this study is to quantify the differences in nodule maximum diameter and volume among different automated analysis software. Using a dataset of lung scans obtained with both "ultra-low" and conventional doses, we identified a subset of nodules in each of five size-based categories. Using automated analysis tools provided by three different vendors, we obtained size and volumetric measurements on these nodules, and compared these data using descriptive as well as ANOVA and t-test analysis. Results showed significant differences in nodule maximum diameter measurements among the various automated lung nodule analysis tools but no significant differences in nodule volume measurements. These data suggest that when using automated commercial software, volume measurements may be a more reliable marker of tumor progression than maximum diameter. The data also suggest that volumetric nodule measurements may be relatively reproducible among various commercial workstations, in contrast to the variability documented when performing human mark-ups, as is seen in the LIDC (lung imaging database consortium) study.

  15. Structural Change of the Western United States Alfalfa Hay Market and its Effects of the Western United States Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cann, Joseph Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa is the fourth largest commodity grown in the Western U.S., representing 20% of the crop acreage over the past twenty years. In the last five years alfalfa hay price has doubled from what it was previously, indicating a possible structural change in the market. This research project was completed to test for this structural change using econometric analysis of the important demand components of alfalfa price. In addition to this, simulations of an average Utah dairy were completed to e...

  16. 苜蓿的药用功效和开发利用%Medicinal Effects, Development and Utilization of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 石杰; 王云云; 尤秋实

    2011-01-01

    The development history of alfalfa, the relationship between the nutrients of alfalfa and the human health and the development and utilization of alfalfa were introduced. And some suggestions on the development of alfalfa were also proposed.%阐述了苜蓿发展的历史、苜蓿所合营养元素与人类健康的关系和苜蓿的开发利用情况,并对苜蓿产业的发展提出了建议。

  17. FDG uptake heterogeneity evaluated by fractal analysis improves the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Kenta, E-mail: kenta5710@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Division of Medical Quantum Science, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Inubushi, Masayuki, E-mail: inubushi@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima Kurashiki, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan); Wagatsuma, Kei, E-mail: kei1192@hotmail.co.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu, E-mail: minagao@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Murata, Taisuke, E-mail: taisuke113@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Koyama, Masamichi, E-mail: masamichi.koyama@jfcr.or.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru@jfcr.or.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Sasaki, Masayuki, E-mail: msasaki@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Medical Quantum Science, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The present study aimed to determine whether fractal analysis of morphological complexity and intratumoral heterogeneity of FDG uptake can help to differentiate malignant from benign pulmonary nodules. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 54 patients with suspected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were examined by FDG PET/CT. Pathological assessments of biopsy specimens confirmed 35 and 19 nodules as NSCLC and inflammatory lesions, respectively. The morphological fractal dimension (m-FD), maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and density fractal dimension (d-FD) of target nodules were calculated from CT and PET images. Fractal dimension is a quantitative index of morphological complexity and tracer uptake heterogeneity; higher values indicate increased complexity and heterogeneity. Results: The m-FD, SUV{sub max} and d-FD significantly differed between malignant and benign pulmonary nodules (p < 0.05). Although the diagnostic ability was better for d-FD than m-FD and SUV{sub max}, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Tumor size correlated significantly with SUV{sub max} (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), but not with either m-FD or d-FD. Furthermore, m-FD combined with either SUV{sub max} or d-FD improved diagnostic accuracy to 92.6% and 94.4%, respectively. Conclusion: The d-FD of intratumoral heterogeneity of FDG uptake can help to differentially diagnose malignant and benign pulmonary nodules. The SUV{sub max} and d-FD obtained from FDG-PET images provide different types of information that are equally useful for differential diagnoses. Furthermore, the morphological complexity determined by CT combined with heterogeneous FDG uptake determined by PET improved diagnostic accuracy.

  18. Effcet of Rhizobium Inoculation on Growth and Nodulation of Albizzia procera,Albizzia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.K.ARYAL; M.A.U.MRIDHA; 等

    1999-01-01

    Effects of inoculation of Rhizobium suspension on nodulation and plant growth were examined with Albizzia procera,Albizzia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala seedlings grown on sterilized and non-sterilized soil media.Inoculation resulted in nodule number increases of 28.6,29.02and 23.9 times in sterilized soil and 3.4,3.6and 3.27 times in non-sterilized soil for A.procera,A.lebbeck and L.leucocephala seedlings respectively.Total dry mass increased by 127.6%,66.7%and 60.7% in sterilized soil and 100%,95.5%and 52.65% in non-sterilized soil for these three legume trees,respectively,after a period of two months.Significantly high inoculation responses of oot length,root diameter,collar diameter,shoot length,and dry mass of root,shoot,leaves and nodules were also observed in both steilized and non-sterilized soil media as compared to respective control treatments,The response to inoculation was strong in sterilized and modest in non-sterilized soils.The significantly higher response to Rhizobium inoculation over control in all the species tested suggested that application of Rhizobium greatly enhanced plant growth ,nodulation,biomass production and nitrogen-fixing activity of the nodules.

  19. Effect of Soil Pollution on the Nodulation Competence of Some Cowpea Cultivars in the Tropical Rainforest Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Awosanya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil pollution on the nodulation competence of some selected cowpea cultivars. Three cowpea varieties (Tvu1647, IT84552-249 and IT95K-1491 were selected for this study. The polluted soil types were soil samples taken from a factory effluent site, piggery waste soil, gasoline polluted soil while normal unpolluted sandy loam served as the control. The plant height, terminal leaf length, sterm girth, nodule number and plant shoot dry mass were determined. Nodulation in the polluted soils reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control while the stem girth, terminal leaf length and shoot dry mass increased significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control. The plant height of each variety significantly differed (p<0.005 from one another. This study has shown that soil pollution causes significant reduction in nodule numbers hence having immense negative impact on nodulation in cowpea varieties used in this study. Meanwhile soil pollution is shown in this study to increase the stem girth, plant height, leaf length and shoot dry mass of the cowpea plants compared to the control.

  20. Quantitation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from UVB-irradiated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone will increase the solar ultraviolet radiation in the range from 290-320 nm (UVB) that reaches the surface of the earth, placing an increased UV burden on exposed organisms. One consequence of increased UVB may be decreased productivity of crop plants. A principal lesion caused by UV in DNA is the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. We have adapted a method for measuring these dimers in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA for use in UV-irradiated plants. We find that biologically relevant doses of broad band UVB radiation induce easily detectable frequencies of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of irradiated alfalfa sprout leaves and that the dose response for dimer formation is linear up to doses of at least 690 J/m2. We also find easily measurable frequencies of dimers in the leaves of seedlings grown in glass filtered sunlight but not exposed to additional UVB, suggesting that significant number of dimers are formed in plants exposed to normal sunlight. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Short Communication Synergistic effect of rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the growth and nodulation of lentil seedlings under axenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing ACC-deaminase in combination with rhizobia can improve the growth and nodulation in plants by suppressing the endogenous level of ethylene. In the present study, ten strains, each of PGPR and rhizobia from the previously screened cultures were tested for their effect as co-inoculants on growth and nodulation of lentil in growth pouches under axenic conditions. Results showed that most of the combinations improved the lentil growth as compared to the un-inoculated control. Maximum increase in shoot length (1.87 fold, root length (1.97 fold and total biomass (1.98 fold over the un-inoculated control was observed in the treatment where the lentil seedlings were inoculated with the combination Z24P10. Co-inoculation also improved the nodulation in lentil and the maximum number of nodules plant-1 (24 nodules were observed in the combination Z22P10. However, there was no nodulation in few combinations. It is concluded that the co-inoculation with rhizobia and PGPR containing ACC-deaminase has improved the growth and nodulation in lentil under axenic conditions and the selected combinations may be evaluated in pot and field trials

  2. Fusobacterium necrophorum presenting as isolated lung nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sonti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium necrophorum causes Lemierre's syndrome - a dramatic and distinct condition beginning with pharyngitis before proceeding to internal jugular vein septic thrombophlebitis and respiratory tract infection in otherwise healthy individuals. It is rare, but by far the most common pathway to parenchymal lung disease with this organism. Here we describe we a 34 year old healthy lady who was nontoxic without any antecedent illness who presented with lung nodules due to fusobacterium necrophorum as the sole manifestation of disease. Leading diagnostic consideration prior to culture data was pulmonary vasculitis. Identifying her disease process was a somewhat chance occurrence, and it began to resolve prior to antibiotic therapy. Though it would be difficult to recommend keen awareness of this organism given its rarity, it is important to consider that its scope may be broader than traditionally considered.

  3. Fusobacterium necrophorum presenting as isolated lung nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonti, Rajiv; Fleury, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum causes Lemierre's syndrome - a dramatic and distinct condition beginning with pharyngitis before proceeding to internal jugular vein septic thrombophlebitis and respiratory tract infection in otherwise healthy individuals. It is rare, but by far the most common pathway to parenchymal lung disease with this organism. Here we describe we a 34 year old healthy lady who was nontoxic without any antecedent illness who presented with lung nodules due to fusobacterium necrophorum as the sole manifestation of disease. Leading diagnostic consideration prior to culture data was pulmonary vasculitis. Identifying her disease process was a somewhat chance occurrence, and it began to resolve prior to antibiotic therapy. Though it would be difficult to recommend keen awareness of this organism given its rarity, it is important to consider that its scope may be broader than traditionally considered. PMID:26236610

  4. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaojuan, E-mail: xiaojuanwang@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Song, Yu [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Environment Management College of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma Yanhua [Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhuo Renying [Key Lab of Tree Genomics, Research Institute of Subtropical of Forest, Chinese Academy of Forest, Fuyang 311400 (China); Jin Liang [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China)

    2011-12-15

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible. - Highlights: > Evaluate Cd tolerance in wide sources of alfalfa accessions. > Identify Cd-hyperaccumulators potentially useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments. > Cloned differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes. > Characteristics and deduced protein sequence of MsMT2a and MsMT2b were analyzed. > MsMT2a might be a universally gene of alfalfa but MsMT2b might be an inductive gene. - Two Cd tolerant alfalfa genotypes were screened and their metallothionein genes were cloned which showed that MsMT2a was universally expressed but MsMT2b was Cd inducible expression.

  5. Effectivenes of inoculation in alfalfa breeding in ecological conditions of the Bjelovar and Bilogora county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Development and basic existence of animal production as well as production of high quality milk depends upon possibility of sufficient production of quality and protein sufficient forage. Forage crop that satisfies these demands is alfalfa which is one of the most important perennial forage crop legumes. The aim of this study was to enhance alfalfa production on acid soil by liming and alfalfa seed inoculation with efficient Sinorhizobium meliloti strains in order to reduce the use of mineral nitrogen fertilization and enable qualitative and cost effective production of forage on the dairy farms. Field trial was established at family farm in the area of Bjelovar and Bilogora county. During two years experimental period statistically significant influence of inoculation and liming on forage and dry matteryield was determined. Significantly the lowest yields were determined on untreated plots without liming material. In all untreated plots, significantly lower yields were determined, but significant differences in yields were also obtained by inoculation with different S. meliloti strains, emphasizing the importance of strains selection used for alfalfa inoculation. In both experimental years total forage yield were ranging from 34 t/ha (untreated plots without liming up to 60 t/ha on plots inoculated with strain 2011 and without liming. Values of total dry matter yield for both experimental years ranged from 6.5 t/ha (untreated plots without liming up to 15,7 t/ha on plots inoculated with strain 2011 without liming. Results of this study showed that application of liming materials for acidity removal had positive effect on alfalfa yields in both experimental years and significantly improved alfalfa production on acid soils. The results of this study clearly showed that inoculation with selected S. meliloti strains may improve alfalfa production on acid soils and may contribute to more efficient forage production for dairy farms under particular

  6. CT scan screening for lung cancer: risk factors for nodules and malignancy in a high-risk urban cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa K Greenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-dose computed tomography (CT for lung cancer screening can reduce lung cancer mortality. The National Lung Screening Trial reported a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in high-risk smokers. However, CT scanning is extremely sensitive and detects non-calcified nodules (NCNs in 24-50% of subjects, suggesting an unacceptably high false-positive rate. We hypothesized that by reviewing demographic, clinical and nodule characteristics, we could identify risk factors associated with the presence of nodules on screening CT, and with the probability that a NCN was malignant. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal lung cancer biomarker discovery trial (NYU LCBC that included low-dose CT-screening of high-risk individuals over 50 years of age, with more than 20 pack-year smoking histories, living in an urban setting, and with a potential for asbestos exposure. We used case-control studies to identify risk factors associated with the presence of nodules (n=625 versus no nodules (n=557, and lung cancer patients (n=30 versus benign nodules (n=128. RESULTS: The NYU LCBC followed 1182 study subjects prospectively over a 10-year period. We found 52% to have NCNs >4 mm on their baseline screen. Most of the nodules were stable, and 9.7% of solid and 26.2% of sub-solid nodules resolved. We diagnosed 30 lung cancers, 26 stage I. Three patients had synchronous primary lung cancers or multifocal disease. Thus, there were 33 lung cancers: 10 incident, and 23 prevalent. A sub-group of the prevalent group were stable for a prolonged period prior to diagnosis. These were all stage I at diagnosis and 12/13 were adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: NCNs are common among CT-screened high-risk subjects and can often be managed conservatively. Risk factors for malignancy included increasing age, size and number of nodules, reduced FEV1 and FVC, and increased pack-years smoking. A sub-group of screen-detected cancers are slow-growing and may contribute to over

  7. Use of isotopes for increasing biological nitrogen fixation and yield of pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N-15 natural abundance and N-15 isotope dilution (ID) methods for measuring dinitrogen fixation and nitrogen transfer in alfalfa and alfalfa intercropped with meadow fescue were compared in three experiments. Although both methods gave essentially the same estimates the precision of the values obtained differed, and values obtained by the isotope dilution method were more precise. Similarly, the N-15 natural abundance method was not very suitable for detecting N transfer from legume to non-legume. Greater amounts of N transfer were detected by the ID method, and with a greater precision. Mixed cropping sometimes gave slight to high increases in % nitrogen fixation compared to alfalfa cropped alone. On the whole alfalfa was found to be a high nitrogen fixer, with fixation values from the second harvest onwards almost always greater than 80% and often close to 100%. 23 refs, 30 tabs

  8. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea. PMID:27348121

  9. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea. PMID:27348121

  10. An RNA Sequencing Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Molecular Aspects of the Nitrate Impact on the Nodule Activity of Medicago truncatula1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Ricardo; Koester, Beke; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; Baumgarten, Vanessa; Dirks, Jan; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism through which nitrate reduces the activity of legume nodules is controversial. The objective of the study was to follow Medicago truncatula nodule activity after nitrate provision continuously and to identify molecular mechanisms, which down-regulate the activity of the nodules. Nodule H2 evolution started to decline after about 4 h of nitrate application. At that point in time, a strong shift in nodule gene expression (RNA sequencing) had occurred (1,120 differentially expressed genes). The most pronounced effect was the down-regulation of 127 genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptides. Various other nodulins were also strongly down-regulated, in particular all the genes for leghemoglobins. In addition, shifts in the expression of genes involved in cellular iron allocation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis were observed. Furthermore, the expression of numerous genes for the formation of proteins and glycoproteins with no obvious function in nodules (e.g. germins, patatin, and thaumatin) was strongly increased. This occurred in conjunction with an up-regulation of genes for proteinase inhibitors, in particular those containing the Kunitz domain. The additionally formed proteins might possibly be involved in reducing nodule oxygen permeability. Between 4 and 28 h of nitrate exposure, a further reduction in nodule activity occurred, and the number of differentially expressed genes almost tripled. In particular, there was a differential expression of genes connected with emerging senescence. It is concluded that nitrate exerts rapid and manifold effects on nitrogenase activity. A certain degree of nitrate tolerance might be achieved when the down-regulatory effect on late nodulins can be alleviated. PMID:24285852

  11. Combining -Omics to Unravel the Impact of Copper Nutrition on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Stem Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Bruno; Guerriero, Gea; Sergeant, Kjell; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Guignard, Cédric; Renaut, Jenny; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2016-02-01

    Copper can be found in the environment at concentrations ranging from a shortage up to the threshold of toxicity for plants, with optimal growth conditions situated in between. The plant stem plays a central role in transferring and distributing minerals, water and other solutes throughout the plant. In this study, alfalfa is exposed to different levels of copper availability, from deficiency to slight excess, and the impact on the metabolism of the stem is assessed by a non-targeted proteomics study and by the expression analysis of key genes controlling plant stem development. Under copper deficiency, the plant stem accumulates specific copper chaperones, the expression of genes involved in stem development is decreased and the concentrations of zinc and molybdenum are increased in comparison with the optimum copper level. At the optimal copper level, the expression of cell wall-related genes increases and proteins playing a role in cell wall deposition and in methionine metabolism accumulate, whereas copper excess imposes a reduction in the concentration of iron in the stem and a reduced abundance of ferritins. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis suggests a role for the apoplasm as a copper storage site in the case of copper toxicity. PMID:26865661

  12. Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: Basic Principles and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hoon Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency (RF ablation has been gaining popularity as a minimally invasive treatment for benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. RF ablation of benign nodules demonstrated volume reductions of 33–58% after one month and 51–85% after six months, while solving nodule-related clinical problems. RF ablation has recently shown positive short-term results for locoregional control as well as symptom improvement in patients with recurrent thyroid cancers. This paper reviews the basic physics, indications, patient preparation, devices, procedures, clinical results, and complications of RF ablation.

  13. Subpleural pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun; Kim, Jo Heon; Kim, Young Chul

    2007-08-01

    We introduce a case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma presented as a solitary pulmonary nodule located subpleurally. The patient was a 57-year-old man who had abnormal chest roentgenograms showing a solitary pulmonary nodule in the right lower lung field. The nodule was resected for definitive diagnosis and histopathologically proved to be pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. In previously reported cases, most patients had ill-defined margins and usually bilateral, multiple lesions radiographically. In our case, the subpleural location is an uncommon location of this rare entity. PMID:17762348

  14. Fijian penis marbles: an example of artificial penile nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S A

    1993-04-01

    Artificial penile nodules are inert objects inserted beneath the skin of the penis to enhance the pleasure of female sexual partners during intercourse. The practice is most common among men from southeast Asia. This report describes a Fijian man who had an artificial penile nodule made from a whittled-down plastic toothbrush handle. Although some authors believe that the use of artificial penile nodules arose after World War II, the practice was discussed in the Kama Sutra, the classic Indian treatise on love. PMID:8477613

  15. Variability among Rhizobium Strains Originating from Nodules of Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkum, P; Beyene, D; Vera, F T; Keyser, H H

    1995-07-01

    Rhizobium strains from nodules of Vicia faba were diverse in plasmid content and serology. Results of multilocus gel electrophoresis and restriction fragment length polymorphism indicated several deep chromosomal lineages among the strains. Linkage disequilibrium among the chromosomal types was detected and may have reflected variation of Rhizobium strains in the different geographical locations from which the strains originated. An investigation of pea strains with antibodies prepared against fava bean strains and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, targeting DNA regions coding for rRNA and nodulation, indicated that Rhizobium strains from V. faba nodules were distinguishable from those from Pisum sativum, V. villosa, and Trifolium spp. PMID:16535075

  16. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  17. Technological parameters optimization for improving quality of heated-air dried alfalfa%提高紫花苜蓿热风干燥品质的工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文明; 陈红意; 赵满全

    2015-01-01

    紫花苜蓿的热风干燥是牧草收获后贮藏、深加工的必要预处理方式,为了研究紫花苜蓿干燥过程中各因素对干燥的影响及变化规律,为实际生产工艺提供参考,解决目前紫花苜蓿干燥加工中存在的营养成分损失大、含水率不稳定等问题,利用GZ-1型干燥试验装置,对紫花苜蓿的热风干燥特性和工艺进行了研究。以新鲜的紫花苜蓿为原料,紫花苜蓿的干品品质(粗蛋白含量、酸性洗涤纤维含量、中性洗涤纤维含量)为指标,在对其有影响的4个因素(热风温度、热风速度、茎秆压扁与切断长度情况、助干剂种类与浓度)进行单因素试验的基础上;采用4因素3水平正交试验进行了优化。通过对试验数据进行极差与方差分析,找出了优化工艺参数组合并得出结论:热风温度是影响苜蓿干品粗蛋白质含量的最主要因素,茎秆压扁与切断长度情况是影响苜蓿干品中酸性洗涤纤维和中性洗涤纤维含量的最主要因素,热风干燥优化后的工艺参数组合为热风温度70℃、热风速度2.5 m/s、茎秆切断长度10 cm且压扁、碳酸钾浓度3%。在此工艺参数条件下,能有效提高干燥效率,并降低干草中营养成分的损失。研究为确定紫花苜蓿热风干燥工艺参数,提高紫花苜蓿热风干燥品质提供参考。%Alfalfa is a perennial herb and it is from the Near East and East Asia. Alfalfa is rich in nutrients and trace elements such as proteins, iron and manganese that is necessary to growing of life. Alfalfa is also the high quality livestock forage. Because alfalfa contains more carbohydrates and less colloidal substances, it is difficult in ensiling. Alfalfa must be dried promptly after hay harvest. With the rapid development of animal husbandry, grass planting area is increasing rapidly. So production and modulation of hay is an important link of hay industrialization in

  18. Effect of Bradyrhizobium sp.Inoculation on Biomass and Nodulation of Cowpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOYUHUA; C.F.FONJI; 等

    1997-01-01

    Vigna unguiculata(L.)Walp (cowpea)is a tropical legume of very high nutrive and economic values.A laboratory experiment.was conducted to evaluate the BNF (biological nitrogen fixation) effciency of 4 strains of Bradyrhizobium sp.(VUXYI,VUIE1,VUMDS1 and VUID1).From the results obtained these strains were classified into efficiency groups,with VUID1 being the most efficient and VUXY1 the least efficient.the effect of inoculation was tested on 2 cowpea varieties in a field experiment.Remarkable increases in nodulation biomass and crop yield were observed.An increase from 58% ti 81% in dry seed was obtained for the two varieties.A significance test revealed a signifecantly positive correlation between nodulation and biomass.

  19. Transcript profiling of two alfalfa genotypes with contrasting cell wall composition in stems using a cross-species platform: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hans-Joachim G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable platform for transcript profiling in tetraploid alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L. subsp. sativa]. However, previous research involving cross-species hybridization (CSH has shown that sequence variation between two species can bias transcript profiling by decreasing sensitivity (number of expressed genes detected and the accuracy of measuring fold-differences in gene expression. Results Transcript profiling using the Medicago GeneChip® was conducted with elongating stem (ES and post-elongation stem (PES internodes from alfalfa genotypes 252 and 1283 that differ in stem cell wall concentrations of cellulose and lignin. A protocol was developed that masked probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions of alfalfa transcripts. A probe signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy. After masking for both ISV regions and previously identified single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs, the number of differentially expressed genes between the two genotypes in both ES and PES internodes was approximately 2-fold greater than the number detected prior to masking. Regulatory genes, including transcription factor and receptor kinase genes that may play a role in development of secondary xylem, were significantly over-represented among genes up-regulated in 252 PES internodes compared to 1283 PES internodes. Several cell wall-related genes were also up-regulated in genotype 252 PES internodes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR of differentially expressed regulatory and cell wall-related genes demonstrated increased sensitivity and accuracy after masking for both ISV regions and SFPs. Over 1,000 genes that were differentially expressed in ES and PES internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 were mapped onto putative orthologous loci on M. truncatula chromosomes. Clustering simulation analysis of the differentially expressed genes

  20. Danish Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating ‘Afghanistan’ pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    A wild pea (Pisum sativum L.) native to Afghanistan normally known to be resisant to nodulation with European strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was nodulated early and effectively in field soil in Denmark. Isolates from nodules formed effective nodules abundantly on 'Afghanistan' on reinfection...... pattern with Rhizobium leguminosarum strains isolated from a modern pea variety cultivated in the same field....

  1. ANTI-THYROID PEROXIDASE ANTIBODY LEVEL IN THYROID NODULES: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THYROID NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bera Swati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-TPO antibody level was evaluated in 86 patients, along with 25 healthy controls to detect its change in various forms of thyroid nodules particularly in thyroid malignancy when compared with healthy controls. The study revealed that Anti-TPO antibody level was increased in Benign & toxic form of Multi nodular goiter and papillary carcinoma but there is no elevation of Anti- TPO antibody level in follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma.

  2. The Role of Percutaneous Lung Biopsy in the Workup of a Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

    OpenAIRE

    Chaffey, Margaret H.

    1988-01-01

    As the technique of percutaneous lung biopsy continues to evolve, it offers an increasingly accurate method of establishing the malignancy or benignity of a solitary pulmonary nodule. There are relatively few contraindications to the procedure, and the complications—primarily pneumothorax and hemoptysis—generally resolve without therapy. Transthoracic needle aspiration has an important role in the workup for a “coin lesion.” Other elements of the diagnostic workup—particularly the history, a ...

  3. Aerobic microorganisms associated with alfalfa leafcutter bees (megachile rotundata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G D; Sigler, L; Goette, M S

    1993-09-01

    Characterization of microorganisms associated with alfalfa leaf-cutter bee (Megachile rotundata) nectar, pollen, provisions, larval guts, and frass (excreta) in Alberta demonstrated a varied aerobic microflora. Yeasts were isolated frequently from nectar, pollen, and provisions but rarely from guts or frass. The most prevalent yeast taxa were: Candida bombicola, Cryptococcus albidus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Rhodotorula glutinis. Although few filamentous fungi were found in nectar, they were frequently isolated from pollen and provisions; the predominant taxa were Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Bacteria, including species of Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, and the actinomycete Streptomyces, also were prevalent in provisions and/or on pollen. In general, the diversity of microorganisms isolated from alimentary canals and frass was lower than from nectar, pollen, and provisions. Bacillus firmus, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and Streptomyces spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria, whereas Trichosporonoides megachiliensis was the most common filamentous fungus isolated from larval guts and/or frass. These taxa may be part of the resident microflora of the alimentary canal. Populations of bacteria and filamentous fungi, but not yeasts, were larger from Ascosphaera aggregata-infected larvae than from healthy larvae. However, with the exception of Aspergillus niger and T. megachiliensis in frass from healthy larvae, no taxon of filamentous fungi was conspicuously present or absent in infected larvae, healthy larvae, or their frass. PMID:24190009

  4. Characterization of the plant growth promoting bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae MSR1, isolated from roots of non-nodulating Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ashraf Y Z; Alsyeeh, Abdel-Moneium; Almalki, Mohammed A; Saleh, Farag A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the endophytic bacterial strain designated MSR1 that was isolated from inside the non-nodulating roots of Medicago sativa after surface-sterilization. MSR1 was identified as Enterobacter cloacae using both 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and API20E biochemical identification system (Biomerieux, France). Furthermore, this bacterium was characterized using API50CH kit (Biomerieux, France) and tested for antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens. The results showed that E. cloacae consumed certain carbohydrates such as glycerol, d-xylose, d-maltose and esculin melibiose as a sole carbon source and certain amino acids such as arginine, tryptophan ornithine as nitrogen source. Furthermore, MSR1 possessed multiple plant-growth promoting characteristics; phosphate solubility, production of phytohormones acetoin and bioactive compounds. Inoculation of Pisum sativum with MSR1 significantly improved the growth parameters (the length and dry weight) of this economically important grain legume compared to the non-treated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing E. cloacae which exist in roots of alfalfa growing in Al-Ahsaa region. The results confirmed that E. cloacae exhibited traits for plant growth promoting and could be developed as an eco-friendly biofertilizer for P. sativum and probably for other important plant species in future. PMID:26858542

  5. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from alfalfa and its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Dong, Xiaofang; Tong, Jianming

    2013-11-01

    In this present study, an efficient complex enzyme-assisted extraction technology was developed and optimized to extract polysaccharides from alfalfa using four factors at five levels central composite rotatable response surface design (CCRD). The experimental data was fitted to a second order polynomial equation with high coefficient of determination values (R(2)>0.95). The results of statistical analysis showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects (Penzyme concentration of 2.5%, 2.0%, 3.0% (weight of alfalfa) of cellulase, papain and pectase, extraction temperature 52.7 °C, extraction pH 3.87, ratio of water to raw material 78.92 mL/g and extraction time 2.73 h. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental extraction yield of alfalfa polysaccharides was 5.05 ± 0.02%, which was well matched with the value (5.09%) predicted by the CCRD model. Moreover, evaluation of the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from alfalfa in vitro suggested that the polysaccharides had good antioxidant effect, especially scavenging activity for hydroxyl radical and DPPH radical, which indicated that the polysaccharides from alfalfa may be explored as a novel natural antioxidant.

  6. Research Progress of Alfalfa Silage%苜蓿青贮研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振宇; 玉柱; 智建飞; 谢楠; 秦文利; 冯伟; 刘忠宽

    2013-01-01

    As an important protein feed resources, alfalfa silage is of great significance for alfalfa industry and the healthy development of animal husbandry in China.In this paper, the research progress of development history and present situation of alfalfa silage, fermentation promotation, fermentation inhibiting and mixed silage were summarized, and the current main problems in alfalfa silage industry development and future research directions were put forward, in order to provide theoretical and practical references for the alfalfa silage research.%苜蓿作为一种重要的蛋白饲料资源,苜蓿青贮对我国苜蓿产业和畜牧业的健康发展具有重要意义。对苜蓿青贮发展历史与现状以及发酵促进、发酵抑制及混合青贮等研究进行了概述,提出了当前苜蓿青贮产业发展中存在的主要问题和今后的研究方向,以期为苜蓿青贮研究提供理论依据与实践参考。

  7. Yield, chemical composition and persistence of alfalfa on moderately acidic mountain soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Leto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its excellent nutritional characteristics and high yields, alfalfa is the most important forage crop in roughage production. The main limiting factor in global food production is soil acidification. At the moment, about 40% of world agricultural soils are acidic. It is difficult to grow alfalfa on acid soils (pH 0.05. Average DM yield of all cultivars in the year 2000 was 7.07 t/ha, in the year 2001 it was 10.94 t/ha, and finally in the year 2002 it was 12.78 t/ha. Significant differences in DM yields were recorded between cuttings (P0.05. Mean crude protein content was 28.2%, while contents of crude fat, crude fibers and non nitrogen free extract (NFE were 3.73%, 16.15%, 29.19%, respectively. No significant differences in alfalfa ground cover were recorded between cultivars in autumn or in spring in all experimental years (P>0.05. Significant differences in alfalfa ground cover in autumn (P<0.05 and in spring (P<0.01 were recorded between years. The lowest average ground cover was recorded in last experimental year: in the autumn of the year 2001(72.81% and in the spring of the year 2002 (64.37%. All investigated alfalfa cultivars are suitable for growing in similar agroecological conditions.

  8. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. PMID:21439724

  9. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  10. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Jonker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  11. Implications of season and management protocol on the landscape of gene regulation during diapause development in the Alfalfa Leaf Cutting Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    : The alfalfa leaf cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee for commercial pollination. It is the primary pollinator of seed alfalfa, a valuable crop for dairy cow feed. Overwintering bees emerge in the spring during alfalfa bloom to mate an...

  12. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseany Andrade Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emergence (DAE was greater in the TSC-amended than in the unamended soil. In the sandy soil, nodule dry weight increased with TSC application 45 DAE. In the clayey soil, 45 DAE, nodule dry weight decreased with TSC amendment levels greater than 7.5 t ha-1 compared to the unamended control. The application of TSC increased N accumulation in the cowpea plants. The results suggest that cowpea responds differently to TSC depending on the amendment rate and initial soil type.

  13. Diffuse Hyperpigmented Subcutaneous Nodules as a Primary Manifestation of Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Disease in Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Tabatabaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There are increasing reports of serious adverse events of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccination in infants with unrecognized primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs in our country. Among these adverse events skin manifestations occur less frequently and are less noticed. Case Presentation We report on an 11-months-old boy with prolonged fever and diffuse hyperpigmented subcutaneous nodules. Due to lymphopenia, oral thrush and severe adverse reaction to BCG vaccination, the possibility of primary immunodeficiency was considered for him and immunological investigations were done. Conclusions Subcutaneous nodules in the absence of a local reaction at the site of BCG vaccination may be the sole manifestation of disseminated BCG disease.

  14. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ferromanganese Nodule Analysis File - IDOE Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) compiled data on the geochemistry of marine ferromanganese nodules, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation...

  15. Indian exploration for polymetallic nodules in the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.

    , sonar devices for evaluating the functioning of heart, safety spinoffs for automobiles, computer techniques etc. Further, the shipping industry would get a huge fillip with the exploitation of nodules, in addition to harbour development, transport...

  16. Development of manganese nodule resources in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Resources evalution on grade and abundance of nodules using statistical methods for grab samples and photography data, combined with bathymetric and structural mapping, were carried out for delineation of the potential area of Central Indian Ocean...

  17. A classification of pulmonary nodules by CT scan

    OpenAIRE

    Bellomi, M.

    2012-01-01

    This Image Report aims to briefly describe, giving some imaging examples, the radiological definition of the features of lung nodules as commonly used by radiologists. We hope thus to improve communication and mutual understanding between radiologists and clinicians.

  18. The Indian Ocean nodule field: Geology and resource potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, A.K.; Iyer, S.D.

    This book briefly accounts for the physiography, geology, biology, physics and chemistry of the nodule field, and discusses in detail the aspects of structure, tectonic and volcanism in the field. The role of the ocean floor sediment that hosts...

  19. India's manganese nodule mine site in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    This commentary highlights the activities of massive exploration programme for manganese nodule deposits in the Central Indian Basin located 5 km below the ocean surface and India's claim for mine site development and registration with UNCLOS...

  20. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P;

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... differences, suggesting that there are both qualitative and quantitative changes in the metal ion and radical species present. A major component of the spectra obtained from young nodules is assigned to a complex (Lb-NO) of nitric oxide (NO.) with the heme protein leghemoglobin (Lb). This Lb-NO species, which......, results in changes in the EPR spectra, with the loss of the signals from the Lb-NO complex and appearance of absorptions similar to those from untreated senescent nodules. These results suggest that there are characteristic changes in both the metal ion complexes and radicals present in intact root...

  1. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    The distribution of manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the island nation Mauritius was delineated during cruise SK-35 of ORV Sagar Kanya in 1987. The areas surveyed included Saya de Malha and Nazareth Banks, the Cargados Carajos...

  2. Minimally invasive surgery colloidal cystic thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V G Petrov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the use of minimally invasive interventions - laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT, ethanol destruction (ED under ultrasound guidance, a combination of these methods in the treatment of сystic-col- loidal nodes (CCN of thyroid nodules in 120 patients. ED carried out in 31 patients with cystic destruction of a site of more than 70%. Marked decrease in the average volume with 4.68 ± 2.25 cm3 to 1.15 ± 0.9 cm3. In 4 patients remained cystic cavity of small size, which required a combination of LITT (CombiLITT. Nine patients underwent LITT solid residue of more than 1 cm3. The average size of nodules within 6 months after the primary surgery was 0.9 ± 0.3 cm3. СombiLITT performed in 42 patients with cystic cavity from 20 to 70%. The volume of units decreased from 7.98 ± 4.56 to 1.87 ± 0.9 cm3. After 3 months, 11 patients with the size of a solid residue of more than 1 cm3 held LITT. All of them when viewed after 3 months observed decrease of more than 50%. LITT performed 23 patients with major nodes and cystic cavities less than 20% of the node. Marked decrease in the amount of nodes with 2.89 ± 1.25 cm3 to 1.42 ± 0.8 cm3. Retesting LITT took 2 patients. After 6 months, the average amount of units was 0.7 ± 0.2 cm3 LITT conducted in 24 patients with small cystic nodes to 1 cm3. Marked decrease in size from 0.69 ± 0.23 cm3 to 0.29 ± 0.12 cm3. Varied selection of minimally inva- sive treatment of CCN is effective and in most cases, to achieve reduction of the size of nodes.

  3. Plant density and maturity stage impacts on stem cell wall composition in high quality and non-lodging alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can affect energy availability in livestock production systems and energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Knowledge of the environmental variability of cell wall concentration and composi...

  4. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  5. Effect of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed development and viability in genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral populations of cultivated crops have the potential to function as bridges and reservoirs that contribute to the unwanted movement of novel genetically engineered (GE) traits. Recognizing that feral alfalfa has the potential to lower genetic purity in alfalfa seed production fields when it is g...

  6. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors sup

  7. Molecular Biology Approaches to Solve Forage Crop Limitations: Improving Protein Utilization and Preventing Leaf Loss in Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory is using molecular biology approaches to better understand and develop solutions to some of the current limitations of alfalfa and other forage crops used in animal and bioenergy production systems. A major limitation of alfalfa is that much of its protein is degraded during harvest a...

  8. The genetic components of extended life expectancy in chilled, post-diapause quiescent Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, a solitary bee native to Eurasia, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee and has become the primary pollinator for alfalfa seed production. These bees, when commercially managed, are overwintered as diapausing prepupae under static ther...

  9. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee (hymenoptera: megachilidae) reproductive success according to location of nests in United States commercial domiciles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  10. Effect of microwave irradiation on alfalfa seeds germination and nitrogenase activity of endophytic diazotrophs in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various microwave powers were used to irradiate alfalfa seeds with various time to study the effect of microwave irradiation on nitrogenase activity of endogenous azotobacter and germination of seeds. Germination rate, germination speed and nitrogenase activity of pure cultures that derived from seed-carried azotobacter were tested. The results indicate that : 800 W, 20 s and 500 W, 40 s are found with highest germination rate on the 1st day, which is 122% and 88.9% times higher than the control group (Pth day is 29.8% and 41.9% times longer than the control group, and more sensitive nitrogenase activity is found on condition of various time than various powers. Short time treatments on condition of the two irradiation powers can increase nitrogenase activity conspicuously, and the treatments that treated more than 32 s make nitrogenase activity lower than the control group, conspicuously. Nitrogenase activity is found 104.9% times higher than the control group on condition of 24 s. (authors)

  11. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: Atomic Gas and the Regulation of Star Formation in Barred Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Haynes, Martha P; Keel, William C; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' HI content from the ALFALFA blind HI survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas rich disc galaxies than gas poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation, and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangu...

  12. Ethylene, a Hormone at the Center-Stage of Nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinel, Frédérique C

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenous compounds. Furthermore, as they are rich in nitrogen, legumes are considered important as staple foods for humans and fodder for animals. To tightly control this association and keep it mutualistic, the plant uses several means, including hormones. The hormone ethylene has been known as a negative regulator of nodulation for almost four decades. Since then, much progress has been made in the understanding of both the ethylene signaling pathway and the nodulation process. Here I have taken a large view, using recently obtained knowledge, to describe in some detail the major stages of the process. I have not only reviewed the steps most commonly covered (the common signaling transduction pathway, and the epidermal and cortical programs), but I have also looked into steps less understood (the pre-infection step with the plant defense response, the bacterial release and the formation of the symbiosome, and nodule functioning and senescence). After a succinct review of the ethylene signaling pathway, I have used the knowledge obtained from nodulation- and ethylene-related mutants to paint a more complete picture of the role played by the hormone in nodule organogenesis, functioning, and senescence. It transpires that ethylene is at the center of this effective symbiosis. It has not only been involved in most of the steps leading to a mature nodule, but it has also been implicated in host immunity and nodule senescence. It is likely responsible for the activation of other hormonal

  13. Ethylene, a hormone at the centre-stage of nodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Catherine Guinel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenous compounds. Furthermore, as they are rich in nitrogen, legumes are considered important as staple foods for humans and fodder for animals. To tightly control this association and keep it mutualistic; the plant uses several means, including hormones. The hormone ethylene has been known as a negative regulator of nodulation for almost four decades. Since then, much progress has been made in the understanding of both the ethylene signaling pathway and the nodulation process. Here I have taken a large view, using recently-obtained knowledge, to describe in some detail the major stages of the process. I have not only reviewed the steps most commonly covered (the common signaling transduction pathway, and the epidermal and cortical programs, but I have also looked into steps less understood (the pre-infection step with the plant defense response, the bacterial release and the formation of the symbiosome, and nodule functioning and senescence. After a succinct review of the ethylene signaling pathway, I have used the knowledge obtained from nodulation- and ethylene-related mutants to paint a more complete picture of the role played by the hormone in nodule organogenesis, functioning, and senescence. It transpires that ethylene is at the centre of this effective symbiosis. It has not only been involved in most of the steps leading to a mature nodule, but it has also been implicated in host immunity and nodule senescence. It is likely responsible for the activation of

  14. Sarcoma-like mural nodules in ovarian mucinous cystadenomas - A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma-like mural nodule is a very rare occurrence in a mucinous tumour of the ovary. Two such nodules having morphologically benign features with osteoclastic giant cells, in the wall of mucinous cystadenoma are described. In addition, these nodules exhibited reactive vascular proliferations. The sarcoma-like nodules are associated with a favourable outcome and must be distinguished from other malignant nodules composed of sarcoma or anaplastic carcinoma that may also occur in the wall of mucinous ovarian tumours.

  15. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Ayper KAÇAR; İrem PAKER; Gülşah KABAÇAM BAYRAM; Fatma DEMİREL; Şenel, Emrah; Murat KIZILGÜN

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to evaluate fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients, and the pathologies that cause childhood thyroid nodules, and to review the literature on the subject.Material and Method: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients were retrospectively reviewed. Associated diseases, thyroid functions, anti-thyroid antibody levels, ultrasonographic findings and number of nodules were also evaluated.Results: The vast major...

  16. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thicknesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and microstructural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic castings in the thin plates (≤4.3 mm) while in the 8 mm plate the nodule count was higher in the hypereutectic than in the eutectic castings. The minimum temperature before the eutectic recalescence (Tmin) w...

  17. Pulmonary Nodules with Cutaneous Manifestations: A Case Report and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiles T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules is large and includes congenital and inherited disorders, malignancy, infectious etiologies, noninfectious granulomatous and inflammatory conditions,among many others. Diagnostic evaluation is aided by attention to extrapulmonary symptoms and features. We herein describe an unusual case of multiple pulmonary nodules attributed to cysticercosis and present a discussion of pathophysiologic changes related to medications and highlight the diagnostic value of extrapulmonary cutaneous features.

  18. Plant Hormonal Regulation of Nitrogen-Fixing Nodule Organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hojin; Cho, Hyunwoo; Choi, Daeseok; Hwang, Ildoo

    2012-01-01

    Legumes have evolved symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria to efficiently utilize nitrogen. Recent progress in symbiosis has revealed several key components of host plants required for nitrogen-fixing nodule organogenesis, in which complicated metabolic and signaling pathways in the host plant are reprogrammed to generate nodules in the cortex upon perception of the rhizobial Nod factor. Following the recognition of Nod factors, plant hormones are likely to be essential throughout no...

  19. Pulmonary necrobiotic nodules: a rare extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Warwick

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article reports the case of a 22-yr-old female with new onset Crohn's colitis, anterior uveitis and multiple pulmonary nodules which, on histological examination, were necrobiotic nodules. This is a rare but recognised pulmonary extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease and only the fourth reported case. The present case report is followed by a brief review of the relevant literature.

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament remnants nodule: potential factor causing extension loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; AO Ying-fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Extension loss caused by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remnants nodule was usually reported by case reports.There is no systematic report analyzing ACL remnants nodule.The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of extension loss caused by remnants of ACL after injury.Methods From June 2008 to December 2011,ACL remnants were observed by atthroscopy in 1012 cases with ACL injuries at the time of primary reconstruction.ACL remnants nodules were recorded.The time of extension loss occurrence caused by ACL remnants nodule,associated symptom and sign,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),and arthroscopic findings were observed.Histological examination was performed on the lesion resected.Results Twenty-four cases with ACL remnants nodules were found by arthroscopy.Among them extension loss caused by remnants of ACL happened in 19 cases (male 13; female 6).The average extension loss were 9.1° (range,5°-20°).The average time from injury to operation was 8.9 weeks (range,3-26 weeks).The remnants of ACL depressed in the inter-condylar notch were found on MRI in 15 cases with extension loss.The rupture locations of ACL were all close to the upper insertion of ACL.The microscopic examination of the resected remnants of ACL revealed disorganized fibrous connective tissue and tissue of ACL ligament.Conclusions Among 1012 ACL injury cases,24 ACL remnants nodules were found with arthroscopy and 19 nodules could cause knee extension loss.ACL remnants nodule should be paid attention to as a potential cause of extension loss.

  1. Three-dimensional Mass Measurement of Subsolid Pulmonary Nodules on Chest CT: Intra and Inter-observer Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiting LIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Subsolid pulmonary nodules tend to exhibit considerably slower growth rates than solid lesions, nevertheless, higher malignancy probability. The diagnosis of indeterminate nodules largely depends on the growth evaluation during follow-up. The growth can manifested as an increase in size or the appearance and/or subsequent increase of solid components. The mass reflect the product of volume and density and can be more sensitive in growth evaluation. However, the repeatability needs a further validation. The purpose of this study is to assess the intra and inter-observer variability of mass measurement for subsolid nodules. Methods 80 subsolid nodules in 44 patients were retrospectively enrolled. Both the volume and mass were measured by two radiologists using blind method independently. Intra-observer and inter-observer variability were analyzed and compared by Bland-Altman method intra-class correlation test and Wilcoxon test. Results Software achieved satisfied segmentation for 92.5% nodules. Of them, 35% underwent manual modification. The 95% limits of agreement for intra-observer variability were -11.5%-10.4% for mass and -8.4%-8.8% for volume. The 95% limits of agreement for inter-observer variability were -17.4%-19.3% for mass and -17.9%-19.4% for volume.The intra-class correlation foefficients between volume and mass measument was 0.95 and 0.93 (both P<0.001 and no significant differences (P=0.78, 0.09 was found for intra- and inter-observer variability. Manual modification of the segmentation caused the worse mass measurement repeatability in spite of the reader satisfaction. Conclusion The repeatability of mass measurement has no significant difference with that of volume measurement and may act as a reliable method in the follow-up of subsolid nodules.

  2. Auto Diagnostics of Lung Nodules Using Minimal Characteristics Extraction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Peña

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided detection (CAD systems provide useful tools and an advantageous process to physicians aiming to detect lung nodules. This paper develops a method composed of four processes for lung nodule detection. The first step employs image acquisition and pre-processing techniques to isolate the lungs from the rest of the body. The second stage involves the segmentation process using a 2D algorithm to affect every layer of a scan eliminating non-informative structures inside the lungs, and a 3D blob algorithm associated with a connectivity algorithm to select possible nodule shape candidates. The combinations of these algorithms efficiently eliminate the high rates of false positives. The third process extracts eight minimal representative characteristics of the possible candidates. The final step utilizes a support vector machine for classifying the possible candidates into nodules and non-nodules depending on their features. As the objective is to find nodules bigger than 4mm, the proposed approach demonstrated quite encouraging results. Among 65 computer tomography (CT scans, 94.23% of sensitivity and 84.75% in specificity were obtained. The accuracy of these two results was 89.19% taking into consideration that 45 scans were used for testing and 20 for training. The rate of false positives was 0.2 per scan.

  3. Iatrogenic Pulmonary Nodule in a Heart Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul C. Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old female with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and end-stage nonischemic cardiomyopathy from Adriamycin toxicity underwent orthotic heart transplantation during June 2013. She developed shortness of breath in September 2013 and was suspected to have invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. A flexible bronchoscopy (FB with a transbronchial biopsy (TBBx was performed. She was found to have a focal lung nodule in the same location at the site of the TBBx on day 13 after the FB. Spontaneous resolution of the nodule was confirmed on the computed tomography (CT scan of chest performed at 3 months. We believe that this nodule was as a consequence of the TBBx. Formation of a peripheral pulmonary nodule (PPN following a TBBx is occasionally encountered among the recipients of the lung transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of TBBx producing a pulmonary nodule in a heart transplant recipient. Physicians caring for the patients with heart transplantation should be cognizant of the iatrogenic nature of such nodule to avoid unnecessary diagnostic work-up.

  4. Clinical guidelines for management of thyroid nodule and cancer during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofré, Juan Carlos; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Special considerations are warranted in management of thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer during pregnancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of thyroid nodules follows the standard practice in non-pregnant women. On the other hand, differentiated thyroid cancer management during pregnancy poses a number of challenges for the mother and fetus. The available data show that pregnancy is not a risk factor for thyroid cancer development or recurrence, although flare-ups cannot be completely ruled out in women with active disease. If surgery is needed, it should be performed during the second term or, preferably, after delivery. A majority of pregnant patients with low-risk disease only need adjustment in levothyroxine therapy. However, women with increased serum thyroglobulin levels before pregnancy or structural disease require regular thyroglobulin measurements and neck ultrasound throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication for radioactive iodine administration.

  5. Diagnostic procedures of the solitary pulmonary nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Kohara, Hiroyuki [National Sanyo Hospital, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)] [and others

    2003-04-01

    The spread of computed tomography (CT) brought the frequent further examinations of the solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). To aim the evaluation of initial data on examinations of SPN for differential diagnosis, we studied retrospective cases. Thirty-one cases of SPN less than 20 mm in diameter were compared in clinical findings and CT image findings and were examined the diagnostic procedures in recent three years in National Sanyo Hospital. The 31 patients consisted of 14 males and 17 females ranging 44 to 79 years old, median 65 years old. The causes of SPN were lung cancer (11 patients), cryptococcosis (4 patients), tuberculoma (3 patients), non-tuberculous mycobacteria (2 patients), pneumoconiosis (2 patients), pneumonia scar (one patient), hamartoma (one patient), and unknown (7 patients). There were no significant differences in laboratory findings between lung cancer and the others. CT findings showed significant differences in four categories. All patients underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) examinations and 12 patients were determined the diagnosis initial FB. Five patients were established their diagnosis using videoassociated thoracoscopic surgeries. (author)

  6. 生育期与品种对紫花苜蓿营养价值及瘤胃降解率的影响%The Effect of Different Growth Period and Variety on Nutrition Value and Its Rumen Degradability of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 辛杭书; 王燕; 夏科; 张永根

    2012-01-01

    Three varieties of alfalfa mowed at squaring stage, initial bloom or full-bloom stage were chosen and air-dried to investigate the effect of different growth period and variety on nutrition value and its rumen degradability of alfalfa. The results showed that the contents such as crude protein (CP) and crude ash(CA),the effective degradation rate and immediately soluble components content (a component) of CP and NDF reduced as the growth period extended; while the nutrient contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF),the slow degradation components (b component) of CP increased. The content of CP and the effective degradation rate of Zhaodong alfalfa and Longmu 803 alfalfa were significantly higher than that of Longmu 801 alfalfa (P<0. 01); the content of ADF and the effective degradation rate of CP reduced according to the order of Zhaodong alfalfa, Longmu 801 alfalfa and Longmu 803 alfalfa (P<0. 05); growth period and variety had significant interaction on the content of CP and the effective degradation rate of NDF. It was concluded that growth period and variety had significant effect on the nutrient content and effective degradation rate of alfalfa.%选用3个品种(肇东、龙牧801和龙牧803)、3个不同生育期(现蕾期、初花期和盛花期)的紫花苜蓿,研究不同生育期与品种对苜蓿营养价值及瘤胃降解特性的影响.结果表明,粗蛋白质(CP)含量、粗灰分(CA)含量、CP和中性洗涤纤维(NDF)的瘤胃有效降解率及快速降解组分(a组分)含量均随生育期的延长而降低;NDF、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)和CP的慢速降解组分(b组分)含量随生育期的延长而升高;肇东和龙牧803的CP含最、NDF有效降解率极显著高于龙牧801(P<0.01);ADF含量、CP有效降解率按肇东、龙牧801、龙牧803顺序显著降低(P<0.05);生育期与品种对CP含量、CA含量及CP、NDF有效降解率均有明显的互作效应.

  7. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: A Model for Involving Undergraduates in Large Astronomy Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David W.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. This effort has been made possible through the collaboration of the ALFALFA PIs and graduate students, Arecibo Observatory staff, and the faculty at 19 undergraduate-focussed institutions. In this talk, we will discuss how the UAT model works for the ALFALFA project and lessons learned from our efforts over the 8 years of grant funding. We will provide suggestions on how the model could be applied to other legacy projects, particularly in such areas as online collaboration and software usage by undergraduates. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  8. [Effects of continuous cropping of wheat and alfalfa on soil enzyme activities and nutrients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Qiong; Hao, Ming-De; Zang, Yi-Fei; Li, Li-Xia

    2014-11-01

    Based on a long-term rotation and fertilization experiment in Changwu, Shaanxi, China, we determined the enzymatic activities and nutrients in soils after 27 years continuous cropping of alfalfa and wheat, respectively. The activities of invertase, urease and phosphatase were not affected by fertilization treatment within each cropping system, but they were significantly higher in the alfalfa continuous cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system under each fertilization treatment. The activity of hydrogen peroxidase was not affected by the type of cropping system or fertilization treatment. Across the cropping systems, the activities of soil urease, phosphatase and hydrogen peroxidase were higher while soil invertase activity was lower in N, P and manure (NPM) combined treatment compared with the other fertilization treatments. The accumulations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen and available nitrogen were greater in the alfalfa cropping system than in the wheat continuous cropping system, and the NPM treatment could improve the soil fertility. PMID:25898616

  9. Effect of partial replacement of alfalfa hay with Moringa species leaves on milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Elfadıl E; Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Mohamed, H E; Abdoun, Khalid A

    2016-10-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate changes in milk yield and composition of Najdi ewes fed 25 % Moringa oleifera (MOD) or Moringa peregrina (MPD) leaf diets as a supplement to alfalfa hay diet (AHD). Thirty ewes (average 55 kg, 2 years old) were randomly sorted into three experimental groups with 10 animals each and were fed for a 6-week period with these diets (AHD, MOD, or MPD). Diets dry matter, crude protein, and crude fiber were comparable, while fat, nitrogen-free extract (NFE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), metabolizable energy (ME), total phenolic, and antioxidant activity varied (p ≤ 0.05) between the diets. Feeding ewes with MOD increased (p ≤ 0.05) the milk yield compared to those fed AHD while milk composition was similar (p ≤ 0.05) between treatments. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ewes' milk and serum was lower (p ≤ 0.05) for MOD, while the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and vitamin C contents were increased (p ≤ 0.05). The serum cholesterol and glucose of the ewes were lower (p ≤ 0.05) for those fed MOD. Moringa diets increased (p ≤ 0.05) average daily weight gain of lambs compared to those fed alfalfa diets. The results obtained showed that the inclusion of Moringa, especially M. oleifera, in the diet of Najdi ewes can improve milk yield and quality.

  10. Graphite nodule count and size distribution in thin-walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count as these ar......Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count...... as these are inclusions and micro porosities that do not influence the solidification morphology. If there are many small graphite nodules as in thin walled castings only 3D nodule count calculated by FDM will give reliable results. 2D nodule count and 3D nodule count calculated by simple equations will give too low...... results. The 3D size distribution showed presence of primary graphite nodules in hypereutectic castings. In thin plates the nodule count is similar in eutectic and hypereutectic plates. In thicker plates the hypereutectic casting has the highest nodule count....

  11. Analysis of the BRAFV600E Mutation in Thyroid Nodules: the Preoperative Diagnostic Role of Fine-needle Aspiration Biopsy for Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer and Its Impact on Patient Care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ji Yeon; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Chul Hee; Kwak, Jeong Ja; Lee, Seung Won; Kim, Jae Wook [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We wanted to evaluate the frequency of BRAFV600E mutations on the preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) of thyroid nodules and the effect of this on the accuracy of diagnosing papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We also wanted to evaluate the influence of BRAFV600E analysis on patient care. The results of cytology and BRAFV600E mutation analysis of 190 thyroid nodules were retrospectively reviewed. The results of the cytology and BRAFV600E analysis were compared with the histopathological diagnosis for the surgically confirmed cases, and we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and the diagnostic accuracy of FNAB and combining the modalities of FNAB and BRAFV600E mutation. The frequency of BRAFV600E mutation according to age and the influence of BRAFV600E analysis on patient care were studied. The nodule size was compared between the malignant and other categories of BRAFV600E positive nodules. Seventy four percent of the PTC were BRAFV600E positive. BRAFV600E analysis increased the sensitivity, NPP and diagnostic accuracy of FNAB. Fifty percent of the BRAFV600E positive nodules with other than malignant cytology received surgery and these were confirmed to be PTC. The frequency of BRAFV600E mutation increased with age, which was statistically significant. There was a statistically significant difference in the nodule size between the cytologically malignant nodules and the other nodules. BRAFV600E analysis increased the diagnostic accuracy of FNAB and it should be considered as being complementary to cytological analysis. The frequency of the BRAFV600E mutation increased with age. The size of the malignant nodules was larger than that of the benign nodules

  12. Growth, nodulation and yield response of soybean to biofertilizers and organic manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain TAL-102 and a commercial biofertlizer EM (effective microorganisms) on growth, nodulation and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Wilczek] in soils amended either with farmyard manure or Trifolium alexandrinum L. green manure at the rate 20 tons ha/sup -1/ each. In green manure amendment, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced number and biomass of nodules resulting in a significant increase of 27, 65 and 55% in shoot biomass and number and biomass of pods, respectively. In farmyard manure amended soil, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced fresh biomass of nodules. As a result a significant increase of 45 and 47% in shoot biomass and number of pods was recorded, respectively. Generally, the effect of sole EM application on various studied parameters was insignificant in both the soil amendment systems. Combined application of EM and B. japonicum in green manure amended soil reduced shoot growth and number of pods as compared to sole B. japonicum inoculation. Conversely, in farmyard manure amendment, plants co-inoculated with B. japonicum and EM exhibited highest and significantly greater shoot biomass, and number and biomass of pods as compared to all other treatments. The present study concludes that soybean yield can be significantly enhanced by the application of B. japonicum and EM in farmyard manure amendment. (author)

  13. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayad, Ahmed G.; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A.; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M.; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  14. Assessing the Spatial Variability of Alfalfa Yield Using Satellite Imagery and Ground-Based Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayad, Ahmed G; Al-Gaadi, Khalid A; Tola, ElKamil; Madugundu, Rangaswamy; Zeyada, Ahmed M; Kalaitzidis, Chariton

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability in a crop yield is viewed as one of the key steps in the implementation of precision agriculture practices. Therefore, a study on a center pivot irrigated 23.5 ha field in Saudi Arabia was conducted to assess the variability in alfalfa yield using Landsat-8 imagery and a hay yield monitor data. In addition, the study was designed to also explore the potential of predicting the alfalfa yield using vegetation indices. A calibrated yield monitor mounted on a large rectangular hay baler was used to measure the actual alfalfa yield for four alfalfa harvests performed in the period from October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 18 Landsat-8 images, representing different crop growth stages, were used to derive different vegetation indices (VIs). Data from the yield monitor was used to generate yield maps, which illustrated a definite spatial variation in alfalfa yield across the experimental field for the four studied harvests as indicated by the high spatial correlation values (0.75 to 0.97) and the low P-values (4.7E-103 to 8.9E-27). The yield monitor-measured alfalfa actual yield was compared to the predicted yield form the Vis. Results of the study showed that there was a correlation between actual and predicted yield. The highest correlations were observed between actual yield and the predicted using NIR reflectance, SAVI and NDVI with maximum correlation coefficients of 0.69, 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. PMID:27281189

  15. The Effect of Implementing Gene Expression Classifier on Outcomes of Thyroid Nodules with Indeterminate Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeykoon, Jithma Prasad; Mueller, Luke; Dong, Frank; Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V; Paludo, Jonas; Mortada, Rami

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid nodules are classified into six cytological categories under the Bethesda classification system. Two of these categories, atypical of undetermined significance (AUS) and suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (SFN), are further labeled as "indeterminate" diagnosis. Starting in June, 2012, Kansas University-Wichita Endocrine clinic implemented Afirma® Gene Expression Classifier (AGEC) to evaluate the need for surgical resection of thyroid nodules in patients with an indeterminate diagnosis. Electronic medical records of patients who underwent thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration from 2004-2014 were reviewed. The aim of this study was to find whether implementing AGEC was associated with decreased surgical recommendation rate, decreased cost, and increased incidence of thyroid malignancy diagnosed by surgery in patients with indeterminate diagnosis. A total of 299 consecutive patients' charts were screened. Sixty-one (20 %) patients had an indeterminate diagnosis. Out of these, 27 (44 %) patients underwent evaluation before and 34 (56 %) patients underwent evaluation after AGEC implementation, respectively. Surgical recommendation for patients with indeterminate finding decreased from 81.5 to 50 % (p = 0.01) after AGEC implementation. Surgical pathology was read as malignant in 20 and 85.7 % (p < 0.01) of patients before and after AGEC implementation, respectively. Primary cost-benefit estimate showed implementing AGEC has saved $1048/patient in medical evaluation and initial management of patients with indeterminate diagnosis. AGEC implementation has decreased the number of surgical recommendations, has lowered financial burden, and has increased incidence of thyroid malignancy diagnosed by surgical pathology in patients with indeterminate diagnosis of thyroid nodules. PMID:27102883

  16. WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Márcia do Vale B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1, -70.0 (S2 and <-85.0 KPa (S3. The experimental design was randomized blocks with sub-divided plots, each plot containing a different degree of water stress, divided in sub-plots for the four different developmental stages: E1 (0-15, E2 (15-30, E3 (20-35 and E4 (30-45 days after emmergence. Water stress treatments were applied by monitoring soil water potential using a set of porous cups. The effect of water stress was most harmful to cowpea when it was applied at E2 than at other symbiotic process stages. Shoot/root ratio decreased from 2.61 to 2.14 when matric potential treatment was <-85.0 and -70.0 KPa respectively. There was a reduction in the glutamine synthetase activity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxilase activity with increased stress, while glutamine synthase activity was the enzyme most sensitive to water stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased in more negative matric potential, indicating that this enzyme is sufficiently activitye under water stress.

  17. In situ protein degradation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hays and silages as influenced by condensed tannin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Grabber, J H

    2013-05-01

    Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprising high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because nonprotein N formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, condensed tannins (CT) may reduce proteolysis in the silo and in the rumen, thereby potentially improving the efficiency of crude protein (CP) use in ruminant diets. Two harvests, yielding 12 hays and 12 silages made from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) that varied in concentrations of CT, were evaluated for in situ disappearance kinetics of CP in 6 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 56.3 kg). Prior to conservation, alfalfa contained no detectable CT, whereas CT in fresh lyophilized birdsfoot trefoil ranged from 1.16 to 2.77% of dry matter, as determined by a modified acetone-butanol-HCl assay. Percentages of CP remaining at each incubation time were fitted to nonlinear regression models with or without a discrete lag time. Effective ruminal disappearance of CP (rumen-degradable protein, RDP) was calculated by 3 procedures that included (1) no discrete lag (RDPNL), (2) discrete lag (RDPL), and (3) discrete lag with a lag adjustment (RDPLADJ). Regardless of the calculation method, RDP declined linearly with increasing CT concentrations (R(2)=0.62 to 0.97). Generally, tests of homogeneity showed that conservation type (hay or silage) or harvest (silage only) affected intercepts, but not slopes in regressions of RDP on CT. A positive relationship between lag time and CT suggests that the RDPLADJ approach may be most appropriate for calculating RDP for legumes containing tannins. With this approach, regression intercepts were mainly affected by conservation method, and RDPLADJ averaged 77.5 and 88.7% of CP for hay and silage, respectively, when no CT was present. Greater estimates of RDP for silages were related to extensive proteolysis in

  18. Meat quality of rabbits reared with two different feeding strategies: with or without fresh alfalfa ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Capra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate production performance, carcass characteristics and nutritive value of meat of rabbits reared under the 2 prevailing feeding strategies in Uruguay. One week after weaning, 96 purebred V line rabbits were randomly distributed between 2 treatments: (T1 commercial pelleted food ad libitum and (T2 commercial pelleted food ad libitum plus fresh alfalfa ad libitum. Each treatment included 12 cages containing 4 individuals each (2 males and 2 females. Growth performance characteristics (live weight evolution, commercial food consumption and food/gain ratio were evaluated. The consumption of alfalfa was not measured. Rabbits were slaughtered at a live weight of 2500 g and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Samples of meat and dissectible fat were analysed to determine intramuscular fat content at muscle L. dorsi, dissectible fat and intramuscular fat composition, minerals (Zn, Fe, Mg and Na, vitamin E and purines. Sensory evaluations were conducted to assess the effect of treatments on the consumer’s perception of differences and the existence of attributes determining preferences. Differences between treatments were significant for total commercial food intake (23 356 vs. 20 930 g/cage; P<0.001 and feed conversion ratio (3.82 vs. 3.41; P<0.01 for T1 and T2 respectively. No significant differences were found in average daily gain, age at slaughter and carcass characteristics. There were no significant differences in the intramuscular fat content. The fatty acid composition of dissectible and intramuscular fat was affected the inclusion of alfalfa in the diet increasing the linolenic acid content (1.82 vs. 3.28% and 2.29 vs. 5.15% for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001, and improving the n-6/n-3 relationship (8.60 vs. 5.82 and 11.58 vs. 5.64 for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001. There were no significant differences in vitamin E

  19. The Optical Luminosity Function of Void Galaxies in the SDSS and ALFALFA Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Crystal M.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Hoyle, Fiona; Pan, Danny C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    We measure the r-band galaxy luminosity function (LF) across environments over the redshift range 0 ALFALFA). We find that the global LF of the ALFALFA sample is not well fit by a Schechter function because of the presence of a wide dip in the LF around Mr = -18 and an upturn at fainter magnitudes (α ˜ -1.47). We compare the H i selected r-band LF to various LFs of optically selected populations to determine where the H i selected optical LF obtains its shape. We find that sample selection plays a large role in determining the shape of the LF.

  20. Black Leaf and Stem of Alfalfa Caused by Phoma medicaginis Malbr & Roum. var. medicaginis Boerema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif R. Susuri

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Phoma medicaginis has recently been spreading on alfalfa causing black leaf and stem in irrigation fields near Prizren. The average number of lesions is from 18 up to 30 on leaves with an average diameter of 1-10 mm. The average size of pycnidia from diseased alfalfa leaves, stems and PDA is 325 x 338 μm, whereas the average size of pycnidiospores is 7.3 x 3.6 μm. Maximum spore production in average was on PDA 140.9 x 104/ml.

  1. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong [College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Qian [Hebei Geological Laboratory, Baoding 071000, China and Multi-disciplinary Research Center, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Yang, Ying [Hebei University Affiliated Hospital, Baoding 071002 (China); Xie, Hongzhi, E-mail: gulixu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang [Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking 100005 (China); Gu, Lixu, E-mail: gulixu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn [Multi-disciplinary Research Center, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China and School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  2. Evaluation of Selection Indices for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of selection indices in alfalfa improvement, an experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2007 at East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Iran. A set of 29 native ecotypes, which were collected in 2000 and 2001 from Azerbaijan (Iran, together with one improved variety were used to conduct a polycross nursery. For the purpose of random mating, a randomized complete block design was used with 12 replications arranged in this nursery. The resulting 30 half-sib families were planted individually in pots and the 30 days old seedlings were transplanted to the field in May, 2004. Each 3-row plot consisted of 45 HS plants. Several traits, such as individual plants� fresh weight and individual plants� dry weight (IPFW, IPDW, number of shoots per plant (NS and plant height (PH in each harvest and also, days until 10% flowering, the ratio of fresh and dry weight of leaves/plant and size of trifoliate leaves were measured for three cropping seasons. The results of analysis of variance showed large variation among polycross progenies. Six selection indices (Ii with different number of traits at adult plant stage were evaluated. Based on the result of this investigation, if number of shoots and height of adult plant, excluding yield, are recorded, I2 is suggested. If, in addition to fresh yield, height of adult plant is measured, I6 is recommended. I4 is useful when number of shoots and plant height with dry yield are included in the index. In conclusion, the importance of mature plant traits in selection indices was in the order of yield > plant height > number of shoots. The results provided more evidence that selection indices incorporating the component of dry yield are more advantageous. The most efficient selection index consisted of NS, IPDW and PH, having a relative efficiency of 280%.

  3. The spreading of Alfalfa mosaic virus in lavandin in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stanković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available survey was conducted in 2012 and 2013 to detect the presence and distribution of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV in lavandin crops growing in continental parts of Croatia. A total of 73 lavandin samples from six crops in different localities were collected and analyzed for the presence of AMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV using commercial double-antibody sandwich (DAS-ELISA kits. AMV was detected serologically in 62 samples collected at three different localities, and none of the samples tested positive for CMV. For further analyses, six selected samples of naturally infected lavandin plants originating from different localities were mechanically transmitted to test plants: Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, Nicotiana benthamiana and Ocimum basilicum, confirming the infectious nature of the disease. Molecular detection was performed by amplification of a 751 bp fragment in all tested samples, using the specific primers CP AMV1/CP AMV2 that amplify the part of the coat protein (CP gene and 3’-UTR. The RT-PCR products derived from the isolates 371-13 and 373-13 were sequenced (KJ504107 and KJ504108, respectively and compared with the AMV sequences available in GenBank. CP sequence analysis, conducted using the MEGA5 software, revealed that the isolate 371-13 had the highest nucleotide identity of 99.5% (100% amino acid identity with an isolate from Argentina originating from Medicago sativa (KC881010, while the sequence of isolate 373-13 had the highest identity with an Italian AMV isolate from Lavandula stoechas (FN667967 of 98.6% (99% amino acid identity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the clustering of selected isolates into four molecular groups and the lavandin AMV isolates from Croatia grouped into two distinct groups, implying a significant variability within the AMV lavandin population.

  4. 盐碱地改良剂对紫花苜蓿生长的影响%Influence of Saline-alkali Land Conditioners on Alfalfa Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑普山; 冯悦晨; 郝保平; 李屹峰; 薛志强

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Desulfurized gypsum, Guochan 1, Cuochan 2 conditioners on yield of alfalfa in the waste saline—alkali soil with heavy soda under field conditions. The results showed that, compared with the control, soil pH reduced 0.15 ~ 1.26, the emergence rale of alfalfa increased from 17.8% to 30.5% after application of three soil conditioners. The order of increasing emergence rate was Desulfurized gypsum > Cuochan 2> Cuochan 1. The total fresh biomass of alfalfa were increased by 3 107.5 ~ 6 971.3 kg/hm2, and the order of enhancing fresh biomass was Cuochan 2 > Guochan 1 > Desulfurized gypsum.%通过田间试验,研究了重度苏打盐碱荒地施用脱硫石膏、国产1号和国产2号3种盐碱地改良剂对紫花苜蓿出苗率和鲜草产量的影响.结果表明,与不施土壤改良剂(对照)相比,施用3种盐碱地改良剂的土壤(0~20 cm )pH值降低0.15~1.26,紫花苜蓿出苗率提高17.8% ~ 30.5%,提高出苗率由大到小的顺序为脱硫石膏>国产2号>国产1号;鲜草总产量增加3107.5 ~6971.3 kg/hm2,促进鲜草产量增加由大到小的顺序为国产2号>国产1号>脱硫石膏.

  5. The Revised 2016 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancers: Differences from the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Increased detection of thyroid nodules using high-resolution ultrasonography has resulted in a world-wide increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Despite the steep increase in its incidence, the age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer has remained stable, which leads toward a trend of more conservative treatment. The latest American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer revised in 2015 suggested that fine needle aspiration biopsy should be performed for thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm and lobectomy might be sufficient for 1 to 4 cm intrathyroidal DTC. In addition, active surveillance instead of immediate surgical treatment was also recommended as a treatment option for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma based on the results of a few observational studies from Japan. The Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) has organized a task force team to develop revised guidelines for thyroid nodules and DTC after an extensive review of articles and intense discussion on whether we should accept the changes in the 2015 ATA guidelines. This paper introduces and discusses the updated major issues and differences in the ATA and the KTA guidelines. PMID:27704738

  6. Prognosis of small hepatocellular nodules detected only at the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging as hypointensity in cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Atsushi; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Kanki, Akihiko; Noda, Yasufumi; Yasokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Akira [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki City, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the prognosis of ''strict'' high-risk nodules (small hepatocellular nodules detected only in the hepatobiliary phase of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR examination) in patients with cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. The study included thirty-three patients with 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showing hypointensity at the hepatobiliary phase that was undetectable at the vascular phase and other conventional sequences of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. These nodules were observed on follow-up MR examinations until hypervascularity was detected. The potential predictive factors for hypervascular transformation were compared between two groups (group A showing hypervascular transformation, group B not showing hypervascularization). Ten (16.7 %) of 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods (group A). The growth rates of the nodules in group A (6.3 ± 4.5 mm/year) were significantly higher than those in group B (3.4 ± 7.2 mm/year) (p = 0.003). Additionally, the median observation period in group A (177.5 ± 189.5 day) was significantly shorter than in group B (419 ± 372.2 day) (p = 0.045). The other predictive factors were not significantly correlated with hypervascularization. Subsets of ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods in association with increased growth rates, indicating that nodule growth rate is an important predictive factor for hypervascularization. (orig.)

  7. The evaluation of perfusion CT imaging in thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of perfusion CT imaging in thyroid nodule. Methods: Of the 40 cases of post-surgical thyroid nodule identified by pathology, nodular goiter was verified in 22 cases, thyroid adenoma in 6 cases, and thyroid carcinoma in 12 cases. All cases underwent CT perfusion scan at preoperative, The perfusion parameters including the blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability of surface (PS) of region of interest (ROI) were calculated. The Mann-whitney test was used to comparing the differences of the different perfusion parameters. The ones with statistical significance would be introduced into the discriminatory analysis to distinguish the benign and malignant thyroid nodule. Results: The median MTT in 28 cases with benign thyroid nodule were 4.33 s (Min 1.42 s, Max 10.93 s), and that in 12 cases with malignant nodules were 2.18 s (Min 1.95 s, Max 2.87 s). The difference had statistical significance (P=0.00). The median BF in cases with thyroid carcinoma was 560.23 (Min 330.66, Max 1000.00) ml·100 g-1·min-1, and that in cases with the benign nodular were 374.79 (Min 117.47, Max 1000.00) ml·100 g-1·min-1. There was a significant statistical difference (P=0.01). Through the discriminatory analysis, the difference of MTT between benign and malignant nodules were statistically significant (P=0.00). After establishing the Bayes discriminatory function, the overall diagnostic accuracy was 87.5% (35/40). Conclusions: MTT and BF are useful parameters in CT perfusion imaging to distinguish the benign and malignant thyroid nodules and the MTT is more accuracy. (authors)

  8. Ovarian mucinous tumor with malignant mural nodules: dedifferentiation or collision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouki, Mohamed M; Khabele, Dineo; Crispens, Marta A; Fadare, Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian mucinous tumors with mural nodules are rare surface epithelial-stromal tumors. The mural nodules are divergent neoplasms that may be benign or malignant. The latter may be in the form of a sarcoma, carcinosarcoma, anaplastic carcinoma, or a variety of other recognized histotypes of carcinoma, which raises the question of whether malignant mural nodules represent a form of dedifferentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors or whether they represent collision tumors. We recently reported the K-RAS gene mutation status in a case of ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma with mural nodule of high-grade sarcoma. The mucinous and sarcomatous components revealed a mutation in codon 12 of the K-RAS gene of a different nucleotide substitution, indicating that these 2 tumor components were different clones of the same tumor. Herein, we are reporting another case of a 20-yr-old woman who presented with 22 cm pelvic mass, omental caking, and ascites. A diagnosis of invasive mucinous carcinoma with mural nodules of anaplastic carcinoma was rendered. K-RAS gene mutation studies revealed p.G12V, c.35G>T mutation in the 2 components of the tumor, which is the most common mutation reported in mucinous tumors of the ovary. The fact that sarcomatous or anaplastic carcinomatous mural nodules in ovarian mucinous tumors display the same K-RAS mutations as their underlying mucinous neoplasms provides supportive evidence that at least some malignant mural nodules represent a form of dedifferentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors, rather than a collision of 2 divergent tumor types.

  9. Assessing RET/PTC in thyroid nodule fine-needle aspirates: the FISH point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Paola; Dettori, Tinuccia; Frau, Daniela V; Borghero, Angela; Cappai, Antonello; Riola, Alessia; Lai, Maria L; Boi, Francesco; Calò, Piergiorgio; Nicolosi, Angelo; Mariotti, Stefano; Vanni, Roberta

    2013-08-01

    RET/PTC rearrangement and BRAF(V600E) mutation are the two prevalent molecular alterations associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and their identification is increasingly being used as an adjunct to cytology in diagnosing PTC. However, there are caveats associated with the use of the molecular approach in fine-needle aspiration (FNA), particularly for RET/PTC, that should be taken into consideration. It has been claimed that a clonal or sporadic presence of this abnormality in follicular cells can distinguish between malignant and benign nodules. Nevertheless, the most commonly used PCR-based techniques lack the capacity to quantify the number of abnormal cells. Because fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the most sensitive method for detecting gene rearrangement in a single cell, we compared results from FISH and conventional RT-PCR obtained in FNA of a large cohort of consecutive patients with suspicious nodules and investigated the feasibility of setting a FISH-FNA threshold capable of distinguishing non-clonal from clonal molecular events. For this purpose, a home brew break-apart probe, able to recognize the physical breakage of RET, was designed. While a ≥3% FISH signal for broken RET was sufficient to distinguish nodules with abnormal follicular cells, only samples with a ≥6.8% break-apart FISH signal also exhibited positive RT-PCR results. On histological analysis, all nodules meeting the ≥6.8% threshold proved to be malignant. These data corroborate the power of FISH when compared with RT-PCR in quantifying the presence of RET/PTC in FNA and validate the RT-PCR efficiency in detecting clonal RET/PTC alterations.

  10. Identification of two novel nodule-specific genes from Astragalus sinicus L. by suppressive subtractive hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To identify the genes involved in nodule formation and to increase usable molecular probes, a cDNA library of Astragalus sinicus genes specifically expressed in infected roots by Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R is generated using a PCR-based suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique with two mRNA populations of infected and uninfected control roots. Two nodule-specific genes, AsIIC259 and AsG2511, are identified from infected roots of A. sinicus. The amino acid sequences deduced from the open reading frames (ORFs) reveal that AsIIC259 and AsG2511 encodes a polypeptide with 134 and 58 amino acids, respectively. A signal peptide sequence is predicted with high probability at the N-termini of the AsIIC259 and AsG2511. The motif searches show that the deduced polypeptide of AsIIC259 contains two N-glycosylation sites, a cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site and a casein kinase II phosphorylation site. BLASTP searches reveal that AsIIC259 putative protein displays a low degree of similarity to a unique nodulin from Lupinus luteus nodules. No significant identity is displayed over the predicted polypeptides of AsG2511 with any published sequences. Virtual Northern blot and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses indicate that the two genes are expressed exclusively in inoculated roots and that their expression is 2-4 d later than that of the leghaemoglobin (Lb) gene during nodule development.

  11. Influence of pCO2 on carbon allocation in nodulated Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Gabriela; Hartmann, Henrik; Ziegler, Waldemar; Michalzik, Beate; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel; Trumbore, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (pCO_2) have been related to changes in plant carbon (C) availability and photosynthetic capacity, yet there is no clear consensus as to the effect of pCO2 on the plant C balance and on nitrogen fixation in symbiotic systems. We investigated how different pCO2 (Pleistocene: 170 ppm, ambient: 400 ppm and projected future: 700 ppm) influence C allocation in nodulated Medicago sativa L. We labeled 17 week old plants with depleted 13C (-34.7±1.2‰) and traced the label over a 9-day period, to assess the redistribution of newly assimilated C across different sinks, including nodules. We analyzed N concentrations in plant tissues and found no significant differences in leaves and roots across treatments. However, growth and C fixation rates increased with pCO_2, and differences were greatest between 170 ppm and 700 ppm. Across pCO2 treatments we observed a 13C-enrichment in roots compared to leaves. We further observed the highest 13C depletion of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) and respired CO2 in tissues of plants grown at 700 ppm, especially in leaves and nodules. Our preliminary results suggest that sink organs like roots and nodules are fed with newly-assimilated NSCs from leaves to support respiration, and especially in 170 ppm plants represented a major respiratory loss of newly assimilated C (≈ 35{%} of the total plant respiration). Our results suggest that although plant metabolic processes like photosynthesis and respiration are affected by changes in pCO_2, nitrogen acquisition in such a symbiotic system is not.

  12. Potential Lung Nodules Identification for Characterization by Variable Multistep Threshold and Shape Indices from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is an important imaging modality. Physicians, surgeons, and oncologists prefer CT scan for diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some nodules are missed in CT scan. Computer aided diagnosis methods are useful for radiologists for detection of these nodules and early diagnosis of lung cancer. Early detection of malignant nodule is helpful for treatment. Computer aided diagnosis of lung cancer involves lung segmentation, potential nodules identification, features extraction from the potential nodules, and classification of the nodules. In this paper, we are presenting an automatic method for detection and segmentation of lung nodules from CT scan for subsequent features extraction and classification. Contribution of the work is the detection and segmentation of small sized nodules, low and high contrast nodules, nodules attached with vasculature, nodules attached to pleura membrane, and nodules in close vicinity of the diaphragm and lung wall in one-go. The particular techniques of the method are multistep threshold for the nodule detection and shape index threshold for false positive reduction. We used 60 CT scans of “Lung Image Database Consortium-Image Database Resource Initiative” taken by GE medical systems LightSpeed16 scanner as dataset and correctly detected 92% nodules. The results are reproducible.

  13. CAD System for Pulmonary Nodule Detection Using Gabor Filtering and Template Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastawrous, Hany Ayad; Nitta, Norihisa; Tsudagawa, Masaru

    This paper aims at developing a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system used for the detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography (CT) images. These lung nodules include both solid nodules and Ground Glass Opacity (GGO) nodules. In our scheme, we apply Gabor filter on the CT image in order to enhance the detection process. After this we perform some morphological operations including threshold process and labeling to extract all the objects inside the lung area. Then, some feature analysis is used to examine these objects to decide which of them are likely to be potential cancer candidates. Following the feature examination, a template matching between the potential cancer candidates and some Gaussian reference models is performed to determine the similarity between them. The algorithm was applied on 715 slices containing 25 GGO nodules and 82 solid nodules and achieved detection sensitivity of 92% for GGO nodules and 95% for solid nodules with False Positive (FP) rate of 0.75 FP/slice for GGO nodules and 2.32 FP/slice for solid nodules. Finally, we used an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to reduce the number of FP findings. After using ANN, we were able to reduce the FP rate to 0.25 FP/slice for GGO nodules and 1.62 FP/slice for solid nodules but at the expense of detection sensitivity, which became 84 % for GGO nodules and 91% for solid nodules.

  14. Regression of nodules on cranial computerized tomography (CCT) scans in 4 focal epileptic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Yoon, Sei Chul; Park, Seog Hee; Huh, Choon Woong [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Epilepsy can be defined as a paroxysmal, excessive, neuronal discharge within the brain originating from either cortical or sugcortical regions. The incidence of epilepsy is increasing possibly due to the survival of persons who should have died of brain injuries or other cerebral abnormalities acquired in early life. The use of antibiotics and improvement in the medical care have saved many children who might have died of meningitis, brain abscess, encephalitis, severe head injuries, etc. CCT scan is new radiologic procedure for defining cranial and intracranial structures and also an useful procedure for evaluation and follow-up (FU) of patient with focal seizure disorder. Recently we experienced nodules which were isodense or hypodense on initial non contrasted CT (NECT) and scans became hyperdense of the enhancement in 4 cases of focal epileptic seizure. Nearly complete disappearance or regression of the epileptic foci occurred on the FU CT scans in 2 cases. Operation was performed in 2 cases. The tissue specimen obtained from the CT nodule revealed cerebral edema in one case and localized gliosis and congestion in the other. All the patients showed marked clinical improvement when the CT nodule improved. Review of literature failed to disclose any previous report on such observation.

  15. Multistep hepatocarcinogenesis from a dysplastic nodule to well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with alcohol-related liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soo Ryang Kim; Yoshitake Hayashi; Hirotsugu Ikawa; Kenji Ando; Keiji Mita; Shuichi Fuki; Michiie Sakamoto; Yoshihiro Kanbara; Toshiyuki Matsuoka; Masatoshi Kudo

    2007-01-01

    We describe a rare case of the transformation of a dysplastic nodule into well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a 56-year-old man with alcoholrelated liver cirrhosis. Ultrasound (US) disclosed a 10 mm hypoechoic nodule and contrast enhanced US revealed a hypovascular nodule, both in segment seven.US-guided biopsy revealed a high-grade dysplastic nodule characterized by enhanced cellularity with a high N/C ratio, increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia,and slight cell atypia. One year later, the US pattern of the nodule changed from hypoechoic to hyperechoic without any change in size or hypovascularity. US-guided biopsy revealed well-differentiated HCC of the same features as shown in the first biopsy, but with additional pseudoglandular formation and moderate cell atypia.Moreover, immunohistochemical staining of cyclaseassociated protein 2, a new molecular marker of well-differentiated HCC, turned positive. This is the first case of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis from a dysplastic nodule to well-differentiated HCC within one year in alcohol-related liver cirrhosis.

  16. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs.

  17. Minimizing the time and cost of production of transgenic alfalfa libraries using the highly efficient completely sequenced vector pPZP200BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Bottero, Emilia; Pascuan, Cecilia; Pagano, Elba; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel; Soto, Gabriela

    2016-09-01

    Alfalfa is the most important forage legume worldwide. However, similar to other minor forage crops, it is usually harvested along with weeds, which decrease its nutrient quality and thus reduce its high value in the market. In addition, weeds reduce alfalfa yield by about 50 %. Although weeds are the limiting factor for alfalfa production, little progress has been made in the incorporation of herbicide-tolerant traits into commercial alfalfa. This is partially due to the high times and costs needed for the production of vast numbers of transgenic alfalfa events as an empirical approach to bypass the random transgenic silencing and for the identification of an event with optimal transgene expression. In this focus article, we report the complete sequence of pPZP200BAR and the extremely high efficiency of this binary vector in alfalfa transformation, opening the way for rapid and inexpensive production of transgenic events for alfalfa improvement public programs. PMID:27447893

  18. High speed TV-towing system for exploration manganese nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the oceanographic, special for the manganese nodules exploration in the deep sea a high speed-TV-towing system is to design on base of existing TV-towing systems to get better efficiency during the exploration phase. It is planned to increase to towing speed at the time of 2 knots up to 6-8 knots. The essential points of developments in this direction are 1) to decrease the hydrodynamical drag of the long towing cable with fairings. 2) To seperate to towing system into two units the passiv controlled towing cable end point 'SEP' with negativ buoyancy (weight) and the activ controlled TV-fish. With this separation it is possible to tow the TV-fish within a defined accuracy parallel to the sea floor without an influence to the overall system. 3) To adapt the TV- and photo stobe light unit for these towing conditions (high speed). 4) To design the control concept, the operating equipment, the energy and data transmission system, the towed body concept, the hydrodynamical calculation of towing phase and the other towed components. The results of this study is the definition of a two body towing system which is able towed by a research vessel to make continously TV-observation of the sea floor in depth down to 6,000 meters. (orig.)

  19. Brazilian experience in characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose on camera-based PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), showing increased 18F-FDG uptake and retention in malignant cells, has proved useful to differentiate malignant from benign pulmonary nodules. An accurate diagnosis of pulmonary cancer represents a clinical challenge. This could be even more significant in Latin America, where the incidence of infectious granulomas is high. However, the high cost of dedicated- PET studies has prevented widespread application of this technique. Hybrid PET is a new approach to tumor imaging using 18F-FDG. In our country, such a system was introduced in 1998. These systems offer the possibility to produce diagnostic quality images of 18F-FDG body distribution, making metabolic scans potentially available. Objective : The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of F-18-FDG scan using a hybrid PET in characterizing pulmonary nodules as benign or malignant. Methods: We evaluated 62 patients (50 male, 38-79y) with indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodules after computed tomography (CT) screening. 18F-FDG scans were performed on a camera-based PET (MCD Vertex-plus Adac) after injection of 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose intravenously. Image acquisition began after 1 hour. Qualitative analysis of the images was performed by visual identification of areas of increase (positive) or absence (negative)of FDG uptake. All results were assessed on basis of histology or clinical/radiological follow-up. Results : Twenty-one patients (33.9%) showed a marked increase in FDG uptake and underwent invasive intervention (biopsy or thoracotomy). Histopathological evaluation revealed malignant disease in eighteen of these patients and benign disease in three of them (positive predictive value = 85.7%). Forty-one patients (66.1%) showed absence of FDG uptake. Fourteen of them underwent surgical procedure. Malignancy was found in only one. Twenty-seven patients with negative FDG studies are being followed up with a

  20. Effects of varying dietary ratios of corn silage to alfalfa silage on digestion of neutral detergent fiber in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-09-01

    An in vivo study was performed to test an in vitro procedure and model that predicts total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. Corn silage (CS) and alfalfa silage (AS) were used as forages for this study. These forages had similar NDF composition, but fiber in the CS contained less indigestible NDF compared with AS (35.5 and 47.8% of indigestible NDF, respectively). The in vitro method estimated rate of digestion of alfalfa potentially digestible NDF to be approximately 2 times faster than CS fiber (6.11 and 3.21%/h, respectively). Four diets were formulated containing different proportions of CS to AS: 100CS:0AS, 67CS:33AS, 33CS:67AS, and 0CS:100AS, as percentage of diet DM basis. The objective was to construct diets that contained approximately similar levels of NDF but with different pool sizes and rates of digestion of potentially digestible NDF. Diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, lactating dairy cows in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Total-tract fiber digestibility and fiber digestion kinetic parameters observed in vivo were compared with the values predicted by the in vitro assay and model. Total-tract NDF digestibility coefficients were similar (41.8 and 40.6% of total NDF) for the in vitro and in vivo methods, respectively. As the proportion of dietary alfalfa increased, the digestibility of NDF increased. The rate of digestion of potentially digestible NDF predicted from the in vitro assay was also similar to what was observed in vivo. Results suggest that the in vitro total-tract NDF digestibility model could be used to predict rate of fiber digestion and NDF digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26162794