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Sample records for alfalfa nodules increases

  1. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Mark W.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Miller, Susan S.; Vance, Carroll P.

    1990-01-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N2-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N2-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16667896

  2. CO2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil root nodules and partitioning of 14C to the plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if nonphotosynthetic CO2 fixation by root nodules contributes carbon for the assimilation of fixed N2 in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and if assimilation products are partitioned to different plant organs. Effective alfalfa nodules excised from or attached to roots had apparent 14CO2 fixation rates of 50 to 80 μg CO2 kg-1s-1 (dry weight) at 0.0012 to 0.0038 mole fraction CO2. Nodule CO2 fixation rates increased six- to seven-fold as ambient CO2 was raised from 0.0038 to 0.0663 mole fraction. Respiration rates of nodules (3 to 4 mg CO2 kg-1s-1) were 10 to 100-fold higher than 14CO2 fixation rates of nodules. Pulse chase experiments with 14CO2 combined with nodule and xylem sap analysis demonstrated the initial products of root and nodule CO2 fixation were organic acids. However, the export of fixed 14C from effective nodules was primarily in the form of amino acids. In contrast, nodule and/or root fixed 14C in ineffectively nodulated alfalfa and denodulated effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil was transported primarily as organic acids. Aspartate, asparagine, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine were the most heavily labeled compounds in the amino acid fraction of both effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil nodules exposed to 14CO2. By contrast, asparate, asparagine, and glutamine were the predominantly labeled amino acids in xylem sap collected from nodulated effective roots exposed to 14CO2. The occurrence of nodule CO2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil and the export of fixed carbon as asparagine and aspartate to roots and shoots is consistent with a role for CO2 fixation by nodules in providing carbon skeletons for assimilation and transport of symbiotically fixed N2

  3. Screening of Highly Effective Sinorhizobium meliloti Strains for 'Vector' Alfalfa and Testing of Its Competitive Nodulation Ability in the Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhao-Hai; CHEN Wen-Xin; HU Yue-Gao; SUI Xin-Hua; CHEN Dan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen Sinorhizobium meliloti strains from seven provinces in China were used to screen highly effective strains for alfalfa cultivar in a greenhouse study and their symbiotic relationship and competitive ability were studied in the field.CCBAU30138 was the most effective strain,as evidenced by increase in dry weights.A field experiment showed that the inoculation of alfalfa with CCBAU30138 resulted in increases of 11.9%and 19.6%of dry matter production and crude protein production,respectively,in forage of monocultured plants.The total dry matter yields of alfalfa and tall fescue in binary culture were increased by 16.3%by inoculation of alfalfa with this strain.These results showed that S.Meliloti strain CCBAU30138 was an effective inoculant both in the greenhouse and in the field.The analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD)by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)from nodule extracts showed that the strain CCBAU30138 had high competitiveness in the field.It occupied 47.5%of nodules in alfalfa monoculture and 44.4% of nodules in alfalfa-tall fescue binary culture after 20 weeks of growth.In conclusion,a simple system to select highly effective and competitive symbiotic strains specific to alfalfa was established.Using this system.A strain suitable for the alfalfa cultivar'Vector’grown in Wuqiao County of Hebei Province was obtained.

  4. Erwinia herbicola isolates from alfalfa plants may play a role in nodulation of alfalfa by Rhizobium meliloti.

    OpenAIRE

    Handelsman, J; Brill, W J

    1985-01-01

    Erwinia herbicola was isolated from roots of plants derived from surface-sterilized seeds of all alfalfa varieties that were tested. Some of these E. herbicola strains affected nodulation by certain strains of Rhizobium meliloti. In previously published work we presented the isolation of slow-and fast-nodulating variants from a single culture of R. meliloti 102F51. In the absence of E. herbicola, the slow-nodulating variant induced the formation of nodules on alfalfa as rapidly as the faster-...

  5. Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa Root Nodules : III. Genotypic and Tissue Expression of Aspartate Aminotransferase in Alfalfa and Other Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, M W; Griffith, S M; Miller, S S; Vance, C P

    1990-12-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) plays an important role in nitrogen metabolism in all plants and is particularly important in the assimilation of fixed N derived from the legume-Rhizoblum symbiosis. Two isozymes of AAT (AAT-1 and AAT-2) occur in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Antibodies against alfalfa nodule AAT-2 do not recognize AAT-1, and these antibodies were used to study AAT-2 expression in different tissues and genotypes of alfalfa and also in other legume and nonlegume species. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicated that nodules of 38-day-old alfalfa plants contained about eight times more AAT-2 than did nodules of 7-day-old plants, confirming the nodule-enhanced nature of this isozyme. AAT-2 was estimated to make up 16, 15, 5, and 8 milligrams per gram of total soluble protein in mature nodules, roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, of effective N(2)-fixing alfalfa. The concentration of AAT-2 in nodules of ineffective non-N(2)-fixing alafalfa genotypes was about 70% less than that of effective nodules. Western blots of soluble protein from nodules of nine legume species indicated that a 40-kilodalton polypeptide that reacts strongly with AAT-2 antibodies is conserved in legumes. Nodule AAT-2 immunoprecipitation data suggested that amide- and ureide-type legumes may differ in expression and regulation of the enzyme. In addition, Western blotting and immunoprecipitations of AAT activity demonstrated that antibodies against alfalfa AAT-2 are highly cross-reactive with AAT enzyme protein in leaves of soybean (Glycine max L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) and in roots of maize, but not with AAT in soybean and wheat roots. Results from this study indicate that AAT-2 is structurally conserved and localized in similar tissues among diverse species. PMID:16667896

  6. Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is an herb. People use the leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine. Alfalfa is used for kidney conditions, bladder and prostate ... bleeding disorder called thrombocytopenic purpura. People also take alfalfa as a source of vitamins A, C, E, ...

  7. Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms of auto-immune diseases. There are two case reports of SLE patients experiencing disease flare after taking ... by exposure to estrogen, don’t use alfalfa. Diabetes: Alfalfa might lower blood sugar levels. If you ...

  8. The tep1 gene of Sinorhizobium meliloti coding for a putative transmembrane efflux protein and N-acetyl glucosamine affect nod gene expression and nodulation of alfalfa plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto María

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil bacteria collectively known as Rhizobium, characterized by their ability to establish beneficial symbiosis with legumes, share several common characteristics with pathogenic bacteria when infecting the host plant. Recently, it was demonstrated that a fadD mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti is altered in the control of swarming, a type of co-ordinated movement previously associated with pathogenicity, and is also impaired in nodulation efficiency on alfalfa roots. In the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris, a fadD homolog (rpfB forms part of a cluster of genes involved in the regulation of pathogenicity factors. In this work, we have investigated the role in swarming and symbiosis of SMc02161, a S. meliloti fadD-linked gene. Results The SMc02161 locus in S. meliloti shows similarities with members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS of transporters. A S. meliloti null-mutant shows increased sensitivity to chloramphenicol. This indication led us to rename the locus tep1 for transmembrane efflux protein. The lack of tep1 does not affect the appearance of swarming motility. Interestingly, nodule formation efficiency on alfalfa plants is improved in the tep1 mutant during the first days of the interaction though nod gene expression is lower than in the wild type strain. Curiously, a nodC mutation or the addition of N-acetyl glucosamine to the wild type strain lead to similar reductions in nod gene expression as in the tep1 mutant. Moreover, aminosugar precursors of Nod factors inhibit nodulation. Conclusion tep1 putatively encodes a transmembrane protein which can confer chloramphenicol resistance in S. meliloti by expelling the antibiotic outside the bacteria. The improved nodulation of alfalfa but reduced nod gene expression observed in the tep1 mutant suggests that Tep1 transports compounds which influence nodulation. In contrast to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, we show that in S. meliloti there is no feedback regulation

  9. [Growth and polysaccharide formation in Sinorhizobium meliloti strains in an air-lift-type fermentor. Effect on nodulation velocity in alfalfa plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorda, G S; Castaño, R C; Pordomingo, A B; Pastor, M D; Balatti, A P

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the influence of the exopolysaccharides produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti strains on the nodulation rates in alfalfa plants has been considered. The experiments were performed in a rotary shaker and in an air-lift type fermentor. Different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains were used. Bacterial growth rates were determined by viable cell counts. Exopolysaccharide concentration was determined by precipitation with ethanol. It was observed that maximum cell concentration was in the order of 1 x 10(10) cell/ml and exopolysaccharide content was approximately 11 g/l. The experiments performed with alfalfa plants in a controlled environment chamber showed that, when inoculation was carried out with diluted suspensions (1/10), nodulation time was reduced from 10 to 4 days, while the strains retained their symbiotic properties. PMID:12920984

  10. Photosynthetic and Molecular Markers of CO2-mediated Photosynthetic Downregulation in Nodulated Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (A)lvaro Sanz-Sáez; Gorka Erice; Iker Aranjuelo; Ricardo Aroca; Juan Manuel Ruíz-Lozano; Jone Aguirreolea; Juan José Irigoyen

    2013-01-01

    Elevated CO2 leads to a decrease in potential net photosynthesis in long-term experiments and thus to a reduction in potential growth.This process is known as photosynthetic downregulation.There is no agreement on the definition of which parameters are the most sensitive for detecting CO2 acclimation.In order to investigate the most sensitive photosynthetic and molecular markers of CO2 acclimation,the effects of elevated CO2,and associated elevated temperature were analyzed in alfalfa plants inoculated with different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains.Plants (Medicago sativa L.cv.Aragón) were grown in summer or autumn in temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG).At the end of the experiment,all plants showed acclimation in both seasons,especially under elevated summer temperatures.This was probably due to the lower nitrogen (N) availability caused by decreased N2-fixation under higher temperatures.Photosynthesis measured at growth CO2 concentration,rubisco in vitro activity and maximum rate of carboxylation were the most sensitive parameters for detecting downregulation.Severe acclimation was also related with decreases in leaf nitrogen content associated with declines in rubisco content (large and small subunits) and activity that resulted in a drop in photosynthesis.Despite the sensitivity of rubisco content as a marker of acclimation,it was not coordinated with gene expression,possibly due to a lag between gene transcription and protein translation.

  11. Accounting for alfalfa N credits increases returns to corn production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidelines are relatively consistent across the Upper Midwest regarding the N benefit of alfalfa to the following grain crops. With higher corn yields and prices, however, some growers have questioned these guidelines and whether more N fertilizer is needed for first-year corn following a good stand...

  12. Responses to ozone pollution of alfalfa exposed to increasing salinity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggio, Albino; Chiaranda, Fabrizio Quaglietta; Cefariello, Roberto [DIAAT, Naples University Federico II, via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Fagnano, Massimo, E-mail: fagnano@unina.i [DIAAT, Naples University Federico II, via Universita 100, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Stomatal closure and biosynthesis of antioxidant molecules are two fundamental components of the physiological machinery that lead to stress adaptation during plant's exposure to salinity. Since high stomatal resistance may also contribute in counteracting O{sub 3} damages, we hypothesized that soil salinization may increase O{sub 3} tolerance of crops. An experiment was performed with alfalfa grown in filtered (AOT40 = 0 in both years) and non-filtered (AOT40 = 9.7 in 2005 and 6.9 ppm h in 2006) open-top chambers. Alfalfa yield was reduced by O{sub 3} (-33%) only in plants irrigated with salt-free water, while the increasing levels of soil salinity until 1.06 dS m{sup -1} reduced both stomatal conductance and plant O{sub 3} uptake, thus linearly reducing O{sub 3} effects on yield. Therefore a reliable flux-based model for assessing the effects of O{sub 3} on crop yield should take into account soil salinity. - Moderate saline stress can reduce ozone uptake and yield losses in alfalfa plants.

  13. Paediatric CT: the effects of increasing image noise on pulmonary nodule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation dose of any magnitude can produce a detrimental effect manifesting as an increased risk of cancer. Cancer development may be delayed for many years following radiation exposure. Minimizing radiation dose in children is particularly important. However, reducing the dose can reduce image quality and may, therefore, hinder lesion detection. We investigated the effects of reducing the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on CT lung nodule detection for a range of nodule sizes. A simulated nodule was placed at the periphery of the lung on an axial CT slice using image editing software. Multiple copies of the manipulated image were saved with various levels of superimposed noise. The image creation process was repeated for a range of nodule sizes. For a given nodule size, output images were read independently by four Fellows of The Royal College of Radiologists. The overall sensitivities in detecting nodules for the SNR ranges 0.8-0.99, 1-1.49, and 1.5-2.35 were 40.5%, 77.3% and 90.3%, respectively, and the specificities were 47.9%, 73.3% and 75%, respectively. The sensitivity for detecting lung nodules increased with nodule size and increasing SNR. There was 100% sensitivity for the detection of nodules of 4-10 mm in diameter at SNRs greater than 1.5. Reducing medical radiation doses in children is of paramount importance. For chest CT examinations this may be counterbalanced by reduced sensitivity and specificity combined with an increased uncertainty of pulmonary nodule detection. This study demonstrates that pulmonary nodules of 4 mm and greater in diameter can be detected with 100% sensitivity provided that the perceived image SNR is greater than 1.5. (orig.)

  14. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils. PMID:25586575

  15. Genetic diversity of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates nodulating two different host plants during soil restoration with alfalfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.X.; Kosier, B.; Priefer, U.B. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    A total of 360 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains was isolated from three brown-coal mining restoration fields of different age and plant cover (without and in the first and second year of alfalfa, Medicago sativa, cultivation) using two host species (Vicia hirsuta and Pisum sativum) as capture plants. The strains were genetically typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions (IGS-RFLP) and characterized by plasmid profiles and RFLP analysis of amplified nodABC genes. The R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population was dominated by the same group of strains (irrespective of the trap plant used). According to type richness, the genetic diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum in the second year of restoration was lower than in the first year and it resembled that of the fallow field, except for plasmid types, in which it was higher than that of the fallow field. Some of the less frequent nodABC genotypes were associated with distinct chromosomal IGS genotypes and symbiotic plasmids (pSyms) of different sizes, indicating that horizontal transfer and rearrangements of pSym can occur in natural environments. However, the dominant pSym and chromosomal genotypes were strictly correlated suggesting a genetically stable persistence of the prevailing R. leguminosarum bv, viciae genotypes in the absence of its host plant.

  16. Excessive ammonia inhibited transcription of MsU2 gene and furthermore affected accumulation distribution of allantoin and amino acids in alfalfa Medicago sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; JIANG Lin-lin; Nomura Mika; Tajima Shigeyuki; CHENG Xian-guo

    2015-01-01

    In legume plants, uricase gene (Nodulin-35) plays a positive role in metabolism of ureide and amide compounds in symbiotic nitrogen-ifxing in the nodules. In this study, a pot experiment was performed to examine the effects of ammonium application on the transcription of MsU2 gene and distribution of major nitrogen compounds in alfalfa Medicago sativa. Data showed that alfalfa plant has a signiifcant difference in contents of nitrogen compounds in xylem saps compared with soybean plant, and belongs to typical amide type legume plants with little ureide accumulation, and the accumulation of asparagines and ureide in the tissues of alfalfa is mainly gathered in the nodules. Northern blotting showed that excessive ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the nodules and roots, and mRNA accumulation of MsU2 gene in the plants exposed to excessive ammonium decreased gradual y with culture time extension, indicating that application of ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the alfalfa plants. Although the application of exces-sive ammonium increased the contents of amino acids in various tissues of alfalfa, the accumulation of al antoin relfecting the strength of uricase activity is remarkably reduced in the xylem saps, stems and nodules when alfalfa plants exposed to excessive ammonium, suggesting that application of excessive ammonium generated a negative effect on symbiosis ifxing-nitrogen system due to inhibition of ammonium ion on uricase activity in the nodules of alfalfa. This result seems to imply that application of excessive ammonium in legume plants should not be proposed to avoid affecting the ability of ifxing nitrogen in the nodules of legume plants, and reasonable dose of ammonium should be recommended to effectively utilize the ifxed N from atmosphere in legume plant production.

  17. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase Gene, OsAPX2, Increases Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; MA Cui; XUE Xin; XU Ming; LI Jing; WU Jin-xia

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop in the world and it is of great signiifcance for the improvement of its salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance in alfalfa, a rice ascorbate peroxidase gene (OsAPX2) was introduced into alfalfa using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with marker gene bar. The different T-DNA insertions in T1 transgenic alfalfa were identiifed by Southern hybridization. Three independent T2 transgenic lines were selected for stress analysis and the results showed that all of them were salt tolerant compared with wild-type plants. The transgenic plants had low levels of H2O2, malondialdehyde and relative electrical conductivity under salt and drought stresses. Moreover, the contents of chlorophyll and proline, and APX activity were high in transgenic plants under salt and drought stresses. Taken together, the overexpression of OsAPX2 enhances salt tolerance in alfalfa through scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  18. Effect of plant growth promoting micro organisms on increasing water use efficiency of alfalfa in water-stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of bacterial growth on water use efficiency of alfalfa, a greenhouse experiment, as factorial based on completely randomized blocks design with three replications, was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran, in 2012. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of water stress (75, 55 and 35% of field capacity and seed inoculation at 4 levels (no inoculation (control, inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae, inoculation with rhyzobium S. meliloti, and inoculation with combination of mycorhhiza and rhyzobium. Results showed that water stress and seed inoculation have significant effect (P&le0.01 on leaf nutrients content. Water stress reduced absorption of phosphorus (23%, potassium (8%, iron (4% and increased sodium absorption (14% in non-inoculated seeds. Inoculation of seeds reduced stress effects and combined inoculation had the highest effect. Stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were affected (P&le0.01 by inoculation and water stress. Stomatal conductance was decreased during the stress period and seed inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae was most effective on increasing stomatal conductance (47% at the highest level of stress. Water use efficiency increased as a result of water stress and inoculation. The highest value of water use efficiency (0.166 mg/kg was obtained in the combined inoculation with 35% field capacity treatment. Results of regression equations showed that during the inoculation, contribution of phosphorus and potassium in regulation of stomatal conductance was increased and contribution of sodium was decreased.  However, during the stress period, the share of potassium and sodium was increased in stomatal conductance and the share of phosphorus was reduced. Also, stress increased the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency. However, inoculation reduced the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency.

  19. Fixação do nitrogênio em alfafa nodulada sob supressão e ressuprimento de fósforo Nitrogen fixation in alfalfa nodulated under phosphorus supression and resupply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Gomes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da supressão e do ressuprimento de fósforo (Pi sobre a fixação biológica do nitrogênio atmosférico (N2 em plantas de alfafa cv. Flórida 77 inoculadas com Sinorhizobium meliloti, em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento vegetativo (V3 e V4 e reprodutivo (R6 e R8. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e as plantas cultivadas em solução nutritiva. O período de supressão de Pi por dez dias reduziu os teores de Pi nas folhas e nos nódulos em todos os estádios do desenvolvimento, enquanto nas raízes essa redução somente foi observada nos estádios vegetativos. Após o ressuprimento de Pi à solução nutritiva por igual período, dez dias, foi observada a recuperação nos teores de Pi nos estádios R6 e R8 para folhas, V3 e V4 para raízes e V3 para os nódulos. A supressão de Pi alterou o processo de fixação do N2, estimado pela concentração de aminoácidos totais nas folhas e nas raízes. Os teores de aminoácidos nas folhas e nas raízes foram significativamente menores nas plantas sob supressão de Pi, em relação aos das plantas do tratamento controle. Após o ressuprimento os teores de aminoácidos totais nas raízes, em todos os estádios do desenvolvimento, alcançaram valores similares àqueles das plantas do tratamento controle, enquanto nas folhas isso só ocorreu nos estádios vegetativos. A supressão de Pi não influenciou a proporção de aminoácidos livres na seiva do xilema.Phosphorus (Pi suppression and resupply effects were studied on nitrogen biological fixation (N2 in alfalfa cv. Florida 77 inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti in different vegetative (V3 and V4 and reproductive (R6 and R8 stages. The experiment was carried in greenhouse and the plants cultivated in nutritive solution. The inorganic phosphorus (Pi ten days suppression period decreased Pi levels in leaves and nodules in all growth stages, whereas in the roots this decrease was observed only in the

  20. Impact of Long-Term Alfalfa Cropping on Soil Potassium Content and Clay Minerals in a Semi-Arid Loess Soil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Cheng; B. VELDE; LI Feng-Min; ZHANG Gan-Lin; ZHAO Ming-Song; HUANG Lai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa cropping has been considered an efficient method of increasing soil fertility.Usually nitrogen increase in root nodules is considered to be the major beneficial effect.A 21-year time series (five sampling periods) of alfalfa cultivation plots on a loess soil,initially containing illite and chlorite,in Lanzhou of northwestern China was selected to investigate the relationships among alfalfa cropping,soil potassium (K) content and soil clay minerals.The results indicated that soil K significantly accumulated after cropping,with a peak value at about 15 years,and decreased afterwards.The accumulated K was associated with the K increase in the well-crystallized illite,which was not extracted by the traditional laboratory K extraction methods in assessing bioavailability.The steep decline in soil K content after 15-year cropping was in accord with the observed fertility loss in the alfalfa soil.Plant biomass productivity peaked at near 9 years of culture,whereas soil K and clay minerals continued to increase until cropping for 15 years.This suggested that K increased in the topsoil came from the deep root zone.Thus alfalfa continued to store K in clays even after peak production occurred.Nitrogen did not follow these trends,showing a general decline compared with the native prairie soils that had not been cropped.Therefore,the traditional alfalfa cropping can increase K content in the topsoil.

  1. Replacing alfalfa or red clover silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations increases production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymes-Fecht, U C; Broderick, G A; Muck, R E; Grabber, J H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare milk production and nutrient utilization in dairy cattle fed silage made from alfalfa (AL) or red clover (RC) versus birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) selected for low, normal, and high levels of condensed tannins. Condensed tannin contents of the 3 BFT silages were 8, 12, and 16 g/kg of DM by butanol-HCl assay. Twenty-five multiparous Holstein cows (5 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned within blocks to incomplete 5×5 Latin squares. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] about 60% AL, 50% RC, or 60% of 1 of the 3 BFT; the balance of dietary DM was largely from high-moisture corn plus supplemental crude protein from soybean meal. Diets were balanced to approximately 17% crude protein and fed for four 3-wk periods; 2 wk were allowed for adaptation and production data were collected during the last week of each period. No differences existed in DM intake or milk composition due to silage source, except that milk protein content was lowest for RC. Yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat were greater for the 3 BFT diets than for diets containing AL or RC. Feeding BFT with the highest condensed tannin content increased yield of milk, protein, and solids-not-fat compared with BFT containing the lowest amount of condensed tannin. Moreover, milk-N/N-intake was higher, and milk urea nitrogen concentration and urinary urea-N excretion were lower for diets with normal levels of BFT than for AL or RC diets. Feeding RC resulted in the highest apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose and lowest ruminal concentrations of ammonia and free amino acids. Ruminal branched-chain volatile fatty acid levels were lowest for RC diets and diets with high levels of BFT and highest for the AL diet. Overall, diets containing BFT silage supported greater production than diets containing silage from AL or RC

  2. Overexpression of malate dehydrogenase in transgenic alfalfa enhances organic acid synthesis and confers tolerance to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, M; Temple, S J; Allan, D L; Vance, C P; Samac, D A

    2001-12-01

    Al toxicity is a severe impediment to production of many crops in acid soil. Toxicity can be reduced through lime application to raise soil pH, however this amendment does not remedy subsoil acidity, and liming may not always be practical or cost-effective. Addition of organic acids to plant nutrient solutions alleviates phytotoxic Al effects, presumably by chelating Al and rendering it less toxic. In an effort to increase organic acid secretion and thereby enhance Al tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), we produced transgenic plants using nodule-enhanced forms of malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase cDNAs under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We report that a 1.6-fold increase in malate dehydrogenase enzyme specific activity in root tips of selected transgenic alfalfa led to a 4.2-fold increase in root concentration as well as a 7.1-fold increase in root exudation of citrate, oxalate, malate, succinate, and acetate compared with untransformed control alfalfa plants. Overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme specific activity in transgenic alfalfa did not result in increased root exudation of organic acids. The degree of Al tolerance by transformed plants in hydroponic solutions and in naturally acid soil corresponded with their patterns of organic acid exudation and supports the concept that enhancing organic acid synthesis in plants may be an effective strategy to cope with soil acidity and Al toxicity. PMID:11743127

  3. A comparison of constitutive promoters for expression of transgenes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samac, Deborah A; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Dornbusch, Melinda; Saruul, Purev; Temple, Stephen J

    2004-08-01

    The activity of constitutive promoters was compared in transgenic alfalfa plants using two marker genes. Three promoters, the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), the cassava vein mosaic virus (CsVMV) promoter, and the sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (ScBV) promoter were each fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gusA) gene. The highest GUS enzyme activity was obtained using the CsVMV promoter and all alfalfa cells assayed by in situ staining had high levels of enzyme activity. The 35S promoter was expressed in leaves, roots, and stems at moderate levels, but the promoter was not active in stem pith cells, root cortical cells, or in the symbiotic zones of nodules. The ScBV promoter was active primarily in vascular tissues throughout the plant. In leaves, GUS activity driven by the CsVMV promoter was approximately 24-fold greater than the activity from the 35S promoter and 38-fold greater than the activity from the ScBV promoter. Five promoters, the double 35S promoter, figwort mosaic virus (FMV) promoter, CsVMV promoter, ScBV promoter, and alfalfa small subunit Rubisco (RbcS) promoter were used to control expression of a cDNA from Trichoderma atroviride encoding an endochitinase (ech42). Highest chitinase activity in leaves, roots, and root nodules was obtained in plants containing the CsVMV:ech42 transgene. Plants expressing the endochitinase were challenged with Phoma medicaginis var. medicaginis, the causal agent of spring black stem and leaf spot of alfalfa. Although endochitinase activity in leaves of transgenic plants was 50- to 2650-fold greater than activity in control plants, none of the transgenic plants showed a consistent increase in disease resistance compared to controls. The high constitutive levels of both GUS and endochitinase activity obtained demonstrate that the CsVMV promoter is useful for high-level transgene expression in alfalfa. PMID:15517994

  4. Altered susceptibility to infection by Sinorhizobium meliloti and Nectria haematococca in alfalfa roots with altered cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H-H; Hirsch, A M; Hawes, M C

    2004-07-01

    Most infections of plant roots are initiated in the region of elongation; the mechanism for this tissue-specific localization pattern is unknown. In alfalfa expressing PsUGT1 antisense mRNA under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, the cell cycle in roots is completed in 48 h instead of 24 h, and border cell number is decreased by more than 99%. These plants were found to exhibit increased root-tip infection by a fungal pathogen and reduced nodule formation by a bacterial symbiont. Thus, the frequency of infection in the region of elongation by Nectria haematocca was unaffected, but infection of the root tip was increased by more than 90%; early stages of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection and nodule morphology were normal, but the frequency of nodulation was fourfold lower than in wild-type roots. PMID:15042410

  5. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Body in Balance › Thyroid Nodules Fact Sheet Thyroid Nodules March 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Hindi ... Singer, MD Leonard Wartofsky, MD What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped ...

  6. The effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza isolated from Syrian soil on alfalfa growth and nitrogen fixation in saline soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of vesicular - arbuscular Mycorrhiza fungi (VAM) on symbiotic fixation of N2 n alfalfa plants has been observed. Beneficial effects of study the effect of VAM or phosphorous fertilization on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L,) yields, umber of nodules and N2 fixation by N15 isotope dilution at different salinity levels. This experiment was realized in green house conditions, using soil of 2.3 dsm-1 conductivity mixed with sand (5: 2V) for alfalfa plants growing at various levels of phosphorus, or infected by Mycorrhiza fungi. Different conductivities (13.18, 22.2, 28.8, 43.5 dsm-1) were applied on these treatment by increasing concentrations of Nacl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 and MgCl2 by salinity soil irrigation. Ten days after planting, soil was enriched with 2 ppm of (NH415)2 SO4. Plant were grown under greenhouse condition for ten weeks. Our results confirmed that increased salinity reduced nitrogen - fixation and the number of nodules. The negative effect with increasing salinity was less in Mycorrhiza plants than in plants fertilized with various levels of phosphorus, and only the higher levels of salinity reduced significantly, the percentage of Mycorrhiza colonization, However, at all levels of salinity, VAM stimulated plant growth and nutrient uptake. (author)

  7. Elevated CO{sub 2} enhances plant growth in droughted N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa without improving water status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, I. De; Irigoyen, J.J.; Sanchez-Diaz, M. [Univ. de Navarra, Dept. de Fisiologia Vegetal, Pamplona (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The long-term interaction between elevated CO{sub 2} and soil water deficit was analysed in N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa plants in order to assess the possible drought tolerance effect of CO{sub 2}. Elevated CO{sub 2} could delay the onset of drought stress by decreasing transpiration rates, but this effect was avoided by subjecting plants to the same soil water content. Nodulated alfalfa plants subjected to ambient (400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) or elevated (700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) CO{sub 2} were either well watered or partially watered by restricting water to obtain 30% of the water content at field capacity (approximately 0.55 g water cm{sup -3}). The negative effects of soil water deficit on plant growth were counterbalanced by elevated CO{sub 2}. In droughted plants, elevated CO{sub 2} stimulated carbon fixation and, as a result, biomass production was even greater than in well-watered plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. Below-ground production was preferentially stimulated by elevated CO{sub 2} in droughted plants, increasing nodule biomass production and the availability of photosynthates to the nodules. As a result, total nitrogen content in droughted plants was higher than in well-watered plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. The beneficial effect of elevated CO{sub 2} was not correlated with a better plant water status. It is concluded that elevated CO{sub 2} enhances growth of droughted plants by stimulating carbon fixation, preferentially increasing the availability of photosynthates to below-ground production (roots and nodules) without improving water status. This means that elevated CO{sub 2} enhances the ability to produce more biomass in N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa under given soil water stress, improving drought tolerance. (au)

  8. Lung Nodules: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count You are here: Health Information > Condition Information Lung Nodule: Overview What is a lung nodule? A lung nodule is also called a ... better outcome. What are the symptoms of a lung nodule? Nearly 90% of all lung nodules are ...

  9. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg−1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg−1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g−1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  10. Review of Roundup Ready Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundup Ready (RR) alfalfa is the first forage species commercially released with a genetically modified trait. While not needed by all farmers who grow alfalfa, RR alfalfa may allow some farmers to more effectively establish alfalfa and control certain weed problems. Gene flow potential in alfalf...

  11. Fulda thyroid nodule prognosis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Fulda'-program calculates for thyroid nodule patients the probability of management with respect to surgery, follow up, radioiodine therapy or fine needle aspiration biopsy by use of the weighted factors: pre-existing results, patient age, palpation, thyroid volume, marginal nodule perfusion, echo texture, thyroid volume increase and TSH level. As the following definite management is in good correlation to the precalculated management, the 'Fulda'-program could be useful for organisation and strategy of thyroid nodule patients. (orig.)

  12. Lung nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It understands for nodule, any lung lesion or pleural whose radiological representation corresponds more or less to an opacity rounded, discreet and very defined, of two up to 30 mm of more diameter, (ACCP/ATS Joint Committee on Pulmonary Nomenclature, 1976). Injure of more than 30 mm. They are considered masses. Nodule is considered an useful describer and it is advisable its use, preferably to that of its synonym that is considered a colloquial term, it should always be used accompanied by qualifying with regard to the size, localization, characteristic of the borders, number and opacity or density; to identification of a solitary lung nodule (SLN) it is one of the problems more currents in the radiological practice, the radiologist plays a decisive paper in the appropriate evaluation of the morphological characteristic of this type of lesions, and in the orientation of the behavior of the same ones

  13. Distribution of hydrogen-metabolizing bacteria in alfalfa field soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H2 evolved by alfalfa root nodules during the process of N2 fixation may be an important factor influencing the distribution of soil bacteria. To test this hypothesis under field conditions, over 700 bacterial isolates were obtained from fallow soil or from the 3-mm layer of soil surrounding alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root nodules, alfalfa roots, or bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) roots. Bacteria were isolated under either aerobic or microaerophilic conditions and were tested for their capacity to metabolize H2. Isolates showing net H2 uptake and 3H2 incorporation activity under laboratory conditions were assigned a Hup+ phenotype, whereas organisms with significant H2 output capacity were designated as a Hout+ phenotype. Under aerobic isolation conditions two Hup+ isolates were obtained, whereas under microaerophilic conditions five Hup+ and two Hout+ isolates were found. The nine isolates differed on the basis of 24 standard bacteriological characteristics or fatty acid composition. Five of the nine organisms were isolated from soil around root nodules, whereas the other four were found distributed among the other three soil environments. On the basis of the microaerophilic isolations, 4.8% of the total procaryotic isolates from soil around root nodules were capable of oxidizing H2, and 1.2% could produce H2. Two of the Hup+ isolates were identified as Rhizobium meliloti by root nodulation tests, but the fact that none of the isolates reduced C2H2 under the assay conditions suggested that the H2 metabolism traits were associated with various hydrogenase systems rather than with nitrogenase activity

  14. Studies on the Alfalfa Growing Effects of Alfalfa Rhizobium%苜蓿根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊川; 杨旭升; 曹亚斌

    2015-01-01

    通过不同剂量苜蓿根瘤菌接种两种紫花苜蓿试验,比较了接种根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长的影响。试验结果表明:接种苜蓿根瘤菌剂能够提高紫花苜蓿结瘤数量和根瘤重,促进紫花苜蓿的生长发育,增加苜蓿草的产草量。在所试验的接种剂量中,以每 kg 苜蓿种子接种12mL 根瘤菌剂为最佳接种量。%This paper studied the alfalfa growing effects of alfalfa rhizobium by inoculated different amounts.The experimental results showed that inoculating rhizobium can raise the nodulating amount of alfalfa and the weight of nodulations,promoting the growth of alfalfas and augment the productions of alfalfas.Among the different inoculated amounts,the amount of 12ml is the best inoculated amount.

  15. Photosynthate partitioning in alfalfa before harvest and during regrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the harvest regrowth cycle of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants, factors such as source to sink distance, sink size, and inter-organ competition continually change. However, consequent changes in the pattern of photosynthate partitioning from leaves to other organs are poorly understood. The authors objective was to examine photosynthate partitioning from upper and lower alfalfa leaves at intervals before herbage harvest and during regrowth after harvest. The uppermost or lowest fully expanded leaf on the longest or dominant stem was labeled with 14CO2. After a 24-h translocation period, the plants were divided into various organs to determine distribution of the radiocarbon. At that time, the upper leaf preferentially partitioned photosynthate to the shoot apex, unexpanded leaves and auxillary shoots of the dominant shoot, whereas the lower leaf preferentially distributed photosynthate to the crown shoots, crown, root, and nodules. Expressions of 14C partitioning were affected differently by organ mass. While the smallest organs such as nodules and unexpanded leaves always ranked higher for 14C based on relative specific activity, the largest organs such as roots and crown shoots accumulated the largest percentage of total plant recovered radioactivity. The results illustrate the importance of growth stage and leaf position in photosynthate partitioning in alfalfa and the dominance of herbage meristems for current photosynthate during regrowth

  16. Activity screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from alfalfa rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahla pashapour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some rhizobacteria by various mechanisms influence plant growth as they are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Scientists identified some PGPR characters involved in promoting plant growth, while all these characters are not able to study. The aim of this study was to evaluate PGP activities of bacterial isolates, (45 isolates belonged to rhizobium and 2 bacterial isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescens, which were isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa rhizosphere and root nodules grown around Zanjan. Materials and methods: These bacteria were isolated from alfalfa roots grown around Zinc industries in Zanjan province. After bacterial isolation and purification from root and soil samples, isolates were screened in vitro for plant growth promoting traits such as IAA (Indole Acetic Acid, ACC- deaminase (Amino Cyclopropan Carboxylate, HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide, siderophore, chitinase production and mineral and organic phosphate solubilization activities. Results: The results indicated that 43 bacterial isolates produced IAA (4.04- 4.95 μg/ml and 15 isolates produced ACC- deaminase (0.23- 1.05 μg/ml. Only one isolate (Rm66 produced high amount of HCN. Qualitative siderophore production was observed in 9 isolates. None of the isolates produced chitinase. Solubilization of mineral phosphate was commonly detected in 19 isolates (4.33- 5.86 μg/ml, and 15 isolates solubilized organic phosphate (1.66- 144.28 μg/ml. Discussion and conclusion: This study shows that most of the bacterial strains which isolated from alfalfa cultivated lands had PGP activities and also a good potential to increase plant growth after inoculation with to seeds as eco- friendly fertilizers.

  17. Perspectives of alfalfa in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    HUYGHE, Christian; Delaby, Luc; Rosellini, Daniele; Veronesi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture shall reconcile high productivity with preservation of the environment, and at the same time compete in a global market. Alfalfa can help to meet the challenges of climate change and pollution reduction, by favoring crop rotations capable of better preserving the soil and controlling weeds. The utilization of alfalfa through grazing may also reduce risks of pollution and production costs. Alfalfa will keep an important place in Europe agriculture, because it sustainabl...

  18. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M.; Pozo, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antif...

  19. Alfalfa baleage with increased concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates supplemented with a corn-based concentrate did not improve production and nitrogen utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding alfalfa baleage with different concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) supplemented with a common corn-based concentrate on performance, ruminal fermentation profile, N utilization, and omasal flow of nutrients in dairy cows during early lactation. Ten multiparous (8 ruminally cannulated) and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments (high- or low-NSC diet) in a crossover design. The difference in NSC concentration between the 2 alfalfa baleages fed from d14 to 21 averaged 14 g of NSC/kg of dry matter (DM). Forages and concentrate were offered in separate meals with forages fed once and concentrate offered 3 times daily. Except for the molar proportion of valerate, which was lowest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, no other changes in ruminal fermentation were observed. Omasal flows of most nitrogenous fractions, including bacterial nonammonia N and AA, were not affected by treatments. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber and N were lowest, whereas that of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest when feeding the high-NSC diet. Postruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, fiber, and N were highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, resulting in no difference in total-tract digestibilities. Total-tract digestibility of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but that of starch did not differ across treatments. Although milk yield and total DM intake did not differ between treatments, yields of milk fat and 4% fat-corrected milk decreased significantly in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Milk concentration of urea N was lowest, and that of ruminal NH3-N highest, in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Plasma urea N concentration tended to be decreased in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but concentrations of AA were not affected by treatments, with the exception of Asp and Cys, both of which were lowest in

  20. Impact of Bee Species and Plant Density on Alfalfa Pollination and Potential for Gene Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Johanne Brunet; Stewart, Christy M.

    2010-01-01

    In outcrossing crops like alfalfa, various bee species can contribute to pollination and gene flow in seed production fields. With the increasing use of transgenic crops, it becomes important to determine the role of these distinct pollinators on alfalfa pollination and gene flow. The current study examines the relative contribution of honeybees, three bumble bee species, and three solitary bee species to pollination and gene flow in alfalfa. Two wild solitary bee species and one wild bumble ...

  1. Energy requirements and quality changes in steam-blanched alfalfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, R.F.; Buckmaster, D.R.; Anderson, P.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    Direct-cut alfalfa was chopped then blanched in a laboratory scale batch blancher for up to 300 s. Steam flow rate was varied from 55 to 580 kg/h; alfalfa mat thickness in the 0.36 m[sup 2] blancher was varied between 5 and 15 cm. The most energy efficient combination was 580 kg steam/h with a 15-cm alfalfa thickness (0.011 kg steam/m[sup 3] alfalfa). Energy required to achieve 95[degree]C for blanching was about 16 MJ/kg alfalfa dry matter (DM). Temperature variations due to location within the blancher were frequently significant (p < 0.05) in thin (5 cm) mats, but not in thicker mats. Crude protein (CP) concentration in the alfalfa was not affected by blanching. However, soluble protein dropped from 44.4 to 15.5% of CP as a result of blanching. Protein degradability dropped as much as seven percentage units due to blanching. Short-term heating did not change the acid detergent insoluble fraction of the protein. Steam treatment had mixed effects on acid detergent fiber, but increased neutral detergent fiber concentration unless subsequent fermentation occurred. 25 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  2. Scintigraphy and thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scintigraphy indications are: definition of the functional character in the multi nodules impairments, exploration of low T.S.H. (131I irradiation-therapy, cytological selection of hypo contrasted nodules. The comparison of the 123I fixation and the T.S.H. rate allows to identify the autonomous nodules and the autoimmune nodules hyperplasia. The longitudinal surveillance of nodules (97% of benign pathology) is simplified by scintigraphy: in lack of empowerment, the T.S.H surveillance is useless, in presence of hyper functional areas, the cytology is little useful but a surveillance or an etiologic treatment are required. (IT4, 131I, or surgery). (N.C.)

  3. Effect of electromagnetic stimulation of alfalfa seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwintal, M.; Dziwulska-Hunek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the conducted experiments the effect of presowing He-Ne laser light, magnetic field stimulation or the combination of these two factors of alfalfa seeds on the field emergence, structure and yields in the year of sowing and during three following years of full land use were studied. The examined factors had a significant effect on the number of shoots per 1 m2, plant height, mass of shoots, fresh and dry mass. Electromagnetic stimulation resulted in a significant increase in alfalfa seeds emergence (from 35% - control to 47.8% - magnetic field), number of shoots per 1m2 (from 608 - control to 813 - laser light in cut), but a decrease of the mass of the shoots (from 0.61 g - control to 0.50 g - laser light).

  4. [Alfalfa Planting as weed control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter to farming cooperators regarding the stipulations surrounding alfalfa plantings in lieu of small grain plantings to provide weed control,...

  5. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [14C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [14C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14C-labeled, elicited cells with L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures

  6. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A. (Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (USA)); Geno, P.W. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6{double prime}-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, ({sup 14}C)phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of {sup 14}C-labeled, elicited cells with L-{alpha}-aminooxy-{beta}-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures.

  7. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as aspergillosis , coccidioidomycosis , cryptococcosis , or histoplasmosis Primary lung cancer is the most common cause of cancerous (malignant) pulmonary nodules. This is cancer that starts in the ...

  8. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  9. Improved pulmonary nodule classification utilizing quantitative lung parenchyma features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Samantha K N; Uthoff, Johanna; Judisch, Alexandra; Hammond, Emily; Mott, Sarah L; Smith, Brian J; Newell, John D; Hoffman, Eric A; Sieren, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) models for determining pulmonary nodule malignancy characterize nodule shape, density, and border in computed tomography (CT) data. Analyzing the lung parenchyma surrounding the nodule has been minimally explored. We hypothesize that improved nodule classification is achievable by including features quantified from the surrounding lung tissue. To explore this hypothesis, we have developed expanded quantitative CT feature extraction techniques, including volumetric Laws texture energy measures for the parenchyma and nodule, border descriptors using ray-casting and rubber-band straightening, histogram features characterizing densities, and global lung measurements. Using stepwise forward selection and leave-one-case-out cross-validation, a neural network was used for classification. When applied to 50 nodules (22 malignant and 28 benign) from high-resolution CT scans, 52 features (8 nodule, 39 parenchymal, and 5 global) were statistically significant. Nodule-only features yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.918 (including nodule size) and 0.872 (excluding nodule size). Performance was improved through inclusion of parenchymal (0.938) and global features (0.932). These results show a trend toward increased performance when the parenchyma is included, coupled with the large number of significant parenchymal features that support our hypothesis: the pulmonary parenchyma is influenced differentially by malignant versus benign nodules, assisting CAD-based nodule characterizations. PMID:26870744

  10. Solid-substrate fermentation of alfalfa for enhanced protein recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajracharya, R.; Madgett, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    Solid-substrate fermentations for extraction of protein from pressed alfalfa residues with Aspergillus Sp. QM 9994, Aspergillus niger QM 877, and Rhizopus nigricans QM 387 were conducted in shake flasks. Upon reimbibing and second pressing, total protein recovery from alfalfa was increased from 47.2% for control samples and up to 64.5% for fermented samples. Analysis of juice from fermented samples indicated the presence of cellulase as well as pectinase activities. Dialysis cultures of cellulase-producing fungi showed that total biomass production and solids consumption were much higher than those of a mutant strain lacking the ability to produce cellulase, indicating significant utilization of cellulosic materials in alfalfa. The biomass yields in the former case ranged from 39-47% based on total solids consumption. Since some of the cellulosic and other carbohydrate constituents in alfalfa may be converted into fungal protein, final alfalfa residues following protein extraction in a commercial process would be less bulky for storage and handling and would be more digestible as a nonruminant animal feed.

  11. Lung nodules accidentally detected on CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving of the spatial resolution of modern CT scanners has increased the amount of information obtained by lung CT, and thus the amount of accidentally determined nodules and quality of their structure specification. To unify the criteria of their follow-up CT studies Fleischner Society has issued recommendations for management of solid pulmonary nodules, and then added recommendations for subsolid nodules. In this article the review of categories of such accidental findings in lungs is presented with follow-up criteria and annotations applied

  12. The radiosensitivity of alfalfa varieties and the fuzzy concentration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dried alfalfa seeds (12.1% moisture) were exposed to 6'0Co γ radiation field with 0∼36.1 C/kg radiation doses (irradiation rate is 2.84 x 10-2 C/(kg·min)) to observe and measure some radio-bio-effectivity. In the range of irradiation doses, vitality index, root length, seedling survival rate, seedling height, plant height and grass yield decreased and pollen sterility, micro-nucleus rate, free radical relative content increased as the amount of radiation increased. The activity of peroxidase increased as the amount of radiation increased within certain range of dose and tended to decreased beyond that range. Vitality index and root length, which dosage effect curve is compatible with multiple targets-single hit model, and seedling survival rate, seedling height, plant height and grass yield, which dosage effect curve is compatible with linear regression model. There were strong co-relations between the seedling height, micro-nucleus cell rate and the free radical relative content (P<0.01). There were very significant difference (P<0.01) between the alfalfa species and varieties. With fuzzy concentration analysis method, the alfalfa sample were classified into five groups: higher sensitive, sensitive, intermediate, resistant, higher resistant. The suitable irradiation doses for the alfalfa species and varieties are between 12.9∼34.8 mCi/kg

  13. Study on Alfalfa Yield Improved by New Rare Earth Materials for Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Tianwen; Abudukahar; Cui Yingguo; Peng Jianzhang; Wang Jiachen

    2004-01-01

    New rare earth(RE) materials for agriculture including RE entire nutrition agent, amino acid chelated RE fertilizer, RE phosphate were used to alfalfa production in Grassland Working Station of Yili, Xinjiang Province, and repetition was 3 with 7 treatments.The result shows that by using new RE materials, the average treatment height of alfalfa increases by 12.5% compared with traditional cultural, and the yield increases from 21.8% to 41.6% compared with that of traditional cultural.These results show that the new materials have significant good effect on alfalfa production.

  14. Study in mutation of alfalfa genome DNA due to low energy N+ implantation using RAPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After implanted by various dosage N+ beams, germination rate of alfalfa seeds appears to be saddle line with dosage increasing. The authors have studied in mutation of genome DNA due to low energy N+ implantation, and concluded that 30 differential DNA fragments have been amplified by 8 primers (S41, S42, S45, S46, S50, S52, S56, S58) in 100 primers, moreover, number of differential DNA fragments between CK and treatments increases with dosage. Consequently, low energy ion implantation can cause mutation of alfalfa genome DNA. The more dosage it is, the more mutation alfalfa will be

  15. [Benign thyroid nodules: diagnostic and therapeutic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Cosimo; Cava, Francesco; Paciaroni, Alessandra; Filetti, Sebastiano

    2008-05-01

    In the last years an increase in thyroid nodules detection has been reported from several epidemiological studies. This trend is largely due to the routine use of diagnostic sonography procedures in clinical practice. Thyroid nodules, both palpable or not palpable, rarely turn out to be malignant. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAc) plays a central role in establishing the nature of the nodule. Excluded the presence of malignant lesions, which are generally treated with surgery, physicians are faced with a variety of therapeutic options, and choosing the optimal approach can be a difficult task. These include a periodic follow-up alone without treatment, the iodine supplementation, the thyroid-hormone suppressive therapy, the radioiodine administration, the percutaneous ethanol injections, and the new technique of laser photocoagulation. In all cases, decisions on the management of benign thyroid nodules should always be based on clinical target and a careful analysis of benefits and risks to the patient. PMID:18581970

  16. Extended region of nodulation genes in Rhizobium meliloti 1021. I. Phenotypes of Tn5 insertion mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhizobium meliloti Nod- mutant WL131, a derivative of wild-type strain 102F51, was complemented by a clone bank of wild-type R. meliloti 1021 DNA, and clone pRmJT5 was recovered. Transfer of pRmJT5 conferred alfalfa nodulation on other Rhizobium species, indicating a role in host range determination for pRmJT5. Mutagenesis of pRmJT5 revealed several segments in which transposon insertion causes delay in nodulation, and/or marked reduction of the number of nodules formed on host alfalfa plants. The set of mutants indicated five regions in which nod genes are located; one mutant, nod-216, is located in a region not previously reported to encode a nodulation gene. Other mutant phenotypes correlated with the positions of open reading frames for nodH, nodF and nodE, and with a 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment. A mutant in nodG had no altered phenotype in this strain. One nodulation mutant was shown to be a large deletion of the common nod gene region. The authors present a discussion comparing the various studies made on this extended nod gene region

  17. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue proliferatio

  18. Combined Roles of Glandular-haired Alfalfa and Natural Enemies in Alfalfa Pest Managment in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Dellinger, Theresa Ann

    2003-01-01

    Both alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), remain key pests of alfalfa in Virginia. Commercial varieties of potato leafhopper-resistant (or glandular-haired) alfalfa were released in the mid-1990s, but the impact of alfalfa weevil on these varieties has not been well documented. In 1999, two large-scale field experiments were initiated to compare the performance of a glandular-hair...

  19. Alfalfa hay induced primary photosensitization in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, B; Chen, X; Read, D; Affolter, V K

    2016-05-01

    Photosensitization, also known as photodermatitis, occurs when phototoxic or photoactive substances accumulate in the skin and interact with sunlight to result in an often severe, crusting, itching or painful dermatitis in unpigmented and/or lightly haired areas of the skin. Primary photosensitization, caused by direct ingestion of photosensitizing agents, has been reported anecdotally in horses after ingestion of alfalfa hay. Between 2004 and 2014, several large outbreaks of primary photosensitization in horses fed primarily alfalfa hay were investigated in California. Alfalfa hay samples were collected and carefully examined for the presence of known photosensitizing plants and pesticide residues but none were identified. Select hay samples were evaluated for unusual fungal infestation and for phototoxicity assay using a specific Candida albicans assay; results were negative. In the 2004 outbreak, a feeding study was conducted with three horses exclusively fed alfalfa hay that was suspected to have caused the outbreak. Two weeks after ingestion of alfalfa hay, two horses developed several lesions in non-pigmented skin characterized as chronic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis with superficial vasculitis, which was consistent with photosensitization. In the 2014 outbreak, seven different implicated alfalfa hay samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a and b, and pheophorbide a. These compounds had been suspected to play a role in alfalfa-induced primary photosensitization. The chlorophyll contents ranged from 0.90 to 2.30 mg/g in the alfalfa hay samples, compared to 1.37 and 2.94 mg/g in locally grown alfalfa and orchard grass hay. The pheophorbide a levels ranged from 3.36 to 89.87 µg/g in alfalfa samples compared to 81.39 and 42.33 µg/g in control alfalfa and orchard grass hay samples. These findings eliminate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and pheophorbide a as possible causes for alfalfa-hay induced primary photosensitization. PMID:27040919

  20. Pulmonary nodules resected for suspected metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy : CT-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the relative frequency of benign and metastatic nodules in patients in whom nodules were resected due to suspected metastasis, and to compare the CT features of these nodules with pathologic findings in resected specimens. Ninety-four pulmonary nodules resected by pulmonary metastasectomy in 31 patients with extrathoracic malignancies were included in our study. We retrospectively analyzed the CT features of each nodule with regard to size, shape, margin characteristics, the presence or absence of cavity, location and distance from the pleura. Among 94 resected nodules, 67 (71%) were metastatic, and 27 (29%), were benign. Among the pathologically benign nodules, involvement was as follows : fibrosis (n=3D14), intrapulmonary lymph node (n=3D7), necrosis (n=3D3), organizing pneumonia (n=3D2) and xanthogranulomatous inflammation (n=3D1). The mean diameter of metastatic nodules was 10.9 (range, 1-30) mm, and that of benign nodules 6.0 (range, 1-30)mm. Statistically significant differences in nodule size were found between the two groups (p less than 0.05), though CT revealed no significant differences in terms of shape, margin, the presence or absence of cavity, location and distance from the pleura. Twenty-nine percent of surgically resected nodules in patients with extrathoracic malignancies were benign. Although the possibility of metastatic nodule increases with larger nodule size, the correct diagnosis of pulmonary nodules requires histopathologic confirmation or monitoring of serial changes in nodule size. (author)

  1. Promise and pitfalls of molecular markers of thyroid nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav, S.; Anurag Lila; Tushar Bandgar; Nalini Shah

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a prevalence of 5-7% The initial evaluation of thyroid nodules commonly involves thyroid function tests, an ultrasound (USG) and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The optimal management of patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology is plagued by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities In this article we attempt to review the available literature on the molecular markers which are increasingly ...

  2. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  3. Management of solid pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing availability of computed tomography has meant that the number of incidentally detected solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) has greatly increased in recent years. A reasonable management of these SPN is necessary in order to firstly be able to detect malignant lesions early on and secondly to avoid upsetting the patient unnecessarily or carrying out further stressful diagnostic procedures. This review article shows how the dignity of SPNs can be estimated and based on this how the management can be accomplished taking established guidelines into consideration. (orig.)

  4. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses 7.7 M☉ and H I line widths –1. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* ∼8 M☉ is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  5. An infiltrating rheumatoid nodule?

    OpenAIRE

    Isdale, A H; Helliwell, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    The case is presented of a patient with mild rheumatoid arthritis who developed an enlarged painful tissue mass in the left lower leg. Although the history, clinical, and imaging appearances suggested that it was a soft tissue sarcoma, a biopsy specimen showed histological features consistent with either a rheumatoid nodule or subcutaneous granuloma annulare.

  6. Improved pulmonary nodule classification utilizing lung parenchyma texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, S. K.; Judisch, A.; Uthoff, J.; Hammond, E.; Newell, J. D.; Sieren, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    Current computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) models, developed to determine the malignancy of pulmonary nodules, characterize the nodule's shape, density, and border. Analyzing the lung parenchyma surrounding the nodule is an area that has been minimally explored. We hypothesize that improved classification of nodules can be achieved through the inclusion of features quantified from the surrounding lung tissue. From computed tomography (CT) data, feature extraction techniques were developed to quantify the parenchymal and nodule textures, including a three-dimensional application of Laws' Texture Energy Measures. Border irregularity was investigated using ray-casting and rubber-band straightening techniques, while histogram features characterized the densities of the nodule and parenchyma. The feature set was reduced by stepwise feature selection to a few independent features that best summarized the dataset. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, a neural network was used for classification. The CAD tool was applied to 50 nodules (22 malignant, 28 benign) from high-resolution CT scans. 47 features, including 39 parenchymal features, were statistically significant, with both nodule and parenchyma features selected for classification, yielding an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.935. This was compared to classification solely based on the nodule yielding an AUC of 0.917. These preliminary results show an increase in performance when the surrounding parenchyma is included in analysis. While modest, the improvement and large number of significant parenchyma features supports our hypothesis that the parenchyma contains meaningful data that can assist in CAD development.

  7. Weed management research in alfalfa seed production in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is an important component of producing high quality and high yielding alfalfa seed. Alfalfa seed is produced with wider row and lower plant populations than alfalfa forage requiring greater weed management inputs. Flumioxazin was evaluated for weed control in alfalfa seed and forage pro...

  8. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  9. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  10. Diagnosis and management of pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochmal, Rebecca; Arias, Sixto; Yarmus, Lonny; Feller-Kopman, David; Lee, Hans

    2014-12-01

    There are an increased number of pulmonary nodules discovered on CT scan images in part due to those performed for lung cancer screening. Risk stratification and patient involvement is critical in determining management ranging from interval imaging to invasive biopsy or surgery. A definitive diagnosis requires tissue biopsy. The choice of a particular biopsy technique depends on the risks/benefits of the procedure, the diagnostic yield and local expertise. This review will focus on the evaluation and management of pulmonary nodules based on the Fleischner Society and American College of Chest Physician guidelines. There have been recent changes to both societies' recommendations for incidental detection of solid and subsolid nodules, risk stratification, imaging, minimally invasive diagnostic techniques and definitive surgical options. PMID:25152306

  11. Gamma-Ray Doses Affected on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted at the experimental from, Nuclear Research Center at Inshas. Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) at Egypt during 2011– 2012 growing seasons on alfalfa genotype. The aim of this investigation to evaluate the effect of different gamma ray doses (100-300 Gy) on the alfalfa yield and related traits. Seeds lots of alfalfa genotype were subjected to five gamma ray treatments (100,150,200,250 and 300 Gray). Over all cuts, the dose treatment 300 Gy increased the majority of studied traits i.e., plant height, No. of shoots/plant, fresh weight/plant, fresh yield/Fadden and dry weight yield/fed. The results observed indicated that. In addition, dose of 200 and 250 Gy increased No. of leaves /plant, No. of shoots/plant, stem diameter and fresh weight /plant. However, the plant dry weight was decreased by all doses used and over all cuts, but the dose of 100 and 150 Gy increased leaves /stem ratio. Meanwhile, the later cuts were more affected by irradiation treatments than the earlier ones. In general, the low doses had negative effects on yield traits, but, the relatively high doses exhibited an increase in yield traits

  12. A study on N behaviour of China Xinjiang big leave alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plant growth and N behaviour %Ndfs and %Ndff of main Xinjiang legume forage crops could be observed when its of China Xinjiang big leave alfalfa and main gramineous forage grasses in monoculture and mixed culture were investigated in potting and pasture experiments using 15N isotope dilution method in 1985∼1988. The %Ndff of China Xinjiang big leave alfalfa, sweet clover, sainfoin, white clover and red clover from legume forage crops are negligible, only 0.7%∼5.3%, but there is a great variation in their %Ndfs and %Ndfa. Generally, a significant decreasing of %Ndfs and %Ndff of main Xinjiang legume forage crops could be observed when its %Ndfa rose. 79% of nitrogen of China Xinjiang big leave alfalfa plants is from air and its %Ndff is only 0.7%, it is a high nitrogen fixing crop. The average %Ndff and %Ndfs of main Xinjiang graminous crops, tallfescus, Siberian wild rye, wheat grass and awnless brome, decreased separately while the %Ndfa of China Xinjiang big leave alfalfa increased in mixture as compared with monoculture. The suitable combination in mixed cropping is 1:1 in the ratio of China Xinjiang big leave alfalfa to Siberian wild rye in standing plants. There was the highest yield of mixed hay, nitrogen, Ndfa and Ndff of alfalfa plants in the suitable combination. The mixed hay composition of the suitable combination was in the ratio of 1:0.9 of grass to legume

  13. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  14. Adipokinetic hormone enhances nodule formation and phenoloxidase activation in adult locusts injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsworthy, Graham J.; Chandrakant, S.; Opoku-Ware, K.

    2003-01-01

    Interactions between the locust endocrine and immune systems have been studied in vivo in relation to nodule formation and activation of the prophenoloxidase cascade in the haemolymph. Injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from Escherichia coli induces nodule formation in larval and adult locusts but does not increase phenoloxidase activity in the haemolymph. Nodule formation starts rapidly after injection of LPS and is virtually complete within 8 h, nodules occurring main...

  15. VATS intraoperative tattooing to facilitate solitary pulmonary nodule resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Cherif

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS has become routine and widely accepted for the removal of solitary pulmonary nodules of unknown etiology. Thoracosopic techniques continue to evolve with better instruments, robotic applications, and increased patient acceptance and awareness. Several techniques have been described to localize peripheral pulmonary nodules, including pre-operative CT-guided tattooing with methylene blue, CT scan guided spiral/hook wire placement, and transthoracic ultrasound. As pulmonary surgeons well know, the lung and visceral pleura may appear featureless on top of a pulmonary nodule. Case description This paper presents a rapid, direct and inexpensive approach to peripheral lung lesion resection by marking the lung parenchyma on top of the nodule using direct methylene blue injection. Methods In two patients with peripherally located lung nodules (n = 3 scheduled for VATS, we used direct methylene blue injection for intraoperative localization of the pulmonary nodule. Our technique was the following: After finger palpation of the lung, a spinal 25 gauge needle was inserted through an existing port and 0.1 ml of methylene blue was used to tattoo the pleura perpendicular to the localized nodule. The methylene blue tattoo immediately marks the lung surface over the nodule. The surgeon avoids repeated finger palpation, while lining up stapler, graspers and camera, because of the visible tattoo. Our technique eliminates regrasping and repalpating the lung once again to identify a non marked lesion. Results Three lung nodules were resected in two patients. Once each lesion was palpated it was marked, and the area was resected with security of accurate localization. All lung nodules were resected in totality with normal lung parenchymal margins. Our technique added about one minute to the operative time. The two patients were discharged home on the second postoperative day, with no morbidity. Conclusion

  16. Concurrent synthesis and release of nod-gene-inducing flavonoids from alfalfa roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavonoid signals from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) induce transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. Alfalfa roots release three major nod-gene inducers: 4',7-dihydroxyflavanone, 4',7-dihydroxyflavone, and 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone. The objective of the present study was to define temporal relationships between synthesis and exudation for those flavonoids. Requirements for concurrent flavonoid biosynthesis were assessed by treating roots of intact alfalfa seedlings with [U-14C]-L-phenylalanine in the presence or absence of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibitor L-2-aminoxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP). In the absence of AOPP, each of the three flavonoids in exudates contained 14C. In the presence of AOPP, 14C labeling and release of all the exuded nod-gene inducers were reduced significantly. AOPP inhibited labeling and release of the strongest nod-gene inducer, methoxychalcone, by more than 90%. The release process responsible for exudation of nod-gene inducers appears to be specific rather than a general phenomenon such as a sloughing off of cells during root growth

  17. Thyroid carcinoma and hot nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukata, Shuji; Tamai, Hajime; Matsubayashi, Sunao; Nagai, Keisuke; Hirota, Yoshihiko; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Katayama, Shoichi; Kuma, Kanji; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1987-09-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with a nodule in the thyroid gland. /sup 131/I scintigraphy of the gland showed a hot nodule. Histology of the resected thyroid revealed a papillary adenocarcinoma. Although a thyroid carcinoma with a hot nodule seen on the radioiodine isotope scan is a very rare occurrence, it is clinically very important because it may indicate a thyroid malignancy.

  18. An attempt to estimate out-of-plane lung nodule elongation in tomosynthesis images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Artur; Arvidsson, Jonathan; Söderman, Christina; Svalkvist, Angelica; Johnsson, Šse A.; Bâth, Magnus

    2015-03-01

    In chest tomosynthesis (TS) the most commonly used reconstruction methods are based on Filtered Back Projection (FBP) algorithms. Due to the limited angular range of x-ray projections, FBP reconstructed data is typically associated with a low spatial resolution in the out-of-plane dimension. Lung nodule measures that depend on depth information such as 3D shape and volume are therefore difficult to estimate. In this paper the relation between features from FBP reconstructed lung nodules and the true out-of-plane nodule elongation is investigated and a method for estimating the out-of-plane nodule elongation is proposed. In order to study these relations a number of steps that include simulation of spheroidal-shaped nodules, insertion into synthetic data volumes, construction of TS-projections and FBP-reconstruction were performed. In addition, the same procedure was used to simulate nodules and insert them into clinical chest TS projection data. The reconstructed nodule data was then investigated with respect to in-plane diameter, out-of-plane elongation, and attenuation coefficient. It was found that the voxel value in each nodule increased linearly with nodule elongation, for nodules with a constant attenuation coefficient. Similarly, the voxel value increased linearly with in-plane diameter. These observations indicate the possibility to predict the nodule elongation from the reconstructed voxel intensity values. Such a method would represent a quantitative approach to chest tomosynthesis that may be useful in future work on volume and growth rate estimation of lung nodules.

  19. Screening of highly-effective rhizobial strains on Alfalfa (Medicago polymorpha)in soil%南苜蓿高效共生根瘤菌土壤的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓云; 郭振国; 李乔仙; 刘桂霞; 薛世明; 王易鹏

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa ( Medicago polymorpha) is an annual herbal plant in the pea family Fabaceae, has the highest feeding value as forage for its soft and highly digestible fiber and high protein content fiber up to 24. 5%. Therefore, it recommended to cultivate widely and productively as an ideal forage plant. Inoculated with thizobia, alfalfa ( Medicago polymorpha) can formed effective symbiotic system to fix nitrogen, and subsequently produce high plant growth dry weigh. The inoculation effect on alfalfa ( Medicago polymorpha) was performed in three different type of soils from Yingjiang county of Yunnan province by using twelve distinct thizobial strains such as SWF67523, SWF67409, SWF67456, SWF67394, SWF67501 , etc. respectively which were isolated from root nodules of Medicago polymorpha , M. sativa and M. lupulina from Yingjiang and other area of Yunnan. The results showed that the thizobial nodulation rate, plant height, dry weight and total nitrogen content of plant were all increased significantly after harvested in condition that plant were inoculated with thizobia ( P<O. 05 ) , the thizobial nodulation rate are up to 98. 41% , 97. 78% , 97. 50% and 96. 56% by inoculated with strain SWF67523, SWF67501, SWF67394 and SWF67350, respectively; Contrasting to the control, the plant height increasing 40. 2% , 27. 3% and 25. 0% by SWF67523 , SWF67409 and SWF67394 respectively ; The dry weight per plant was raised up 106. 5% by inoculated with SWF67409 and raised 100. 1% , 78. 3% and 74. 3% by the other strains SWF67523, SWF67394 and HBU07001 respectively; Besides, the inoculated strains increased the nitrogen content obviously as well, the alfalfa plant have higher nitrogen content by inoculated with strain SWF67409, SWF67523 and SWF67394 than other test strains. Among 12 strains grew in three types of soils revealed by the whole production of the plant inoculation, strain SWF67523 ,SWF67409 and SWF67394 were more effective than others; Of the three

  20. Alfalfa Hay Quality and Alternative Pricing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Jared A.; Peterson, Hikaru Hanawa; Burton, Robert O., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Price-quality relationships for alfalfa hay were analyzed by hedonic pricing models using 1996-2001 Wisconsin auction data. Individual nutrients included in the analysis all affected alfalfa price, with acid detergent fiber accounting for the largest impact. Alternative pricing models, based on an aggregate quality index or detailed quality information, were similar in their ability to predict price. However, disaggregating price predictions to account for differences in relative feed value (...

  1. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja Vesna; Lević Jelena; Ivanović M.; Tomić Zorica P.

    2005-01-01

    In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum) towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virul...

  2. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja Vesna; Lević Jelena T.; Ivanović Mirko; Tomić Zorica P.

    2005-01-01

    In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum) towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulen...

  3. Effect of replacing alfalfa with panicled-tick clover or sericea lespedeza in corn-alfalfa-based substrates on in vitro ruminal methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, H D; Lambert, B D; Armstrong, S A; Fonseca, M A; Tedeschi, L O; Muir, J P; Ellersieck, M R

    2015-06-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock contribute to total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and reduce metabolizable energy intake by the animal. Condensed tannins (CT) are polyphenolic plant secondary compounds commonly produced by some perennial forage legumes that characteristically bind to protein, carbohydrates, and minerals. The degree to which CT may affect ruminant nutrition depends upon the concentration, structural composition, and biological activity of the CT. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa in a corn-alfalfa-based substrate with a legume containing CT on in vitro CH4 production and the dynamics of fermentation using an in vitro gas production technique. All fermented substrates contained 50% ground corn as the energy concentrate portion, whereas the forage portion (50%) of each diet was comprised of alfalfa (control) or some combination of alfalfa and sericea lespedeza (SL) or panicled-tick clover (PTC). Our treatments consisted of PTC or SL 15, 30, and 45, which corresponded with 15, 30, or 45% replacement of the diet (alfalfa component) with either PTC or SL. Substrates containing 45% PTC or SL reduced in vitro CH4 production. Treatments did not affect total gas production as compared with that of the control. Replacement of alfalfa with SL or PTC increased fermentable organic matter (FOM). The PTC treatment increased FOM by as much as 1.8% at the 45% replacement level, whereas FOM of SL 45 was increased by less than 1%. The replacement of alfalfa with PTC increased substrate nutritive value greater than replacement with SL. There were no correlations between any physicochemical constituent of the substrates and CH4 production. A combination of factors associated with the inclusion of PTC and SL contributed to the in vitro CH4 production, and CT in these forages was likely a major contributing factor. Further confirmation of these results on in situ or in vivo animal systems is required. If

  4. Lignin and Fiber digestibility in Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase Downregulated Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forages in the United States. Increasing alfalfa fiber digestibility would improve forage management and ration formulation flexibility. Currently, growers and breeders rely on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict forage quality tra...

  5. El cultivo de alfalfa utilizando agua de perforación, agua residual urbana y precipitaciones The cultivation of alfalfa using artesian well water, urban wastewater and rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Plevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la producción de biomasa aérea, la eficiencia del uso de agua y el valor nutritivo de alfalfa cultivada aplicando riego con agua residual urbana, agua de perforación y un testigo (precipitaciones, en el Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. Los tratamientos de riego tuvieron un efecto positivo sobre la producción de biomasa aérea obteniéndose un 24% más de producción de biomasa que en la situación de secano (precipitaciones. Entre los tratamientos con riego también se manifestaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La alfalfa regada con aguas residuales urbana supero en un 19% a la cultivada con agua de perforación. La eficiencia del uso del agua por parte del cultivo se incrementó cuando el riego se realizó con aguas residuales urbanas. Además, se determinó que la alfalfa regada con agua residual, supera los valores nutritivos del cultivo que crece en condiciones sin riego; encontrándose 39% más de proteínas, 14% más de digestibilidad e igual porcentaje de energía metabólica. Se puede concluir que el agua residual urbana representa otra posible fuente de agua, factible de ingresar al suelo y estar a disposición para el cultivo de alfalfa.The objective of this study was to analyse the production of alfalfa biomass, the efficiency of water use and the nutritional value of forage, inside an irrigation structure of an experimental facility that uses treated urban wastewater, artesian well water and rainfall, at the campus of the Universidad National de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. The irrigation treatment had a positive effect on the production of biomass of alfalfa. On an average 24% increase in production was observed when compared to dry-land farming. Regarding the quality of the irrigation water, statistical differences in production were observed, the irrigation with urban wastewater produced 19% more than that of well water. The

  6. Frequency of Thyroid Nodules among Patients with Colonic Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Duran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Colonic polyps and thyroid nodules are common diseases and their frequency increases with age. In the literature, there is no study investigating the coexistence of colonic polyps and thyroid nodules. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate thyroid nodule prevalence in patients with colonic polyps. Material and Methods. Sixty-six patients with colonic polyps and 146 patients without colonic polyps enrolled into the study. Age and sex matched control group was composed from patients without colonic polyps. Colonoscopic examinations, thyroid ultrasonographies were performed in all patients, and TSH were measured. Results. Male/female ratio in polyp and control groups were 40/26 versus 68/78, respectively (P=0.058. Mean ages were similar in both groups (53.3±11.4 versus, 51.8±11.4, P=0.373. Thyroid nodule was detected in 44 (66.7% patients with polyps and in 61 (41.8% controls (P=0.001. Patients with adenomatous polyps had 5 or more thyroid nodules compared to patients with hyperplastic polyps (P=0.03. Thyroid nodules were more prevalent among patients aged 50 or older compared to 50 years or less (P=0.023. Conclusion. Thyroid nodules were detected more common in patients with colonic polyps. Further studies are needed to clarify this coexistence.

  7. Correlations among alfalfa yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Olivera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper are the results of our study of correlations among yield components in ten alfalfa genotypes under open pollination (polycross conditions. The study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 at the Rimski Sancevi Experiment Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Highly significant correlations were found between pod number per inflorescence and seed number per inflorescence (r= 0.645 as well as between seed number per pod and seed number per inflorescence (r= 0.685. Similarly, the correlation between inflorescence number per stem and seed yield was significant and positive (r= 0.589. Negative correlations existed between ovule number per ovary on the one hand and seed yield and inflorescence number per stem on the other (r= -0.617 and r= -0.598, respectively. The highest seed yield was achieved with the cultivar Europe (651.4 kg ha-1 and the lowest with the genotype Le-6 (426.25 kg ha-1. The difference was highly significant (CV= 14,93%.

  8. Nodule activity and allocation of photosynthate of soybean during recovery from water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, R. J.; Patterson, R. P.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Harris, D.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    Nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) in a growth-chamber study were subjected to a leaf water potential (psi w) of -2.0 megapascal during vegetative growth. Changes in nonstructural carbohydrate contents of leaves, stems, roots, and nodules, allocation of dry matter among plant parts, in situ specific nodule activity, and in situ canopy apparent photosynthetic rate were measured in stressed and nonstressed plants during a 7-day period following rewatering. Leaf and nodule psi w also were determined. At the time of maximum stress, concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had declined in leaves of stressed, relative to nonstressed, plants, and the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had increased in stems, roots, and nodules. Sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants were 1.5 and 3 times greater, respectively, than those of nonstressed plants. Within 12 hours after rewatering, leaf and nodule psi w of stressed plants had returned to values of nonstressed plants. Canopy apparent photosynthesis and specific nodule activity of stressed plants recovered to levels for nonstressed plants within 2 days after rewatering. The elevated sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants also declined rapidly upon rehydration. The increase in sucrose concentration in nodules, as well as the increase of carbohydrates in roots and stems, during water stress and the rapid disappearance upon rewatering indicates that inhibition of carbohydrate utilization within the nodule may be associated with loss of nodule activity. Availability of carbohydrates within the nodules and from photosynthetic activity following rehydration of nodules may mediate the rate of recovery of N2-fixation activity.

  9. Proteome analysis of alfalfa roots in response to water deifcit stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahman Md Atikur; Kim Yong-Goo; AlamIftekhar; LIU Gong-she; Lee Hyoshin; Lee Jeung Joo; Lee Byung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the response of alfalfa to water deifcit (WD) stress, WD-induced candidates were investigated through a proteomic approach. Alfalfa seedlings were exposed to WD stress for 12 and 15 days respectively, folowed by 3 days re-watering. Water deifcit increased H2O2content, lipid peroxidation, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)-radical scavenging activity, and the free proline level in alfalfa roots. Root proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimentional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 49 WD-responsive proteins were identiifed in alfalfa roots; 25 proteins were reproducibly found to be up-regulated and 24 were down-regulated. Two proteins, namely cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APx2) and putative F-box protein were newly detected on 2-DE maps of WD-treated plants. We identiifed several proteins including agamous-like 65, albumin b-32, inward rectifying potassium channel, and auxin-independent growth promoter. The identiifed proteins are involved in a variety of celular functions including calcium signaling, abacisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation, transcription/ translation, antioxidant/detoxiifcation/stress defense, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and storage. These results indicate the potential candidates were responsible for adaptive response in alfalfa roots.

  10. Nodules size: An important factor in nodule mining?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    . In order to minimize ecological and environmental problems, it is emphasized that the nodules should be screened on sea bottom during mining, which may be possible by future technological modification of mining devises...

  11. Strategy for polymetallic nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    will be large and similarly the lime laken to re-establish the same environment will be much more than thai of the mining activity. Sediment di.rcharge and ecological imlmltl1lCt': After lifting polymetallic nodules from the seafioor to the mining vessel... in transferring production to other product lines. They lacklhe technological and economic requirements necessary to mine the oceans. to , . Measure Cor 'sufe' nodule mIning In order lO monitor the impact of nodule mining on the environment, it is necessary...

  12. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  13. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivar K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  14. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivars K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings, which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown, lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  15. The elicitor-inducible alfalfa isoflavone reductase promoter confers different patterns of developmental expression in homologous and heterologous transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, A; Dixon, R A; Paiva, N L

    1994-01-01

    In legumes, the synthesis of infection- and elicitor-inducible antimicrobial phytoalexins occurs via the isoflavonoid branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To study transcriptional regulation of isoflavonoid pathway-specific genes, we have isolated the gene encoding isoflavone reductase (IFR), which is the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of the phytoalexin medicarpin in alfalfa. Chimeric gene fusions were constructed between 765- and 436-bp promoter fragments of the IFR gene and the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to alfalfa and tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both promoter fragments conferred elicitor-mediated expression in cell suspension cultures derived from transgenic plants of both species and fungal infection-mediated expression in leaves of transgenic alfalfa. Developmental expression directed by both promoter fragments in transgenic alfalfa was observed only in the root meristem, cortex, and nodules, which is consistent with the accumulation of endogenous IFR transcripts. However, in transgenic tobacco, expression from the 765-bp promoter was observed in vegetative tissues (root meristem and cortex, inner vascular tissue of stems and petioles, leaf tips, and stem peripheries adjacent to petioles) and in reproductive tissues (stigma, placenta, base of the ovary, receptacle, seed, tapetal layer, and pollen grains), whereas the 436-bp promoter was expressed only in fruits, seed, and pollen. These data indicate that infection/elicitor inducibility of the IFR promoter in both species and developmental expression in alfalfa are determined by sequences downstream of position -436, whereas sequences between -436 and -765 confer a complex pattern of strong ectopic developmental expression in the heterologous species that lacks the isoflavonoid pathway. PMID:7866024

  16. Nodule in Liver: Investigations, Differential Diagnosis and Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Padaki N.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional ultrasonogram of the abdomen being noninvasive, inexpensive and ubiquitously available is the first imaging modality that raises suspicion of HCC in a patient with chronic liver disease with or without cirrhosis. The lesions in liver particularly nodule are being recognized with increased frequency with the wide spread use of ultrasonogram as the initial investigation and computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging subsequently. Any nodule in a cirrhotic liver should b...

  17. Management strategy of solitary pulmonary nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Ping ZHAN; XIE, HAIYAN; Xu, Chunhua; Hao, Keke; Hou, Zhibo; Song, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) are increasingly detected with the widespread use of chest computed tomography (CT) scans. The management of patients with SPN should begin with estimating the probability of cancer from the patient’s clinical risk factors and CT characteristics. The decision-making process need to incorporate the probability of cancer, the potential benefits and harms of surgery, the accuracy of the available diagnostic tests and patient preferences. For patients with a very...

  18. The association of thyroid nodule with non-iodized salt among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Xu

    Full Text Available The controversy that iodized salt may increase the risk of thyroid disorders has been aroused in China during the past decade. Most of studies focused on adult rather than children. We aimed to explore whether iodized salt was associated with an increased risk of thyroid nodule in Chinese children.The cross-sectional study was conducted in Hangzhou, China, in 2010. Iodized salt intake, urine iodine concentration (UIC and thyroid nodule (by ultrasonography were measured in 3026 children. The associations of iodized salt with thyroid nodule were evaluated using multiple logistic regression models.The prevalence of thyroid nodule was 10.59% among Chinese children. Girls (11.89% had higher prevalence of thyroid nodule than boys (9.26%. No significant association was observed between type of salt and thyroid nodule in pooled samples, boys and girls, respectively. Similar associations were observed between UIC and thyroid nodule. There was no significant association between milk consumption and thyroid nodule as well.The present study indicated that non-iodized salt may not increase the risk of thyroid nodules among Chinese children. Similar associations were observed between milk consumption, UIC and thyroid nodules.

  19. The Sinorhizobium meliloti RNA chaperone Hfq influences central carbon metabolism and the symbiotic interaction with alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Zurdo José I

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial Hfq protein is able to interact with diverse RNA molecules, including regulatory small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs, and thus it is recognized as a global post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Loss of Hfq has an extensive impact in bacterial physiology which in several animal pathogens influences virulence. Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model soil bacterium known for its ability to establish a beneficial nitrogen-fixing intracellular symbiosis with alfalfa. Despite the predicted general involvement of Hfq in the establishment of successful bacteria-eukaryote interactions, its function in S. meliloti has remained unexplored. Results Two independent S. meliloti mutants, 2011-3.4 and 1021Δhfq, were obtained by disruption and deletion of the hfq gene in the wild-type strains 2011 and 1021, respectively, both exhibiting similar growth defects as free-living bacteria. Transcriptomic profiling of 1021Δhfq revealed a general down-regulation of genes of sugar transporters and some enzymes of the central carbon metabolism, whereas transcripts specifying the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen sources (mainly amino acids were more abundant than in the wild-type strain. Proteomic analysis of the 2011-3.4 mutant independently confirmed these observations. Symbiotic tests showed that lack of Hfq led to a delayed nodulation, severely compromised bacterial competitiveness on alfalfa roots and impaired normal plant growth. Furthermore, a large proportion of nodules (55%-64% elicited by the 1021Δhfq mutant were non-fixing, with scarce content in bacteroids and signs of premature senescence of endosymbiotic bacteria. RT-PCR experiments on RNA from bacteria grown under aerobic and microoxic conditions revealed that Hfq contributes to regulation of nifA and fixK1/K2, the genes controlling nitrogen fixation, although the Hfq-mediated regulation of fixK is only aerobiosis dependent. Finally, we found that some of the recently

  20. Scintigraphic study of regenerative nodules due to fulminant hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomohiro; Kondo, Masahiko; Hirasa, Masahiro; Shirane, Hirofumi; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Ibuki, Yasuyoshi; Tomita, Shusuke; Orino, Akio; Todo, Akio; Wakatsuki, Yoshio; Chiba, Tsutomu; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old woman with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Liver scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) and (99m)Tc-phytate produced interesting findings; regenerative nodules appeared as nodules of increased accumulation of (99m)Tc-GSA, whereas these nodules were expressed as defects of accumulation of (99m)Tc-phytate. These scintigraphic findings suggested that the functions of hepatocytes in regenerative nodules were maintained, whereas those of Kupffer cells were impaired. Although (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy indicated hepatic functional reserve enough to survive, she died despite intensive therapy including plasma exchange. Based on this case, it is recommended that not only (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy but also (99m)Tc-phytate scintigraphy is required to evaluate the prognosis of patients with FHF. PMID:12898364

  1. Promise and pitfalls of molecular markers of thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jadhav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules are common in the general population with a prevalence of 5-7% The initial evaluation of thyroid nodules commonly involves thyroid function tests, an ultrasound (USG and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. The optimal management of patients with thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology is plagued by the lack of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic modalities In this article we attempt to review the available literature on the molecular markers which are increasingly being studied for their diagnostic utility in assessing thyroid nodules. The various molecular markers consist of gene mutations, gene re arrangements, RNA based assays and immunohistochemical markers. The molecular markers definitely would help to optimise the management of such patients.

  2. Prognosis of thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Hayashida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. RESULTS: Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy, was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that a thyroid nodule in childhood is a prognostic factor associated with an increase in the number and size of nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

  3. Solitary pulmonary nodule. Differentiating benign from malignant nodule, CT-bronchoscopic correlation, and usefulness of artificial neural networks on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the useful CT finding for differentiating benign from malignant pulmonary nodule and for CT-bronchoscopic correlation, and to evaluate the usefulness of artificial neural networks (ANN). Sixty-six patients of solitary pulmonary nodule smaller than 3 cm were evaluated for differential diagnosis and CT-bronchoscopic correlation. One hundred fifty-five patients of solitary pulmonary nodule smaller than 3 cm were evaluated for ANN analysis. In lung cancers, air bronchogram/bronchiologram, grossly irregular margin, and the involvement of pulmonary vein were common, while straight or inward concave margin and satellite lesions were predominantly seen in benign nodules. The positive bronchus sign on CT was useful in predicting the success of transbronchial biopsy. The average Az value for all radiologists increased with the use of the ANN output. (author)

  4. Regenerative nodules in patients with chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome: A longitudinal study using multiphase contrast-enhanced multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor, Nicola [Unita Operativa di Radiologia Diagnostica Interventistica, University of Milan School of Medicine, Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: flornic@hotmail.com; Zuin, Massimo [Unita Operativa di Epatologia e Gastroenterologia Medica, University of Milan School of Medicine, Ospedale San Paolo, Via A. di Rudini 8, 20142 Milan (Italy); Brovelli, Francesca [Department of Radiology, Centro Diagnostico Italiano, Milan (Italy); Maggioni, Marco [Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy); Tentori, Augusta [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale di Voghera (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Cornalba, Gian Paolo [Unita Operativa di Radiologia Diagnostica Interventistica, University of Milan School of Medicine, Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the serial evolution of regenerative nodules in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) treated with portal-systemic shunts, using multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: Five patients each underwent three MDCT exams over an extended period ranging from 36 to 42 months. Two radiologists in consensus retrospectively reviewed each exam for each patient. Individual nodules were grouped according to size (size I: nodules with diameter {<=}15 mm; size II: >15 mm but <30 mm; size III: {>=}30 mm), pattern of enhancement (A: homogeneously hypervascular or B: with central scar), and segmental location. Four nodules classified as size II, which increased in size over time, were needle-biopsied. Results: We detected 61 nodules at the first exam, 66 nodules at the second exam (7 nodules disappeared and 12 new nodules), and 85 nodules at the third exam (8 disappeared and 27 new) for a total of 212 findings. Nodules were mostly found in the right hepatic lobe. Fourteen of the 15 nodules that disappeared over time were size I and enhancement pattern A. At unenhanced MDCT, 204 (96%) of the 212 findings were isodense. Overall, 100 nodules, including the 61 initially detected, were considered newly diagnosed; of these 84 (84%) were size I and pattern A. Of 57 nodules considered size I and pattern A at the first or second exam, 24 (42%) changed to pattern B at the third exam and either size II (n = 18) or III (n = 6). The four biopsied nodules were each confirmed as benign regenerative nodule. No patient developed HCC at 5-year follow-up period. Conclusion: Hepatic nodules in BCS patients not only increase in number over time but may also increase in size and develop a central scar.

  5. Regenerative nodules in patients with chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome: A longitudinal study using multiphase contrast-enhanced multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the serial evolution of regenerative nodules in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) treated with portal-systemic shunts, using multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: Five patients each underwent three MDCT exams over an extended period ranging from 36 to 42 months. Two radiologists in consensus retrospectively reviewed each exam for each patient. Individual nodules were grouped according to size (size I: nodules with diameter ≤15 mm; size II: >15 mm but <30 mm; size III: ≥30 mm), pattern of enhancement (A: homogeneously hypervascular or B: with central scar), and segmental location. Four nodules classified as size II, which increased in size over time, were needle-biopsied. Results: We detected 61 nodules at the first exam, 66 nodules at the second exam (7 nodules disappeared and 12 new nodules), and 85 nodules at the third exam (8 disappeared and 27 new) for a total of 212 findings. Nodules were mostly found in the right hepatic lobe. Fourteen of the 15 nodules that disappeared over time were size I and enhancement pattern A. At unenhanced MDCT, 204 (96%) of the 212 findings were isodense. Overall, 100 nodules, including the 61 initially detected, were considered newly diagnosed; of these 84 (84%) were size I and pattern A. Of 57 nodules considered size I and pattern A at the first or second exam, 24 (42%) changed to pattern B at the third exam and either size II (n = 18) or III (n = 6). The four biopsied nodules were each confirmed as benign regenerative nodule. No patient developed HCC at 5-year follow-up period. Conclusion: Hepatic nodules in BCS patients not only increase in number over time but may also increase in size and develop a central scar.

  6. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  7. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALFALFA INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Clement E.; Dowdy, Alan K.; Berberet, Richard C.; Stritzke, Jimmie F.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IMP) initially focused on insect pest control. More recently, IPM encompasses a broader concept of management, one which crosses several disciplinary boundaries. This article reports results of research dealing with four integrated management decisions for alfalfa (cultivar selection, inset control, weed control, and end-of-season harvest options.

  8. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.

  9. Relation between nodule size and 18F-FDG-PET SUV for malignant and benign pulmonary nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yiping

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most common semiquantitative method of evaluation of pulmonary lesions using 18F-FDG PET is FDG standardized uptake value (SUV. An SUV cutoff of 2.5 or greater has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules. The goal of our study was to investigate the correlation between the size of pulmonary nodules and the SUV for benign as well as for malignant nodules. Methods Retrospectively, 173 patients were selected from 420 referrals for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. All patients selected had a positive CT and PET scans and histopathology biopsy. A linear regression equation was fitted to a scatter plot of size and SUVmax for malignant and benign nodules together. A dot diagram was created to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. Results The linear regression equations and (R2s as well as the trendlines for malignant and benign nodules demonstrated that the slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Twenty-eight nodules of group one (≤ 1.0 cm are plotted in a dot diagram using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated to be 85%, 36% and 54% respectively. Similarly, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 and found to be 91%, 47%, and 79% respectively for group 2 (1.1–2.0 cm; 94%, 23%, and 76%, respectively for group 3 (2.1–3.0 cm; and 100%, 17%, and 82%,, respectively for group 4 (> 3.0 cm. The previous results of the dot diagram indicating that the sensitivity and the accuracy of the test using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 are increased with an increase in the diameter of pulmonary nodules. Conclusion The slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Although, the SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 is a useful tool in the evaluation of large pulmonary nodules (> 1.0 cm, it has no or minimal value in the evaluation of small

  10. Alfalfa as a nutritive modulator in maintaining the innate immune response during the molting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force molting of laying hens increases enteric foodborne pathogens in the reproductive tract, leading to contaminated eggs and progeny of infected hens. Currently, we lack a complete understanding of how conditions such as molting affect the immune system. Previous reports show that alfalfa is eff...

  11. Nodulation and mycorrhization of transgenic soybean after glyphosate application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria like Bradyrhizobium spp with in relation to glyphosate can be influenced by the concentration of the herbicide. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two formulations of glyphosate, in two application periods, on nodulation and mycorrhization in a soybean of variety RR P98Y11, using greenhouse, in pots with capacity of 4 L with savanna soils. Six treatments were utilized using Roundup Ultra and Roundup Original with one and two applications, witness without herbicide and witness only with mineral nitrogen, in a completely randomized design. Four evaluations were done, every 15 days, to determine the plant height, shoot and root dry weight, number of nodules, nodule dry weigh and mycorrhizae. It was observed an increase on the number of nodules, with the use of Roundup Ultra until 15 days after the first application. After this period, the witness only with inoculants showed a larger number of nodules. Roundup Ultra had positive influences on the dry weight of nodules, regardless the number of applications. There was no influence of glyphosate formulation considering the mycorrhizal colonization.

  12. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Glomus spp. Inoculation on Alfalfa Growth in Soils with Copper Efecto de la Inoculación con Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares Glomus spp. sobre el Crecimiento de Alfalfa en Suelos con Cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Novoa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils near mining centers usually have high heavy metal (HM levels. It has been found that some plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF improve growth and tolerance to HM in soils. This symbiosis is a biological resource for degraded soil recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculating AMF (Glomus spp. on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth in agricultural soils with different copper (Cu levels for degraded soil recovery. To this effect, alfalfa seeds were grown in soils from the Catemu and Casablanca valleys and inoculated with AMF. Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were measured weekly. Dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu concentration in alfalfa plant tissues were measured after 81 days. Inoculation increased plant height by 24%, stem diameter by 11%, and number of leaves by 34%. Inoculation had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on alfalfa plants that were grown in soil with the highest Cu concentration, but had no effect on Cu accumulation in alfalfa plant tissues. A direct relationship was observed between Cu accumulation in alfalfa and Cu concentration in soils. It was concluded that alfalfa inoculated with Glomus spp. is applicable to the soil recovery process whenever soil properties can ensure inoculum effectiveness on alfalfa growth, and avoid toxicity by excessive Cu in alfalfa plant tissues.Los suelos cercanos a centros de actividad minera suelen presentar altos niveles de metales pesados (HM. Se ha encontrado que algunas plantas asociadas a hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF mejoran su crecimiento y tolerancia a los HM presentes en los suelos. Esta simbiosis constituye un recurso biológico para la recuperación de suelos degradados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la inoculación con AMF (Glomus spp. sobre el crecimiento de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en suelos agrícolas con distintos niveles de cobre (Cu para la recuperación de

  13. Positioning the nodule, the hormone dictum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yiliang; Oldroyd, Giles E D

    2009-02-01

    The formation of a nitrogen-fixing nodule involves two diverse developmental processes in the legume root: infection thread initiation in epidermal cells and nodule primordia formation in the cortex. Several plant hormones have been reported to positively or negatively regulate nodulation. These hormones function at different stages in the nodulation process and may facilitate the coordinated development of the epidermal and cortical developmental programs that are necessary to allow bacterial infection into the developing nodule. In this paper, we review and discuss how the tissue specific nature of hormonal action dictates where, when and how a nodule is formed. PMID:19649179

  14. microRNA160 dictates stage-specific auxin and cytokinin sensitivities and directs soybean nodule development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizampatnam, Narasimha Rao; Schreier, Spencer John; Damodaran, Suresh; Adhikari, Sajag; Subramanian, Senthil

    2015-10-01

    Legume nodules result from coordinated interactions between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The phytohormone cytokinin promotes nodule formation, and recent findings suggest that the phytohormone auxin inhibits nodule formation. Here we show that microRNA160 (miR160) is a key signaling element that determines the auxin/cytokinin balance during nodule development in soybean (Glycine max). miR160 appears to promote auxin activity by suppressing the levels of the ARF10/16/17 family of repressor ARF transcription factors. Using quantitative PCR assays and a fluorescence miRNA sensor, we show that miR160 levels are relatively low early during nodule formation and high in mature nodules. We had previously shown that ectopic expression of miR160 in soybean roots led to a severe reduction in nodule formation, coupled with enhanced sensitivity to auxin and reduced sensitivity to cytokinin. Here we show that exogenous cytokinin restores nodule formation in miR160 over-expressing roots. Therefore, low miR160 levels early during nodule development favor cytokinin activity required for nodule formation. Suppression of miR160 levels using a short tandem target mimic (STTM160) resulted in reduced sensitivity to auxin and enhanced sensitivity to cytokinin. In contrast to miR160 over-expressing roots, STTM160 roots had increased nodule formation, but nodule maturation was significantly delayed. Exogenous auxin partially restored proper nodule formation and maturation in STTM160 roots, suggesting that high miR160 activity later during nodule development favors auxin activity and promotes nodule maturation. Therefore, miR160 dictates developmental stage-specific sensitivities to auxin and cytokinin to direct proper nodule formation and maturation in soybean. PMID:26287653

  15. Red nodule on the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Colucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman living in the countryside referred to our department with a 2-month history of a red nodule localized on the right breast. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analyses and serologic evaluation conducted with ELISA and Western blot were performed. Clinical diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma was not possible solely on the clinical presentation of a classical nodular form without lymphoadenopathy. An absence of a referred prior tick bite and a previous or concomitant erythema migrans at clinical presentation rendered a more challenging diagnosis. The fact that the patient lived in the countryside, the appearance of the breast nodule in September, and serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical analysis facilitated the diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma. We report this case to highlight the importance of an investigation of Lyme borreliosis when a patient living in the countryside presents with a red nodule of the nipple and areola.

  16. The effects of perennial ryegrass and alfalfa on microbial abundance and diversity in petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced rhizosphere degradation uses plants to stimulate the rhizosphere microbial community to degrade organic contaminants. We measured changes in microbial communities caused by the addition of two species of plants in a soil contaminated with 31,000 ppm of total petroleum hydrocarbons. Perennial ryegrass and/or alfalfa increased the number of rhizosphere bacteria in the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. These plants also increased the number of bacteria capable of petroleum degradation as estimated by the most probable number (MPN) method. Eco-Biolog plates did not detect changes in metabolic diversity between bulk and rhizosphere samples but denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rDNA sequences indicated a shift in the bacterial community in the rhizosphere samples. Dice coefficient matrices derived from DGGE profiles showed similarities between the rhizospheres of alfalfa and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture in the contaminated soil at week seven. Perennial ryegrass and perennial ryegrass/alfalfa mixture caused the greatest change in the rhizosphere bacterial community as determined by DGGE analysis. We concluded that plants altered the microbial population; these changes were plant-specific and could contribute to degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil. - Plant-specific changes in microbial populations on roots affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil

  17. Changes in alfalfa cell wall structure during vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božičković Aleksa Đ.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was done on 141 samples of one alfalfa cultivar, collected from the same location during the first three growth cycles: spring growth, the first and the second regrowth. Within each growth cycle, sampling was done during the whole growing period, commencing when plant height was below 150 mm and continuing until plants were bearing ripe seeds. On all collected samples the following cell wall characteristics were determined: neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADL, neutral detergent insoluble crude protein (NDICP, acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP. Cellulose and hemicellulose were detected on the base of the mentioned chemical parameters. Significantly lower (p<0.01 content of aNDF, ADF, ADL, ADICP and cellulose is found in the second regrowth, while there were no significant differences between the other two growth cycles. Except in NDICP and ADICP, the increase in all accompanying components of the cell wall was observed, and expressed in average daily changes. There was no consistent trend in NDICP and ADICP. During the spring growth from late bud to full-bloom stage the ’plateau’ was observed. The plateau was represented as almost constant content of aNDF, ADF, ADL and cellulose. The correlations between all components of the cell wall were shown. The equation aNDF = 36.713 + 1.181 × ADF is recommended for conversion of ADF into aNDF in alfalfa. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  18. Gas, Stars and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, S; Giovanelli, R; Brinchmann, J; Stierwalt, S; Neff, S G

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and HI components of 229 low HI mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with HI masses < 10^{7.7} M_sun and HI line widths < 80 km s^{-1}. SDSS data are combined with photometric properties derived from GALEX to derive stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs) and estimates of their SFRs and M_* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M_* < 10^8 M_sun is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of t...

  19. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Wille, Mathilde Marie Winkler;

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography screening for lung cancer will increase the incidence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules detected and referred for diagnostic evaluation and management. GGO nodules remain a diagnostic challenge; therefore, a more systematic approach is necessary to ensure......, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the British Thoracic Society. In addition, we discuss the management and follow-up of GGO nodules in the light of experience from screening trials. Minimally invasive tissue biopsies and the marking of GGO nodules for surgery are new and rapidly developing fields...

  20. Haemolytic micromethod for rapid estimation of toxic alfalfa saponin

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Jurzysta

    2015-01-01

    On a plate covered with a thin layer of blood suspension with gelatine 10 microliters of alfalfa juice or alfalfa meal extract is spotted. As a result of saponin diffusion and their reaction with blood a haemolytic ring appears, the diameter of which is proportional to the concentration of toxic saponins. Selected by this method low-saponin individual alfalfa plants proved non toxic for fishes and did not inhibit the growth of Trichoderma viride.

  1. High-resolution CT of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports high-resolution CT correlated with inflation-fixed lung specimens in 92 consecutive patients with 94 lung nodules. The nodules included 41 adenocarcinomas, 24 squamous carcinomas, nine large cell carcinomas, seven inflammatory pseudotumors, six neuroendocrine carcinomas, and seven miscellaneous nodules. CT scans were reviewed by two independent observers without awareness of the pathologic diagnosis and then correlated with the pathologic findings. Features commonly seen in malignant and benign nodules included irregular margins, spiculation, and pleural tags. Pathologically, the irregular margins were due to nonencapsulated cellular proliferation at the periphery of the nodule. Pleural tags were due to desmoplastic reaction. Bubble lucencies (pseudocavitation) were seen most commonly in adenocarcinomas (12 of 41 [29%]), less commonly in other malignant nodules (five of 42 [12%]), and in only one of 11 benign nodules (9%). Bubble lucencies were due to patent bronchi. The authors conclude that the presence of bubble lucencies is helpful in distinguishing malignant from benign nodules

  2. Thyroid Nodule Imaging, Status and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Durre Sabih; Kashif Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common, occurring in almost two-thirds of some populations; among these only about 7% are malignant. The most important question with any new discovered thyroid nodule is, “is this malignant?” The main arbiter of malignancy or benignity remains fine needle aspiration and the mainstay of treatment surgery. But given the resources involved, doing an FNAC or surgery in every discovered nodule would be prohibitive to impossible. The clinician must decide which nodule to invest...

  3. Extraction of Chlorophyll from Alfalfa Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Khalid Khudair Al-Jomaily; Ahmed Jawad; Isam Kamal

    2006-01-01

    The extraction process of chlorophyll from dehydrated and pulverized alfalfa plant were studied by percolation method. Two solvent systems were used for the extraction namely; Ethanol-water and Hexane-Toluene systems . The effect of circulation rate, solvent concentration, and solvent volume to solid weight ratio were studied. In both ethanol water, and Hexane-Toluene systems it appears that solvent concentration is the most effective variable.

  4. Extraction of Chlorophyll from Alfalfa Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khalid Khudair Al-Jomaily

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction process of chlorophyll from dehydrated and pulverized alfalfa plant were studied by percolation method. Two solvent systems were used for the extraction namely; Ethanol-water and Hexane-Toluene systems . The effect of circulation rate, solvent concentration, and solvent volume to solid weight ratio were studied. In both ethanol water, and Hexane-Toluene systems it appears that solvent concentration is the most effective variable.

  5. Productive Efficiency of Subsidized Organic Alfalfa Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanos A. Nastis; Papanagiotou, Evangelos; Zamanidis, Savvas

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the efficiency and performance of organic alfalfa farms. Data were obtained from questionnaires collected from forty farms participating in an EU-subsidized program promoting the switch to organic farming. Results obtained using the bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis methodology show that larger farms had lower yields and lower efficiency scores and more experienced farmers had higher efficiency scores. A Tobit analysis of the impact of environmental factors and subsidies...

  6. Modern diagnosis of lung nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite numerous technical improvements, modern diagnosis of lung nodules can still be divided into three partially overlapping stages: (1) detection, (2) characterization, and (3) follow-up and management. With respect to these steps, this article reviews the diagnostic significance of different modalities. New and not definitively evaluated techniques are considered. Furthermore, methods that are not routinely applied but have been published and are thought to have some value in the characterization of pulmonary lung nodules are discussed. Statistical data are included to assist the classification of the results of imaging. Remarks on biopsy of lung nodules to obtain histopathologic correlation complete this overview. The authors are convinced that the established methods (radiography for detection, spiral CT for characterization), after thorough evaluation, will soon be replaced by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recent experience with MRI points to its potential for detection and characterization of pulmonary nodules while avoiding ionizing radiation. The development of indications for MRI of the lung (e.g. paediatric radiology) will be fascinating to observe. (orig.)

  7. Fractal analysis of pulmonary nodules in thin-section CT. Differentiation of malignant nodules and benign nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To differentiate malignant nodules from benign nodules on thin-section computed tomography (CT) with fractal analysis, regions of interest (ROIs: matrix size, 64 x 64 or 128 x 128) containing pulmonary nodules were selected from thin-section CT images from 23 patients with lung cancers and 17 patients with hamartomas. ROIs were thresholded, and noise-producing structures were removed. Lung-nodule interfaces of pulmonary nodules were identified with a boundary-tracking algorithm. Fractal dimensions were calculated with a box-counting algorithm. The mean fractal dimension of lung cancers (1.32±0.09) was higher than that of hamartomas (1.17±0.10: p<0.0001). Our results indicate that fractal analysis is useful for differentiating malignant nodules from benign nodules on thin-section CT. (author)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capacity of Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging to characterize the nature of palpable thyroid nodules was prospectively evaluated in 9 patients. Seven nodules were nonfunctioning and 2 showed function on radio-iodine Nuclear Medicine (NM) scans. Each patient underwent high-resolution real time ultrasound (US) examination followed by MR imaging with a 0.6 Tesla superconducting whole body coil utilizing T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ weighted inversion recovery and spin-echo pulse sequences in coronal, transverse and sagittal planes. All NM, US and MR studies were evaluated independently by each of two physicians. Diagnoses were established by surgical pathology (n=7) or by radiologic and clinical correlation (n=2). There were 3 cases of solitary adenoma, 4 cases of adenomatous goiter, 1 case of papillary carcinoma and 1 case of epidermoid carcinoma. Lesions demonstrated variable signal intensity on T/sub 1/ weighted images. All lesions demonstrated nonspecific increased signal intensity on T/sub 2/ weighted images. One malignancy was correctly diagnosed by the identification of adjacent cervical lymph nodes of increased signal intensity and another by demonstration of tracheal invasion on MR images, both not visible by other imaging modalities. Regions of hemorrhage and cystic degeneration as well as additional non-palpable thyroid nodules could be detected on MR images. Vascular displacement, tracheal compression and deviation, and substernal thyroid extension were also well demonstrated. The findings suggest that qualitative assessment of MR signal intensity alone cannot reliably differentiate benign from malignant thyroid lesions, but that MR images can provide other useful information to aid in this differentiation

  9. Urgency of further developing alfalfa industry in China%我国苜蓿产业亟待振兴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启忠; 玉柱; 徐春城

    2012-01-01

    随着我国畜牧业的快速发展,特别是奶牛业的崛起,对优质饲草尤其是苜蓿(Medicago sativa)的需求量将会越来越大。目前我国苜蓿产量低、品质差、供应量不足,不能满足市场的需求.进口苜蓿呈增加态势。2010年苜蓿的进口量已达22.72万t,对我国的苜蓿产业造成严重威胁。我国苜蓿产业发展受制于许多因素,一直处于徘徊不前状态,急需振兴。应尽快制定苜蓿产业发展战略规划,完善苜蓿生产补贴政策,鼓励科技创新,积极扶持苜蓿龙头企业。整合苜蓿产业资源,建设现代化苜蓿产业示范基地,推进我国苜蓿布局区域化、种植规模化、作业机械化、管理标准化和经营产业化发展,着力打造苜蓿产业带,增强我国苜蓿的综合生产能力和供应能力。推进奶一草一体化。%The rapid development of animal husbandry in China, especially the prosperous development of dairy farming, greatly increases the need for herbage of high quality, particularly alfalfa. This study pointed out that the alfalfa yield was low, and its quality was poor, and the supply of alfalfa did not meet its market demand in China. Consequently, the total quantity of imported alfalfa showed a increasing trend and came to 227 200 t in 2010, threatening the development of alfalfa industry in China. This study pro- posed that it is urgent to develop the alfalfa industry because alfalfa industry was regulated by many fac- tors. Finally, this study proposed some suggestions for further developing the alfalfa industry. Firstly, it was urgent to make development plan of alfalfa industry; secondly, the compensation package needed to be improved for alfalfa producer; thirdly, it was effort to innovate the utilization technology and support the leading enterprise of alfalfa industry; fourthly, establishing the demonstration base with modern technology was necessary by integrating the alfalfa

  10. Effect of Space Flight Factors on Plant Biomass Developed from Alfalfa Seeds Carried by the Satellite%卫星搭载对紫花苜蓿当代植株生物量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任卫波; 赵亮; 王蜜; 陈立波; 郭慧琴

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of space flight factors on plant biomass in the generation of alfalfa carried by the satellite. [Method] Seeds from three lines of alfalfa were carried by the seed-breeding satellite Shijian-8. After the satellite returned to the ground, stem diameter, primary branch number and current-year individual biomass of alfalfa were studied. [Result] After space flight, primary branch number and current-year individual biomass of alfalfa increased significantly, while the stem diameter had no significant change. Using the value over(the mean value of control + three standard deviation) as a criterion to screen, the variants with enlarged stem diameter, increased primary branch number and individual biomass was two, five and twelve respectively. [Conclusion] The obtained variants can be used in the variety improvement of alfalfa and its new variety breeding, but whether its favorable variation can inherit stably to the progenies needs further study.

  11. Empirical analysis of factors affecting alfalfa plantation behavior of farmers in Huang-huai-hai region%黄淮海地区农户苜蓿种植行为影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文信; 蔡世攀; 王刚

    2015-01-01

    planting area will decrease 7.38%, and it will take 2 years to achieve the target from the old status to new balance. In long term, if the cotton price rise 10%, the alfalfa planting area will decrease 14.32%, and if the wheat price rise 10%, the alfalfa planting area will decrease 14.76%. These mean that the goal of alfalfa growers in Huang-Huai-Hai region is to make the expected return maximum;this is consistent with the expected results. In short term, if maize price rise 10%, the alfalfa planting area will increase 11.44%. and in long term, the alfalfa planting area will increase 22.88%.This is not consistent with the expected results. This is because that maize is mainly used as animal feed, as the same as alfalfa. The results also show that the planting subsides for other crops do not significantly affect planting alfalfa. Increasing the supply of alfalfa can effectively decrease the maize price in this region. According to the calculation results and investigation, this study suggests the government should reduce administrative intervention, provide the supply of improved seed, practical technology, information services, and increase the number of professional farmers planting alfalfa. According to characteristics of alfalfa demand and the goals of animal husbandry development and environmental improvement, government should develop the alfalfa production plan.%为分析黄淮海地区农户种植苜蓿的影响因素,该研究以黄淮海地区的苜蓿种植主体—农户为研究对象,通过建立苜蓿种植面积供给反应模型,利用统计数据及调查数据,证明黄淮海地区农户苜蓿种植并不遵循种植周期内收益最大化原则。通过建立幼稚价格预期模型,计算了各因素对黄淮海地区苜蓿种植面积的影响程度,证明针对其他作物的种植补贴不会显著影响苜蓿种植面积,增加苜蓿供给能有效降低饲料粮供给压力。该研究提出苜蓿种植应当减少行政干预,增

  12. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James R; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R; Machtley, Scott A; Van Deynze, Allen

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in a 15.2 km(2) area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready alfalfa seed production fields (totaling 120.2 ha). Each year, honey bee self-marking devices were placed on 112 selected honey bee colonies originating from nine different apiary locations. The foraging bees exiting each apiary location were uniquely marked so that the apiary of origin and the distance traveled by the marked (field-collected) bees into each of the alfalfa fields could be pinpointed. Honey bee self-marking devices were installed on 14.4 and 11.2% of the total hives located within the research area in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The frequency of field-collected bees possessing a distinct mark was similar, averaging 14.0% in 2006 and 12.6% in 2007. A grand total of 12,266 bees were collected from the various alfalfa fields on seven sampling dates over the course of the study. The distances traveled by marked bees ranged from a minimum of 45 m to a maximum of 5983 m. On average, marked bees were recovered ~ 800 m from their apiary of origin and the recovery rate of marked bees decreased exponentially as the distance from the apiary of origin increased. Ultimately, these data will be used to identify the extent of pollen-mediated gene flow from Roundup Ready to conventional alfalfa. PMID:22224495

  13. Rhizobial gibberellin negatively regulates host nodule number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In legume-rhizobia symbiosis, the nodule number is controlled to ensure optimal growth of the host. In Lotus japonicus, the nodule number has been considered to be tightly regulated by host-derived phytohormones and glycopeptides. However, we have discovered a symbiont-derived phytohormonal regulation of nodule number in Mesorhizobium loti. In this study, we found that M. loti synthesized gibberellic acid (GA) under symbiosis. Hosts inoculated with a GA-synthesis-deficient M. loti mutant formed more nodules than those inoculated with the wild-type form at four weeks post inoculation, indicating that GA from already-incorporated rhizobia prevents new nodule formation. Interestingly, the genes for GA synthesis are only found in rhizobial species that inhabit determinate nodules. Our findings suggest that the already-incorporated rhizobia perform GA-associated negative regulation of nodule number to prevent delayed infection by other rhizobia. PMID:27307029

  14. Thyroid Nodule Imaging. Status and Limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durre Sabih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules are common, occurring in almost two-thirds of some populations; among these only about 7% are malignant. The most important question with any new discovered thyroid nodule is, “is this malignant?” The main arbiter of malignancy or benignity remains fine needle aspiration and the mainstay of treatment surgery. But given the resources involved, doing an FNAC or surgery in every discovered nodule would be prohibitive to impossible. The clinician must decide which nodule to investigate and which to watch in the hope that this will never turn out to be malignant. FNACs are used basically to decide which nodule to operate upon (or more importantly which to not operate upon and clinical and imaging features are used to decide which nodule to investigate by FNAC and which to leave alone. This paper describes the various imaging options for looking at thyroid nodules and briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages with each.

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspirations of Thyroid Nodules: Assessment of Nondiagnostic Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Min Ho; Lee, Ji Hye; Bae, Il Hun; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Kil Sun; Koong, Sung Soo [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To determine the frequency of malignancy among the nondiagnostic specimens by ultrasound-guided, fine needle aspiration (US-FNA) and to analyze the factors which cause the nondiagnostic specimens of thyroid nodules. Data were collected from 425 patients (58 male, 367 female) who underwent US-FNA of the thyroid nodule between February, 2002 and October, 2003. The study included 784 nodules from 425 patients. US-FNA was performed 1 to 3 times by two radiologists using a 10MHz linear probe and a 21-gauge fine needle. The percentage of total nondiagnostic specimens was obtained and the percentage of nondiagnostic specimens according to the thyroid nodule's size and nature was analyzed. Thyroid nodules were classified according to their sizes and natures. The nodules were divided by size as either 1cm or more, or less than 1cm in diameter. Each nodule was classified as cystic (pure cystic), mixed (solid portion of nodule<2/3) or solid (solid portion of nodule >2/3). The percentage of malignancy among nondiagnostic specimens was determined and compared to the malignancy rate among diagnostic specimens. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical significance. Among the 784 nodules, 95 (12.1%) were nondiagnostic. The percentage of nondiagnostic specimens increased as the cystic content increased (p<0.0001). The malignancy rate of the diagnostic specimens was higher than that of the nondiagnostic specimens, but the difference was not significant. The cystic content of each nodule was the only significant predictor of nondiagnostic specimens. There was no significant difference in malignancy rate between nondiagnostic and diagnostic specimens. It is suggested that when evaluating an initially nondiagnostic US-FNA, repetitive US-FNA or follow-up USG should be performed

  16. Physical analysis of COMT and CCOMT downregulated alfalfa stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) and Caffeoyl CoA 3-O-Methyltransferase (CCOMT) downregulated alfalfas (Medicago sativa L.) have been created. This study examined stem characteristics of these lignin downregulated alfalfas grown in three environments. Twenty COMT and twenty CCOMT downregu...

  17. Effect of glyphosate on foliar diseases in Roundup Ready alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar diseases are a serious problem for alfalfa management in all areas where alfalfa is grown. Defoliation due to foliar diseases varies from 3-71% depending on time of year, environmental conditions, and locale. Fungicide treatments are cost-effective in only some years and locations. Recently, ...

  18. Elimination of toxicity from diets containing alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; McLaughlin, P; Bardana, E J; Craig, S

    1984-07-01

    Cynomolgus macaques were fed autoclaved alfalfa seeds for up to 1 yr. There were no humoral signs of a syndrome resembling systemic lupus erythematosus. The data are in contrast to those previously reported in monkeys fed raw alfalfa seeds, in which a systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome was induced in a shorter interval. The autoclaved seeds retained antihypercholesterolaemic effects. PMID:6540232

  19. Environmental stability of stem cell wall traits in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., herbage can affect dry matter intake and energy availability in dairy and beef production systems and impact energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Stem Klason lignin, glucose, xylose, an...

  20. Development of Alfalfa Tolerant to Salinity Stress Using Organogenesis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noaman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using Organogenesis culture to evaluate salt tolerance of cultivated alfalfa plants (Medicago sativum L. was studied and related to the response obtained by callus culture. The research was carried out in the tissue Culture Lab, Department of Aridland Agriculture, College of Food Systems, UAE University during seasons 2000/2001 including two Lab Experiments: 1 Callus Initiation and shoot formation and 2 Evaluation of in vitro callus and plantlets under salinity stress. Seeds of alfalfa were sown in pots, then leaves of the seedlings were separated to blades and petioles and placed in jars containing 50 ml of the modified MS medium. For callus induction and shoot formation, modified Murshig and Skoog and B5 were used in addition to two growth regulators being 2,4-D and BA In order to evaluate the salt response of the in vitro callus and plantlets, the induced calli and formed shoots in Experiment I were taken and placed on modified Murshig and Skoog mineral salts and B5. Sodium Chloride (NaCl at four doses (0, 3000, 6000 and 9000 ppm were used in jars. The results of this study indicates that the best concentration of 2.4-D and BA to obtain higher number and weight of callus and also higher values of shoot weights can be obtained from the concentration of 2 mg L-1 in both cases. Increasing of NaCl salt concentration in the media causes significant reduction in the seedling weight but positively correlated with Na and negatively correlated with K concentration in the seedling tissues. NaCl salt concentration of 6000 ppm was high enough to induce harmful effect on the seedling fresh weight, whereas number of generated shoots formed roots was dramatically affected by increasing NaCl concentration up to 3000 ppm and there was no shoots formed roots established afterwards. The results obtained in this study suggest that Organogenesis technique may be useful for rapid evaluation and screening of alfalfa segregant populations in a

  1. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eMartínez-Hidalgo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation.In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity.

  2. Diversity and numbers of root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia in Polish soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a sand pouch-plant infection method, populations of several species of root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia were enumerated in eighty soils collected throughout Poland. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae (symbionts of pea, faba bean, vetch and R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii (symbionts of clover were detected in 77 and 76 soils, respectively. Most of these soils contained moderate and high numbers of these species of the rhizobia. Symbionts of beans, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, were assessed in 76 soils; of this number 15 soils had no detectable populations of bean rhizobia and in 40 soils high or moderate numbers of these bacteria were found. Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus, root-nodule bacteria of lupine and serradella, were absent in 19 soils, out of 80 tested, and 34 soils were colonised by high or moderate populations of bradyrhizobia. Sinorhizobium meliloti, rhizobia nodulating alfalfa, were sparse in the examined soils; with 56 soil containing no detectable numbers of S. meliloti and only 6 soils harbouring high or moderate populations of this species. The estimated numbers of the rhizobia in the studied soils were also related to some physical and chemical properties of these soils.

  3. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M; Pozo, María J

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation. In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity. PMID:26388861

  4. MODELING POLLINATION FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ALFALFA SEED YIELD IN NORTH-CENTRAL NEVADA

    OpenAIRE

    BREAZEALE, Don; George FERNANDEZ; Rangesan NARAYANAN

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of both environmental and management factors on alfalfa seed yield was investigated on North–Central Nevada farms. Multiple linear regression models using 2002-2003 data revealed that cumulative tripped fl owers increased seed yield in both years. Field location does not appear to make a difference in the observed variation in tripped fl ower production. The results suggest that seed yield can be increased by (a) by placing bee shelters closer and (b) cultural practice...

  5. Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L As A Promising Forage In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L or Lucerne is a perennial herbaceous legume with superior forage quality. It is the most important forage crop in the world and it was the first domesticated forage crop. Alfalfa is able to fix nitrogen from the air through a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria with N production 7.85 – 10.37 g/m2. Its rooting system can reach 4.5 m that allows it to escape drought. Forage production can reach 15.48 tons of dry matter per ha/year and containing 18.0 – 29.1 % crude protein. Plants can live 3 to 12 years depending on climatic conditions and crop varieties. However, alfalfa is not a tropical plant, thus it has not been widely cultivated in Indonesia. The problem of alfalfa cultivation are high pest attacks and competition with weeds. Therefore, alfalfa cultivation requires attention and good management to obtain optimum yield.

  6. Approach and management of thyroid nodule. A literature review = Nódulo tiroideo, enfoque y manejo. Revisión de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Román-González, Alejandro; Restrepo Giraldo, Lina; Alzate Monsalve, Catalina; Vélez, Alejandro; Gutiérrez Restrepo, Johnayro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroid nodules are commonly found, and their incidence is increasing. The main objective during the evaluation of these nodules is to determine if they are benign or malignant. Materials and methods: We made a narrative review of the literature by searching Ovid, Medline and Lilacs from 1950 to 2010. Results: Most thyroid nodules are benign, but in 4% to 8% of cases they may be malignant, hence the importance of appropriate study and management. Nodules larger than 1 cm should ...

  7. Fate of pulmonary nodules detected by computer-aided diagnosis and physician review on the computed tomography simulation images for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the frequency and clinical significance of detected incidental lung nodules found on computed tomography (CT) simulation images for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and a physician review. Sixty-seven treatment-naive HCC patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and radiotherapy (RT) were included for the study. Portal phase of simulation CT images was used for CAD analysis and a physician review for lung nodule detection. For automated nodule detection, a commercially available CAD system was used. To assess the performance of lung nodule detection for lung metastasis, the sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Forty-six patients had incidental nodules detected by CAD with a total of 109 nodules. Only 20 (18.3%) nodules were considered to be significant nodules by a physician review. The number of significant nodules detected by both of CAD or a physician review was 24 in 9 patients. Lung metastases developed in 11 of 46 patients who had any type of nodule. The sensitivities were 58.3% and 100% based on patient number and on the number of nodules, respectively. The NPVs were 91.4% and 100%, respectively. And the PPVs were 77.8% and 91.7%, respectively. Incidental detection of metastatic nodules was not an uncommon event. From our study, CAD could be applied to CT simulation images allowing for an increase in detection of metastatic nodules.

  8. Usefulness of radioisotope imaging of macroregenerative nodule in cirrhotic liver: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, S. E.; Kim, S. H.; Jeong, Y. A.; Song, H. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Jeong, S. K.; Park, S. H.; Shin, K. S. [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Macroregenerative nodule (adenomatous hyperplasia) is dominant nodule that occurs after either acute or chronic liver injury, especially cirrhosis. This proliferative lesion differs from the regenerative nodule by its larger size (diameter > 10 min ), the presence of a full complement of portal triad elements, and its distinct color and texture when reviewed at gross examination. Because of the presence of well-differentiated hepatocytes and Kupffer cells and portal venous blood supply, this nodule shows no photon defect area on hepatic scintigraphy and hepatobiliary scintigraphy, and the CT findings closely resemble those of regenerative nodule. However, in some cases, huge macroregenerative nodule cannot be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma on conventional CT scan or ultrasonography. We report a case of radiographically confused macroregenerative nodule in which {sup 99m}Tc-phytate hepatic scintigraphy and {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA scintigraphy were useful in diagnosis. We reviewed clinical record and ultrasonography, CT scan, hepatic angiography, {sup 99m}Tc-phytate hepatic scintigraphy and {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA scintigraphy of a patient with surgically proven macroregenerative nodule in the liver cirrhosis. A 44-year-old woman was presented with jaundice for 3 days. Laboratory data revealed mild anemia, prothrombin test 95%, increased bilirubin and transaminases, and negative test for hepatitis B antigen. Ultrasonography showed coarsened hepatic echogenecity with splenomegaly. CT scan showed a large slightly inhomogeneous mass involving the right lobe, suggesting hepatocelluar carcinoma or macroregenerative nodule. Hepatic angiography revealed a giant hypovascular mass involving almost entire liver. {sup 99m}Tc-phytate hepatic scintigraphy revealed inhomogenous hepatic uptake without definite SOL and splenomegaly, suggesting chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA scintigraphy showed normal hepatic uptake without definite SOL and normal

  9. Encapsulation and nodulation in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovskiy IM; Kryukova NA; Glupov VV; Ratcliffe NA

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of the insect immune system led to the creation of a comprehensive cellular defense system, not only involving phagocytosis, but also encapsulation and nodulation (both often referred to as capsule formation) allowing the isolation and neutralization of invading pathogens and parasites. Such reactions are closely related to the anatomical and physiological characteristics in insects with their external skeleton and open circulatory blood system. Encapsulation and nodulat...

  10. PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN KECERNAAN BAHAN KERING ALFALFA DENGAN PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sunarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago    sativa    L. as one of legume forage crops for ruminant livestock is very sensitive to the phosphorus deficiency. Phosphorus fertilizers have been used widely to overcome those problem. However, the high cost of superphosphate (SP is now focusing attention on cheaper rock phosphate (RP fertilizer. A field experiment was conducted on a latosolic soil (low pH, and low available Bray II extractable P. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer from difference sources on dry matter production, and in    vitro dry matter digestibility of alfalfa. Completely randomized block design with 7 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this field experiment. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (SP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T2 (SP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T3 (SP, 300 kg P2O5/ha, T4 (RP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T5 (RP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T6 (RP, 300 kg P2O5/ha. Size of each plot was 2 m x 2 m, and fertilized with P fertilizer (SP, RP according to the assigned treatment. All plot received basal fertilizer of urea (50 kg N/ha, KCl (100 kg K2O/ha and poultry manure (2 ton/ha. Medicago    sativa was defoliated on 12 weeks after planting and analyzed for dry matter (DM production and in    vitro DM digestibility. Result showed that DM production significantly influenced by the treatments. Superphosphate fertilization resulted DM production significantly higher compared to control and RP, except on RP 300 kg P2O5/ha was non-significant difference. In    vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of alfalfa was not affected by the treatment. There was non-significant difference in IVDMD between the treatments. Therefore, RP (300 kg P2O5/ha could replace SP to increased DM production and not affected for IVDMD of Medicago    sativa in acid latosolic soil.

  11. Automatic lung nodule classification with radiomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingchen; Wang, Qian; Ren, Yacheng; Hu, Haibo; Zhao, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the first killer among the cancer deaths. Malignant lung nodules have extremely high mortality while some of the benign nodules don't need any treatment .Thus, the accuracy of diagnosis between benign or malignant nodules diagnosis is necessary. Notably, although currently additional invasive biopsy or second CT scan in 3 months later may help radiologists to make judgments, easier diagnosis approaches are imminently needed. In this paper, we propose a novel CAD method to distinguish the benign and malignant lung cancer from CT images directly, which can not only improve the efficiency of rumor diagnosis but also greatly decrease the pain and risk of patients in biopsy collecting process. Briefly, according to the state-of-the-art radiomics approach, 583 features were used at the first step for measurement of nodules' intensity, shape, heterogeneity and information in multi-frequencies. Further, with Random Forest method, we distinguish the benign nodules from malignant nodules by analyzing all these features. Notably, our proposed scheme was tested on all 79 CT scans with diagnosis data available in The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) which contain 127 nodules and each nodule is annotated by at least one of four radiologists participating in the project. Satisfactorily, this method achieved 82.7% accuracy in classification of malignant primary lung nodules and benign nodules. We believe it would bring much value for routine lung cancer diagnosis in CT imaging and provide improvement in decision-support with much lower cost.

  12. Strigolactones in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis: Stimulatory effect on bacterial surface motility and down-regulation of their levels in nodulated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Vico, María A; Bernabéu-Roda, Lydia; Kohlen, Wouter; Soto, María J; López-Ráez, Juan A

    2016-04-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are multifunctional molecules acting as modulators of plant responses under nutrient deficient conditions. One of the roles of SLs is to promote beneficial association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi belowground under such stress conditions, mainly phosphorus shortage. Recently, a role of SLs in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis has been also described. While SLs' function in AM symbiosis is well established, their role in the Rhizobium-legume interaction is still emerging. Recently, SLs have been suggested to stimulate surface motility of rhizobia, opening the possibility that they could also act as molecular cues. The possible effect of SLs in the motility in the alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti was investigated, showing that the synthetic SL analogue GR24 stimulates swarming motility in S. meliloti in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, it is known that SL production is regulated by nutrient deficient conditions and by AM symbiosis. Using the model alfalfa-S. meliloti, the impact of phosphorus and nitrogen deficiency, as well as of nodulation on SL production was also assessed. The results showed that phosphorus starvation promoted SL biosynthesis, which was abolished by nitrogen deficiency. In addition, a negative effect of nodulation on SL levels was detected, suggesting a conserved mechanism of SL regulation upon symbiosis establishment. PMID:26940496

  13. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  14. Incidentally found thyroid nodules in women with no previous thyroid disease: its significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Park, Cheong Soo; Chung, Woung Youn; Oh, Ki Keun; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of thyroid nodules discovered incidentally at ultrasonography and to reassess their significance. During a six-month period and using a high-frequency transducer, 1033 subjects with suspected breast disease underwent a prospective study of the thyroid. We determined the prevalence of thyroid nodules according to age, and the malignancy rate. Focal thyroid nodules were detected in 291 women (28.2%), their prevalence increasing with age (p<0.01). The nodules, totalling 337, were single in 260 cases (89.3%) and multiple in 31 (10.7%); 271 were less than 1 cm in diameter, 53 were 1-2 cm, and 13 were more than 2 cm (mean, 7.1(range, 2-34) mm); 126 (37.4%) were pure cysts, 62 (18.4%) were mixed, and 149 (44.2%) were solid. Of the 149 solid nodules, 139 were hypoechoic. Eighty women (with 106 nodules) underwent fine-needle aspiration bipsy, and 35 (with 45 nodules) underwent surgery. It was discovered, finally, that 29 women (2.8%) had 35 malignancies, of which 33 were papillary carcinomas and two were carcinomas which had metastasized from a breast malignancy. Eleven women (37.9%) had extrathyroidal invasion and 6 (20.7%) had cervical lymph node metastasis despite incidentaloma. The prevalence of incidentally found thyroid nodules was 28.2%. Since the malignancy rate of these was relatively high, at 10.4%, the clinical significance of this finding should be reassessed.

  15. Influence of moisture content, rate of loading and height regions on tensile strength of alfalfa stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine tensile strength of alfalfa stems as a function of moisture content, rate of loading and height region. Information on the physical and mechanical properties of alfalfa stem is important for the design of machines such as mowers, balers and choppers. The experiments were conducted at four moisture levels of 10, 20, 40, and 80% w.b., and three rates of loading of 5, 10 and 20 mm min-1. Each alfalfa stem was divided equally into three height regions, as upper, middle and lower. The tensile strength increased exponentially with decrease in the moisture content and towards the lower regions. The values of the tensile strength were within 9.24-26.35, 16.31-32.74, and 28.88-43.82MPa for the upper, middle and lower regions, respectively, at the different moisture contents studied and 10 mm min-1 rate of loading. The tensile strength increased linearly with increases in the rate of loading for all the regions. Its values varied between 9.24-12.27, 16.31-20.46, and 28.80-32.75 MPa for the upper, middle and lower regions, respectively, with increases in the rate of loading from 5 to 20 mm min-1, at the moisture content of 80% w.b.

  16. Differential Regulation of the Nodulation Zone by Silver Ions, L--(2-Amino-Ethoxyvinyl-Glycine, and the skl Mutation in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOKO PRAYITNO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nodule formation in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis is negatively regulated by ethylene. Ethylene inhibitors such as L--(2-amino-ethoxyvinyl-glycine (AVG and silver ions (Ag+, the ethylene-insensitive sickle mutant, and transgenic plants were used to study ethylene-mediated responses in nodulation. The mode of action of ethylene inhibitors AVG and Ag+, and the skl mutation occur at different steps in ethylene biosynthesis and perception. Their effects on root growth and nodulation phenotypes, in particular nodule distribution along the primary root, were compared in this study. Ag+ and AVG treatments showed similar root growth responses to skl mutant. However, nodule distribution in the hypernodulating skl mutant is different from that of wild-type plants grown on either AVG or Ag+. AVG increased nodule numbers and widened the nodulation zone, while the skl mutant had an increased number of nodules within the susceptible zone of nodulation. Ag+ reduced nodule numbers, restricted the nodulation zone, and restored the nodulation phenotype of skl to that of the wild type.

  17. Effect of Graded Levels of Fiber from Alfalfa Meal on Nutrient Digestibility and Flow of Fattening Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2014-01-01

    The ifber level and composition have an important effect on nutrient digestibility of swine diets. Little information is known about the effects of ifber level and composition from alfalfa meal on nutrient digestibility of fattening pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of alfalfa ifber on the growth performance, intestinal nutrient lfow and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in fattening pigs. 24 barrows (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace), body weight=(60.6±0.7) kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 1 pig per replicate. The pigs were provided a control diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20%of alfalfa meal during a 14-d experiment period. Average daily gain (ADG) and the ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent ifber (NDF), acid detergent ifber (ADF) and gross energy (GE) reduced linearly as the level of alfalfa meal in the diet increased (P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both soluble and insoluble ifber intake, explained approximately 70%of the variation in the ATTD of DM, OM, NDF, and GE (P<0.01). In conclusion, alfalfa meal should be limited to less than 5%of the diet in fattening pigs to maximize growth performance and nutrient digestion. Soluble and insoluble ifber from alfalfa meal has the differential roles in nutrient digestion, which may help explain the main variation observed in nutrient digestibility. These ifndings suggest that knowledge of speciifc ifber components is necessary to accurately predict the effects of dietary ifber on nutrient digestibility.

  18. Novel penalised likelihood reconstruction of PET in the assessment of histologically verified small pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teoh, Eugene J.; Gleeson, Fergus V. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McGowan, Daniel R. [University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiation Physics and Protection, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Kevin M. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Belcher, Elizabeth; Black, Edward [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Thoracic Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Investigate the effect of a novel Bayesian penalised likelihood (BPL) reconstruction algorithm on analysis of pulmonary nodules examined with 18F-FDG PET/CT, and to determine its effect on small, sub-10-mm nodules. 18F-FDG PET/CTs performed for nodule evaluation in 104 patients (121 nodules) were retrospectively reconstructed using the new algorithm, and compared to time-of-flight ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction. Nodule and background parameters were analysed semi-quantitatively and visually. BPL compared to OSEM resulted in statistically significant increases in nodule SUV{sub max} (mean 5.3 to 8.1, p < 0.00001), signal-to-background (mean 3.6 to 5.3, p < 0.00001) and signal-to-noise (mean 24 to 41, p < 0.00001). Mean percentage increase in SUV{sub max} (%ΔSUV{sub max}) was significantly higher in nodules ≤10 mm (n = 31, mean 73 %) compared to >10 mm (n = 90, mean 42 %) (p = 0.025). Increase in signal-to-noise was higher in nodules ≤10 mm (224 %, mean 12 to 27) compared to >10 mm (165 %, mean 28 to 46). When applying optimum SUV{sub max} thresholds for detecting malignancy, the sensitivity and accuracy increased using BPL, with the greatest improvements in nodules ≤10 mm. BPL results in a significant increase in signal-to-background and signal-to-noise compared to OSEM. When semi-quantitative analyses to diagnose malignancy are applied, higher SUV{sub max} thresholds may be warranted owing to the SUV{sub max} increase compared to OSEM. (orig.)

  19. Nodulation Characterization and Proteomic Profiling of Bradyrhizobium liaoningense CCBAU05525 in Response to Water-Soluble Humic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Gao, Tong; Yuan Xu, Yuan; Jiang, Feng; Zhen Li, Bao; Shui Yang, Jin; Tao Wang, En; Li Yuan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The lignite biodegradation procedure to produce water-soluble humic materials (WSHM) with a Penicillium stain was established by previous studies in our laboratory. This study researched the effects of WSHM on the growth of Bradyrhizobium liaoningense CCBAU05525 and its nodulation on soybean. Results showed that WSHM enhanced the cell density of CCBAU05525 in culture, and increased the nodule number, nodule fresh weight and nitrogenase activity of the inoculated soybean plants. Then the chemi...

  20. Clustering of HI galaxies in HIPASS and ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Passmoor, S S; Faltenbacher, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the clustering of HI-selected galaxies in the ALFALFA survey and compare results with those obtained for HIPASS. Measurements of the angular correlation function and the inferred 3D-clustering are compared with results from direct spatial-correlation measurements. We are able to measure clustering on smaller angular scales and for galaxies with lower HI masses than was previously possible. We calculate the expected clustering of dark matter using the redshift distributions of HIPASS and ALFALFA and show that the ALFALFA sample is somewhat more anti-biased with respect to dark matter than the HIPASS sample.

  1. Liming influence on soil chemical properties, nutritional status and yield of alfalfa grown in acid soil Influência da calagem nas propriedades químicas do solo, estado nutricional e produção da alfafa em um solo ácido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is an important forage crop with high nutritive value, although highly susceptible to soil acidity. Liming is one of the most efficient and prevailing practices to correct soil acidity and improve alfalfa yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate response to liming of alfalfa grown in a greenhouse on a Typic Quartzipsamment soil. The treatments consisted of four lime rates (0, 3.8, 6.6 and 10.3 Mg ha-1 and two cuts. Alfalfa dry matter increased quadratically with increasing lime rates. In general, dry matter yield was maximized by a lime rate of 8.0 Mg ha-1. Except for the control, the dry matter nutrient contents in the treatments were adequate. The positive linear correlation between root and nodule dry matter with lime rates indicated improvement of these plant traits with decreasing soil acidity. The soil acidity indices pH, base saturation, Ca2+ concentration, Mg2+ concentration, and H + Al were relevant factors in the assessment of alfalfa yield. The magnitude of influence of these soil acidity indices on yield as determined by the coefficient of determination (R² varied and decreased in the order: base saturation, H + Al, pH, Ca and Mg concentrations. Optimum values of selected soil chemical properties were defined for maximum shoot dry matter; these values can serve as a guideline for alfalfa liming to improve the yield of this forage on acid soils.A alfafa é uma importante forrageira com alto valor nutritivo, porém é altamente suscetível à acidez do solo. A calagem é uma das mais eficientes práticas para corrigir esse problema e melhorar a produtividade da alfafa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta à calagem da alfafa cultivada em Neossolo Quartzarênico em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro doses de calcário (0; 3,8; 6,6 e 10,3 Mg ha-1 e duas épocas de corte. A produção de matéria seca foi significativamente aumentada com a adição de calcário, com o m

  2. Effects of alfalfa germplasm and stage of maturity on digestive process and productive response of dairy cows fed alfalfa hay-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the digestive process and the productive performances of dairy cows fed diets containing alfalfa hay from  different germplasms and maturity were assessed in the present study. Three different lots of first-cut alfalfa hay were  used in the study: the improved variety “Boreal”, harvested at two consecutive maturity stages (early flowering and full  flowering and the ecotype “Vogherese”, at full flowering. Cutting the plant at an earlier stage of maturity improved hay  quality in comparison with the more mature forages (crude protein: 21.4 vs 16.5% DM; P  DM; P  er lignin content for the latter (8.6 vs 8.2% DM; P  tating cows were formulated using an equal amount of corn silage and the maximum inclusion of one of the tested hays  as forage base. The better quality of the early cut hay made it possible to increase its inclusion in the diet up to 44% of  total dietary DM, while the two more mature hays covered only 36% of total DM of the respective diets. According to a  3 x 3 Latin square design, the diets were fed to 3 Italian Brown cows (initial average days in milk 121 ± 24 and milk  yield 20 kg ± 1.3 fitted with ruminal cannula in 3 consecutive periods of 28 d each. Alfalfa stage of maturity and  germplasm did not affect dietary DM intake (average 16 kg/d. Degradability parameters of dietary DM, calculated by in  situ nylon bags technique, showed similar kinetics of rumen disappearance for all diets. No differences were noticed in  the ruminal rate of passage of the solid phase among diets, while the liquid phase showed a slower rate of passage for  the early flowering hay diet. Consistent with the degradation process, the stage of maturity or the alfalfa germplasm did  not affect the rumen fluid data or the in vivo digestibility coefficients of the diets. Milk yield did not show any change due  to either alfalfa maturity or cultivar, while milk protein was lowered when cows received the early cut hay

  3. Leaf d15N as a physiological indicator of the responsiveness of N2-fixing alfalfa plants to elevated [CO2], temperature and low water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia eAriz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural 15N/14N isotope composition (δ15N of a tissue is a consequence of its N source and N physiological mechanisms in response to the environment. It could potentially be used as a tracer of N metabolism in plants under changing environmental conditions, where primary N metabolism may be complex, and losses and gains of N fluctuate over time. In order to test the utility of δ15N as an indicator of plant N status in N2-fixing plants grown under various environmental conditions, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were subjected to distinct conditions of [CO2] (400 versus 700 mol mol-1, temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4ºC and water availability (fully watered versus water deficiency - WD. As expected, increased [CO2] and temperature stimulated photosynthetic rates and plant growth, whereas these parameters were negatively affected by WD. The determination of δ15N in leaves, stems, roots and nodules showed that leaves were the most representative organs of the plant response to increased [CO2] and WD. Depletion of heavier N isotopes in plants grown under higher [CO2] and WD conditions reflected decreased transpiration rates, but could also be related to a higher N demand in leaves, as suggested by the decreased leaf N and total soluble protein (TSP contents detected at 700 mol mol-1 [CO2] and WD conditions. In summary, leaf δ15N provides relevant information integrating parameters which condition plant responsiveness (e.g. photosynthesis, TSP, N demand and water transpiration to environmental conditions.

  4. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2013-12-01

    In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

  5. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.

  6. Effect of lime, organic and inorganic fertilizer on nodulation and yield of soybean (Glycine max varieties in Ultisol soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryantini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine the effect of soil ameliorant and inorganic fertilizers on nodulation and yield of some soybean varieties. Study was conducted under greenhouse condition in acid soils. Results revealed that all the tested varieties were compatible with native rhizobium at both study areas and showing the formation of nodules. A positive correlation was reported between the number of nodules and soybean grain yield. The number of nodules and final yield production was higher in the area where soybean cultivated regularly as compare to the new area of soybean production. Inorganic fertilizers increased nodulation and grain yield but the highest yields were generally obtained in the treatment of inorganic fertilizer combined with lime or manure. Soybean variety Kaba and Sinabung showed the highest nodulation and grain yield and it was followed by Panderman and Anjasmoro

  7. Partitioning and mobilization of photoassimilate in alfalfa subjected to water deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faster regrowth of a stressed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) crop compared to an unstressed crop after rewatering has been reported. The bases of this compensatory response are unknown, but they may be important to understanding adaptation to water stress and to developing crop water management strategies. The authors objectives was to determine the effect of stress induced by water deficit on photoassimilate partitioning and the utilization of stored assimilates during regrowth of alfalfa. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted using cultivars differing in winterhardiness. Plants were subjected to water stress, pulse-labeled with 14CO2, and sampled following 0, 1, 14, 21, and 28-d translocation periods. Following the 14-d sampling, herbage was harvested and water stress was removed. Cultivars contrasting in winterhardiness responded similarly to water stress. Stressed plant roots contained 73 and 114% more total plant radioactivity (TPR) than the control at the 1 and 14-d translocation periods, respectively. Water stress significantly increased root starch and TPR percentage in the starch fraction, but had much smaller effects on root soluble-sugar concentration and TPR percentage of the root sugar fraction. Herbage regrowth mass following harvest and rewatering of the water-stressed plants was similar to that of the control. Compared to the control, water-stressed alfalfa has greater total nonstructural carbohydrates in the roots, apparently due to increased photoassimilate partitioning to the roots. However, the greater root carbohydrate concentrations did not result in compensatory herbage regrowth following rewatering

  8. Characterization of Feeding Injuries Caused by Ceresa nigripectus Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Membracidae) on Alfalfa Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, T P; Mercado, M I; Ponessa, G I; Conci, L R; Virla, E G

    2016-04-01

    Piercing-sucking insects cause mechanical and physiological injury to plants. Ceresa nigripectus Remes Lenicov is a pest of alfalfa in subtropical regions of South America and a carrier of the ArAWB phytoplasma. The aim of this study was to determine the feeding habits of this treehopper and to describe the effects of the feeding injuries on stem vascular tissues in alfalfa. Adults and nymphs of C. nigripectus inserted their stylets repeatedly girdling the stem. One week after feeding, alfalfa stems exhibited numerous feeding canals with salivary deposits, most of which reached the phloem. Two weeks after feeding, cortex and phloem cells next to the salivary sheath collapsed, mature tracheal elements became sparse and appeared with an increased cross-section area, and phenolic compounds increased in cells and cell walls compared to undamaged plants. Three weeks after feeding, an annular callus, formed by abnormal cell division and hypertrophy of preexisting cortex and vascular cambium cells, appeared immediately above the stem girdle. Parenchyma cells from the outer layers of the callus differentiated to form secondary anomalous amphicribal bundles in the wound. The aerial parts above the stem girdle eventually withered and died. PMID:26830435

  9. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, �Seyah-Roud�, �Ahar-Hourand�, �Oskou�, �Malekan� and �Sefida-Khan� were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and �Sefida-Khan� had comparatively less sodium contents than �Oskou�, �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes �Malekan�, Ahar- Hourand and �Oskou� were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes �Malekan� and �Ahar-Hourand� were better.

  10. Management strategy of solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ping; Xie, Haiyan; Xu, Chunhua; Hao, Keke; Hou, Zhibo; Song, Yong

    2013-12-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) are increasingly detected with the widespread use of chest computed tomography (CT) scans. The management of patients with SPN should begin with estimating the probability of cancer from the patient's clinical risk factors and CT characteristics. The decision-making process need to incorporate the probability of cancer, the potential benefits and harms of surgery, the accuracy of the available diagnostic tests and patient preferences. For patients with a very low probability of cancer, careful observation with serial CT is warranted. For patients in the intermediate range of probabilities, either CT-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) or positron emission tomography (PET), is recommended. For those with a high probability of cancer, surgical diagnosis is warranted. PMID:24409361

  11. Multiple Cavitary Pulmonary Nodules Caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Seo Ree; Choi, Joon Young; Choi, Jae Woo; Ko, Yu Mi; Jang, Sun Hee; Park, Jun Kyu; Sung, Ye Gyu; Park, Yun Jung; Oh, Su Yun; Bahk, Se Young; Lee, Ju Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). There have been several previous reports of SPN due to MAC infection in the United States, Japan, and Korea. In 2009, Sekine and colleagues reported a case of MAC pulmonary infection presenting with multiple nodules. To date, however, there have been no cases of NTM lung infection with multiple cavitary pulmonary nodules, and neither a fibrotic change nor nodular bronchiectasis. The present case showed a multiple cavitating nodular lung infection due to MAC, which is very rare and different from the typical presentation of MAC pulmonary infections. We also showed that percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration can be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate a case of multiple cavitary nodules. PMID:27468344

  12. Incidentally detected lung nodules: clinical predictors of adherence to fleischner society surveillance guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2014-02-28

    The objective of this study was to determine adherence to incidentally detected lung nodule computed tomographic (CT) surveillance recommendations and identify demographic and clinical factors that increase the likelihood of CT surveillance.

  13. Design improvements in box dredges to enhance the collection of manganese nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernando, V.; Sonawane, A.V.

    Design of three box dredges along with the technique and modifications effected to anable bulk sampling of manganese nodules is presented. Incorporation of a sled, angled cutting edges, retention plates and increased size of the dredge resulted...

  14. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N;

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  15. Position of solitary thyroid nodules by gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work it is presented which it is the position more frequent of the solitary thyroid nodules. It was used the method of retrospective longitudinal observational investigation in 125 patients that went to the laboratory for realization of detection of thyroid nodules in the years 2004 and 2005 through gammagraphy. (Author)

  16. Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Orlo H.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with thyroid nodules must be treated selectively because these nodules develop far more frequently than does thyroid cancer. A thorough clinical history, family history and history of radiation, as well as an accurate physical examination, are very important in determining whether surgical treatment is indicated. Thyroid function tests, a radioactive isotope scan, a thyroid echogram and fine-needle biopsy are also useful.

  17. Rheumatoid nodule presenting as Morton's neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, S; Joshy, S; Hariharan, K; Rashid, M

    2013-09-01

    Among 101 feet that presented with symptoms and signs similar to Morton's neuroma, intermetatarsal rheumatoid nodules were found in five feet (three patients). Two patients had bilateral involvement. Histology of the excised tissue showed the presence of a rheumatoid nodule and Morton's neuroma in four feet and a rheumatoid nodule with unremarkable nerve bundles in one. A rheumatoid nodule can coexist with Morton's neuroma, as seen in our patients, and the presentation is often similar to that of a Morton's neuroma. Our patients were rendered asymptomatic with surgical treatment and went on to have appropriate management of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid nodule should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Morton's neuroma in not only rheumatoid arthritis patients but also asymptomatic patients who have never been tested for rheumatoid antibodies. PMID:23135058

  18. Benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Karstrup, Steen;

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ultrasonography (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on the volume of benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules and any nodule-related symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ILP was performed in 16 patients with normal thyroid function and a solid...... benign thyroid nodule. None of the patients had uptake on a radionuclide scan. Patients underwent one ILP session. A needle was positioned in the thyroid nodule with US guidance, and the laser fiber was placed in the lumen of the needle. Patients were treated for 287-1,200 seconds with an output power of...... 1-3 W. ILP was performed with continuous US guidance and terminated when the echogenic changes were stationary. Thyroid nodule volume and thyroid function were evaluated before and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. During the same period, 15 untreated patients (control group) were followed up to...

  19. The Association of Thyroid Nodule with Non-Iodized Salt among Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Weimin; Chen, Zexin; Liu, Hui; Huo, Liangliang; Huang, Yangmei; Jin, Xingyi; Deng, Jin; Zhu, Sujuan; Jin, Wen; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Objective The controversy that iodized salt may increase the risk of thyroid disorders has been aroused in China during the past decade. Most of studies focused on adult rather than children. We aimed to explore whether iodized salt was associated with an increased risk of thyroid nodule in Chinese children. Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted in Hangzhou, China, in 2010. Iodized salt intake, urine iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid nodule (by ultrasonography) were measured in...

  20. Growth and Production Characteristics of Different Alfalfa Varieties in Jiamusi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xiaohui; Feng; Peng; Jiang; Cheng; Li; Rulai; Zheng; Haiyan; Li; Zengjie; Wang; Qiang

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The growth and production characteristics of different alfalfa varieties in Jiamusi were explored in the paper,in order to better study their cold resistance in northern regions. [Method]The yield traits in different growth periods were measured using randomized block design method. [Results] The plant height of Longmu 803 was the highest of 66. 80 cm on the seeding year; the numbers of plants and branches per unit length of Longmu 808 were the highest of 94 plants and 184 branches,respectively,and its yield was the highest. The overwintering rate of each variety in the region was 100%. The yield of first mowing successively were Longmu 808 > Longmu 80 > Xunlu alfalfa > Aohan alfalfa > Zhaodong alfalfa > Longmu 807; the yield and 1 000-grain weight of Longmu803 were the highest,which were 20. 24 and 0. 09 g higher than control Zhaodong alfalfa,respectively. [Conclusion]The test alfalfa varieties have higher cold resistance in Jiamusi. Longmu 803 and Longmu 808 have both high grass production performance and excellent production performance.

  1. EVALUATION OF THYROID NODULES: AN ULTRASONOGRAPHIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Thyroid nodules are common in adults, with a reported prevalence of up to 50%. (1 – 5. Furthermore, 9% to 15% of nodules identified during clinical examinations are diagnosed as malignant (6 – 8. It is gen erally accepted that sonography and sonographically guided fine - needle aspiration cytologic examination are the modalities of choice for differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules (1 , 9 . Thyroid ultrasonography (USG is the major diagnostic moda lity for evaluating thyroid nodules. Using USG, a thyroid nodule appears as a nodular lesion within the thyroid gland that is distinguishable from the adjacent parenchyma. Several USG features, such as marked hypoechogenicity, irregular margin, micro calci fications, and a taller - than - wide shape have been introduced as potential predictors for the presence of thyroid malignancies. AIMS & OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of USG diagnosis for thyroid nodules. MATERIALS & METHODS: Th e present study was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, TMMC & RC, TMU, Moradabad. Patients under the study were referred from department of Surgery, Paediatrics, Medicine, ENT, Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Patients for the study were evaluated b y Clinical & Radiological examination. The total number of patients were 120. RESULT: On clinical examination, multiple nodules were found only in 17% of cases, whereas on USG, multiple nodules were found in 58%. 50% of clinically solitary nodules were d emonstrated to be multiple on USG. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, similar to the recent literature reviewed so far, for a large majority of patients, diagnosis changed after ultrasonography, so the results necessitate the use of ultrasonography, which is a non invasive method, as a complementary method to physical examination in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, especially thyroid nodules.

  2. Thyroid nodule and the value of tumormarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to common scientific opinion thyroglobulin (hTg) is not recommended as a tumor marker for clarifying the dignity of thyroid nodules, due to a strong overlap between values of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, other benign thyroid diseases with cellular lesion, i.e. nodules and overt inflammation, lead to significantly increased thyroglobulin values (values in a four-digit range and even more in very rare cases). The determination of hTg before thyroid ablation can be a useful ''screening marker'' for patients with CUP-syndrome and suspicious thyroid lesions to identify subjects suffering under DTC. Furthermore, in the case of DTC preoperatively measured hTg will help to validate and evaluate hTg values in the follow-up of these patients. hTg determination can be disturbed by methodological artefacts, in particular by interfering anti-hTg auto-antibodies. For the authentication of hTg values anti-hTg auto-antibody measurement and/or recovery testing is therefore essential although both methods have advantages and disadvantages in that respect. Calcitonin (hCt) is a relatively reliable and specific marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or neoplastic C-cell hyperplasia provided that optimal techniques and appropriate interpretation of test results are applied. The use of two-site assays with a high specificity for the monomer molecule is advised, but false-positive values can still occur, i.e. in renal insufficiency, during therapy with proton pump inhibitors, in goiters with ''physiological'' C-cell hyperplasia and in autoimmune thyroiditis. The Thyroid Section of the German Society of Endocrinology recommends hCt-screening for patients with nodular goiter although some questions regarding epidemiology, health economy and methodology are not resolved yet. Basal hCT values exceeding 100 pg/ml are highly predictive for MTC after exclusion of the reasons mentioned above which can cause artificially increased

  3. VELOCIDAD DE SECADO DE ALFALFA BAJO DIFERENTES CONDICIONES DE SECADO ARTIFICIAL Drying rate of alfalfa under different conditions of artificial drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Jahn B.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la tasa de secado de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., simulando en laboratorio diferentes condiciones de temperatura, ventilación y densidad de hilerado. La pradera de alfalfa fue segada manualmente y las muestras obtenidas se dispusieron en horno con y sin ventilación forzada a tres densidades: 4,78; 3,62; y 2,17 kg m-2, y a tres temperaturas: 20, 30 y 40ºC. Se evaluaron 18 tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones, a las que se determinó MS cada 3 h durante el día y se evaluó por un total de 53 h. Se utilizaron seis hornos. El aumento de la densidad del forraje produjo una disminución en la tasa de secado (TS (P The objective of the present study was to determine the drying rate (TS of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., simulating under laboratory conditions different temperatures, ventilation rates and swath densities. The alfalfa pasture was harvested manually and the samples obtained were placed in ovens with and without forced ventilation, at three densities: 4.78, 3.62, and 2.17 kg m-2, and three temperatures: 20, 30 and 40ºC. Eighteen treatments were evaluated with four replicates; DM was determined every 3 h during the day and treatments were evaluated for 53 h. Six ovens were utilized. Increasing forage density produced a reduction in TS (P < 0.0001, as well TS increased with the increase in temperature and ventilation. TS was 1.83, 2.20 and 3.25% DM h-1 for forage densities of 4.78, 3.62 and 2.17 kg m-2, respectively, when the temperature was 30ºC. TS was 1.49, 2.20 and 3,11% DM h-1 for temperatures of 20, 30 and 40ºC, respectively, when the forage density was 3.62 kg m-2. Ventilation increased TS between 2 and 2.5 times depending on oven temperature. As forage DM increased, TS decreased. The data obtained under laboratory conditions are useful to elaborate simulation models since they permit to study different climatic factors without interactions between them.

  4. Transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and human CYP2E1 show enhanced resistance to mixed contaminates of heavy metals and organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transgenic alfalfa plants simultaneously expressing human CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were generated from hypocotyl segments by the use of an Agrobacterium transformation system for the phytoremediation of the mixed contaminated soil with heavy metals and organic pollutants. The transgenic alfalfa plants were screened by a combination of kanamycin resistance, PCR, GST and CYP2E1 activity and Western blot analysis. The capabilities of mixed contaminants (heavy metals-organic compounds) resistance of pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants became markedly increased compared with the transgenic alfalfa plants expressing single gene (GST or CYP2E1) and the non-transgenic control plants. The pKHCG alfalfa plants exhibited strong resistance towards the mixtures of cadmium (Cd) and trichloroethylene (TCE) that were metabolized by the introduced GST and CYP2E1 in combination. Our results show that the pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants have good potential for phytoremediation because they have cross-tolerance towards the complex contaminants of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Therefore, these transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing GST and human P450 CDNAs may have a great potential for phytoremediation of mixed environmental contaminants.

  5. Transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and human CYP2E1 show enhanced resistance to mixed contaminates of heavy metals and organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan [Department of Pharmaceutics, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, P.O. Box 70, Qingdao 266042 (China); Liu, Junhong, E-mail: liujh@qust.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, P.O. Box 70, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Transgenic alfalfa plants simultaneously expressing human CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were generated from hypocotyl segments by the use of an Agrobacterium transformation system for the phytoremediation of the mixed contaminated soil with heavy metals and organic pollutants. The transgenic alfalfa plants were screened by a combination of kanamycin resistance, PCR, GST and CYP2E1 activity and Western blot analysis. The capabilities of mixed contaminants (heavy metals-organic compounds) resistance of pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants became markedly increased compared with the transgenic alfalfa plants expressing single gene (GST or CYP2E1) and the non-transgenic control plants. The pKHCG alfalfa plants exhibited strong resistance towards the mixtures of cadmium (Cd) and trichloroethylene (TCE) that were metabolized by the introduced GST and CYP2E1 in combination. Our results show that the pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants have good potential for phytoremediation because they have cross-tolerance towards the complex contaminants of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Therefore, these transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing GST and human P450 CDNAs may have a great potential for phytoremediation of mixed environmental contaminants.

  6. Role of digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography in detecting pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Accuracy of digital tomosynthesis for nodule detection is substantially higher. • Improvement in diagnostic accuracy is most pronounced for nodules <10 mm. • There is five times increase in radiation dose compared to DR. - Abstract: Objective: Digital tomosynthesis (DT) and dual-energy subtraction digital radiography (DES-DR) are known to perform better than conventional radiography in the detection of pulmonary nodules. Yet the comparative diagnostic performances of DT, DES-DR and digital radiography (DR) is not known. The present study compares the diagnostic performances of DT, DES-DR and DR in detecting pulmonary nodules. Subjects and methods: The institutional Review Board approved the study and informed written consent was obtained. Fifty-five patients (30 with pulmonary nodules, 25 with non-nodular focal chest pathology) were included in the study. DT and DES-DR were performed within14 days of MDCT. Composite images acquired at high kVp as part of DES-DR were used as DR images. Images were analyzed for presence of nodules and calcification in nodules. Interpretations were assigned confidence levels from 1 to 5 according to Five-Point rating scale. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were compared using Z test. Results: A total of 110 (88 non-calcified, 22 calcified) nodules were identified on MDCT. For detection of nodules, DR showed cumulative sensitivity and specificity of 25.45% and 67.97%, respectively. DT showed a cumulative sensitivity and specificity of 60.9% and 85.07%, respectively. The performance was significantly better than DR (p < 0.003). DES-DR showed sensitivity and specificity of 27.75% and 82.64%, not statistically different from those of DR (p—0.92). In detection of calcification, there was no statistically significant difference between DT, DES-DR and DR. Conclusions: DT performs significantly better than DES-DR and DR at the cost of moderate increase in radiation dose

  7. Radiation exposure and thyroid nodules. Survey of related studies and analysis of thyroid test in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid nodules, this study overviewed the relevant studies, and then analyzed the results of thyroid test in Fukushima. In the studies on atomic bomb survivors, medical exposure, and Chernobyl accident, the positive correlation between exposure and nodule prevalence, and high thyroid cancer incidence in the nodule group were known. Although cancer was said to have increased 4 years after the Chernobyl accident, nodules as cancer's previous step was likely to have been seen prior to it. The authors analyzed the thyroid test data in Fukushima Prefecture, including the results of 'priority review' by the 'citizens' health survey' study committee as of the end of February 2015, as well as the test data of total 299,000 people during FY2011 and 2013. As the exposure dose, thyroid dose estimates for 10-year-old children announced by UNSCEAR were used. Positive correlation trend was seen between the thyroid dose estimates of municipalities and nodule (5 mm or smaller) prevalence. As for the nodule prevalence according to Poisson regression analysis, thyroid dose was positive, average age during exposure was negative, and average age at the time of test was positive, as the statistically significant data. From the examination data by Fukushima Prefecture, significantly positive correlation was also shown between exposure amounts and nodule morbidity, but it is necessary to pay attention to the uncertainty of dose estimation. (A.O.)

  8. CT evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodule : value of additional HRCT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of high-resolution CT scans in addition to helical CT for characterizing a solitary pulmonary nodule. Our study included 49 patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule ; in each patient this was evaluated by both additional high-resolution CT and helical scanning. Images were evaluated by three independent observers, each of whom read them twice : initially with helical CT images only and then with helical images plus high-resolution CT images. After analysis, the observers recorded the following : histologic diagnosis, benignancy or malignancy of a nodule, and confidence in their diagnosis (three scales). In differentiating benign and malignant nodules, the accuracy of helical scans only was 75% (110/147 readings) whereas that of helical plus high-resolution CT scans was 82% (121/147 readings)(ρ=0.001). Correct histologic diagnosis was made in 47% of cases (69/147 readings) when helical scans only had been evaluated and in 48% of cases (71/147 readings) for which both helical and high-resolotion CT scans were available (ρ=0.815). Diagnosis was more often highly confident on the basis of additional high-resolution CT scans (25%) than helical scans only (5%) (ρ=0.001). By enhancing differential diagnostic accuracy between benign and malignant nodules and by increasing confidence in the histologic diagnosis of a pulmonary nodule, additional high-resolution CT scans are valuable for the evaluation of a solitary pulmonary nodule

  9. Leaching of Mn, Co, and Ni from manganese nodules using an anaerobic bioleaching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Y; Noh, S; Cho, K; Ryu, H W

    2001-01-01

    An anaerobic bioleaching of a manganese nodule by anaerobic Mn-reducing bacteria was evaluated for the leaching of metals, Mn, Co, and Ni. Insoluble Mn4+ in the nodule could be reduced to soluble Mn2+ by dissimilatory Mn-reducing bacteria that use a carbon source and Mn4+ as an electron donor and acceptor, respectively. As a result of the Mn reduction, Co and Ni could be leached from the loosed Mn matrix. Leaching experiments were carried out to optimize various process parameters, such as inoculation, pH, temperature, mineral salts, and particle size of the nodule used. The leaching efficiencies of Mn, Co, and Ni increased from 18, 7, and 10% to 77, 70, and 75%, respectively by the inoculation of the Mn-reducing enrichment culture broth. Metals could be efficiently recovered from the nodule in the ranges of pH from 5.0 to 6.5 and temperature from 30 to 45 degrees C by anaerobic bioleaching. External addition of mineral salts was not necessary for Mn, Co, and Ni leaching from the nodule. The optimum ratio of nodule to glucose was 0.1 (w/w). To obtain a leaching efficiency above 70%, the particle size of the nodules must be less than 0.6 mm. PMID:16233110

  10. Differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules by computerized statistical analysis using CT number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been previous reports on the differentiation of benign pulmonary nodules from malignant ones using CT number. However, most of the nodules were without calcification, and diagnosis could be made only in limited cases. In the present study we established new multiple variables such as relative high density over the 75th percentile, inner gradient number (inner irregular rate), edge gradient number (edge irregular rate) and increased area rate (IAR). They are automatically calculated from CT data by computer. These variables are transformed into relative values, enabling comparisons of nodules without a standard reference phantom. With IAR, pulmonary nodules were classified into three types: type 1 (IAR 1.0-1.4), a high-density solid mass with well-defined margin; type 2 (IAR 1.4-2.0) between type 1 and type 3; and type 3 (IAR>2.0) a low-density infiltrated mass with ill-defined margin. We studied 52 cases with solitary pulmonary nodules, whose diagnoses were confirmed either histologically or on follow-up. There were 34 benign nodules and 18 primary lung cancers. Using step-wise multiple regression with three variables, 42 of 52 cases were correctly diagnosed. Twenty-four of 28 type 1 cases and all 14 of type 2 cases were correctly diagnosed. This computer analysis is considered to be useful in distinguishing between benign and malignant solitary pulmonary nodules. (author)

  11. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sativa L.), inoculated or not with an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices) and fertilized with Hewitt solution. Control non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants were included. There was four replicates per treatment. After 2 months, plant survival and growth was measured, as well as mycorrhizal colonization of roots. PAH in rhizosphere soils was analyzed using ASE and GC-FID. Major and trace elements in plants were analyzed after acid digestion using ICP. AM fungal and bacterial communities present in roots and rhizosphere were also analysed after DNA extraction with a PCR-TGGE technique. Plant survival rate was significantly lower in the soil treated with bio-pile than in untreated soil. Non-inoculated and non fertilized alfalfa biomass was lower with soil treated with bio-pile and thermal desorption than with untreated soil. Mycorrhizal inoculation as well as fertilization significantly improved alfalfa growth in the soil treated with bio-pile. In the soil treated with thermal desorption, shoot and root biomass were significantly higher with mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilization. Estimation of root colonization showed that the roots of un-inoculated plants growing on the untreated contaminated soil contained indigenous mycorrhizal fungi. With the soil treated with bio-pile, mycorrhizal colonization of un-inoculated plants was significantly lower, while no colonization was observed in the roots in the soil treated with thermal desorption. Inoculation with a mycorrhizal fungus increased root colonization rate in both treated soils. It also significantly increased the number of rhizobia nodules. Phosphorus concentration in plant roots and shoots was significantly improved by mycorrhizal inoculation in soil treated with thermal desorption. Data on PAH concentration in soils and fungal and bacterial communities will be also presented and discussed

  12. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norini, M.P.; Beguiristain, Th.; Leyval, C. [LIMOS UMR 7137 CNRS-UHP Nancy - Faculty of Sciences, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2005-07-01

    (Medicago sativa L.), inoculated or not with an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices) and fertilized with Hewitt solution. Control non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants were included. There was four replicates per treatment. After 2 months, plant survival and growth was measured, as well as mycorrhizal colonization of roots. PAH in rhizosphere soils was analyzed using ASE and GC-FID. Major and trace elements in plants were analyzed after acid digestion using ICP. AM fungal and bacterial communities present in roots and rhizosphere were also analysed after DNA extraction with a PCR-TGGE technique. Plant survival rate was significantly lower in the soil treated with bio-pile than in untreated soil. Non-inoculated and non fertilized alfalfa biomass was lower with soil treated with bio-pile and thermal desorption than with untreated soil. Mycorrhizal inoculation as well as fertilization significantly improved alfalfa growth in the soil treated with bio-pile. In the soil treated with thermal desorption, shoot and root biomass were significantly higher with mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilization. Estimation of root colonization showed that the roots of un-inoculated plants growing on the untreated contaminated soil contained indigenous mycorrhizal fungi. With the soil treated with bio-pile, mycorrhizal colonization of un-inoculated plants was significantly lower, while no colonization was observed in the roots in the soil treated with thermal desorption. Inoculation with a mycorrhizal fungus increased root colonization rate in both treated soils. It also significantly increased the number of rhizobia nodules. Phosphorus concentration in plant roots and shoots was significantly improved by mycorrhizal inoculation in soil treated with thermal desorption. Data on PAH concentration in soils and fungal and bacterial communities will be also presented and discussed.

  13. Denitrification by intact soybean nodules in relation to natural 15N enrichment of nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural 15N abundance of nodules of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) which are actively fixing N2 is considerably higher than other tissues. To investigate the question of whether isotopic fractionation associated with denitrification by bacteroids causes this 15N enrichment, we inoculated soybeans with two strains of Rhizobium japonicum. Free-living cultures of one of these (strain USDA 33) were unable to denitrify or respire NO3-, while free-living cultures of the second (strain USDA 138) were capable of denitrification. USDA 138 formed nodules which fixed N2 very efficiently. The N of these nodules was enriched in 15N and the nodules reduced a substantial amount of NO3- to NO2- and N2O. Nodules infected with USDA 33 fixed about half as much N2 as those infected with USDA 138. The former nodules were enriched in 15N (although less so than nodules infected with USDA 138), despite the fact that the nodules formed by USDA 33 did not reduce NO3-. Clearly denitrification could not have been the cause of 15N enrichment of nodules infected with strain USDA 33. Alternative causes of 15N enrichment of soybean nodules and their possible metabolic significance are discussed

  14. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: Nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, < or = 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p < 0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) values at the initial session were > 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  15. Pleiotropic effect of fluoranthene on anthocyanin synthesis and nodulation of Medicago sativa is reversed by the plant flavone luteolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, A.; Parniske, M.; Werner, D. [Univ. of Marburg (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    The symbiosis between leguminous plants and soil bacteria of the genus Rhizobium is of considerable agronominal importance. Recently it has been found, that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; e.g. anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene), occurring as ubiquitous environmental contaminants can inhibit nodulation of Medicago sativa. Fluoranthene is one of the dominant PAHs found in urban particulate matter, sewage sludge or beside motorways. Several organisms have been shown to be able to metabolize and mineralize fluoranthene but the uptake of fluoranthene is limited due to low solubility of fluoranthene in water and strong adsorption to humic substances in soil. Rhizobium meliloti cannot degrade fluoranthene. Toxic effects of fluoranthene on bacterial growth have never been observed. In contrast to their rhizobial symbiotic partners, alfalfa plants grown on a solidified fluoranthene-containing medium, exhibited symptoms of toxicity. They showed a dose-responsive decrease in shoot length and, if inoculated with R. meliloti, inhibition of nodule formation. Growth retardation is accompanied by a decrease in anthocyanin pigmentation of shoots, and an atypical accumulation of anthocyanins in roots. Plant flavonoids are known to play a central role in the signal exchange of the Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis. Phenylpropane derived compounds and flavonoids have been implicated in nodule development. Since fluoranthene impairs nodulation and induces the production of anthocyanins, it is possible that these events are causally linked via phenylpropanoid metabolism. These experiments attempt to overcome the inhibitory effects of fluoranthene by exogeneous application of the flavonoid luteolin. This paper demonstrates that luteolin antagonizes the fluoranthene mediated inhibition of nodule formation and prevents the accumulation of anthocyanins in roots. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield Risk Management of Adenocarcinoma: The Future of Imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Finbar; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Boland, Jennifer M; Karwoski, Ronald A; Maldonado, Fabien; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Increased clinical use of chest high-resolution computed tomography results in increased identification of lung adenocarcinomas and persistent subsolid opacities. However, these lesions range from very indolent to extremely aggressive tumors. Clinically relevant diagnostic tools to noninvasively risk stratify and guide individualized management of these lesions are lacking. Research efforts investigating semiquantitative measures to decrease interrater and intrarater variability are emerging, and in some cases steps have been taken to automate this process. However, many such methods currently are still suboptimal, require validation and are not yet clinically applicable. The computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield software application represents a validated tool for the automated, quantitative, and noninvasive tool for risk stratification of adenocarcinoma lung nodules. Computer-aided nodule assessment and risk yield correlates well with consensus histology and postsurgical patient outcomes, and therefore may help to guide individualized patient management, for example, in identification of nodules amenable to radiological surveillance, or in need of adjunctive therapy. PMID:27568149

  17. Diagnostic potential of ancillary molecular testing in differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Parisha; Deniwar, Ahmed; Friedlander, Paul; Aslam, Rizwan; Kandil, Emad

    2015-03-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, being the mainstay to diagnose thyroid nodules, does not provide definitive results in a subset of patients. The use of molecular markers testing has been described as a useful aid in differentiation of thyroid nodules that present with an indeterminate cytodiagnosis. Molecular tests, such as the Afirma gene classifier, mutational assay and immunohistochemical markers have been increasingly used to further increase the accuracy and defer unnecessary surgeries for benign thyroid nodules. However, in light of the current literature, their emerging roles in clinical practice are limited due to financial and technical limitations. Nevertheless, their synergistic implementation can predict the risk of malignancy and yield an accurate diagnosis. This review discusses the clinical utility of various molecular tests done on FNA indeterminate nodules to avoid diagnostic thyroidectomies and warrant the need of future multi-Institutional studies. PMID:25750270

  18. Influence of tannic acid application on alfalfa hay: in vitro rumen fermentation, serum metabolites and nitrogen balance in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, G; Pittroff, W; Depeters, E J; Putnam, D H; Dandekar, A; Goyal, S

    2008-03-01

    Alfalfa protein is poorly utilised by ruminants due to its rapid degradation in rumen. The objective of the study was to assess the influence of spraying tannic acid (TA) on chopped alfalfa hay on in vitro rumen fermentation and nitrogen (N) retention by sheep. Alfalfa hay with and without TA was fed to sheep to determine nutrient digestibility and N balance. TA was sprayed on chopped alfalfa at three concentrations to determine its effect on in vitro fermentation of dry matter (DM) and N balance in sheep. Final TA concentrations were 0, 30, 60 and 90 g TA per kg DM. The control was sprayed with the same amount of water but without TA. In vitro DM degradation and the production of gas, ammonium-N (NH4-N) and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) were measured. TA-sprayed alfalfa and the control were fed to sheep to determine nutrient digestibility and N retention. Addition of TA had no influence on the extent and rate of gas production but significantly decreased NH4-N concentration at 30 (P 0.05) after 48 h of incubation. There was a strong linear relationship between percentage increase in gas production due to PEG and protein precipitation capacity (R2 = 0.94). N digestibility was significantly reduced with all three levels of TA additions. However, the proportion of urine-N to total N output was reduced by adding 60 g (P 0.05). Higher faecal N as the TA level increased indicates incomplete dissociation of tannin-protein complexes post ruminally. Factors affecting dissociation of tannin-protein complexes need further study. PMID:22445040

  19. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host. PMID:24510307

  20. Bilateral subepidermal calcified nodules of the eyelid

    OpenAIRE

    Malki, Salem Al; Al-Faky, Yasser H.; Al-Rikabi, Ammar C

    2010-01-01

    A subepidermal calcified nodule (SCN) is an uncommon benign lesion, which usually develops in early childhood and is typically solitary. A rare form of this lesion has been reported in the eyelid. We report here a case of a 12-year-old girl with bilateral nodules of the right upper eyelid and a left lower eyelid simulating epidermal cyst. The histopathologic examination of the excised nodule confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this may be the first bilateral case of eyelid SCN reported...

  1. Management of a solitary thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solitary nodule in the thyroid is a common clinical entity. A careful clinical assessment is the crucial first step in deciding the modality of treatment. The only worthwhile investigation is FNAC. Other investigations are done merely for the sake of a complete academic work up and can usually be dispensed with in most of the cases. Not every solitary nodule requires surgery. The optimum surgery for a solitary nodule is a total lobectomy. The specimen should be subjected to histological examination before recommending further treatment

  2. Review article: The meristem in indeterminate root nodules of Faboideae

    OpenAIRE

    Łotocka, Barbara; Kopcińska, Joanna; Skalniak, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In this review, the anatomy of indeterminate legume root nodule is briefly summarized. Next, the indeterminate nodule meristem activity, organization and cell ultrastructure are described in species with a distinct nodule meristem zonation. Finally, the putative primary endogenous factors controlling nodule meristem maintenance are discussed in the context of the well-studied root apical meristem (RAM) of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  3. Retrospective epidemiological study of thyroid nodules by ultrasound in asymptomatic subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharen Gaowa; Zhang Bo; Zhao Ruina; Sun Jie; Gai Xiaorong; Lou Huiping

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to conduct thyroid ultrasound examinations on a large sample of subjects and explore the occurrence,distribution,and characteristics of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer to provide some information on the epidemic trend of thyroid nodules and cancer.Methods The thyroid ultrasonic examination results of 19 895 healthy physical examinees who visited the Department of Health Management,Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively to determine the detection rate and characteristics of thyroid nodules.Fine needle aspiration or surgical resection was suggested to subjects suspected of having thyroid cancer.Results The detection rate of thyroid nodules was 42.6% (8 480/19 895),40.0% (4 661/11 678) in men and 46.5% (3 819/8 217) in women.The detection rate noticeably increased with increasing age.The detection rate of thyroid nodules by palpation was obviously lower than by ultrasonic examination in various age groups.Among those with thyroid nodules,61.3% were multiple and 38.7% were solitary; multiple nodule was the major type both in men and women.Twenty-nine cases of malignant nodules were solitary,and 30 cases of malignant nodules were multiple.There was no significant difference.The detection rate of thyroid cancer was 0.30% for the entire group of examinees,and 0.15% in men and 0.50% in women.Among all sex and age groups,30-to 40-year-old women had the highest detection rate (0.76%).The detection rate of thyroid nodules correlated with age,systolic blood pressure,height,and weight.Increasing age and/or higher systolic blood pressure correlated with a higher detection rate,while smaller height and weight also correlated with a higher detection rate with significant differences.However,there were no significant correlations between the detection rate and diastolic blood pressure or body mass index.Conclusions The detection of thyroid cancer increased

  4. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu2+ activities as low as 1-2 μM, the effect of Cu2+ on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu2+ on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu2+. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu2+ activity of 1.0 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu2+ activity of 0.2 μM corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu2+ activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing ≥0.77 μM Cu2+, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu2+ activities than either shoot or root growth

  5. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  6. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes and incubation pH on in vitro degradation of NDF extracts of alfalfa and orchardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Meneses

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two in vitro assays (one with alfalfa and the other with orchardgrass were conducted to evaluate the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme preparation (enzyme and initial incubation pH (5.6, 6.2 and 6.8 on the degradation of NDF extracts. The enzyme increased (P≤0.05 degradation of alfalfa NDF: 1 at 6 h with pH 6.2 and 6.8; 2 at 9 and 12h with pH 5.6 and 6.2; 3 at 24h with all pH values; 4 at 48h with pH 5.6 and 6.8; 5 at 72h with pH 6.2 and 6.8. Alfalfa NDF degradation was changed (P≤0.05 by the enzyme with increasing pH, as follows: 1 a linear increase at 3h; 2 a linear decrease at 6 and 12h; 3 a quadratic effect at 24, 48, and 72h, and the highest value was observed with pH 6.2. Further effects (P≤0.05 of the enzyme on the alfalfa cell wall were the following: 1 with pH 5.6, the undegradable NDF fraction was reduced and the degradation rate was increased; 2 with pH 6.2, the lag phase was decreased; 3 as pH increased there was a quadratic effect on the lag phase, and the lowest value was found at pH 6.2. For orchardgrass the effects (P≤0.05 of the enzyme were as follows: 1 an increased NDF degradation at 24 and 48h; 2 a decreased linear degradation of NDF as pH increased, at 3, 6, and 9h. Scanning electron micrographs of the alfalfa cell wall showed that parenchyma cells appeared broken and the vascular bundles exposed after incubation with the enzyme mixture at pH 6.2 It may be concluded that a fibrolytic enzyme preparation at pH 6.2 enhanced in vitro degradation of alfalfa NDF.

  7. Extraterrestrial 3He in marine polymetallic nodules: a potential method for measuring growth rate of nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李延河; 宋鹤彬; 李金城

    2002-01-01

    The comparative measurements of helium isotope compositions between marine polymetallic nodules and their surrounding sediments, their magnetic fractions and bulk from C-C Zone of the East Pacific Basin are reported. The 4He content and 3He/4He ratio of polymetallic nodules and their surrounding sediments are extremely high; the 3He, 4He concentrations and most 3He/4He ratios of magnetic fractions in nodules and sediments are apparently higher than those in bulk. The helium isotope data points of nodules and sediments are all distributed along or closely to the mixing curve of the interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and the terrigenous sediments in the chart of 3He-3He/4He. In the same sampling site, the 3He/4He ratios of nodules and their surrounding sediments are very similar, and the changes of both ratios are synchronous. It shows that the high 3He/4He ratios in nodules and sediments may all result from IDPs. So, if the flux of extraterrestrial 3He into the nodules and sediments is constant, the growth rate of polymetallic nodules and the sedimentation rate of sediments can be independently calculated according to the concentration of extraterrestrial 3He in nodules and sediments.

  8. Large philipsite crystal as ferromanganese nodule nucleus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    We report here the occurrence of, to date, the largest (21 x 10 x 8 mm) phillipsite crystal forming the nucleus of a diagenetically formed ferromanganese nodule from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). Assuming an average rate of ferromanganese...

  9. Polymetallic nodule resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Jauhari, P.

    nodules. These contain, beside iron and manganese, copper, nickle and cobalt in economically feasible quantities. India has already got a mine site registered in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. As the land resources of strategic metals are declining...

  10. Nodule bottom backscattering study using multibeam echosounder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Raju, Y.S.N.; Nair, R.R.

    A study is carried out to observe the angular dependence of backscattering strength at nodule area where grab sample and photographic data is available. Theoretical study along with the experimentally observed data shows that the backscattering...

  11. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    organogenesis. Coordination of these two interdependent processes results in formation of nodules - bacterial accommodating structures where fixation of atmospheric nitrogen takes place. Plant hormones such as auxin and cytokinin play important roles in nodulation. In some legumes the infection process...... was shown to require auxin signalling. Cytokinin, in contrast, exert a negative regulation of bacterial entry into the root. During organogenesis, auxin and cytokinin maxima are known to accompany nodule primordia development and together regulate progression through the cell cycle. Moreover, application...... of auxin transport inhibitors or cytokinin alone was shown to induce cortical cell divisions in the absence of rhizobia in certain legume species. While the roles of auxin and cytokinin in nodulation have been studied extensively, the precise timing, location and means of molecular crosstalk between...

  12. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  13. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  14. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  15. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  16. Geochemistry of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Khadge, N.H.; Desa, J.A.E.

    ; \\[\\] > l0 cm. Pacific Ocean; A nodules; x sediments. Average shale values from Piper (1974). POLYMETALLIC NODULES FROM THE CENTRAL INDIAN OCEAN BASIN TABLE 3A Inter-element relationship in the CIOB nodules Moisture Mn Fe Cu Ni Co Cu + Ni + Co Moisture...-242. Lyle, M., 1982. Estimating growth rates of ferromanganese nodules from chemical composition: implications for nodule formation processes. Geochim. Cosmochem. Acta., 46: 2301- 2306. Piper, D.Z., 1974. Rare earth elements and the sedimentary cycle: A...

  17. A rapid method of ferromanganese nodule mounting

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, R.

    in character and hence, any attempt to polish these materials following the normal procedure of rock polishing is extremely difficult. Only a few of the large number of publications on ferromanganese nodules deal ,vith sample preparation techniques... of preparation of finely polished nodules and crusts, is described in this note. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this method, three reagents are used: (i) Laminated polyester resin (GP - grade), (ii) Cobalt napthanate solution, (iii) Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP...

  18. Lung Nodule Detection in Screening Computed Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, I; Cerello, P; Cheran, S C; De Nunzio, G; Fantacci, M E; Kasae, P; Masala, G L; Pérez-Martínez, A; Retico, A

    2007-01-01

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the identification of pulmonary nodules in low-dose multi-detector helical Computed Tomography (CT) images with 1.25 mm slice thickness is presented. The basic modules of our lung-CAD system, a dot-enhancement filter for nodule candidate selection and a neural classifier for false-positive finding reduction, are described. The results obtained on the collected database of lung CT scans are discussed.

  19. Production of a diagnostic monoclonal antibody in perennial alfalfa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoudi, H; Laberge, S; Ferullo, J M; Bazin, R; Darveau, A; Castonguay, Y; Allard, G; Lemieux, R; Vézina, L P

    1999-07-20

    The increasing use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in diagnostic reagents necessitates efficient and cost-effective mAb production methods. In blood banks, one of the most routinely used reagents is the anti-human IgG reagent used for the detection of non-agglutinating antibodies. Here we report the production of a functional, purified anti-human IgG, through the expression of its encoding genes in perennial transgenic alfalfa. Transgenic plants expressing the light- and heavy-chain encoding mRNAs were obtained, and plants from crosses were found to express fully assembled C5-1. The purification procedure yielded mainly the H2L2 form with specificity and affinity identical to those of hybridoma-derived C5-1. The ability to accumulate the antibody was maintained both in parental F1 lines during repeated harvesting and in clonal material; the antibody was stable in the drying hay as in extracts made in pure water. Also, plant and hybridoma-derived C5-1 had similar in vivo half-lives in mice. These results indicate that plant C5-1 could be used in a diagnostic reagent as effectively as hybridoma-derived C5-1, and demonstrates the usefulness of perennial systems for the cost-effective, stable, and reliable production of large amounts of mAbs. PMID:10397849

  20. Evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodule detected during computed tomography examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) has always been a diagnostic challenge for the radiologists. Currently, with increased utilization of computed tomography (CT) greater number of nodules is being discovered, with numerous indeterminate lesions, which frequently cannot be immediately classified into benign or malignant category. In this article we review the imaging features of benign and malignant round opacities; we demonstrate currently used standards and also more advanced techniques that are helpful in evaluating SPNs such as contrast-enhanced CT, PET/CT imaging and also pathologic sampling with biopsy or surgical resection. We also summarize the methods of evaluating and managing SPNs based on the latest guidelines from the Fleischner Society and American College of Chest Physicians

  1. Influence of cadmium stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) causes oxidative damage and affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation process of legumes. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been demonstrated to alleviate heavy metal stress of plants. The present study was conducted to assess role of AM in alleviating negative effects of Cd on nodule senescence in Cajanus cajan genotypes differing in their metal tolerance. Fifteen day-old plants were subjected to Cd treatments--25 mg and 50 mg Cd per kg dry soil and were grown with and without Glomus mosseae. Cd treatments led to a decline in mycorrhizal infection (MI), nodule number and dry weights which was accompanied by reductions in leghemoglobin content, nitrogenase activity, organic acid contents. Cd supply caused a marked decrease in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) contents. Conversely, Cd increased membrane permeability, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Cd contents in nodules. AM inoculations were beneficial in reducing the above mentioned harmful effects of Cd and significantly improved nodule functioning. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) increased markedly in nodules of mycorrhizal-stressed plants. The negative effects of Cd were genotype and concentration dependent. PMID:22567695

  2. The chemical properties of soil for alfalfa production after biofertiliser application
    Atributos químicos no solo e produção de alfafa sob doses de biofertilizante

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Luis Lemes; Cecílio Viega Soares Filho; Manoel Garcia Neto; Reges Heinrichs

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of biofertilisers for the production of alfalfa shoot, root and nodule dry matter, and also, to evaluate the chemical properties of the soil. This study was conducted in the greenhouse of the Support Department, Animal Production and Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/UNESP, Araçatuba – SP, from May to October 2010. The experimental design was completely randomised with six biofertiliser doses (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 m3 ha-1) and fi...

  3. 使用PGPR菌剂及苜蓿培肥新垦地土壤研究%Improving Fertility of Newly Reclaimed Soil by PGPR Inoculums in Combination with Alfalfa Growing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱勤; 张磊; 韩光; 石杰; 胡正峰

    2011-01-01

    The split plot design was adopted in a one-year field experiment to investigate the effects of alfalfa planting in combination with PGPR inoculation on soil microbiological characteristics, alfalfa growth and soil properties in a newly reclaimed soil in Beibei, Chongqing, China. The PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) involved in the study included alfalfa rhizobium, associative nitrogen fixation bacterium, silicate bacterium and Bacillus magatherium. The experiment included four treatments; alfalfa planting (A), alfalfa planting and rhizobium inoculation (A+R), alfalfa planting and PGPR inoculation (with rhizobium as well) (A+PGPR) and no crop planting (CK). Determined at the end of the experiment, the effects of the treatments on agronomic qualities of alfalfa, the amount of soil microorganisms and soil microbial biomass N (SMBN) were in the order of A + PGPR>A+R>A>CK, while those on soil microbial biomass C (SMBC) was in the order of A>A+PGPR>A+R>CK. Compared with CK, A +PGPR significantly raised nodule weight, plant height, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and total nitrogen (Pincrease the amount of microorganisms and the fertility of newly reclaimed soil.%本研究以重庆北碚新垦坡耕地中性土壤为对象,采用裂区设计法研究种植紫花苜蓿并配施根际有盖微生物(PGPR)对紫花苜蓿生长度土壤微生物的影响.本研究涉及的PGPR菌包括根瘤菌、联合固氮菌、硅酸盐细菌和巨大芽孢杆菌.设置种植紫花苜蓿不接种(A)、种植紫花苜蓿接种根瘤菌(A+R)、种植紫花苜蓿接

  4. Adaptability of Alfalfa and Ryegrass to New Reclamation Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZHAO-FENG; ZHANG Lei-na; FENG Yong-jun; KANG Jing-tao

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the adaptability of the alfalfa and ryegrass to the new artificial soil that was composed of fly ash and furfural residue. The potted experiments were taken to compare the growth conditions, yields, and qualities of both grasses. Some pots were covered with wheat stalks and others without. The medium Fluvo-aquic soil was taken as control. The results indicated that the growth of two grasses in the mixture were inferior to their growth in the control in initial period. With the leaching of rain and irrigation, the two grasses improved gradually. The alfalfa and ryegrass both could grow in the new mixture, and the ryegrass would be better to plant in no covered material and the alfalfa in covered. This will be a new way to reclaim subsided land and to improve the environment in mining area.

  5. Multiple centroid method to evaluate the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Nascimento

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of multiple centroids to study the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.. In this method, the genotypes are compared with ideotypes defined by the bissegmented regression model, according to the researcher's interest. Thus, genotype classification is carried out as determined by the objective of the researcher and the proposed recommendation strategy. Despite the great potential of the method, it needs to be evaluated under the biological context (with real data. In this context, we used data on the evaluation of dry matter production of 92 alfalfa cultivars, with 20 cuttings, from an experiment in randomized blocks with two repetitions carried out from November 2004 to June 2006. The multiple centroid method proved efficient for classifying alfalfa genotypes. Moreover, it showed no unambiguous indications and provided that ideotypes were defined according to the researcher's interest, facilitating data interpretation.

  6. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancini, A. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fioravanti, M. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Tomei, G. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Tomei, F., E-mail: francesco.tomei@uniroma1.it [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM{sub 10}, NO{sub 2} and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid

  7. Effect of Rain Leaching on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Hay

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia de Hernandez, Mercedes M.

    1981-01-01

    Yield and chemical changes of second-cutting alfalfa hay treated with artificial rain were determined in a 2 x 3 x 2 factorial experiment. Factors were 2 stages of maturity (1 late vegetative; 2 early bloom), 3 levels of artificial rain applied (1 =no rain; 2 =low or approximately 5 mm; 3 =high or approximately 20 mm), and 2 times of applying artificial rain (1 = when drying forage was 40-60% dry matter; 2 =when drying forage was 60-75% dry matter). Thirty samples of alfalfa were collected at...

  8. RAPD analysis of alfalfa DNA mutation via N+ implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-Feng; HUANG Qun-Ce; LIANG Yun-Zhang; YU Zeng-Liang

    2003-01-01

    Germination capacity of alfalfa seeds under low energy N+ implantation manifests oscillations goingdown with dose strength. From analyzing alfalfa genome DNA under low energy N+ implantation by RAPD (RandomAmplified Polymorphous DNA), it is recommended that 30 polymorphic DNA fragments be amplified with 8 primersin total 100 primers, and fluorescence intensity of the identical DNA fragments amplified by RAPD is different be-tween CK and treatments. Number of different polymorphic DNA fragments between treatment and CK via N+ im-plantation manifests going up with dose strength.

  9. RAPD analysis of alfalfa DNA mutation via N+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germination capacity of alfalfa seeds under low energy N+ implantation manifests oscillations going down with dose strength. From analyzing alfalfa genome DNA under low energy N+ implantation by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphous DNA), it is recommended that 30 polymorphic DNA fragments be amplified with 8 primers in total 100 primers, and fluorescence intensity of the identical DNA fragment amplified by RAPD is different between CK and treatments. Number of different polymorphic DNA fragments between treatment and CK via N+ implantation manifests going up with dose strength

  10. Root exudates drive interspecific facilitation by enhancing nodulation and N2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; Li, Yu-Ying; Wu, Hua-Mao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Chun-Jie; Li, Xue-Xian; Lambers, Hans; Li, Long

    2016-06-01

    Plant diversity in experimental systems often enhances ecosystem productivity, but the mechanisms causing this overyielding are only partly understood. Intercropping faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) result in overyielding and also, enhanced nodulation by faba beans. By using permeable and impermeable root barriers in a 2-y field experiment, we show that root-root interactions between faba bean and maize significantly increase both nodulation and symbiotic N2 fixation in intercropped faba bean. Furthermore, root exudates from maize promote faba bean nodulation, whereas root exudates from wheat and barley do not. Thus, a decline of soil nitrate concentrations caused by intercropped cereals is not the sole mechanism for maize promoting faba bean nodulation. Intercropped maize also caused a twofold increase in exudation of flavonoids (signaling compounds for rhizobia) in the systems. Roots of faba bean treated with maize root exudates exhibited an immediate 11-fold increase in the expression of chalcone-flavanone isomerase (involved in flavonoid synthesis) gene together with a significantly increased expression of genes mediating nodulation and auxin response. After 35 d, faba beans treated with maize root exudate continued to show up-regulation of key nodulation genes, such as early nodulin 93 (ENOD93), and promoted nitrogen fixation. Our results reveal a mechanism for how intercropped maize promotes nitrogen fixation of faba bean, where maize root exudates promote flavonoid synthesis in faba bean, increase nodulation, and stimulate nitrogen fixation after enhanced gene expression. These results indicate facilitative root-root interactions and provide a mechanism for a positive relationship between species diversity and ecosystem productivity. PMID:27217575

  11. A Rare Presentation of Autonomously Functioning Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Malignancy in Marine-Lenhart Syndrome Nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Mehmet; Aygun, Nurcihan; Ozel, Alper; Yener Ozturk, Feyza; Karasu, Rabia; Ozguven, Banu Yilmaz; Citgez, Bulent; Mihmanli, Mehmet; Isgor, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Marine-Lenhart Syndrome (MLS) is defined as concomitant occurrence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN) with Graves' disease (GD). Malignancy in a functional nodule is rare. We aimed to present an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid cancer in a MLS nodule with lateral lymph node metastases. Case. A 43-year-old male presented with hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy. On Tc99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, a hyperactive nodule in the left upper thyroid pole was detected and the remaining tissue showed a mildly increased uptake. The ultrasonography demonstrated 15.5 × 13.5 × 12 mm sized hypoechoic nodule in the left upper pole of the thyroid and round lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the nodule and lymph node revealed cytological findings consistent with papillary cancer. Total thyroidectomy with central and left modified radical neck dissection was performed. On pathologic examination, two foci of micropapillary cancer were detected. The skip metastases were present in three lymph nodes on the neck. Conclusion. AFTN can be seen rarely in association with GD. It is not possible to exclude malignancy due to the clinical and imaging findings. In the presence of suspicious clinical and sonographic features, FNAB should be performed. PMID:27110424

  12. A Rare Presentation of Autonomously Functioning Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Malignancy in Marine-Lenhart Syndrome Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Uludag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Marine-Lenhart Syndrome (MLS is defined as concomitant occurrence of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN with Graves’ disease (GD. Malignancy in a functional nodule is rare. We aimed to present an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid cancer in a MLS nodule with lateral lymph node metastases. Case. A 43-year-old male presented with hyperthyroidism and Graves’ ophthalmopathy. On Tc99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, a hyperactive nodule in the left upper thyroid pole was detected and the remaining tissue showed a mildly increased uptake. The ultrasonography demonstrated 15.5 × 13.5 × 12 mm sized hypoechoic nodule in the left upper pole of the thyroid and round lymph nodes on the left side of the neck. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB of the nodule and lymph node revealed cytological findings consistent with papillary cancer. Total thyroidectomy with central and left modified radical neck dissection was performed. On pathologic examination, two foci of micropapillary cancer were detected. The skip metastases were present in three lymph nodes on the neck. Conclusion. AFTN can be seen rarely in association with GD. It is not possible to exclude malignancy due to the clinical and imaging findings. In the presence of suspicious clinical and sonographic features, FNAB should be performed.

  13. RECUPERACIÓN DE UNA PRADERA DE ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L. MEDIANTE FERTILIZACIÓN EN DIFERENTES CONDICIONES DE NIVEL FREÁTICO EN EL SUELO Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. improvement with fertilization in different soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Soto O.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available La productividad de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. se ve afectada considerablemente por las condiciones de nivel freático del suelo en que se establece. En una pradera de alfalfa se seleccionaron tres sitios representativos de nivel freático: profundo (NFP, intermedio (NFI y superficial (NFS. Se estableció en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones, un estudio de respuesta a la aplicación de diferentes nutrientes al suelo (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg durante dos temporadas. Su objetivo fue determinar la respuesta de la alfalfa a la aplicación de fertilizantes en las diferentes condiciones de napa freática. Los parámetros evaluados en el estudio fueron: variación de la napa freática, humedad del suelo, producción de MS y contenido de N, P, y K en el suelo. La napa freática en NFP se mantuvo durante el período invernal, a 30 y 40 cm más profunda que NFI y NFS, respectivamente. La producción de MS se incrementó (P Alfalfa pasture productivity is affected by the water table depth (WTD in which it is established. In an alfalfa field three sites were selected that represented different WTD conditions: deep (NFP, intermediate (NFI and superficial (NFS. A complete randomized block design experiment was established to study the response to different fertilizer applications (N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg during two seasons. The objective was to determine the effect of the different fertilization treatments on dry matter production under different WTD. Parameters evaluated were: variations in WTD, soil moisture, DM production, and soil contents of N, P and K. With deep (D condition WTD was 30 and 40 cm deeper than for Intermediate (I and Superficial (S, respectively, during the winter period. Dry matter production of alfalfa increased (P<0.05 with complete fertilization; the average effect for the two seasons was 31; 183 and 177% for D, I and S soil conditions, respectively. The addition of N to the complete fertilization had a significant (P

  14. Effect of application of coal powder and lime on alfalfa growth on copper polluted acidic soil

    OpenAIRE

    Józefaciuk G.; Popandova S.; Arsova A.; Raichev T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a combined treatment of copper contaminated acid soil with lime and a coal powder decreases copper toxicity due to a synergetic effect of pH increase and association of Cu2+ ions in organo-mineral complexes. A two-year-long pot experiment with alfalfa was carried out on a pseudopodzolic soil contaminated with four Cu levels in the range 0-900 mg kg-1 soil. The amendments applied were lime, coal powder and a precomposted mixture of lime and...

  15. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. ‘I still don’t know diddly’: a longitudinal qualitative study of patients’ knowledge and distress while undergoing evaluation of incidental pulmonary nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Donald R.; Golden, Sara E.; Ganzini, Linda; Hansen, Lissi; Slatore, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hundreds of thousands of incidental pulmonary nodules are detected annually in the United States, and this number will increase with the implementation of lung cancer screening. The lengthy period for active pulmonary nodule surveillance, often several years, is unique among cancer regimens. The psychosocial impact of longitudinal incidental nodule follow-up, however, has not been described. Aims: We sought to evaluate the psychosocial impact of longitudinal follow-up of incidenta...

  17. CT features of pleural masses and nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, Jennifer A; Buza, Elizabeth L; Krick, Erika L

    2012-01-01

    Pleural space masses and nodules are rarely described on computed tomography (CT) in veterinary medicine and have only been described in patients with neoplasia. Our purpose was to describe the CT findings and diagnoses in seven patients with pleural masses and nodules. Two patients had broad-based, plaque-like pleural masses, both of which were due to neoplasia (primary pleural carcinoma, metastatic thymoma). Two patients had well-defined pleural nodules and nodular pleural thickening, one of which had mesothelial hypertrophy, and another of which had metastatic hemangiosarcoma. Three patients had ill-defined pleural nodules to nodular pleural thickening, one of which had metastatic pulmonary carcinoma, while the other two had bacterial infection with mesothelial proliferation (n = 2), fibrinous pleuritis (n = 1), and severe mediastinal pleuritis/mediastinitis (n = 2). Five of the seven patients had focal, multifocal or diffuse smooth, and/or irregular pleural thickening. Five of seven patients had pleural effusion, and postcontrast CT was useful in several patients for delineating the pleural lesions from the effusion. All patients except one had additional lesions identified on CT besides those in the pleural space. CT is useful in identifying and characterizing pleural space lesions and could be used to guide further diagnostic procedures such as thoracoscopy or exploratory thoracotomy. Both neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases should be considered in the differential diagnoses for pleural space masses and nodules found on CT. PMID:22092656

  18. Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) of thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) is a new sclerosing method for treatment of diseases such as cyst, malignant tumor and benign neoplasm. Percutaneous alcohol injection of 26 cases (adenomatous goiter 23 cases, follicular adenoma 2 cases and recurrent papillary carcinoma 1 case) of thyroid nodules were done with 23-G needle under the guidance of ultrasonography. After then, we followed up thyroid function test, ultrasonographical size and volume of nodules, cytologic examination and complications of treatment. The results were as follows: 1. With 0.5-1 cc alcohol injection, the mean volume of thyroid nodules were reduced after PAI to 59% (N=26) at 1 month, and to 33% (N=14, cases of additional PAI) at 6 month, of the base line volume (100%) before PAI. 2. There were no significant changes at 1 and 6 months follow-up of TFT after PAI in all cases as compared with base line studies. 3. In conclusion, ultrasonic guided PAI for thyroid nodule is simple, useful and cost-effective method, and recommendable in cases of mixed and solid nodules resistant to medical treatment, refuse of surgery because of cosmetic problem and recurrent malignant tumors

  19. Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) of thyroid nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Hae Kyeong; Kim, Yoon Sook; Lee, Shin Hyung; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Chong Soon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) is a new sclerosing method for treatment of diseases such as cyst, malignant tumor and benign neoplasm. Percutaneous alcohol injection of 26 cases (adenomatous goiter 23 cases, follicular adenoma 2 cases and recurrent papillary carcinoma 1 case) of thyroid nodules were done with 23-G needle under the guidance of ultrasonography. After then, we followed up thyroid function test, ultrasonographical size and volume of nodules, cytologic examination and complications of treatment. The results were as follows: 1. With 0.5-1 cc alcohol injection, the mean volume of thyroid nodules were reduced after PAI to 59% (N=26) at 1 month, and to 33% (N=14, cases of additional PAI) at 6 month, of the base line volume (100%) before PAI. 2. There were no significant changes at 1 and 6 months follow-up of TFT after PAI in all cases as compared with base line studies. 3. In conclusion, ultrasonic guided PAI for thyroid nodule is simple, useful and cost-effective method, and recommendable in cases of mixed and solid nodules resistant to medical treatment, refuse of surgery because of cosmetic problem and recurrent malignant tumors.

  20. Effect of Seed Treatments and Root Pathogens on Seedling Establishment and Yield of Alfalfa, Birdsfoot Trefoil and Sweetclover

    OpenAIRE

    Sheau-Fang Hwang; Heping Wang; Gossen, Bruce D.; George D. Turnbull; Ronald J. Howard; Strelkov, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    Soil-borne fungal pathogens can reduce stand density in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis) by reducing seedling establishment and subsequent stand longevity. Fungicide seed treatments containing metalaxyl and fludioxonil were examined in inoculated greenhouse and field tests to determine their efficacy against seedling blight and root rot caused by Fusarium avenaceum and Rhizoctonia solani. Inoculation increased dis...

  1. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    prevalence of and risk factors for SPCM in a Danish nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed CRC from 2001 to 2011. SPCM were detected in 7.5% of the patients and in 37% of these cases the metastatic spread was confined to the lungs. The prevalence of SPCM increased with the implementation of thoracic CT in CRC staging. SPCM impaired survival significantly and was associated with increasing age and rectal cancer. Resection of the primary tumour, resection of the SPCM and treatment with chemotherapy were associated with improved survival. Unfortunately, however, only very few patients were subjected to all three treatment measures, and the improved prognosis could simply be the result of a selection bias. The inter-observer variation in classification of findings at thoracic CT scans was investigated in study III and was based on staging CT scans from a local cohort of patients with newly diagnosed CRC. Based on an experienced thoracic radiologist's assessment of the scans, we searched for radiological characteristics of IPN that could predict malignancy of the nodule. There was a significant difference in the number of IPNs detected between the primary and the thoracic radiologist's assessment. The thoracic radiologist classified fewer nodules as IPN and even reported with higher specificity and sensitivity for SPCM. More than 20% of IPNs (as classified by the thoracic radiologist) proved to be SPCM. Unfortunately, no radiological characteristics could be associated with a malignant outcome. In continuation of these findings we suggested a secondary review of scans with IPN be a group of dedicated thoracic radiologists. This approach might reduce the need for additional work-up for IPN and calls for clarification in future prospective studies. Identification of patients in particular risk of SPCM could be of value in the assessment of pulmonary nodules. Several biomarkers have been proposed for differential metastatic patterns in CRC. In study IV we investigated

  2. Nodules from Fynbos legume Virgilia divaricata have high functional plasticity under variable P supply levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardien, Waafeka; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J; Wang, Yaodong; Steenkamp, Emma T; Valentine, Alex J

    2014-11-15

    Legumes have the unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2) via symbiotic bacteria in their nodules but depend heavily on phosphorus (P), which affects nodulation, and the carbon costs and energy costs of N2 fixation. Consequently, legumes growing in nutrient-poor ecosystems (e.g., sandstone-derived soils) have to enhance P recycling and/or acquisition in order to maintain N2 fixation. In this study, we investigated the flexibility of P recycling and distribution within the nodules and their effect on N nutrition in Virgilia divaricata Adamson, Fabaceae, an indigenous legume in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Specifically, we assessed tissue elemental localization using micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), measured N fixation using nutrient concentrations derived from inductively coupled mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS), calculated nutrient costs, and determined P recycling from enzyme activity assays. Morphological and physiological features characteristic of adaptation to P deprivation were observed for V. divaricata. Decreased plant growth and nodule production with parallel increased root:shoot ratios are some of the plastic features exhibited in response to P deficiency. Plants resupplied with P resembled those supplied with optimal P levels in terms of growth and nutrient acquisition. Under low P conditions, plants maintained an increase in N2-fixing efficiency despite lower levels of orthophosphate (Pi) in the nodules. This can be attributed to two factors: (i) an increase in Fe concentration under low P, and (ii) greater APase activity in both the roots and nodules under low P. These findings suggest that V. divaricata is well adapted to acquire N under P deficiency, owing to the plasticity of its nodule physiology. PMID:25217716

  3. Risks and benefits of compost-like materials prepared by the thermal treatment of raw scallop hepatopancreas for supplying cadmium and the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kensuke; Fukushima, Masami; Kanno, Shinya; Kanno, Itoko; Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Scallop hepatopancreas, fishery waste, contains relatively high levels of Cd and organic nitrogen compounds, the latter of which represent a fertilizer. In this study, raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue was thermally treated with sawdust and red loam in the presence of an iron catalyst to produce compost-like materials (CLMs). Two CLM samples were prepared by varying the content of raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue: 46 wt.% for CLM-1 and 18 wt.% for CLM-2. Mixtures of control soil (CTL) and CLMs (CLM content: 10 and 25 wt.%) were examined for the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to evaluate the risks and benefits of using this material for fertilization. The Cd content in shoots and roots of alfalfa, that were grown in the presence of CLMs, was significantly higher than those for the plants grown in the CTL, indicating that Cd had accumulated in the plants from CLMs. The accumulation of Cd in the alfalfa roots was quite high in the case of the 25% CLM-1 sample. However, alfalfa growth was significantly promoted in the presence of 10% CLM-1. This can be attributed to the higher levels of nitrogen and humic substances, which serve as fertilizer components. Although the fertilization effect in case of CLM-1showed a potential benefit, the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa was clearly increased in the presence of both CLMs. In conclusion, the use of CLMs produced from raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue can be considered to have a desirable benefit from standpoint of its use as fertilizer, but is accompanied by a risk of the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa plants. PMID:26674133

  4. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  5. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Alfalfa latent virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchinov, Lev G; Shao, Jonathan; Postnikova, Olga A

    2015-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of the Alfalfa latent carlavirus (ALV) was obtained by primer walking and Illumina RNA sequencing. The virus differs substantially from the Czech ALV isolate and the Pea streak virus isolate from Wisconsin. The absence of a clear nucleic acid-binding protein indicates ALV divergence from other carlaviruses. PMID:25883281

  7. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  8. Possibilities of nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules treatment by percutaneous ethanol injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the current principles, autonomous functional thyroid nodules are treated by surgery or by radioiodin therapy. Ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection into solid tumors of the soft tissues was a starting point in attempts to treat the thyroid nodules by the same method. The aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of percutaneous injection in treating solitary, nontoxic, autonomous thyroid nodules of up to 15 mL volume. Methods. In 25 patients with solitary nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules diagnosed by tehnetium-99m scanning as an intensive area having a complete supremacy in the paranodal tissue, an ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection was applied. The procedure was carried out repeatedly once a week until the reduction in nodule size to 50% of the initial size was achieved. Results. An average size of the nodule before curing was 9.68 ± 5.01 mL. An average quantity of the injected ethanol was 9.52 ± 5.08 mL, ie 1.06 ± 0.48 mL/mg of the tissue. The regression of the nodule size in the successfully (Δvol% u = - 57.09 ± 13.75%, p < 0.001 and partly successfully cured (Δvol du = -48.45 ± 14.35%, p < 0.05 was statistically significant compared to the size before the treatment. After ceasing ethanol injection, 18 months later, a further size regression (Δvol% = -79.20 ± 9.89% compared to the initial one (p < 0.001 was noticed. Soon, after the procedure was finished, a statistically significant concentration increase of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH was noticed compared to the initial values (0.18 ± 0.16 vs 0.34 ± 0.31 mU/L, p < 0.01. According to the given criteria, in two female patients satisfactory results were not achieved, but, a year later, in one of them the nodule was not seen by repeated scintigram. The number and frequency of side effects were insignificant. Conclusion. Repeated percutaneous ethanol injections into nontoxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules result in

  9. Mutational and functional genomic analysis of systemic and local regulation of legume nodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen fixation is critical for sustainability of food, feed and biofuel production. Legumes are very efficient in this process, known to reduce the fertiliser requirements of crops and farming systems. This issue has increasingly become critical in a world attempting to capture solar energy in biomass and biofuels, without a clear recognition of the significance of nitrogen inputs. Our research program has utilised a genetic-molecular genomics-biochemical approach to dissect the process of nodulation, and its control by internal mechanisms. Using induced mutagenesis of soybean, subsequent developmental and molecular genetic characterisation, we isolated several genes critical for nodule initiation and control of nodule numbers (Searle et al, Science 2003). Nodule formation in legumes is minimally controlled at two levels: a) the locally-acting perception of the mitogenic signal from the Rhizobium bacterium and b) the systemically-acting Autoregulation of Nodulation (AON), which involves closely related CLAVATA1-like LRR receptor kinases (GmNARK/LjHAR1/MtSUNN) expressed in phloem of most legume tissues; yet its biological activity in nodulation is almost exclusively within the leaf. To dissect AON, the soybean NARK promoter was analysed to reveal tissue expression domains and a putative phloem specifying promoter domain. Purified kinase domain of GmNARK was able to autophosphorylate and transphosphorylate itself as well as the newly discovered GmKAPP (kinase associated protein phosphatase). A bioassay for the AON shoot-derived inhibitor was developed to indicate that the inhibiting principle was extractable, Bradyrhizobium-induced, NARK-dependent, RNAase A and Proteinase K resistant, and of small size. Downstream molecular events from GmNARK revealed coordinate expression of genes leading to the synthesis of jasmonic acid. Mutations in LjHAR1 also lead to inhibited main root growth, which was reversed by ethylene insensitivity (ETR1 controlled) in shoots

  10. Effects of Seawater Salinity on Seedling Growth Nodulation and Tissue Nitrogen in Acacia nilotica (L. Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mahmood

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sea water salinity on growth, nodulation and nitrogen content of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile seedlings. Eight weeks old seedlings were irrigated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% sea water for one month. After 12 weeks the plants were uprooted and the nodules were observed for their frequency, shapes and sizes. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape in different salinity levels. The root-shoot ratio, nitrogen contents in the leaf, stem and root were analyzed. In general salt stress resulted in a decrease of plant growth, nodulation and percent tissue nitrogen in A. nilotica plants. Root-shoot ratio showed gradual increase with increasing sea water concentrations. Nitrogen contents decreased in leaf and stem, whereas it increased in roots. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape with increasing salinity. A. nilotica accumulated NaCl in the xylem of the roots that may be considered as a preliminary salt tolerant mechanism adopted by the plant.

  11. Effects of Seawater Salinity on Seedling Growth Nodulation and Tissue Nitrogen in Acacia nilotica (L. Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mahmood

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sea water salinity on growth, nodulation and nitrogen content of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile seedlings. Eight weeks old seedlings were irrigated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% sea water for one month. After 12 weeks the plants were uprooted and the nodules were observed for their frequency, shapes and sizes. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape in different salinity levels. The root-shoot ratio, nitrogen contents in the leaf, stem and root were analyzed. In general salt stress resulted in a decrease of plant growth, nodulation and percent tissue nitrogen in A. nilotica plants. Root-shoot ratio showed gradual increase with increasing sea water concentrations. Nitrogen contents decreased in leaf and stem, whereas it increased in roots. Nodules showed morphological alterations in size and shape with increasing salinity. A. nilotica accumulated NaCl in the xylem of the roots that may be considered as a preliminary salt tolerant mechanism adopted by the plant.

  12. Endometrial Stromal Nodule: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Z. Fdili Alaoui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal nodule (ESN is the least common of the endometrial stromal tumors. They are rare neoplasms which are diagnosed in most instances by light microscopy. Although such nodules are benign, hysterectomy has been considered the treatment of choice to determine the margins of the tumor required for diagnosis and to differentiate it from invasive stromal sarcoma Whose prognosis is totally different. We report a case of a 45 years old woman, with presurgical diagnosis of adnexal mass or uterine tumor. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy. Pathologic examination revealed an endometrial stromal nodule. Through this observation, we insist on the fact that the ESNs are rare and benign entities which must be differentiated from the other invasive malignant stromal tumors; this can change the final prognosis.

  13. Endometrial stromal nodule: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdili Alaoui, F Z; Chaara, H; Bouguern, H; Melhouf, M A; Fatemi, H; Belmlih, A; Amarti, A

    2011-01-01

    Endometrial stromal nodule (ESN) is the least common of the endometrial stromal tumors. They are rare neoplasms which are diagnosed in most instances by light microscopy. Although such nodules are benign, hysterectomy has been considered the treatment of choice to determine the margins of the tumor required for diagnosis and to differentiate it from invasive stromal sarcoma Whose prognosis is totally different. We report a case of a 45 years old woman, with presurgical diagnosis of adnexal mass or uterine tumor. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy. Pathologic examination revealed an endometrial stromal nodule. Through this observation, we insist on the fact that the ESNs are rare and benign entities which must be differentiated from the other invasive malignant stromal tumors; this can change the final prognosis. PMID:21423543

  14. Multiple cutaneous, oropharyngeal and pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraitch, O; Bhargava, K; Moriarty, B; Calonje, E; Mallipeddi, R; Whittaker, S

    2015-08-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis defined by heterogeneous multiorgan involvement. Due to the rarity of this disease strong evidence-based therapies have yet to be established and prognosis has previously been considered to be poor, with more than half of patients dying within 3 years of initial presentation. We describe an 86-year-old woman with a 34-year history of extensive cutaneous and internal nodules with typical pathological and immunophenotypical (CD68(+) /CD1a(-) ) features of ECD without evidence of the BRAF V600E mutation. The cosmetic appearance of cutaneous nodules and hoarse voice caused by vocal cord nodules has been managed surgically. More aggressive therapies reported for ECD were trialled for this patient, such as radiotherapy and interferon-α, with no response. This case demonstrates a relatively good prognosis in ECD that has been managed conservatively. PMID:25639756

  15. Effect of application of ammonium chloride and calcium chloride on alfalfa cation-anion content and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J P; Brummer, E C; Henning, S J; Doorenbos, R K; Horst, R L

    2007-11-01

    A major factor predisposing the cow to periparturient hypocalcemia, or milk fever, is being fed a prepartum ration with a high dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). The DCAD can be favorably altered to prevent milk fever by decreasing K and Na or increasing Cl and S in forages for cows in late gestation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that application of Cl to alfalfa could increase Cl in forage, thereby lowering DCAD. We conducted a field experiment at 2 Iowa locations in which established plots of alfalfa were treated in April 2001 with 0, 56, 112, or 168 kg of Cl/ha using ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, or a mix of the 2 sources with equal amounts of chloride coming from each source. Plots were harvested 4 times in 2001 and once in 2002 and plant tissue analyzed for mineral composition. Applying chloride from either source once in the spring resulted in increased plant chloride content over all 4 cuttings for that year. Averaged across both locations, chloride levels were elevated from 0.52% in control plots to 0.77, 0.87, and 0.89% Cl in plots treated with 56, 112, and 168 kg of Cl/ha, respectively. Chloride application had no effect on plant potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus. These results suggest chloride application can elevate chloride content and lower DCAD values of alfalfa, and also maintain crop yield. PMID:17954756

  16. Short communication: Effects of molasses supplementation on performance of lactating cows fed high-alfalfa silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A

    2014-02-01

    Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated Latin square experiment to determine the effect of adding dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets on dairy cow performance. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 68:32 forage:concentrate ratio, with alfalfa silage as the only forage source. Dietary treatments were a control diet with no added molasses and 3 and 6% dried molasses diets. Three lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation. Dietary treatments had no effect on dry matter (average 23.3 kg/d), crude protein (average 4.4 kg/d), or neutral detergent fiber (average 7.4 kg/d) intake. Milk yield, energy-corrected milk (average 35.4 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (average 33.8 kg/d) were not influenced by dietary treatments. Cows fed the control diet produced milk with less milk urea nitrogen concentration than those fed molasses-supplemented diets. Ruminal pH, NH3-N concentration, and total volatile fatty acids were not different among dietary treatments. The molar proportion of acetate linearly increased, whereas the molar proportion of propionate linearly decreased as the level of dried molasses increased. It was concluded that addition of dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets at 6% of the diet (dry matter basis) increased milk urea nitrogen but had no effect on animal performance. PMID:24315324

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of three isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes from alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Long, Ruicai; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun; Zhang, Ze; Zhou, He; Yang, Qingchuan

    2013-02-01

    Isoprenoid is the precursor for the biosynthesis of saponins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, chlorophylls and many other products in plants. Saponins are an important group of bioactive plant natural products. The alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) saponins are glycosides of different triterpene aglycones and possess many biological activities. We isolated three genes (MsFPPS, MsGPPS and MsGGPPS) encoding isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDS) from alfalfa via a homology-based PCR approach. The enzyme activity assay of purified recombined MsFPPS and MsGGPPS expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that they all had IDS activity. Expression analysis of the three genes in different alfalfa tissues using real time PCR displayed that they were expressed in all tissues although they had a different expression patterns. MsFPPS and MsGPS displayed a significant increase in transcript level in response to methyl jasmonate, but the transcript level of MsGGPPS decreased obviously. To elucidate the functions of the three IDSs, their overexpression driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco plants was applied and analyzed. The T(0) transgenic plants of MsFPPS showed high levels of squalene content when compared with control. However, no differences were detected in T(0) transgenic plants of MsGPPS and MsGGPPS. In addition, the overexpression of MsFPPS induced senescence response in transgenic plant leaves. This result may indicate that MsFPPS performs a role not only in phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis, but also in growth regulation. PMID:23238915

  18. Assessing disease stress and modeling yield losses in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jie

    Alfalfa is the most important forage crop in the U.S. and worldwide. Fungal foliar diseases are believed to cause significant yield losses in alfalfa, yet, little quantitative information exists regarding the amount of crop loss. Different fungicides and application frequencies were used as tools to generate a range of foliar disease intensities in Ames and Nashua, IA. Visual disease assessments (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation) were obtained weekly for each alfalfa growth cycle (two to three growing cycles per season). Remote sensing assessments were performed using a hand-held, multispectral radiometer to measure the amount and quality of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. Factors such as incident radiation, sun angle, sensor height, and leaf wetness were all found to significantly affect the percentage reflectance of sunlight reflected from alfalfa canopies. The precision of visual and remote sensing assessment methods was quantified. Precision was defined as the intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability of assessment methods. F-tests, slopes, intercepts, and coefficients of determination (R2) were used to compare assessment methods for precision. Results showed that among the three visual disease assessment methods (disease incidence, disease severity, and percentage defoliation), percentage defoliation had the highest intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Remote sensing assessment method had better precision than the percentage defoliation assessment method based upon higher intra-rater repeatability and inter-rater reliability. Significant linear relationships between canopy reflectance (810 nm), percentage defoliation and yield were detected using linear regression and percentage reflectance (810 nm) assessments were found to have a stronger relationship with yield than percentage defoliation assessments. There were also significant linear relationships between percentage defoliation, dry

  19. Value of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in judging benignancy or malignancy of nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yun Zhao; Hai-Xia Liu; Wei Tong; Jin-Zhong Huang; Chun Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the value of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in judging benignancy or malignancy of nodules.Methods: Patients diagnosed with thyroid nodule and receiving ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in our hospital were selected for study and divided into benign group and malignant group according to fine needle biopsy or the pathological results after surgical resection; mean strain values of quantitative indicators, blue region area and disorder of ultrasonic strain elastography, expression levels of malignant biological molecules in nodule tissue as well as the contents of serum tumor markers were detected.Results:Mean strain value of malignant group was lower than that of benign group, blue region area and disorder were higher than those of benign group, and standard deviation, complexity, kurtosis, skewness, contrast, equality, consistency and correlation were without significant differences; mRNA contents ofFascin-1, S100A4, STAT3, TC-1, MUC1 andMUC15 in thyroid nodules as well as serum Midkine, Galectin-3, CEACAM1 and TFF3 contents of malignant group were significantly higher than those of benign group, negatively correlated with mean strain value and positively correlated with blue region area and disorder.Conclusions:Mean strain values of quantitative indicators, blue region area and disorder of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography can judge benign or malignant nodules and assess the malignant degree.

  20. Be and Th isotopes in manganese nodules and adjacent sediments: nodule growth histories and nuclide behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration profiles of 9Be, 10Be, 230Th, 232Th, 231Pa (via 227Th) and 238U have been measured in three manganese nodules, one each from the North Pacific (A47-16(4)), the South Pacific (TF-5) and the Indian Ocean (R/V Vitiaz). In addition the 10Be concentration in deep water from the GEOSECS reoccupation station 500 of the North Pacific, and in box cores raised from the manganese nodule field in the North Pacific have been measured. The 10Be concentration in nodule and seawater samples was measured by the accelerator mass spectrometric technique employing the Yale Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The concentrations of 10Be, 230Thsub(exc) and 231Pasub(exc) and ratios of 10Be/9Be and 230Thsub(exc)/232Th all decrease with depth in the nodules. This decrease, interpreted in terms of nodule growth, yields 'average' growth rates of a few millimeters per million years for the nodules. The growth rates of the nodules exhibit temporal variations, both on short time (approx. equal to 50,000 years) and long time (several million years) scales. (orig./ME)

  1. Management of subsolid pulmonary nodules; Management subsolider pulmonaler Rundherde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhuber, E. [Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Mostbeck, G. [Otto-Wagner-Spital, Wilhelminenspital, Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Institut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Wien (Austria); Prosch, H. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Schaefer-Prokop, C. [Amersfoort und Radboud University, Radiologie, Meander Medical Center, Nijmegen, (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    The finding of subsolid pulmonary nodules poses a frequent problem in the daily routine of the radiologist. The biological behavior of such subsolid lesions differs significantly from solid nodules. The risk of malignancy is significantly higher in subsolid nodules as compared to solid or purely ground glass opacities or nodules. The recommendations regarding the diagnostic management of subsolid nodules have been adapted according to the tendency of growth and the risk of malignancy. A benign etiology is also seen quite often in subsolid lesions and in this case they will show a reduction of size or disappear completely by the follow-up examination. Therefore, in many cases a short-term follow-up examination is primarily recommended. As the findings will often show no changes for a long period of time, further annual follow-up examinations over a longer, not yet specified period of time are recommended. Subsolid lesions that grow in size and/or show an increase in density or develop a solid part within a ground glass lesion should remain as suspected malignancies until proven otherwise. (orig.) [German] Der Nachweis subsolider intrapulmonaler Rundherde stellt ein haeufiges Problem in der taeglichen klinisch-radiologischen Routine dar. Das biologische Verhalten subsolider Rundherde unterscheidet sich wesentlich von soliden intrapulmonalen Rundherden. Das Risiko fuer Malignitaet ist fuer subsolide Rundherde deutlich hoeher im Vergleich zu soliden oder reinen Milchglasrundherden. Die Empfehlungen fuer das diagnostische Management subsolider Rundherde wurden entsprechend der Wachstumstendenz sowie des Malignitaetsrisikos adaptiert. Eine benigne Aetiologie ist bei subsoliden Rundherden ebenfalls oft zu finden. Diese weisen haeufig in der Verlaufsuntersuchung eine Groessenreduktion auf oder bilden sich spontan zurueck. Daher wird fuer viele subsolide Rundherde primaer eine kurzfristige Verlaufskontrolle empfohlen. Da sowohl benigne als auch maligne Veraenderungen ueber

  2. Growth of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, and Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of human illness associated with the consumption of fresh sprouts has increased very sharply during the past decade. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth dynamics of salmonellae on sprouting alfalfa seeds as affected by the inoculum size, native microbial load, an...

  3. Ultrasound elastography for thyroid nodules: recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Kwak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (US-based elastography has been introduced as a noninvasive technique for evaluating thyroid nodules that encompasses a variety of approaches such as supersonic shear imaging and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging as well as real-time tissue elastography. However, the diagnostic performances for differentiating malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones with elastography as an adjunctive tool of gray-scale US is still under debate. In this review article, diagnostic performances of conventional US and a combination of conventional US and elastography are compared according to the type of elastography. Further, the interobserver variability of elastography is presented according to the type of elastography.

  4. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Ussatjuk, Anna; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Ventosa, Miguel; Lorentzen, Andrea; Gupta, Vikas; Andersen, Stig U.; Enghild, Jan J.; Ronson, Clive W.; Roepstorff, Peter; Stougaard, Jens

    Legume symbiosis with rhizobia results in the formation of a specialized organ, the root nodule, where atmospheric dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia. In Lotus japonicus (Lotus), several genes involved in nodule development or nodule function have been defined using biochemistry, genetic approaches...... nodule formation mutant (snf1) was determined. From nodules and roots, 780 and 790 protein spots from 2D gels were identified and approximately 45% of the corresponding unique gene accessions were common. Including a previous proteomics set from Lotus pod and seed, the common gene accessions were...... decreased to 7%. Interestingly, an indication of more pronounced post translational modifications in nodules than in roots was determined. Between the two nodule developmental stages, higher levels of pathogen related 10 proteins, HSP’s, and proteins involved in redox processes were found in white nodules...

  5. Waterlogging-induced changes in fermentative metabolism in roots and nodules of soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Borella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging blocks the oxygen supply to the root system which inhibits respiration, and greatly reduces the energy status of cells that affect important metabolic processes. This study evaluated fermentative metabolism and carbohydrate contents in the root system of two soybean (Glycine max L. Merril genotypes under hypoxic and post-hypoxic conditions. Nodulated plants (genotypes Fundacep 53 RR and BRS Macota were grown in vermiculite and transferred to a hydroponic system at the reproductive stage. The root system was submitted to hypoxia by flowing N2 (nitrogen gas in a solution for 24 and 72 h. For recovery, plants returned to normoxia condition by transfer to vermiculite for 24 and 72 h. Fermentative enzyme activity, levels of anaerobic metabolites and carbohydrate content were all quantified in roots and nodules. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes, as well as the content of ethanol and lactate, increased with hypoxia in roots and nodules, and subsequently returned to pre-hypoxic levels in the recovery phase in both genotypes. Pyruvate content increased in nodules and decreased in roots. Sugar and sucrose levels increased in roots and decreased in nodules under hypoxia in both genotypes. Fundacep RR 53 was more responsive to the metabolic effects caused by hypoxia and post-hypoxia than BRS Macota, and it is likely that these characteristics contribute positively to improving adaptation to oxygen deficiency.

  6. Bone suppressed images improve radiologists’ detection performance for pulmonary nodules in chest radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalekamp, Steven, E-mail: steven.schalekamp@gmail.com [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ginneken, Bram van, E-mail: b.vanginneken@rad.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meiss, Louis, E-mail: L.Meiss@meandermc.nl [Meander Medical Centre, Utrechtseweg 160, 3800 BM Amersfoort (Netherlands); Peters-Bax, Liesbeth, E-mail: l.petersbax@rad.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Quekel, Lorentz G.B.A., E-mail: Lgba.quekel@meandermc.nl [Meander Medical Centre, Utrechtseweg 160, 3800 BM Amersfoort (Netherlands); Snoeren, Miranda M., E-mail: m.snoeren@rad.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Tiehuis, Audrey M., E-mail: am.tiehuis@meandermc.nl [Meander Medical Centre, Utrechtseweg 160, 3800 BM Amersfoort (Netherlands); Wittenberg, Rianne, E-mail: rianne_wittenberg@hotmail.com [Meander Medical Centre, Utrechtseweg 160, 3800 BM Amersfoort (Netherlands); Karssemeijer, Nico, E-mail: n.karssemeijer@rad.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M., E-mail: cornelia.schaeferprokop@gmail.com [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meander Medical Centre, Utrechtseweg 160, 3800 BM Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of bone suppression imaging on observer performance in detecting lung nodules in chest radiographs. Materials and methods: Posteroanterior (PA) and lateral digital chest radiographs of 111 (average age 65) patients with a CT proven solitary nodule (median diameter 15 mm), and 189 (average age 63) controls were read by 5 radiologists and 3 residents. Conspicuity of nodules on the radiographs was classified in obvious (n = 32), moderate (n = 32), subtle (n = 29) and very subtle (n = 18). Observers read the PA and lateral chest radiographs without and with an additional PA bone suppressed image (BSI) (ClearRead Bone Suppression 2.4, Riverain Technologies, Ohio) within one reading session. Multi reader multi case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were used for statistical analysis. Results: ROC analysis showed improved detection with use of BSI compared to chest radiographs alone (AUC = 0.883 versus 0.855; p = 0.004). Performance also increased at high specificities exceeding 80% (pAUC = 0.136 versus 0.124; p = 0.0007). Operating at a specificity of 90%, sensitivity increased with BSI from 66% to 71% (p = 0.0004). Increase of detection performance was highest for nodules with moderate and subtle conspicuity (p = 0.02; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Bone suppressed images improve radiologists’ detection performance for pulmonary nodules, especially for those of moderate and subtle conspicuity.

  7. Population Abundance of Predators in Alfalfa and Cotton Fields at Tando jam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rab Kino Khuhro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on population abundance of predators in alfalfa and cotton fields were carried out at the experimental field of Integrated Pest Management (IPM, Agriculture Research institutes (ARI Tandojam, during June to September 2000. Twelve predators were recorded Campylomma nicolasi, Brumus suturalis, Staphylinid hutchinsoni, Paederus fuscipes, Coccinella undecimpunctata, Orius laerigatus, Chrysoperia carnea, Geocoris tricolor, Formicomus antiqumus, Laius malleifer, Delta sp., and Spider (un-identified. The predators populations recorded on alfalfa through sweep net method showed that the maximum population of Orius laevigatus (1170 was recorded throughout the season followed by Campylomma nicolasi (979, Spiders(318, Laius malleifer (123, Formicomus antiqumus (60, Paederus fuscipes (53, Geocoris tricolor (51, Staphylinid hutchinsoni (47, Coccinella undecimpunctata (36, Chrysoperia carnea (34 and Brumus suturalis, Delta sp., (9 respectively. The maximum population of predators (2889 was recorded through sweep net method on alfalfa followed by (891 direct count method on alfalfa and through sweep net method on cotton (476 respectively. The better suitability sweep net method for sampling population of predators on alfalfa than direct count method on alfalfa and cotton. The population of predators was more on alfalfa than cotton. The availability of biotic agent predators are large in number in the alfalfa field indicates that, alfalfa harbours sufficient number of pest hosts as food for predators. Since, the alfalfa is a perennial crop and good source of biocontrol agents; therefore, it can be grown in strips near major field crops and can be exploited for the control of pests through predators.

  8. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  9. De Novo Transcriptional Analysis of Alfalfa in Response to Saline-Alkaline Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yi-Min; Song, Li-Li; Liu, Ying-Rui; Shu, Yong-Jun; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Saline-alkaline stress, caused by high levels of harmful carbonate salts and high soil pH, is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity. Alfalfa is a widely cultivated perennial forage legume with some tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, especially to saline-alkaline stress. To elucidate the mechanism underlying plant saline-alkaline tolerance, we conducted transcriptome analysis of whole alfalfa seedlings treated with saline-alkaline solutions for 0 day (control), 1 day (short-term treatment), and 7 days (long-term treatment) using ion torrent sequencing technology. A transcriptome database dataset of 53,853 unigenes was generated, and 2,286 and 2,233 genes were differentially expressed in the short-term and long-term treatment, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed 14 highly enriched pathways and demonstrated the differential response of metabolic pathways between the short-term and long-term treatment. The expression levels of 109 and 96 transcription factors were significantly altered significantly after 1 day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Specific responses of peroxidase, flavonoids, and the light pathway component indicated that the antioxidant capacity was one of the central mechanisms of saline-alkaline stress tolerance response in alfalfa. Among the 18 differentially expressed genes examined by real time PCR, the expression levels of eight genes, including inositol transporter, DNA binding protein, raffinose synthase, ferritin, aldo/keto reductase, glutathione S-transferase, xyloglucan endotrans glucosylase, and a NAC transcription factor, exhibited different patterns in response to saline and alkaline stress. The expression levels of the NAC transcription factor and glutathione S-transferase were altered significantly under saline stress and saline-alkaline stress; they were upregulated under saline-alkaline stress and downregulated under salt stress. Physiology assays showed an increased concentration of reactive oxygen

  10. Short communication. Growth and nodulation of cowpea after 5 years of consecutive composted tannery sludge amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. L. Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tannery industry releases high amounts of tannery sludge which are currently composted and used in agricultural soils. The consecutive amendment of such composted tannery sludge (CTS may affect soil microrganisms, such as rhizobia. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. CTS was applied in different amounts (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg/ha to a sandy soil. Amendment of CTS increased soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC, sodium and chromium content. Plant growth, nodulation, N accumulation, and cowpea yield increased up to 10 Mg/ha; however, above this rate, these variables decreased. After 5 years of CTS amendment, the increase in soil chemical properties, particularly EC and Na content, exerted negative effects on the growth, nodulation, and yield of cowpea.

  11. Semi-continuous feeding and gasification of alfalfa and wheat straw pellets in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Alfalfa and wheat straw pellets were gasified in a lab-scale fluid-bed reactor. • ER varied between 0.20 and 0.35 at which several parameters investigated. • ER = 0.35 was found optimum for alfalfa at which process performance improved. • ER = 0.30 revealed optimum for wheat straw at which gasification was effective. - Abstract: Small scale air-blown fluidized bed gasification of alfalfa and wheat straw pellets were conducted for semi-continuous solid feeding and range of operating conditions varied due to the modifications in equivalence ratio (ER) (0.20–0.35) achieved both by varying solid and air input. Alfalfa pellets displayed an improvement in several gasification variables such as gas lower heating value (∼4.1 MJ/Nm3), specific gas yield (1.66 Nm3/kg), cold gas efficiency (∼42%) and carbon conversion efficiency (∼72%) as ER maximized to 0.35 which was found optimum for this feedstock for the present course of experiments. Gasification parameters of wheat straw pellets on the other hand were characterized by a great degree of variation as the ER progressively increased. The optimum performance of this biomass was likely to achieve at ER = 0.30 when gas lower heating value and cold gas efficiency maximized to ∼4 MJ/Nm3 and ∼37% respectively. Moreover, a substantial drop in tar yield (58.7 g/Nm3) at this ER was also indicative to the optimal thermal conversion at this point of operation. Overall, both the feedstocks presented promising alternatives for utilization into the small-scale fluidized bed gasification which is increasingly emerging as a sustainable solution towards processing lignocellulosic biomass

  12. Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma with mural nodule of anaplastic carcinoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, S. R.; Chun, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Lim, K. T.; Kim, H S

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of malignant mural nodule in benign cystic common epithelial tumor of the ovary have been reported in only three cases; the case one was mucinous cystadenoma with a mural nodule of fibrosarcoma and the others were of carcinomas. Our case was another rare case of ovarian mucinous cystadenoma with mural nodule of anaplastic carcinoma in a 42-year-old woman. The cystadenoma had an unilocular cystic cavity and a mural nodule with thick multinodular solid wall. The internal cystic w...

  13. NEGATIVE HORMONAL REGULATION OF SYMBIOTIC NODULE DEVELOPMENT. I. ETHYLENE (review)

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. TSYGANOVA; V.E. TSYGANOV

    2015-01-01

    The process of symbiotic nodule formation resulting from interaction between legume plants and rhizobia is controlled by both partners. From the plant side the important role belongs to a system of hormonal regulation, involving all classes of phytohormones identified in plants. Negative regulation of nodulation is very important for the plant since the symbiotic nodule formation is highly energy-consuming process. Moreover, nodules lacking nitrogen fixation might be formed during interaction...

  14. Lung Nodule and Cancer Detection in CT Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Geoffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental to the diagnosis of lung cancer in CT scans is the detection and interpretation of lung nodules. As the capabilities of CT scanners have advanced, higher levels of spatial resolution reveal tinier lung abnormalities. While not all detected lung nodules should be reported, radiologists strive to detect all nodules that might have relevance to cancer diagnosis. Although medium to large lung nodules are detected consistently, inter-reader agreement and reader sensitivity for lung nod...

  15. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield, N content, and nitrogen ifxation of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass grown alone or in mixture in greenhouse pots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai-yun; LI Xiang-lin; HE Feng; ZHANG Ying-jun; WAN Li-qiang; David B Hannaway; WANG Dong; QIN Yan; Gamal M A Fadul

    2015-01-01

    Planting grass and legume mixtures on improved grasslands has the potential advantage of realizing both higher yields and lower environmental pol ution by optimizing the balance between applied N fertilizer and the natural process of legume biological nitrogen ifxation. However, the optimal level of N fertilization for grass-legume mixtures, to obtain the highest yield, quality, and contribution of N2 ifxation, varies with species. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the temporal dynamics of N2 ifxation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown alone and in mixture with smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) in response to the addition of fertilizer N. Three levels of N (0, 75, and 150 kg ha–1) were examined using 15N-labeled urea to evaluate N2 ifxation via the 15N isotope dilution method. Treatments were designated N0 (0.001 g per pot), N75 (1.07 g per pot) and N150 (2.14 g per pot). Alfalfa grown alone did not beneift from the addition of fertilizer N;dry matter was not signiifcantly increased. In contrast, dry weight and N content of smooth bromegrass grown alone was increased signiifcantly by N application. When grown as a mixture, smooth bromegrass biomass was increased signiifcantly by N application, resulted in a decrease in alfalfa biomass. In addition, individual alfalfa plant dry weight (shoots+roots) was signiifcantly lower in the mixture than when grown alone at al N levels. Smooth bromegrass shoot and root dry weight were signiifcantly higher when grown with alfalfa than when grown alone, regardless of N application level. When grown alone, alfalfa’s N2 ifxation was reduced with N fertilization (R2=0.9376, P=0.0057). When grown in a mixture with smooth bromegrass, with 75 kg ha–1 of N fertilizer, the percentage of atmospheric N2 ifxation contribution to total N in alfalfa (%Ndfa) had a maximum of 84.07 and 83.05%in the 2nd and 3rd harvests, respectively. Total 3-harvest%Ndfa was higher when alfalfa was grown in a mixture than when

  16. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: The Galaxy Population Detected by ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Shan; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2012-01-01

    Making use of HI 21 cm line measurements from the ALFALFA survey (alpha.40) and photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and GALEX, we investigate the global scaling relations and fundamental planes linking stars and gas for a sample of 9417 common galaxies: the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX sample. In addition to their HI properties derived from the ALFALFA dataset, stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived from fitting the UV-optical spectral energy distributions. 96% of the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX galaxies belong to the blue cloud, with the average gas fraction f_HI = M_HI/M_* ~ 1.5. A transition in SF properties is found whereby below M_* ~ 10^9.5 M_sun, the slope of the star forming sequence changes, the dispersion in the specific star formation rate (SSFR) distribution increases and the star formation efficiency (SFE) mildly increases with M_*. The evolutionary track in the SSFR-M_* diagram, as well as that in the color magnitude diagram are linked to the HI content; below this trans...

  17. Interactive effects of UV-B irradiation and triadimefon on nodulation and nitrogen metabolism in Vigna radiata plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supply of aqueous solution of triadimefon (20 mg/cubic dm) to unstressed green gram plants increased the contents of soluble proteins, amino acids, nitrate and nitrite, and the activity of nitrate reductase in the leaves and nitrate reductase in nodules. The nitrogenase activity in nodules and roots was also increased. Number and fresh mass of nodules and their nitrate and nitrite contents were also higher than those of the controls. In contrast, the UV-B stress (12.2 kJ/square m/d) suppressed nodulation and nitrogen metabolism in leaves and roots in comparison with plants under natural UV-B (10 kJ/square m/d). Triadimefon-treated plants did not show such severe inhibitions after exposure to elevated UV-B. Thus, triadimefon increased their tolerance to UV-B stress

  18. MODELING POLLINATION FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ALFALFA SEED YIELD IN NORTH-CENTRAL NEVADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don BREAZEALE

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The relative importance of both environmental and management factors on alfalfa seed yield was investigated on North–Central Nevada farms. Multiple linear regression models using 2002-2003 data revealed that cumulative tripped fl owers increased seed yield in both years. Field location does not appear to make a difference in the observed variation in tripped fl ower production. The results suggest that seed yield can be increased by (a by placing bee shelters closer and (b cultural practices that increase total fl ower production. Both these factors increased tripped fl owers and thus had a positive effect on yield. In addition, warmer temperatures during the growing season, particularly in the early stages of plant growth is shown to not only increase tripped fl owers but also reduce the time when the maximum tripped fl owers occur. The latter appears to have a signifi cant infl uence on cumulative tripped fl owers and thus the total seed yield.

  19. The hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine kinetic studies, using a double label (131I- and T4-125I), were performed on 8 patients with hot thyroid nodules, 3 diffuse toxic goiters and one normal control. This investigation was complemented by partial kinetic studies done on 62 other subjetcs, including normal controls and euthyroid or hyperthyroid patients with diffuse or nodular goiter

  20. Hierarchical and binary spatial descriptors for lung nodule image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gillian; Song, Yang; Cai, Weidong; Zhou, Yun; Liu, Sidong; Feng, David Dagan

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing amount of image data available for cancer staging and diagnosis, it is clear that content-based image retrieval techniques are becoming more important to assist physicians in making diagnoses and tracking disease. Domain-specific feature descriptors have been previously shown to be effective in the retrieval of lung tumors. This work proposes a method to improve the rotation invariance of the hierarchical spatial descriptor, as well as presents a new binary descriptor for the retrieval of lung nodule images. The descriptors were evaluated on the ELCAP public access database, exhibiting good performance overall. PMID:25571476

  1. The incidental pulmonary nodule in a child. Part 2: Commentary and suggestions for clinical management, risk communication and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Thacker, Paul G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Podberesky, Daniel J. [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Iyer, Ramesh S. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Hegde, Shilpa V. [Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Guillerman, R.P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The incidental detection of small lung nodules in children is a vexing consequence of an increased reliance on CT. We present an algorithm for the management of lung nodules detected on CT in children, based on the presence or absence of symptoms, the presence or absence of elements in the clinical history that might explain these nodules, and the imaging characteristics of the nodules (such as attenuation measurements within the nodule). We provide suggestions on how to perform a thoughtfully directed and focused search for clinically occult extrathoracic disease processes (including malignant disease) that may present as an incidentally detected lung nodule on CT. This algorithm emphasizes that because of the lack of definitive information on the natural history of small solid nodules that are truly detected incidentally, their clinical management is highly dependent on the caregivers' individual risk tolerance. In addition, we present strategies to reduce the prevalence of these incidental findings, by preventing unnecessary chest CT scans or inadvertent inclusion of portions of the lungs in scans of adjacent body parts. Application of these guidelines provides pediatric radiologists with an important opportunity to practice patient-centered and evidence-based medicine. (orig.)

  2. The incidental pulmonary nodule in a child. Part 2: Commentary and suggestions for clinical management, risk communication and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidental detection of small lung nodules in children is a vexing consequence of an increased reliance on CT. We present an algorithm for the management of lung nodules detected on CT in children, based on the presence or absence of symptoms, the presence or absence of elements in the clinical history that might explain these nodules, and the imaging characteristics of the nodules (such as attenuation measurements within the nodule). We provide suggestions on how to perform a thoughtfully directed and focused search for clinically occult extrathoracic disease processes (including malignant disease) that may present as an incidentally detected lung nodule on CT. This algorithm emphasizes that because of the lack of definitive information on the natural history of small solid nodules that are truly detected incidentally, their clinical management is highly dependent on the caregivers' individual risk tolerance. In addition, we present strategies to reduce the prevalence of these incidental findings, by preventing unnecessary chest CT scans or inadvertent inclusion of portions of the lungs in scans of adjacent body parts. Application of these guidelines provides pediatric radiologists with an important opportunity to practice patient-centered and evidence-based medicine. (orig.)

  3. Accuracy of the CT numbers of simulated lung nodules imaged with multi-detector CT scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    retrospectively from the multi-detector helical CT projection data of the standard NLST protocol yield CT numbers for the 4.8 mm diameter nodules that are more accurate and reproducible than those of the standard NLST technique. In general, the CT numbers of the nodules were found to be lower at positions near the centers of the lungs and near the spine, which is probably due to increased beam hardening in those regions. Also, larger nodules were found to have higher CT numbers than smaller nodules, consistent with results obtained on early single slice GE CT scanners. Until manufacturers develop quantitative CT scanners with improved x-ray beam hardening and scatter corrections, it is recommended that reference phantoms be employed to more accurately assess the calcium contents of patient lung nodules in screening and tissue characterization studies and in eventual computer-aided detection and diagnosis applications

  4. Approach and management of thyroid nodule. A literature review = Nódulo tiroideo, enfoque y manejo. Revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-González, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid nodules are commonly found, and their incidence is increasing. The main objective during the evaluation of these nodules is to determine if they are benign or malignant. Materials and methods: We made a narrative review of the literature by searching Ovid, Medline and Lilacs from 1950 to 2010. Results: Most thyroid nodules are benign, but in 4% to 8% of cases they may be malignant, hence the importance of appropriate study and management. Nodules larger than 1 cm should undergo fine needle aspirate; however, the clinical features of the patient and the characteristics of the nodule on ultrasound assessment should always be taken into account. The following are risk factors associated with the presence of thyroid nodules: age over 45 years, female gender and smoking. The measurement of tumor markers in the initial study of patients with thyroid nodule is not recommended.Conclusion: Ultrasound and thyroid fine needle aspirate are the most important diagnostic methods in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, because they enable to make changes in therapeutic decisions thus decreasing the number of unnecessary thyroidectomies. Treatment and prognosis of thyroid nodules will depend on the patient´s risk factors and the cytological and pathological findings.

  5. Performance of Three Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera:Miridae) on Flowering and Non-lfowering Cotton and Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen; PAN Hong-sheng; LIU Bing; LU Yan-hui; LIANG Ge-mei

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera:Miridae) is a group of key insect pests in cotton ifelds in China that includes three dominant species:A. suturalis (Jakovlev), A. lineolatus (Goeze) and A. fasciaticollis (Reuter). Previous ifeld surveys have found that adults of these Adelphocoris species usually move onto speciifc host plants when the plants enter the lfowering stage. To determine the potential trade-offs for this host-plant preference behavior, the performance of these three Adelphocoris spp. on lfowering and non-lfowering cotton and alfalfa were compared in the laboratory. The results showed that Adelphocoris spp. had signiifcantly higher nymphal developmental and survival rates, along with increased adult longevity and fecundity on lfowering cotton and alfalfa than on non-lfowering plants of either species. In addition, compared with cotton plants, alfalfa generally promoted better performance of these three Adelphocoris species, especially for A. lineolatus. Simple correlation analysis indicated that female adult longevity was positively correlated to male adult longevity and female fecundity, and female fecundity was positively correlated to nymphal development and survival rates. This study demonstrated a positive correlation between adult preference and offspring/adult performance for all three Adelphocoris species, with no evidence of any trade-offs for this preference for lfowering host plants. These ifndings support the hypothesis that hemimetabolous insects such as mirid bugs have positive adult preference-adult/nymphal performance relationships, which is likely due to the similar feeding habits and nutritional requirements of adults and nymphs.

  6. Germination capacity and health status of hybrid alfalfa seeds after laser treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Korniłłowicz-Kowalska

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory examinations of the germination of the Polish hybrid alfalfa var. Radius were conducted completely randomly with four replications in 2002. The following factors were taken into consideration: 1 irradiation with divergent He-Ne laser beam with a surface power density in the irradiation plane of 0, 3 and 6 mW cm-2 applied 1, 3 and 5 times; 2 seed dressings: Funaben T, Sarfun T 65 DS and Super-Homai 70 DS in a controlled environment. The number of seeds germinating normally, those germinating abnormally, hard seeds and those infected with fungal disease were determined in the experiment. It was found that the laser treatment of seed significantly increased the percentage of seeds germinating normally and de- creased the share of seeds germinating abnormally. This had no impact on the number of hard seeds, and significantly decreased the percentage of seeds infected by fungi except for the R 6x1 dose. Hybrid alfalfa seeds were most abundantly infected by fungi of the Penicillium group (Penicillium verrucosum ver. cyclopium and Penicillium expansum. Seed dressings completely eliminated fungal disease in the seeds.

  7. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P; Puppo, A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... soybean plants, in a manner analogous to that recently described for Lupinus albus. This Lb-NO complex is present at lower concentrations in older nodules, and is almost completely absent from senescent nodules. Exposure of young and mature nodules to oxidant stress, in the form of hydrogen peroxide...

  8. Coordinating nodule morphogenesis with rhizobial infection in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Giles E D; Downie, J Allan

    2008-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on legumes requires an integration of infection by rhizobia at the root epidermis and the initiation of cell division in the cortex, several cell layers away from the sites of infection. Several recent developments have added to our understanding of the signaling events in the epidermis associated with the perception of rhizobial nodulation factors and the role of plant hormones in the activation of cell division leading to nodule morphogenesis. This review focuses on the tissue-specific nature of the developmental processes associated with nodulation and the mechanisms by which these processes are coordinated during the formation of a nodule. PMID:18444906

  9. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  10. Population dynamics of overwintering life stages of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal)

    OpenAIRE

    Hilburn, Daniel J.

    1985-01-01

    Virginia is a natural laboratory for studying overwintering habits of the alfalfa weevi1. At higher elevations, winters are relatively harsh and weevil pressure on the alfalfa crop is usually light. Much heavier pressure is the rule at lower elevations where winters are milder. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of fall and winter temperatures, parasites, and fall regrowth management on population dynamics of overwintering stages of this insect. Sixteen commercial alfalfa field...

  11. Computer-aided detection of lung cancer: combining pulmonary nodule detection systems with a tumor risk prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setio, Arnaud A. A.; Jacobs, Colin; Ciompi, Francesco; van Riel, Sarah J.; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) has been shown to be a promising tool for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules from computed tomography (CT) images. However, the vast majority of detected nodules are benign and do not require any treatment. For effective implementation of lung cancer screening programs, accurate identification of malignant nodules is the key. We investigate strategies to improve the performance of a CAD system in detecting nodules with a high probability of being cancers. Two strategies were proposed: (1) combining CAD detections with a recently published lung cancer risk prediction model and (2) the combination of multiple CAD systems. First, CAD systems were used to detect the nodules. Each CAD system produces markers with a certain degree of suspicion. Next, the malignancy probability was automatically computed for each marker, given nodule characteristics measured by the CAD system. Last, CAD degree of suspicion and malignancy probability were combined using the product rule. We evaluated the method using 62 nodules which were proven to be malignant cancers, from 180 scans of the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The malignant nodules were considered as positive samples, while all other findings were considered negative. Using a product rule, the best proposed system achieved an improvement in sensitivity, compared to the best individual CAD system, from 41.9% to 72.6% at 2 false positives (FPs)/scan and from 56.5% to 88.7% at 8 FPs/scan. Our experiment shows that combining a nodule malignancy probability with multiple CAD systems can increase the performance of computerized detection of lung cancer.

  12. Detectable change of lung nodule volume with CT in a phantom study with high and low signal to background contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrielides, Marios A.; Li, Qin; Zeng, Rongping; Gong, Qi; Myers, Kyle; Sahiner, Berkman; Petrick, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    In previous work we developed a method for predicting the minimum detectable change (MDC) in nodule volume based on volumetric CT measurements. MDC was defined as the minimum increase/decrease in a nodule volume distinguishable from the baseline measurement at a specified level of detection performance, assessed using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). In this work we derived volume estimates of a set of synthetic nodules and calculated the detection performance for distinguishing them from baseline measurements. Eight spherical objects of 100HU radio density ranging in diameter from 5.0mm to 5.75mm and 8.0mm to 8.75mm with 0.25mm increments were placed in an anthropomorphic phantom with either no background (high-contrast task) or gelatin background (low-contrast task). The baseline was defined as 5.0mm for the first set of nodules and 8.0mm for the second set. The phantom was scanned using varying exposures, and reconstructed with slice thickness of 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0mm and two reconstruction kernels (standard and smooth). Volume measurements were derived using a previously developed matched- filter approach. Results showed that nodule size, slice thickness, and nodule-to-background contrast affected detectable change in nodule volume when using our volume estimator and the acquisition settings from our study. We also compared our experimental results to the values estimated by our previously-developed MDC prediction method. We found that experimental data for the 8mm baseline nodules matched very well with our predicted values of MDC. These results support considering the use of this metric when standardizing imaging protocols for lung nodule size change assessment.

  13. The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dorcas Quain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Almost all protease families have been associated with plant development, particularly senescence, which is the final developmental stage of every organ before cell death. Proteolysis remobilizes and recycles nitrogen from senescent organs that is required, for example, seed development. Senescence-associated expression of proteases has recently been characterized using large-scale gene expression analysis seeking to identify and characterize senescence-related genes. Increasing activities of proteolytic enzymes, particularly cysteine proteases, are observed during the senescence of legume nodules, in which a symbiotic relationship between the host plant and bacteria (Rhizobia facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. It is generally considered that cysteine proteases are compartmentalized to prevent uncontrolled proteolysis in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In addition, the activities of cysteine proteases are regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors called cystatins. These small proteins form reversible complexes with cysteine proteases, leading to inactivation. However, very little is currently known about how the cysteine protease-cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin system is regulated during nodule development. Moreover, our current understanding of the expression and functions of proteases and protease inhibitors in nodules is fragmented. To address this issue, we have summarized the current knowledge and techniques used for studying proteases and their inhibitors including the application of “omics” tools, with a particular focus on changes in the cysteine protease-cystatin system during nodule development.

  14. Citric acid- and Tween(®) 80-assisted phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) performance and remediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Huguenot, D; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was designed to assess the phytoremediation potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in a co-contaminated (i.e., heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons) soil and the influence of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 (polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate), applied individually and combined together, for their possible use in chemically assisted phytoremediation. The results showed that alfalfa plants could tolerate and grow in a co-contaminated soil. Over a 90-day experimental time, shoot and root biomass increased and negligible plant mortality occurred. Heavy metals were uptaken by alfalfa to a limited extent, mostly by plant roots, and their concentration in plant tissues were in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb. Microbial population (alkane-degrading microorganisms) and activity (lipase enzyme) were enhanced in the presence of alfalfa with rhizosphere effects of 9.1 and 1.5, respectively, after 90 days. Soil amendments did not significantly enhance plant metal concentration or total uptake. In contrast, the combination of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 significantly improved alkane-degrading microorganisms (2.4-fold increase) and lipase activity (5.3-fold increase) in the rhizosphere of amended plants, after 30 days of experiment. This evidence supports a favorable response of alfalfa in terms of tolerance to a co-contaminated soil and improvement of rhizosphere microbial number and activity, additionally enhanced by the joint application of citric acid and Tween(®) 80, which could be promising for future phytoremediation applications. PMID:26838038

  15. Bioinformatics Analysis of Zinc Transporter from Baoding Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo WANG; Junyun GUO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to perform the bioinformatics analysis of Zinc transporter (ZnT) from Baoding Alfalfa. [Method] Based on the amino acid sequence, the physical and chemical properties, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, secondary structure of ZnT from Baoding alfalfa were predicted by a series of bioinformatics software. And the transmembrane domains were predicted by using different online tools. [Result] ZnT is a hydrophobic protein containing 408 amino acids with the theoretical pl of 5.94, and it has 7 potential transmembrane hydrophobic regions. In the sec- ondary structure, co-helix (Hh) accounted for 48.04%, extended strand (Ee) for 9.56%, random coil (Cc) for 42.40%, which was accored with the characteristic of transmembrane protein. [Conclusion] mZnT is a member of CDF family, responsible for transporting Zn^2+ out of the cell membrane to reduce the concentration and toxicity of Zn^2+.

  16. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  17. Progress in the Study of ALFALFA Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Nichols, Nathan

    2013-04-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team Groups Project is a collaborative undertaking of faculty and students at 11 institutions, aimed at investigating properties of galaxy groups surveyed by the ALFALFA blind HI survey. The survey covers 7,000 square degrees and is expected to include more than 30,000 extragalactic sources when completed. Here we present analysis of HI spectra taken at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center and report on progress made with developing analysis software tools as part of the UAT study. These tools will be implemented with follow up observations of targeted sources generated from the original blind survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267 and AST-0725380.

  18. Dysplastic hepatic nodules: Radiological abnormalities and histopathological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathological studies of explanted cirrhotic livers have made it possible to define precisely the principal morphological characteristics of the transitional stages of the regenerative nodule to dysplastic nodule to hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of our study was to examine the imaging features of histologically proven dysplastic nodules and to compare them with their histopathological features. A large majority (63%) of the dysplastic nodules in our series was hypervascular and 16% had the classic appearance of hepatocellular carcinoma. Even if the management of a high-grade dysplastic nodule differs little from that of a hepatocellular carcinoma, it is important to remember that not all hypervascular nodules in a cirrhotic liver are necessarily a hepatocellular carcinoma or a high-grade dysplastic nodule.

  19. Computer-Assisted Detection of Pulmonary Nodules: Preliminary Observations Using a Prototype System with Multidetector-Row CT Data Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, Leo P.; Wood, Susan A.; Pannu, Harpreet S.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2003-01-01

    The continued revolution in multidetector-row CT (MDCT) scanning increases the quality of lung imaging but at the cost of a greater burden of data for review and interpretation. This article discusses our preliminary experience with prototype software for lung nodule detection and characterization using MDCT data sets. We discuss the potential role of computer-assisted detection (CAD) as applied to the automatic detection of lung nodules. We also review the process of CAD, outline its potenti...

  20. 浅析黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展前景%Development Prospect of Alfalfa in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海娟

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa is nutritious,palatable and high-yield,especially,has an important role in increasing milk production and improving the quality of milk.It is the most potential forage in forage industry.Based on the development planning of alfalfa in Heilongjiang Province.This paper analysed that alfalfa industry has an expansively developing prospects from some aspects:large demand in alfalfa market,good condition in building plant base,stable technology and the support from government.%苜蓿营养丰富、适口性好、产量高,尤其对奶牛提高产奶量、改善乳品质具有特殊作用,是饲草产业中最具发展潜力的牧草。针对黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展规划的出台,文章从黑龙江省苜蓿产业发展市场需求、建设种植基地条件、技术保障、政策扶持等方面分析了黑龙江省苜蓿产业的广阔发展前景。

  1. Transformation with TT8 and HB12 RNAi Constructs in Model Forage (Medicago sativa, Alfalfa) Affects Carbohydrate Structure and Metabolic Characteristics in Ruminant Livestock Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Zhang, Yonggen; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-11-01

    Lignin, a phenylpropanoid polymer present in secondary cell walls, has a negative impact on feed digestibility. TT8 and HB12 genes were shown to have low expression levels in low-lignin tissues of alfalfa, but to date, there has been no study on the effect of down-regulation of these two genes in alfalfa on nutrient chemical profiles and availability in ruminant livestock systems. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of transformation of alfalfa with TT8 and HB12 RNAi constructs on carbohydrate (CHO) structure and CHO nutritive value in ruminant livestock systems. The results showed that transformation with TT8 and HB12 RNAi constructs reduced rumen, rapidly degraded CHO fractions (RDCA4, P = 0.06; RDCB1, P neutral detergent fiber (NDF) at 30 h of incubation (ivNDF30) compared to the control (P alfalfa with TT8 and HB12 RNAi constructs induced molecular structure changes. Different CHO functional groups had different sensitivities and different responses to the transformation. The CHO molecular structure changes induced by the transformation were associated with predicted CHO availability. Compared with HB12 RNAi, transformation with TT8 RNAi could improve forage quality by increasing the availability of both NDF and DM. Further study is needed on the relationship between the transformation-induced structure changes at a molecular level and nutrient utilization in ruminant livestock systems when lignification is much higher. PMID:26492548

  2. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Suess, Katherine A; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI), OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 HI optical counterparts. Sixty candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colors of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ fro...

  3. Effects of phosphorous fertilizer on seedlings growth and nodulation capabilities of some popular agroforestry tree species of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Belal Uddin; Sharif Ahmed Mukul; Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin Khan; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Phosphorous (P) fertilizer (I.e. TSP or triple super phosphate @ 80 kg/hm2) on seedling growth and nodulation capabilities of three potentially important agroforestry tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Albizia lebbeck and Albizia procera) of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in nursery beds with six-month-old polybag seedlings of A. Auriculi formis, A. Lebbeck and A. Procera. The effects of P fertilizer on seedling growth and nodulation were compared with that of the seedlings grown in control (I.e. Unfertilized soil). The observations revealed that the seedling growth was enhanced significantly with the application of P fertilizer.hegrowth was found more pronounced in A. Auriculiformis, whereas it was not apparent and shows depressed growth in case of A. Lebbeck. The study also suggests that the nodulation in terms of nodule number and size was also increased significantly with the application of P fertilizer.

  4. Seedling response of three agroforestry tree species to phosphorous fertilizer application in Bangladesh: growth and nodulation capabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Belal Uddin; Sharif Ahmed Mukul; Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin Khan; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2009-01-01

    Triple Super Phosphate, TSP fertilizer, was applied @ 80 kg(ha-1 as the source of phosphorous on six months old polybag seedlings of Albizia chinensis, Albizia saman and Pongamia pinnta in nursery beds in Bangladesh. The effects of P-fertilizer on seedling growth and nodulation were compared to that of seedlings grown in unfertilized soil or in control at different harvesting intervals. The study revealed that, seedling growth was enhanced significantly with the application of P-fertilizer. The growth was found more pronounced in cases of A. saman and P. pinnata, whereas it was not noticeable and showed depressed growth in case of A. chinensis. The study also suggests that nodulation in terms of nodule number and size was also increased significantly with P-fertilization except in case of P. pinnata, where higher harvesting intervals lowered the nodulation performance of that species

  5. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    -observer variation in classification of findings at thoracic CT scans was investigated in study III and was based on staging CT scans from a local cohort of patients with newly diagnosed CRC. Based on an experienced thoracic radiologist's assessment of the scans, we searched for radiological characteristics of IPN...... that could predict malignancy of the nodule. There was a significant difference in the number of IPNs detected between the primary and the thoracic radiologist's assessment. The thoracic radiologist classified fewer nodules as IPN and even reported with higher specificity and sensitivity for SPCM. More...... than 20% of IPNs (as classified by the thoracic radiologist) proved to be SPCM. Unfortunately, no radiological characteristics could be associated with a malignant outcome. In continuation of these findings we suggested a secondary review of scans with IPN be a group of dedicated thoracic radiologists...

  6. Pulmonary nodule registration in serial CT scans based on rib anatomy and nodule template matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated method is being developed in order to identify corresponding nodules in serial thoracic CT scans for interval change analysis. The method uses the rib centerlines as the reference for initial nodule registration. A spatially adaptive rib segmentation method first locates the regions where the ribs join the spine, which define the starting locations for rib tracking. Each rib is tracked and locally segmented by expectation-maximization. The ribs are automatically labeled, and the centerlines are estimated using skeletonization. For a given nodule in the source scan, the closest three ribs are identified. A three-dimensional (3D) rigid affine transformation guided by simplex optimization aligns the centerlines of each of the three rib pairs in the source and target CT volumes. Automatically defined control points along the centerlines of the three ribs in the source scan and the registered ribs in the target scan are used to guide an initial registration using a second 3D rigid affine transformation. A search volume of interest (VOI) is then located in the target scan. Nodule candidate locations within the search VOI are identified as regions with high Hessian responses. The initial registration is refined by searching for the maximum cross-correlation between the nodule template from the source scan and the candidate locations. The method was evaluated on 48 CT scans from 20 patients. Experienced radiologists identified 101 pairs of corresponding nodules. Three metrics were used for performance evaluation. The first metric was the Euclidean distance between the nodule centers identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, the second metric was a volume overlap measure between the nodule VOIs identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, and the third metric was the hit rate, which measures the fraction of nodules whose centroid computed by the computer registration in the target scan falls within the VOI identified by the

  7. Subungual nodule of the great toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    An otherwise healthy male, 17 years of age, presented with a 2 year history of an enlarging lump under the right great toenail. There was no history of trauma. Examination revealed an exophytic, non-tender, fixed, firm flesh-coloured subungal nodule on the dorsal aspect of the right great toe. The lesion was about 10 mm in diameter and was associated with nail plate deformity and onycholysis. PMID:23550247

  8. CT Guided Needle Biopsies in Pulmonary Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Afzali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available determine the prevalence of pulmonary pathologies"nby CT-guided needle biopsy in pulmonary nodules."nPatients and Methods: We performed CT guided"nneedle biopsy on 78 cases of pulmonary nodules. Lung"nCT scan with a 64-Slice MSCT was done for all patients"nbefore the needle biopsy. All biopsies were performed"nby one experienced interventional radiologist by"nusing a semiautomatic coaxial 18 guage needle. The"nresults were confirmed by two pathologists who were"nunaware of each other's reports. Because of different"npathologic diagnosis two cases were excluded from the"nstudy."nResults: The study population included 43 men and"n33 women with the mean age of 62 years. The mean"nlesion diameter was 22 mm (±7 mm. Thirty-nine"ncases were diagnosed as malignant lesions. Benign"npulmonary conditions were diagnosed in 37 patients."nThe most common malignant lesion was pulmonary"nadenocarcinoma (26%, squamous cell carcinoma"nand bronchoalveolar carcinoma were the next ones."nPulmonary metastasis was seen in three cases and non"nHodgkin lymphoma in three patients. The prevalence"nof adenocarcinoma was not significantly different"nbetween men and women (p value=0.01. The mean age"nof the patients with malignant lesions was 74 years and"n56 years in the others. The difference was significant"n(p=0.05. Tuberculosis was the most common cause of"nbenign lesions (14.4% of all cases, intersitial fibrosis"nand anthracosis were the next most common."nConclusion: Most pulmonary nodules were malignant"nand pulmonary adenocarcinoma was the most"nfrequent. Among benign lesions tuberculosis was the"nmost common."nKeywords: Pulmonary Nodules, Needle Biopsy, CT"nGuide

  9. Solitary pulmonary nodule: medical approach and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Montes-Farah Juan Manuel; Ojeda-Rodríguez Kelman Hanael; Segovia-Fuentes Javier Ignacio; Henao-Castrillón Julio César

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: the detection of the solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is usually casual.Benign injuries must be differentiated from malignant injuries to establish the adequatemedical monitoring and therapeutic interventions.Objective: to check the current condition of the diagnosis and treatment of SPN.Methods: databases PubMed, Science Direct, OvidSP, EBSCOhost and Scielo werereviewed. The search included systematic reviews, meta-analysis, guidelines, consensusand reviews with keywords got fro...

  10. Decision Making in Patients with Pulmonary Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Ost, David E.; Gould, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating current evidence with fundamental concepts from decision analysis suggests that management of patients with pulmonary nodules should begin with estimating the pretest probability of cancer from the patient's clinical risk factors and computed tomography characteristics. Then, the consequences of treatment should be considered, by comparing the benefits of surgery if the patient has lung cancer with the potential harm if the patient does not have cancer. This analysis determines th...

  11. Benign Papules and Nodules of Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Gürel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the more common benign oral papules and nodules of oral mucosa with emphasis on their etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathology, and treatment. These lesions include mucocele, traumatic fibroma, epulis, pyogenic granuloma, oral papilloma, oral warts, lymphangioma, hemangioma, lipoma, oral nevi and some soft tissue benign tumors. These benign lesions must be separated clinically and histologically from precancerous and malign neoplastic lesions. Accurate clinico-pathological diagnosis is mandatory to insure appropriate therapy.

  12. Effect of graded levels of ifber from alfalfa meal on apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids of growing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; LIU Li; DING Ze-ming; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ifber level from alfalfa meal and sampling time on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in growing pigs. A total of 24 ileal-can-nulated pigs (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace) with body weight (21.4±1.5) kg) were randomly alotted to 4 treatments. The pigs were provided a corn-soybean meal diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20% of alfalfa meal during two 10-d experimental periods. The AID of AA was measured. Six ileal-cannulated pigs were fed a protein-free diet in order to estimate the en-dogenous protein losses and SID of AA. Ileal AA digestibility was not affected by inclusion of 5 or 10% alfalfa meal in the diet (P>0.05). The AID of His, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Val, Ala, Asp, Cys, Gly, Pro, Ser and Tyr reduced by 2.0–6.8% with the addition level of alfalfa meal (linear,P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both the soluble and insoluble ifber content in the diets, explained more than 36% of variation in SID of Ser and Thr (P<0.05). In conclusion, the corn-soybean meal diet containing 10% of alfalfa meal did not affect ileal AA digestion. The AID and SID of AA were similar between two sampling times. Increasing the concentration of total dietary ifber from 12.3 to 21.4% by adding graded levels of alfalfa meal (0–20%) to a corn-soybean meal control diet induced a linear reduction in AID and SID of most AA. Soluble and insoluble ifbers from alfalfa meal have differential roles in the AA digestion, which may help explain the variation observed in the SID of partial AA. These ifndings would provide important information for dietary ifber level and composition related to AA digestion.

  13. Alfalfa leaf meal in finishing steer diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.; Brown, D.B.; Hall, J.M.

    1997-10-30

    Ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 540 lb.) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 167 or 189-day finishing phase, respectively. Treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, 100% of supplemental protein. Finishing diets were formulated to contain .61 Mcal NE{sub g}/lb dry matter, 12.5% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. There were no significant (P >.05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or dry matter required /lb of gain. Steers fed 100 % ALM consumed more (P <.05) dry matter than steers fed either of the other three treatments. Dry matter consumption increased linearly (P >.05) with increasing ALM. There was no significant (P >.05) dietary treatment effect on marbling, KPH %, yield grade, quality grade, or liver abscesses. There was an apparent trend in reduced liver abscess incidence in steers fed 100 % ALM. Steers fed 66 % ALM had significantly (P <.05) greater backfat measurements, backfat also had a cubic effect (P <.05). Hot carcass weight had a quadratic relation (P <.05) with level of ALM. Substituting alfalfa leaf meal for soybean meal in diets of finishing steers increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain which resulted in similar feed efficiency. There may be an advantage in blending ALM and soybean meal as feed efficiency was improved when cattle were fed the blend. Also, feeding ALM may result in lower incidence of liver abscess.

  14. Distribution of N within Pea, Lupin, and Soybean Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, D H; Reynolds, P H; Shearer, G

    1989-06-01

    The (15)N abundance of some, but not all, legume root nodules is significantly elevated compared to that of the whole plant. It seems probable that differences in (15)N enrichment reflect differences in the assimilatory pathway of fixed N. In that context, we have determined the distribution of naturally occurring (15)N in structural fractions of nodules from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), and pea (Pisum sativum) nodules and in chemical components from soybean nodules and to a lesser extent, pea and lupin nodules. None of the fractions of pea nodules (cortex, bacteriod, or host plant cytoplasm) was enriched in (15)N. The differences among bacteriods, cortex, and plant cytoplasm were smaller in lupin than in soybean nodules, but in both, bacteriods had the highest (15)N enrichment. In soybean nodules, the (15)N abundance of bacteriods and cortex was higher than plant cytoplasm, but all three fractions were more enriched in (15)N than the entire plant. Plant cytoplasm from soybean nodules was fractionated into protein-rich material, nonprotein alcohol precipitable material (NA), and a low molecular weight fraction. The N of the latter was further separated into N of ureides, nucleotides and free amino acids. Most of these components were either similar to or lower in (15)N abundance than the plant cytoplasm as a whole, but the NA fraction showed unusual (15)N enrichment. However, the percentage of nodule N in this fraction was small. NA fractions from yellow lupin and pea nodules and from soybean leaves were not enriched in (15)N. Nor was the NA fraction in ruptured bacteriods and cortical tissue of soybean nodules. Variation among soybean nodule fractions in the preponderance in protein of different amino acids was not large enough to explain the differences in (15)N abundances among them. A hypothesis, consistent with all known data, concerning the mechanism leading to the observed excess (15)N of lupin and soybean bacteriods is

  15. Pneumocystis Pneumonia Presenting as an Enlarging Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunal Bharat Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis pneumonia is a life threatening infection that usually presents with diffuse bilateral ground-glass infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a single nodular granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia in a male with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after R-CHOP therapy. He presented with symptoms of productive cough, dyspnea, and right-sided pleuritic chest pain that failed to resolve despite treatment with multiple antibiotics. Chest X-ray revealed right lower lobe atelectasis and CT of chest showed development of 2 cm nodular opacity with ground-glass opacities. Patient underwent bronchoscopy and biopsy that revealed granulomatous inflammation in a background of organizing pneumonia pattern with negative cultures. Respiratory symptoms resolved but the solitary nodular opacity increased in size prompting a surgical wedge resection which revealed granulomatous Pneumocystis pneumonia infection. This case is the third documented report of Pneumocystis pneumonia infection within a solitary pulmonary nodule in an individual with hematologic neoplasm. Although Pneumocystis pneumonia most commonly occurs in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and with diffuse infiltrates, the diagnosis should not be overlooked when only a solitary nodule is present.

  16. Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome in monkeys fed alfalfa sprouts: role of a nonprotein amino acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Bardana, E J; Pirofsky, B; Craig, S; McLaughlin, P

    1982-04-23

    Hematologic and serologic abnormalities similar to those observed in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed in cynomolgus macaques fed alfalfa sprouts. L-Canavanine sulfate, a constituent of alfalfa sprouts, was incorporated into the diet and reactivated the syndrome in monkeys in which an SLE-like syndrome had previously been induced by the ingestion of alfalfa seeds or sprouts. PMID:7071589

  17. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, reproductive success according to location of nests in U.S. commercial domiciles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata F., is used extensively to pollinate alfalfa for seed production in western North America. However, it usually is not possible to sustain bee populations in the United States. Variable microenvironments are experienced by developing alfalfa leafcutt...

  18. The Productivity and Quality of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in Romanian Forest Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai STAVARACHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative use of alfalfa, for various purposes, including the production of biofuels or food supplement for human alimentation, is a study topic still in its early stages of research. Studying and understanding the biology of alfalfa and the factors with a major influence on it are very important activities. The productivity and quality of alfalfa are two indicators that help determine, in addition to economic value, the way in which alfalfa can be used. Evolution of alfalfa yield and quality depends on many factors, such as the growth stage of alfalfa plants at harvesting. It was observed over three years of vegetation the influence of alfalfa plant growth stage at harvest on plant height, leaves/stems ratio, production of leaves, stems and whole plant (DM - dry matter per hectare and on quality indicators (CP - crude protein, NDF - neutral detergent fiber and ADF - acid detergent fiber. The results showed that, with the advancement of phenological phases, from early bud stage to complete flowering, the total biomass output raised from 2.79 Mg·ha-1 to 4.60 Mg·ha-1, the neutral detergent fiber raised from 48.4-50.6% to 62.0-67.7%, while crude protein content decreased from 21.2-24.0% to 13.3-16.5%. The parameter values were correlated with alfalfa growth stage during the harvesting (significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels.

  19. Should Yield or Quality be the 'Rule' at Alfalfa Harvest Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive cutting management research has documented the effects of date and frequency of harvest on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage yield and quality. Information is lacking, however, on the change in quality relative to yield that occurs as alfalfa matures within individual harvest periods. ...

  20. microRNAs and microRNA Targets Involved in Alfalfa Stem Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    To examine the possible involvement of microRNAs in alfalfa stem development, we hybridized 32P-labled total microRNAs purified from elongating and post-elongation stem internodes (ES and PES, respectively) of the alfalfa Clone 252 to a microRNA dot blot that contains a total of 70 reference anti-mi...

  1. Using Gene Arrays as Tools to Develop Alfalfa as a Biomass Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa has considerable potential as a biomass feedstock for producing cellulosic ethanol. The model that we propose for alfalfa as a biomass crop involves stripping leaves from stems. The leaves would be used as a protein supplement for livestock while the stems would be used for cellulosic ethano...

  2. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  3. A system for identification of candidate genes controlling cell wall synthesis in alfalfa stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usefulness of alfalfa for livestock feeding and production of lignocellulose-derived ethanol would be improved by genetic alteration of stem cell wall concentration and composition. This could be accomplished through selective breeding and transgenic technologies. However, development of alfalfa cel...

  4. CEUS: An essential component in a multimodality approach to small nodules in patients at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CEUS resolves hypervascular pseudolesions, frequent on CT and MR, from vascular shunts. • US has the advantage of showing a baseline nodule for characterization. • CEUS shows excellent sensitivity to contrast agents, providing superior arterial phase sensitivity. • Real-time CEUS performance shows optimally perfusion patterns of benign tumor nodules. • CEUS performed at surveillance detection of nodules is efficient and effective. - Abstract: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) plays an essential role in the evaluation of small nodules in livers at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and offers unique advantages over CT/MRI. These include the sensitive depiction of arterial hypervascularity of HCC, better demonstration of rapid washout for non-HCC malignancy as well as of very late washout of HCC. Visualization of early vascular filling patterns for benign hypervascular lesions is of indisputable value. A frequently uncounted benefit of CEUS includes the value of its performance following nodule detection at ultrasound surveillance, including one-stop exclusion of typical benignancy, preclusion of arterial pseudolesions shown on CT/MR, and the avoidance of miscorrelation of a nodule on surveillance and subsequent diagnostic imaging. Therefore, CEUS can effectively be used in the diagnostic algorithm for new liver nodules detected during HCC surveillance. Despite the fact that CEUS is actively used as a major diagnostic test for HCC in Asia, Europe, and Canada with increasing demands in clinical practice, CEUS is not included in the diagnostic tests for HCC in some major practice guidelines. In this manuscript, we focus on small nodules in patients at high-risk for HCC, and review some of the unique advantages of CEUS that contribute to lesion characterization and subsequent patient management, showing why CEUS should be an essential component of the diagnostic algorithm for HCC

  5. CEUS: An essential component in a multimodality approach to small nodules in patients at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyun-Jung, E-mail: Hyun-Jung.jang@uhn.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Kim, Tae Kyoung, E-mail: Taekyoung.Kim@uhn.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Burns, Peter N, E-mail: burns@sri.utoronto.ca [Department of Imaging Research, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto ON M4 N 3M5 (Canada); Wilson, Stephanie R, E-mail: Stephanie.wilson@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Foothills Medical Centre, 1403 29 Street NW, Calgary, AB T2R 1M5 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • CEUS resolves hypervascular pseudolesions, frequent on CT and MR, from vascular shunts. • US has the advantage of showing a baseline nodule for characterization. • CEUS shows excellent sensitivity to contrast agents, providing superior arterial phase sensitivity. • Real-time CEUS performance shows optimally perfusion patterns of benign tumor nodules. • CEUS performed at surveillance detection of nodules is efficient and effective. - Abstract: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) plays an essential role in the evaluation of small nodules in livers at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and offers unique advantages over CT/MRI. These include the sensitive depiction of arterial hypervascularity of HCC, better demonstration of rapid washout for non-HCC malignancy as well as of very late washout of HCC. Visualization of early vascular filling patterns for benign hypervascular lesions is of indisputable value. A frequently uncounted benefit of CEUS includes the value of its performance following nodule detection at ultrasound surveillance, including one-stop exclusion of typical benignancy, preclusion of arterial pseudolesions shown on CT/MR, and the avoidance of miscorrelation of a nodule on surveillance and subsequent diagnostic imaging. Therefore, CEUS can effectively be used in the diagnostic algorithm for new liver nodules detected during HCC surveillance. Despite the fact that CEUS is actively used as a major diagnostic test for HCC in Asia, Europe, and Canada with increasing demands in clinical practice, CEUS is not included in the diagnostic tests for HCC in some major practice guidelines. In this manuscript, we focus on small nodules in patients at high-risk for HCC, and review some of the unique advantages of CEUS that contribute to lesion characterization and subsequent patient management, showing why CEUS should be an essential component of the diagnostic algorithm for HCC.

  6. Diversity pattern of nitrogen fixing microbes in nodules of Trifolium arvense (L. at different initial stages of ecosystem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schloter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Legumes can be considered as pioneer plants during ecosystem development, as they form a symbiosis with different nitrogen fixing rhizobia species, which enable the plants to grow on soils with low available nitrogen content. In this study we compared the abundance and diversity of nitrogen fixing microbes based on the functional marker gene nifH, which codes for a subunit of the Fe-protein of the dinitrogenase reductase, in nodules of different size classes of Trifolium arvense (L.. Additionally, carbon and nitrogen contents of the bulk soil and plant material were measured. Plants were harvested from different sites, reflecting 2 (2a and 5 (5a yr of ecosystem development, of an opencast lignite mining area in the south of Cottbus, Lower Lusatia (Germany where the artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" was constructed to study the development of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants from the 5a site revealed higher amounts of carbon and nitrogen, although nifH gene abundances in the nodules and carbon and nitrogen contents between the two soils did not differ significantly. Analysis of the nifH clone libraries showed a significant effect of the nodule size on the community composition of nitrogen fixing microbes. Medium sized nodules (2–5 mm contained a uniform community composed of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, whereas the small nodules (Rhizobium nifH gene sequences. Regarding the impact of the soil age on the community composition a clear distinction between the small and the medium nodules can be made. While clone libraries from the medium nodules were pretty similar at both soil ages, soil age had a significant effect on the community compositions of the small nodules, where the proportion of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii increased with soil age.

  7. Diversity pattern of nitrogen fixing microbes in nodules of Trifolium arvense (L.) at different initial stages of ecosystem development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S.; Engel, M.; Fischer, D.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Welzl, G.; Schloter, M.

    2013-02-01

    Legumes can be considered as pioneer plants during ecosystem development, as they form a symbiosis with different nitrogen fixing rhizobia species, which enable the plants to grow on soils with low available nitrogen content. In this study we compared the abundance and diversity of nitrogen fixing microbes based on the functional marker gene nifH, which codes for a subunit of the Fe-protein of the dinitrogenase reductase, in nodules of different size classes of Trifolium arvense (L.). Additionally, carbon and nitrogen contents of the bulk soil and plant material were measured. Plants were harvested from different sites, reflecting 2 (2a) and 5 (5a) yr of ecosystem development, of an opencast lignite mining area in the south of Cottbus, Lower Lusatia (Germany) where the artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" was constructed to study the development of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants from the 5a site revealed higher amounts of carbon and nitrogen, although nifH gene abundances in the nodules and carbon and nitrogen contents between the two soils did not differ significantly. Analysis of the nifH clone libraries showed a significant effect of the nodule size on the community composition of nitrogen fixing microbes. Medium sized nodules (2-5 mm) contained a uniform community composed of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, whereas the small nodules (Rhizobium nifH gene sequences. Regarding the impact of the soil age on the community composition a clear distinction between the small and the medium nodules can be made. While clone libraries from the medium nodules were pretty similar at both soil ages, soil age had a significant effect on the community compositions of the small nodules, where the proportion of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii increased with soil age.

  8. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Cabeza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules, was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants.

  9. The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in the Development of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Karadayı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the role of IGF-1 in the development of nodular thyroid disease. Material and Methods: A total number of 100 consecutive patients operated for nodular thyroid disease in our institution were included in this prospective study. In addition to classical pathological examinations, nodules and extranodular healthy tissues were sampled and immunochemically stained for IGF-1. The materials were independently evaluated using an Allred Scoring System ranging from 0 to 8. If the score was ≥1, the tissue was accepted as IGF-1 positive.Results: IGF-1 positivity was observed in 88% and 58% of the samples obtained from nodules and extranodular healthy tissues, respectively. Allred 8-unit scores were higher in benign nodules (n=89; 4.1±2.3 and papillary carcinomas (n=7; 6.7±1.3, than in extranodular healthy tissues in the same patients (2.3±2.3 and 3.3±1.9, respectively; and higher in papillary carcinomas than in benign nodules, when the scores were compared to each other (p<0.01 for all comparisons. Conclusions: Allred 8-unit scores for IGF-1 increase in the presence of benign thyroid nodules, papillary cancer. The results of our study support the findings of previous studies demonstrating the role of IGF-1 in the development of thyroidal nodules.

  10. Ethylene, a hormone at the centre-stage of nodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Frederique Catherine Guinel

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenou...

  11. Ethylene, a Hormone at the Center-Stage of Nodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Guinel, Frédérique C.

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenous c...

  12. Cryptococcus gattii: An Emerging Cause of Pulmonary Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Gary J Dewar; James K Kelly

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the fall of 1999, a new endemic focus of Cryptococcus gattii serotype B infection has emerged on Vancouver Island (Victoria, British Columbia), with infections occurring in both animals and humans. In the human cases, symptoms have manifested as pulmonary nodules, meningitis or both. This organism has added a new nonmalignant cause of pulmonary nodules to the literature, resulting in a change in the management of these nodules by health care professionals.METHODS: A search o...

  13. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Valcavi, Roberto [Endocrinology Division and Thyroid Disease Center, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Pacella, Claudio M. [Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology Department, Ospedale Regina Apostolorum, Albano Laziale-Rome (IT); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Kyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation.

  14. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Valcavi, Roberto; Pacella, Claudio M.; Rhim, Hyunchul; Na, Dong Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation.

  15. Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: Basic Principles and Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Hoon Shin; Jung Hwan Baek; Eun Ju Ha; Jeong Hyun Lee

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been gaining popularity as a minimally invasive treatment for benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. RF ablation of benign nodules demonstrated volume reductions of 33–58% after one month and 51–85% after six months, while solving nodule-related clinical problems. RF ablation has recently shown positive short-term results for locoregional control as well as symptom improvement in patients with recurrent thyroid cancers. This pa...

  16. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 ± SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 ± SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

  17. Successful nodulation of Casuarina by Frankia in axenic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Echbab, H.; Arahou, M.; Ducousso, M.; Nourissier Mountou, S.; Duponnois, Robin; Lahlou, H.; Prin, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: In order to depict the fine interactions that lead to nodulation, absolute microbiological control of the symbiotic partners is required, i.e. the ability to obtain in vitro axenic nodulation, a condition that has never been fulfilled with the Casuarina-Frankia symbiosis. The effects of culture conditions on plant growth and nodule formation by Casuarina cunninghamiana were investigated. Methods and Results: Axenic (capped tubes with different substrates), and nonaxenic cultures (Gibson...

  18. Work-up of the solitary pulmonary nodule

    OpenAIRE

    Quint, Leslie Eisenbud

    2015-01-01

    Although the solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is a common presentation of lung cancer, most SPNs are benign. The challenge in evaluating SPNs is to avoid invasive procedures in patients who have benign nodules, without allowing potentially curable bronchogenic carcinomas the time to progress to more advanced or even unresectable disease. Various approaches include assessment of nodule morphology, interval growth and contrast enhancement, as well as techniques such as percutaneous biopsy, posit...

  19. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Yoon Suk; Kwak, Min Sook; Chang, Sun Hee [Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 {+-} SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 {+-} SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland.

  20. Effects of alfalfa germplasm and stage of maturity on digestive process and productive response of dairy cows fed alfalfa hay-based diets

    OpenAIRE

    Igino Andrighetto; Paolo Berzaghi; Flaviana Gottardo; Martina Dorigo; Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    The effects on the digestive process and the productive performances of dairy cows fed diets containing alfalfa hay from  different germplasms and maturity were assessed in the present study. Three different lots of first-cut alfalfa hay were  used in the study: the improved variety “Boreal”, harvested at two consecutive maturity stages (early flowering and full  flowering) and the ecotype “Vogherese”, at full flowering. Cutting the plant at an earlier s...

  1. INVESTIGATION OF ALFALFA LOCAL POPULATIONS FOR CREATION OF NEW BREEDING GERMPLAZM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Čupić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield of dry matter and green mass are important factors in selection of fodder crop cultivars. Low genetic gain was achieved during the long time of fodder crops breeding for yield. Therefore we investigated possibility of using local populations of alfalfa for yield increase with direct and indirect selection. Strong and significant influence of genotypes and environments was recorded for all examined traits and their interactions at the level p<0.01. The highest variability was recorded for green mass yield 48.21%; while the lowest variation was for height 13.18%. High share of genotype variance as well as high heritability were recorded in total variance for the traits number of stem and plant height.

  2. Effect of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Pratylenchus penetrans on Verticillium Wilt of Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrain, T C

    1987-07-01

    Verticillium albo-atrum wilt symptoms appeared faster and were significantly more severe in the presence of Ditylenchus dipsaci in Vernal, a wilt-susceptible cultivar, than in Marls Kabul, a wilt-resistant cultivar. Winter kill in the field was not affected by the nematode during the first winter, but 50% of plants were killed in the second winter. Forage yield from nematode-infected plants was significantly reduced the second year. Interaction with V. albo-atrum did not significantly reduce forage yields below that of D. dipsaci alone. Pratylenchus penetrans did not increase the severity of wilt symptoms in the presence of V. albo-atrum, nor did it affect forage yield in the greenhouse. It did, however, reduce alfalfa yields in presence of V. albo-atrum under field conditions. D. dipsaci and P. penetrans reproduced faster in Vernal than in Maris Kabul when the fungus was present. PMID:19290158

  3. Rheumatoid nodule presenting as Morton’s neuroma

    OpenAIRE

    Chaganti, S.; Joshy, S.; Hariharan, K; M Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Among 101 feet that presented with symptoms and signs similar to Morton’s neuroma, intermetatarsal rheumatoid nodules were found in five feet (three patients). Two patients had bilateral involvement. Histology of the excised tissue showed the presence of a rheumatoid nodule and Morton’s neuroma in four feet and a rheumatoid nodule with unremarkable nerve bundles in one. A rheumatoid nodule can coexist with Morton’s neuroma, as seen in our patients, and the presentation is often similar to tha...

  4. Initial application of digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the value of digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules. Methods: Thirty patients suspected of having pulmonary nodules underwent chest radiography, digital tomosynthesis and CT examination. Above image data were transferred to postprocessing work station and were reviewed by 2 radiologists with 3 years of chest-radiology diagnosis experience in a double-blind method. The number, location and size of nodules were recorded. Then, 2 radiologists reviewed the all images once more, and discuss in consensus. The sensitivities of chest radiography and digital tomosynthesis for detection of pulmonary nodules were respectively calculated according to the CT results. Chi-square test was used for radiography, digital tomosynthesis and CT examination. Results: Of 30 patients, 21 were detected having pulmonary nodules by X-ray radiography and 9 were negative, the total number of 40 nodules was detected, while 89 nodules in 26 patients were detected by digital tomosynthesis, and only 4 patients were negative. CT demonstrated 102 nodules in 27 patients, and 3 patients were negative. Taking CT as 'gold standard', the sensitivities of X-ray radiography and digital tomosynthesis were 27.4%(28/102)and 87.2%(89/102), X2=4.35, P<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: Digital tomosynthesis has a high sensitivity for detection of pulmonary nodules compared with X-ray radiography, and could be an excellent and necessary supplementary technique of X-ray radiography. (authors)

  5. Recent developments in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for pulmonary nodule management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Simon C. Y.

    2016-01-01

    In the modern era when screening and early surveillance of pulmonary nodules is increasing in importance, the management of the pulmonary nodule represents a different challenge to thoracic surgeons. The difficulty lies in the merging of sound surgical and oncological principles with more minimally invasive and appropriate lung sparing surgery. Furthermore, the intra-operative identification and surgical management of small and sometimes multi-focal pulmonary lesions remain challenging. There have been many developments and innovations in the field of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) to cater for the demands from increasing incidence of pulmonary nodules with associated paradigm shift in their surgical management. Recently, uniportal VATS and non-intubated VATS represent an even less invasive alternative to the conventional multiport VATS. The emergence of image guided VATS, hybrid operating theatre and fluorescence thoracoscopy have all contributed to improved precision of VATS lung resection, and are becoming important adjuncts to lung sparing surgery. In this chapter, some of these recent developments in VATS with emphasize on their importance in surgical management of the pulmonary nodule will be discussed. PMID:27606081

  6. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using 15N2 and allopurinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed [15N]xanthine from 15N2 at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible 15N -labeling of asparagine from 15N2 was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery

  7. Comparison of muscle-to-nodule and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: Which one should we use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of muscle-to-nodule strain ratio (MNSR) in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to see if there was a difference between MNSR and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios (PNSR) in diagnosis. Methods: A total of 106 consecutive patients (88 women and 18 men; age range 19–79 years) with thyroid nodules were prospectively examined using ultrasound and sonoelastography before the fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The mean MNSR and PNSR were calculated for each nodule and the elasticity score was determined according to four-point scoring system. Results: According to the four-point scoring system, 44 of the 83 benign nodules had a score of one or two while 22 of the 23 malignant nodules had a score of three or four (p < 0.001). Using ROC analysis, the best cutoff point for MNSR 1.85 and for PNSR 3.14 was calculated. The sensitivity and specificity for the MNSR were 95.6%, 92.8%, respectively; for the PNSR were 95.6%, 93.4%, respectively, when the best cutoff points were used (p < 0.001). The κ value for the PNSR and MNSR methods was 0.87, which indicated an almost perfect agreement (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Sonoelastography has a high diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. There was no significant difference between MNSR and PNSR in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Therefore, we think that MNSR could safely be used in situations where PNSR could not be used

  8. Short communication: The effects of dry matter and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Kung, L

    2016-07-01

    During the ensiling of feeds, various processes result in chemical changes that can affect their ultimate nutritive value at feed out. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged ensiling times on potential changes in in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF-D) of alfalfa ensiled at about 33% [low dry matter (DM), LDM] or 45% (high DM, HDM) whole-plant DM. Alfalfa from the same field (direct chopped or wilted) was chopped with a conventional forage harvester set for a theoretical length of cut of 0.95 cm and ensiled in mini silos for 45, 180, 270, and 360 d. Fresh forages and silages were analyzed for nutrient content, fermentation end-products, and 30-h NDF-D. The pH of the fresh forages ranged from 6.1 to 6.2 and decreased to approximately 4.7 and 4.3 in HDM and LDM silages, respectively. Production of acids and alcohols were less in HDM compared with LDM as expected. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N also increased with time of storage as expected but soluble protein was greater, whereas NH3-N was lower in HDM compared with LDM silage. The effect of length of storage and DM on hemicellulose and NDF concentrations were very small, whereas DM content at harvest tended to slightly increase the concentration of acid detergent fiber in HDM compared with LDM up to 270 d of storage. The NDF-D was greater in fresh forage compared with corresponding silages. However, time of storage between 45 and 360 d had no effect on the NDF-D of alfalfa silage, regardless of DM concentration at ensiling. PMID:27179862

  9. The Removal and Remediation of Phenanthrene and Pyrene in Soil by Mixed Cropping of Alfalfa and Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Sheng-wang; WEI Shi-qiang; YUAN Xin; CAO Sheng-xian

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms and efficiencies of the removal and remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils by different planting patterns with rape (Brassica campeslris) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were studied by pot experiments in a greenhouse. Results showed that the remediation efficiencies under mixed cropping of alfalfa and rape significantly exceeded those under single cropping when the initial concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene were at 20.05-322.06 mg kg-1 and 20.24-321.42 mg kg-1, respectively. After 70 days plantation of crops, the contents of extractable PAHs in soils under mixed cropping were much lower than those under single cropping. About 65.17-83.52% of phenanthrene and 60.09%-75.34% of pyrene was removed from the soils under mixed cropping, respectively, which were averagely 43.26 and 40.38% for phenanthrene, and 11.03 and 16.29% for pyren higher than those under single cropping. Alfalfa or rape did absorb and accumulate PAHs from the soils apparently; the PAHs concentrations in plants monotonically increased with the increase of initial PAHs concentrations in soil; the accumulations of PAHs in plants showed following sequence as roots> above parts, phenanthrene> pyrene and single cropping> mixed cropping at same contamination level. Despite the presence of vegetation significantly enhanced the remediation of PAHs in soils, contributions of abiotic loss, plant uptake, accumulation and microbial degradation was much lower than those of plant-microbial interactions in the process of phytoremediation. Thus plant-microbial interactions are the main mechanisms for the remediation enhancement of soil PAHs pollution under mixed cropping models. Results suggested a feasibility of the establishment of multi-species phytoremediation for the improvement of remediation efficiencies of PAHs, which may decrease accumulations of PAHs in crops and thus reduce their risks.

  10. Imaging diagnosis of the grade of malignancy of hepatocytic nodules associated with liver cirrhosis. Usefulness of the evaluation of intranodular blood supply by arteriographic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the correlation between intranodular blood supply evaluated by CT during arterial portography (CTAP) and CT during hepatic arteriography (CTA) and the grade of malignancy of hepatocytic nodules associated with liver cirrhosis, and to evaluate the appropriateness of this correlation in comparison with the natural course of the nodules. On CTAP, adenomatous hyperplasia (AH) mainly demonstrated almost the same portal supply relative to the surrounding liver (group A), atypical AH (AAH) decreased portal flow (group B), well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (wd-HCC), partial absence of portal supply (group C), and moderately or poorly differentiated HCC (mp-HCC), absence of portal supply (group D), respectively. CTA findings were also divided into four groups: the same arterial supply (group I), decreased arterial supply (group II), partially increased arterial supply (group III), and increased arterial supply (group IV). The tendency was for AHs to be in group I, AAHs in group II, and wd-HCCs in group III, respectively. All of mp-HCCs were identified as group IV. The malignant transformation ratios of the nodules in each group in 176 nodules in which natural course was observed, were compared. With increase in the grade of malignancy of CTAP findings, malignant transformation ratio was increased. On the other hand, the nodules with group I on CTA showed poorer prognosis than that in the nodules with group II, because group I had a tendency to include AH and AAH or early wd-HCCs. On the combination of CTAP and CTA, malignant transformation was seen in none of the nodules with group A and I, in 30% of the nodules with group B or II, and in more than 90% of the nodules with group C or III, respectively, during 24 months follow-up. These results corresponded well with the grade of malignancy diagnosed by CTAP and CTA. (K.H.)

  11. Effects of lactic acid bacteria with bacteriocinogenic potential on the fermentation profile and chemical composition of alfalfa silage in tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, V P; Pereira, O G; Leandro, E S; Da Silva, T C; Ribeiro, K G; Mantovani, H C; Santos, S A

    2016-03-01

    The fermentation profile, chemical composition, and microbial populations of alfalfa silages treated with microbial inoculants (MI) at different fermentation periods (T) were evaluated in tropical conditions. A 4×6 factorial arrangement was used in a randomized design with 3 replicates. Fresh alfalfa was treated with (1) no treatment (CTRL), (2) commercial inoculant (CIN), (3) Pediococcus acidilactici (strain 10.6, S1), and (4) Pediococcus pentosaceus (strain 6.16, S2). An inoculant application rate of 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage was used. The fermentation periods were 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d. Alfalfa was harvested 82 d after sowing at the early flowering stage, chopped into 1.5-cm particle size, and ensiled in 25 × 35 cm vacuum-sealed plastic bags. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, mold, and yeast in alfalfa before ensiling were 5.42, 5.58, 4.82, and 4.8 log cfu/g, respectively. Silage chemical composition was evaluated only at 56 d. All parameters were affected by the interaction MI × T, except the concentrations of lactic and propionic acids. Alfalfa silage treated with S1 or S2 had lower pH values than CTRL from the first day until 28 d. However, the inoculants resulted in similar pH after 56 d, and these values were lower than the CTRL. The highest concentration of lactic acid was observed in the silage treated with S1 and S2 at 7 and 14 d of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid was lower in the silages treated with S1 and S2 than the CTRL and CIN at 3 and 28 d of fermentation. There was no effect of MI or MI × T interaction on the microbial populations. However, the number of enterobacteria decreased over the fermentation period until 14 d and increased slightly after this time point. The chemical composition of alfalfa silage was not affected by MI at 56 d of ensiling. The strain P. pentosaceus 6.16 was the most efficient in dominating the fermentation process by decreasing the pH more quickly and increasing the concentration

  12. The HI mass function in ALFALFA 70% and the role of confusion in future HI surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The HI mass function represents a fundamental component of our understanding of the the gas content of galaxies. How its form varies throughout the local Universe and as a function of redshift, is key to developing a complete picture of galaxy evolution.We use the ALFALFA 70% catalog, the largest uniform catalog of extragalactic HI sources to date, to explore the environmental dependence of the HI mass function based on the projected neighbour densities in both SDSS and 2MRS. The Schechter function 'knee' mass is found to increase by approximately 0.2 dex from the lowest to highest density quartiles. However, this dependence is seen only when environment is defined by SDSS neighbours, and not with 2MRS. We interpret this as an indication of local, rather than large scale, environmental depedence. In addition, we find no evidence for any change in the faint-end slope; which is a source of tension with HI surveys of galaxy groups, and DM halo simulations.As HI surveys push deeper in an attempt to assess the HI content of the Universe towards a redshift of order unity, only the integral of the HI mass function will be measurable through stacking. We present an anaytic, and thus computationally cheap, method to estimate the contribution of HI confusion noise to these stacks and explore the design implications for upcoming SKA-precusor surveys.The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF grants AST-0607007 and AST-1107390 to RG and MPH and by grants from the Brinson Foundation.

  13. Overexpression of Medicago sativa TMT elevates the α-tocopherol content in Arabidopsis seeds, alfalfa leaves, and delays dark-induced leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Jia, Huili; Feng, Guangyan; Wang, Zan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-08-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume for livestock and a target for improving their dietary quality. Vitamin E is an essential vitamin that animals must obtain from their diet for proper growth and development. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), which catalyzes the conversion of δ- and γ-tocopherols (or tocotrienols) to β- and α-tocopherols (or tocotrienols), respectively, is the final enzyme involved in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway. The overexpression of M. sativa L.'s γ-TMT (MsTMT) increased the α-tocopherol content 10-15 fold above that of wild type Arabidopsis seeds without altering the total content of vitamin E. Additionally, in response to osmotic stress, the biomass and the expression levels of several osmotic marker genes were significantly higher in the transgenic lines compared with wild type. Overexpression of MsTMT in alfalfa led to a modest, albeit significant, increase in α-tocopherol in leaves and was also responsible for a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Additionally, the crude protein content was increased, while the acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were unchanged in these transgenic lines. Thus, increased α-tocopherol content occurred in transgenic alfalfa without compromising the nutritional qualities. The targeted metabolic engineering of vitamin E biosynthesis through MsTMT overexpression provides a promising approach to improve the α-tocopherol content of forage crops. PMID:27297993

  14. Decision making in patients with pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, David E; Gould, Michael K

    2012-02-15

    Integrating current evidence with fundamental concepts from decision analysis suggests that management of patients with pulmonary nodules should begin with estimating the pretest probability of cancer from the patient's clinical risk factors and computed tomography characteristics. Then, the consequences of treatment should be considered, by comparing the benefits of surgery if the patient has lung cancer with the potential harm if the patient does not have cancer. This analysis determines the "treatment threshold," which is the point around which the decision centers. This varies widely among patients depending on their cardiopulmonary reserve, comorbidities, and individual preferences. For patients with a very low probability of cancer, careful observation with serial computed tomography is warranted. For those with a high probability of cancer, surgical diagnosis is warranted. For patients in the intermediate range of probabilities, either computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy or positron emission tomography, possibly followed by computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, is best. Patient preferences should be considered because the absolute difference in outcome between strategies may be small. The optimal approach to the management of patients with pulmonary nodules is evolving as technologies develop. Areas of uncertainty include quantifying the hazard of delayed diagnosis; determining the optimal duration of follow-up for ground-glass and semisolid opacities; establishing the roles of volumetric imaging, advanced bronchoscopic technologies, and limited surgical resections; and calculating the cost-effectiveness of different strategies. PMID:21980032

  15. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  16. N2-Fixation in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seedlings and Rhizobium meliloti L. Grown in Vitro Under Salt and Drought Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Ramzi Muhiddin

    1987-01-01

    Alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., cultivars, breeding lines and germplasm releases (populations) and Rhizobium meliloti L. strains that exhibit nitrogen fixation efficiency and tolerance to salinity and drought stresses should enhance seedling establishment, increase yields, reduce nitrogen dependency on petroleum-based nitrogen fertilizers, and allow wider use of irrigated lands in semiarid and a rid regions. In vitro experiments were conducted to determine relative salt (sodium chloride -- NaCl)...

  17. Changes in growth and in uptake, distribution and translocation of phosphorus in susceptible and resistant alfalfa plants induced by Corynebacterium insidiosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weight of alfalfa plants, especially roots of susceptible strain decreased when inoculated with Corynebacterium insidiosum. At the 6th week after inoculation the 32P uptake per plant and its translocation into the above-ground organs considerably decreased in susceptible plants. On the other hand, the 32P uptake increased and radiophosphorus was accumulated in above-ground organs in resistant plants. (author)

  18. Characterization of the alfalfa mosaic virus as expression, presentation, delivery and screening system for potential epitopes derived from the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein

    OpenAIRE

    Munz, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Plant viruses have gained sustainable interest as presentation and production systems for immunogenic peptides within the last decade and consequently their use as vaccines has become an increasingly viable proposition. In this study it was investigated if Alfalfa mosaic virus could be used to present (i) an RSV-F-derived peptide library, (ii) phage-selected mimics and (iii) anti-viral peptide fusion inhibitors. The library was then used to screen for B- and T-cell epitopes. The data obtained...

  19. Galectin-3 and HBME-1 improve the accuracy of core biopsy in indeterminate thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Guidobaldi, Leo; Amendola, Stefano; Nasrollah, Naim; Romanelli, Francesco; Attanasio, Daniela; Ramacciato, Giovanni; Saggiorato, Enrico; Valabrega, Stefano; Crescenzi, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Core needle biopsy (CNB) has been recently described as an accurate second-line test in thyroid inconclusive cytology (FNA). Here we retrospectively investigated the potential improvement given by Galectin-3, Cytokeratin-19, and HBME-1 on the accuracy of CNB in thyroid nodules with prior indeterminate FNA report. The study included 74 nodules. At CNB diagnosis, 15 were cancers, 40 were benign, and 19 had uncertain/non-diagnostic CNB report. The above immunohistochemical (IHC) panel was analyzed in all cases. After surgery, 19 malignant and 55 benign lesions were found. All 15 cancers and all 40 benign nodules diagnosed at CNB were confirmed at final histology. Regarding the uncertain CNB group, 4 (21 %) were malignant and 15 (79 %) benign. When we considered all the series, the most accurate IHC combination was Galectin-3 plus HBME-1, while HBME-1 was the most sensitive marker in those nodules with uncertain CNB report. The combination of CNB plus IHC could indentify 19/19 cancers and 53/55 benign lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of CNB increased from 79 to 100 % and from 73 to 96 %, respectively, by adding IHC. CNB can diagnose the majority of thyroid nodules with previous indeterminate FNA cytology, while the accuracy of CNB is increased by adding Galectin-3, Cytokeratin-19, and HBME-1 panel. We suggest to adopt CNB as a second-line approach to indeterminate thyroid FNA, and apply IHC in those lesions with uncertain/non-diagnostic CNB report. This approach should improve the pre-surgical diagnosis of patients. These results should be confirmed in larger prospective series. PMID:26142180

  20. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas appearing as part-solid ground-glass nodules: Is measuring solid component size a better prognostic indicator?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Eui Jin; Ryu, Youngjin; Lee, Sang Min [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, 101, Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, 101, Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Tae [Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Whan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Lung Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-02

    To assess whether measuring the solid portion of adenocarcinomas appearing as part-solid ground-glass nodules (GGNs) can predict a patient's prognosis accurately and how the prognosis corresponds to that of solid nodules. 501 patients (solid nodule group, 304; part-solid GGN group, 197) underwent curative surgery for stage I adenocarcinomas. Maximal diameters of the whole lesion including ground-glass opacities (D{sub whole}) and solid components only (D{sub solid}) were measured on CT. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated from the date of surgery. D{sub solid} was a significant prognostic factor in the part-solid GGN group, while D{sub whole} was not. Part-solid GGNs with D{sub solid} ≤2 cm showed significantly better DFS (P = 0.016) and OS (P = 0.004) than solid nodules; however, those with D{sub solid} >2 cm did not show a significant difference. Hazard ratio (HR) for increase in D{sub solid} was significantly greater in part-solid GGNs than in solid nodules (P = 0.009). For OS, HR for increase in D{sub solid} was greater in part-solid GGNs than in solid nodule, which was marginally not significant (P = 0.060). D{sub solid} was better than D{sub whole} for prognosis prediction of adenocarcinomas appearing as part-solid GGNs. In addition, the influence of D{sub solid} on prognosis in the part-solid GGN group was greater than in the solid nodule group. (orig.)

  1. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of autonomous (toxic) thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe, 9-10% of hyperfunctioning thyroid glands have toxic, autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN). Since 1994, in the Municipal hospital of Marl, Germany, 186 patients have performed percutaneous ethanol ablation of toxic thyroid nodules with very good or at least sufficient results. In this article, the ablation technique is described in detail and the costs of therapy of ATN are given.(authors)

  2. Bilateral multiple pulmonary tuberculous nodules mimicking metastatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present CT findings of a young woman who has bilateral pulmonary nodules mimicking metastases. Clinical presentation with active multiple pulmonary macronodules without cavitation responsive to treatment is an atypical manifestation of pulmonary tuberculosis. We reviewed the causes of multiple pulmonary nodules, role of radiological findings in differential diagnosis and parenchymal manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis in this report

  3. Uranium in Pacific Deep-Sea Sediments and Manganese Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Pluger, W. L.; Friedrich, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1344 manganese nodules and 187 pelagic sediments from 9 areas in the North and the South Pacific were analyzed for U by the delayed-neutron counting technique. A strong positive correlation between U and Fe in nodules and sediments suggests a co-precipitative removal from sea water int...

  4. Solitary pulmonary nodule: radiologic features and diagnostic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review is conducted on the solitary pulmonary nodule, to determine the diagnostic methods and specific characteristics. The diagnostic methods used have been: chest radiography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The radiological features are defined: location, size, definition of contours or edges (margins), densitometric and attenuation characteristics, cavitation, air bronchogram, growth, doubling time, satellite nodules, nutrient vessels

  5. First Experimental Results in Electrochemical Lysis of Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Borsukov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical lysis is investigated to be used in miniinvasive treatment of thyroid nodules. Histological operative preparations of thyroid nodules (n = 20 helped to work out a model of electrochemical lysis optimal regimens. The results of this experiment were verified by usage of experimental animals.

  6. DEFINITION OF THE OPTIMAL PARAMETERS OF SUPERSONIC EXTRACTION AT STACHYS NODULES EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharova, L.; Dyatlov, A.

    2013-01-01

    The researches allowed determination of the extractives amount in stachys nodules and motivation of optimal parameters of supersonic extraction at obtaining extracts on water basis from stachys nodules.

  7. Analysis of morphology of pulmonary nodules using a fourier descriptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules detected by lung cancer screening CT has been widely acknowledged. In this study, we quantified the morphological features of such nodules and assessed whether they could be used for objective evaluation to improve diagnostic accuracy, based on hypotheses regarding differences in growth appearance between benign and malignant nodules. Quantification was achieved for both high-resolution CT images and simulation images using Fourier description. Benign pulmonary nodules (inflammatory scars) showed high amplitude in the lower harmonics, while malignant nodules (lung cancers) showed high amplitude in the higher harmonics. These values were compared by Mahalanobis generalized distance multivariate analysis. The mean predictive values of this analysis for the inflammatory scar and lung cancer groups were 85% and 90%, respectively. The mean predictive value for the two groups was 87.5%. (author)

  8. Lung Nodule Detection Using Fuzzy Clustering and Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.C.Chandrasekar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the primary cause of tumor deaths for both sexes in most countries. Lung nodule, an abnormality which leads to lung cancer is detected by various medical imaging techniques like X-ray, Computerized Tomography (CT, etc. Detection of lung nodules is a challenging task since the nodules are commonly attached to the blood vessels. Many studies have shown that early diagnosis is the most efficient way to cure this disease. This paper aims to develop an efficient lung nodule detection scheme by performing nodule segmentation through fuzzy based clustering models; classification byusing a machine learning technique called Support Vector Machine (SVM. This methodology uses three different types of kernels among these RBF kernel gives better class performance.

  9. Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules: variability in automated analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juluru, Krishna; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William; King, Tara; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2007-03-01

    Over the past decade, several computerized tools have been developed for detection of lung nodules and for providing volumetric analysis. Incidentally detected lung nodules have traditionally been followed over time by measurements of their axial dimensions on CT scans to ensure stability or document progression. A recently published article by the Fleischner Society offers guidelines on the management of incidentally detected nodules based on size criteria. For this reason, differences in measurements obtained by automated tools from various vendors may have significant implications on management, yet the degree of variability in these measurements is not well understood. The goal of this study is to quantify the differences in nodule maximum diameter and volume among different automated analysis software. Using a dataset of lung scans obtained with both "ultra-low" and conventional doses, we identified a subset of nodules in each of five size-based categories. Using automated analysis tools provided by three different vendors, we obtained size and volumetric measurements on these nodules, and compared these data using descriptive as well as ANOVA and t-test analysis. Results showed significant differences in nodule maximum diameter measurements among the various automated lung nodule analysis tools but no significant differences in nodule volume measurements. These data suggest that when using automated commercial software, volume measurements may be a more reliable marker of tumor progression than maximum diameter. The data also suggest that volumetric nodule measurements may be relatively reproducible among various commercial workstations, in contrast to the variability documented when performing human mark-ups, as is seen in the LIDC (lung imaging database consortium) study.

  10. Diagnostic utility of radionuclide perfusion scan and immunocytology in evaluation of solitary thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -67 and P-53 scores. No correlation could be established between these, suggesting that increased cellular proliferation and P-53 mutation have no effect on vascular pattern of STN. We conclude that there is greater decline in radionuclide perfusion after achieving maximum level in malignant cases as compared to benign vascular cold STN. Also, no correlation exists between flow pattern and antigenic characterization in cases of malignant nodules indicating that these are two complimentary entities for the diagnosis of equivocal cases of FNAC

  11. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN-XANTHOPHYLL (PX CONCENTRATE OF ALFALFA ADDITIVE TO CRUDE PROTEIN-REDUCED DIETS ON NITROGEN EXCRETION, GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz GRELA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  12. 地下滴灌条件下紫花苜蓿耗水规律试验研究%Experimental Study of the Water Consumption of Alfalfa Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿依江·哈比; 马英杰; 洪明; 赵经华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析不同水分处理对紫花苜蓿植株高度与生长速度、产量、耗水量及耗水规律的影响关系.[方法]通过地下滴灌紫花苜蓿在4种不同水分处理(W1:22.5 mm,W2:30 mm,W3:37.5 mm,W4:45 mm)下产量与土壤含水量的观测试验,得到不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿水分利用效率、耗水量及耗水规律.[结果]不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿植株高度与灌水量呈现线性关系,在生育期内不同水分处理对苜蓿植株高度的影响为W4 >W3 >W2 >W1;随着灌水量的增加紫花苜蓿干物质产量呈先升后降的趋势,苜蓿干物质产量与灌水量 存在二维抛物线关系;不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿水分利用效率为W1>W2>W3>W4,从实现紫花苜蓿高产、优质及节水增效的目标出发,紫花苜蓿在地下滴灌条件下,适宜的灌水处理为W3.[结论]不同水分处理下紫花苜蓿耗水量随灌水量的增加而增大,在全生育期的耗水量变化规律是由小到大,再由大到小.%[Objective ] The purpose of this project was to research and analyze the effects of different soil water treatments on alfalfa plant height and growth rate, yield, water consumption and water consumption regularity. [Method] Through the underground drip irrigation alfalfa in 4 different water treatments, ( W: 22. 5 mm, W2:30 mm, W3:37.5 mm, W4:45 mm ) and the yield and soil moisture observation experiment, the alfalfa water use efficiency and water consumption rule were obtained. [ Result] Under different water treatments in alfalfa plant, height and irrigation quantity showed a linear relationship. In the growth period of different water disposal on alfalfa plant height the influence order was; W4 > W3 > W2 > W,; with the increase in irrigation alfalfa dry matter yield increased at first and then decreased, and alfalfas dry matter yield and irrigation displayed two parabola relationship; under different water treatments, the sequence of alfalfa water use

  13. FDG uptake heterogeneity evaluated by fractal analysis improves the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Kenta, E-mail: kenta5710@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Division of Medical Quantum Science, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Inubushi, Masayuki, E-mail: inubushi@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima Kurashiki, Okayama 701-0192 (Japan); Wagatsuma, Kei, E-mail: kei1192@hotmail.co.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu, E-mail: minagao@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Murata, Taisuke, E-mail: taisuke113@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Koyama, Masamichi, E-mail: masamichi.koyama@jfcr.or.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru@jfcr.or.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Sasaki, Masayuki, E-mail: msasaki@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Division of Medical Quantum Science, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The present study aimed to determine whether fractal analysis of morphological complexity and intratumoral heterogeneity of FDG uptake can help to differentiate malignant from benign pulmonary nodules. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 54 patients with suspected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were examined by FDG PET/CT. Pathological assessments of biopsy specimens confirmed 35 and 19 nodules as NSCLC and inflammatory lesions, respectively. The morphological fractal dimension (m-FD), maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and density fractal dimension (d-FD) of target nodules were calculated from CT and PET images. Fractal dimension is a quantitative index of morphological complexity and tracer uptake heterogeneity; higher values indicate increased complexity and heterogeneity. Results: The m-FD, SUV{sub max} and d-FD significantly differed between malignant and benign pulmonary nodules (p < 0.05). Although the diagnostic ability was better for d-FD than m-FD and SUV{sub max}, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Tumor size correlated significantly with SUV{sub max} (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), but not with either m-FD or d-FD. Furthermore, m-FD combined with either SUV{sub max} or d-FD improved diagnostic accuracy to 92.6% and 94.4%, respectively. Conclusion: The d-FD of intratumoral heterogeneity of FDG uptake can help to differentially diagnose malignant and benign pulmonary nodules. The SUV{sub max} and d-FD obtained from FDG-PET images provide different types of information that are equally useful for differential diagnoses. Furthermore, the morphological complexity determined by CT combined with heterogeneous FDG uptake determined by PET improved diagnostic accuracy.

  14. Computer-assisted diagnosis for lung nodule detection using a neural network technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lin, Jyh-Shyan; Krasner, Brian; Mun, Seong K.

    1992-06-01

    The potential advantages of using digital techniques instead of film-based radiology have been discussed very extensively for the past ten years. These advantages are found mainly in the computer management of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). On the other hand, the computer-assisted diagnosis (CADx) could potentially enhance radiological services in the future. Lung nodule detection has been a clinically difficult subject for many years. Most of the literature has indicated that the finding rate for lung nodules (size range from 3 mm to 15 mm) is only about 65%, and 30% of the missing nodule can be found retrospectively. In the recent research, imaging processing techniques, such as thresholding and morphological analysis, have been employed to enhance the true-positive detection. However, these methods still produce many false-positive detections. We have used neural networks to distinguish true-positives from the suspected areas-of-interest which are generated from signal enhanced image. The initial results show that the trained neural networks program can increase true-positive detections and drastically reduce the number of false-positive detections. This program can perform three modes of lung nodule detection: (1) thresholding, (2) profile matching analysis, and (3) neural network. This program is fully automatic and has been implemented in a DEC 5000/200 workstation. The total processing time for all three methods is less than 35 seconds. We are planning to link this workstation to our PACS for further clinical evaluation. In this paper, we report our neural network and fast algorithms for various image processing techniques for the lung nodule detection and show the results of the initial studies.

  15. FDG uptake heterogeneity evaluated by fractal analysis improves the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The present study aimed to determine whether fractal analysis of morphological complexity and intratumoral heterogeneity of FDG uptake can help to differentiate malignant from benign pulmonary nodules. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 54 patients with suspected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were examined by FDG PET/CT. Pathological assessments of biopsy specimens confirmed 35 and 19 nodules as NSCLC and inflammatory lesions, respectively. The morphological fractal dimension (m-FD), maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and density fractal dimension (d-FD) of target nodules were calculated from CT and PET images. Fractal dimension is a quantitative index of morphological complexity and tracer uptake heterogeneity; higher values indicate increased complexity and heterogeneity. Results: The m-FD, SUVmax and d-FD significantly differed between malignant and benign pulmonary nodules (p < 0.05). Although the diagnostic ability was better for d-FD than m-FD and SUVmax, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Tumor size correlated significantly with SUVmax (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), but not with either m-FD or d-FD. Furthermore, m-FD combined with either SUVmax or d-FD improved diagnostic accuracy to 92.6% and 94.4%, respectively. Conclusion: The d-FD of intratumoral heterogeneity of FDG uptake can help to differentially diagnose malignant and benign pulmonary nodules. The SUVmax and d-FD obtained from FDG-PET images provide different types of information that are equally useful for differential diagnoses. Furthermore, the morphological complexity determined by CT combined with heterogeneous FDG uptake determined by PET improved diagnostic accuracy

  16. Effect of Soil Pollution on the Nodulation Competence of Some Cowpea Cultivars in the Tropical Rainforest Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Awosanya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soil pollution on the nodulation competence of some selected cowpea cultivars. Three cowpea varieties (Tvu1647, IT84552-249 and IT95K-1491 were selected for this study. The polluted soil types were soil samples taken from a factory effluent site, piggery waste soil, gasoline polluted soil while normal unpolluted sandy loam served as the control. The plant height, terminal leaf length, sterm girth, nodule number and plant shoot dry mass were determined. Nodulation in the polluted soils reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control while the stem girth, terminal leaf length and shoot dry mass increased significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control. The plant height of each variety significantly differed (p<0.005 from one another. This study has shown that soil pollution causes significant reduction in nodule numbers hence having immense negative impact on nodulation in cowpea varieties used in this study. Meanwhile soil pollution is shown in this study to increase the stem girth, plant height, leaf length and shoot dry mass of the cowpea plants compared to the control.

  17. Effcet of Rhizobium Inoculation on Growth and Nodulation of Albizzia procera,Albizzia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.K.ARYAL; M.A.U.MRIDHA; 等

    1999-01-01

    Effects of inoculation of Rhizobium suspension on nodulation and plant growth were examined with Albizzia procera,Albizzia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala seedlings grown on sterilized and non-sterilized soil media.Inoculation resulted in nodule number increases of 28.6,29.02and 23.9 times in sterilized soil and 3.4,3.6and 3.27 times in non-sterilized soil for A.procera,A.lebbeck and L.leucocephala seedlings respectively.Total dry mass increased by 127.6%,66.7%and 60.7% in sterilized soil and 100%,95.5%and 52.65% in non-sterilized soil for these three legume trees,respectively,after a period of two months.Significantly high inoculation responses of oot length,root diameter,collar diameter,shoot length,and dry mass of root,shoot,leaves and nodules were also observed in both steilized and non-sterilized soil media as compared to respective control treatments,The response to inoculation was strong in sterilized and modest in non-sterilized soils.The significantly higher response to Rhizobium inoculation over control in all the species tested suggested that application of Rhizobium greatly enhanced plant growth ,nodulation,biomass production and nitrogen-fixing activity of the nodules.

  18. Short Communication Synergistic effect of rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the growth and nodulation of lentil seedlings under axenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing ACC-deaminase in combination with rhizobia can improve the growth and nodulation in plants by suppressing the endogenous level of ethylene. In the present study, ten strains, each of PGPR and rhizobia from the previously screened cultures were tested for their effect as co-inoculants on growth and nodulation of lentil in growth pouches under axenic conditions. Results showed that most of the combinations improved the lentil growth as compared to the un-inoculated control. Maximum increase in shoot length (1.87 fold, root length (1.97 fold and total biomass (1.98 fold over the un-inoculated control was observed in the treatment where the lentil seedlings were inoculated with the combination Z24P10. Co-inoculation also improved the nodulation in lentil and the maximum number of nodules plant-1 (24 nodules were observed in the combination Z22P10. However, there was no nodulation in few combinations. It is concluded that the co-inoculation with rhizobia and PGPR containing ACC-deaminase has improved the growth and nodulation in lentil under axenic conditions and the selected combinations may be evaluated in pot and field trials

  19. DDT uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal alfalfa and depletion in soil as influenced by soil application of a non-ionic surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the colonization of alfalfa roots by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus etunicatum and application of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 on DDT uptake by alfalfa and depletion in soil. Mycorrhizal colonization led to an increase in the accumulation of DDT in roots but a decrease in shoots. The combination of AM inoculation and Triton X-100 application enhanced DDT uptake by both the roots and shoots. Application of Triton X-100 gave much lower residual concentrations of DDT in the bulk soil than in the rhizosphere soil or in the bulk soil without Triton X-100. AM colonization significantly increased bacterial and fungal counts and dehydrogenase activity in the rhizosphere soil. The combined AM inoculation of plants and soil application of surfactant may have potential as a biotechnological approach for the decontamination of soil polluted with DDT. - Combined colonization of alfalfa roots by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and addition of non-ionic surfactant to the soil promoted root and shoot uptake and soil dissipation of DDT

  20. DDT uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal alfalfa and depletion in soil as influenced by soil application of a non-ionic surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Naiying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.cn; Huang Honglin; Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Wang Youshan [Municipal Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing 100097 (China)

    2008-02-15

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the colonization of alfalfa roots by the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus etunicatum and application of the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 on DDT uptake by alfalfa and depletion in soil. Mycorrhizal colonization led to an increase in the accumulation of DDT in roots but a decrease in shoots. The combination of AM inoculation and Triton X-100 application enhanced DDT uptake by both the roots and shoots. Application of Triton X-100 gave much lower residual concentrations of DDT in the bulk soil than in the rhizosphere soil or in the bulk soil without Triton X-100. AM colonization significantly increased bacterial and fungal counts and dehydrogenase activity in the rhizosphere soil. The combined AM inoculation of plants and soil application of surfactant may have potential as a biotechnological approach for the decontamination of soil polluted with DDT. - Combined colonization of alfalfa roots by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and addition of non-ionic surfactant to the soil promoted root and shoot uptake and soil dissipation of DDT.

  1. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    minimal. Furthermore, the current staging practice is complicated by a high number of incidental findings on the thoracic CT, so-called indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN). IPN can potentially represent SPCM. The purpose of this thesis was to estimate the prevalence, characteristics and clinical...... significance of IPN and SPCM detected at the primary staging in CRC. Study I was a systematic review of published studies on IPN in CRC focusing on the prevalence and radiological characteristics of IPN proving to be malignant. This knowledge would be of value in management strategies for IPN. On average 9% of...... all patients staged with a thoracic CT had IPN, however, the prevalence varied significantly between patients series. This was mainly attributed to varying/lacking definitions on IPN and variable radiological expertise in the assessment of the scans. Data were too inconsistently reported in the case...

  2. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules in Colorectal-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) at staging computed tomography (CT) for colorectal cancer (CRC), and the optimal diagnostic approach, are debated. This study aimed to analyse variability in radiologists' detection of IPN at staging CT for CRC. METHODS......: All patients with CRC referred to our center between 2006 and 2011 were included. Primary staging CT scans were re-evaluated by an experienced thoracic radiologist whose findings were entered into a dedicated database and merged with data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database, the National...... radiologist. Kappa for agreement between the primary assessor and the thoracic radiologist on IPN was 0.31 and 0.65 for pulmonary metastases. Synchronous liver metastases were predictive of malignancy of IPN (adjusted odds ratio 20.1; 95 % confidence interval 2.64-437.66; p = 0.012), whereas no other...

  3. Fusobacterium necrophorum presenting as isolated lung nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sonti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium necrophorum causes Lemierre's syndrome - a dramatic and distinct condition beginning with pharyngitis before proceeding to internal jugular vein septic thrombophlebitis and respiratory tract infection in otherwise healthy individuals. It is rare, but by far the most common pathway to parenchymal lung disease with this organism. Here we describe we a 34 year old healthy lady who was nontoxic without any antecedent illness who presented with lung nodules due to fusobacterium necrophorum as the sole manifestation of disease. Leading diagnostic consideration prior to culture data was pulmonary vasculitis. Identifying her disease process was a somewhat chance occurrence, and it began to resolve prior to antibiotic therapy. Though it would be difficult to recommend keen awareness of this organism given its rarity, it is important to consider that its scope may be broader than traditionally considered.

  4. Fusobacterium necrophorum presenting as isolated lung nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonti, Rajiv; Fleury, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum causes Lemierre's syndrome - a dramatic and distinct condition beginning with pharyngitis before proceeding to internal jugular vein septic thrombophlebitis and respiratory tract infection in otherwise healthy individuals. It is rare, but by far the most common pathway to parenchymal lung disease with this organism. Here we describe we a 34 year old healthy lady who was nontoxic without any antecedent illness who presented with lung nodules due to fusobacterium necrophorum as the sole manifestation of disease. Leading diagnostic consideration prior to culture data was pulmonary vasculitis. Identifying her disease process was a somewhat chance occurrence, and it began to resolve prior to antibiotic therapy. Though it would be difficult to recommend keen awareness of this organism given its rarity, it is important to consider that its scope may be broader than traditionally considered. PMID:26236610

  5. 半干旱黄土丘陵区施肥对退耕地紫花苜蓿生物量的影响%Effect of fertilization on biomass of alfalfa in returned farmland in semiarid loess hilly area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡国军; 张仁陟; 柴春山

    2012-01-01

    For increasing the aboveground biomass of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in returned farmland and pro-longing its degradation time, the mixed fertilization experiment of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer was conducted two times in 2007-2008, on alfalfa grassland that has been planted for five years in Longtan catchment, Anding district, Dingxi city. The result .showed that nitrogen fertilizer has no obvious effect on increasing the growth conditions and biomass of alfalfa. However, phosphate fertilizer has significant influence on promoting the alfalfa's growth and increasing biomass. And the mean biomass of fertilized alfalfa in 2007 and 2008 was 1. 62 and 1. 15 times the biomass of control alfalfa respectively. The highest biomass of alfalfa was appeared when phosphate fertilizer rate was highest of 12 kg/667 m2. The mean fresh biomass of alfalfa can a-chieve 18 240 kg/ha on seventh year. The growth conditions and biomass of alfalfa on sunny-slopes was better than that on shady-slopes,and its mean fresh and dry biomass were 1. 49 and 1. 43 times the biomass of shady-slopes respectively. In the semiarid loess area with 400 mm annual precipitation, the biomass of alfalfa harvest was mainly produced by the 1st harvest and it accounted for about 75% of annual biomass, whereas the biomass of 2nd harvest was small and accounted for about 25%. So twice per year for alfalfa harvest is optimized in this area.%为了提高退耕地紫花苜蓿的地上生物量并延缓其衰败期,对定西安定区龙滩流域退耕地播种5年后的紫花苜蓿,于2007- 2008年连续2年开展氮肥和磷肥混合撒施施肥试验.结果表明,施N肥对促进苜蓿生长并提高生物量没有明显的效果,施P肥效果明显,2年的施肥苜蓿平均生物量分别是对照的1.62和1.15倍,可显著促进苜蓿生长并提高其生物量,其中P肥最大用量为12 kg/667 m2时的生物量最高.栽培第7年的苜蓿鲜草产量平均可达18 240 kg/hm2.研究区阳坡的苜蓿比

  6. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jiao, E-mail: qujiao@bhu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Luo, Chunqiu, E-mail: fplj_lcq@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Qian; Cong, Qiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Yuan, Xing [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production.

  7. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production

  8. Monitoring Cu nodule formation using Ni marker layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Ni marker layers to monitor electrodeposited Cu nodule morphological evolution. → The edges of the nodules trace out a straight line. → Difference in growth between spheres and hemispheres. → Nodule on nodule growth at high overpotential. → No dramatic effect of the diffusion layer thickness on the film morphology. - Abstract: We have used Ni marker layers to study the evolution of the characteristic spheroidal nodule morphology in electrodeposited Cu films. Ultrathin Ni layers were electrodeposited in-between Cu layers, and cross sections prepared by electrochemical polishing. During growth of a typical spheroidal feature, the edge (i.e. where there is a discontinuity in the surface slope) traces out a straight line in the cross-sectional image. At high overpotential, the cross-sections show nodule-on-nodule growth, giving rise to the well known cauliflower morphology. Rotating disk electrode studies reveal that, surprisingly, the absolute diffusion layer thickness does not appear to play a major role in the development of spheres.

  9. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea. PMID:27348121

  10. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea. PMID:27348121

  11. HI Gas in Early Type Galaxies as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Wendy; Morrison, Ryan; Green, Jarred; Raskin, Mark; Crawford, Connor; Bomer-Lawson, August; Hannan, Joshua; Crone-Odekon, Mary; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of 1580 early type galaxies (ETGs) in a total sample of 7747 galaxies that have HI measurements or upper limits from the ALFALFA survey. We find a significant correlation between HI content and local density, with HI detections almost exclusively in low-density environments. Using optical line ratios, we split the population into galaxies with spectral lines dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and dominated by star forming regions. Compared with HI-rich star forming ETGs, HI-rich ETGs with AGN tend to be brighter and redder and to exhibit a stronger correlation between stellar mass and HI mass. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  12. Phosphorylation of alfalfa mosaic virus movement protein in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Suk; Halk, Edward L; Merlo, Donald J; Nelson, Steven E; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2014-07-01

    The 32-kDa movement protein, P3, of alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is essential for cell-to-cell spread of the virus in plants. P3 shares many properties with other virus movement proteins (MPs); however, it is not known if P3 is posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation, which is important for the function of other MPs. When expressed in Nicotiana tabacum, P3 accumulated primarily in the cell walls of older leaves or in the cytosol of younger leaves. When expressed in Pischia pastoris, P3 accumulated primarily in a soluble form. Metabolic labeling indicated that a portion of P3 was phosphorylated in both tobacco and yeast, suggesting that phosphorylation regulates the function of this protein as it does for other virus MPs. PMID:24435161

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana is an asymptomatic host of Alfalfa mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Ibrahim, Amr; Kim, Bong-Suk; Loesch-Fries, L Sue

    2006-11-01

    The susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to infection by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) was evaluated. Thirty-nine ecotypes supported both local and systemic infection, 26 ecotypes supported only local infection, and three ecotypes could not be infected. No obvious symptoms characteristic of virus infection developed on the susceptible ecotypes under standard conditions of culture. Parameters of AMV infection were characterized in ecotype Col-0, which supported systemic infection and accumulated higher levels of AMV than the symptomatic host Nicotiana tabacum. The formation of infectious AMV particles in infected Col-0 was confirmed by infectivity assays on a hypersensitive host and by electron microscopy of purified virions. Replication and transcription of AMV was confirmed by de novo synthesis of AMV subgenomic RNA in Col-0 protoplasts transfected with AMV RNA or plasmids harboring AMV cDNAs. PMID:16875753

  14. Radiation balance of an alfalfa crop in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-wave reflectivity or albedo is an important component of net radiation which represents the major determinant of radiation balance of crop surface. This study was conducted on an irrigated alfalfa crop field at Al-Kharj agricultural area in Saudi Arabia, grown according to normal agricultural practices. Data on radiation balance and crop cover were collected over a number of days from March to October 1986, crop albedo varying from 0–4 in early morning to 0–20 at noon, the overall mean value of the crop albedo being estimated at 0–26. The relation between the individual components of radiation balance was studied, and a significant correlation between incident radiation and net radiation was found. Possible causes responsible for changes in crop albedo were discussed. (author)

  15. Nutritive Value of Sunflower Silages Ensiled with Corn or Alfalfa at Different Rate

    OpenAIRE

    TAN, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) having shorter growing season, better cold tolerant and more drought resistant is important alternative silage plant in highlands. But it has poor silage quality. To improve the quality of sunflower silage can be mixed an appropriate amount of corn (Zea mays L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). This research was carried out to evaluate quality characteristics of nine silage types: Sunflower, corn and alfalfa silages; plus their some mixtures silages (75% sunf...

  16. Comparative physiological and transcriptional analyses of two contrasting drought tolerant alfalfa varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli eQuan; Xun eLiu; Haiqing eWang; Zhulong eChan

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological and transcriptional levels. Under ...

  17. Comparative Physiological and Transcriptional Analyses of Two Contrasting Drought Tolerant Alfalfa Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Wenli; Liu, Xun; Wang, Haiqing; Chan, Zhulong

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological, and transcriptional levels. Under...

  18. Effects of the Insect Growth Regulator, Novaluron on Immature Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees, Megachile rotundata

    OpenAIRE

    Erin W Hodgson; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L.; James D. Barbour

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata F. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are the most common pollinators of alfalfa in the Pacific Northwest. Reports from users of M. rotundata in Idaho, Utah and Colorado have indicated exceptionally poor bee return from fields treated with novaluron to control Lygus spp. Our goal was to evaluate novaluron toxicity to immature M. rotundata using two different possible mechanisms of exposure. One goal was to assess immature mortality via treating nectar-p...

  19. HI Gas in Large-Scale Filaments as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Skye; Phi, An; Shah, Ebrahim; Livecchi, Jack; Yu, Yang; Gengras, Graeme; Wolfe, Pierre-Francois; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Hyman, Mario; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We assess the relationship between galaxy environment and HI content as measured by ALFALFA. In particular, we consider membership in large-scale filaments in order to provide clues to how star formation in galaxies is quenched in different environments. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to define galaxy environments in terms of clusters, filaments, and voids for a sample of galaxies with z ALFALFA. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  20. Alfalfa water use pinpointed in saline, shallow water tables of Imperial Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, Khaled M.; Grismer, Mark E.; Snyder, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Although alfalfa is the dominant water user in the Imperial Valley and is planted on 40% of its irrigated acreage, data is incomplete regarding its water use under the most common growing conditions: moderately saline, clay soils with a relatively shallow, moderately saline water table. In a study from 1996 through 1998, we determined the seasonal variation in the alfalfa crop coefficient (Kc), based on measurements of applied water and soil-moisture depletion, and the contribution from the w...

  1. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or perennial ryegrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K; Casler, M D

    1998-01-01

    The nutrient contents of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are reasonably similar. Despite similarities, the lactation performance of dairy cows fed perennial ryegrass has not been compared with the lactation performance of dairy cows fed alfalfa. The present study was implemented to compare the performance of lactating cows fed alfalfa or perennial ryegrass silage. Alfalfa and perennial ryegrass were harvested at late bud and boot stages of maturity, respectively, and ensiled in separate 4.9- x 18.3-m concrete silos. The experimental silages were supplemented with a concentrate mix at 31.1% of dietary dry matter and fed to 18 multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation in a crossover experimental design with 28-d periods. Digestibility and rate of passage of experimental diets were also measured using rare earth markers. The perennial ryegrass contained 3.0 percentage units more neutral detergent fiber than did alfalfa, but in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was 8.8 percentage units higher for perennial ryegrass. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was also higher for perennial ryegrass. Cows fed alfalfa silage produced more milk (31.8 kg/d) than did cows fed perennial ryegrass silage (30.2 kg/d). Cows fed perennial ryegrass silage ate less feed (2.2 kg/d) than did cows fed alfalfa. Because dry matter intake was lower, diet digestibilities were higher, and rate of passage was slower, for cows consuming perennial ryegrass. Based on laboratory evaluations, perennial ryegrass silage has high nutritional quality, but performance of lactating cows indicated that the forage was suboptimal for supporting high milk production when compared with alfalfa. The perennial ryegrass silage was suboptimal because it did not stimulate high amounts of dry matter intake in lactating cows. PMID:9493091

  2. The HI Content of Groups as Measured by ALFALFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; Haynes, Martha P.; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    We present the HI content of galaxies in nearby groups and clusters as measured by the 70% complete Arecibo Legacy Fast-ALFA (ALFALFA) survey, including constraints from ALFALFA detection limits. Our sample includes 22 groups at distances between 70-160 Mpc over the mass range 12.5 < log M/M⊙ < 15.0, for a total of 1986 late-type galaxies out to a projected group-centric distance of 4.0 Mpc. We find that late-type galaxies in the centers of groups lack HI at fixed stellar mass relative to the regions surrounding them. Larger groups show evidence of a stronger gradient in HI properties, despite a similar gradient in stellar mass, and in color at fixed stellar mass, over the same range in r/R200. We compare several environment variables to determine which is the best predictor of galaxy properties; group-centric distance r and r/R200 are similarly effective predictors, while local density is slightly more effective and group size and halo mass are slightly less effective. Finally, we see evidence that HI is deficient for blue cloud galaxies in denser environments even when both stellar mass and color are fixed. This is consistent with a picture where HI is removed or destroyed, followed by reddening within the blue cloud. Overall, our results support the existence of pre-processing in isolated groups, along with an additional rapid mechanism for gas removal within larger groups and clusters, perhaps by ram-pressure stripping. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  3. ALFALFA Hα Reveals How Galaxies Use their HI Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskot, Anne; Oey, Sally; Salzer, John; Van Sistine, Angela; Bell, Eric; Haynes, Martha

    2015-08-01

    Atomic hydrogen traces the raw material from which molecular clouds and stars form. With the ALFALFA Hα survey, a statistically complete subset of the ALFALFA survey, we examine the processes that affect galaxies’ abilities to access and consume their HI gas. On galaxy-wide scales, HI gas fractions correlate only weakly with instantaneous specific star formation rates (sSFRs) but tightly with galaxy color. We show that a connection between dust and HI content, arising from the fundamental mass-metallicity-HI relation, leads to this tight color correlation. We find that disk galaxies follow a relation between stellar surface density and HI depletion time, consistent with a scenario in which higher mid-plane pressure leads to more efficient molecular cloud formation from HI. In contrast, spheroids show no such trend. Starbursts, identified by Hα equivalent width, do not show enhanced HI gas fractions relative to similar mass non-starburst galaxies. The starbursts’ shorter HI depletion times indicate more efficient consumption of HI, and galaxy interactions drive this enhanced star formation efficiency in several starbursts. Interestingly, the most disturbed starbursts show greater enhancements in HI gas fraction, which may indicate an excess of HI at early merger stages. At low galaxy stellar masses, the triggering mechanism for starbursts is less clear; the high scatter in efficiency and sSFR among low-mass galaxies may result from periodic bursts. We find no evidence for depleted HI reservoirs in starbursts, which suggests that galaxies may maintain sufficient HI to fuel multiple starburst episodes.

  4. Learning aspects and potential pitfalls regarding detection of pulmonary nodules in chest tomosynthesis and proposed related quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background In chest tomosynthesis, low-dose projections collected over a limited angular range are used for reconstruction of an arbitrary number of section images of the chest, resulting in a moderately increased radiation dose compared to chest radiography. Purpose To investigate the effects of learning with feedback on the detection of pulmonary nodules for observers with varying experience of chest tomosynthesis, to identify pitfalls regarding detection of pulmonary nodules, and present suggestions for how to avoid them, and to adapt the European quality criteria for chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) to chest tomosynthesis. Material and Methods Six observers analyzed tomosynthesis cases for presence of nodules in a jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristics (JAFROC) study. CT was used as reference. The same tomosynthesis cases were analyzed before and after learning with feedback, which included a collective learning session. The difference in performance between the two readings was calculated using the JAFROC figure of merit as principal measure of detectability. Results Significant improvement in performance after learning with feedback was found only for observers inexperienced in tomosynthesis. At the collective learning session, localization of pleural and sub pleural nodules or structures was identified as the main difficulty in analyzing tomosynthesis images. Conclusion The results indicate that inexperienced observers can reach a high level of performance regarding nodule detection in tomosynthesis after learning with feedback and that the main problem with chest tomosynthesis is related to the limited depth resolution

  5. Effect of Bradyrhizobium sp.Inoculation on Biomass and Nodulation of Cowpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOYUHUA; C.F.FONJI; 等

    1997-01-01

    Vigna unguiculata(L.)Walp (cowpea)is a tropical legume of very high nutrive and economic values.A laboratory experiment.was conducted to evaluate the BNF (biological nitrogen fixation) effciency of 4 strains of Bradyrhizobium sp.(VUXYI,VUIE1,VUMDS1 and VUID1).From the results obtained these strains were classified into efficiency groups,with VUID1 being the most efficient and VUXY1 the least efficient.the effect of inoculation was tested on 2 cowpea varieties in a field experiment.Remarkable increases in nodulation biomass and crop yield were observed.An increase from 58% ti 81% in dry seed was obtained for the two varieties.A significance test revealed a signifecantly positive correlation between nodulation and biomass.

  6. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N; Jensen, E O; van Kammen, A; Bisseling, T

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...... expression pattern of VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Although the expression of these genes is largely similar to that of the pea counterparts, differences where found for the expression of VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 in Vicia. VsENOD12 is expressed in the whole...... prefixation zone II, whereas in pea ENOD12 is only expressed in the distal part of this zone. VsENOD40 is expressed in the uninfected cells of interzone II-III, while in pea ENOD40 is expressed in both the uninfected and infected cells of this zone. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Sep...

  7. Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules: Basic Principles and Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hoon Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency (RF ablation has been gaining popularity as a minimally invasive treatment for benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. RF ablation of benign nodules demonstrated volume reductions of 33–58% after one month and 51–85% after six months, while solving nodule-related clinical problems. RF ablation has recently shown positive short-term results for locoregional control as well as symptom improvement in patients with recurrent thyroid cancers. This paper reviews the basic physics, indications, patient preparation, devices, procedures, clinical results, and complications of RF ablation.

  8. Fijian penis marbles: an example of artificial penile nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S A

    1993-04-01

    Artificial penile nodules are inert objects inserted beneath the skin of the penis to enhance the pleasure of female sexual partners during intercourse. The practice is most common among men from southeast Asia. This report describes a Fijian man who had an artificial penile nodule made from a whittled-down plastic toothbrush handle. Although some authors believe that the use of artificial penile nodules arose after World War II, the practice was discussed in the Kama Sutra, the classic Indian treatise on love. PMID:8477613

  9. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa. PMID:27400509

  10. Alfalfa varieties for biomass production. Task IId. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Lamb, J. [USDA-ARS, St. Paul, MN (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-30

    The use of alfalfa for biomass production may require harvest schedules and alfalfa varieties with different traits than currently marketed varieties. A late flower (2-cut) system may have several advantages compared to more frequent cutting systems because it can result in high stem yield, result in less trips over the field, allow more schedule flexibility, provide greater wildlife habitat, and allow greater alfalfa persistence. However, modem alfalfa varieties have been developed for a frequent harvest system with 3-4 cuttings per season. The objectives of this study were to determine the total biomass yield; leaf and stem biomass yield; and leaf and stem composition of alfalfa varieties subject to diverse harvest regimes. Alfalfa varieties included those currently marketed in the biomass region as well as experimental entries developed for lodging resistance and leaf retention. Harvest regimes included conventional strategies based on harvests at bud or first flower and a non-conventional strategy with harvests at late flower. Harvest regime had the most consistent and greatest effect on the variables studied. Forage yields were greater for the early flower regime. Harvests at earlier maturity frequently result in leafier, higher quality forage than harvest at late flower. 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Danish Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating ‘Afghanistan’ pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    A wild pea (Pisum sativum L.) native to Afghanistan normally known to be resisant to nodulation with European strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was nodulated early and effectively in field soil in Denmark. Isolates from nodules formed effective nodules abundantly on 'Afghanistan' on reinfection...

  12. Danish Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating ‘Afghanistan’ pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    A wild pea (Pisum sativum L.) native to Afghanistan normally known to be resisant to nodulation with European strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was nodulated early and effectively in field soil in Denmark. Isolates from nodules formed effective nodules abundantly on 'Afghanistan' on reinfection...... pattern with Rhizobium leguminosarum strains isolated from a modern pea variety cultivated in the same field....

  13. Modeling a cortical auxin maximum for nodulation: different signatures of potential strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinum, Eva Elisabeth; Geurts, René; Bisseling, Ton; Mulder, Bela M

    2012-01-01

    Lateral organ formation from plant roots typically requires the de novo creation of a meristem, initiated at the location of a localized auxin maximum. Legume roots can form both root nodules and lateral roots. From the basic principles of auxin transport and metabolism only a few mechanisms can be inferred for increasing the local auxin concentration: increased influx, decreased efflux, and (increased) local production. Using computer simulations we investigate the different spatio-temporal patterns resulting from each of these mechanisms in the context of a root model of a generalized legume. We apply all mechanisms to the same group of preselected cells, dubbed the controlled area. We find that each mechanism leaves its own characteristic signature. Local production by itself can not create a strong auxin maximum. An increase of influx, as is observed in lateral root formation, can result in an auxin maximum that is spatially more confined than the controlled area. A decrease of efflux on the other hand leads to a broad maximum, which is more similar to what is observed for nodule primordia. With our prime interest in nodulation, we further investigate the dynamics following a decrease of efflux. We find that with a homogeneous change in the whole cortex, the first auxin accumulation is observed in the inner cortex. The steady state lateral location of this efflux reduced auxin maximum can be shifted by slight changes in the ratio of central to peripheral efflux carriers. We discuss the implications of this finding in the context of determinate and indeterminate nodules, which originate from different cortical positions. The patterns we have found are robust under disruption of the (artificial) tissue layout. The same patterns are therefore likely to occur in many other contexts. PMID:22654886

  14. Thyroid nodule prevalence and radiation dose from fallout near the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodule prevalence was use as a biomarker for radiation-related thyroid cancer risk associated with dose from internal and external radiation sources in fallout from the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in Kazakhstan. Ultrasound scans were done on the thyroid glands of 1990 current residents of 7 villages near the STS, all members of a defined study cohort established in the 1960s, and all juveniles at some time during 1949-1962. Questionnaire-guided interviews focused on residential history and childhood consumption of milk and milk products. A refined dose reconstruction algorithm, developed jointly by experts from Russia and the US, was applied to the resulting data to calculate individual estimates of thyroid dose from external and internal sources of fallout-related radiation. Individual radiation dose estimates ranged from zero to 20 Gy for total dose (0-1.7 Gy and 0-20 Gy for dose from external and internal sources, respectively). The ratio of internal to external dose generally increased with increasing distance, reflecting a shift towards smaller particle sizes at greater distances and more effective transfer of small particles through the foodchain. Dose-response analysis was focused on variation of nodule prevalence by sex, age at screening, measured thyroid volume, and reconstructed thyroid dose from external (mainly gamma-ray) and internal (mainly 131I) radiation sources. Nodule prevalence was markedly higher among women and increased significantly with increasing age at screening and with thyroid volume. Highly significant dose responses were observed for nodule prevalence as a function of total thyroid dose and, in a separate analysis, of doses from internal and external sources as distinct independent variables; dose response was linear for total dose 131I cf. x ray with respect to thyroid cancer as an endpoint, based on theoretical, experimental, and epidemiological data

  15. The Role of Percutaneous Lung Biopsy in the Workup of a Solitary Pulmonary Nodule

    OpenAIRE

    Chaffey, Margaret H.

    1988-01-01

    As the technique of percutaneous lung biopsy continues to evolve, it offers an increasingly accurate method of establishing the malignancy or benignity of a solitary pulmonary nodule. There are relatively few contraindications to the procedure, and the complications—primarily pneumothorax and hemoptysis—generally resolve without therapy. Transthoracic needle aspiration has an important role in the workup for a “coin lesion.” Other elements of the diagnostic workup—particularly the history, a ...

  16. ANTI-THYROID PEROXIDASE ANTIBODY LEVEL IN THYROID NODULES: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THYROID NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bera Swati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-TPO antibody level was evaluated in 86 patients, along with 25 healthy controls to detect its change in various forms of thyroid nodules particularly in thyroid malignancy when compared with healthy controls. The study revealed that Anti-TPO antibody level was increased in Benign & toxic form of Multi nodular goiter and papillary carcinoma but there is no elevation of Anti- TPO antibody level in follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma.

  17. A study on quality of mixed silage of alfalfa and corn%苜蓿与玉米混贮质量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林; 孙启忠; 张慧杰

    2011-01-01

    以玉米与苜蓿为原料,按不同比例混贮;通过发酵品质和营养成分分析,找出二者混贮的适宜配比.结果表明:1)各混贮处理发酵品质较苜蓿单贮均得到改善,达到优质青贮的目的;2)玉米与苜蓿3:7混贮处理CP和Ash含量高于玉米单贮,低于苜蓿单贮,差异显著(P<0.05),而NDF和ADF含量低于玉米单贮,高于苜蓿单贮,差异显著(P<0.05);3)玉米与苜蓿5:5、7:3混贮处理pH值较苜蓿单贮显著降低(P<0.05);各混贮处理乳酸占总酸百分比均达到60%以上,乙酸、丙酸占总酸百分比较苜蓿单贮降低,丁酸产生较少;4)苜蓿青贮后乳酸菌数达到108 cfu/g FM,玉米青贮前后乳酸菌数差异不明显,青贮后各处理大肠杆菌数明显下降.7:3混贮处理发酵品质最佳.%To assess the best ratio for mixed silage of corn and alfalfa, they were mixed and ensiled in different proportions (0 :10,3 : 7,5 : 5,7 : 3,10:0 respectively) and after 30 days, the nutrition and fermentation quality of all treatments were determined and analyzed. 1) Compared with alfalfa silage, all three treatment improved fermentation quality and attained the goal of excellent silage. 2) CP (crude protein) and Ash (crude ash) contents of the 3 : 7 treatment were significantly higher than corn but lower than alfalfa silage (P< 0.05), NDF (neutral detergent fiber) and ADF (acid detergent fiber) contents were significantly lower than corn but higher than alfalfa silage (P<0. 05). 3) pH values of the 5 : 3 and 7 : 3 treatments were significantly lower than that of alfalfa silage(P<0. 05). Lactic acid contents of all three mixed treatments reached more than 60%, but the contents of acetic acid and propionic acid reduced, and produced little butyric acid compared with alfalfa silage. 4) The number of lactic acid bacteria on alfalfa silage increased to 108 cfu/g FM after ensilling, while that on corn silage stayed the same before and after fermentation. Escherichia coli of

  18. Heavy metal content of alfalfa irrigated with waste and tubewell water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamal Khan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of wastewater on yield and heavy metal uptake of alfalfa along with a tubewell irrigated crop as control at the Agricultural University Peshawar during 2009. The experiment was conducted in small plots (2 x 1m replicated thrice with fertilizer additions. The crop was either irrigated with Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE wastewater or tubewell water. The yield data revealed that shoot dry weight was significantly affected by the irrigation water supplies and higher yield was recorded in wastewater irrigated plots and the increase was consistent with time (different cutting. By comparing the total dry biomass of the two treatments, it was observed that there was about 37% increase in yield over control with application of wastewater. The shoot dry weight increased by a factor of about two to three times from first cutting to third cutting in both the treatment plots and the magnitude of increase in yield was higher in wastewater irrigated plots. The heavy metal uptake by the crop was much higher in wastewater irrigated plots compared to tubewell water. The order of metal uptake was Fe> Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr>Cd. Shoot analysis showed no metal toxicity because the concentration of the metal was less than phytotoxic level and all the metals were within the permissible limits.

  19. The velocity width function of galaxies from the 40% ALFALFA survey: shedding light on the CDM overabundance problem

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a wide-area, extragalactic HI-line survey conducted at the Arecibo Observatory. Sources have so far been extracted over ~3,000 sq.deg of sky (40% of its final area), resulting in the largest HI-selected sample to date. We measure the space density of HI-bearing galaxies as a function of their observed velocity width (uncorrected for inclination) down to w = 20 km/s, a factor of 2 lower than the previous generation HIPASS survey. We confirm previous results that indicate a substantial discrepancy at low widths between the observational distribution and the theoretical one expected in a CDM Universe. In particular, a comparison with synthetic galaxy samples populating state-of-the-art CDM simulations imply a factor of ~8 difference in the abundance of galaxies with w = 50 km/s (increasing to a factor of ~100 when extrapolated to the ALFALFA limit of w = 20 km/s). We furthermore identify possible solutions, including a ~keV WDM scenario and the fact that H...

  20. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P hens fed the LFA diet. Including LFA increased serum β-carotene and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations (P laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. PMID:24864286

  1. Changes of Proline Content,Activity,and Active Isoforms of Antioxidative Enzymes in Two Alfalfa Cultivars Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-shan; HAN Jian-guo

    2009-01-01

    The plants of two alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.)cultivars differing in salt tolerance were subjected to three salt treatments,70,140,and 210 mM NaCl for 7 days.Root,shoot,and leaf growths were inhibited by increased salt treatments in both cultivars,and at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments,Zhongmu 1 had significantly higher root,shoot,and leaf dry weights per plant than Defi.The malondialdehyde(MDA)accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1,indicating a higher degree of lipid peroxidation at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments.The changes in the activity and active isoforms of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase(SOD,EC 1.15.1.1),catalase(CAT,EC 1.11.1.6),peroxidase(POD,EC 1.11.1.7),and ascorbate peroxidase(APOX,EC 1.11.1.11),accumulation of free proline,and rate of lipid peroxidation in leaves of two alfalfa cultivars were also investigated.After stress,the activity and active isoforms of antioxidative enzymes were altered and the extent of alteration varied between the cultivar Deft and Zhongmu 1.The proline accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1 at 210 mM salt treatment.This indicated that proline accumulation may be the result,instead of the cause,of salt tolerance.

  2. 紫花苜蓿人工草地施肥试验%Effect on alfalfa artificial lawn fertilization test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万井尉

    2015-01-01

    在辽宁西部坡地上进行紫花苜蓿不同施肥处理试验,经过1年的研究结果表明,在苜蓿人工草地上无论是单一施用氮肥还是复合肥,均可有效地提高牧草产量并取得较为明显的经济效益,其中以每亩施用尿素15 kg和25 kg效果最好,效益最高,每亩可增经济效益分别是40.74元和40.63元。%Hillsides with a slope in the western liaoning alfalfa different fertilization experi-ment was carried out, after a year of research results show that the artificial grass in alfalfa both single nitrogen fertilizer and compound fertilizer, can effectively improve the forage yield and obtain more obvious economic benefits, the effect of applying urea 15 kg and 25 kg per acre to prepare, the highest efficiency, can increase economic benefit per acre is 40.63 yuan and 40.74 yuan respectively.

  3. Heated blends of phosphate waste: Microstructure characterization, effects of processing factors and use as a phosphorus source for alfalfa growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutou, M; Hajjaji, M; Mansori, M; Favotto, C; Hakkou, R

    2016-07-15

    Microstructure of expandable lightweight aggregates (LWAs), which was composed of phosphate waste (PW), cement kiln dust (CKD) and raw clay (RC) was investigated, and the effects of processing factors (temperature, waste content, soaking time) on their physical properties were quantified by using response surface methodology (RSM). The potential use of LWAs as a phosphorus source was assessed through the use of seeds of alfalfa. It was found that the main minerals of the waste, namely carbonates and fluorapatite, were involved in the formation of labradorite/anorthite and melt respectively. Stability of mullite- the main constituent of CKD- was sensitive to the melt content. The assemblage of the identified phases was discussed based on the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 phase diagram. The results of RSM showed that the change of compressive strength, firing shrinkage and water absorption of LWAs versus processing factors was well described with a polynomial model and the weights of the effects of the factors increased in the following order: sintering temperature > waste content (in the case of PW-RC) > soaking time. On the other hand, it was found that due to the release of phosphorus by soil-embedded pellets, the growth of alfalfa plants improved, and the rate enhanced in this order: PW-RC > PW-CKD > PW-CKD-RC. The absorbed quantity of phosphorus (0.12%) was still lower than the common uptake amount. PMID:27100329

  4. Graphite nodule count and size distribution in thin-walled ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count as these ar...... results. The 3D size distribution showed presence of primary graphite nodules in hypereutectic castings. In thin plates the nodule count is similar in eutectic and hypereutectic plates. In thicker plates the hypereutectic casting has the highest nodule count....

  5. Use of isotopes for increasing biological nitrogen fixation and yield of pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N-15 natural abundance and N-15 isotope dilution (ID) methods for measuring dinitrogen fixation and nitrogen transfer in alfalfa and alfalfa intercropped with meadow fescue were compared in three experiments. Although both methods gave essentially the same estimates the precision of the values obtained differed, and values obtained by the isotope dilution method were more precise. Similarly, the N-15 natural abundance method was not very suitable for detecting N transfer from legume to non-legume. Greater amounts of N transfer were detected by the ID method, and with a greater precision. Mixed cropping sometimes gave slight to high increases in % nitrogen fixation compared to alfalfa cropped alone. On the whole alfalfa was found to be a high nitrogen fixer, with fixation values from the second harvest onwards almost always greater than 80% and often close to 100%. 23 refs, 30 tabs

  6. Involvement of CYP1A1, GST, 72TP53 polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A A S; Silva, D M; Curado, M P; da Cruz, A D

    2010-01-01

    Specific genotypes appear to be related to the development of thyroid disease. We examined whether polymorphisms of the genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and TP53 at codon 72 are associated with increased risk for thyroid nodules. Blood samples were obtained from 122 thyroid patients with nodules and from 134 healthy control individuals from Goiânia city, GO, Brazil. We found no significant association of CYP1A1m1 and CYP1A1m2 genotypes with thyroid diseases (P > 0.05). The null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were predominant in patients with nodules, indicating that individuals that possess these genotypes have a predisposition for thyroid disease. The genotype p53Arg Arg was associated with a low risk for thyroid cancer (OR = 0.15; P benefit from treatment, depending on specific polymorphic profiles. PMID:21086258

  7. Evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules by integrated PET/CT: improved accuracy by FDG uptake pattern and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: FDG PET is useful to differentiate malignancy from benign lesions in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs). However, FDG PET showed false positive results in benign inflammatory lesions such as tuberculosis and organizing pneumonia. Furthermore, malignant tumors such as adenocarcinoma (AC) with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) type had lower FDG uptake than other cell types of non-small cell lung cancer. We investigated whether FDG uptake pattern and image findings of CT for attenuation correction could improve accuracy for evaluating SPNs over SUV in integrated PET/CT imaging using FDG. Methods: Forty patients (M:F = 23:17, mean age 58.2±9.4 yrs) with non-calcified SPNs (diameter on CT 30 mm, no significant mediastinal node enlargement, no atelectasis) were included. All subjects underwent integrated PET/CT imaging using FDG. One nuclear medicine physician and 1 chest radiologist interpreted the PET and non-contrast CT images for attenuation correction, respectively. On PET images, maximum SUV of SPN was acquired, and FDG uptake pattern was categorized as diffusely increased or heterogeneously increased with upper threshold of window setting adjusted to maximum SUV of each nodule. A radiologist interpreted SPNs as benign or malignant based on CT images with lung and mediastinai window settings blinded to PET findings. Results: On pathological exam, 30 SPNs were confirmed to be malignant (11 AC with non-BAC type, 8 AC with BAC type, 8 squamous cell carcinoma, 1 adenosquamous cell carcinoma, 1 neuroendocrine carcinoma, 1 large cell carcinoma), and 10 were benign (4 tuberculosis, 3 organizing pneumonia, 2 sclerosing pneumocytoma, 1 non-specific inflammation). All 5 nodules with max SUV 7.0 except one with tuberculoma had malignancy. When only nodules with diffusely increased uptake were considered malignant in indeterminate group with max SUV of 4.0 to 7.0, PET could diagnose 5 of 9 malignant nodules with one false positive nodule. In 6 of

  8. Structural Change of the Western United States Alfalfa Hay Market and its Effects of the Western United States Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cann, Joseph Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa is the fourth largest commodity grown in the Western U.S., representing 20% of the crop acreage over the past twenty years. In the last five years alfalfa hay price has doubled from what it was previously, indicating a possible structural change in the market. This research project was completed to test for this structural change using econometric analysis of the important demand components of alfalfa price. In addition to this, simulations of an average Utah dairy were completed to e...

  9. Growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of cowpea in soils amended with composted tannery sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseany Andrade Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tannery wastes generation is increasing every year and a suitable method for tannery sludge management is necessary in order to decrease this environmental problem. The composting is recognized as a suitable method for sludge recycling.. The effect of tannery sludge compost (TSC rates on growth, nodulation and N fixation of cowpea was investigated. Sandy and clayey soils were amended with TSC at rates of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 t ha-1. The shoot dry weight of cowpea plants 45 days after emergence (DAE was greater in the TSC-amended than in the unamended soil. In the sandy soil, nodule dry weight increased with TSC application 45 DAE. In the clayey soil, 45 DAE, nodule dry weight decreased with TSC amendment levels greater than 7.5 t ha-1 compared to the unamended control. The application of TSC increased N accumulation in the cowpea plants. The results suggest that cowpea responds differently to TSC depending on the amendment rate and initial soil type.

  10. Diffuse Hyperpigmented Subcutaneous Nodules as a Primary Manifestation of Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Disease in Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiei Tabatabaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There are increasing reports of serious adverse events of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccination in infants with unrecognized primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs in our country. Among these adverse events skin manifestations occur less frequently and are less noticed. Case Presentation We report on an 11-months-old boy with prolonged fever and diffuse hyperpigmented subcutaneous nodules. Due to lymphopenia, oral thrush and severe adverse reaction to BCG vaccination, the possibility of primary immunodeficiency was considered for him and immunological investigations were done. Conclusions Subcutaneous nodules in the absence of a local reaction at the site of BCG vaccination may be the sole manifestation of disseminated BCG disease.

  11. The Indian Ocean nodule field: Geology and resource potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, A.K.; Iyer, S.D.

    This book briefly accounts for the physiography, geology, biology, physics and chemistry of the nodule field, and discusses in detail the aspects of structure, tectonic and volcanism in the field. The role of the ocean floor sediment that hosts...

  12. Dynamics of formation of ferromanganese nodules in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, A.K.

    sediment-water interface, low rate of sedimentation, presence of nutrient-rich bottom water mass and an oxidizing environment. We present here an integrated assessment of process of formation of ferromanganese nodules from the IONF, which are variable even...

  13. Initial results of India's environmental impact assessment of nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    The Indian Deepsea Experiment (INDEX) was intiated in 1995, with the objective of predicting the environmental impact of nodule mining, in the Central Indian Basin. More than 20 scientists and technical staff of the National Institute...

  14. India's manganese nodule mine site in the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    This commentary highlights the activities of massive exploration programme for manganese nodule deposits in the Central Indian Basin located 5 km below the ocean surface and India's claim for mine site development and registration with UNCLOS...

  15. Ferromanganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.; Pattan, J.N.

    In order to delineate a mine site for ferromanganese nodules, extensive surveys were conducted in Central Indian Ocean Basin. Mapping of the basin by multibeam swath bathymetry (Hydrosweep) has revealed many new bottom relief features...

  16. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    The distribution of manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the island nation Mauritius was delineated during cruise SK-35 of ORV Sagar Kanya in 1987. The areas surveyed included Saya de Malha and Nazareth Banks, the Cargados Carajos...

  17. A classification of pulmonary nodules by CT scan

    OpenAIRE

    Bellomi, M.

    2012-01-01

    This Image Report aims to briefly describe, giving some imaging examples, the radiological definition of the features of lung nodules as commonly used by radiologists. We hope thus to improve communication and mutual understanding between radiologists and clinicians.

  18. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Ferromanganese Nodule Analysis File - IDOE Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) compiled data on the geochemistry of marine ferromanganese nodules, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation...

  19. 苜蓿的药用功效和开发利用%Medicinal Effects, Development and Utilization of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 石杰; 王云云; 尤秋实

    2011-01-01

    The development history of alfalfa, the relationship between the nutrients of alfalfa and the human health and the development and utilization of alfalfa were introduced. And some suggestions on the development of alfalfa were also proposed.%阐述了苜蓿发展的历史、苜蓿所合营养元素与人类健康的关系和苜蓿的开发利用情况,并对苜蓿产业的发展提出了建议。

  20. Characterization of the plant growth promoting bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae MSR1, isolated from roots of non-nodulating Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ashraf Y Z; Alsyeeh, Abdel-Moneium; Almalki, Mohammed A; Saleh, Farag A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the endophytic bacterial strain designated MSR1 that was isolated from inside the non-nodulating roots of Medicago sativa after surface-sterilization. MSR1 was identified as Enterobacter cloacae using both 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and API20E biochemical identification system (Biomerieux, France). Furthermore, this bacterium was characterized using API50CH kit (Biomerieux, France) and tested for antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens. The results showed that E. cloacae consumed certain carbohydrates such as glycerol, d-xylose, d-maltose and esculin melibiose as a sole carbon source and certain amino acids such as arginine, tryptophan ornithine as nitrogen source. Furthermore, MSR1 possessed multiple plant-growth promoting characteristics; phosphate solubility, production of phytohormones acetoin and bioactive compounds. Inoculation of Pisum sativum with MSR1 significantly improved the growth parameters (the length and dry weight) of this economically important grain legume compared to the non-treated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing E. cloacae which exist in roots of alfalfa growing in Al-Ahsaa region. The results confirmed that E. cloacae exhibited traits for plant growth promoting and could be developed as an eco-friendly biofertilizer for P. sativum and probably for other important plant species in future. PMID:26858542

  1. Ethylene, a Hormone at the Center-Stage of Nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinel, Frédérique C

    2015-01-01

    Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenous compounds. Furthermore, as they are rich in nitrogen, legumes are considered important as staple foods for humans and fodder for animals. To tightly control this association and keep it mutualistic, the plant uses several means, including hormones. The hormone ethylene has been known as a negative regulator of nodulation for almost four decades. Since then, much progress has been made in the understanding of both the ethylene signaling pathway and the nodulation process. Here I have taken a large view, using recently obtained knowledge, to describe in some detail the major stages of the process. I have not only reviewed the steps most commonly covered (the common signaling transduction pathway, and the epidermal and cortical programs), but I have also looked into steps less understood (the pre-infection step with the plant defense response, the bacterial release and the formation of the symbiosome, and nodule functioning and senescence). After a succinct review of the ethylene signaling pathway, I have used the knowledge obtained from nodulation- and ethylene-related mutants to paint a more complete picture of the role played by the hormone in nodule organogenesis, functioning, and senescence. It transpires that ethylene is at the center of this effective symbiosis. It has not only been involved in most of the steps leading to a mature nodule, but it has also been implicated in host immunity and nodule senescence. It is likely responsible for the activation of other hormonal

  2. Ethylene, a hormone at the centre-stage of nodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Catherine Guinel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nodulation is the result of a beneficial interaction between legumes and rhizobia. It is a sophisticated process leading to nutrient exchange between the two types of symbionts. In this association, within a nodule, the rhizobia, using energy provided as photosynthates, fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it to ammonium which is available to the plant. Nodulation is recognized as an essential process in nitrogen cycling and legume crops are known to enrich agricultural soils in nitrogenous compounds. Furthermore, as they are rich in nitrogen, legumes are considered important as staple foods for humans and fodder for animals. To tightly control this association and keep it mutualistic; the plant uses several means, including hormones. The hormone ethylene has been known as a negative regulator of nodulation for almost four decades. Since then, much progress has been made in the understanding of both the ethylene signaling pathway and the nodulation process. Here I have taken a large view, using recently-obtained knowledge, to describe in some detail the major stages of the process. I have not only reviewed the steps most commonly covered (the common signaling transduction pathway, and the epidermal and cortical programs, but I have also looked into steps less understood (the pre-infection step with the plant defense response, the bacterial release and the formation of the symbiosome, and nodule functioning and senescence. After a succinct review of the ethylene signaling pathway, I have used the knowledge obtained from nodulation- and ethylene-related mutants to paint a more complete picture of the role played by the hormone in nodule organogenesis, functioning, and senescence. It transpires that ethylene is at the centre of this effective symbiosis. It has not only been involved in most of the steps leading to a mature nodule, but it has also been implicated in host immunity and nodule senescence. It is likely responsible for the activation of

  3. Root nodule organogenesis. Molecular characterization of the zonation of the central tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    Legume plants form root nodules by interacting with the soil bacterium, Rhizobium. In these nodules bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia which is used by the host plants as nitrogen source. Therefore symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules is of great importance for agriculture.Root nodule formation involves several developmental stages, namely are: induction of cell divisions in the root cortex, formation of nodule primordium and meristern, and finally different...

  4. Action spectrum for DNA damage in alfalfa lowers predicted impact of ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone will increase the intensity of solar mid-ultraviolet (280–320 nm) radiation reaching the biosphere. Predictions of increases in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation require knowledge of both the solar spectral intensity and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity (action spectrum) for damaging the biological target. A generalized action spectrum for plant damage encompassing wavelengths from 280 to 313 nm has been widely used to predict the consequences of ozone depletion. Calculations based on this spectrum and new satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone suggest that plants will be among those organisms most severely affected. Here we report an absolute action spectrum for cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer induction in DNA in intact alfalfa seedlings, which reveals damage by wavelengths as long as 365 nm. Calculations based on this new action spectrum predict significantly smaller increases in biologically effective ultraviolet radiation resulting from ozone depletion, particularly at high latitudes, than calculations based on either the generalized plant action spectrum or the action spectrum for damaging unshielded DNA

  5. Quantitation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from UVB-irradiated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone will increase the solar ultraviolet radiation in the range from 290-320 nm (UVB) that reaches the surface of the earth, placing an increased UV burden on exposed organisms. One consequence of increased UVB may be decreased productivity of crop plants. A principal lesion caused by UV in DNA is the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. We have adapted a method for measuring these dimers in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA for use in UV-irradiated plants. We find that biologically relevant doses of broad band UVB radiation induce easily detectable frequencies of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of irradiated alfalfa sprout leaves and that the dose response for dimer formation is linear up to doses of at least 690 J/m2. We also find easily measurable frequencies of dimers in the leaves of seedlings grown in glass filtered sunlight but not exposed to additional UVB, suggesting that significant number of dimers are formed in plants exposed to normal sunlight. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Ayper KAÇAR; İrem PAKER; Gülşah KABAÇAM BAYRAM; Fatma DEMİREL; Şenel, Emrah; Murat KIZILGÜN

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to evaluate fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients, and the pathologies that cause childhood thyroid nodules, and to review the literature on the subject.Material and Method: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients were retrospectively reviewed. Associated diseases, thyroid functions, anti-thyroid antibody levels, ultrasonographic findings and number of nodules were also evaluated.Results: The vast major...

  7. Plant Hormonal Regulation of Nitrogen-Fixing Nodule Organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hojin; Cho, Hyunwoo; Choi, Daeseok; Hwang, Ildoo

    2012-01-01

    Legumes have evolved symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria to efficiently utilize nitrogen. Recent progress in symbiosis has revealed several key components of host plants required for nitrogen-fixing nodule organogenesis, in which complicated metabolic and signaling pathways in the host plant are reprogrammed to generate nodules in the cortex upon perception of the rhizobial Nod factor. Following the recognition of Nod factors, plant hormones are likely to be essential throughout no...

  8. Pulmonary Nodules with Cutaneous Manifestations: A Case Report and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiles T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules is large and includes congenital and inherited disorders, malignancy, infectious etiologies, noninfectious granulomatous and inflammatory conditions,among many others. Diagnostic evaluation is aided by attention to extrapulmonary symptoms and features. We herein describe an unusual case of multiple pulmonary nodules attributed to cysticercosis and present a discussion of pathophysiologic changes related to medications and highlight the diagnostic value of extrapulmonary cutaneous features.

  9. Genetic analysis of ethylene regulation of legume nodulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gresshoff, Peter M.; Lohar, Dasharath; Chan, Pick-Kuen; Biswas, Bandana; Jiang, Qunyi; Reid, Dugald; Ferguson, Brett; Stacey, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The gaseous hormone ethylene has multiple roles in plant development and responses to external cues. Among these is the regulation of ‘Rhizobium’-induced nodulation in legumes. Extensive descriptive literature exists, but has been expanded to allow more mechanistic analysis through the application of genetics. Both mutants and transgenics displaying ethylene insensitivity have now been described, suggesting an intimate interplay of ethylene response, plant development and nodulation.

  10. Effect of Bradyrhizobium photosynthesis on stem nodulation of Aeschynomene sensitiva

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Eric; Hannibal, Laure; Fardoux, Joel; Verméglio, Andre; Dreyfus, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Some leguminous species of the genus #Aeschynomene$ are specifically stem-nodulated by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia. To study the effect of bacterial photosynthesis during symbiosis, we generated a photosynthesis-negative mutant of the #Bradyrhizobium$ sp. strain ORS278 symbiont of #Aeschynomene sensitiva$. The presence of a functional photosynthetic unit in bacterioids and the high expression of the photosynthetic genes observed in stem nodules demonstrate that the bacteria are photosyntheti...

  11. Pulmonary necrobiotic nodules: a rare extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Warwick

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article reports the case of a 22-yr-old female with new onset Crohn's colitis, anterior uveitis and multiple pulmonary nodules which, on histological examination, were necrobiotic nodules. This is a rare but recognised pulmonary extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease and only the fourth reported case. The present case report is followed by a brief review of the relevant literature.

  12. Undercooling and nodule count in thin walled ductile iron castings

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2007-01-01

    Casting experiments have been performed with eutectic and hypereutectic castings with plate thicknesses from 2 to 8 mm involving both temperature measurements during solidification and microstructural examination afterwards. The nodule count was the same for the eutectic and hypereutectic castings in the thin plates (≤4.3 mm) while in the 8 mm plate the nodule count was higher in the hypereutectic than in the eutectic castings. The minimum temperature before the eutectic recalescence (Tmin) w...

  13. Relationship between size and geochemistry of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Significance in selection of high grade nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Ambre, N.V.

    Morphological, mineralogical and geochemical studies on nodules of different sizes collected from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) show two suits of nodule formation by oxic diagenetic and hydrogenous process resulting into distinct properties...

  14. Iatrogenic Pulmonary Nodule in a Heart Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul C. Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old female with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and end-stage nonischemic cardiomyopathy from Adriamycin toxicity underwent orthotic heart transplantation during June 2013. She developed shortness of breath in September 2013 and was suspected to have invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. A flexible bronchoscopy (FB with a transbronchial biopsy (TBBx was performed. She was found to have a focal lung nodule in the same location at the site of the TBBx on day 13 after the FB. Spontaneous resolution of the nodule was confirmed on the computed tomography (CT scan of chest performed at 3 months. We believe that this nodule was as a consequence of the TBBx. Formation of a peripheral pulmonary nodule (PPN following a TBBx is occasionally encountered among the recipients of the lung transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of TBBx producing a pulmonary nodule in a heart transplant recipient. Physicians caring for the patients with heart transplantation should be cognizant of the iatrogenic nature of such nodule to avoid unnecessary diagnostic work-up.

  15. Auto Diagnostics of Lung Nodules Using Minimal Characteristics Extraction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Peña

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided detection (CAD systems provide useful tools and an advantageous process to physicians aiming to detect lung nodules. This paper develops a method composed of four processes for lung nodule detection. The first step employs image acquisition and pre-processing techniques to isolate the lungs from the rest of the body. The second stage involves the segmentation process using a 2D algorithm to affect every layer of a scan eliminating non-informative structures inside the lungs, and a 3D blob algorithm associated with a connectivity algorithm to select possible nodule shape candidates. The combinations of these algorithms efficiently eliminate the high rates of false positives. The third process extracts eight minimal representative characteristics of the possible candidates. The final step utilizes a support vector machine for classifying the possible candidates into nodules and non-nodules depending on their features. As the objective is to find nodules bigger than 4mm, the proposed approach demonstrated quite encouraging results. Among 65 computer tomography (CT scans, 94.23% of sensitivity and 84.75% in specificity were obtained. The accuracy of these two results was 89.19% taking into consideration that 45 scans were used for testing and 20 for training. The rate of false positives was 0.2 per scan.

  16. Diagnostic procedures of the solitary pulmonary nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Kohara, Hiroyuki [National Sanyo Hospital, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)] [and others

    2003-04-01

    The spread of computed tomography (CT) brought the frequent further examinations of the solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). To aim the evaluation of initial data on examinations of SPN for differential diagnosis, we studied retrospective cases. Thirty-one cases of SPN less than 20 mm in diameter were compared in clinical findings and CT image findings and were examined the diagnostic procedures in recent three years in National Sanyo Hospital. The 31 patients consisted of 14 males and 17 females ranging 44 to 79 years old, median 65 years old. The causes of SPN were lung cancer (11 patients), cryptococcosis (4 patients), tuberculoma (3 patients), non-tuberculous mycobacteria (2 patients), pneumoconiosis (2 patients), pneumonia scar (one patient), hamartoma (one patient), and unknown (7 patients). There were no significant differences in laboratory findings between lung cancer and the others. CT findings showed significant differences in four categories. All patients underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) examinations and 12 patients were determined the diagnosis initial FB. Five patients were established their diagnosis using videoassociated thoracoscopic surgeries. (author)

  17. Growth, nodulation and yield response of soybean to biofertilizers and organic manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain TAL-102 and a commercial biofertlizer EM (effective microorganisms) on growth, nodulation and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Wilczek] in soils amended either with farmyard manure or Trifolium alexandrinum L. green manure at the rate 20 tons ha/sup -1/ each. In green manure amendment, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced number and biomass of nodules resulting in a significant increase of 27, 65 and 55% in shoot biomass and number and biomass of pods, respectively. In farmyard manure amended soil, B. japonicum inoculation significantly enhanced fresh biomass of nodules. As a result a significant increase of 45 and 47% in shoot biomass and number of pods was recorded, respectively. Generally, the effect of sole EM application on various studied parameters was insignificant in both the soil amendment systems. Combined application of EM and B. japonicum in green manure amended soil reduced shoot growth and number of pods as compared to sole B. japonicum inoculation. Conversely, in farmyard manure amendment, plants co-inoculated with B. japonicum and EM exhibited highest and significantly greater shoot biomass, and number and biomass of pods as compared to all other treatments. The present study concludes that soybean yield can be significantly enhanced by the application of B. japonicum and EM in farmyard manure amendment. (author)

  18. The Effect of Implementing Gene Expression Classifier on Outcomes of Thyroid Nodules with Indeterminate Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeykoon, Jithma Prasad; Mueller, Luke; Dong, Frank; Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V; Paludo, Jonas; Mortada, Rami

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid nodules are classified into six cytological categories under the Bethesda classification system. Two of these categories, atypical of undetermined significance (AUS) and suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (SFN), are further labeled as "indeterminate" diagnosis. Starting in June, 2012, Kansas University-Wichita Endocrine clinic implemented Afirma® Gene Expression Classifier (AGEC) to evaluate the need for surgical resection of thyroid nodules in patients with an indeterminate diagnosis. Electronic medical records of patients who underwent thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration from 2004-2014 were reviewed. The aim of this study was to find whether implementing AGEC was associated with decreased surgical recommendation rate, decreased cost, and increased incidence of thyroid malignancy diagnosed by surgery in patients with indeterminate diagnosis. A total of 299 consecutive patients' charts were screened. Sixty-one (20 %) patients had an indeterminate diagnosis. Out of these, 27 (44 %) patients underwent evaluation before and 34 (56 %) patients underwent evaluation after AGEC implementation, respectively. Surgical recommendation for patients with indeterminate finding decreased from 81.5 to 50 % (p = 0.01) after AGEC implementation. Surgical pathology was read as malignant in 20 and 85.7 % (p < 0.01) of patients before and after AGEC implementation, respectively. Primary cost-benefit estimate showed implementing AGEC has saved $1048/patient in medical evaluation and initial management of patients with indeterminate diagnosis. AGEC implementation has decreased the number of surgical recommendations, has lowered financial burden, and has increased incidence of thyroid malignancy diagnosed by surgical pathology in patients with indeterminate diagnosis of thyroid nodules. PMID:27102883

  19. Arginine Decarboxylase expression, polyamines biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species during organogenic nodule formation in hop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Ana M; Costa, Joana; Santos, Filipa; Seguí-Simarro, José M; Palme, Klaus; Altabella, Teresa; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Pais, Maria S

    2011-02-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is an economically important plant species used in beer production and as a health-promoting medicine. Hop internodes develop upon stress treatments organogenic nodules which can be used for genetic transformation and micropropagation. Polyamines are involved in plant development and stress responses. Arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4·1.1·19) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of putrescine in plants. Here we show that ADC protein was increasingly expressed at early stages of hop internode culture (12h). Protein continued accumulating until organogenic nodule formation after 28 days, decreasing thereafter. The same profile was observed for ADC transcript suggesting transcriptional regulation of ADC gene expression during morphogenesis. The highest transcript and protein levels observed after 28 days of culture were accompanied by a peak in putrescine levels. Reactive oxygen species accumulate in nodular tissues probably due to stress inherent to in vitro conditions and enhanced polyamine catabolism. Conjugated polyamines increased during plantlet regeneration from nodules suggesting their involvement in plantlet formation and/or in the control of free polyamine levels. Immunogold labeling revealed that ADC is located in plastids, nucleus and cytoplasm of nodular cells. In vacuolated cells, ADC immunolabelling in plastids doubled the signal of proplastids in meristematic cells. Location of ADC in different subcellular compartments may indicate its role in metabolic pathways taking place in these compartments. Altogether these data suggest that polyamines play an important role in organogenic nodule formation and represent a progress towards understanding the role played by these growth regulators in plant morphogenesis. PMID:21415599

  20. Persistent pulmonary subsolid nodules: model-based iterative reconstruction for nodule classification and measurement variability on low-dose CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Kyung Hee [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Min; Park, Sang Joon; Goo, Jin Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    To compare the pulmonary subsolid nodule (SSN) classification agreement and measurement variability between filtered back projection (FBP) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). Low-dose CTs were reconstructed using FBP and MBIR for 47 patients with 47 SSNs. Two readers independently classified SSNs into pure or part-solid ground-glass nodules, and measured the size of the whole nodule and solid portion twice on both reconstruction algorithms. Nodule classification agreement was analyzed using Cohen's kappa and compared between reconstruction algorithms using McNemar's test. Measurement variability was investigated using Bland-Altman analysis and compared with the paired t-test. Cohen's kappa for inter-reader SSN classification agreement was 0.541-0.662 on FBP and 0.778-0.866 on MBIR. Between the two readers, nodule classification was consistent in 79.8 % (75/94) with FBP and 91.5 % (86/94) with MBIR (p = 0.027). Inter-reader measurement variability range was -5.0-2.1 mm on FBP and -3.3-1.8 mm on MBIR for whole nodule size, and was -6.5-0.9 mm on FBP and -5.5-1.5 mm on MBIR for solid portion size. Inter-reader measurement differences were significantly smaller on MBIR (p = 0.027, whole nodule; p = 0.011, solid portion). MBIR significantly improved SSN classification agreement and reduced measurement variability of both whole nodules and solid portions between readers. (orig.)

  1. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible. - Highlights: → Evaluate Cd tolerance in wide sources of alfalfa accessions. → Identify Cd-hyperaccumulators potentially useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments. → Cloned differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes. → Characteristics and deduced protein sequence of MsMT2a and MsMT2b were analyzed. → MsMT2a might be a universally gene of alfalfa but MsMT2b might be an inductive gene. - Two Cd tolerant alfalfa genotypes were screened and their metallothionein genes were cloned which showed that MsMT2a was universally expressed but MsMT2b was Cd inducible expression.

  2. Effectivenes of inoculation in alfalfa breeding in ecological conditions of the Bjelovar and Bilogora county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Development and basic existence of animal production as well as production of high quality milk depends upon possibility of sufficient production of quality and protein sufficient forage. Forage crop that satisfies these demands is alfalfa which is one of the most important perennial forage crop legumes. The aim of this study was to enhance alfalfa production on acid soil by liming and alfalfa seed inoculation with efficient Sinorhizobium meliloti strains in order to reduce the use of mineral nitrogen fertilization and enable qualitative and cost effective production of forage on the dairy farms. Field trial was established at family farm in the area of Bjelovar and Bilogora county. During two years experimental period statistically significant influence of inoculation and liming on forage and dry matteryield was determined. Significantly the lowest yields were determined on untreated plots without liming material. In all untreated plots, significantly lower yields were determined, but significant differences in yields were also obtained by inoculation with different S. meliloti strains, emphasizing the importance of strains selection used for alfalfa inoculation. In both experimental years total forage yield were ranging from 34 t/ha (untreated plots without liming up to 60 t/ha on plots inoculated with strain 2011 and without liming. Values of total dry matter yield for both experimental years ranged from 6.5 t/ha (untreated plots without liming up to 15,7 t/ha on plots inoculated with strain 2011 without liming. Results of this study showed that application of liming materials for acidity removal had positive effect on alfalfa yields in both experimental years and significantly improved alfalfa production on acid soils. The results of this study clearly showed that inoculation with selected S. meliloti strains may improve alfalfa production on acid soils and may contribute to more efficient forage production for dairy farms under particular

  3. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaojuan, E-mail: xiaojuanwang@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Song, Yu [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Environment Management College of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma Yanhua [Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhuo Renying [Key Lab of Tree Genomics, Research Institute of Subtropical of Forest, Chinese Academy of Forest, Fuyang 311400 (China); Jin Liang [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China)

    2011-12-15

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible. - Highlights: > Evaluate Cd tolerance in wide sources of alfalfa accessions. > Identify Cd-hyperaccumulators potentially useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments. > Cloned differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes. > Characteristics and deduced protein sequence of MsMT2a and MsMT2b were analyzed. > MsMT2a might be a universally gene of alfalfa but MsMT2b might be an inductive gene. - Two Cd tolerant alfalfa genotypes were screened and their metallothionein genes were cloned which showed that MsMT2a was universally expressed but MsMT2b was Cd inducible expression.

  4. WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Márcia do Vale B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out aiming to study the effect of water stress on metabolic activity of cowpea nodules at different plant development stages. Cowpea plants were grown in pots with yellow latosol soil under three different matric potentials treatments: -7.0 (control-S1, -70.0 (S2 and <-85.0 KPa (S3. The experimental design was randomized blocks with sub-divided plots, each plot containing a different degree of water stress, divided in sub-plots for the four different developmental stages: E1 (0-15, E2 (15-30, E3 (20-35 and E4 (30-45 days after emmergence. Water stress treatments were applied by monitoring soil water potential using a set of porous cups. The effect of water stress was most harmful to cowpea when it was applied at E2 than at other symbiotic process stages. Shoot/root ratio decreased from 2.61 to 2.14 when matric potential treatment was <-85.0 and -70.0 KPa respectively. There was a reduction in the glutamine synthetase activity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxilase activity with increased stress, while glutamine synthase activity was the enzyme most sensitive to water stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase activity increased in more negative matric potential, indicating that this enzyme is sufficiently activitye under water stress.

  5. Combining -Omics to Unravel the Impact of Copper Nutrition on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Stem Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Bruno; Guerriero, Gea; Sergeant, Kjell; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Guignard, Cédric; Renaut, Jenny; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2016-02-01

    Copper can be found in the environment at concentrations ranging from a shortage up to the threshold of toxicity for plants, with optimal growth conditions situated in between. The plant stem plays a central role in transferring and distributing minerals, water and other solutes throughout the plant. In this study, alfalfa is exposed to different levels of copper availability, from deficiency to slight excess, and the impact on the metabolism of the stem is assessed by a non-targeted proteomics study and by the expression analysis of key genes controlling plant stem development. Under copper deficiency, the plant stem accumulates specific copper chaperones, the expression of genes involved in stem development is decreased and the concentrations of zinc and molybdenum are increased in comparison with the optimum copper level. At the optimal copper level, the expression of cell wall-related genes increases and proteins playing a role in cell wall deposition and in methionine metabolism accumulate, whereas copper excess imposes a reduction in the concentration of iron in the stem and a reduced abundance of ferritins. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis suggests a role for the apoplasm as a copper storage site in the case of copper toxicity. PMID:26865661

  6. Effect of application of coal powder and lime on alfalfa growth on copper polluted acidic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józefaciuk G.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a combined treatment of copper contaminated acid soil with lime and a coal powder decreases copper toxicity due to a synergetic effect of pH increase and association of Cu2+ ions in organo-mineral complexes. A two-year-long pot experiment with alfalfa was carried out on a pseudopodzolic soil contaminated with four Cu levels in the range 0-900 mg kg-1 soil. The amendments applied were lime, coal powder and a precomposted mixture of lime and coal powder. The compost and lime application increased yield and decreased copper content in plants at all levels of copper pollution. Coal powder alone depressed plant growth. The combined application of lime and coal powder maintained soil pH in the optimum range (5.1-5.6 during the whole experiment and had a pronounced effect on yield of the second and next crops, depending on the level of liming.

  7. Technological parameters optimization for improving quality of heated-air dried alfalfa%提高紫花苜蓿热风干燥品质的工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文明; 陈红意; 赵满全

    2015-01-01

    紫花苜蓿的热风干燥是牧草收获后贮藏、深加工的必要预处理方式,为了研究紫花苜蓿干燥过程中各因素对干燥的影响及变化规律,为实际生产工艺提供参考,解决目前紫花苜蓿干燥加工中存在的营养成分损失大、含水率不稳定等问题,利用GZ-1型干燥试验装置,对紫花苜蓿的热风干燥特性和工艺进行了研究。以新鲜的紫花苜蓿为原料,紫花苜蓿的干品品质(粗蛋白含量、酸性洗涤纤维含量、中性洗涤纤维含量)为指标,在对其有影响的4个因素(热风温度、热风速度、茎秆压扁与切断长度情况、助干剂种类与浓度)进行单因素试验的基础上;采用4因素3水平正交试验进行了优化。通过对试验数据进行极差与方差分析,找出了优化工艺参数组合并得出结论:热风温度是影响苜蓿干品粗蛋白质含量的最主要因素,茎秆压扁与切断长度情况是影响苜蓿干品中酸性洗涤纤维和中性洗涤纤维含量的最主要因素,热风干燥优化后的工艺参数组合为热风温度70℃、热风速度2.5 m/s、茎秆切断长度10 cm且压扁、碳酸钾浓度3%。在此工艺参数条件下,能有效提高干燥效率,并降低干草中营养成分的损失。研究为确定紫花苜蓿热风干燥工艺参数,提高紫花苜蓿热风干燥品质提供参考。%Alfalfa is a perennial herb and it is from the Near East and East Asia. Alfalfa is rich in nutrients and trace elements such as proteins, iron and manganese that is necessary to growing of life. Alfalfa is also the high quality livestock forage. Because alfalfa contains more carbohydrates and less colloidal substances, it is difficult in ensiling. Alfalfa must be dried promptly after hay harvest. With the rapid development of animal husbandry, grass planting area is increasing rapidly. So production and modulation of hay is an important link of hay industrialization in

  8. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong [College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Wang, Qian [Hebei Geological Laboratory, Baoding 071000, China and Multi-disciplinary Research Center, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Yang, Ying [Hebei University Affiliated Hospital, Baoding 071002 (China); Xie, Hongzhi, E-mail: gulixu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang [Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking 100005 (China); Gu, Lixu, E-mail: gulixu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn [Multi-disciplinary Research Center, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, China and School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  9. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study

  10. Differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule : chest radiography vs CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracies of chest radiographs and chest CT in the diagnosis of a solitary pulmonary nodule(SPN), and to determine the role of CT and CT findings which aid in the differential diagnosis of nodules. A retrospective study was done on 54 patients in whom SPN was found on chest radiographs and chest CT was carried out. The study involved 25 benign and 29 malignant nodules, confirmed histopathologically and clinically. Chest radiographs and CT scans were reviewed separately in randomized order by two chest radiologists who for each film listed the three most likely diagnoses in descending order. The radiologists recorded the confidence value of the most probable diagnosis, and also the marginal and internal characteristics of nodules and their size, as nodules seen on chest CT scans. Diagnostic rates in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant nodules were 65.7% by radiography and 77.8% by CT. Correct first-choice diagnosis was by radiography in 30.6% of cases, and by CT in 41.7%. Using radiographs, and the correct diagnosis was among the top-three choices in 61.1% of cases;with CT, the corresponding figure was 76.8%. Overall, a confident diagnosis was reached more often with the CT(41.7%) than with the chest radiograph(21.4%); diagnostic accuracy was 60.0% and 52.2%, respectively. CT findings which imply a benign nodule include smooth margins and diffuse internal calcifications, whereas marginal lobulations, air-bronchograms, internal low density without cavitation, eccentric calcifications, and large size suggest malignancy. We found that CT findings such as well-defined margins, spiculations, pleural tail or internal homogeneity did not contribute in the differentiation between benign and malignant nodules. CT is superior to chest radiography in the differential diagnosis of the solitary pulmonary nodule. Using CT, diagnosis was accurate and made with a high level of confidence, especially with the

  11. Transcript profiling of two alfalfa genotypes with contrasting cell wall composition in stems using a cross-species platform: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hans-Joachim G

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GeneChip® Medicago Genome Array, developed for Medicago truncatula, is a suitable platform for transcript profiling in tetraploid alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L. subsp. sativa]. However, previous research involving cross-species hybridization (CSH has shown that sequence variation between two species can bias transcript profiling by decreasing sensitivity (number of expressed genes detected and the accuracy of measuring fold-differences in gene expression. Results Transcript profiling using the Medicago GeneChip® was conducted with elongating stem (ES and post-elongation stem (PES internodes from alfalfa genotypes 252 and 1283 that differ in stem cell wall concentrations of cellulose and lignin. A protocol was developed that masked probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions of alfalfa transcripts. A probe signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy. After masking for both ISV regions and previously identified single-feature polymorphisms (SFPs, the number of differentially expressed genes between the two genotypes in both ES and PES internodes was approximately 2-fold greater than the number detected prior to masking. Regulatory genes, including transcription factor and receptor kinase genes that may play a role in development of secondary xylem, were significantly over-represented among genes up-regulated in 252 PES internodes compared to 1283 PES internodes. Several cell wall-related genes were also up-regulated in genotype 252 PES internodes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR of differentially expressed regulatory and cell wall-related genes demonstrated increased sensitivity and accuracy after masking for both ISV regions and SFPs. Over 1,000 genes that were differentially expressed in ES and PES internodes of genotypes 252 and 1283 were mapped onto putative orthologous loci on M. truncatula chromosomes. Clustering simulation analysis of the differentially expressed genes

  12. Relationship of red and photographic infrared spectral radiances to alfalfa biomass, forage water content, percentage canopy cover, and severity of drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data were collected using a handheld radiometer for two cuttings of alfalfa. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover for the earlier alfalfa cutting. The alfalfa of later cutting experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth. The spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores for this alfalfa cutting.

  13. Prognosis of small hepatocellular nodules detected only at the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging as hypointensity in cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Atsushi; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Kanki, Akihiko; Noda, Yasufumi; Yasokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Akira [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki City, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the prognosis of ''strict'' high-risk nodules (small hepatocellular nodules detected only in the hepatobiliary phase of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR examination) in patients with cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. The study included thirty-three patients with 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showing hypointensity at the hepatobiliary phase that was undetectable at the vascular phase and other conventional sequences of initial Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. These nodules were observed on follow-up MR examinations until hypervascularity was detected. The potential predictive factors for hypervascular transformation were compared between two groups (group A showing hypervascular transformation, group B not showing hypervascularization). Ten (16.7 %) of 60 ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods (group A). The growth rates of the nodules in group A (6.3 ± 4.5 mm/year) were significantly higher than those in group B (3.4 ± 7.2 mm/year) (p = 0.003). Additionally, the median observation period in group A (177.5 ± 189.5 day) was significantly shorter than in group B (419 ± 372.2 day) (p = 0.045). The other predictive factors were not significantly correlated with hypervascularization. Subsets of ''strict'' high-risk nodules showed hypervascular transformation during follow-up periods in association with increased growth rates, indicating that nodule growth rate is an important predictive factor for hypervascularization. (orig.)

  14. Automated pulmonary nodule detection based on three-dimensional shape-based feature descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wook-Jin; Choi, Tae-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) can help radiologists to detect pulmonary nodules at an early stage. In pulmonary nodule CAD systems, feature extraction is very important for describing the characteristics of nodule candidates. In this paper, we propose a novel three-dimensional shape-based feature descriptor to detect pulmonary nodules in CT scans. After lung volume segmentation, nodule candidates are detected using multi-scale dot enhancement filtering in the segmented lung volume. Next, we extract feature descriptors from the detected nodule candidates, and these are refined using an iterative wall elimination method. Finally, a support vector machine-based classifier is trained to classify nodules and non-nodules. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated on Lung Image Database Consortium data. The proposed method significantly reduces the number of false positives in nodule candidates. This method achieves 97.5% sensitivity, with only 6.76 false positives per scan. PMID:24148147

  15. The evaluation of perfusion CT imaging in thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of perfusion CT imaging in thyroid nodule. Methods: Of the 40 cases of post-surgical thyroid nodule identified by pathology, nodular goiter was verified in 22 cases, thyroid adenoma in 6 cases, and thyroid carcinoma in 12 cases. All cases underwent CT perfusion scan at preoperative, The perfusion parameters including the blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT), and permeability of surface (PS) of region of interest (ROI) were calculated. The Mann-whitney test was used to comparing the differences of the different perfusion parameters. The ones with statistical significance would be introduced into the discriminatory analysis to distinguish the benign and malignant thyroid nodule. Results: The median MTT in 28 cases with benign thyroid nodule were 4.33 s (Min 1.42 s, Max 10.93 s), and that in 12 cases with malignant nodules were 2.18 s (Min 1.95 s, Max 2.87 s). The difference had statistical significance (P=0.00). The median BF in cases with thyroid carcinoma was 560.23 (Min 330.66, Max 1000.00) ml·100 g-1·min-1, and that in cases with the benign nodular were 374.79 (Min 117.47, Max 1000.00) ml·100 g-1·min-1. There was a significant statistical difference (P=0.01). Through the discriminatory analysis, the difference of MTT between benign and malignant nodules were statistically significant (P=0.00). After establishing the Bayes discriminatory function, the overall diagnostic accuracy was 87.5% (35/40). Conclusions: MTT and BF are useful parameters in CT perfusion imaging to distinguish the benign and malignant thyroid nodules and the MTT is more accuracy. (authors)

  16. Computerized characterization of lung nodule subtlety using thoracic CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work is to design computerized image analysis techniques for automatically characterizing lung nodule subtlety in CT images. Automated subtlety estimation methods may help in computer-aided detection (CAD) assessment by quantifying dataset difficulty and facilitating comparisons among different CAD algorithms. A dataset containing 813 nodules from 499 patients was obtained from the Lung Image Database Consortium. Each nodule was evaluated by four radiologists regarding nodule subtlety using a 5-point rating scale (1: most subtle). We developed a 3D technique for segmenting lung nodules using a prespecified initial ROI. Texture and morphological features were automatically extracted from the segmented nodules and their margins. The dataset was partitioned into trainers and testers using a 1:1 ratio. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with average reader subtlety scores as the reference. Effective features for characterizing nodule subtlety were selected based on the training set using the ANN and a stepwise feature selection method. The performance of the classifier was evaluated using prediction probability (PK) as an agreement measure, which is considered a generalization of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve when the reference standard is multi-level. Using an ANN classifier trained with a set of 2 features (selected from a total of 30 features), including compactness and average gray value, the test concordance between computer scores and the average reader scores was 0.789 ± 0.014. Our results show that the proposed method had strong agreement with the average of subtlety scores provided by radiologists. (paper)

  17. Computerized characterization of lung nodule subtlety using thoracic CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Sahiner, Berkman; Gallas, Brandon D.; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this work is to design computerized image analysis techniques for automatically characterizing lung nodule subtlety in CT images. Automated subtlety estimation methods may help in computer-aided detection (CAD) assessment by quantifying dataset difficulty and facilitating comparisons among different CAD algorithms. A dataset containing 813 nodules from 499 patients was obtained from the Lung Image Database Consortium. Each nodule was evaluated by four radiologists regarding nodule subtlety using a 5-point rating scale (1: most subtle). We developed a 3D technique for segmenting lung nodules using a prespecified initial ROI. Texture and morphological features were automatically extracted from the segmented nodules and their margins. The dataset was partitioned into trainers and testers using a 1:1 ratio. An artificial neural network (ANN) was trained with average reader subtlety scores as the reference. Effective features for characterizing nodule subtlety were selected based on the training set using the ANN and a stepwise feature selection method. The performance of the classifier was evaluated using prediction probability (PK) as an agreement measure, which is considered a generalization of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve when the reference standard is multi-level. Using an ANN classifier trained with a set of 2 features (selected from a total of 30 features), including compactness and average gray value, the test concordance between computer scores and the average reader scores was 0.789 ± 0.014. Our results show that the proposed method had strong agreement with the average of subtlety scores provided by radiologists.

  18. Identification of two novel nodule-specific genes from Astragalus sinicus L. by suppressive subtractive hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To identify the genes involved in nodule formation and to increase usable molecular probes, a cDNA library of Astragalus sinicus genes specifically expressed in infected roots by Mesorhizobium huakuii 7653R is generated using a PCR-based suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique with two mRNA populations of infected and uninfected control roots. Two nodule-specific genes, AsIIC259 and AsG2511, are identified from infected roots of A. sinicus. The amino acid sequences deduced from the open reading frames (ORFs) reveal that AsIIC259 and AsG2511 encodes a polypeptide with 134 and 58 amino acids, respectively. A signal peptide sequence is predicted with high probability at the N-termini of the AsIIC259 and AsG2511. The motif searches show that the deduced polypeptide of AsIIC259 contains two N-glycosylation sites, a cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site and a casein kinase II phosphorylation site. BLASTP searches reveal that AsIIC259 putative protein displays a low degree of similarity to a unique nodulin from Lupinus luteus nodules. No significant identity is displayed over the predicted polypeptides of AsG2511 with any published sequences. Virtual Northern blot and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses indicate that the two genes are expressed exclusively in inoculated roots and that their expression is 2-4 d later than that of the leghaemoglobin (Lb) gene during nodule development.

  19. Influence of pCO2 on carbon allocation in nodulated Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Gabriela; Hartmann, Henrik; Ziegler, Waldemar; Michalzik, Beate; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel; Trumbore, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (pCO_2) have been related to changes in plant carbon (C) availability and photosynthetic capacity, yet there is no clear consensus as to the effect of pCO2 on the plant C balance and on nitrogen fixation in symbiotic systems. We investigated how different pCO2 (Pleistocene: 170 ppm, ambient: 400 ppm and projected future: 700 ppm) influence C allocation in nodulated Medicago sativa L. We labeled 17 week old plants with depleted 13C (-34.7±1.2‰) and traced the label over a 9-day period, to assess the redistribution of newly assimilated C across different sinks, including nodules. We analyzed N concentrations in plant tissues and found no significant differences in leaves and roots across treatments. However, growth and C fixation rates increased with pCO_2, and differences were greatest between 170 ppm and 700 ppm. Across pCO2 treatments we observed a 13C-enrichment in roots compared to leaves. We further observed the highest 13C depletion of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) and respired CO2 in tissues of plants grown at 700 ppm, especially in leaves and nodules. Our preliminary results suggest that sink organs like roots and nodules are fed with newly-assimilated NSCs from leaves to support respiration, and especially in 170 ppm plants represented a major respiratory loss of newly assimilated C (≈ 35{%} of the total plant respiration). Our results suggest that although plant metabolic processes like photosynthesis and respiration are affected by changes in pCO_2, nitrogen acquisition in such a symbiotic system is not.

  20. Regression of nodules on cranial computerized tomography (CCT) scans in 4 focal epileptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epilepsy can be defined as a paroxysmal, excessive, neuronal discharge within the brain originating from either cortical or sugcortical regions. The incidence of epilepsy is increasing possibly due to the survival of persons who should have died of brain injuries or other cerebral abnormalities acquired in early life. The use of antibiotics and improvement in the medical care have saved many children who might have died of meningitis, brain abscess, encephalitis, severe head injuries, etc. CCT scan is new radiologic procedure for defining cranial and intracranial structures and also an useful procedure for evaluation and follow-up (FU) of patient with focal seizure disorder. Recently we experienced nodules which were isodense or hypodense on initial non contrasted CT (NECT) and scans became hyperdense of the enhancement in 4 cases of focal epileptic seizure. Nearly complete disappearance or regression of the epileptic foci occurred on the FU CT scans in 2 cases. Operation was performed in 2 cases. The tissue specimen obtained from the CT nodule revealed cerebral edema in one case and localized gliosis and congestion in the other. All the patients showed marked clinical improvement when the CT nodule improved. Review of literature failed to disclose any previous report on such observation

  1. Potential Lung Nodules Identification for Characterization by Variable Multistep Threshold and Shape Indices from CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT is an important imaging modality. Physicians, surgeons, and oncologists prefer CT scan for diagnosis of lung cancer. However, some nodules are missed in CT scan. Computer aided diagnosis methods are useful for radiologists for detection of these nodules and early diagnosis of lung cancer. Early detection of malignant nodule is helpful for treatment. Computer aided diagnosis of lung cancer involves lung segmentation, potential nodules identification, features extraction from the potential nodules, and classification of the nodules. In this paper, we are presenting an automatic method for detection and segmentation of lung nodules from CT scan for subsequent features extraction and classification. Contribution of the work is the detection and segmentation of small sized nodules, low and high contrast nodules, nodules attached with vasculature, nodules attached to pleura membrane, and nodules in close vicinity of the diaphragm and lung wall in one-go. The particular techniques of the method are multistep threshold for the nodule detection and shape index threshold for false positive reduction. We used 60 CT scans of “Lung Image Database Consortium-Image Database Resource Initiative” taken by GE medical systems LightSpeed16 scanner as dataset and correctly detected 92% nodules. The results are reproducible.

  2. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  3. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. PMID:21439724

  4. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Jonker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  5. Brazilian experience in characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose on camera-based PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), showing increased 18F-FDG uptake and retention in malignant cells, has proved useful to differentiate malignant from benign pulmonary nodules. An accurate diagnosis of pulmonary cancer represents a clinical challenge. This could be even more significant in Latin America, where the incidence of infectious granulomas is high. However, the high cost of dedicated- PET studies has prevented widespread application of this technique. Hybrid PET is a new approach to tumor imaging using 18F-FDG. In our country, such a system was introduced in 1998. These systems offer the possibility to produce diagnostic quality images of 18F-FDG body distribution, making metabolic scans potentially available. Objective : The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of F-18-FDG scan using a hybrid PET in characterizing pulmonary nodules as benign or malignant. Methods: We evaluated 62 patients (50 male, 38-79y) with indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodules after computed tomography (CT) screening. 18F-FDG scans were performed on a camera-based PET (MCD Vertex-plus Adac) after injection of 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose intravenously. Image acquisition began after 1 hour. Qualitative analysis of the images was performed by visual identification of areas of increase (positive) or absence (negative)of FDG uptake. All results were assessed on basis of histology or clinical/radiological follow-up. Results : Twenty-one patients (33.9%) showed a marked increase in FDG uptake and underwent invasive intervention (biopsy or thoracotomy). Histopathological evaluation revealed malignant disease in eighteen of these patients and benign disease in three of them (positive predictive value = 85.7%). Forty-one patients (66.1%) showed absence of FDG uptake. Fourteen of them underwent surgical procedure. Malignancy was found in only one. Twenty-seven patients with negative FDG studies are being followed up with a

  6. High speed TV-towing system for exploration manganese nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the oceanographic, special for the manganese nodules exploration in the deep sea a high speed-TV-towing system is to design on base of existing TV-towing systems to get better efficiency during the exploration phase. It is planned to increase to towing speed at the time of 2 knots up to 6-8 knots. The essential points of developments in this direction are 1) to decrease the hydrodynamical drag of the long towing cable with fairings. 2) To seperate to towing system into two units the passiv controlled towing cable end point 'SEP' with negativ buoyancy (weight) and the activ controlled TV-fish. With this separation it is possible to tow the TV-fish within a defined accuracy parallel to the sea floor without an influence to the overall system. 3) To adapt the TV- and photo stobe light unit for these towing conditions (high speed). 4) To design the control concept, the operating equipment, the energy and data transmission system, the towed body concept, the hydrodynamical calculation of towing phase and the other towed components. The results of this study is the definition of a two body towing system which is able towed by a research vessel to make continously TV-observation of the sea floor in depth down to 6,000 meters. (orig.)

  7. Effect of microwave irradiation on alfalfa seeds germination and nitrogenase activity of endophytic diazotrophs in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various microwave powers were used to irradiate alfalfa seeds with various time to study the effect of microwave irradiation on nitrogenase activity of endogenous azotobacter and germination of seeds. Germination rate, germination speed and nitrogenase activity of pure cultures that derived from seed-carried azotobacter were tested. The results indicate that : 800 W, 20 s and 500 W, 40 s are found with highest germination rate on the 1st day, which is 122% and 88.9% times higher than the control group (Pth day is 29.8% and 41.9% times longer than the control group, and more sensitive nitrogenase activity is found on condition of various time than various powers. Short time treatments on condition of the two irradiation powers can increase nitrogenase activity conspicuously, and the treatments that treated more than 32 s make nitrogenase activity lower than the control group, conspicuously. Nitrogenase activity is found 104.9% times higher than the control group on condition of 24 s. (authors)

  8. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: Atomic Gas and the Regulation of Star Formation in Barred Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Karen L; Haynes, Martha P; Keel, William C; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' HI content from the ALFALFA blind HI survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas rich disc galaxies than gas poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation, and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangu...

  9. Fluorene and Phenanthrene Uptake and Accumulation by Wheat, Alfalfa and Sunflower from the Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Lisar, Seyed Yahya; Deljoo, Somaye; Harzandi, Ahmad Mosen

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are diverse organic contaminants released into the environment by both natural and anthropogenic activities. These compounds have negative impacts on plants growth and development. Although there are many reports on their existence in different parts of plant, their uptake and translocation pathways and mechanisms are not well understood yet. This paper highlights the uptake, translocation and accumulation of PAHs by wheat, sunflower and alfalfa through an experimental study under controlled conditions. Seeds were cultivated in a soil containing 50 mg/kg of phenanthrene and fluorene and their concentrations in plants roots and shoots were determined using a gas chromatograph after 7 and 14 days. The results showed that phenanthrene and fluorene concentrations in the treated plants were increased over the time. PAHs bioavailability was time and species dependent and generally, phenanthrene uptake and translocation was faster than that of fluorene, probably due to their higher Kow. Fluorene tended to accumulate in roots, but phenanthrene was transported to aerial parts of plants. PMID:25950194

  10. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  11. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors sup

  12. Molecular Biology Approaches to Solve Forage Crop Limitations: Improving Protein Utilization and Preventing Leaf Loss in Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our laboratory is using molecular biology approaches to better understand and develop solutions to some of the current limitations of alfalfa and other forage crops used in animal and bioenergy production systems. A major limitation of alfalfa is that much of its protein is degraded during harvest a...

  13. Assessment of the importance of alfalfa to the epidemiology of xylellae diseases in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of alfalfa in the epidemiology of xylellae diseases in the San Joaquin Valley of California was assessed. Alfalfa was investigated as it is a known host of Xylella fastidiosa and often harbors large populations of a native vector, Draeculacephala minerva. Laboratory inoculation of fourtee...

  14. Effect of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed development and viability in genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral populations of cultivated crops have the potential to function as bridges and reservoirs that contribute to the unwanted movement of novel genetically engineered (GE) traits. Recognizing that feral alfalfa has the potential to lower genetic purity in alfalfa seed production fields when it is g...

  15. Variation in alfalfa leafcutting bee (hymenoptera: megachilidae) reproductive success according to location of nests in United States commercial domiciles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  16. Plant density and maturity stage impacts on stem cell wall composition in high quality and non-lodging alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of stem cell wall constituents in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can affect energy availability in livestock production systems and energy conversion efficiency when alfalfa is used to produce biofuels. Knowledge of the environmental variability of cell wall concentration and composi...

  17. A comparison of radionuclide thyroid angiography, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy and power Doppler ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of solitary cold thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, Koray; Kapucu, Oezlem [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Yuecel, Cem; Oezdemir, Hakan [Department of Radiology, Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Ayvaz, Goeksun [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Taneri, Ferit [Department of Surgery, Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2003-05-01

    We prospectively studied 43 patients with solitary cold thyroid nodules greater than 1.5 cm in diameter to determine the comparative diagnostic value of radionuclide thyroid angiography (RTA), technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc-MIBI) scintigraphy and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Perfusion of the nodules in RTA was compared with the perfusion in the surrounding normal thyroid tissue and classified as follows: 0, avascular; 1, hypovascular; 2, isovascular; 3, hypervascular. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake in the nodules compared with that in surrounding thyroid tissue was scored for both early and delayed images as follows: 0, cold; 1, decreased; 2, equal; 3, increased. PDUS patterns were classified as nodule vascularisation patterns. The malignancy criteria were set as follows: hypervascular nodule with rapid washout in RTA; complex ring sign with anarchic structure or delta sign in PDUS, and positive retention and increased uptake in the nodule in the early and delayed {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI images. These data were compared with the histopathological results. Histology revealed thyroid carcinoma in nine patients (five cases of papillary carcinoma, three of follicular carcinoma and one of medullary carcinoma) and benign conditions in 34 patients (30 cases of nodular goitre, three of lymphocytic thyroiditis and one of follicular adenoma). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were, respectively, 0.89, 1.00 and 0.97 for RTA, 1.00, 0.76 and 0.81 for PDUS, and 0.67, 0.91 and 0.86 for {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy (when nodules with increased uptake in both the early and the delayed images and a positive retention index were considered as malignant). RTA, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy and PDUS could be helpful in the preoperative assessment of solitary cold thyroid nodules. In this study, RTA was found to be the most accurate and specific method for differentiation of malignant from benign

  18. 生育期与品种对紫花苜蓿营养价值及瘤胃降解率的影响%The Effect of Different Growth Period and Variety on Nutrition Value and Its Rumen Degradability of Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 辛杭书; 王燕; 夏科; 张永根

    2012-01-01

    Three varieties of alfalfa mowed at squaring stage, initial bloom or full-bloom stage were chosen and air-dried to investigate the effect of different growth period and variety on nutrition value and its rumen degradability of alfalfa. The results showed that the contents such as crude protein (CP) and crude ash(CA),the effective degradation rate and immediately soluble components content (a component) of CP and NDF reduced as the growth period extended; while the nutrient contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF),the slow degradation components (b component) of CP increased. The content of CP and the effective degradation rate of Zhaodong alfalfa and Longmu 803 alfalfa were significantly higher than that of Longmu 801 alfalfa (P<0. 01); the content of ADF and the effective degradation rate of CP reduced according to the order of Zhaodong alfalfa, Longmu 801 alfalfa and Longmu 803 alfalfa (P<0. 05); growth period and variety had significant interaction on the content of CP and the effective degradation rate of NDF. It was concluded that growth period and variety had significant effect on the nutrient content and effective degradation rate of alfalfa.%选用3个品种(肇东、龙牧801和龙牧803)、3个不同生育期(现蕾期、初花期和盛花期)的紫花苜蓿,研究不同生育期与品种对苜蓿营养价值及瘤胃降解特性的影响.结果表明,粗蛋白质(CP)含量、粗灰分(CA)含量、CP和中性洗涤纤维(NDF)的瘤胃有效降解率及快速降解组分(a组分)含量均随生育期的延长而降低;NDF、酸性洗涤纤维(ADF)和CP的慢速降解组分(b组分)含量随生育期的延长而升高;肇东和龙牧803的CP含最、NDF有效降解率极显著高于龙牧801(P<0.01);ADF含量、CP有效降解率按肇东、龙牧801、龙牧803顺序显著降低(P<0.05);生育期与品种对CP含量、CA含量及CP、NDF有效降解率均有明显的互作效应.

  19. Graphite nodule count and size distribution in thin-walled ductile cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Karl Martin; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Graphite nodule count and size distribution have been analysed in thin walled ductile cast iron. The 2D nodule counts have been converted into 3D nodule count by using Finite Difference Method (FDM). Particles having a diameter smaller than 5 µm should be neglected in the nodule count as these are inclusions and micro porosities that do not influence the solidification morphology. If there are many small graphite nodules as in thin walled castings only 3D nodule count calculated by FDM will g...

  20. The importance of risk models for management of pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary nodules are a frequent finding in computed tomography (CT) investigations. Further diagnostic work-up of detected nodules mainly depends on the so-called pre-test probability, i.e. the probability that the nodule is malignant or benign. The pre-test probability can be calculated by combining all relevant information, such as the age and the sex of the patient, the smoking history, and history of previous malignancies, as well as the size and CT morphology of the nodule. If additional investigations are performed to further investigate the nodules, all results must be interpreted taking into account the pre-test probability and the test performance of the investigation in order to estimate the post-test probability. In cases with a low pre-test probability, a negative result from an exact test can exclude malignancies but a positive test cannot prove malignancy in such a setting. In cases with a high pre-test probability, a positive test result can be considered as proof of malignancy but a negative test result does not exclude malignancy. (orig.)