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Sample records for alfalfa nodules increases

  1. Lignin modification leads to increased nodule numbers in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Bhattarai, Kishor; Pislariu, Catalina I; Nakashima, Jin; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Udvardi, Michael K; Monteros, Maria J; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Reduction of lignin levels in the forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by down-regulation of the monolignol biosynthetic enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) results in strongly increased digestibility and processing ability of lignocellulose. However, these modifications are often also associated with dwarfing and other changes in plant growth. Given the importance of nitrogen fixation for legume growth, we evaluated the impact of constitutively targeted lignin modification on the belowground organs (roots and nodules) of alfalfa plants. HCT down-regulated alfalfa plants exhibit a striking reduction in root growth accompanied by an unexpected increase in nodule numbers when grown in the greenhouse or in the field. This phenotype is associated with increased levels of gibberellins and certain flavonoid compounds in roots. Although HCT down-regulation reduced biomass yields in both the greenhouse and field experiments, the impact on the allocation of nitrogen to shoots or roots was minimal. It is unlikely, therefore, that the altered growth phenotype of reduced-lignin alfalfa is a direct result of changes in nodulation or nitrogen fixation efficiency. Furthermore, HCT down-regulation has no measurable effect on carbon allocation to roots in either greenhouse or 3-year field trials.

  2. Persistence and diversity of rhizobial bacteria nodulating alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with an inoculant consisting of several strains of the nitrogen fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti to enhance nodulation of seedlings. One strategy for increasing alfalfa forage yields, particularly in less fertile sites, is selection and use of highly competitive a...

  3. Diversity of field isolates of sinorhizobium meliloti nodulating alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with a rhizobial inoculant consisting of one or more strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti before planting to enhance nodulation of seedlings. However, little is known about the persistence of inoculated strains later in the season. There is also a paucity of information on ...

  4. Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación; Trujillo, Martha E; Igual, José M; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    2014-09-17

    Biotic interactions can improve agricultural productivity without costly and environmentally challenging inputs. Micromonospora strains have recently been reported as natural endophytes of legume nodules but their significance for plant development and productivity has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and function of Micromonospora isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules. Micromonospora-like strains from field alfalfa nodules were characterized by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The ecological role of the interaction of the 15 selected representative Micromonospora strains was tested in M. sativa. Nodulation, plant growth and nutrition parameters were analyzed. Alfalfa nodules naturally contain abundant and highly diverse populations of Micromonospora, both at the intra- and at interspecific level. Selected Micromonospora isolates significantly increase the nodulation of alfalfa by Ensifer meliloti 1021 and also the efficiency of the plant for nitrogen nutrition. Moreover, they promote aerial growth, the shoot-to-root ratio, and raise the level of essential nutrients. Our results indicate that Micromonospora acts as a Rhizobia Helper Bacteria (RHB) agent and has probiotic effects, promoting plant growth and increasing nutrition efficiency. Its ecological role, biotechnological potential and advantages as a plant probiotic bacterium (PPB) are also discussed.

  5. Screening of Highly Effective Sinorhizobium meliloti Strains for 'Vector' Alfalfa and Testing of Its Competitive Nodulation Ability in the Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhao-Hai; CHEN Wen-Xin; HU Yue-Gao; SUI Xin-Hua; CHEN Dan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen Sinorhizobium meliloti strains from seven provinces in China were used to screen highly effective strains for alfalfa cultivar in a greenhouse study and their symbiotic relationship and competitive ability were studied in the field.CCBAU30138 was the most effective strain,as evidenced by increase in dry weights.A field experiment showed that the inoculation of alfalfa with CCBAU30138 resulted in increases of 11.9%and 19.6%of dry matter production and crude protein production,respectively,in forage of monocultured plants.The total dry matter yields of alfalfa and tall fescue in binary culture were increased by 16.3%by inoculation of alfalfa with this strain.These results showed that S.Meliloti strain CCBAU30138 was an effective inoculant both in the greenhouse and in the field.The analysis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD)by polymerase chain reaction(PCR)from nodule extracts showed that the strain CCBAU30138 had high competitiveness in the field.It occupied 47.5%of nodules in alfalfa monoculture and 44.4% of nodules in alfalfa-tall fescue binary culture after 20 weeks of growth.In conclusion,a simple system to select highly effective and competitive symbiotic strains specific to alfalfa was established.Using this system.A strain suitable for the alfalfa cultivar'Vector’grown in Wuqiao County of Hebei Province was obtained.

  6. Expression of nodule-specific genes in alfalfa root nodules blocked at an early stage of development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickstein, R.; Bisseling, T.; Reinhold, V.N.; Ausubel, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    To help dissect the molecular basis of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, we used in vitro translation and Northern blot analysis of nodule RNA to examine alfalfa-specific genes (nodulins) expressed in two types of developmentally defective root nodules elicited by Rhizobium meliloti. Fix- nodules were

  7. Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Martínez-Hidalgo; Purificación Galindo-Villardón; Trujillo, Martha E.; Igual, José M.; Eustoquio Martínez-Molina

    2014-01-01

    Biotic interactions can improve agricultural productivity without costly and environmentally challenging inputs. Micromonospora strains have recently been reported as natural endophytes of legume nodules but their significance for plant development and productivity has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and function of Micromonospora isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules. Micromonospora-like strains from field alfalfa nodules were characteri...

  8. CO/sub 2/ fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil root nodules and partitioning of /sup 14/C to the plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, C.A.; Vance, C.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Stade, S.

    The objectives of this study were to determine if nonphotosynthetic CO/sub 2/ fixation by root nodules contributes carbon for the assimilation of fixed N/sub 2/ in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and if assimilation products are partitioned to different plant organs. Effective alfalfa nodules excised from or attached to roots had apparent /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation rates of 50 to 80 ..mu..g CO/sub 2/ kg/sup -1/s/sup -1/ (dry weight) at 0.0012 to 0.0038 mole fraction CO/sub 2/. Nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation rates increased six- to seven-fold as ambient CO/sub 2/ was raised from 0.0038 to 0.0663 mole fraction. Respiration rates of nodules (3 to 4 mg CO/sub 2/ kg/sup -1/s/sup -1/) were 10 to 100-fold higher than /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation rates of nodules. Pulse chase experiments with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ combined with nodule and xylem sap analysis demonstrated the initial products of root and nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation were organic acids. However, the export of fixed /sup 14/C from effective nodules was primarily in the form of amino acids. In contrast, nodule and/or root fixed /sup 14/C in ineffectively nodulated alfalfa and denodulated effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil was transported primarily as organic acids. Aspartate, asparagine, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine were the most heavily labeled compounds in the amino acid fraction of both effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil nodules exposed to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. By contrast, asparate, asparagine, and glutamine were the predominantly labeled amino acids in xylem sap collected from nodulated effective roots exposed to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. The occurrence of nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil and the export of fixed carbon as asparagine and aspartate to roots and shoots is consistent with a role for CO/sub 2/ fixation by nodules in providing carbon skeletons for assimilation and transport of symbiotically fixed N/sub 2/.

  9. Alfalfa Enod12 genes are differentially regulated during nodule development by Nod factors and Rhizobium invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, P; Crespi, M D; Szécsi, J; Allison, L A; Schultze, M; Ratet, P; Kondorosi, E; Kondorosi, A

    1994-01-01

    MsEnod12A and MsEnod12B are two early nodulin genes from alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Differential expression of these genes was demonstrated using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approach. MsEnod12A RNA was detected only in nodules and not in other plant tissues. In contrast, MsEnod12B transcripts were found in nodules and also at low levels in roots, flowers, stems, and leaves. MsEnod12B expression was enhanced in the root early after inoculation with the microsymbiont Rhizobium meliloti and after treatment with purified Nod factors, whereas MsEnod12A induction was detected only when developing nodules were visible. In situ hybridization showed that in nodules, MsEnod12 expression occurred in the infection zone. In empty Fix- nodules the MsEnod12A transcript level was much reduced, and in spontaneous nodules it was not detectable. These data indicate that MsEnod12B expression in roots is related to the action of Nod factors, whereas MsEnod12A expression is associated with the invasion process in nodules. Therefore, alfalfa possesses different mechanisms regulating MsEnod12A and MsEnod12B expression. PMID:8066132

  10. Oxygen Regulation of a Nodule-Located Carbonic Anhydrase in Alfalfa1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Susana; Hirsch, Ann M.; Wycoff, Keith L.; Hunt, Stephen; Layzell, David B.; Kondorosi, Adam; Crespi, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Control of the permeability to oxygen is critical for the function of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. The inner cortex (IC) seems to be a primary site for this regulation. In alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nodules, expression of the Msca1 gene encoding a carbonic anhydrase (CA) was previously found to be restricted to the IC. We have now raised antibodies against recombinant Msca1 protein and used them, together with antibodies raised against potato leaf CA, to demonstrate the presence of two forms of CA in mature nodules. Each antibody recognizes a different CA isoform in nodule tissues. Immunolocalization revealed that leaf-related CAs were localized primarily in the nitrogen-fixing zone, whereas the Msca1 protein was restricted exclusively to the IC region, in indeterminate and determinate nodules. In alfalfa nodules grown at various O2 concentrations, an inverse correlation was observed between the external oxygen pressure and Msca1 protein content in the IC, the site of the putative diffusion barrier. Thus Msca1 is a molecular target of physiological processes occurring in the IC cells involved in gas exchange in the nodule. PMID:11080283

  11. Synthesis of an opine-like compound, a rhizopine, in alfalfa nodules is symbiotically regulated.

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, P J; Heycke, N; Trenz, S P; Ratet, P.; de Bruijn, F J; Schell, J.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the promoter of the mos locus, which encodes genes required for the synthesis of a nodule-specific, opine-like compound, a rhizopine, in alfalfa nodules is regulated by the symbiotic nitrogen-fixation regulatory gene nifA. The 5'-regulatory region and amino-terminal end of the first open reading frame of the mos locus are highly homologous to the 5'-regulatory region and amino-terminal portion of the Rhizobium meliloti nifH gene. The coordinate regulation of mos and nif genes sug...

  12. Requirement of succinate dehydrogenase activity for symbiotic bacteroid differentiation of Rhizobium meliloti in alfalfa nodules.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiol, A E; Truchet, G L; Dazzo, F. B.

    1987-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the cellular morphologies of a wild-type Rhizobium meliloti strain (L5-30), a nitrogen fixation-ineffective (Fix-) succinate dehydrogenase mutant (Sdh-) strain, and a Fix+ Sdh+ revertant strain within alfalfa nodules and after free-living growth in a minimal medium containing 27 mM mannitol plus 20 mM succinate. The results showed a requirement of succinate dehydrogenase activity for symbiotic differentiation and maintenance of R. meliloti ba...

  13. Molybdate in Rhizobial Seed-Coat Formulations Improves the Production and Nodulation of Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiqiong; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Yingjun; Cobb, Adam B; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia-legume symbiosis is the most well researched biological nitrogen fixation system. Coating legume seeds with rhizobia is now a recognized practical measure for improving the production of legume corp. However, the efficacy of some commercial rhizobia inoculants cannot be guaranteed in China due to the low rate of live rhizobia in these products. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different rhizobial inoculant formulations on alfalfa productivity and nitrogen fixation. Two rhizobia strains, (ACCC17631 and ACCC17676), that are effective partners with alfalfa variety Zhongmu No. 1 were assessed with different concentrations of ammonium molybdate in seed-coat formulations with two different coating adhesives. Our study showed that the growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation ability of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17631 rhizobial strain were greatest when the ammonium molybdate application was0.2% of the formulation. An ammonium molybdate concentration of 0.1% was most beneficial to the growth of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17676 rhizobial strain. The sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate, used as coating adhesives, did not have a significant effect on alfalfa biomass and nitrogen fixation. However, the addition of skimmed milk to the adhesive improved nitrogenase activity. These results demonstrate that a new rhizobial seed-coat formulation benefitted alfalfa nodulation and yield.

  14. Molybdate in Rhizobial Seed-Coat Formulations Improves the Production and Nodulation of Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiqiong; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Yingjun; Cobb, Adam B.; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia-legume symbiosis is the most well researched biological nitrogen fixation system. Coating legume seeds with rhizobia is now a recognized practical measure for improving the production of legume corp. However, the efficacy of some commercial rhizobia inoculants cannot be guaranteed in China due to the low rate of live rhizobia in these products. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different rhizobial inoculant formulations on alfalfa productivity and nitrogen fixation. Two rhizobia strains, (ACCC17631 and ACCC17676), that are effective partners with alfalfa variety Zhongmu No. 1 were assessed with different concentrations of ammonium molybdate in seed-coat formulations with two different coating adhesives. Our study showed that the growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation ability of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17631 rhizobial strain were greatest when the ammonium molybdate application was0.2% of the formulation. An ammonium molybdate concentration of 0.1% was most beneficial to the growth of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17676 rhizobial strain. The sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate, used as coating adhesives, did not have a significant effect on alfalfa biomass and nitrogen fixation. However, the addition of skimmed milk to the adhesive improved nitrogenase activity. These results demonstrate that a new rhizobial seed-coat formulation benefitted alfalfa nodulation and yield. PMID:28099471

  15. Effects of water stress on antioxidant enzymes of leaves and nodules of transgenic alfalfa overexpressing superoxide dismutases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Maria C; González, Esther M; Minchin, Frank R; Webb, K. Judith; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; Ramos, Javier; Becana, Manuel

    2002-08-01

    The antioxidant composition and relative water stress tolerance of nodulated alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L. x Sinorhizobium meliloti 102F78) of the elite genotype N4 and three derived transgenic lines have been studied in detail. These transgenic lines overproduced, respectively, Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the mitochondria of leaves and nodules, MnSOD in the chloroplasts, and FeSOD in the chloroplasts. In general for all lines, water stress caused moderate decreases in MnSOD and FeSOD activities in both leaves and nodules, but had distinct tissue-dependent effects on the activities of the peroxide-scavenging enzymes. During water stress, with a few exceptions, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities increased moderately in leaves but decreased in nodules. At mild water stress, transgenic lines showed, on average, 20% higher photosynthetic activity than the parental line, which suggests a superior tolerance of transgenic plants under these conditions. However, the untransformed and the transgenic plants performed similarly during moderate and severe water stress and recovery with respect to important markers of metabolic activity and of oxidative stress in leaves and nodules. We conclude that the base genotype used for transformation and the background SOD isozymic composition may have a profound effect on the relative tolerance of the transgenic lines to abiotic stress.

  16. Nodulin gene expression and ENOD2 localization in effective, nitrogen fixing and ineffective, bacteria-free nodules of alfalfa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Nurris, J.H.; Bocheneck, B.; Dickstein, R.; Bisseling, T.; Hirsch, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Alfalfa plants form bacteria-free nodules in response to a number of agents, including Rhizobium meliloti exo mutants, Agrobacterium tumefaciens transconjugants carrying cloned R. meliloti nodulation genes, and compounds that function as auxin transport inhibitors, N-( 1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid or

  17. Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is an herb. People use the leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine. Alfalfa is used for kidney conditions, bladder and prostate ... bleeding disorder called thrombocytopenic purpura. People also take alfalfa as a source of vitamins A, C, E, ...

  18. The Nodulation of Alfalfa by the Acid-Tolerant Rhizobium sp. Strain LPU83 Does Not Require Sulfated Forms of Lipochitooligosaccharide Nodulation Signals▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Del Papa, María Florencia; Soria-Diaz, M. Eugenia; Draghi, Walter; Lozano, Mauricio; Giusti, María de los Ángeles; Manyani, Hamid; Megías, Manuel; Gil Serrano, Antonio; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten; Lagares, Antonio; Pistorio, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    The induction of root nodules by the majority of rhizobia has a strict requirement for the secretion of symbiosis-specific lipochitooligosaccharides (nodulation factors [NFs]). The nature of the chemical substitution on the NFs depends on the particular rhizobium and contributes to the host specificity imparted by the NFs. We present here a description of the genetic organization of the nod gene cluster and the characterization of the chemical structure of the NFs associated with the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83, a bacterium capable of nodulating at least alfalfa, bean, and Leucena leucocephala. The nod gene cluster was located on the plasmid pLPU83b. The organization of the cluster showed synteny with those of the alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae. Interestingly, the strongest sequence similarity observed was between the partial nod sequences of Rhizobium mongolense USDA 1844 and the corresponding LPU83 nod genes sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the intergenic region nodEG positions strain LPU83 and the type strain R. mongolense 1844 in the same branch, which indicates that Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83 might represent an early alfalfa-nodulating genotype. The NF chemical structures obtained for the wild-type strain consist of a trimeric, tetrameric, and pentameric chitin backbone that shares some substitutions with both alfalfa- and bean-nodulating rhizobia. Remarkably, while in strain LPU83 most of the NFs were sulfated in their reducing terminal residue, none of the NFs isolated from the nodH mutant LPU83-H were sulfated. The evidence obtained supports the notion that the sulfate decoration of NFs in LPU83 is not necessary for alfalfa nodulation. PMID:20971905

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Alfalfa-Nodulating Rhizobia Present in Acidic Soils of Central Argentina and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes enco...

  20. Rhizobium favelukesii sp. nov., isolated from the root nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Althabegoiti, María Julia; Nilsson, Juliet Fernanda; Niehaus, Karsten; Schlüter, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Del Papa, María Florencia; Lagares, Antonio; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Pistorio, Mariano

    2016-11-01

    Strains LPU83T and Or191 of the genus Rhizobium were isolated from the root nodules of alfalfa, grown in acid soils from Argentina and the USA. These two strains, which shared the same plasmid pattern, lipopolysaccharide profile, insertion-sequence fingerprint, 16S rRNA gene sequence and PCR-fingerprinting pattern, were different from reference strains representing species of the genus Rhizobium with validly published names. On the basis of previously reported data and from new DNA-DNA hybridization results, phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses, strains LPU83T and Or191 can be considered to be representatives of a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium favelukesii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this species is LPU83T (=CECT 9014T=LMG 29160T), for which an improved draft-genome sequence is available.

  1. Paenibacillus medicaginis sp. nov. a chitinolytic endophyte isolated from the root nodule of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-An; Hameed, Asif; Lin, Shih-Yao; Hung, Mei-Hua; Hsu, Yi-Han; Liu, You-Cheng; Shahina, Mariyan; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-08-04

    A Gram-stain-variable, short-rod-shaped, endospore-forming, strictly aerobic, non-motile, chitinolytic and endophytic bacterium, designated strain CC-Alfalfa-19T, exhibiting unusual bipolar appendages was isolated from the root nodule of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Taiwan and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomy. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CC-Alfalfa-19T was found to be most closely related to Paenibacillus puldeungensis CAU 9324T (95.2 %), whereas other Paenibacillus species shared ≤95.0 % sequence similarity. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a distinct phyletic lineage established by strain CC-Alfalfa-19T with respect to other Paenibacillus species. Fatty acids comprised predominantly anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C16. Menaquinone 7 (MK-7) was identified as the sole respiratory quinone and the genomic DNA G+C content was 42.7 mol%. Polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified lipid. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic evidences that were in line with the genus Paenibacillus and additional distinguishing characteristics, strain CC-Alfalfa-19T is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus medicaginis sp. nov. (type strain CC-Alfalfa-19T = BCRC 80441T = JCM 18446T) is proposed.

  2. The tep1 gene of Sinorhizobium meliloti coding for a putative transmembrane efflux protein and N-acetyl glucosamine affect nod gene expression and nodulation of alfalfa plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto María

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil bacteria collectively known as Rhizobium, characterized by their ability to establish beneficial symbiosis with legumes, share several common characteristics with pathogenic bacteria when infecting the host plant. Recently, it was demonstrated that a fadD mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti is altered in the control of swarming, a type of co-ordinated movement previously associated with pathogenicity, and is also impaired in nodulation efficiency on alfalfa roots. In the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris, a fadD homolog (rpfB forms part of a cluster of genes involved in the regulation of pathogenicity factors. In this work, we have investigated the role in swarming and symbiosis of SMc02161, a S. meliloti fadD-linked gene. Results The SMc02161 locus in S. meliloti shows similarities with members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS of transporters. A S. meliloti null-mutant shows increased sensitivity to chloramphenicol. This indication led us to rename the locus tep1 for transmembrane efflux protein. The lack of tep1 does not affect the appearance of swarming motility. Interestingly, nodule formation efficiency on alfalfa plants is improved in the tep1 mutant during the first days of the interaction though nod gene expression is lower than in the wild type strain. Curiously, a nodC mutation or the addition of N-acetyl glucosamine to the wild type strain lead to similar reductions in nod gene expression as in the tep1 mutant. Moreover, aminosugar precursors of Nod factors inhibit nodulation. Conclusion tep1 putatively encodes a transmembrane protein which can confer chloramphenicol resistance in S. meliloti by expelling the antibiotic outside the bacteria. The improved nodulation of alfalfa but reduced nod gene expression observed in the tep1 mutant suggests that Tep1 transports compounds which influence nodulation. In contrast to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, we show that in S. meliloti there is no feedback regulation

  3. Nitrogen use efficiency and life cycle of nodules in alfalfa after different mineral fertilization and soil cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vasileva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen use efficiency and life cycle of root nodules in alfalfa after different mineral fertilization and soil cultivation practices were studied. Field trial was conducted in the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria on leached chernozem subsoil type and no irrigation. The next treatments were tested: i for fertilization as follows: N0P0K0 (control; N60P100K80 (an accepted technology; N23P100K35 (nitrogen was applied 1/2 in first year of growing and 1/2 in third year; N23P100K35 (nitrogen was supplied pre-sowing; N35P80K50, and Аmophose - 250 kg/ha, calculated at fertilizing rates N27P120K0; ii for soil cultivation as follows: soil loosing 10-12 cm, plough at depth 12-15 cm, 22-24 cm (an accepted technology, 18-22 cm and 30-35 cm. It was found that soil cultivation and mineral fertilization had effect on nitrogen use efficiency and life cycle of root nodules in Alfalfa. Nitrogen use efficiency was found to be highest at N23P100K35 and plough at the depth of 22-24 cm. Life cycle of root nodules was the longest at N35P80K50 and plough at the depth of 18-22 cm. The better root mass to nodule number ratio was found at N23P100K35 and plough at the depth of 22-24 cm.

  4. Relationship between photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, M Carmen; Fiasconaro, M Laura; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-10-15

    Sewage sludge has been used as N fertilizer because it contains some of inorganic N, principally as nitrate and ammonium ions. However, sewage sludge addition to legumes could result in impaired nodule metabolism due to the presence of inorganic N from sludge. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the effects of sewage sludge on growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nodule metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Aragón). Plants were grown in pots with a mixture of perlite and vermiculite (2:1, v/v). The experiment included three treatments: (1) plants inoculated with rhizobia and amended with sewage sludge at rate of 10% (w/w) (RS); (2) plants inoculated with rhizobia without any amendment (R); and (3) non-inoculated plants fed with ammonium nitrate (N). N(2)-fixing plants had lower growth and sucrose phosphate synthase activity but higher photosynthesis than nitrate-fed plants because they compensated the carbon cost of the rhizobia. However, sewage sludge-treated plants evidenced a loss of carbon sink strength due to N(2) fixation by means of decreased photosynthetic capacity, leaf chlorophylls and N concentration in comparison to untreated plants. Sewage sludge did no affect nodulation but decreased nodule enzyme activities involved in carbon and N metabolisms that may lead to accumulation of toxic N-compounds.

  5. The Sinorhizobium meliloti ntrX gene is involved in succinoglycan production, motility, and symbiotic nodulation on alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Xue, Haiying; Wang, Yiwen; Yin, Ruochun; Xie, Fang; Luo, Li

    2013-12-01

    Rhizobia establish a symbiotic relationship with their host legumes to induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. This process is regulated by many rhizobium regulators, including some two-component regulatory systems (TCSs). NtrY/NtrX, a TCS that was first identified in Azorhizobium caulinodans, is required for free-living nitrogen metabolism and symbiotic nodulation on Sesbania rostrata. However, its functions in a typical rhizobium such as Sinorhizobium meliloti remain unclear. Here we found that the S. meliloti response regulator NtrX but not the histidine kinase NtrY is involved in the regulation of exopolysaccharide production, motility, and symbiosis with alfalfa. A plasmid insertion mutant of ntrX formed mucous colonies, which overproduced succinoglycan, an exopolysaccharide, by upregulating its biosynthesis genes. This mutant also exhibited motility defects due to reduced flagella and decreased expression of flagellins and regulatory genes. The regulation is independent of the known regulatory systems of ExoR/ExoS/ChvI, EmmABC, and ExpR. Alfalfa plants inoculated with the ntrX mutant were small and displayed symptoms of nitrogen starvation. Interestingly, the deletion mutant of ntrY showed a phenotype similar to that of the parent strain. These findings demonstrate that the S. meliloti NtrX is a new regulator of succinoglycan production and motility that is not genetically coupled with NtrY.

  6. Increased photosynthetic acclimation in alfalfa associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and cultivated in greenhouse under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Nieves; Baslam, Marouane; Erice, Gorka; Irigoyen, Juan José

    2014-11-15

    Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) can exhibit photosynthetic down-regulation when grown in greenhouse conditions under elevated atmospheric CO2. This forage legume can establish a double symbiosis with nitrogen fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which may increase the carbon sink effect of roots. Our aim was to assess whether the association of alfalfa with AMF can avoid, diminish or delay the photosynthetic acclimation observed in previous studies performed with nodulated plants. The results, however, showed that mycorrhizal (M) alfalfa at the end of their vegetative period had lower carbon (C) discrimination than non-mycorrhizal (NM) controls, indicating photosynthetic acclimation under ECO2 in plants associated with AMF. Decreased C discrimination was due to the acclimation of conductance, since the amount of Rubisco and the expression of genes codifying both large and small subunits of Rubisco were similar or slightly higher in M than in NM plants. Moreover, M alfalfa accumulated a greater amount of soluble sugars in leaves than NM plants, thus favoring a down-regulation effect on photosynthetic rates. The enhanced contents of sugars in leaves coincided with a reduced percentage of arbuscules in roots, suggesting decreased sink of carbohydrates from shoots to roots in M plants. The shorter life cycle of alfalfa associated with AMF in comparison with the NM controls may also be related to the accelerated photosynthetic acclimation in M plants. Further research is needed to clarify to what extent this behavior could be extrapolated to alfalfa cultivated in the field and subjected to periodic cutting of shoots under climatic change scenarios.

  7. Ensifer, Phyllobacterium and Rhizobium species occupy nodules of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Melilotus alba (sweet clover) grown at a Canadian site without a history of cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phage resistant and susceptible bacteria from nodules of alfalfa and sweet clover grown at a site without a known history of cultivation, were identified as Ensifer, Rhizobium and Phyllobacterium species based on sequence analysis of ribosomal (16S and 23S rRNA)and protein encoding (atpD and recA) g...

  8. Ensifer, Phyllobacterium and Rhizobium species occupy nodules of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Melilotus alba (sweet clover) grown at a Canadian site without a history of cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, E S P; Tambong, J T; Cloutier, S; Prévost, D; Laguerre, G; van Berkum, P; Thi, T V Tran; Assabgui, R; Barran, L R

    2010-02-01

    Phage-resistant and -susceptible bacteria from nodules of alfalfa and sweet clover, grown at a site without a known history of cultivation, were identified as diverse genotypes of Ensifer, Rhizobium and Phyllobacterium species based on sequence analysis of ribosomal (16S and 23S rRNA) and protein-encoding (atpD and recA) genes, Southern hybridization/RFLP and a range of phenotypic characteristics. Among phage-resistant bacteria, one genotype of Rhizobium sp. predominated on alfalfa (frequency approximately 68 %) but was recovered infrequently ( approximately 1 %) from sweet clover. A second genotype was isolated infrequently only from alfalfa. These genotypes fixed nitrogen poorly in association with sweet clover and Phaseolus vulgaris, but were moderately effective with alfalfa. They produced a near-neutral reaction on mineral salts agar containing mannitol, which is atypical of the genus Rhizobium. A single isolate of Ensifer sp. and two of Phyllobacterium sp. were recovered only from sweet clover. All were highly resistant to multiple antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ensifer sp. strain T173 is closely related to, but separate from, the non-symbiotic species 'Sinorhizobium morelense'. Strain T173 is unique in that it possesses a 175 kb symbiotic plasmid and elicits ineffective nodules on alfalfa, sweet clover, Medicago lupulina and Macroptilium atropurpureum. The two Phyllobacterium spp. were non-symbiotic and probably represent bacterial opportunists. Three genotypes of E. meliloti that were symbiotically effective with alfalfa and sweet clover were encountered infrequently. Among phage-susceptible isolates, two genotypes of E. medicae were encountered infrequently and were highly effective with alfalfa, sweet clover and Medicago polymorpha. The ecological and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  9. Nodule-enhanced expression of a sucrose phosphate synthase gene member (MsSPSA) has a role in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Lorenzo; Ortega, Jose Luis; Martinez-Grimes, Martha; Seger, Mark; Holguin, Francisco Omar; Uribe, Diana J; Garcia-Ibilcieta, David; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2010-01-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of sucrose in photosynthetic tissues. We characterized the expression of three different isoforms of SPS belonging to two different SPS gene families in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a previously identified SPS (MsSPSA) and two novel isoforms belonging to class B (MsSPSB and MsSPSB3). While MsSPSA showed nodule-enhanced expression, both MsSPSB genes exhibited leaf-enhanced expression. Alfalfa leaf and nodule SPS enzymes showed differences in chromatographic and electrophoretic migration and differences in V (max) and allosteric regulation. The root nodules in legume plants are a strong sink for photosynthates with its need for ATP, reducing power and carbon skeletons for dinitrogen fixation and ammonia assimilation. The expression of genes encoding SPS and other key enzymes in sucrose metabolism, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, was analyzed in the leaves and nodules of plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti. Based on the expression pattern of these genes, the properties of the SPS isoforms and the concentration of starch and soluble sugars in nodules induced by a wild type and a nitrogen fixation deficient strain, we propose that SPS has an important role in the control of carbon flux into different metabolic pathways in the symbiotic nodules.

  10. A Sinorhizobium meliloti-specific N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal increases nodule numbers in Medicago truncatula independent of autoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fabiola Veliz Vallejos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs act as quorum sensing signals that regulate cell-density dependent behaviors in many gram-negative bacteria, in particular those important for plant-microbe interactions. AHLs can also be recognized by plants, and this may influence their interactions with bacteria. Here we tested whether the exposure to AHLs affects the nodule-forming symbiosis between legume hosts and rhizobia. We treated roots of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, with a range of AHLs either from its specific symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, or from the potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium vitis. We found increased numbers of nodules formed on root systems treated with the S. meliloti-specific AHL, 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone, at a concentration of 1 μM, while the other AHLs did not result in significant changes to nodule numbers. We did not find any evidence for altered nodule invasion by the rhizobia. Quantification of flavonoids that could act as nod gene inducers in S. meliloti did not show any correlation with increased nodule numbers. The effects of AHLs were specific for an increase in nodule numbers, but not lateral root numbers or root length. Increased nodule numbers following 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone treatment were under control of autoregulation of nodulation and were still observed in the autoregulation mutant, sunn4 (super numeric nodules4. However, increases in nodule numbers by 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone were not found in the ethylene-insensitive sickle mutant. A comparison between M. truncatula with M. sativa (alfalfa and Trifolium repens (white clover showed that the observed effects of AHLs on nodule numbers were specific to M. truncatula, despite M. sativa nodulating with the same symbiont. We conclude that plant perception of the S. meliloti-specific 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone influences nodule numbers in M. truncatula via an ethylene-dependent, but autoregulation

  11. Regulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) infected with Rhizobium meliloti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberger, W

    1977-10-24

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium meliloti bacteroids in Medicago sativa root nodules was suppressed by several inorganic nitrogen sources. Amino acids like glutamine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which can serve as sole nitrogen sources for the unnodulated plant did not influence nitrogenase activity of effective nodules, even at high concetrations. Ammonia and nitrate suppressed symbiotic nitrogen fixation in vivo only at concentrations much higher than those needed for suppression of nitrogenase activity in free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. The kinetics of suppression were slow compared with that of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. On the other hand, nitrite, which acts as a direct inhibitor of nitrogenase, suppressed very quickly and at low concentrations. Glutamic acid and glutamine enhanced the effect of ammonia dramatically, while the suppression by nitrate was enhanced only slightly.

  12. Photosynthetic and Molecular Markers of CO2-mediated Photosynthetic Downregulation in Nodulated Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (A)lvaro Sanz-Sáez; Gorka Erice; Iker Aranjuelo; Ricardo Aroca; Juan Manuel Ruíz-Lozano; Jone Aguirreolea; Juan José Irigoyen

    2013-01-01

    Elevated CO2 leads to a decrease in potential net photosynthesis in long-term experiments and thus to a reduction in potential growth.This process is known as photosynthetic downregulation.There is no agreement on the definition of which parameters are the most sensitive for detecting CO2 acclimation.In order to investigate the most sensitive photosynthetic and molecular markers of CO2 acclimation,the effects of elevated CO2,and associated elevated temperature were analyzed in alfalfa plants inoculated with different Sinorhizobium meliloti strains.Plants (Medicago sativa L.cv.Aragón) were grown in summer or autumn in temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG).At the end of the experiment,all plants showed acclimation in both seasons,especially under elevated summer temperatures.This was probably due to the lower nitrogen (N) availability caused by decreased N2-fixation under higher temperatures.Photosynthesis measured at growth CO2 concentration,rubisco in vitro activity and maximum rate of carboxylation were the most sensitive parameters for detecting downregulation.Severe acclimation was also related with decreases in leaf nitrogen content associated with declines in rubisco content (large and small subunits) and activity that resulted in a drop in photosynthesis.Despite the sensitivity of rubisco content as a marker of acclimation,it was not coordinated with gene expression,possibly due to a lag between gene transcription and protein translation.

  13. Overexpressing Arabidopsis ABF3 increases tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses and reduces leaf size in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Su, Guoxia; Li, Min; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Soo Young; Li, Hongbing; Huang, Jin; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xi-Ping; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2016-12-01

    Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING FACTOR 3 (ABF3), a bZIP transcription factor, plays an important role in regulating multiple stress responses in plants. Overexpressing AtABF3 increases tolerance to various stresses in several plant species. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), one of the most important perennial forage crops worldwide, has high yields, high nutritional value, and good palatability and is widely distributed in irrigated and semi-arid regions throughout the world. However, drought and salt stress pose major constraints to alfalfa production. In this study, we developed transgenic alfalfa plants (cv. Xinjiang Daye) expressing AtABF3 under the control of the sweetpotato oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SAF plants) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After drought stress treatment, we selected two transgenic lines with high expression of AtABF3, SAF5 and SAF6, for further characterization. Under normal conditions, SAF plants showed smaller leaf size compared to non-transgenic (NT) plants, while no other morphological changes were observed. Moreover, SAF plants exhibited enhanced drought stress tolerance and better growth under drought stress treatment, which was accompanied by a reduced transpiration rate and lower reactive oxygen species contents. In addition, SAF plants showed an increased tolerance to salt and oxidative stress. Therefore, these transgenic AtABF3 alfalfa plants might be useful for breeding forage crops with enhanced tolerance to environmental stress for use in sustainable agriculture on marginal lands.

  14. Increase phosphorus availability from the use of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) green manure in rice (Oryza sativa L.) agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoye; Shi, Dongyan; Lv, Aimin; Wang, Shengyin; Yuan, Shili; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-11-11

    Alfalfa is a good green manure source, but its effect on rice growth has not been fully elucidated. Two green manure species, alfalfa and broad bean (Vicia faba L.), and two N fertilizer levels, alone or combination, were applied to a rice field. The results indicated that alfalfa had more pronounced effects on increasing soil labile phosphorus (P) fractions (including NaHCO3-Pi, NaOH-Pi), P uptake and soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase) than broad bean and N fertilizer. The transformation of NaHCO3-Po to labile P regulated by alfalfa played a significant direct and indirect effect on grain yield. Although a much lower N input from alfalfa addition, a similar grain yield with N fertilizer treatment was achieved, and the integration of alfalfa with N fertilizer produced the highest grain yield and P availability, which was associated with the highest urease, acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase activity in soil. These results indicate that alfalfa green manure had a great ability of increasing grain yield through enhancing P availability in rice paddy, which could give us a way to reduce N fertilizer application by enhancing P availability.

  15. Increase phosphorus availability from the use of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) green manure in rice (Oryza sativa L.) agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoye; Shi, Dongyan; Lv, Aimin; Wang, Shengyin; Yuan, Shili; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is a good green manure source, but its effect on rice growth has not been fully elucidated. Two green manure species, alfalfa and broad bean (Vicia faba L.), and two N fertilizer levels, alone or combination, were applied to a rice field. The results indicated that alfalfa had more pronounced effects on increasing soil labile phosphorus (P) fractions (including NaHCO3-Pi, NaOH-Pi), P uptake and soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase) than broad bean and N fertilizer. The transformation of NaHCO3-Po to labile P regulated by alfalfa played a significant direct and indirect effect on grain yield. Although a much lower N input from alfalfa addition, a similar grain yield with N fertilizer treatment was achieved, and the integration of alfalfa with N fertilizer produced the highest grain yield and P availability, which was associated with the highest urease, acid phosphatase and β-glucosidase activity in soil. These results indicate that alfalfa green manure had a great ability of increasing grain yield through enhancing P availability in rice paddy, which could give us a way to reduce N fertilizer application by enhancing P availability. PMID:27833163

  16. Alfalfa microsymbionts from different ITS and nodC lineages of Ensifer meliloti and Ensifer medicae symbiovar meliloti establish efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in Spanish acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Vargas, Margarita; Martín, María; Tejedor, Carmen; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important crop worldwide whose cropping in acid soils is hampered by the poor nodulation and yield commonly attributed to the sensitivity of its endosymbionts to acid pH. In this work, we isolated several acid-tolerant strains from alfalfa nodules in three acid soils in northwestern Spain. After grouping by RAPD fingerprinting, most strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti and only two strains as Ensifer medicae according to their 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences that allowed the differentiation of two groups within each one of these species. The two ITS groups of E. meliloti and the ITS group I of E. medicae have been previously found in Medicago nodules; however, the group II of E. medicae has been only found to date in Prosopis alba nodules. The analysis of the nodC gene showed that all strains isolated in this study belong to the symbiovar meliloti, grouping with the type strains of E. meliloti or E. medicae, but some harboured nodC gene alleles different from those found to date in alfalfa nodules. The strains of E. medicae belong to the symbiovar meliloti which should be also recognised in this species, although they harboured a nodC allele phylogenetically divergent to those from E. meliloti strains. Microcosm experiments showed that inoculation of alfalfa with selected acid-tolerant strains significantly increased yields in acid soils representing a suitable agricultural practice for alfalfa cropping in these soils.

  17. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  18. Genetic diversity of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates nodulating two different host plants during soil restoration with alfalfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.X.; Kosier, B.; Priefer, U.B. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    A total of 360 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains was isolated from three brown-coal mining restoration fields of different age and plant cover (without and in the first and second year of alfalfa, Medicago sativa, cultivation) using two host species (Vicia hirsuta and Pisum sativum) as capture plants. The strains were genetically typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions (IGS-RFLP) and characterized by plasmid profiles and RFLP analysis of amplified nodABC genes. The R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population was dominated by the same group of strains (irrespective of the trap plant used). According to type richness, the genetic diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum in the second year of restoration was lower than in the first year and it resembled that of the fallow field, except for plasmid types, in which it was higher than that of the fallow field. Some of the less frequent nodABC genotypes were associated with distinct chromosomal IGS genotypes and symbiotic plasmids (pSyms) of different sizes, indicating that horizontal transfer and rearrangements of pSym can occur in natural environments. However, the dominant pSym and chromosomal genotypes were strictly correlated suggesting a genetically stable persistence of the prevailing R. leguminosarum bv, viciae genotypes in the absence of its host plant.

  19. Short-Term Molecular Acclimation Processes of Legume Nodules to Increased External Oxygen Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenhaus, Ulrike; Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; Dittert, Klaus; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Schulze, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogenase is an oxygen labile enzyme. Microaerobic conditions within the infected zone of nodules are maintained primarily by an oxygen diffusion barrier (ODB) located in the nodule cortex. Flexibility of the ODB is important for the acclimation processes of nodules in response to changes in external oxygen concentration. The hypothesis of the present study was that there are additional molecular mechanisms involved. Nodule activity of Medicago truncatula plants were continuously monitored during a change from 21 to 25 or 30% oxygen around root nodules by measuring nodule H2 evolution. Within about 2 min of the increase in oxygen concentration, a steep decline in nitrogenase activity occurred. A quick recovery commenced about 8 min later. A qPCR-based analysis of the expression of genes for nitrogenase components showed a tendency toward upregulation during the recovery. The recovery resulted in a new constant activity after about 30 min, corresponding to approximately 90% of the pre-treatment level. An RNAseq-based comparative transcriptome profiling of nodules at that point in time revealed that genes for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides, defensins, leghaemoglobin and chalcone and stilbene synthase were significantly upregulated when considered as a gene family. A gene for a nicotianamine synthase-like protein (Medtr1g084050) showed a strong increase in count number. The gene appears to be of importance for nodule functioning, as evidenced by its consistently high expression in nodules and a strong reaction to various environmental cues that influence nodule activity. A Tnt1-mutant that carries an insert in the coding sequence (cds) of that gene showed reduced nitrogen fixation and less efficient acclimation to an increased external oxygen concentration. It was concluded that sudden increases in oxygen concentration around nodules destroy nitrogenase, which is quickly counteracted by an increased neoformation of the enzyme. This reaction might be

  20. Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing AtNDPK2 exhibit increased growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Hongbing; Ke, Qingbo; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xi-Ping; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we generated and evaluated transgenic alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L. cv. Xinjiang Daye) expressing the Arabidopsis nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (AtNDPK2) gene under the control of the oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter (referred to as SN plants) to develop plants with enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses. We selected two SN plants (SN4 and SN7) according to the expression levels of AtNDPK2 and the enzyme activity of NDPK in response to methyl viologen (MV)-mediated oxidative stress treatment using leaf discs for further characterization. SN plants showed enhanced tolerance to high temperature, NaCl, and drought stress on the whole-plant level. When the plants were subjected to high temperature treatment (42 °C for 24 h), the non-transgenic (NT) plants were severely wilted, whereas the SN plants were not affected because they maintained high relative water and chlorophyll contents. The SN plants also showed significantly higher tolerance to 250 mM NaCl and water stress treatment than the NT plants. In addition, the SN plants exhibited better plant growth through increased expression of auxin-related indole acetic acid (IAA) genes (MsIAA3, MsIAA5, MsIAA6, MsIAA7, and MsIAA16) under normal growth conditions compared to NT plants. The results suggest that induced overexpression of AtNDPK2 in alfalfa will be useful for increasing biomass production under various abiotic stress conditions.

  1. Alfalfa pellet-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows increases bacterial endotoxin in the rumen without causing inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafipour, E; Krause, D O; Plaizier, J C

    2009-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine if subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) induced by feeding alfalfa pellets results in increases in free bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rumen fluid and peripheral blood, and acute phase proteins in plasma, and to determine the effect of alfalfa pellet-induced SARA on feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, milk production and composition, and blood metabolites. Eight lactating Holstein cows, 4 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 6-wk experiment and were fed once daily at 0900 h. During wk 1, cows received a diet containing 50% of DM as concentrate and 50% of DM chopped alfalfa hay. Between wk 2 and wk 6, alfalfa hay was gradually replaced with alfalfa pellets at the rate of 8% per week to reduce rumen pH. Rumen pH was monitored continuously in the ruminally cannulated cows using indwelling pH probes. Rumen fluid and peripheral blood were sampled 15 min before feed delivery and at 6 h after feed delivery. Based on adopted threshold of SARA of at least 180 min/d below pH 5.6, SARA was induced from wk 3 onwards. Replacing 40% of alfalfa hay with alfalfa pellets quadratically increased the DMI from 18.1 kg/d in wk 1 to 23.4 kg/d in wk 6. This replacement linearly decreased milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.9 kg/d) and milk fat percentage and yield (2.32 vs. 3.22%, and 0.77 vs. 1.14 kg/d, respectively), but increased milk protein percentage and yield (3.80 vs. 3.04%, and 1.23 vs. 1.07 kg/d, respectively). This gradual replacement also linearly increased the daily averages of total volatile fatty acids (90 to 121.9 mM), acetate (53.9 to 66.8 mM), propionate (21.5 to 39.6 mM), and osmolality (277.7 to 293.8 mmol/kg) in the rumen and decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 2.62 to 1.73. Replacing alfalfa hay with alfalfa pellets linearly increased blood lactate from 1.00 mM in wk 1 to a peak of 3.46 mM in wk 5. Induction of SARA in this study increased free rumen LPS concentration from 42,122 endotoxin unit (EU

  2. Excessive ammonia inhibited transcription of MsU2 gene and furthermore affected accumulation distribution of allantoin and amino acids in alfalfa Medicago sativa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; JIANG Lin-lin; Nomura Mika; Tajima Shigeyuki; CHENG Xian-guo

    2015-01-01

    In legume plants, uricase gene (Nodulin-35) plays a positive role in metabolism of ureide and amide compounds in symbiotic nitrogen-ifxing in the nodules. In this study, a pot experiment was performed to examine the effects of ammonium application on the transcription of MsU2 gene and distribution of major nitrogen compounds in alfalfa Medicago sativa. Data showed that alfalfa plant has a signiifcant difference in contents of nitrogen compounds in xylem saps compared with soybean plant, and belongs to typical amide type legume plants with little ureide accumulation, and the accumulation of asparagines and ureide in the tissues of alfalfa is mainly gathered in the nodules. Northern blotting showed that excessive ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the nodules and roots, and mRNA accumulation of MsU2 gene in the plants exposed to excessive ammonium decreased gradual y with culture time extension, indicating that application of ammonium signiifcantly inhibited the transcription of MsU2 gene in the alfalfa plants. Although the application of exces-sive ammonium increased the contents of amino acids in various tissues of alfalfa, the accumulation of al antoin relfecting the strength of uricase activity is remarkably reduced in the xylem saps, stems and nodules when alfalfa plants exposed to excessive ammonium, suggesting that application of excessive ammonium generated a negative effect on symbiosis ifxing-nitrogen system due to inhibition of ammonium ion on uricase activity in the nodules of alfalfa. This result seems to imply that application of excessive ammonium in legume plants should not be proposed to avoid affecting the ability of ifxing nitrogen in the nodules of legume plants, and reasonable dose of ammonium should be recommended to effectively utilize the ifxed N from atmosphere in legume plant production.

  3. Eficiência de inoculantes de rizóbio na nodulação de alfafa em solo de cerrado Efficiency of rhizobia inoculants on nodulation of alfalfa in a "cerrado" soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Ferreira Xavier

    2005-06-01

    harvest was performed at 5 cm height from ground level, to determine dry matter (DM weight and total-N in the above ground parts. At ninety days, the whole plants were sampled, to measure the DM yield of both above ground parts and roots, and N content of above ground parts. The presence of nodules in the roots was examined. Results of DM yield of above ground parts and roots, and of total-N in the above ground parts, indicated that the two commercial inoculants used were efficient for all the three alfalfa cultivars in the soil, which had its pH corrected. Regarding nodulation, the checks with and without nitrogen did not nodulate, indicating that Rhizobium meliloti was not present in the soil. These observations reinforce the need of inoculation of alfalfa with appropriate rhizobia in tropical regions.

  4. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase Gene, OsAPX2, Increases Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; MA Cui; XUE Xin; XU Ming; LI Jing; WU Jin-xia

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important forage crop in the world and it is of great signiifcance for the improvement of its salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance in alfalfa, a rice ascorbate peroxidase gene (OsAPX2) was introduced into alfalfa using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with marker gene bar. The different T-DNA insertions in T1 transgenic alfalfa were identiifed by Southern hybridization. Three independent T2 transgenic lines were selected for stress analysis and the results showed that all of them were salt tolerant compared with wild-type plants. The transgenic plants had low levels of H2O2, malondialdehyde and relative electrical conductivity under salt and drought stresses. Moreover, the contents of chlorophyll and proline, and APX activity were high in transgenic plants under salt and drought stresses. Taken together, the overexpression of OsAPX2 enhances salt tolerance in alfalfa through scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  5. Pulmonary nodule detection with digital projection radiography: an ex-vivo study on increased latitude post-processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederer, Juergen; Gottwald, Tobias; Bolte, Hendrik; Riedel, Christian; Freitag, Sandra; Van Metter, Richard; Heller, Martin

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate increased image latitude post-processing of digital projection radiograms for the detection of pulmonary nodules. 20 porcine lungs were inflated inside a chest phantom, prepared with 280 solid nodules of 4-8 mm in diameter and examined with direct radiography (3.0x2.5 k detector, 125 kVp, 4 mAs). Nodule position and size were documented by CT controls and dissection. Four intact lungs served as negative controls. Image post-processing included standard tone scales and increased latitude with detail contrast enhancement (log-factors 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0). 1280 sub-images (512x512 pixel) were centred on nodules or controls, behind the diaphragm and over free parenchyma, randomized and presented to six readers. Confidence in the decision was recorded with a scale of 0-100%. Sensitivity and specificity for nodules behind the diaphragm were 0.87/0.97 at standard tone scale and 0.92/0.92 with increased latitude (log factor 2.0). The fraction of "not diagnostic" readings was reduced (from 208/1920 to 52/1920). As an indicator of increased detection confidence, the median of the ratings behind the diaphragm approached 100 and 0, respectively, and the inter-quartile width decreased (controls: pimage latitude. Above the diaphragm, accuracy and detection confidence remained unchanged. Here, the sensitivity for nodules was 0.94 with a specificity from 0.96 to 0.97 (all p>0.05). Increased latitude post-processing has minimal effects on the overall accuracy, but improves the detection confidence for sub-centimeter nodules in the posterior recesses of the lung.

  6. Co-expression of bacterial aspartate kinase and adenylylsulfate reductase genes substantially increases sulfur amino acid levels in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Xie, Can; Ma, Lei; Liu, Liping; Jin, Yongsheng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forage crops used to feed livestock, such as cattle and sheep, and the sulfur amino acid (SAA) content of alfalfa is used as an index of its nutritional value. Aspartate kinase (AK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate to Asp-phosphate, the first step in the aspartate family biosynthesis pathway, and adenylylsulfate reductase (APR) catalyzes the conversion of activated sulfate to sulfite, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesis of cysteine, methionine, and other essential metabolites and secondary compounds. To reduce the feedback inhibition of other metabolites, we cloned bacterial AK and APR genes, modified AK, and introduced them into alfalfa. Compared to the wild-type alfalfa, the content of cysteine increased by 30% and that of methionine increased substantially by 60%. In addition, a substantial increase in the abundance of essential amino acids (EAAs), such as aspartate and lysine, was found. The results also indicated a close connection between amino acid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The total amino acid content and the forage biomass tested showed no significant changes in the transgenic plants. This approach provides a new method for increasing SAAs and allows for the development of new genetically modified crops with enhanced nutritional value.

  7. Soil factors exhibit greater influence than bacterial inoculation on alfalfa growth and nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Ute; Kosier, Bob; Jahnke, Joachim; Priefer, Ursula B; Al-Halbouni, Djamila

    2011-09-01

    In order to study the effects of soil factors and bacterial inoculation on alfalfa (Medicago sativa), plants were inoculated with Ensifer meliloti L33 and Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 in pot experiments using two different soils separately as well as in a mixture. One soil was contaminated with chemical waste products; the other was an arable soil. Soil factors, including the availability of macro- and micronutrients as well as carbon and nitrogen contents, were found to exhibit a much greater influence on the growth of alfalfa than any of the inoculations. In contaminated soil, the shoot and root growth of alfalfa was decreased and nodules were diminished and ineffective. Bacterial inoculations did not significantly improve this hostile growth environment. However, in a mixture (44% arable, 22% contaminated soil, 34% vermiculite), growth conditions for alfalfa were improved so that shoot dry weight and nodule numbers increased up to 100- and 20-fold, respectively, compared with the contaminated soil. For the strain L33, its persistence in the rhizosphere was correlated to the presence of its host plant, but its dynamics were influenced by competition with indigenous rhizobia. The strain Sp7, once provided with a suitable soil, was not dependent on the plant's rhizosphere, but it enhanced the performance of L33 and native rhizobia.

  8. Effect of plant growth promoting micro organisms on increasing water use efficiency of alfalfa in water-stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of bacterial growth on water use efficiency of alfalfa, a greenhouse experiment, as factorial based on completely randomized blocks design with three replications, was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran, in 2012. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of water stress (75, 55 and 35% of field capacity and seed inoculation at 4 levels (no inoculation (control, inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae, inoculation with rhyzobium S. meliloti, and inoculation with combination of mycorhhiza and rhyzobium. Results showed that water stress and seed inoculation have significant effect (P&le0.01 on leaf nutrients content. Water stress reduced absorption of phosphorus (23%, potassium (8%, iron (4% and increased sodium absorption (14% in non-inoculated seeds. Inoculation of seeds reduced stress effects and combined inoculation had the highest effect. Stomatal conductance and water use efficiency were affected (P&le0.01 by inoculation and water stress. Stomatal conductance was decreased during the stress period and seed inoculation with mycorhhiza G. mosseae was most effective on increasing stomatal conductance (47% at the highest level of stress. Water use efficiency increased as a result of water stress and inoculation. The highest value of water use efficiency (0.166 mg/kg was obtained in the combined inoculation with 35% field capacity treatment. Results of regression equations showed that during the inoculation, contribution of phosphorus and potassium in regulation of stomatal conductance was increased and contribution of sodium was decreased.  However, during the stress period, the share of potassium and sodium was increased in stomatal conductance and the share of phosphorus was reduced. Also, stress increased the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency. However, inoculation reduced the role of stomatal conductance in water use efficiency.

  9. Effect of salinity on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa genotypes inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti strains under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fazaeli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of salinity and bacterial inoculation on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa (Medicago sativa using a factorial completely randomized design with three replications. The effect of three salinity levels (0, 6 and 12 dS/m induced by a mixture of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 salts on growth indices and protein content of three alfalfa genotypes (Hamadani, Gharahyonjeh and Gharghalogh at three levels of inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria (no inoculation, inoculation with salinity-tolerant strain and inoculation with salinity-sensitive strain was investigated. After the isolation and purification of alfalfa-symbiotic-bacteria from alfalfa fields in Tehran province, two isolates of S. meliloti, one salinity-resistant and the other one salinity-sensitive, which are effective in symbiosis with alfalfa, were selected. Analysis of the results showed that by increasing the salinity level, the shoot and root dry weight, number of active nodules, and nitrogen (N concentration were decreased significantly (P<0.01. Inoculation with salinity-resistant strain of S. meliloti caused significant increase in shoot and root dry weight, number of active nodules, and N concentration of plants. Moreover, under saline conditions, the salinity-resistant S. meliloti strain increased significantly most alfalfa growth-indices and yield compared to control (without inoculation and inoculation with salinity-sensitive bacteria. There was no significant difference among alfalfa genotypes in yield and other growth indices under saline conditions. In general, the R59 isolate seems to be the best isolate of S. meliloti for greenhouse-grown alfalfa in saline conditions.

  10. From model to crop: functional analysis of a STAY-GREEN gene in the model legume Medicago truncatula and effective use of the gene for alfalfa improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanen; Han, Lu; Pislariu, Catalina; Nakashima, Jin; Fu, Chunxiang; Jiang, Qingzhen; Quan, Li; Blancaflor, Elison B; Tang, Yuhong; Bouton, Joseph H; Udvardi, Michael; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2011-11-01

    Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model legume. Its close relative alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the most widely grown forage legume crop in the United States. By screening a large population of M. truncatula mutants tagged with the transposable element of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell type1 (Tnt1), we identified a mutant line (NF2089) that maintained green leaves and showed green anthers, central carpels, mature pods, and seeds during senescence. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that the mutation was caused by Tnt1 insertion in a STAY-GREEN (MtSGR) gene. Transcript profiling analysis of the mutant showed that loss of the MtSGR function affected the expression of a large number of genes involved in different biological processes. Further analyses revealed that SGR is implicated in nodule development and senescence. MtSGR expression was detected across all nodule developmental zones and was higher in the senescence zone. The number of young nodules on the mutant roots was higher than in the wild type. Expression levels of several nodule senescence markers were reduced in the sgr mutant. Based on the MtSGR sequence, an alfalfa SGR gene (MsSGR) was cloned, and transgenic alfalfa lines were produced by RNA interference. Silencing of MsSGR led to the production of stay-green transgenic alfalfa. This beneficial trait offers the opportunity to produce premium alfalfa hay with a more greenish appearance. In addition, most of the transgenic alfalfa lines retained more than 50% of chlorophylls during senescence and had increased crude protein content. This study illustrates the effective use of knowledge gained from a model system for the genetic improvement of an important commercial crop.

  11. Exopolysaccharide production in response to medium acidification is correlated with an increase in competition for nodule occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Barney A; González, Juan E; Oresnik, Ivan J

    2014-12-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti strains unable to utilize galactose as a sole carbon source, due to mutations in the De-Ley Doudoroff pathway (dgoK), were previously shown to be more competitive for nodule occupancy. In this work, we show that strains carrying this mutation have galactose-dependent exopolysaccharide (EPS) phenotypes that were manifested as aberrant Calcofluor staining as well as decreased mucoidy when in an expR(+) genetic background. The aberrant Calcofluor staining was correlated with changes in the pH of the growth medium. Strains carrying dgoK mutations were subsequently demonstrated to show earlier acidification of their growth medium that was correlated with an increase expression of genes associated with succinoglycan biosynthesis as well as increased accumulation of high and low molecular weight EPS in the medium. In addition, it was shown that the acidification of the medium was dependent on the inability of S. meliloti strains to initiate the catabolism of galactose. To more fully understand why strains carrying the dgoK allele were more competitive for nodule occupancy, early nodulation phenotypes were investigated. It was found that strains carrying the dgoK allele had a faster rate of nodulation. In addition, nodule competition experiments using genetic backgrounds unable to synthesize either succinoglycan or EPSII were consistent with the hypothesis that the increased competition phenotype was dependent upon the synthesis of succinoglycan. Fluorescent microscopy experiments on infected root-hair cells, using the acidotropic dye Lysotracker Red DND-99, provide evidence that the colonized curled root hair is an acidic compartment.

  12. 钙磷对紫花苜蓿-根瘤菌体系酸铝胁迫的修复效应%Remediating Effect of Ca2+ and P on Growth and Nodulation of Alfalfa-Rhizobium After Acidity and Aluminum Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓锋; 罗珍; 刘晓燕; 朱丹; 张磊

    2013-01-01

    为初步探究钙、磷在酸铝胁迫之后对豆科植物及其根瘤菌共生结瘤的修复效应,本试验采用水培培养法,以紫花苜蓿和耐酸苜蓿根瘤菌91522为材料,探讨了钙磷对酸铝胁迫后苜蓿根瘤菌生长、存活及苜蓿结瘤、初生根伸长的影响.结果显示,5 mmol/L Ca2+能够显著提高酸铝胁迫下耐酸根瘤菌的生长和存活,4 μmol/L P素在Ca2+的基础上进一步提高根瘤菌存活率.在钙、磷共同存在的条件下,苜蓿初生根的伸长量比酸铝胁迫对照提高了5~7倍;在铝毒害之后,通过补充Ca2+和P,苜蓿结瘤数、瘤鲜重、现瘤时间、农艺性状得到了显著的恢复;高浓度(10 mmol/L)Ca2+对苜蓿根瘤菌生长有更好效果,但对苜蓿结瘤效果则不如5 mmol/L Ca2+.初步认为,钙磷可以通过提高根瘤菌在酸性环境下的存活、苜蓿根系生长以及参与根瘤菌与豆科宿主识别过程来恢复酸铝毒害后的苜蓿-根瘤菌共生结瘤过程.%Alfalfa and its acid-tolerant rhizobium strain 91522 were used as materials in a water culture experiment to study the effects of calcium and phosphorus on the growth and nodulation of the alfalfa-rhizobium system under acidity and aluminum stresses.The research showed that 5 mmol/L Ca2+ significantly improved the growth and survival of rhizobium compared with the control and that under the same Ca2+ level the addition of 4 μmol/L P further enhanced rhizobium survival rate.By combining Ca2+ and P,the elongation of alfalfa primary root was raised by 5-7 times over that of the control under the acidity + aluminum stress condition.When Ca2+ and P were added in combination,the nodular number,nodule fresh weight,time of nodule occurrence and agronomic traits of alfalfa were satisfactorily recovered.Compared with the treatment 5 mmol/L Ca2+,10 mmol/L Ca2+ had better effect of improving nodule growth of alfalfa but poorer effect on nodulation.It was tentatively concluded that Ca2+ and P

  13. PII Overexpression in Lotus japonicus Affects Nodule Activity in Permissive Low-Nitrogen Conditions and Increases Nodule Numbers in High Nitrogen Treated Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Enrica; Valkov, Vladimir Totev; Parlati, Aurora; Omrane, Selim; Barbulova, Ani; Sainz, Maria Martha; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Rogato, Alessandra; Chiurazzi, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    We report here the first characterization of a GLNB1 gene coding for the PII protein in leguminous plants. The main purpose of this work was the investigation of the possible roles played by this multifunctional protein in nodulation pathways. The Lotus japonicus LjGLB1 gene shows a significant transcriptional regulation during the light-dark cycle and different nitrogen availability, conditions that strongly affect nodule formation, development, and functioning. We also report analysis of the spatial profile of expression of LjGLB1 in root and nodule tissues and of the protein's subcellular localization. Transgenic L. japonicus lines overexpressing the PII protein were obtained and tested for the analysis of the symbiotic responses in different conditions. The uncoupling of PII from its native regulation affects nitrogenase activity and nodule polyamine content. Furthermore, our results suggest the involvement of PII in the signaling of the nitrogen nutritional status affecting the legumes' predisposition for nodule formation.

  14. Pulmonary Ground-Glass Nodules : Increase in Mass as an Early Indicator of Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, Bartjan; Gietema, Hester; van de Vorst, Saskia; Murphy, Keelin; van Klaveren, Rob J.; Prokop, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare manual measurements of diameter, volume, and mass of pulmonary ground-glass nodules (GGNs) to establish which method is best for identifying malignant GGNs by determining change across time. Materials and Methods: In this ethics committee-approved retrospective study, baseline an

  15. Impact of Long-Term Alfalfa Cropping on Soil Potassium Content and Clay Minerals in a Semi-Arid Loess Soil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Cheng; B. VELDE; LI Feng-Min; ZHANG Gan-Lin; ZHAO Ming-Song; HUANG Lai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa cropping has been considered an efficient method of increasing soil fertility.Usually nitrogen increase in root nodules is considered to be the major beneficial effect.A 21-year time series (five sampling periods) of alfalfa cultivation plots on a loess soil,initially containing illite and chlorite,in Lanzhou of northwestern China was selected to investigate the relationships among alfalfa cropping,soil potassium (K) content and soil clay minerals.The results indicated that soil K significantly accumulated after cropping,with a peak value at about 15 years,and decreased afterwards.The accumulated K was associated with the K increase in the well-crystallized illite,which was not extracted by the traditional laboratory K extraction methods in assessing bioavailability.The steep decline in soil K content after 15-year cropping was in accord with the observed fertility loss in the alfalfa soil.Plant biomass productivity peaked at near 9 years of culture,whereas soil K and clay minerals continued to increase until cropping for 15 years.This suggested that K increased in the topsoil came from the deep root zone.Thus alfalfa continued to store K in clays even after peak production occurred.Nitrogen did not follow these trends,showing a general decline compared with the native prairie soils that had not been cropped.Therefore,the traditional alfalfa cropping can increase K content in the topsoil.

  16. Fixação do nitrogênio em alfafa nodulada sob supressão e ressuprimento de fósforo Nitrogen fixation in alfalfa nodulated under phosphorus supression and resupply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Gomes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da supressão e do ressuprimento de fósforo (Pi sobre a fixação biológica do nitrogênio atmosférico (N2 em plantas de alfafa cv. Flórida 77 inoculadas com Sinorhizobium meliloti, em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento vegetativo (V3 e V4 e reprodutivo (R6 e R8. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e as plantas cultivadas em solução nutritiva. O período de supressão de Pi por dez dias reduziu os teores de Pi nas folhas e nos nódulos em todos os estádios do desenvolvimento, enquanto nas raízes essa redução somente foi observada nos estádios vegetativos. Após o ressuprimento de Pi à solução nutritiva por igual período, dez dias, foi observada a recuperação nos teores de Pi nos estádios R6 e R8 para folhas, V3 e V4 para raízes e V3 para os nódulos. A supressão de Pi alterou o processo de fixação do N2, estimado pela concentração de aminoácidos totais nas folhas e nas raízes. Os teores de aminoácidos nas folhas e nas raízes foram significativamente menores nas plantas sob supressão de Pi, em relação aos das plantas do tratamento controle. Após o ressuprimento os teores de aminoácidos totais nas raízes, em todos os estádios do desenvolvimento, alcançaram valores similares àqueles das plantas do tratamento controle, enquanto nas folhas isso só ocorreu nos estádios vegetativos. A supressão de Pi não influenciou a proporção de aminoácidos livres na seiva do xilema.Phosphorus (Pi suppression and resupply effects were studied on nitrogen biological fixation (N2 in alfalfa cv. Florida 77 inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti in different vegetative (V3 and V4 and reproductive (R6 and R8 stages. The experiment was carried in greenhouse and the plants cultivated in nutritive solution. The inorganic phosphorus (Pi ten days suppression period decreased Pi levels in leaves and nodules in all growth stages, whereas in the roots this decrease was observed only in the

  17. [Genetic resources of nodule bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantseva, M L

    2009-09-01

    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) form highly specific symbiosis with leguminous plants. The efficiency of accumulation of biological nitrogen depends on molecular-genetic interaction between the host plant and rhizobia. Genetic characteristics of microsymbiotic strains are crucial in developing highly productive and stress-resistant symbiotic pairs: rhizobium strain-host plant cultivar (species). The present review considers the issue of studying genetic resources of nodule bacteria to identify genes and their blocks, responsible for the ability of rhizobia to form highly effective symbiosis in various agroecological conditions. The main approaches to investigation of intraspecific and interspecific genetic and genomic diversity of nodule bacteria are considered, from MLEE analysis to the recent methods of genomic DNA analysis using biochips. The data are presented showing that gene centers of host plants are centers of genetic diversification of nodule bacteria, because the intraspecific polymorphism of genetic markers of the core and the accessory rhizobial genomes is extremely high in them. Genotypic features of trapped and nodule subpopulations of alfalfa nodule bacteria are discussed. A survey of literature showed that the genomes of natural strains in alfalfa gene centers exhibit significant differences in genes involved in control of metabolism, replication, recombination, and the formation of defense response (hsd genes). Natural populations of rhizobia are regarded as a huge gene pool serving as a source of evolutionary innovations.

  18. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel.

  19. Mutation of praR in Rhizobium leguminosarum enhances root biofilms, improving nodulation competitiveness by increased expression of attachment proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, Marijke; Edwards, Anne; Swiderska, Anna; Stanger, Andrew; Karunakaran, Ramakrishnan; Williams, Alan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Sanchez-Contreras, Maria; Poole, Philip S; Downie, J Allan

    2014-08-01

    In Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae, quorum-sensing is regulated by CinR, which induces the cinIS operon. CinI synthesizes an AHL, whereas CinS inactivates PraR, a repressor. Mutation of praR enhanced biofilms in vitro. We developed a light (lux)-dependent assay of rhizobial attachment to roots and demonstrated that mutation of praR increased biofilms on pea roots. The praR mutant out-competed wild-type for infection of pea nodules in mixed inoculations. Analysis of gene expression by microarrays and promoter fusions revealed that PraR represses its own transcription and mutation of praR increased expression of several genes including those encoding secreted proteins (the adhesins RapA2, RapB and RapC, two cadherins and the glycanase PlyB), the polysaccharide regulator RosR, and another protein similar to PraR. PraR bound to the promoters of several of these genes indicating direct repression. Mutations in rapA2, rapB, rapC, plyB, the cadherins or rosR did not affect the enhanced root attachment or nodule competitiveness of the praR mutant. However combinations of mutations in rapA, rapB and rapC abolished the enhanced attachment and nodule competitiveness. We conclude that relief of PraR-mediated repression determines a lifestyle switch allowing the expression of genes that are important for biofilm formation on roots and the subsequent initiation of infection of legume roots.

  20. Altered susceptibility to infection by Sinorhizobium meliloti and Nectria haematococca in alfalfa roots with altered cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H-H; Hirsch, A M; Hawes, M C

    2004-07-01

    Most infections of plant roots are initiated in the region of elongation; the mechanism for this tissue-specific localization pattern is unknown. In alfalfa expressing PsUGT1 antisense mRNA under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, the cell cycle in roots is completed in 48 h instead of 24 h, and border cell number is decreased by more than 99%. These plants were found to exhibit increased root-tip infection by a fungal pathogen and reduced nodule formation by a bacterial symbiont. Thus, the frequency of infection in the region of elongation by Nectria haematocca was unaffected, but infection of the root tip was increased by more than 90%; early stages of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection and nodule morphology were normal, but the frequency of nodulation was fourfold lower than in wild-type roots.

  1. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very accurate for identifying cancerous or “suspicious” nodules. Thyroid ultrasound is used to get an exact picture of ... up may involve a physical exam or a thyroid ultrasound or both. If the nodule gets larger, you ...

  2. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nodules are not always found, but can include: Hashimoto's disease Lack of iodine in the diet Symptoms ... nodules are sometimes found in people who have Hashimoto's disease. This may cause symptoms of an underactive ...

  3. AGROCHEMICALS GROWTH REGULATORS ON ALFALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldykova I. A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of increasing the productivity of alfalfa is the use of growth regulators, and the use of polymeric compositions of growth regulators, binders with synthesized growth regulators of sim-triazine series is promising with the possibility of creating environmentally friendly technologies for growing alfalfa. Studies have shown that the application of the test on alfalfa growth regulators has a positive effect on growth, physiological and morphogenetic processes, plant resistance to adverse environmental conditions. Intensity impact on plant growth regulators depends on the type of plant growth regulators, concentration and method of application. Processing alfalfa seed growth regulators on germination increases energy 3,0-14,0 % germination on 8,0-17,0 %. Processing plant growth regulators to enhance the growth of plants in height (on the 7th day – 2,6-11,9 % , on the 14th 41,9-48,0 % , the growth of aboveground biomass , expands on the number of productive branches of the 1st ( 24,1-41,3 % and 2nd order (21,7-55,0 %. Pre-sowing seed treatment and plant growth regulators alfalfa sim- triazine series contributed to the increase in seed yield of 15,5 %. On average, the yield of green mass increased by 0,8-2,4 t /ha or 5,2-15,5 % and seed yield at 0,19-0,42 h/ha or 8,7-19, 3 %. Growth regulators of sim-triazine series increase the protein content of the vegetative mass of alfalfa at 3,2-4,6 %

  4. Alfalfa: bioenergy and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  5. Elevated CO{sub 2} enhances plant growth in droughted N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa without improving water status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, I. De; Irigoyen, J.J.; Sanchez-Diaz, M. [Univ. de Navarra, Dept. de Fisiologia Vegetal, Pamplona (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The long-term interaction between elevated CO{sub 2} and soil water deficit was analysed in N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa plants in order to assess the possible drought tolerance effect of CO{sub 2}. Elevated CO{sub 2} could delay the onset of drought stress by decreasing transpiration rates, but this effect was avoided by subjecting plants to the same soil water content. Nodulated alfalfa plants subjected to ambient (400 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) or elevated (700 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) CO{sub 2} were either well watered or partially watered by restricting water to obtain 30% of the water content at field capacity (approximately 0.55 g water cm{sup -3}). The negative effects of soil water deficit on plant growth were counterbalanced by elevated CO{sub 2}. In droughted plants, elevated CO{sub 2} stimulated carbon fixation and, as a result, biomass production was even greater than in well-watered plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. Below-ground production was preferentially stimulated by elevated CO{sub 2} in droughted plants, increasing nodule biomass production and the availability of photosynthates to the nodules. As a result, total nitrogen content in droughted plants was higher than in well-watered plants grown in ambient CO{sub 2}. The beneficial effect of elevated CO{sub 2} was not correlated with a better plant water status. It is concluded that elevated CO{sub 2} enhances growth of droughted plants by stimulating carbon fixation, preferentially increasing the availability of photosynthates to below-ground production (roots and nodules) without improving water status. This means that elevated CO{sub 2} enhances the ability to produce more biomass in N{sub 2}-fixing alfalfa under given soil water stress, improving drought tolerance. (au)

  6. Photosynthate partitioning and nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil. [Lotus corniculatus L. ; Medicago sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Nodule mass and number are usually correlated with rates of nitrogen fixation in legumes. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) with more than twice the nodule number and mass, however, fixes far less nitrogen than alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at the same age. In this research, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning and utilization in relation to nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil were examined in order to determine their relationship to nitrogen fixation potential. Photosynthate to nodules was studied using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling techniques. Partitioning patterns were altered by shading and dark depletion treatments. Efficiency of photosynthate utilization was examined by determining turnover of /sup 14/C photosynthate in nodule metabolites and by studying rates of cyanide-resistant and cyanide-sensitive O/sub 2/ uptake. Alfalfa nodule activity was greater than trefoil expressed on a hole pot or nodule dry weight basis. Both shading and dark treatments significantly reduced nodule activity as estimated by the acetylene reduction assay. Shoots of both species were found to be the dominant sinks for photosynthate. Percentage /sup 14/C recovered in alfalfa roots was more than twice that of trefoil at 1,2,3,4 and 24 h after labeling. Greater relative specific radioactivity (RSA) in nodules of both species suggests that they were stronger sinks for current photosynthate than roots.

  7. Overexpression of an alfalfa GDP-mannose 3, 5-epimerase gene enhances acid, drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Zhipeng

    2014-11-01

    GDP-mannose 3', 5'-epimerase (GME) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment (MsGME) encoding a GME protein was isolated and characterised from alfalfa (Medicago sativa). An expression analysis confirmed that MsGME expression was induced by salinity, PEG and acidity stresses. MsGME overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to salt, drought and acid. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), L-galactose-phosphate 1-P phosphatase (GP) and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis (T3 generation). Moreover, the ascorbate content was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that MsGME can effectively enhance tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to acid, drought and salt by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

  8. Stem formation at alfalfa varieties and correlative dependences with some main parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Georgieva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2006-2009 in IFC-Pleven were studied 9 alfalfa varieties: Europe, Prista 2, Prista 3, Prista 4, Obnova 10, Pleven 6, Dara, Multifoliate and Dama. In the first year of its development alfalfa formed on average 1.42 number of stems per plant. During second and third year their quantity increased to 2.14 and 3.83 number whereafter during fourth year they decreased to 3.28. In all years (except the first year was found a trend of increase in stem number from spring to autumn regrowth with average values 2.11, 2.85 and 3.05 respectively. Average for the four-year period the greatest number of stems (over the average for the nine studied varieties – 2.67 formed the Multifoliate variety followed by Europe, Prista 4, Obnova 10 and Dama. The varieties which are characterized by less density of stand (number of plants per unit area had a greater number of stems per plant (r = -0.530. Correlations with mean and high positive value were found between stem formation and amount and distributions of rainfall during vegetation period (r = 0.989, year of alfalfa development (r = 0.861, nodulation (r = 0.763, weight of root mass (r = 0.411 as well as correlations with mean negative value between number of stems and percentage of damaged stems by Apion seniculus (r = -0.456.

  9. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with LMW RNA group II Sinorhizobium meliloti of Medicago, Melilotus and Trigonella from soils of mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several isolates from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canaries, had electrophoretic LMW RNA patterns identical with a less common pattern within S. meliloti (assigned as group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northe...

  10. Low Soil Phosphorus Availability Increases Acid Phosphatases Activities and Affects P Partitioning in Nodules, Seeds and Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Drevon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phosphorus (P deficiency on phosphatases activities in N2-fixing legumes has been widely studied in hydroponic culture. However, the response of acid phosphatase (APase and phytase in rhizosphere, nodules and seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris to low soil’s P-availability is not yet fully understood. In this study, six genotypes of N2-fixing P. vulgaris were grown under contrasting soil P-availabilities; i.e., low  (4.3 mg P kg−1 and sufficient (16.7 mg P kg−1 in the Haouz region of Morocco. At flowering and maturity stages, plants were harvested and analyzed for their phosphatases activities, growth and P content. Results show that, low P decreased nodulation, growth, P uptake and N accumulation in all the genotypes, but to a greater extent in the sensitive recombinant inbreed line 147. In addition, while seed P content was slightly reduced under low P soil; a higher P was noticed in the Flamingo and Contender large seeded-beans (6.15 to 7.11 mg g−1. In these latter genotypes, high APase and phytase activities in seeds and nodules were associated with a significant decline in rhizosphere’s available P. APase activity was mainly stimulated in nodules, whereas phytase activity was highly induced in seeds (77%. In conclusion, the variations of APase and phytase activities in nodules and seeds depend on genotype and can greatly influence the internal utilization of P, which might result in low P soil tolerance in N2-fixing legumes.

  11. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  12. Genomic Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance and Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the fourth largest crop in the United States. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases and adverse environmental factors. Identification of genes/loci controlli...

  13. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Tcherkez, Guillaume,; Molero, Gemma; Gilard, Françoise; AVICE, JEAN-CHRISTOPHE; Nogués, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N2 fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N2-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were ...

  14. Overexpression of EsMcsu1 from the halophytic plant Eutrema salsugineum promotes abscisic acid biosynthesis and increases drought resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Ma, Z Y; Zhu, L; Guo, J S; Zhu, J; Wang, J F

    2015-12-17

    The stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays pivotal roles in plants' adaptive responses to adverse environments. Molybdenum cofactor sulfurases influence aldehyde oxidase activity and ABA biosynthesis. In this study, we isolated a novel EsMcsu1 gene encoding a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase from Eutrema salsugineum. EsMcus1 transcriptional patterns varied between organs, and its expression was significantly upregulated by abiotic stress or ABA treatment. Alfalfa plants that overexpressed EsMcsu1 had a higher ABA content than wild-type (WT) plants under drought stress conditions. Furthermore, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ion leakage, and malondialdehyde were lower in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants after drought treatment, suggesting that the transgenic plants experienced less ROS-mediated damage. However, the expression of several stress-responsive genes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmolyte (proline and total soluble sugar) levels in the transgenic plants were higher than those in the WT plants after drought treatment. Therefore, EsMcsu1 overexpression improved drought tolerance in alfalfa plants by activating a series of ABA-mediated stress responses.

  15. Studies on the Alfalfa Growing Effects of Alfalfa Rhizobium%苜蓿根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊川; 杨旭升; 曹亚斌

    2015-01-01

    通过不同剂量苜蓿根瘤菌接种两种紫花苜蓿试验,比较了接种根瘤菌剂对紫花苜蓿生长的影响。试验结果表明:接种苜蓿根瘤菌剂能够提高紫花苜蓿结瘤数量和根瘤重,促进紫花苜蓿的生长发育,增加苜蓿草的产草量。在所试验的接种剂量中,以每 kg 苜蓿种子接种12mL 根瘤菌剂为最佳接种量。%This paper studied the alfalfa growing effects of alfalfa rhizobium by inoculated different amounts.The experimental results showed that inoculating rhizobium can raise the nodulating amount of alfalfa and the weight of nodulations,promoting the growth of alfalfas and augment the productions of alfalfas.Among the different inoculated amounts,the amount of 12ml is the best inoculated amount.

  16. Activity screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from alfalfa rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahla pashapour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some rhizobacteria by various mechanisms influence plant growth as they are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Scientists identified some PGPR characters involved in promoting plant growth, while all these characters are not able to study. The aim of this study was to evaluate PGP activities of bacterial isolates, (45 isolates belonged to rhizobium and 2 bacterial isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescens, which were isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa rhizosphere and root nodules grown around Zanjan. Materials and methods: These bacteria were isolated from alfalfa roots grown around Zinc industries in Zanjan province. After bacterial isolation and purification from root and soil samples, isolates were screened in vitro for plant growth promoting traits such as IAA (Indole Acetic Acid, ACC- deaminase (Amino Cyclopropan Carboxylate, HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide, siderophore, chitinase production and mineral and organic phosphate solubilization activities. Results: The results indicated that 43 bacterial isolates produced IAA (4.04- 4.95 μg/ml and 15 isolates produced ACC- deaminase (0.23- 1.05 μg/ml. Only one isolate (Rm66 produced high amount of HCN. Qualitative siderophore production was observed in 9 isolates. None of the isolates produced chitinase. Solubilization of mineral phosphate was commonly detected in 19 isolates (4.33- 5.86 μg/ml, and 15 isolates solubilized organic phosphate (1.66- 144.28 μg/ml. Discussion and conclusion: This study shows that most of the bacterial strains which isolated from alfalfa cultivated lands had PGP activities and also a good potential to increase plant growth after inoculation with to seeds as eco- friendly fertilizers.

  17. Biogeography of Sinorhizobium meliloti nodulating alfalfa in different Croatian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Francesca; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Blažinkov, Mihaela; Mengoni, Alessio; Sikora, Sanjia; Babić, Katarina Huić

    2014-09-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a nitrogen-fixing rhizobium symbiont of legumes, widespread in many temperate environments the high genetic diversity of which enables it to thrive as a symbiont of host legumes and free-living in soil. Soil type, together with geographic differences and host plant genotype, seem to be prominent factors in shaping rhizobial genetic diversity. While a large body of research supports the idea that the genetic structure of free-living microbial taxa exhibits a clear biogeographic pattern, few investigations have been performed on the biogeographic pattern of S. meliloti genotypes in a restricted geographic range. In the present study, a collection of 128 S. meliloti isolates from three different regions in Croatia was investigated to analyze the relationship between genetic diversity, geographic distribution, soil features and isolate phenotypes by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) as a genome-wide scanning method. Results obtained led to the conclusion that the genotypes of isolates cluster according to the region of origin and that the differentiation of S. meliloti populations can be mainly ascribed to geographic isolation following an isolation-by-distance model, with a strong distance-decay relationship of genetic similarity with distance, in which local soil conditions are not the major component influencing the isolate phenotypes or their genomic differentiation.

  18. Economic Comparison of Selected Processing Alternatives for Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Dan J.

    1992-01-01

    Processing alfalfa for export is of significant interest to areas like Millard County, the largest hay-producing county in Utah. In the past year there have ix been significant reductions in the price of hay as a result of increased supplies in the central and western United States. This thesis analyzes the benefits and costs of processing alfalfa into cubes and recompressed bales in order to enter the export market. Costs of production were estimated through the use of enterprise budgets ...

  19. Establishing alfalfa in silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...

  20. Revisiting the Economic Injury Level and Economic Threshold Model for Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, Elissa M; Undersander, Dan J; Cullen, Eileen M

    2015-08-01

    The economic injury level for potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was developed over 30 yr ago. In response to increasing market value of alfalfa, farmers and consultants are interested in reducing the economic threshold for potato leafhopper in alfalfa. To address this question, caged field trials were established on two consecutive potato leafhopper susceptible crops in 2013. Field cages were infested with a range of potato leafhopper densities to create a linear regression of alfalfa yield response. The slopes, or yield loss per insect, for the linear regressions of both trials were used to calculate an economic injury level for a range of current alfalfa market values and control costs. This yield-loss relationship is the first quantification that could be used to help assess whether the economic threshold should be lowered, given the increased market value of alfalfa.

  1. Nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining soil alleviates Cd toxicity and increases Cd-phytoextraction in Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghnaya, Tahar; Mnassri, Majda; Ghabriche, Rim; Wali, Mariem; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-01-01

    Besides their role in nitrogen supply to the host plants as a result of symbiotic N fixation, the association between legumes and Rhizobium could be useful for the rehabilitation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction. A major limitation presents the metal-sensitivity of the bacterial strains. The aim of this work was to explore the usefulness of Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining site for Cd phytoextraction by Medicago sativa. Inoculated and non-inoculated plants were cultivated for 60 d on soils containing 50 and/or 100 mg Cd kg−1 soil. The inoculation hindered the occurrence of Cd- induced toxicity symptoms that appeared in the shoots of non-inoculated plants. This positive effect of S. meliloti colonization was accompanied by an increase in biomass production and improved nutrient acquisition comparatively to non-inoculated plants. Nodulation enhanced Cd absorption by the roots and Cd translocation to the shoots. The increase of plant biomass concomitantly with the increase of Cd shoot concentration in inoculated plants led to higher potential of Cd-phytoextraction in these plants. In the presence of 50 mg Cd kg−1 in the soil, the amounts of Cd extracted in the shoots were 58 and 178 μg plant−1 in non-inoculated and inoculated plants, respectively. This study demonstrates that this association M. sativa-S. meliloti may be an efficient biological system to extract Cd from contaminated soils. PMID:26528320

  2. Effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (pducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (pducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  3. Evidence for the formation of different-sized nodules by different accretionary processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    Studies on different-sized polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin reveal that chemical composition is largely related to the nodule diameter which show systematic decrease in Mn, Cu, and Ni content with increase in nodule size...

  4. Nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining soil alleviates Cd toxicity and increases Cd-phytoextraction in Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar eGhnaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides their role in nitrogen supply to the host plants by the process of symbiotic N fixation, the association between legumes and Rhizobium could be interesting also for the rehabilitation of metal contaminated soils by phytoextraction. A major limitation is however the metal sensitivity of the bacterial strains. The aim of this work was to explore the usefulness of Sinorhizobium meliloti originated from a mining site in phytoextraction of Cd by Medicago sativa. Inoculated and non-inoculated plants were cultivated for 60 d on soils containing 50 or 100 mg Cd kg-1 soil. The inoculation hindered the occurrence of Cd- induced toxicity symptoms that appeared in the shoots of non-inoculated plants. This positive effect of S.meliloti colonization was accompanied by an increase in biomass production and improved nutrient acquisition as compared to non-inoculated plants. Moreover, nodulation enhanced both Cd absorption by the roots and Cd transloaction to the shoots. The amelioration of plant biomass concomitantly with the increase in Cd shoot concentration in inoculated plants led to higher potential of Cd-phytoextraction in these plants. Hence, in the presence of 50 mg Cd kg-1 in the soil, the quantities of Cd extracted in the shoots were 58 and 178 µg plant-1 in non-inoculated and inoculated plants, respectively. Thus we suggest that this association M. sativa-S. meliloti is an efficient biological system to extract Cd.

  5. [Alfalfa Planting as weed control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter to farming cooperators regarding the stipulations surrounding alfalfa plantings in lieu of small grain plantings to provide weed control,...

  6. Membrane lipids analysis of a bacterial strain 17560 isolated from nodule of Alfalfa and cloning and expression of the genes for diacylglyceryl trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) biosynthesis%苜蓿根瘤菌17560细胞膜膜脂组成分析及DGTS合成基因克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华伟; 马晓彤; 王旭明; 李秀爱; 邹小琳; 孙建光; 高俊莲

    2013-01-01

    pLH01可以在IPTG诱导后合成无磷脂DGTS,而转入空载体pET-30a(+)的阴性对照菌株E.coli BL21 (DE3)·pET-30a(+)则不能合成.[结论]系统发育地位相同的苜蓿根瘤菌株的细胞膜脂组成明显不同;苜蓿根瘤菌的细胞膜组成随培养基中的磷含量不同而变化,低磷胁迫条件下其细胞膜脂主要由OL和DGTS等无磷脂组成;在Sinorhizobium膜脂中首次发现一种未知的氨基磷脂及3种不同类型的鸟氨酸脂(OLs);从菌株17560中克隆获得2个DGTS合成基因btaA和btaB,在大肠杆菌中成功表达,并证实了所表达基因的功能.%[Objective] The aim of this study is to analyse membrane lipids composition of a rhizobial strain isolated from nodule of Alfalfa in Heilongjiang province under phosphorus-limited condition and to clone and identify the genes required for diacylglyceryl trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) biosynthesis.[Methods] The rhizobial strain was cultured in Sherwood minimal medium containing either normal or low concentrations of inorganic phosphate.The membrane iipids were extracted by Bligh-Dyer method and were analysed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) using both the lipids of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 and standard samples of some phospholipid as a reference.PCR primers was designed according to the sequences of btaA and btaB in the GenBank.The PCR-amplified btaA and btaB genes were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3).The gene function was verified by testing DGTS production.16S rRNA gene sequences of the strain 17560 was analysed.[Results] The strain 17560 isolated from Alfalfa in Heilongjiang province shares 99.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Sinorhizobium meliloti.But its lipid compositions were quite different from that of the reference strain S.meliloti 1021.Under phosphorus-limited conditions,the main membrane lipids of the strain17560 were phosphorus-free lipids,such as ornithine lipid (OL) and DGTS.Strain 17560 contain three different types of OLs meanwhile

  7. NUTRITIONAL ENHANCEMENT OF ALFALFA THROUGH GENETIC ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Faragó

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a pasture legume crop of primary importance to animal production throughout the world. The nutritional quality of alfalfa, as of other leguminous forage crops, is mainly determined by their content in selected essential amino acids (EAAs, such as methionine (Met and cysteine (Cys. In alfalfa, however, these S-containing amino acids constitute only about 1% or less of crude proteins (Frame et al., 1998. This is significantly less than the 3.5% Met+Cys content in the recommended FAO reference protein (FAO, 1973. Recent advances in genetic engineering allow to use the transgenic approach to increase the content of specific essential amino acids in target plant species. A number of different molecular approaches have been developed to address this issue, such as over-expression of a heterologous or homologous Met-rich protein, expression of a synthetic protein, modification of protein sequence, and metabolic engineering of the free amino acid pool and protein sink. To study the possibility of transgenic enhancement of nutritional quality of alfalfa, we used the approach of expression of a heterologous protein rich in Met+Cys in cells of alfalfa. The T-DNA introduced into the genome of alfalfa, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation, contained the selectable merker gene nptII for kanamycin (Kn resistance, and a cDNA of Ov gene from Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix coding for a high Met+Cys containing ovalbumine (Mucha et al., 1991, both under constitutive promoters. After cocultivation of petiole segment- and leaf blade-explants of two highly embryogenic alfalfa genotypes Rg9/I-14-22 and Rg11/I-10-68 (Faragó et al., 1997 with cells of A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 carrying the nptII and Ov genes, and selection of transgenic cells on Kn containing selective media, more than one hundred putatively transgenic regenerants were obtained through somatic embryogenesis. Biological (Kn rooting assay

  8. Auxin and nitric oxide control indeterminate nodule formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spena Angelo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobia symbionts elicit root nodule formation in leguminous plants. Nodule development requires local accumulation of auxin. Both plants and rhizobia synthesise auxin. We have addressed the effects of bacterial auxin (IAA on nodulation by using Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum bacteria genetically engineered for increased auxin synthesis. Results IAA-overproducing S. meliloti increased nodulation in Medicago species, whilst the increased auxin synthesis of R. leguminosarum had no effect on nodulation in Phaseolus vulgaris, a legume bearing determinate nodules. Indeterminate legumes (Medicago species bearing IAA-overproducing nodules showed an enhanced lateral root development, a process known to be regulated by both IAA and nitric oxide (NO. Higher NO levels were detected in indeterminate nodules of Medicago plants formed by the IAA-overproducing rhizobia. The specific NO scavenger cPTIO markedly reduced nodulation induced by wild type and IAA-overproducing strains. Conclusion The data hereby presented demonstrate that auxin synthesised by rhizobia and nitric oxide positively affect indeterminate nodule formation and, together with the observation of increased expression of an auxin efflux carrier in roots bearing nodules with higher IAA and NO content, support a model of nodule formation that involves auxin transport regulation and NO synthesis.

  9. Relation between soybean nodulation byBradyrhizobium japonicum and intensity of infestation with the spider miteTetranychus cucurbitacearum (Saved) under different sowing dates and increasing amounts of nitrogenous fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Y G; Hassan, A A; El-Beheiry, M M; Hassan, M E

    1991-01-01

    Inoculation of soybeans withBradyrhizobium japonicum and also the time of sowing of soybeans were studied under N-fertilization with urea at 0, 96 and 192 kg N/ha. Intensity of infestation with the spider miteTetranychus cucurbitacearum (Saved) was followed over six weeks. Inoculation greatly enhanced nodule numbers and weight, dry weight and N content of 65-day-old plant, seed yield, seed N content, 100-seed weight and efficiency of use of N from urea. Counts of the spider mite were increased by inoculation and N fertilization but decreased sharply under late plantation. Fertilizer N proportionally decreased nodulation, N2-fixation and productivity of chemical fertilizer. A late sowing date gave the least seed production but the maximum percentage increase in seed yield if inoculated. This indicated a lower efficiency of chemical fertilizer N utilization and the necessity for inoculation.

  10. Genetically engineered alfalfa and feral alfalfa plants: What should growers know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L) is the world’s most important forage crop. The western United States is the most important production area for both alfalfa forage and alfalfa seed. Alfalfa was the first major perennial genetically-engineered (GE)crop and a GE trait for resistance to glypho...

  11. Management of the Solitary Pulmonary Nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edward Y; Gaur, Puja; Ge, Yimin; Kopas, Lisa; Santacruz, Jose F; Gupta, Nakul; Munden, Reginald F; Cagle, Philip T; Kim, Min P

    2016-09-02

    Context .- Optimal management of the patient with a solitary pulmonary nodule entails early diagnosis and appropriate treatment for patients with malignant tumors, and minimization of unnecessary interventions and procedures for those with ultimately benign nodules. With the growing number of high-resolution imaging modalities and studies available, incidentally found solitary pulmonary nodules are an increasingly common occurrence. Objective .- To provide guidance to clinicians involved in the management of patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule, including aspects of risk stratification, workup, diagnosis, and management. Data Sources .- Data for this review were gathered from an extensive literature review on the topic. Conclusions .- Logical evaluation and management pathways for a patient with a solitary pulmonary nodule will allow providers to diagnose and treat individuals with early stage lung cancer and minimize morbidity from invasive procedures for patients with benign lesions.

  12. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  13. INFLUENCES OF LIMING ON YIELDS OF ALFALFA HAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetislav Popović

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage legume on cultivated fields in Croatia (about 45000 ha of growing area – status 2003. The field experiment with application of four dolomite (Agrovapno MgO: 56% CaO and 40% MgO rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 tha-1 were conducted in autumn of 2004. The experiment was conducted by randomized block design in four replicates. Alfalfa (cultivar Osječanka 88 of the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia was sown on March 25, 2005. Four cuttings / year were made. Fresh mass of alfalfa (cutting area 0.25 m2 was oven-dried at 65 oC. Year was the most influencing factor of alfalfa hay yields (13.03, 28.63, 29.43 and 32.77 tha-1, for 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. Liming resulted in low increases of yields up to 5% only. We presume that possible high tolerance of Osječanka 88 cultivar to soil acidity could be the main reason of low effects of liming on alfalfa yields.

  14. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks.

  15. Internal constitution of manganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    to their elongation. Denser nodules show low attenuation. Density and P-wave velocity in nodules increase significantly on saturation with water. Nodule density is related directly to nodule size, P-wave velocity and Mn/Fe ratio; and inversely to water content...

  16. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Molero, Gemma; Gilard, Françoise; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Nogués, Salvador

    2013-02-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N(2) fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N(2)-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were carried out. It is shown that the inhibition of nitrogenase activity caused by water restriction was accompanied by concerted alterations in metabolic pathways in nodules, leaves, and roots. The data suggest that nodule metabolism and metabolic exchange between plant organs nearly reached homeostasis in asparagine synthesis and partitioning, as well as the N demand from leaves. Typically, there was (i) a stimulation of the anaplerotic pathway to sustain the provision of C skeletons for amino acid (e.g. glutamate and proline) synthesis; (ii) re-allocation of glycolytic products to alanine and serine/glycine; and (iii) subtle changes in redox metabolites suggesting the implication of a slight oxidative stress. Furthermore, water restriction caused little change in both photosynthetic efficiency and respiratory cost of N(2) fixation by nodules. In other words, the results suggest that under water stress, nodule metabolism follows a compromise between physiological imperatives (N demand, oxidative stress) and the lower input to sustain catabolism.

  17. Effect of shoot removal on remobilization of carbon and nitrogen during regrowth of nitrogen-fixing alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Erice, Gorka; Aldasoro, Joseba; Arrese-Igor, Cesar; Nogués, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of carbon and nitrogen reserves to regrowth following shoot removal has been studied in the past. However, important gaps remain in understanding the effect of shoot cutting on nodule performance and its relevance during regrowth. In this study, isotopic labelling was conducted at root and canopy levels with both (15) N2 and (13) C-depleted CO2 on exclusively nitrogen-fixing alfalfa plants. As expected, our results indicate that the roots were the main sink organs before shoots were removed. Seven days after regrowth the carbon and nitrogen stored in the roots was invested in shoot biomass formation and partitioned to the nodules. The large depletion in nodule carbohydrate availability suggests that root-derived carbon compounds were delivered towards nodules in order to sustain respiratory activity. In addition to the limited carbohydrate availability, the upregulation of nodule peroxidases showed that oxidative stress was also involved during poor nodule performance. Fourteen days after cutting, and as a consequence of the stimulated photosynthetic and N2 -fixing machinery, availability of Cnew and Nnew strongly diminished in the plants due to their replacement by C and N assimilated during the post-labelling period. In summary, our study indicated that during the first week of regrowth, root-derived C and N remobilization did not overcome C- and N-limitation in nodules and leaves. However, 14 days after cutting, leaf and nodule performance were re-established.

  18. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  19. Screening for Salnity Tolerance Among Falcata Alfalfa PI's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many western US rangelands high in salinity could benefit from a salt tolerant falcata type alfalfa. Our objective was to use a previously developed greenhouse screening protocol to characterize 32 PI's from the NPGS system for their relative ability to survive increasing levels of NaC1 relative to...

  20. N abundance of nodules as an indicator of N metabolism in n(2)-fixing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, G; Feldman, L; Bryan, B A; Skeeters, J L; Kohl, D H; Amarger, N; Mariotti, F; Mariotti, A

    1982-08-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of (15)N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N(2)-fixing plants. N(2)-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in (15)N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N(2)-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in (15)N. Thus, (15)N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N(2)-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of (15)N enrichment in N(2)-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N(2) and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit (15)N enrichment.

  1. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue proliferatio

  2. PERACETIC ACID PRETREATMENT OF ALFALFA STEM AND ASPEN BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa stems and ground aspen were exposed to peracetic acid (0.5 to 9% on biomass at temperatures ranging from 40 to 100° C and reaction times from 1 to 5 hours. Glucose release as a percentage of total cellulose content was determined using subsequent standard enzymatic hydrolysis. Statistical analysis confirmed that aspen showed a strong response to peracetic acid addition rate. 9% peracetic acid removed 14% of the original lignin and increased the rate of glucose release from 23% to 44%. Temperature and reaction time played a less significant role. For alfalfa stems, low levels of peractic acid (0.5% increased glucose release from 30 to 47%. The addition of larger doses of peracetic acid did not show any significant improvement; this effect appears to be closely related to rate of lignin removal. While peracetic acid effectively removed lignin from aspen, 98% of the original lignin was still present in alfalfa after higher level peracetic acid treatments; the yield loss observed during pretreatment of alfalfa stems originates from other biomass components.

  3. Genetic Engineering of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.

  4. Relationship between size and geochemistry of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin: Significance in selection of high grade nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A; Ambre, N.V.

    and moisture contents and indicate their formation at deeper depths by a hydrogenous process. N/n (size of nodule/nucleus) ratios and nucleus size increase with increase in nodule size, supporting the view that smaller and larger nodules were formed differently...

  5. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field.

  6. A comparison of six software packages for evaluation of solid lung nodules using semi-automated volumetry: What is the minimum increase in size to detect growth in repeated CT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoop, Bartjan de [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center, Heidelberglaan 100, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gietema, Hester; Prokop, Mathias [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ginneken, Bram van [University Medical Center, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zanen, Pieter [University Medical Center, Department of Pulmonology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Groenewegen, Gerard [University Medical Center, Department of Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    We compared interexamination variability of CT lung nodule volumetry with six currently available semi-automated software packages to determine the minimum change needed to detect the growth of solid lung nodules. We had ethics committee approval. To simulate a follow-up examination with zero growth, we performed two low-dose unenhanced CT scans in 20 patients referred for pulmonary metastases. Between examinations, patients got off and on the table. Volumes of all pulmonary nodules were determined on both examinations using six nodule evaluation software packages. Variability (upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the Bland-Altman plot) was calculated for nodules for which segmentation was visually rated as adequate. We evaluated 214 nodules (mean diameter 10.9 mm, range 3.3 mm-30.0 mm). Software packages provided adequate segmentation in 71% to 86% of nodules (p < 0.001). In case of adequate segmentation, variability in volumetry between scans ranged from 16.4% to 22.3% for the various software packages. Variability with five to six software packages was significantly less for nodules {>=}8 mm in diameter (range 12.9%-17.1%) than for nodules <8 mm (range 18.5%-25.6%). Segmented volumes of each package were compared to each of the other packages. Systematic volume differences were detected in 11/15 comparisons. This hampers comparison of nodule volumes between software packages. (orig.)

  7. Elastography in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Colakoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to test the diagnostic success of strain elastography in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods: The size, echogenicity, and halo integrity of 293 thyroid nodules and the presence of microcalcification in these nodules were evaluated on gray-scale examination. Doppler characteristics and elastography patterns were also evaluated and recorded. Nodules were classified in four categories (patterns 1-4 based on elastographic examination. Results: According to the cytopathological findings, 222 nodules were benign, and 71 nodules were malignant. The risk of a nodule to be malignant was 3.8 times increased by hypoechogenicity, 7.7 times increased by the presence of microcalcification, and 11.5 times increased by the absence of halo. On Doppler patterns, the presence of central vascularity increased the malignancy risk of a nodule by 5.8 times. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, patterns 3 and 4 were malignant, and patterns 1 and 2 were benign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of elastography were 100%, 80.2%, 61.7%, 100%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Strain elastography can be used as a noninvasive method in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules and in identifying the patients who would undergo surgery.

  8. Elastography in Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Bulent; Yildirim, Duzgun; Alis, Deniz; Ucar, Gokhan; Samanci, Cesur; Ustabasioglu, Fethi Emre; Bakir, Alev; Ulusoy, Onur Levent

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to test the diagnostic success of strain elastography in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods: The size, echogenicity, and halo integrity of 293 thyroid nodules and the presence of microcalcification in these nodules were evaluated on gray-scale examination. Doppler characteristics and elastography patterns were also evaluated and recorded. Nodules were classified in four categories (patterns 1–4) based on elastographic examination. Results: According to the cytopathological findings, 222 nodules were benign, and 71 nodules were malignant. The risk of a nodule to be malignant was 3.8 times increased by hypoechogenicity, 7.7 times increased by the presence of microcalcification, and 11.5 times increased by the absence of halo. On Doppler patterns, the presence of central vascularity increased the malignancy risk of a nodule by 5.8 times. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, patterns 3 and 4 were malignant, and patterns 1 and 2 were benign. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of elastography were 100%, 80.2%, 61.7%, 100%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Strain elastography can be used as a noninvasive method in distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid nodules and in identifying the patients who would undergo surgery. PMID:28123841

  9. Evaluation of abundance of aerobic bacteria in the rhizosphere of transgenic and non-transgenic alfalfa lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragová, N; Faragó, J; Drábeková, J

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen genetically modified lines of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) containing the gene Ov from Japanese quail, coding for a methionine-rich protein ovalbumin, were evaluated for nodulation ability and concentration of aerobic bacteria in the rhizosphere. The transgenic lines were derived from a highly regenerable genotype Rg9/I-14-22, selected from cv. Lucia. On selective media, a higher concentration of ammonifying bacteria, bacterial spores, denitrifying and nitrifying bacteria were observed in the rhizosphere of transgenic clonesand, on the other hand, lower concentration of cellulolytic bacteria and Azotobacter spp. compared with the rhizosphere of non-transgenic clone SE/22-GT2. A statistically significant difference in the concentration of all the bacterial types was found between samples taken from two types of substrates (i.e. sterile vs. nonsterile). Higher bacterial concentration (measured as colony forming units per g soil dry mass) were observed for all tested groups of culturable bacteria in the non-sterile substrate. The presence of Azotobacter spp. was found only in the rhizosphere of plants grown in non-sterile soil in which the highest number of fertile soil particles (97 %) was observed in transgenic clones SE/22-9-1-12 and SE/22-11-1-1S.1. Concentration of bacteria involved in the N cycle in the soil was increased in the rhizosphere of transgenic clones and decreased in the rhizosphere of non-transgenic plants compared with the average value. In spite of some differences in colony numbers in samples isolated from the root rhizosphere of transgenic and nontransgenic alfalfa plants, we could not detect any statistically significant difference between individual lines.

  10. The chemical properties of soil for alfalfa production after biofertiliser application

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Luis Lemes; Cecílio Viega Soares Filho; Manoel Garcia Neto; Reges Heinrichs

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of biofertilisers for the production of alfalfa shoot, root and nodule dry matter, and also, to evaluate the chemical properties of the soil. This study was conducted in the greenhouse of the Support Department, Animal Production and Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/UNESP, Araçatuba – SP, from May to October 2010. The experimental design was completely randomised with six biofertiliser doses (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 m3 ha-1) and fi...

  11. Milker′s nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Milker′s nodule virus is a parapox virus that is endemic in cattle. The virus can be grown in tissue culture of both bovine and human cell lines. We report a 53-year-old male, milker who presented with multiple painful nodules on both hands for one month. The nodules were tender and showed central umblication and surrounding rim of erythema. Both epitrochlear and axillary lymph nodes were enlarged on both sides and were non-tender. The skin biopsy revealed marked edema in the epidermis with monouclear inflammatory cell infilitration in the upper dermis. The diagnosis was made on clinical basis. As there was no specific treatment the patient was managed only with antibiotics for secondary infection. The lesions partially resolved after two weeks. This case in reported for its occupational importance.

  12. Biochemical and Molecular Phylogenetic Study of Agriculturally Useful Association of a Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium and Nodule Sinorhizobium with Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Karaushu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed inoculation with bacterial consortium was found to increase legume yield, providing a higher growth than the standard nitrogen treatment methods. Alfalfa plants were inoculated by mono- and binary compositions of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Their physiological and biochemical properties were estimated. Inoculation by microbial consortium of Sinorhizobium meliloti T17 together with a new cyanobacterial isolate Nostoc PTV was more efficient than the single-rhizobium strain inoculation. This treatment provides an intensification of the processes of biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria in the root nodules and an intensification of plant photosynthesis. Inoculation by bacterial consortium stimulates growth of plant mass and rhizogenesis and leads to increased productivity of alfalfa and to improving the amino acid composition of plant leaves. The full nucleotide sequence of the rRNA gene cluster and partial sequence of the dinitrogenase reductase (nifH gene of Nostoc PTV were deposited to GenBank (JQ259185.1, JQ259186.1. Comparison of these gene sequences of Nostoc PTV with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that this cyanobacterial strain does not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this cyanobacterium clustered with high credibility values with Nostoc muscorum.

  13. Biochemical and Molecular Phylogenetic Study of Agriculturally Useful Association of a Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium and Nodule Sinorhizobium with Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaushu, E V; Lazebnaya, I V; Kravzova, T R; Vorobey, N A; Lazebny, O E; Kiriziy, D A; Olkhovich, O P; Taran, N Yu; Kots, S Ya; Popova, A A; Omarova, E; Koksharova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Seed inoculation with bacterial consortium was found to increase legume yield, providing a higher growth than the standard nitrogen treatment methods. Alfalfa plants were inoculated by mono- and binary compositions of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Their physiological and biochemical properties were estimated. Inoculation by microbial consortium of Sinorhizobium meliloti T17 together with a new cyanobacterial isolate Nostoc PTV was more efficient than the single-rhizobium strain inoculation. This treatment provides an intensification of the processes of biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria in the root nodules and an intensification of plant photosynthesis. Inoculation by bacterial consortium stimulates growth of plant mass and rhizogenesis and leads to increased productivity of alfalfa and to improving the amino acid composition of plant leaves. The full nucleotide sequence of the rRNA gene cluster and partial sequence of the dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) gene of Nostoc PTV were deposited to GenBank (JQ259185.1, JQ259186.1). Comparison of these gene sequences of Nostoc PTV with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that this cyanobacterial strain does not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this cyanobacterium clustered with high credibility values with Nostoc muscorum.

  14. Neogene oceanographic variations recorded in manganese nodules from the Somali Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Nair, R.R.; Tarkian, M.; Haake, B.

    of nodule accretion starting with the development of pillar structure at a depth of 20 mm in the nodule around 13 Ma coincides with increased Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) flow and an elevated calciumcarbonate compensation depth (CCD). The Late Miocene...

  15. Functional implication of β-carotene hydroxylases in soybean nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Kyoung; Kim, Sunghan; Um, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kyunga; Choi, Sun-Kang; Um, Byung-Hun; Kang, Suk-Woo; Kim, Jee-Woong; Takaichi, Shinichi; Song, Seok-Bo; Lee, Choon-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Seung; Kim, Ki Woo; Nam, Kyoung Hee; Lee, Suk-Ha; Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Hyang-Mi; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Verma, Desh Pal S; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2013-07-01

    Legume-Rhizobium spp. symbiosis requires signaling between the symbiotic partners and differential expression of plant genes during nodule development. Previously, we cloned a gene encoding a putative β-carotene hydroxylase (GmBCH1) from soybean (Glycine max) whose expression increased during nodulation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum. In this work, we extended our study to three GmBCHs to examine their possible role(s) in nodule development, as they were additionally identified as nodule specific, along with the completion of the soybean genome. In situ hybridization revealed the expression of three GmBCHs (GmBCH1, GmBCH2, and GmBCH3) in the infected cells of root nodules, and their enzymatic activities were confirmed by functional assays in Escherichia coli. Localization of GmBCHs by transfecting Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) protoplasts with green fluorescent protein fusions and by electron microscopic immunogold detection in soybean nodules indicated that GmBCH2 and GmBCH3 were present in plastids, while GmBCH1 appeared to be cytosolic. RNA interference of the GmBCHs severely impaired nitrogen fixation as well as nodule development. Surprisingly, we failed to detect zeaxanthin, a product of GmBCH, or any other carotenoids in nodules. Therefore, we examined the possibility that most of the carotenoids in nodules are converted or cleaved to other compounds. We detected the expression of some carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (GmCCDs) in wild-type nodules and also a reduced amount of zeaxanthin in GmCCD8-expressing E. coli, suggesting cleavage of the carotenoid. In view of these findings, we propose that carotenoids such as zeaxanthin synthesized in root nodules are cleaved by GmCCDs, and we discuss the possible roles of the carotenoid cleavage products in nodulation.

  16. A comparison of six software packages for evaluation of solid lung nodules using semi-automated volumetry : What is the minimum increase in size to detect growth in repeated CT examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoop, Bartjan; Gietema, Hester; van Ginneken, Bram; Zanen, Pieter; Groenewegen, Gerard; Prokop, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    We compared interexamination variability of CT lung nodule volumetry with six currently available semi-automated software packages to determine the minimum change needed to detect the growth of solid lung nodules. We had ethics committee approval. To simulate a follow-up examination with zero growth

  17. A comparison of six software packages for evaluation of solid lung nodules using semi-automated volumetry: what is the minimum increase in size to detect growth in repeated CT examinations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop, B. de; Gietema, H.; Ginneken, B. van; Zanen, P.; Groenewegen, G.; Prokop, M.

    2009-01-01

    We compared interexamination variability of CT lung nodule volumetry with six currently available semi-automated software packages to determine the minimum change needed to detect the growth of solid lung nodules. We had ethics committee approval. To simulate a follow-up examination with zero growth

  18. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants.

  19. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  20. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H.; Hossain, Mohammad M.; Khatun, Most A.; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants. PMID:27512401

  1. Role of silicon counteracting cadmium toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Kabir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase and MsMT2 (metallothionein] and PC (phytochelatin accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter, MsNramp1 (metal transporter and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants.

  2. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  3. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins during alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1, pollination (S2, and the post-pollination senescence period (S3. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD. Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs, carbonic anhydrase (CA, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein (NQOLs. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower

  4. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest x-ray Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Histoplasmosis Lung cancer - small cell Pulmonary tuberculosis Skin nodules Valley fever Review Date 8/1/2015 Updated by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, ... Cancer Lung Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  5. NODUL TIROID SOLITER

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    I Gusti Ayu Prema Yani Sidemen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Nodul tiroid adalah pembengkakan atau massa pada kelenjar tiroid.Pembedahan merupakan pilihan terapi utama, namun pembedahan yang tidak dilakukandengan baik berisiko tinggi mencederai 2 struktur penting, yakni kelenjar paratiroid dannervus rekuren laringeal. Risiko nodul tiroid akan meningkat seiring pertambahan usiadan kurangnya asupan sodium.Insiden terjadinya nodul tiroid lebih sering ditemukanpada laki-laki dan usia di atas 50 tahun, namun pada kasus ini nodul tiroid soliterditemukan pada seorang perempuan dewasa muda sehingga melatar belakangi penulisuntuk mendiskusikan kasus ini dalam laporan kasus.Kasus: Seorang pasien perempuan 32 tahun dengan keluhan tumbuh benjolan padaleher kiri sejak ± 1 tahun yang lalu. Benjolan tersebut dirasakan semakin membesar.Pasien tidak mengeluhkan rasa nyeri di daerah benjolan. Gangguan pada saat makanataupun minum, riwayat sesak, dada berdebar-debar, sering berkeringat, ataupunpenurunan berat badan disangkal. Pada pemeriksaan fisik didapatkan keadaan umumdalam batas normal.  Pada pemeriksaan status lokalis pada region colli anterior lateralsinistra ditemukan massa lunak yang mobile dengan batas tegas dan ukuran ± 3,2 cm x3,4 cm.Hasil: Hasil pemeriksaan patologi anatomi menunjukkan terdapat degenerasi kistikpada massa tiroid tersebut. Pasien kemudian menjalani tindakan pembedahan, yaknitiroidektomi dengan isthmolobectomy. Tiroidektomi dengan teknik diseksi kapsularpada pasien ini berhasil dibuktikan dengan tidak terdapatnya kerusakan pita suara ataukejang pasca operasi.Kesimpulan: Kondisi pasca tiroidektomi dengan teknik diseksi kapsular pada pasien inibaik, tidak terdapat komplikasi kerusakan pita suara dan nervus rekuren laringeal,pasien hidup, dan luka operasi terawat baik.

  6. Applied Genetics and Genomics in Alfalfa Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Charles Brummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial and outcrossing species, is a widely planted forage legume for hay, pasture and silage throughout the world. Currently, alfalfa breeding relies on recurrent phenotypic selection, but alternatives incorporating molecular marker assisted breeding could enhance genetic gain per unit time and per unit cost, and accelerate alfalfa improvement. Many major quantitative trait loci (QTL related to agronomic traits have been identified by family-based QTL mapping, but in relatively large genomic regions. Candidate genes elucidated from model species have helped to identify some potential causal loci in alfalfa mapping and breeding population for specific traits. Recently, high throughput sequencing technologies, coupled with advanced bioinformatics tools, have been used to identify large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in alfalfa, which are being developed into markers. These markers will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative traits and genome wide association mapping of agronomic traits and further advanced breeding strategies for alfalfa, such as marker-assisted selection and genomic selection. Based on ideas from the literature, we suggest several ways to improve selection in alfalfa including (1 diversity selection and paternity testing, (2 introgression of QTL and (3 genomic selection.

  7. 15N Abundance of Nodules as an Indicator of N Metabolism in N2-Fixing Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Georgia; Feldman, Lori; Bryan, Barbara A.; Skeeters, Jerri L.; Kohl, Daniel H.; Amarger, Nöelle; Mariotti, Françoise; Mariotti, André

    1982-01-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of 15N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N2-fixing plants. N2-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in 15N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N2-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in 15N. Thus, 15N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N2-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of 15N enrichment in N2-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N2 and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit 15N enrichment. PMID:16662517

  8. Identification of genes induced during Medicago sativa nodule development by using the cDNA-AFLP technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Rong; HE Zhishui; LIU Fanghua; ZOU Huasong; ZHU Jiabi; YU Guanqiao

    2006-01-01

    A variety of genes involved in nodule development and function were induced during symbiotic root nodule development in alfalfa. We identified those genes by comparing the cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) patterns of infected nodules and uninfected roots. Seventy-one transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were isolated from about 3000 TDFs, which are enhanced or specifically expressed in nodule. The differential expression patterns of 61 genes were confirmed by reverse Northern hybridization or Northern hybridization analyses. Among these, 31 exhibited significant similarities to characterized database entries. These results suggest that the genes corresponding to the 31 TDFs may play important roles in signal transduction, gene expression and regulation, substance transportation or auto-regulation of nodulation during nodule development. The Northern hybridization analysis also indicates that the gene corresponding to TDF RX89 was not expressed in the nodule elicited by bacA mutant, presumably it is specially induced at the stage of nodule development when bacteroids begin to be differentiated.

  9. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  10. VATS intraoperative tattooing to facilitate solitary pulmonary nodule resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Cherif

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS has become routine and widely accepted for the removal of solitary pulmonary nodules of unknown etiology. Thoracosopic techniques continue to evolve with better instruments, robotic applications, and increased patient acceptance and awareness. Several techniques have been described to localize peripheral pulmonary nodules, including pre-operative CT-guided tattooing with methylene blue, CT scan guided spiral/hook wire placement, and transthoracic ultrasound. As pulmonary surgeons well know, the lung and visceral pleura may appear featureless on top of a pulmonary nodule. Case description This paper presents a rapid, direct and inexpensive approach to peripheral lung lesion resection by marking the lung parenchyma on top of the nodule using direct methylene blue injection. Methods In two patients with peripherally located lung nodules (n = 3 scheduled for VATS, we used direct methylene blue injection for intraoperative localization of the pulmonary nodule. Our technique was the following: After finger palpation of the lung, a spinal 25 gauge needle was inserted through an existing port and 0.1 ml of methylene blue was used to tattoo the pleura perpendicular to the localized nodule. The methylene blue tattoo immediately marks the lung surface over the nodule. The surgeon avoids repeated finger palpation, while lining up stapler, graspers and camera, because of the visible tattoo. Our technique eliminates regrasping and repalpating the lung once again to identify a non marked lesion. Results Three lung nodules were resected in two patients. Once each lesion was palpated it was marked, and the area was resected with security of accurate localization. All lung nodules were resected in totality with normal lung parenchymal margins. Our technique added about one minute to the operative time. The two patients were discharged home on the second postoperative day, with no morbidity. Conclusion

  11. Long-term follow-up of thyroid nodule growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadbeck, B; Pruellage, J; Roggenbuck, U; Hirche, H; Janssen, O E; Mann, K; Hoermann, R

    2002-10-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are common in iodine deficient countries. Although many recent studies have addressed the molecular basis and short-term outcome of treatment in nodular thyroid disease, data on the long-term follow-up of thyroid nodule growth are widely lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term behaviour of benign thyroid nodules growth. We followed 109 consecutive patients seen at yearly intervals in our Outpatient Clinic for at least 3 years (range 3-12 years, mean 4.9 +/- 2.6 years) presenting with 139 benign nodules in uni- or multinodular goiters. The size of the nodules and thyroid glands was analysed retrospectively. The study included a spectrum of benign thyroid nodules, 86 functioning and 53 non-functioning. 27 patients were treated with levothyroxine, 8 with iodide and 16 with a combination of both. 58 patients were not treated mainly because of thyroid functional autonomy. Patients with overt hyperthyroidism or suspected malignancy by fine-needle aspiration were excluded from the study. The nodules and glands were assessed by ultrasonography at yearly intervals and documented by photoprints. Relevant growth was defined as an increase in nodule volume of at least 30%. For statistical analyses, Cox Proportional Hazard Model and life-table analyses according to Kaplan-Meier were performed. Most thyroid nodules grew slowly but continuously during follow-up. After about 3 years, half of the nodules had increased their volume by at least 30%. Growth of the nodules was significantly faster than of the corresponding thyroid glands (p < 0.0001). Age and sex of the patients and size or function of the nodules at initial presentation were not significantly related to their growth. Suppression of TSH did not affect growth of the nodules irrespective of the source of thyroid hormones, endogenous or by administration of levothyroxine. In conclusion, benign thyroid nodules have a slow intrinsic growth potential, which is apparently

  12. Prohexadione-calcium responsive alfalfa varieties ensure success of corn-interseeded alfalfa production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent USDA-NASS data indicate alfalfa and corn were planted on about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively, in the Northeast, Great Lakes, Upper Midwest, and Northern Mountain regions the USA. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn plantin...

  13. Effect of quantity, quality, and length of alfalfa hay on selective consumption by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, C; Armentano, L E

    2003-02-01

    Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design. Experimental periods were 6 or 7 d. Cows were housed in tie-stalls, and diets were fed ad libitum twice daily at 1100 and 1600 h. Diets contained 60% concentrate and either 40% alfalfa hay or 20% alfalfa hay and 20% alfalfa silage (dry matter basis). The effect of quantity, quality, and length of hay on sorting behavior was determined. Treatments consisted of 20% lower or higher quality long alfalfa hay, 20% lower or higher quality chopped alfalfa hay, and 40% lower or higher quality chopped alfalfa hay. Variation of sorting among cows was also determined. Particle size distribution of samples of as-fed total mixed rations and orts were determined using the Wisconsin particle size separator. Screens have square holes with diagonals of 26.9, 18, 8.98, 5.61, and 1.65 mm (screens Y1 to Y5, respectively). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each fraction expressed as a percentage ofthe predicted intake. Increasing the proportion of dry hay increased sorting. Quality of alfalfa hays that were offered did not affect sorting activity. Feeding long alfalfa hay increased selective consumption of fine particles. However, feeding long alfalfa hay also increased intake of longer particles because a higher percentage of long particles was offered. Across treatments, animals consistently sorted against longer particles in favor of finer particles. In particular, intake of Y1 as a percentage of the predicted intake was the most variable. Average Y1 intake, across the six treatments for each cow, was between 60 and 70% of predicted intake for four cows, 71 to 80% for 11 cows, 81 to 90% for five cows, 91 to 100% for two cows, and 101 to 110% for two cows. On one diet a cow failed to consume any of the Y1 portion of the total mixed ration. This variation among animals in sorting of very long feed particles may have practical significance.

  14. GmEXPB2, a Cell Wall β-Expansin, Affects Soybean Nodulation through Modifying Root Architecture and Promoting Nodule Formation and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Tan, Zhiyuan; Zeng, Rensen; Liao, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Nodulation is an essential process for biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in legumes, but its regulation remains poorly understood. Here, a β-expansin gene, GmEXPB2, was found to be critical for soybean (Glycine max) nodulation. GmEXPB2 was preferentially expressed at the early stage of nodule development. β-Glucuronidase staining further showed that GmEXPB2 was mainly localized to the nodule vascular trace and nodule vascular bundles, as well as nodule cortical and parenchyma cells, suggesting that GmEXPB2 might be involved in cell wall modification and extension during nodule formation and development. Overexpression of GmEXPB2 dramatically modified soybean root architecture, increasing the size and number of cortical cells in the root meristematic and elongation zones and expanding root hair density and size of the root hair zone. Confocal microscopy with green fluorescent protein-labeled rhizobium USDA110 cells showed that the infection events were significantly enhanced in the GmEXPB2-overexpressing lines. Moreover, nodule primordium development was earlier in overexpressing lines compared with wild-type plants. Thereby, overexpression of GmEXPB2 in either transgenic soybean hairy roots or whole plants resulted in increased nodule number, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity and thus elevated plant N and phosphorus content as well as biomass. In contrast, suppression of GmEXPB2 in soybean transgenic composite plants led to smaller infected cells and thus reduced number of big nodules, nodule mass, and nitrogenase activity, thereby inhibiting soybean growth. Taken together, we conclude that GmEXPB2 critically affects soybean nodulation through modifying root architecture and promoting nodule formation and development and subsequently impacts biological N2 fixation and growth of soybean.

  15. Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the sweetpotato Orange gene exhibit enhanced abiotic stress tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2 promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants, three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8 selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands.

  16. El cultivo de alfalfa utilizando agua de perforación, agua residual urbana y precipitaciones The cultivation of alfalfa using artesian well water, urban wastewater and rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Plevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la producción de biomasa aérea, la eficiencia del uso de agua y el valor nutritivo de alfalfa cultivada aplicando riego con agua residual urbana, agua de perforación y un testigo (precipitaciones, en el Campus de la Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. Los tratamientos de riego tuvieron un efecto positivo sobre la producción de biomasa aérea obteniéndose un 24% más de producción de biomasa que en la situación de secano (precipitaciones. Entre los tratamientos con riego también se manifestaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La alfalfa regada con aguas residuales urbana supero en un 19% a la cultivada con agua de perforación. La eficiencia del uso del agua por parte del cultivo se incrementó cuando el riego se realizó con aguas residuales urbanas. Además, se determinó que la alfalfa regada con agua residual, supera los valores nutritivos del cultivo que crece en condiciones sin riego; encontrándose 39% más de proteínas, 14% más de digestibilidad e igual porcentaje de energía metabólica. Se puede concluir que el agua residual urbana representa otra posible fuente de agua, factible de ingresar al suelo y estar a disposición para el cultivo de alfalfa.The objective of this study was to analyse the production of alfalfa biomass, the efficiency of water use and the nutritional value of forage, inside an irrigation structure of an experimental facility that uses treated urban wastewater, artesian well water and rainfall, at the campus of the Universidad National de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba-Argentina. The irrigation treatment had a positive effect on the production of biomass of alfalfa. On an average 24% increase in production was observed when compared to dry-land farming. Regarding the quality of the irrigation water, statistical differences in production were observed, the irrigation with urban wastewater produced 19% more than that of well water. The

  17. Multiple pulmonary rheumatoid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Gokhan; Senturk, Taskin

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of 45-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, who was admitted to our rheumatology department with exacerbation of the disease. The patient's disease activity score (DAS 28) was 6.9. Physical examination revealed changes in the lung auscultation as a rough breathing sound at the middle and lower lobe of the right lung. Chest X-ray revealed multiple nodular densities in both lungs. Lung biopsy was performed for the diagnosis and revealed necrotizing granulomas with central fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells. Such a histopathological picture is typical for rheumatoid nodules. Finally the patient was treated with rituximab, with significant improvement.

  18. Molecular cloning of a bifunctional beta-xylosidase/alpha-L-arabinosidase from alfalfa roots: heterologous expression in Medicago truncatula and substrate specificity of the purified enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jin-Song; Balland-Vanney, Maud; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Schultze, Michael; Kondorosi, Adam; Kondorosi, Eva; Staehelin, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolases are often members of a multigene family, suggesting individual roles for each isoenzyme. Various extracellular glycoside hydrolases have an important but poorly understood function in remodelling the cell wall during plant growth. Here, MsXyl1, a concanavalin A-binding protein from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 3 (beta-D-xylosidase branch) is characterized. Transcripts of MsXyl1 were detected in roots (particularly root tips), root nodules, and flowers. MsXyl1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter was expressed in the model legume Medicago truncatula (Gaertner). Concanavalin A-binding proteins from the transgenic plants exhibited 5-8-fold increased activities towards three p-nitrophenyl (PNP) glycosides, namely PNP-beta-D-xyloside, PNP-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside, and PNP-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside. An antiserum raised against a synthetic peptide recognized MsXyl1, which was processed to a 65 kDa form. To characterize the substrate specificity of MsXyl1, the recombinant protein was purified from transgenic M. truncatula leaves by concanavalin A and anion chromatography. MsXyl1cleaved beta-1,4-linked D-xylo-oligosaccharides and alpha-1,5-linked L-arabino-oligosaccharides. Arabinoxylan (from wheat) and arabinan (from sugar beet) were substrates for MsXyl1, whereas xylan (from oat spelts) was resistant to degradation. Furthermore, MsXyl1 released xylose and arabinose from cell wall polysaccharides isolated from alfalfa roots. These data suggest that MsXyl1 is a multifunctional beta-xylosidase/alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase/alpha-L-arabinopyranosidase implicated in cell wall turnover of arabinose and xylose, particularly in rapidly growing root tips. Moreover, the findings of this study demonstrate that stable transgenic M. truncatula plants serve as an excellent expression system for purification and characterization of proteins.

  19. THE EFFECT OF PRIMING ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L.) UNDER SALINITY STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Jorjandi M.; SHARIFI SIRCHI G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Salinity stress is an abiotic stress which has harmful effects on germination, growth and yield of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in many parts of the world. Seed priming is a way of increasing salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effect of seed priming on germination and growth of alfalfa seedlings, Bami cultivar, under salinity condition was investigated. According to germination percentage of seeds under In vitro conditions, salicylic acid, Vitamin B12 and distilled water were select...

  20. Effects of Cutting Time, Ensiling Duration and Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Delavar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of daytime cutting management (p.m. vs. a.m. cut, ensiling duration and adding microbial inoculants on chemical composition of alfalfa silage. For this, Second growth Alfalfa harvested at the early bud stage of development after a sunny day at sundown (about 1900 h; PM alfalfa, whereas the second half was cut next day at sunup (about 0800 h; AM alfalfa. After cutting, alfalfa Forage was chopped by using a chopper to a length of 8 to10 cm, and then ensiled without or with microbial additive as factorial experiment (2×2 with repeated measurement design. Silages were provided in laboratory silos (6 repeats in every treatment lined with two layers of plastic, after air exclusion. Silos were opened at 3, 10 and 30 day for determination of pH and other chemical analysis. The numerically lower pH of PM vs. AM silages indicates that the former forage was more extensively fermented possibly because of its increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC concentration. Shifting alfalfa harvesting from sun up to sundown significantly decreased NDF% and ADF%, because of the dilution effect associated with increased concentrations of TNC in the former forage. The NPN content and N-NH3 concentration of the silages treated in the afternoon was lower compared with AM group. CP content decreased, but NDF, ADF, NPN and N-NH3 concentration increased during ensiling time. Silage pH decreased by using of microbial additive and ensiling time. Dry matter and nitrogen losses were lower in silages treated by microbial inoculants, and, increased with increasing fermentation time. It can be concluded that microbial additives and time of cutting can be used as proper way to improve fermentation situation and silage quality.

  1. Comparative drought response in eleven diverse alfalfa accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production is often negatively affected by drought stress. This is particularly true for alfalfa that is cultivated on rangeland. Thus, the development of drought-tolerant alfalfa cultivars is of great significance. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate 11 alfa...

  2. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  3. Proteome analysis of alfalfa roots in response to water deifcit stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahman Md Atikur; Kim Yong-Goo; AlamIftekhar; LIU Gong-she; Lee Hyoshin; Lee Jeung Joo; Lee Byung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the response of alfalfa to water deifcit (WD) stress, WD-induced candidates were investigated through a proteomic approach. Alfalfa seedlings were exposed to WD stress for 12 and 15 days respectively, folowed by 3 days re-watering. Water deifcit increased H2O2content, lipid peroxidation, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)-radical scavenging activity, and the free proline level in alfalfa roots. Root proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimentional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 49 WD-responsive proteins were identiifed in alfalfa roots; 25 proteins were reproducibly found to be up-regulated and 24 were down-regulated. Two proteins, namely cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APx2) and putative F-box protein were newly detected on 2-DE maps of WD-treated plants. We identiifed several proteins including agamous-like 65, albumin b-32, inward rectifying potassium channel, and auxin-independent growth promoter. The identiifed proteins are involved in a variety of celular functions including calcium signaling, abacisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation, transcription/ translation, antioxidant/detoxiifcation/stress defense, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and storage. These results indicate the potential candidates were responsible for adaptive response in alfalfa roots.

  4. Enteric methane emission, diet digestibility, and nitrogen excretion from beef heifers fed sainfoin or alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Mc Geough, E J; Acharya, S; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Harstad, O M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-10-01

    Effects of plant-bound condensed tannin (CT)-containing sainfoin vs. CT-free alfalfa (or low-CT alfalfa-sainfoin mixture), plant stage of maturity, and their interaction on enteric methane (CH4) emissions, diet digestibility, and N excretion were studied, using 8 ruminally cannulated beef heifers in 2 sequential short-term experiments (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1, first growth legumes were harvested daily and offered fresh to heifers. Heifers were assigned to 100% sainfoin or 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (as-fed basis). Responses were measured at early (late vegetative to early bud; stage 2 to 3) and late (early flower; stage 5) stage of maturity. In Exp. 2, the same legumes were harvested from second growth (late bud; stage 4) and offered to heifers as hay; 100% sainfoin or 100% alfalfa. In both experiments, heifers were fed once daily at 1× maintenance. When fed as fresh forage (Exp. 1), sainfoin, compared with the alfalfa-sainfoin blend, had greater digestibility of OM (74.7 vs. 70.9%; P = 0.02), yet tended to have lower CP digestibility (73.2 vs. 77.1%; P = 0.059). There was no difference between fresh legumes for CH4 emissions [25.9 g/kg DMI ± 4.02 SE; 8.5% of gross energy intake (GEI) ± 1.26 SE; or 36.8 g/kg digested OM ± 1.75 SE]. The fresh legumes were more digestible at early, rather than at late, maturity and, consequently, enteric CH4 (27.4 vs. 24.4 g/kg DMI; P emissions (22.4 g/kg DMI ± 1.29 SD and 7.1% GEI ± 0.40 SD). However, on the basis of OM digested, CH4 emissions were lower for sainfoin than alfalfa hay (44.3 vs. 59.0 g/kg; P = 0.008). Percentage of total N excretion in urine was less for sainfoin compared with alfalfa, both for fresh legumes in Exp. 1 (74 vs. 78%; P = 0.017) or hay in Exp. 2 (64 vs. 72%; P emissions from beef cattle fed at maintenance as compared with feeding either 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (fresh forages) or 100% alfalfa (hay). Feeding fresh legumes harvested between the late vegetative to early bud stage, compared with

  5. Frequency of Thyroid Nodules among Patients with Colonic Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Duran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Colonic polyps and thyroid nodules are common diseases and their frequency increases with age. In the literature, there is no study investigating the coexistence of colonic polyps and thyroid nodules. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate thyroid nodule prevalence in patients with colonic polyps. Material and Methods. Sixty-six patients with colonic polyps and 146 patients without colonic polyps enrolled into the study. Age and sex matched control group was composed from patients without colonic polyps. Colonoscopic examinations, thyroid ultrasonographies were performed in all patients, and TSH were measured. Results. Male/female ratio in polyp and control groups were 40/26 versus 68/78, respectively (P=0.058. Mean ages were similar in both groups (53.3±11.4 versus, 51.8±11.4, P=0.373. Thyroid nodule was detected in 44 (66.7% patients with polyps and in 61 (41.8% controls (P=0.001. Patients with adenomatous polyps had 5 or more thyroid nodules compared to patients with hyperplastic polyps (P=0.03. Thyroid nodules were more prevalent among patients aged 50 or older compared to 50 years or less (P=0.023. Conclusion. Thyroid nodules were detected more common in patients with colonic polyps. Further studies are needed to clarify this coexistence.

  6. The elicitor-inducible alfalfa isoflavone reductase promoter confers different patterns of developmental expression in homologous and heterologous transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, A; Dixon, R A; Paiva, N L

    1994-01-01

    In legumes, the synthesis of infection- and elicitor-inducible antimicrobial phytoalexins occurs via the isoflavonoid branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To study transcriptional regulation of isoflavonoid pathway-specific genes, we have isolated the gene encoding isoflavone reductase (IFR), which is the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of the phytoalexin medicarpin in alfalfa. Chimeric gene fusions were constructed between 765- and 436-bp promoter fragments of the IFR gene and the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to alfalfa and tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Both promoter fragments conferred elicitor-mediated expression in cell suspension cultures derived from transgenic plants of both species and fungal infection-mediated expression in leaves of transgenic alfalfa. Developmental expression directed by both promoter fragments in transgenic alfalfa was observed only in the root meristem, cortex, and nodules, which is consistent with the accumulation of endogenous IFR transcripts. However, in transgenic tobacco, expression from the 765-bp promoter was observed in vegetative tissues (root meristem and cortex, inner vascular tissue of stems and petioles, leaf tips, and stem peripheries adjacent to petioles) and in reproductive tissues (stigma, placenta, base of the ovary, receptacle, seed, tapetal layer, and pollen grains), whereas the 436-bp promoter was expressed only in fruits, seed, and pollen. These data indicate that infection/elicitor inducibility of the IFR promoter in both species and developmental expression in alfalfa are determined by sequences downstream of position -436, whereas sequences between -436 and -765 confer a complex pattern of strong ectopic developmental expression in the heterologous species that lacks the isoflavonoid pathway. PMID:7866024

  7. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivars K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings, which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown, lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  8. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  9. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivar K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  10. Nodule activity and allocation of photosynthate of soybean during recovery from water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, R. J.; Patterson, R. P.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Harris, D.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    Nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) in a growth-chamber study were subjected to a leaf water potential (psi w) of -2.0 megapascal during vegetative growth. Changes in nonstructural carbohydrate contents of leaves, stems, roots, and nodules, allocation of dry matter among plant parts, in situ specific nodule activity, and in situ canopy apparent photosynthetic rate were measured in stressed and nonstressed plants during a 7-day period following rewatering. Leaf and nodule psi w also were determined. At the time of maximum stress, concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had declined in leaves of stressed, relative to nonstressed, plants, and the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had increased in stems, roots, and nodules. Sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants were 1.5 and 3 times greater, respectively, than those of nonstressed plants. Within 12 hours after rewatering, leaf and nodule psi w of stressed plants had returned to values of nonstressed plants. Canopy apparent photosynthesis and specific nodule activity of stressed plants recovered to levels for nonstressed plants within 2 days after rewatering. The elevated sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants also declined rapidly upon rehydration. The increase in sucrose concentration in nodules, as well as the increase of carbohydrates in roots and stems, during water stress and the rapid disappearance upon rewatering indicates that inhibition of carbohydrate utilization within the nodule may be associated with loss of nodule activity. Availability of carbohydrates within the nodules and from photosynthetic activity following rehydration of nodules may mediate the rate of recovery of N2-fixation activity.

  11. The Sinorhizobium meliloti RNA chaperone Hfq influences central carbon metabolism and the symbiotic interaction with alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Zurdo José I

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial Hfq protein is able to interact with diverse RNA molecules, including regulatory small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs, and thus it is recognized as a global post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Loss of Hfq has an extensive impact in bacterial physiology which in several animal pathogens influences virulence. Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model soil bacterium known for its ability to establish a beneficial nitrogen-fixing intracellular symbiosis with alfalfa. Despite the predicted general involvement of Hfq in the establishment of successful bacteria-eukaryote interactions, its function in S. meliloti has remained unexplored. Results Two independent S. meliloti mutants, 2011-3.4 and 1021Δhfq, were obtained by disruption and deletion of the hfq gene in the wild-type strains 2011 and 1021, respectively, both exhibiting similar growth defects as free-living bacteria. Transcriptomic profiling of 1021Δhfq revealed a general down-regulation of genes of sugar transporters and some enzymes of the central carbon metabolism, whereas transcripts specifying the uptake and metabolism of nitrogen sources (mainly amino acids were more abundant than in the wild-type strain. Proteomic analysis of the 2011-3.4 mutant independently confirmed these observations. Symbiotic tests showed that lack of Hfq led to a delayed nodulation, severely compromised bacterial competitiveness on alfalfa roots and impaired normal plant growth. Furthermore, a large proportion of nodules (55%-64% elicited by the 1021Δhfq mutant were non-fixing, with scarce content in bacteroids and signs of premature senescence of endosymbiotic bacteria. RT-PCR experiments on RNA from bacteria grown under aerobic and microoxic conditions revealed that Hfq contributes to regulation of nifA and fixK1/K2, the genes controlling nitrogen fixation, although the Hfq-mediated regulation of fixK is only aerobiosis dependent. Finally, we found that some of the recently

  12. Effects of plant enzyme inactivation or sterilization on lipolysis and proteolysis in alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W R; Long, R J; Guo, X S

    2013-04-01

    This experiment studied the contribution of plant enzymes and microbial activity on lipolysis and proteolysis in ensiled alfalfa. Before ensiling, the wilted alfalfa was treated with plant enzyme inactivation by autoclaving or with sterilization by γ-ray irradiation. The treated alfalfa was then inoculated with commercial lactic acid bacteria inoculants and ensiled for 40 d. Alfalfa without treatment was ensiled as the control. The content of total fatty acid (FA) after ensiling decreased 43% in the control silage and 28% in the γ-ray-treated silage, but did not change in the autoclave-treated silage. Among the major FA (C16:0, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3), a considerable increase was observed in proportion of C16:0 in the control silage as compared with fresh alfalfa; conversely, decreases in proportions of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 occurred during ensilage. Silage treated with γ-ray radiation at ensiling had a smaller proportion of C16:0 and greater proportions of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 than control silage. Autoclave treatment further decreased proportions of C16:0 and most of the other FA, and increased C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 proportions in comparison with γ-ray treatment. Proportions of C16:0, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and other detected FA (except for the proportion of C15:0) did not differ between fresh forage and autoclave-treated silage. Remarkably, smaller nonprotein nitrogen content was observed in the autoclave-treated silage compared with the γ ray-treated silage or the control silage. These results indicated that an extensive lipolysis occurred during ensiling of alfalfa, and plant enzymes played a major role in lipolysis and proteolysis.

  13. Short communication. Nitrogen content of residual alfalfa taproots under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. residues can provide significant amounts of N to subsequent crops, but most of the data on this subject has been obtained from 1-2 year old alfalfa stands. The objective of this study was to determine the biomass of alfalfa taproots and their N content in irrigated alfalfa stands that are more than 2 years old. Twenty-two commercial irrigated alfalfa fields were evaluated in the Ebro Valley (Northeast Spain from 2006 to 2010. The taproot biomass in the arable layer (0 to 30 cm depth ranged from 1.8 to 10.1 Mg ha-1 and averaged 4.8 Mg ha-1. In contrast, the N concentration in alfalfa taproots was constant among fields and averaged 24.6 g N kg-1. The total amount of N contained in alfalfa taproots (0-30 cm depth ranged from 47 to 96 kg N ha-1 in 55% of the fields, ranged from 97 to 200 kg N ha-1 in 22% of the fields, and exceeded 200 kg N ha-1 in 23% of the fields. The N content of the irrigated alfalfa taproots studied here is in the upper range previously reported in other areas, mainly with younger alfalfa stands. Based on the current finding, a classification of the quality of irrigated alfalfa stands is proposed to improve the estimates of the residual-N effects of alfalfa on subsequent crops.

  14. PERACETIC ACID PRETREATMENT OF ALFALFA STEM AND ASPEN BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Xu; Ulrike W. Tschirner

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa stems and ground aspen were exposed to peracetic acid (0.5 to 9% on biomass) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 100° C and reaction times from 1 to 5 hours. Glucose release as a percentage of total cellulose content was determined using subsequent standard enzymatic hydrolysis. Statistical analysis confirmed that aspen showed a strong response to peracetic acid addition rate. 9% peracetic acid removed 14% of the original lignin and increased the rate of glucose release from 23% to 44%...

  15. Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa is compositionally equivalent to conventional alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Melinda C; Rogan, Glennon J; Fitzpatrick, Sharie; Trujillo, William A; Sorbet, Roy; Hartnell, Gary F; Riodan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A

    2006-09-20

    Glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa (GTA) was developed to withstand over-the-top applications of glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup agricultural herbicides. As a part of the safety assessment, GTA (designated J101 x J163) was grown under controlled field conditions at geographically diverse locations within the United States during the 2001 and 2003 field seasons along with control and other conventional alfalfa varieties for compositional assessment. Field trials were conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replication blocks at each site. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the late bud to early bloom stage from each plot at five field sites in 2001 (establishment year) and from four field sites in 2003 (third year of stand). The concentration of proximate constituents, fibers, amino acids, coumestrol, and minerals in the forage was measured. The results showed that the forage from GTA J101 x J163 is compositionally equivalent to forage from the control and conventional alfalfa varieties.

  16. Subcentimeter Pulmonary Nodules Detected in Patients with Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. Ginsberg

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Subcentimeter pulmonary nodules are being detected with increasing frequency in patients with sarcoma due to the greater use of chest CT, the advent of helical (spiral CT scanning and multidetector scanners, and the attendant decrease in image section thickness.Assessing the clinical significance of these pulmonary nodules is of particular importance in sarcoma patients, due to the frequent occurrence of pulmonary metastasis from sarcomas.

  17. Nodules size: An important factor in nodule mining?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    . In order to minimize ecological and environmental problems, it is emphasized that the nodules should be screened on sea bottom during mining, which may be possible by future technological modification of mining devises...

  18. Preliminary Study on Effect of Herbicides on Alfalfa Yield and Weed Community Characteristics in Yellow River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Guo-liang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa(Medicago sativa is one of important legume forages worldwide. However, weed is the main factor limiting alfalfa production. Biomass quality and yield and stability of dry matter production during cultivation are directly associated with the interference of weeds which compete with alfalfa for water, light and nutrients. The use of herbicides is a good alternative for weed control. In order to control weed in alfalfa field with suitable herbicide in Yellow River delta, the effect of four herbicides(imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl, haloxyfop-r-methyl and oxyfluorfen with different concentration on afalfal yield and weed community characteristics were studied. The results showed that both imazethapyr and haloxyfop-r-methyl treatments could increase alfalfa yield, and the best herbicide application concentration was imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 and haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2, but oxyfluorfen treatment would limit alfalfa growth significantly. Weed species numbers in the treatments of imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl and oxyfluorfen decreased significantly. Digitariasanguinalis, Portulacaoleracea and Echinochloacrusgalli were more difficult to control from specie important value in all treatments. Species diversity index decreased with higher herbicide concentration in all treatments. From this study, herbicide imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 application concentration was the best weed control method, and the second one was haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2 application concentration.

  19. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether lyophilized aqueous extract of alfalfa, or Medicago sativa L. could exert antioxidant activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of alfalfa extract was determined by assessing the levels of serum transaminases, ALP, bilirubin and lipid profile. Further, the effect of the test substance on malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation; antioxidant liver enzyme non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH); and total protein (TP) were also studied. Serum transaminase, ALP, bilirubin level, lipid profile and liver MDA were significantly elevated and the antioxidant status in liver NP-SH and TP contents were declined in animals treated with CCl (4) alone. Pretreatment with alfalfa and silymarin for three weeks prior to the administration of CCl (4) significantly prevented the increase in the serum levels of hepatic marker, LDL, VLDL levels enzymes and reduced oxidative stress indicated by elevated NP-SH and TP concentration. The histopathological examination of the livers also showed that the alfalfa extract reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by CCl (4). The in vitro antioxidant assessment of alfalfa extract on DPPH and carotene-linoleic assays demonstrated a moderate antioxidant potential. Results suggest that the alfalfa extract possesses hepatoprotective and antioxidative stress properties possibly through its antioxidant phytochemical constituents and substantiates its use in various liver disorders as a hepatoprotector.

  20. Final Report: Regulation and Function of Two Cell Wall protein Genes in Me Dicago Roots and Root Nodules, August 1, 1995 - January 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, James B.

    2000-05-08

    During the period of DOE funding we synthesized several PRP peptides, generated rabbit antisera against two PRP repeats found in early nodulin PRPs, and developed confocal microscopy methods for root immunohistochemistry. Using the antibodies, we completed extensive descriptive studies of PRP deposition in medic and alfalfa roots showing that PRPs deposition is developmentally regulated in roots and spatially restricted within the walls of specific root tissues. Domain-specific antibodies were isolated from polyclonal sera using peptide affinity chromatography and were then used to demonstrate that nodule-specific epitopes are shared by several nodule-specific proteins. The following provides a more detailed summary of this work.

  1. Thyroid Nodules in Children: A Single Institution's Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nini Khozeimeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid nodules in children are uncommon but often present an increased risk of malignancy in comparison to their adult counterpart. Multiple diagnostic modalities are frequently employed to characterize these nodules including ultrasound, radionuclide scans, fine needle aspiration (FNA, thyroid function tests, and evaluation of patient demographics. We chose to evaluate if any of these modalities influence treatment or signify a tendency for a nodule to represent a malignant lesion. A retrospective review of patients <21 years of age who underwent partial or total thyroidectomy from 2004 to 2009 was performed (IRB no. 4695. Other than an FNA indicating a malignancy, there does not appear to be any value to extensive preoperative imaging, nor can patient risk be stratified based upon age. We conclude that there is minimal utility in an extensive preoperative workup in a child with a thyroid nodule.

  2. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALFALFA INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Clement E.; Dowdy, Alan K.; Berberet, Richard C.; Stritzke, Jimmie F.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IMP) initially focused on insect pest control. More recently, IPM encompasses a broader concept of management, one which crosses several disciplinary boundaries. This article reports results of research dealing with four integrated management decisions for alfalfa (cultivar selection, inset control, weed control, and end-of-season harvest options.

  3. Rapid phenotyping of alfalfa root system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root system architecture (RSA) influences the capacity of an alfalfa plant for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, nutrient uptake and water use efficiency, resistance to frost heaving, winterhardiness, and some pest and pathogen resistance. However, we currently lack a basic understanding of root system d...

  4. Beta-Amylases from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlert, D C; Duke, S H; Anderson, L

    1982-05-01

    Amylase was found in high activity (193 international units per milligram protein) in the tap root of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Sonora). The activity was separated by gel filtration chromatography into two fractions with molecular weights of 65,700 (heavy amylase) and 41,700 (light amylase). Activity staining of electrophoretic gels indicated the presence of one isozyme in the heavy amylase fraction and two in the light amylase fraction. Three amylase isozymes with electrophoretic mobilities identical to those in the heavy and the light amylase fractions were the only amylases identified in crude root preparations. Both heavy and light amylases hydrolyzed amylopectin, soluble starch, and amylose but did not hydrolyze pullulan or beta-limit dextrin. The ratio of viscosity change to reducing power production during starch hydrolysis was identical for both alfalfa amylase fractions and sweet potato beta-amylase, while that of bacterial alpha-amylase was considerably higher. The identification of maltose and beta-limit dextrin as hydrolytic end-products confirmed that these alfalfa root amylases are all beta-amylases.The pH optimum for both beta-amylase fractions was 6.0. Both light and heavy beta-amylases showed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with soluble starch as substrate, and had respectively K(m) values of 5.9 and 6.8 milligrams starch per milliliter and V(max) of 640 and 130 international units per milligram protein. Arrhenius plots indicated that the energy of activation for the heavy beta-amylase remained relatively unchanged (12.7 to 13.0 kilocalories per mole) from 0 to 30 degrees C, whereas the energy of activation for the light amylase increased from 12.0 to about 28.0 kilocalories per mole at 8.7 degrees C as temperature was lowered. The light amylase was shown to be inhibited by maltose.

  5. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and magnitudes. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited H I surveys is expected to increase with the survey's redshift, this selection method can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.

  6. Prognosis of Thyroid Nodules in Individuals Living in the Zhitomir Region of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Naomi; Sekitani, Yui; Takahashi, Jumpei; Kozlovsky, Alexander A.; Gutevych, Oleksandr K.; Saiko, Aleksey S.; Nirova, Nina V.; Petrova, Anjela A.; Rafalskiy, Ruslan M.; Chorny, Sergey A.; Daniliuk, Valery V.; Anami, Masanobu; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Objective After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP), the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine. Patients and Methods Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group) and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group) intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Results Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy), was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study indicated that a thyroid nodule in childhood is a prognostic factor associated with an increase in the number and size of nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine. PMID:23209797

  7. Prognosis of thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

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    Naomi Hayashida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: After the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, the incidence of thyroid cancer increased among children. Recently, a strong relationship between solid thyroid nodules and the incidence of thyroid cancer was shown in atomic bomb survivors. To assess the prognosis of benign thyroid nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine, around the CNPP, we conducted a follow-up investigation of screening data from 1991 to 2000 in the Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants of this study were 160 inhabitants with thyroid nodules (nodule group and 160 inhabitants without thyroid nodules (normal control group intially identified by ultrasonography from 1991 to 2000. All participants were aged 0 to 10 years old and lived in the same area at the time of the accident. We performed follow-up screening of participants and assessed thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration biopsy. RESULTS: Among the nodule group participants, the number and size of nodules were significantly increased at the follow-up screening compared with the initial screening. No thyroid nodules were observed among the normal control group participants. The prevalence of thyroid abnormality, especially nodules that could be cancerous (malignant or suspicious by fine needle aspiration biopsy, was 7.5% in the nodule group and 0% in the normal control group (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that a thyroid nodule in childhood is a prognostic factor associated with an increase in the number and size of nodules in individuals living in the Zhitomir region of Ukraine.

  8. Regenerative nodules in patients with chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome: A longitudinal study using multiphase contrast-enhanced multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor, Nicola [Unita Operativa di Radiologia Diagnostica Interventistica, University of Milan School of Medicine, Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: flornic@hotmail.com; Zuin, Massimo [Unita Operativa di Epatologia e Gastroenterologia Medica, University of Milan School of Medicine, Ospedale San Paolo, Via A. di Rudini 8, 20142 Milan (Italy); Brovelli, Francesca [Department of Radiology, Centro Diagnostico Italiano, Milan (Italy); Maggioni, Marco [Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy); Tentori, Augusta [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale di Voghera (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, University of Milan School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); Cornalba, Gian Paolo [Unita Operativa di Radiologia Diagnostica Interventistica, University of Milan School of Medicine, Ospedale San Paolo, Milan (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the serial evolution of regenerative nodules in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) treated with portal-systemic shunts, using multiphasic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: Five patients each underwent three MDCT exams over an extended period ranging from 36 to 42 months. Two radiologists in consensus retrospectively reviewed each exam for each patient. Individual nodules were grouped according to size (size I: nodules with diameter {<=}15 mm; size II: >15 mm but <30 mm; size III: {>=}30 mm), pattern of enhancement (A: homogeneously hypervascular or B: with central scar), and segmental location. Four nodules classified as size II, which increased in size over time, were needle-biopsied. Results: We detected 61 nodules at the first exam, 66 nodules at the second exam (7 nodules disappeared and 12 new nodules), and 85 nodules at the third exam (8 disappeared and 27 new) for a total of 212 findings. Nodules were mostly found in the right hepatic lobe. Fourteen of the 15 nodules that disappeared over time were size I and enhancement pattern A. At unenhanced MDCT, 204 (96%) of the 212 findings were isodense. Overall, 100 nodules, including the 61 initially detected, were considered newly diagnosed; of these 84 (84%) were size I and pattern A. Of 57 nodules considered size I and pattern A at the first or second exam, 24 (42%) changed to pattern B at the third exam and either size II (n = 18) or III (n = 6). The four biopsied nodules were each confirmed as benign regenerative nodule. No patient developed HCC at 5-year follow-up period. Conclusion: Hepatic nodules in BCS patients not only increase in number over time but may also increase in size and develop a central scar.

  9. Crop mergers: Management of soil contamination and leaf loss in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximizing the capacity and subsequent efficiency of the forage harvester necessitates consolidation (raking or merging) of alfalfa cuttings. Although rotary rakes are in wide use, the use of continuous pickup belt mergers is increasing in the Midwestern U.S. Previous work on crop consolidation is l...

  10. Evaluation of subsurface drip irrigation design and management parameters for alfalfa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandelous, M.M.; Kamai, T.; Vrugt, J.A.; Šimůnek, J.; Hanson, B.; Hopmans, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa is one of the most cultivated crops in the US, and is being used as livestock feed for the dairy, beef, and horse industries. About nine percent of that is grown in California, yet there is an increasing concern about the large amounts of irrigation water required to attain maximum yield. We

  11. Milk production response to feeding alfalfa silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...

  12. Managing foliar and root rot diseases of alfalfa for improving yield and persistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to the six most common diseases across the United States is available in modern alfalfa cultivars. However, several diseases are becoming increasing problems in many parts of the country. Recognizing these problems is the first step in using crop management strategies to minimize diseases...

  13. How should pulmonary nodules be optimally investigated and managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Matthew E J; Baldwin, David R

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary nodules are a common incidental finding on CT and the inexorable rise in the use of CT (10% increase per year in the UK over the last decade) means that the frequency of their detection is likely to increase over coming years. This may be augmented further if CT screening is implemented. Management has previously been influenced by North American guidelines, with the most widely used resource to date being the Fleischner Society guidelines published in 2005. These predominantly focus on the timing of CT scans arranged to survey small pulmonary nodules (≤ 8 mm), and the guideline authors chose not to offer specific recommendations regarding larger nodules. More recently, the society published specific guidelines for sub-solid nodules, reflecting the different prognosis that this subtype of nodules confers. The American College of Chest Physicians have published two guidelines on pulmonary nodules-the latest was completed in 2012 and published in Chest the following year. However, the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules is a rapidly evolving subject largely driven by evidence from the large CT screening studies. In 2012, The British Thoracic Society (BTS) convened a guideline development group to address the topic of pulmonary nodule investigation and management, with publication of the guideline in July 2015. One third of the 359 references included in the guideline date from 2012 onwards, and many of the differences between the recommendations made and previous guideline recommendations reflect this recent evidence. This article reviews specific evidence considered in formulating the BTS guidelines, and summarises the main guideline recommendations.

  14. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Glomus spp. Inoculation on Alfalfa Growth in Soils with Copper Efecto de la Inoculación con Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares Glomus spp. sobre el Crecimiento de Alfalfa en Suelos con Cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Novoa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils near mining centers usually have high heavy metal (HM levels. It has been found that some plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF improve growth and tolerance to HM in soils. This symbiosis is a biological resource for degraded soil recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculating AMF (Glomus spp. on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth in agricultural soils with different copper (Cu levels for degraded soil recovery. To this effect, alfalfa seeds were grown in soils from the Catemu and Casablanca valleys and inoculated with AMF. Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were measured weekly. Dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu concentration in alfalfa plant tissues were measured after 81 days. Inoculation increased plant height by 24%, stem diameter by 11%, and number of leaves by 34%. Inoculation had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on alfalfa plants that were grown in soil with the highest Cu concentration, but had no effect on Cu accumulation in alfalfa plant tissues. A direct relationship was observed between Cu accumulation in alfalfa and Cu concentration in soils. It was concluded that alfalfa inoculated with Glomus spp. is applicable to the soil recovery process whenever soil properties can ensure inoculum effectiveness on alfalfa growth, and avoid toxicity by excessive Cu in alfalfa plant tissues.Los suelos cercanos a centros de actividad minera suelen presentar altos niveles de metales pesados (HM. Se ha encontrado que algunas plantas asociadas a hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF mejoran su crecimiento y tolerancia a los HM presentes en los suelos. Esta simbiosis constituye un recurso biológico para la recuperación de suelos degradados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la inoculación con AMF (Glomus spp. sobre el crecimiento de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en suelos agrícolas con distintos niveles de cobre (Cu para la recuperación de

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of thyroid nodules and risk factors for malignant nodules: a retrospective study from 6 304 surgical cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Qin; Wang Kun; Lou Fuchen; Zhang Li; Huang Qingxian; Han Yunfeng; Sun Hancheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of thyroid nodules (TN) is increasing rapidly.This study analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of TN in surgically treated patients and identified the risk factors for malignant nodules (MN) to provide more understanding of the differential diagnosis of TN.Methods A total of 6 304 TN cases who underwent thyroid surgery were included in this retrospective study.The clinical data were collected to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and related risk factors for MN.The nature of TN (benign nodules (BN) or MN),medical records,laboratory data,and imaging data were analyzed.The risk factors for MN were screened using Spearman's rank correlation analysis and nonconditional binary Logistic regression analysis.Results The number of surgically treated TN cases increased yearly.A total of 34.33% of cases were MN and 65.67% were BN.Up to 56.74% of these cases underwent unnecessary surgery.Among the MN cases,papillary thyroid carcinoma accounted for 94%,in which 46.71% coexisted with benign thyroid disease and 32.28% with multiple foci.Single-related factor analysis showed that age,employment,disease duration,history of breast nodules and/or hypertension,the levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb),and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPoAb),and ultrasound features of TN were related to MN.Stepwise nonconditional binary Logistic regression analysis showed that 13 factors may be the independent risk factors for MN,including <40 years old,previous history of breast nodules and/or hypertension,disease duration <1 month,employment,hypoechoic nodule,irregular nodules,nodule calcification,solid echo nodule,fuzzy boundary,rich blood flow within nodules,abnormal lymph nodes around the neck,nodule diameter <1 cm,and abnormally high TgAb.Conclusions Our results demonstrate a rapid increase in surgically treated TN cases and ratio of MN and indicate unnecessary

  16. Effect of supplemental tallow on performance of dairy cows fed diets with different corn silage:alfalfa silage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Palmquist, D L; Grummer, R R

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the response to supplemental tallow of lactating cows fed basal diets with different alfalfa silage:corn silage ratios. We postulated that supplemental tallow will have decreasing negative effects on rumen fermentation, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk fat percentage as the dietary ratio of alfalfa silage:corn silage is increased. Eighteen Holstein cows averaging 134 +/- 14 d in milk were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (DM basis) and three forage treatments: 1) 50% of diet DM as corn silage, 2) 37.5% corn silage and 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 3) 25% corn silage and 25% alfalfa silage. Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber. No fat x forage treatment interactions were observed. Fat supplemented cows had lower DMI and produced more milk with less milk fat content relative to non-supplemented cows. Concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids was higher in milk fat of tallow-supplemented cows. Tallow supplementation had no effect on ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, but tended to decrease total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the rumen. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa silage increased DMI, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield regardless of the fat content of the diet. Total VFA concentration and acetate:propionate ratio in the rumen were increased in response to higher levels of alfalfa in the diets. These results suggest that replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage did not alleviate the negative response of dairy cows to tallow supplementation at 2% of diet DM.

  17. Genetic characterization of fast-growing rhizobia able to nodulate Prosopis alba in North Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Olga; Rivas, Raúl; García-Fraile, Paula; Abril, Adriana; Mateos, Pedro F; Martinez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2007-12-01

    Prosopis is a Mimosaceae legume tree indigenous to South America and not naturalized in Europe. In this work 18 rhizobial strains nodulating Prosopis alba roots were isolated from a soil in North Spain that belong to eight different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA groups phylogenetically related to Sinorhizobium medicae, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium giardinii according to their intergenic spacer and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The nodC genes of isolates close to S. medicae and S. meliloti were identical to those of S. medicae USDA 1,037(T) and S. meliloti LMG 6,133(T) and accordingly all these strains were able to nodulate both alfalfa and Prosopis. These nodC genes were phylogenetically divergent from those of the isolates close to R. giardinii that were identical to that of R. giardinii H152(T) and therefore all these strains formed nodules in common beans and Prosopis. The nodC genes of the strains isolated in Spain were phylogenetically divergent from that carried by Mesorhizobium chacoense Pr-5(T) and Sinorhizobium arboris LMG 1,4919(T) nodulating Prosopis in America and Africa, respectively. Therefore, Prosopis is a promiscuous host which can establish symbiosis with strains carrying very divergent nodC genes and this promiscuity may be an important advantage for this legume tree to be used in reforestation.

  18. Involvement of the Sinorhizobium meliloti leuA gene in activation of nodulation genes by NodD1 and luteolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán-Pinilla, Julio M; Muñoz, Socorro; Nogales, Joaquina; Olivares, José; Sanjuán, Juan

    2002-07-01

    The role of leucine biosynthesis by Sinorhizobium meliloti in the establishment of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) was investigated. The leuA gene from S. meliloti, encoding alpha-isopropylmalate synthase, which catalyses the first specific step in the leucine biosynthetic pathway, was characterized. S. melilotiLeuA(-) mutants were Leu auxotrophs and lacked alpha-isopropylmalate synthase activity. In addition, leuA auxotrophs were unable to nodulate alfalfa. Alfalfa roots did not seem to secrete enough leucine to support growth of leucine auxotrophs in the rhizosphere. Thus, this growth limitation probably imposes the inability to initiate symbiosis. However, in addition to the leucine auxotrophy, leuA strains were impaired in activation of nodulation genes by the transcriptional activator NodD1 in response to the plant flavone luteolin. By contrast, nod gene activation by NodD3, which does not involve plant-derived inducers, was unaffected. Our results suggest that a leucine-related metabolic intermediate may be involved in activation of nodulation genes by NodD1 and luteolin. This kind of control could be of relevance as a way to link bacterial physiological status to the response to plant signals and initiation of symbiosis.

  19. Relation between nodule size and 18F-FDG-PET SUV for malignant and benign pulmonary nodules.

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    Shao Yiping

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most common semiquantitative method of evaluation of pulmonary lesions using 18F-FDG PET is FDG standardized uptake value (SUV. An SUV cutoff of 2.5 or greater has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules. The goal of our study was to investigate the correlation between the size of pulmonary nodules and the SUV for benign as well as for malignant nodules. Methods Retrospectively, 173 patients were selected from 420 referrals for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. All patients selected had a positive CT and PET scans and histopathology biopsy. A linear regression equation was fitted to a scatter plot of size and SUVmax for malignant and benign nodules together. A dot diagram was created to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. Results The linear regression equations and (R2s as well as the trendlines for malignant and benign nodules demonstrated that the slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Twenty-eight nodules of group one (≤ 1.0 cm are plotted in a dot diagram using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated to be 85%, 36% and 54% respectively. Similarly, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 and found to be 91%, 47%, and 79% respectively for group 2 (1.1–2.0 cm; 94%, 23%, and 76%, respectively for group 3 (2.1–3.0 cm; and 100%, 17%, and 82%,, respectively for group 4 (> 3.0 cm. The previous results of the dot diagram indicating that the sensitivity and the accuracy of the test using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 are increased with an increase in the diameter of pulmonary nodules. Conclusion The slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Although, the SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 is a useful tool in the evaluation of large pulmonary nodules (> 1.0 cm, it has no or minimal value in the evaluation of small

  20. A Solitary Feature-based Lung Nodule Detection Approach for Chest X-Ray Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Shen, Linlin; Luo, Suhuai

    2017-01-31

    Lung cancer is one of the most deadly diseases. It has a high death rate and its incidence rate has been increasing all over the world. Lung cancer appears as a solitary nodule in chest x-ray radiograph (CXR). Therefore, lung nodule detection in CXR could have a significant impact on early detection of lung cancer. Radiologists define a lung nodule in chest x-ray radiographs as "solitary white nodule-like blob". However, the solitary feature has not been employed for lung nodule detection before. In this paper, a solitary feature-based lung nodule detection method was proposed. We employed stationary wavelet transform and convergence index filter to extract the texture features and used AdaBoost to generate white nodule-likeness map. A solitary feature was defined to evaluate the isolation degree of candidates. Both the isolation degree and the white nodule-likeness were used as final evaluation of lung nodule candidates. The proposed method shows better performance and robustness than those reported in previous research. More than 80% and 93% of lung nodules in the lung field in the JSRT database were detected when the false positives per image was two and five, respectively. The proposed approach has the potential of being used in clinical practice.

  1. Role of lupeol synthase in Lotus japonicus nodule formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Costas; Krokida, Afrodite; Georgiou, Sofia; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M; Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Ioannou, Efstathia; Roussis, Vassilios; Osbourn, Anne E; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2011-01-01

    • Triterpenes are plant secondary metabolites, derived from the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs). Here, we investigated the role of lupeol synthase, encoded by OSC3, and its product, lupeol, in developing roots and nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus. • The expression patterns of OSC3 in different developmental stages of uninfected roots and in roots infected with Mesorhizobium loti were determined. The tissue specificity of OSC3 expression was analysed by in situ hybridization. Functional analysis, in which transgenic L. japonicus roots silenced for OSC3 were generated, was performed. The absence of lupeol in the silenced plant lines was determined by GC-MS. • The expression of ENOD40, a marker gene for nodule primordia initiation, was increased significantly in the OSC3-silenced plant lines, suggesting that lupeol influences nodule formation. Silenced plants also showed a more rapid nodulation phenotype, consistent with this. Exogenous application of lupeol to M. loti-infected wild-type plants provided further evidence for a negative regulatory effect of lupeol on the expression of ENOD40. • The synthesis of lupeol in L. japonicus roots and nodules can be solely attributed to OSC3. Taken together, our data suggest a role for lupeol biosynthesis in nodule formation through the regulation of ENOD40 gene expression.

  2. Nodulation and mycorrhization of transgenic soybean after glyphosate application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Freitas Chagas Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria like Bradyrhizobium spp with in relation to glyphosate can be influenced by the concentration of the herbicide. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two formulations of glyphosate, in two application periods, on nodulation and mycorrhization in a soybean of variety RR P98Y11, using greenhouse, in pots with capacity of 4 L with savanna soils. Six treatments were utilized using Roundup Ultra and Roundup Original with one and two applications, witness without herbicide and witness only with mineral nitrogen, in a completely randomized design. Four evaluations were done, every 15 days, to determine the plant height, shoot and root dry weight, number of nodules, nodule dry weigh and mycorrhizae. It was observed an increase on the number of nodules, with the use of Roundup Ultra until 15 days after the first application. After this period, the witness only with inoculants showed a larger number of nodules. Roundup Ultra had positive influences on the dry weight of nodules, regardless the number of applications. There was no influence of glyphosate formulation considering the mycorrhizal colonization.

  3. Selective lignin downregulation leads to constitutive defense response expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    • Downregulation of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) reduces lignin levels and improves forage quality and saccharification efficiency for bioethanol production. However, the plants have reduced stature. It was previously reported that HCT-down-regulated Arabidopsis have impaired auxin transport, but this has recently been disproved. • To address the basis for the phenotypes of lignin-modified alfalfa, we measured auxin transport, profiled a range of metabolites including flavonoids and hormones, and performed in depth transcriptome analyses. • Auxin transport is unaffected in HCT antisense alfalfa despite increased flavonoid biosynthesis. The plants show increased cytokinin and reduced auxin levels, and gibberellin levels and sensitivity are both reduced. Levels of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids are elevated, associated with massive upregulation of pathogenesis and abiotic stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to fungal infection and drought. • We suggest that HCT downregulated alfalfa plants exhibit constitutive activation of defense responses, triggered by release of bioactive cell wall fragments and production of hydrogen peroxide as a result of impaired secondary cell wall integrity.

  4. microRNA160 dictates stage-specific auxin and cytokinin sensitivities and directs soybean nodule development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizampatnam, Narasimha Rao; Schreier, Spencer John; Damodaran, Suresh; Adhikari, Sajag; Subramanian, Senthil

    2015-10-01

    Legume nodules result from coordinated interactions between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The phytohormone cytokinin promotes nodule formation, and recent findings suggest that the phytohormone auxin inhibits nodule formation. Here we show that microRNA160 (miR160) is a key signaling element that determines the auxin/cytokinin balance during nodule development in soybean (Glycine max). miR160 appears to promote auxin activity by suppressing the levels of the ARF10/16/17 family of repressor ARF transcription factors. Using quantitative PCR assays and a fluorescence miRNA sensor, we show that miR160 levels are relatively low early during nodule formation and high in mature nodules. We had previously shown that ectopic expression of miR160 in soybean roots led to a severe reduction in nodule formation, coupled with enhanced sensitivity to auxin and reduced sensitivity to cytokinin. Here we show that exogenous cytokinin restores nodule formation in miR160 over-expressing roots. Therefore, low miR160 levels early during nodule development favor cytokinin activity required for nodule formation. Suppression of miR160 levels using a short tandem target mimic (STTM160) resulted in reduced sensitivity to auxin and enhanced sensitivity to cytokinin. In contrast to miR160 over-expressing roots, STTM160 roots had increased nodule formation, but nodule maturation was significantly delayed. Exogenous auxin partially restored proper nodule formation and maturation in STTM160 roots, suggesting that high miR160 activity later during nodule development favors auxin activity and promotes nodule maturation. Therefore, miR160 dictates developmental stage-specific sensitivities to auxin and cytokinin to direct proper nodule formation and maturation in soybean.

  5. Gas, Stars and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, S; Giovanelli, R; Brinchmann, J; Stierwalt, S; Neff, S G

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and HI components of 229 low HI mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with HI masses < 10^{7.7} M_sun and HI line widths < 80 km s^{-1}. SDSS data are combined with photometric properties derived from GALEX to derive stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs) and estimates of their SFRs and M_* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M_* < 10^8 M_sun is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of t...

  6. [Root Nodule Bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti: Tolerance to Salinity and Bacterial Genetic Determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumiantseva, M L; Muntyan, V S

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental data on salt tolerance of root nodule bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti (Ensifer meliloti), an alfalfa symbiont, and on genetic determination of this feature are reviewed. Extensive data on the genes affecting adaptation of proteobacteria are provided, as well as on the groups of genes with activity depending on the osmolarity of the medium. Structural and functional polymorphism of the bet genes involved in betaine synthesis and transport in S. meliloti is discussed. The phenotypic and. genotypic polymorphism in 282 environmental rhizobial strains isolated from the centers of alfalfa diversity affected by aridity and salinity is discussed. The isolates from the Aral Sea area and northern Caucasus were shown to possess the betC gene represented by two types of alleles: the dominant A-type allele found in Rm 1021 and the less common divergent E-type allele, which was revealed in regions at the frequencies at the frequencies of 0.35 and 0.48, respectively. In the isolates with the salt-tolerant phenotype, which were isolated from root nodules and subsequently formed less effective symbioses with alfalfa, the frequency of E-type alleles was 2.5 times higher. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the E-type allele of the betC gene revealed that establishment of this allele in the population was a result of positive selection. It is concluded that diversification of the functionally diverse bet genes occurring in S. meliloti affects the salt tolerance and symbiotic effectivity of rhizobia.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization products as sulfur sources for alfalfa and soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.M.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S. [Ohio State University, Wooster, OH (US). School of Natural Resources

    2005-02-01

    Sulfur deficiencies in soil are expected to increase due to growth of high-yielding crop varieties, use of S-free fertilizers, and removal of S from industrial emissions. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products, created when coal is burned and SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gases, may serve as efficient S sources. However, there are few reports on their use for the enhancement of crop growth. Agricultural gypsum and two types of FGD products, that contain either vermiculite or perlite, were applied at 0, 16, and 67 kg S ha{sup -1} to an agricultural soil (Wooster silt loam, Typic Fragiudalf). Dry weight of a new planting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was increased up to 40% by the treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Gypsum and FGD products were also applied at 0, 8,16, and 24 kg S ha{sup -1} to five established alfalfa stands in different Ohio regions. Mean alfalfa yield was significantly (P {le} 0.05) increased by approximately 5.0% in 2001 and 6.0% in 2002 with the S treatments of FGD products or gypsum compared with the untreated control. Alfalfa yields for FGD products and gypsum treatments were similar. A slight positive yield response was observed for soybean (Glycine max L.) when soils were treated with S-containing materials. Soil and plant analyses were made to assess potential adverse environmental impacts and none were observed. Thus, these FGD products can be safely applied to agricultural soils as S sources and can improve alfalfa yields in S-deficient soils.

  8. Red nodule on the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Colucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman living in the countryside referred to our department with a 2-month history of a red nodule localized on the right breast. Histological examination, immunohistochemical analyses and serologic evaluation conducted with ELISA and Western blot were performed. Clinical diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma was not possible solely on the clinical presentation of a classical nodular form without lymphoadenopathy. An absence of a referred prior tick bite and a previous or concomitant erythema migrans at clinical presentation rendered a more challenging diagnosis. The fact that the patient lived in the countryside, the appearance of the breast nodule in September, and serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical analysis facilitated the diagnosis of borrelial lymphocytoma. We report this case to highlight the importance of an investigation of Lyme borreliosis when a patient living in the countryside presents with a red nodule of the nipple and areola.

  9. Effectiveness of calcium hypochlorite on viral and bacterial contamination of alfalfa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2014-10-01

    Alfalfa sprouts have been involved in numerous foodborne outbreaks, which has increased the awareness for seed and sprout safety. This study compared the effectiveness of calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) on the inactivation of bacteria and viruses on alfalfa seeds and in the presence of a simulated organic load. Alfalfa seeds were inoculated with human norovirus (huNoV) genogroup II (GII), murine norovirus (MNV), Tulane virus (TV), Escherichia coli O104:H4, and Salmonella enterica serovar Agona. Seeds were treated with Ca(OCl)2 (2000 ppm or 20,000 ppm with the average of free chlorine 1388 ± 117 mg/L and 11,472 ± 1500 mg/L, respectively, pH adjusted to 7.00). The reduction of huNoV genomic copies indicated that huNoV was relatively resistant to Ca(OCl)2 regardless of concentrations. Significant reductions were observed in the order of TV OCl)2. A similar trend was found at 2000 ppm Ca(OCl)2 in the order of TV, Salmonella Agona, MNV OCl)2 at 20,000 ppm was more effective than 2000 ppm for all the organisms tested. This trend was also observed in samples containing an artificial organic material load. Ca(OCl)2 activity on virus inactivation decreased as the organic load increased. Reduction was greater in fetal bovine serum-containing samples compared to alfalfa seeds, indicating a close relationship between the organisms and alfalfa seeds. Ca(OCl)2 could not completely inactivate bacteria or viruses inoculated on seeds, and high levels of E. coli O104:H4 and Salmonella Agona were present on sprouts from sanitized seed samples following a 7-day germination period.

  10. Eicosanoids mediate nodulation reactions to bacterial Escherichia coli K 12 infections in larvae of the oriental blowfly,Chrysomya megacephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Chen; Yong Wang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2009-01-01

    Nodulation is the predominant cellular defense reaction to bacterial challenges in insects.In this study,third instar larvae of Chrysomya megacephala were injected with bacteria,Escherichia coli K 12 (10~6 CFU/mL,2μL),immediately prior to injection of inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis,which sharply reduced nodulation response.Test larvae were treated with specific inhibitors of phospholipase A_2 (dexamethasone),cyclooxygenase (indomethacin,ibuprofen and piroxicam),dual cyclo-oxygenase/lipoxygenase (phenidone) and lipoxygenase (esculetin) and these reduced nodulation except esculetin.The influence of bacteria was obvious within 2 h of injection (5 nodules/larva),and increased to a maximum after 8 h (with 15 nodules/larva),and then significantly reduced over 24 h (9 nodules/larva).The inhibitory influence of dexamethasone was apparent within 2 h of injection (4 vs.5 nodules/larva),and nodulation was significantly reduced,compared to control,over 24 h (5 vs.8 nodules/larva).Increased dosages of ibuprofen,indomethacin,piroxicam and phenidone led to decreased numbers of nodules.Nodules continued to exist during the pupal stage.However,the effects of dexamethasone were reversed by treating bacteria-injected insects with an eicosanoid-precursor polyunsaturated fatty acid,arachidonic acid.These findings approved our view that eicosanoid can mediate cellular defense mechanisms in response to bacterial infections in another Dipteran insect C.megacephala.

  11. Effect of Space Flight Factors on Plant Biomass Developed from Alfalfa Seeds Carried by the Satellite%卫星搭载对紫花苜蓿当代植株生物量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任卫波; 赵亮; 王蜜; 陈立波; 郭慧琴

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of space flight factors on plant biomass in the generation of alfalfa carried by the satellite. [Method] Seeds from three lines of alfalfa were carried by the seed-breeding satellite Shijian-8. After the satellite returned to the ground, stem diameter, primary branch number and current-year individual biomass of alfalfa were studied. [Result] After space flight, primary branch number and current-year individual biomass of alfalfa increased significantly, while the stem diameter had no significant change. Using the value over(the mean value of control + three standard deviation) as a criterion to screen, the variants with enlarged stem diameter, increased primary branch number and individual biomass was two, five and twelve respectively. [Conclusion] The obtained variants can be used in the variety improvement of alfalfa and its new variety breeding, but whether its favorable variation can inherit stably to the progenies needs further study.

  12. Urgency of further developing alfalfa industry in China%我国苜蓿产业亟待振兴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启忠; 玉柱; 徐春城

    2012-01-01

    随着我国畜牧业的快速发展,特别是奶牛业的崛起,对优质饲草尤其是苜蓿(Medicago sativa)的需求量将会越来越大。目前我国苜蓿产量低、品质差、供应量不足,不能满足市场的需求.进口苜蓿呈增加态势。2010年苜蓿的进口量已达22.72万t,对我国的苜蓿产业造成严重威胁。我国苜蓿产业发展受制于许多因素,一直处于徘徊不前状态,急需振兴。应尽快制定苜蓿产业发展战略规划,完善苜蓿生产补贴政策,鼓励科技创新,积极扶持苜蓿龙头企业。整合苜蓿产业资源,建设现代化苜蓿产业示范基地,推进我国苜蓿布局区域化、种植规模化、作业机械化、管理标准化和经营产业化发展,着力打造苜蓿产业带,增强我国苜蓿的综合生产能力和供应能力。推进奶一草一体化。%The rapid development of animal husbandry in China, especially the prosperous development of dairy farming, greatly increases the need for herbage of high quality, particularly alfalfa. This study pointed out that the alfalfa yield was low, and its quality was poor, and the supply of alfalfa did not meet its market demand in China. Consequently, the total quantity of imported alfalfa showed a increasing trend and came to 227 200 t in 2010, threatening the development of alfalfa industry in China. This study pro- posed that it is urgent to develop the alfalfa industry because alfalfa industry was regulated by many fac- tors. Finally, this study proposed some suggestions for further developing the alfalfa industry. Firstly, it was urgent to make development plan of alfalfa industry; secondly, the compensation package needed to be improved for alfalfa producer; thirdly, it was effort to innovate the utilization technology and support the leading enterprise of alfalfa industry; fourthly, establishing the demonstration base with modern technology was necessary by integrating the alfalfa

  13. Cytological findings in scintigraphically nonfunctioning thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Branislava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The major one among the procedures for evaluating changes in the thyroid nodules is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. Thyroid scintigraphy is commonly used in diagnostic algoritham of nodules. Less than 5% of examined nodules show to be malignant. Scintigraphically, nodules could be classified as functional and nonfunctional. It is estimated that the risk of malignacy in nonfunctional nodules ranges from 8% to 25% and more. Aspiration punction provides 100% specific and positive predictive value. The aim of the study was to establish the distribution of cytological findings in nonfunctioning thyroid nodules. Methods. The prospective study enrolled 112 patients, 104 women and 8 men, submitted to thyroid scintigraphy for known thyroid nodule disorder. Scintigraphy was performed about half an hour after iv administration of 74 MBq of sodium-pertehnetate. A pin hole collimator was used. Scintigrams were visually evaluated, and absence of radiopharmaceutic in a nodule was estimated as nonfunctional one. Such nodules were afterwards subjected to FNAB and material obtained was cytologically analyzed. Results. In our patients nonfunctioning nodules comprised tissue of colloid struma, thyroid cyst, regular thyroid tissue, follicular lesion, oxiphillic lesion, papillary carcinoma tissue and tissue of lymphocytic thyroiditis. The most frequent cytological finding were colloid cysts (52%. A total of 70% were female nodules. Five citological findings were histopathologically analyzed. Conclusion. Cytological finding of nonfunctional nodules determines of the decision on radical therapy, and our preliminary results imply the need of FNAB routine use in nuclear medicine practice.

  14. Weed control in dormant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. with active ingredients’ metribuzin, imazetapyr and pronamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2008 – 2010 to evaluate weed control in dormant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. with metribuzin, imazetapyr and pronamide. The weed population in all experimental years was consisted mainly of annual winter and spring grass and broadleaf weeds, and some perennial weeds. The number of weed species and weed density increased with the years of alfalfa growing, from second to the fourth year. Weed density in the untreated control plots was 201.0, 217.2 and 240.5 plants per m2 in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. The most dominant weeds were Anthemis cotula, Capsell bursa-pastoris and Taraxacum officinale in 2008, Alopecurus myosuroides and Poa pratensis in 2009 and Millium vernale and Arabidopsis thaliana in 2010. Efficacy of herbicides in control of weeds was ranged of 91.8% (pronamide to 98.4% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2008, 93.1% (imazetapyr to 97.3% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2009 and 92.1% (imazetapyr to 97.3% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2010, respectively. Efficacy of herbicides in control of prevailing weeds during the 3 years field trial period was ranged of 48.5% to 100.0%. No visual alfalfa injured was determined by any rates during the experimental period, and consequently, none of the applied herbicides reduced first-harvest alfalfa yields. Alfalfa yield was markedly affected by herbicide efficacy in all experimental years, particularly in the second year, where yields of herbicide treatments were similar to that of the weed free control.

  15. Digestibility and rate of passage by lambs of water-stressed alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undersander, D J; Cole, N A; Naylor, C H

    1987-06-01

    Two lamb digestion experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.)] grown under varying levels of water deficiency (stress) on the rate of passage and digestibility of various fibrous components. Experiment 1 consisted of a randomized complete block design in which 12 Suffolk X Hampshire crossbred wethers averaging 40 kg were fed alfalfa hay grown at three (10, 15 or 20 cm water/ha) levels of water per harvest. Experiment 2 consisted of a switchback design in which four Hampshire wethers averaging 45 kg were fed alfalfa hay grown at two (5 or 20 cm/ha) levels of water per harvest. Forage yields ranged from 1,420 (10 cm/ha in Exp. 1) to 4,200 (20 cm/ha in Exp. 2) kg/ha. In both experiments, water stress reduced cell wall constituents (neutral detergent fiber), acid detergent fiber, lignin and cellulose content of the alfalfa hay. Organic matter digestibility was decreased when the percentage of leaves fell below 60% at the highest yield. Digestibility of N and the rate of NDF digestibility were not affected by water stress. The second experiment additionally included nutrient balance and rate of passage measurements. Greater (P less than .10) amounts of N and P were absorbed from water-stressed than nonstressed hay. Ruminal retention time of particulate markers tended (P less than .10) to increase with greater water stress. The results of this study are interpreted to indicate that while moderate water stress may have little effect on in vivo digestibility of alfalfa, severe stress may reduce digestibility of fibrous fractions and total organic matter.

  16. Biologic origin of iron nodules in a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.; Schulz, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; White, A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution, chemistry, and morphology of Fe nodules were studied in a marine terrace soil chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The Fe nodules are found at depths soil mineral grains cemented by Fe oxides. The nodules varied in size from 0.5 to 25 mm in diameter. Nodules did not occur in the underlying regolith. The Fe-oxide mineralogy of the nodules was typically goethite; however, a subset of nodules consisted of maghemite. There was a slight transformation to hematite with time. The abundance of soil Fe nodules increased with terrace age on the five terraces studied (aged 65,000-226,000 yr). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed Fe-oxide-containing fungal hyphae throughout the nodules, including organic structures incorporating fine-grained Fe oxides. The fine-grained nature of the Fe oxides was substantiated by M??ssbauer spectroscopy. Our microscopic observations led to the hypothesis that the nodules in the Santa Cruz terrace soils are precipitated by fungi, perhaps as a strategy to sequester primary mineral grains for nutrient extraction. The fungal structures are fixed by the seasonal wetting and dry cycles and rounded through bioturbation. The organic structures are compacted by the degradation of fungal C with time. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. Usage of Template Matching for Lung Nodule Detection in CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Shayegh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the lung nodule detection through image processing methods. Therefore, in the preprocessing stage, we use a medical-like method to omit all objects that surely they are not nodule. In this way nodule candidates are obtained. Therefore, false positives decay, while rate of main process does not increase. Finally, nodule candidates are selected through these suspicious regions. In the first step, we extracted candidate areas of the lung using synchronous thresholding in consecutive slices, medical decision implementation and also morphology methods. We divided the preprocessing stage into two phases for detecting all of lung nodules more accurately, depend on the nodule is connected to lung wall or vessel or it is an alone nodule.Here, template matching and maximum similarity method have used for nodule detection. The used database comes from LIDC database images that consist of 7 patients' CT scans. All of nodules are completely detected and there are 3 FP/slice. Value of similarity has been computed for all of points (pixels that determined in preprocessing stage. Indeed, the limited search area makes the optimum (i.e. direct search algorithm as fast as other sub-optimal search methods. Indeed, this method is faster than other methods that don’t have enough attention to information of CT scan slices.

  18. Nodule Initiation Involves the Creation of a New Symplasmic Field in Specific Root Cells of Medicago Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complainville, Arnaud; Brocard, Lysiane; Roberts, Ian; Dax, Edna; Sever, Noa; Sauer, Norbert; Kondorosi, Adam; Wolf, Shmuel; Oparka, Karl; Crespi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The organogenesis of nitrogen-fixing nodules in legume plants is initiated in specific root cortical cells and regulated by long-distance signaling and carbon allocation. Here, we explore cell-to-cell communication processes that occur during nodule initiation in Medicago species and their functional relevance using a combination of fluorescent tracers, electron microscopy, and transgenic plants. Nodule initiation induced symplasmic continuity between the phloem and nodule initials. Macromolecules such as green fluorescent protein could traffic across short or long distances from the phloem into these primordial cells. The created symplasmic field was regulated throughout nodule development. Furthermore, Medicago truncatula transgenic plants expressing a viral movement protein showed increased nodulation. Hence, the establishment of this symplasmic field may be a critical element for the control of nodule organogenesis. PMID:14615602

  19. Artificial penile nodules: case reports.

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, K B; Seow, C.S.; Tulip, T; Daniel, M.; Vijayasingham, S M

    1986-01-01

    An interesting cultural practice of implanting foreign bodies under the skin of the penis for enhancing sexual excitement in the man's sexual partner is described. Recognition of this is important to venereologists because of their primary concern with the genital area. The term artificial penile nodule has been suggested for the condition resulting from this practice.

  20. Swimming and swarming motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Julio C; Dardanelli, Marta S; Giordano, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Motility allows populations of bacteria to rapidly reach and colonize new microniches or microhabitats. The motility of rhizobia (symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria that nodulate legume roots) is an important factor determining their competitive success. We evaluated the effects of temperature, incubation time, and seed exudates on swimming and swarming motility of five strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (peanut-nodulating rhizobia). Swimming motility was increased by exudate exposure for all strains except native Pc34. In contrast, swarming motility was increased by exudate exposure for native 15A but unchanged for the other four strains. All five strains displayed the ability to differentiate into swarm cells. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscopy showed that the length of the swarm cells was variable, but generally greater than that of vegetative cells. Our findings suggest the importance of differential motility properties of peanut-nodulating rhizobial strains during agricultural inoculation and early steps of symbiotic interaction with the host.

  1. Fixed-precision sequential sampling plans for estimating alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia, egg density in alfalfa, Medicago sativa, fields in Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Gerardo V; Porta, Norma C La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies.

  2. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  3. Complete genome sequence of the alfalfa latent virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In the US it is prevalent in Nebraska and Wisconsin. The virus is recognized as a strain of Pea streak virus (PeSV) So far, no complete genomic sequence of PSV or ALV is availab...

  4. Chemical composition of alfalfa silage with waste date and its feeding effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, R; Tahmasbi, R; Dayani, O; Khezri, A

    2016-09-07

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding ensiled alfalfa with waste date on ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, protozoa population and blood parameters in sheep. Eight rams were used in a 2 × 2 change over design. Each experimental period consisted of 21 days including 16 days for adaptation and 5 days for sampling. For ensiling, fresh alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with different levels of waste date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were mixed together and ensiled in 100-l containers for 45 days. Chemical composition of silages such as dry matter (DM), crude protein, NH3 -N, organic matter, NDF, ADF and pH were determined. Then, it was used as 30% (DM basis) in diets. The experimental diets were as follows: (i) control (diet containing alfalfa silage without waste date), (ii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 5 g waste date/95 g DM, (iii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 10 g waste date/90 g DM, and (iv) diet containing alfalfa silage with 15 g waste date/85 g DM. The results of this experiment showed that adding waste date to alfalfa during ensiling, improved silage quality, DM and energy level. Total protozoa population and all of holotrich, cellulolytic and entodinia in rumen fluid were increased linearly by increasing the level of waste date. Nitrogen (N) intake, urinary N excretion and nitrogen retention were affected by dietary treatments. Also, allantoin, uric acid, total purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, cholesterol level and blood urea nitrogen were significantly different. In conclusion, direct ensilage of alfalfa can be attained by mixing 15 g waste date/85 g DM and positive associative effects such as increased metabolizable energy (ME) and silage quality occurred.

  5. Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L As A Promising Forage In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L or Lucerne is a perennial herbaceous legume with superior forage quality. It is the most important forage crop in the world and it was the first domesticated forage crop. Alfalfa is able to fix nitrogen from the air through a symbiotic relationship with Rhizobium bacteria with N production 7.85 – 10.37 g/m2. Its rooting system can reach 4.5 m that allows it to escape drought. Forage production can reach 15.48 tons of dry matter per ha/year and containing 18.0 – 29.1 % crude protein. Plants can live 3 to 12 years depending on climatic conditions and crop varieties. However, alfalfa is not a tropical plant, thus it has not been widely cultivated in Indonesia. The problem of alfalfa cultivation are high pest attacks and competition with weeds. Therefore, alfalfa cultivation requires attention and good management to obtain optimum yield.

  6. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-02-26

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility.

  7. Effects of diets containing alfalfa hay or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage on feeding behavior, productivity, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Ali-Akbar; Sharifi, Majid; Afzalzadeh, Ahmad; Rezaeian, Mohammad

    2009-08-01

    The effects of barley flour on the fermentation parameters of alfalfa silage and on the productivity of dairy cows were investigated. Alfalfa forage was ensiled either with or without barley flour. Barley flour was soaked in water for 24 h before being mixed with alfalfa (12 kg: 100 kg dry matter bases) at ensiling. Eighteen multi-parous cows were assigned to three equal treatment groups using a completely randomized design. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous total mixed rations containing alfalfa hay, ordinary alfalfa silage or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage were then prepared. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, acetic acid and butyric acid were lower in barley flour mixed alfalfa silage compared to that in ordinary alfalfa silage but the concentration of lactic acid was lower in the ordinary alfalfa silage. Feeding behavior, milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites were measured. Although dry matter intake and milk production were not affected, the effect of preparation of alfalfa influenced feeding behavior and rumen fermentation parameters. Cows on alfalfa silage diets spent longer ruminating compared to those fed alfalfa hay. The ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea were affected by ensiling (alfalfa hay versus alfalfa silages) while both parameters were lower in cows fed on barley flour mixed alfalfa silage than those fed on ordinary silage. Although similar blood glucose was recorded for cows fed on alfalfa silages, it was higher in cows fed on alfalfa hay. It is concluded that the addition of barely flour when making alfalfa silage may improve both the fermentation process during ensilage and the ruminal ammonia nitrogen utilization with no significant effects on productivity.

  8. Intended release and actual retention of alfalfa leafcutting bees (hymenoptera: megachilidae) for pollination in commercial alfalfa seed fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, medium, and high stocking densities of Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leafcutting bee, were released over four years in three research plots of Utah alfalfa planted at seed-production rates. A low number of bees (46-79% of released) survived the incubation and field emergence processes, and ...

  9. Variation of directional reflectance factors with structural changes of a developing alfalfa canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J. A.; Kimes, D. S.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1982-01-01

    Directional reflectance factors of an alfalfa canopy were determined and related to canopy structure, agronomic variables, and irradiance conditions at four periods during a cutting cycle. Nadir and off-nadir reflectance factors decreased with increasing biomass in Thematic Mapper band 3(0.63-0.69 micrometer) and increased with increasing biomass in band 4(0.76-0.90 micrometer). The sensor view angle had less impact on perceived reflectance as the alfalfa progressed from an erectophile canopy of stems after harvest to a near planophile canopy of leaves at maturity. Studies of directional reflectance are needed for testing and upgrading vegetation canopy models and to aid in the complex interpretation problems presented by aircraft scanners and pointable satellites where illumination and viewing geometries may vary widely. Distinct changes in the patterns of radiance observed by a sensor as structural and biomass changes occur are keys to monitoring the growth and condition of crops.

  10. PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN KECERNAAN BAHAN KERING ALFALFA DENGAN PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sunarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago    sativa    L. as one of legume forage crops for ruminant livestock is very sensitive to the phosphorus deficiency. Phosphorus fertilizers have been used widely to overcome those problem. However, the high cost of superphosphate (SP is now focusing attention on cheaper rock phosphate (RP fertilizer. A field experiment was conducted on a latosolic soil (low pH, and low available Bray II extractable P. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer from difference sources on dry matter production, and in    vitro dry matter digestibility of alfalfa. Completely randomized block design with 7 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this field experiment. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (SP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T2 (SP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T3 (SP, 300 kg P2O5/ha, T4 (RP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T5 (RP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T6 (RP, 300 kg P2O5/ha. Size of each plot was 2 m x 2 m, and fertilized with P fertilizer (SP, RP according to the assigned treatment. All plot received basal fertilizer of urea (50 kg N/ha, KCl (100 kg K2O/ha and poultry manure (2 ton/ha. Medicago    sativa was defoliated on 12 weeks after planting and analyzed for dry matter (DM production and in    vitro DM digestibility. Result showed that DM production significantly influenced by the treatments. Superphosphate fertilization resulted DM production significantly higher compared to control and RP, except on RP 300 kg P2O5/ha was non-significant difference. In    vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of alfalfa was not affected by the treatment. There was non-significant difference in IVDMD between the treatments. Therefore, RP (300 kg P2O5/ha could replace SP to increased DM production and not affected for IVDMD of Medicago    sativa in acid latosolic soil.

  11. RNA-seq transcriptome profiling reveals that Medicago truncatula nodules acclimate N2 fixation before emerging P deficiency reaches the nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Liese, Rebecca; Lingner, Annika; von Stieglitz, Ilsabe; Neumann, Janice; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Pommerenke, Claudia; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legume nodules are plant tissues with an exceptionally high concentration of phosphorus (P), which, when there is scarcity of P, is preferentially maintained there rather than being allocated to other plant organs. The hypothesis of this study was that nodules are affected before the P concentration in the organ declines during whole-plant P depletion. Nitrogen (N2) fixation and P concentration in various organs were monitored during a whole-plant P-depletion process in Medicago truncatula. Nodule gene expression was profiled through RNA-seq at day 5 of P depletion. Until that point in time P concentration in leaves reached a lower threshold but was maintained in nodules. N2-fixation activity per plant diverged from that of fully nourished plants beginning at day 5 of the P-depletion process, primarily because fewer nodules were being formed, while the activity of the existing nodules was maintained for as long as two weeks into P depletion. RNA-seq revealed nodule acclimation on a molecular level with a total of 1140 differentially expressed genes. Numerous genes for P remobilization from organic structures were increasingly expressed. Various genes involved in nodule malate formation were upregulated, while genes involved in fermentation were downregulated. The fact that nodule formation was strongly repressed with the onset of P deficiency is reflected in the differential expression of various genes involved in nodulation. It is concluded that plants follow a strategy to maintain N2 fixation and viable leaf tissue as long as possible during whole-plant P depletion to maintain their ability to react to emerging new P sources (e.g. through active P acquisition by roots). PMID:25151618

  12. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eMartínez-Hidalgo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation.In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity.

  13. Diversity and numbers of root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia in Polish soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Martyniuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a sand pouch-plant infection method, populations of several species of root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia were enumerated in eighty soils collected throughout Poland. Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae (symbionts of pea, faba bean, vetch and R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii (symbionts of clover were detected in 77 and 76 soils, respectively. Most of these soils contained moderate and high numbers of these species of the rhizobia. Symbionts of beans, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, were assessed in 76 soils; of this number 15 soils had no detectable populations of bean rhizobia and in 40 soils high or moderate numbers of these bacteria were found. Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus, root-nodule bacteria of lupine and serradella, were absent in 19 soils, out of 80 tested, and 34 soils were colonised by high or moderate populations of bradyrhizobia. Sinorhizobium meliloti, rhizobia nodulating alfalfa, were sparse in the examined soils; with 56 soil containing no detectable numbers of S. meliloti and only 6 soils harbouring high or moderate populations of this species. The estimated numbers of the rhizobia in the studied soils were also related to some physical and chemical properties of these soils.

  14. Induced systemic resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Micromonospora strains isolated from root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; García, Juan M; Pozo, María J

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora is a Gram positive bacterium that can be isolated from nitrogen fixing nodules from healthy leguminous plants, where they could be beneficial to the plant. Their plant growth promoting activity in legume and non-legume plants has been previously demonstrated. The present study explores the ability of Micromonospora strains to control fungal pathogens and to stimulate plant immunity. Micromonospora strains isolated from surface sterilized nodules of alfalfa showed in vitro antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi. Moreover, root inoculation of tomato plants with these Micromonospora strains effectively reduced leaf infection by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, despite spatial separation between both microorganisms. This induced systemic resistance, confirmed in different tomato cultivars, is long lasting. Gene expression analyses evidenced that Micromonospora stimulates the plant capacity to activate defense mechanisms upon pathogen attack. The defensive response of tomato plants inoculated with Micromonospora spp. differs from that of non-inoculated plants, showing a stronger induction of jasmonate-regulated defenses when the plant is challenged with a pathogen. The hypothesis of jasmonates playing a key role in this defense priming effect was confirmed using defense-impaired tomato mutants, since the JA-deficient line def1 was unable to display a long term induced resistance upon Micromonospora spp. inoculation. In conclusion, nodule isolated Micromonospora strains should be considered excellent candidates as biocontrol agents as they combine both direct antifungal activity against plant pathogens and the ability to prime plant immunity.

  15. [Lung cancer screening and management of small pulmonary nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer. Most lung cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage, so survival after lung cancer is generally poor. Diagnosis of lung cancer at earlier stages may be associated with an increased survival rate. This indicates that the implementation of lung cancer screening programs at the population level by means of low dose computed tomography might helpful to improve the outcome and mortality of lung cancer patients. By means of rapid advances in imaging technologies over the last decades it became possible to detect small lung nodules as small as a couple of millimeters. This recent developments require management algorithms to guide the clinical management of suspicious and indeterminate lung nodules found in computer tomography during lung cancer screening or by incidental finding.This review will focus on both, the recent advances in lung cancer screening and the guidelines for the management of small pulmonary nodules.

  16. Positron emission tomography of incidentally detected small pulmonary nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, B M; Mortensen, J; Dirksen, A;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging of small pulmonary nodules incidentally detected by spiral computed tomography (CT) in a high-risk population. Ten patients (five females, five males, aged 54-72 years) were recruited...... (approx. 3.3% of the entire study population). The prevalence of malignancy in this group was 50%. The accuracy of PET was high, in spite of the fact that seven patients had nodules smaller than 15 mm and two patients had bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma. This small prospective study indicates...... that subsequent assessment with FDG PET of small pulmonary nodules incidentally detected by CT has the potential to minimize the numbers of invasive procedures performed in individuals with a benign pulmonary lesion. FDG PET also increases the possibility of an early diagnosis as compared to the strategy...

  17. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  18. Effect of alfalfa hay on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of growing lambs with ad libitum access to total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Alhidary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Forty male Naemi lambs were used to evaluate the effect of total mixed rations (TMR alone or in combination with supplementation of alfalfa hay offered at different schedules on growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Lambs at the age of three months, with an average weight of 28.85±1.09 kg, were randomly selected and distributed into four different feeding systems, 10 lambs each, as follows: TMR diet (control; TMR plus 100 g alfalfa hay; TMR plus 200 g alfalfa hay every two days; and TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay every three days. The TMR and fresh drinking water were offered ad libitum. Lambs in the treated groups (with alfalfa hay had significantly higher body weight, body weight change, dry matter intake, and feed conversion ratio compared with the control. Similarly, slaughter weight, carcass weight (hot and cold, and internal organs weight significantly increased in the treated groups, except for dressing weight percentage, which improved only in the treatment with TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay. By contrast, mesentery fat, back fat, and body wall fat decreased in treated groups. Meat quality characteristics indicated that cooking loss and pH values did not differ between the control and treated groups; however, meat colour (lightness, yellowness, and redness and pH (1 and 24 h improved in post-slaughter treated groups. Furthermore, no difference was found in texture profile analysis (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness, although the shear force decreased significantly in treated groups. Addition of alfalfa hay offered at the present plan may not only improve the growth and carcass characteristics, but also enhance the meat quality of Naemi lambs. From the labour and economic point of view, TMR plus 300 g alfalfa hay every three days may be adopted while taking into account the management decision.

  19. Experimental Study on Characteristics of High Water Plant Alfalfa%高水分植物苜蓿强化干燥特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车刚; 王鑫; 万霖

    2015-01-01

    针对苜蓿为非均一性物质的特性,亟待提高各组分干燥程度的一致性。通过紫花苜蓿的生理和物理特性的试验分析,建立叶片、茎秆和草段的干燥特性曲线。利用基本的物理方法,确定最长干燥存留时间与苜蓿含水率的关系,机械处理次数和草段长度对苜蓿干燥速率的影响规律。试验研究表明:用机械压裂茎秆的方式处理的苜蓿与未处理的相比,干燥速度提高1.5~2倍。选择光滑槽压扁一次和纵向槽重复压扁三次处理的干燥效果最好。%According to the characteristics of uniformity material on alfalfa,the drying consistency of alfalfa components would be improved. Drying characteristic curve of leaf,stem and grass were established by physiological and physical properties of alfalfa. Using the basic physical methods,the relationship of the longest drying time and moisture content of alfalfa was determined,and the effect law of mechanical processing times and grass length to alfalfa drying rate were studied. The experimental study showed the mechanical way of fracturing alfalfa was compared with untreated alfalfa,the drying rate was increased by 1.5-2 times. The best drying effect of squashed alfalfa stem was to use smooth slot one time and longitudinal slot three times.

  20. Alfalfa carbon and nitrogen sequestration patterns and effects of temperature and precipitation in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Chang

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a primary and widely cultivated forage crop in China. As a perennial leguminous grass, continuous planted alfalfa may influence carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa, planted for different lengths of time, and temperature and precipitation on soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (TN contents, and estimated soil SOC and TN inventories from 0-60 cm in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China. Alfalfa SOC and TN storage patterns were significantly different with increasing soil depths between the three regions of northern China. Continuous alfalfa grassland planted had a positive effect on accumulation of both SOC and TN in the Northwest region, whereas SOC storage peaked 6-7 years after planting in the Northeast and North region. Moreover, relatively higher TN storage appeared 7 years after planting in the Northeast and North regions. This study controlled as many factors as possible, but we caution that such temporal inferences could be artifacts of site selection. The regression analysis indicated that SOC and TN accumulation was mainly dependent on temperature (≥10°C of effective total accumulated temperature in the North region. Precipitation in the growing season was the main limiting factor for SOC storage in the Northwest region and TN accumulation in the North regions. Therefore, the different climate factors affecting SOC and TN sequestration in alfalfa occurred at a regional scale.

  1. Strategy for polymetallic nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    in industrializing their economies. Of the known mineral reselVcs these countries have nearly 50% of the nickel resclVcs, over 50% ofcopper reselVcs, 75% ofcobalt reserves, and aboul 25% of manganese reserves, and are major suppliers to the world markets... of these minerals. These counlries face the comhined effect oflosl markets and reduced price levels broughlabout by deep seabed nodule production. They depend on revenue earned from mineral exports more than do developed nations and have less flexibility...

  2. Automatic lung nodule classification with radiomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingchen; Wang, Qian; Ren, Yacheng; Hu, Haibo; Zhao, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the first killer among the cancer deaths. Malignant lung nodules have extremely high mortality while some of the benign nodules don't need any treatment .Thus, the accuracy of diagnosis between benign or malignant nodules diagnosis is necessary. Notably, although currently additional invasive biopsy or second CT scan in 3 months later may help radiologists to make judgments, easier diagnosis approaches are imminently needed. In this paper, we propose a novel CAD method to distinguish the benign and malignant lung cancer from CT images directly, which can not only improve the efficiency of rumor diagnosis but also greatly decrease the pain and risk of patients in biopsy collecting process. Briefly, according to the state-of-the-art radiomics approach, 583 features were used at the first step for measurement of nodules' intensity, shape, heterogeneity and information in multi-frequencies. Further, with Random Forest method, we distinguish the benign nodules from malignant nodules by analyzing all these features. Notably, our proposed scheme was tested on all 79 CT scans with diagnosis data available in The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) which contain 127 nodules and each nodule is annotated by at least one of four radiologists participating in the project. Satisfactorily, this method achieved 82.7% accuracy in classification of malignant primary lung nodules and benign nodules. We believe it would bring much value for routine lung cancer diagnosis in CT imaging and provide improvement in decision-support with much lower cost.

  3. Floristic composition and weed biomass in organic alfalfa crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Olivera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of floristic composition and weed biomass in organic alfalfa crop in different years of alfalfa growing. The experiment was conducted in experimental plots in Futog, during the vegetation period of 2015. The presence of 60 weed species was noted, 49 of all weeds were noticed in the third, 48 in the fourth and 34 in the fifth year of organic alfalfa growing. Quantitative and qualitative structure of weed community depended on the age of alfalfa crop. By the analysis of cover values and the degree of the presence of weed species, it can be seen that species: Rumex obtusifolius L., Taraxacum officinale Web., Cynodon dactylon Pers. and Artemisia vulgaris L. had the greatest significance on weed infestation of alfalfa. The largest number of weed species belonged to the families Poaceae and Asteraceae. The biological spectrum of weeds species was defined by the terophyta dominance, whose number was reduced due to the age of the crop, while the share of hemicryptophytes and geophytes was more or less constant. Although we found a considerable level of infestation of alfalfa, alfalfa biomass reached acceptable values that were significantly higher than the weed biomass, which was statistically highly significant.

  4. Changes in fatty acid composition of sulfolipid and phospholipids during maturation of alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfenstein, W E; Shigley, J W

    1967-07-01

    Lipids were extracted from alfalfa samples collected at intervals over the growing season and were fractionated to yield pure sulfolipid. In the sulfolipid and in a phospholipid fraction the major fatty acids were palmitic, linolenic, and linoleic, of which the palmitic acid increased in proportion during the season while the proportion of linolenic acid dropped. The sulfolipid contained more linolenic acid and less palmitic and linoleic acids than the phospholipids, and had a greater rate of change of fatty acid composition.

  5. Effect of Graded Levels of Fiber from Alfalfa Meal on Nutrient Digestibility and Flow of Fattening Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2014-01-01

    The ifber level and composition have an important effect on nutrient digestibility of swine diets. Little information is known about the effects of ifber level and composition from alfalfa meal on nutrient digestibility of fattening pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of alfalfa ifber on the growth performance, intestinal nutrient lfow and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in fattening pigs. 24 barrows (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace), body weight=(60.6±0.7) kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 1 pig per replicate. The pigs were provided a control diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20%of alfalfa meal during a 14-d experiment period. Average daily gain (ADG) and the ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent ifber (NDF), acid detergent ifber (ADF) and gross energy (GE) reduced linearly as the level of alfalfa meal in the diet increased (P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both soluble and insoluble ifber intake, explained approximately 70%of the variation in the ATTD of DM, OM, NDF, and GE (P<0.01). In conclusion, alfalfa meal should be limited to less than 5%of the diet in fattening pigs to maximize growth performance and nutrient digestion. Soluble and insoluble ifber from alfalfa meal has the differential roles in nutrient digestion, which may help explain the main variation observed in nutrient digestibility. These ifndings suggest that knowledge of speciifc ifber components is necessary to accurately predict the effects of dietary ifber on nutrient digestibility.

  6. A Report of 10 Individuals with Weathering Nodules and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udkoff, Jeremy; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Weathering nodules are a benign skin condition that usually present as papules on the helices of patients with significant prior sun exposure. They are easily recognized clinically and blanch upon application of pressure to the adjacent helical rim: a positive blanch sign. We describe the clinical presentation of weathering nodules in 10 patients, nine men and one woman, aging from 38 to 70 (median 59), and their associated risk factors. Eight patients had a history of actinic keratosis, three had a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and all patients had increased Sun exposure through outdoor activities. Weathering nodules are rarely mentioned in the literature and may be confused with other cutaneous disorders. Therefore, it is paramount for clinicians to become familiar with weathering nodules and include them in the differential diagnosis of ear nodules. Appropriate diagnosis will help avoid unnecessary biopsies while reassuring the patient that the lesions are benign. PMID:27512191

  7. Nitric oxide (NO): a key player in the senescence of Medicago truncatula root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Yvan; Pierre, Olivier; Boncompagni, Eric; Hérouart, Didier; Meilhoc, Eliane; Bruand, Claude

    2012-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signalling and defence molecule involved in diverse plant developmental processes, as well as in the plant response to pathogens. NO has also been detected at different steps of the symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia. NO is required for an optimal establishment of the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiotic interaction, but little is known about the role of NO in mature nodules. Here, we investigate the role of NO in the late steps of symbiosis. Genetic and pharmacological approaches were conducted to modulate the NO level inside root nodules, and their effects on nitrogen fixation and root nodule senescence were monitored. An increase in endogenous NO levels led to a decrease in nitrogen fixation and early nodule senescence, characterized by cytological modifications of the nodule structure and the early expression of a specific senescence marker. By contrast, a decrease in NO levels led to a delay in nodule senescence. Together, our results strongly suggest that NO is a signal in developmental as well as stress-induced nodule senescence. In addition, this work demonstrates the pivotal role of the bacterial NO detoxification response in the prevention of early nodule senescence, and hence the maintenance of efficient symbiosis.

  8. 钙磷对酸铝胁迫后紫花苜蓿—根瘤菌体系结瘤固氮的修复效应%Reparations of Ca2+ and P on N-fixation of alfalfa-rhizobia after acid aluminum stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓锋; 罗珍; 刘晓燕; 朱丹; 夏志强; 周建华; 张磊

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we used alfalfa and acid tolerate alfalfa rhizobium stain, Sinorhizobium meliloti 91522, as materials in water culture to study the effect of calcium and phosphorus on quorum sensing (QS) and N-fixa-tion of alfalfa-rhizobia after acid aluminum stress. The research showed that calcium and phosphorus could repair the symbiosis nodular process of alfalfa-rhizobia after suffering from acid and Al toxicity; comparing with the control treatment, which is no Ca2+ and P treatment, under the conditions of 10 mmol/L Ca2+ and 4 jumol/L P, the nodulation time was 14 days earlier, nodular number had increased by 247. 09%, the nodular ratio achieved to 90%, hair deformation rate of Medicago sativa increased from 3. 33% to 28. 89%. When 10 mmol/L Ca2+ and 4 jumol/L P were added, the nitrogenase activity improved significantly, and Ca2+ could enhance the QS of S. meliloti significantly as well, hence promoting alfalfa to perceive the nodular signal. Preliminary tests proved that Ca2+ and P could recover the symbiosis nodular process and nitrogenase activity after alfalfa suffered from acidity and Al toxicity.%本试验采用水培法,以三得利紫花苜蓿和耐酸苜蓿根瘤菌91522为材料,探讨了酸铝胁迫处理苜蓿幼苗1周后,施加Ca2+、P对紫花苜蓿—根瘤菌结瘤固氮性能和群体感应的修复/恢复作用.结果表明,酸铝毒害后,Ca2+对紫花苜蓿—根瘤菌结瘤过程有显著的修复效应,根瘤菌群体感应、根瘤固氮酶活性显著提高;4 μmol/L P素营养与Ca2+存在交互效应,导致苜蓿现瘤时间较未经修复的处理提前14 d,苜蓿结瘤总数提高了247.09%,结瘤率达到90%,根毛变形率由3.33%提高到28.89%.Ca2+对结瘤动力学曲线的修复作用主要表现为从开始结瘤起同期结瘤数显著提高.P素对结瘤数影响在Ca2+5 mmol/L条件下较显著;Ca2+对固氮酶活性有显著提高作用,而且5mmol/L效果优于10 mmol/L,4μmol/L P素可以进一步提高

  9. Liming influence on soil chemical properties, nutritional status and yield of alfalfa grown in acid soil Influência da calagem nas propriedades químicas do solo, estado nutricional e produção da alfafa em um solo ácido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adônis Moreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is an important forage crop with high nutritive value, although highly susceptible to soil acidity. Liming is one of the most efficient and prevailing practices to correct soil acidity and improve alfalfa yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate response to liming of alfalfa grown in a greenhouse on a Typic Quartzipsamment soil. The treatments consisted of four lime rates (0, 3.8, 6.6 and 10.3 Mg ha-1 and two cuts. Alfalfa dry matter increased quadratically with increasing lime rates. In general, dry matter yield was maximized by a lime rate of 8.0 Mg ha-1. Except for the control, the dry matter nutrient contents in the treatments were adequate. The positive linear correlation between root and nodule dry matter with lime rates indicated improvement of these plant traits with decreasing soil acidity. The soil acidity indices pH, base saturation, Ca2+ concentration, Mg2+ concentration, and H + Al were relevant factors in the assessment of alfalfa yield. The magnitude of influence of these soil acidity indices on yield as determined by the coefficient of determination (R² varied and decreased in the order: base saturation, H + Al, pH, Ca and Mg concentrations. Optimum values of selected soil chemical properties were defined for maximum shoot dry matter; these values can serve as a guideline for alfalfa liming to improve the yield of this forage on acid soils.A alfafa é uma importante forrageira com alto valor nutritivo, porém é altamente suscetível à acidez do solo. A calagem é uma das mais eficientes práticas para corrigir esse problema e melhorar a produtividade da alfafa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta à calagem da alfafa cultivada em Neossolo Quartzarênico em casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro doses de calcário (0; 3,8; 6,6 e 10,3 Mg ha-1 e duas épocas de corte. A produção de matéria seca foi significativamente aumentada com a adição de calcário, com o m

  10. Clustering of HI galaxies in HIPASS and ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Passmoor, S S; Faltenbacher, A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the clustering of HI-selected galaxies in the ALFALFA survey and compare results with those obtained for HIPASS. Measurements of the angular correlation function and the inferred 3D-clustering are compared with results from direct spatial-correlation measurements. We are able to measure clustering on smaller angular scales and for galaxies with lower HI masses than was previously possible. We calculate the expected clustering of dark matter using the redshift distributions of HIPASS and ALFALFA and show that the ALFALFA sample is somewhat more anti-biased with respect to dark matter than the HIPASS sample.

  11. VARIABILIDAD DEL ECOTIPO DE ALFALFA 'TIERRA DE CAMPOS'

    OpenAIRE

    Fombellida Villafruela, A.

    2011-01-01

    La alfalfa es el cultivo forrajero más extendido en la comarca de Tierra de Campos. Se cultiva habitualmente en secano, con aprovechamiento mediante siega para heno y mediante pastoreo de los rebrotes, destinándose parte de superficie a la producción de semilla para uso propio. Esta forma de manejo, en este ambiente, a lo largo de los años, ha originado un tipo de alfalfa conocido con el nombre de 'Tierra de Campos'. La introducción en la comarca de alfalfas flamencas para su multiplicación, ...

  12. Investigating the low-dose limits of multidetector CT in lung nodule surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, N S; Siewerdsen, J H; Patsios, D; Chung, T B

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors limiting nodule detection in thoracic computed tomography (CT) and to determine whether prior knowledge of nodule size and attenuation, available from a baseline CT study, influences the minimum radiation dose at which nodule surveillance CT scans can be performed while maintaining current levels of nodule detectability. Multiple nodules varying in attenuation (-509 to + 110 HU) and diameter (1.6 to 9.5 mm) were layered in random and ordered sequences within 2 lung cylinders made of Rando lung material and suspended within a custom-built CT phantom. Multiple CT scans were performed at varying kVp (120, 100, and 80), mA (200, 150, 100, 50, 20, and 10), and beam collimation (5, 2.5, and 1.25 mm) on a four-row multidetector scanner (Lightspeed, General Electric, Milwaukee, WI) using 0.8 s gantry rotation. The corresponding range of radiation dose over which images were acquired was 0.3-26.4 mGy. Nine observers independently performed three specific tasks, namely: (1) To detect a 3.2 mm nodule of 23 HU; (2) To detect 3.2 mm nodules of varying attenuation (-509 to -154 HU); and (3) To detect nodules varying in size (1.6-9 mm) and attenuation (-509 to 110 HU). A two-alternative forced-choice test was used in order to determine the limits of nodule detection in terms of the proportion of correct responses (Pcorr, related to the area under the ROC curve) as a summary metric of observer performance. The radiation dose levels for detection of 99% of nodules in each task were as follows: Task 1 (1 mGy); Task 2 (5 mGy); and Task 3 (7 mGy). The corresponding interobserver confidence limits were 1, 5, and 10 mGy for Tasks 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was a fivefold increase in the radiation dose required for detection of lower-density nodules (Tasks 1 to 2). Absence of prior knowledge of the nodule size and density (Task 3) corresponds to a significant increase in the minimum required radiation dose. Significant image

  13. Changes in ruminal bacterial community composition following feeding of alfalfa silage inoculated with a commercial silage inoculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some silage inoculants promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. In this study, dairy cows fed alfalfa silage treated with the inoculant, Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LPS), were compared to cows fed untreated silage (Ctrl) with the objectives: 1) to de...

  14. Differential Profile of Ultrasound Findings Associated with Malignancy in Mixed and Solid Thyroid Nodules in an Elderly Female Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Vera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ultrasonographic characteristics are associated with thyroid malignancy. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic value of ultrasound features in the detection of thyroid malignancy in both solid and mixed nodules. Methods. We prospectively studied female patients (≥50 years referred to ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. Ultrasound features considered suspicious were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular margins, high anteroposterior (AP/axial-ratio, and absent halo. Associations were separately assessed in mixed and solid nodules. Results. In a group of 504 elderly female patients (age = 69±8 years, the frequency of malignant cytology was 6%. Thirty-one percent of nodules were mixed and 60% were solid. The rate of malignant cytology was similar for mixed and solid nodules (7.4 versus 5.8%, P: 0.56. While in mixed nodules none of the ultrasound characteristics were associated with malignant cytology, in solid nodules irregular margins and microcalcifications were significant (all P<0.05. The combination of irregular margins and/or microcalcifications significantly increased the association with malignant cytology only in solid nodules (OR: 2.76 (95% CI: 1.25–6.10, P: 0.012. Conclusions. Ultrasound features were of poor diagnostic value in mixed nodules, which harbored malignant lesions as often as solid nodules. Our findings challenge the recommended minimal size for ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in mixed nodules.

  15. [Efficiency of alfalfa and reed in the phytoremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratova, A Iu; Turkovskaia, O V; Hubner, T; Kuschk, P

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of plants as means of decontaminating hydrocarbon-polluted soil has been studied. Ditch reed (Phragmites australis) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) markedly intensified processes of pollutant destruction, the effect being particularly pronounced in the case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Comparative analysis of microflora in soils (including those devoid of plants and rhizosphere) demonstrated that, in addition to preventing the pollutant-induced decrease in the amount of heterotrophic microorganisms, the plants stimulated their development, significantly increasing the population of destructors. Effects of plants on major physiological groups of soil microorganisms under conditions of pollution were ambiguous. The rhizosphere consortium of alfalfa was less susceptible to effects of pollutants than that of reed.

  16. Comparative phytotoxicity of ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and ionic zinc onto the alfalfa plants symbiotically associated with Sinorhizobium meliloti in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Mukherjee, Arnab; Rico, Cyren M; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-05-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are reported as potentially phytotoxic in hydroponic and soil media. However, studies on ZnO NPs toxicity in a plant inoculated with bacterium in soil are limited. In this study, ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and ZnCl₂ were exposed to the symbiotic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-Sinorhizobium meliloti association at concentrations ranging from 0 to 750 mg/kg soil. Plant growth, Zn bioaccumulation, dry biomass, leaf area, total protein, and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in 30 day-old plants. Results showed 50% germination reduction by bulk ZnO at 500 and 750 mg/kg and all ZnCl₂ concentrations. ZnO NPs and ionic Zn reduced root and shoot biomass by 80% and 25%, respectively. Conversely, bulk ZnO at 750 mg/kg increased shoot and root biomass by 225% and 10%, respectively, compared to control. At 500 and 750 mg/kg, ZnCl₂ reduced CAT activity in stems and leaves. Total leaf protein significantly decreased as external ZnCl₂ concentration increased. STEM-EDX imaging revealed the presence of ZnO particles in the root, stem, leaf, and nodule tissues. ZnO NPs showed less toxicity compared to ZnCl₂ and bulk ZnO found to be growth enhancing on measured traits. These findings are significant to reveal the toxicity effects of different Zn species (NPs, bulk, and ionic Zn) into environmentally important plant-bacterial system in soil.

  17. Leaf d15N as a physiological indicator of the responsiveness of N2-fixing alfalfa plants to elevated [CO2], temperature and low water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia eAriz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural 15N/14N isotope composition (δ15N of a tissue is a consequence of its N source and N physiological mechanisms in response to the environment. It could potentially be used as a tracer of N metabolism in plants under changing environmental conditions, where primary N metabolism may be complex, and losses and gains of N fluctuate over time. In order to test the utility of δ15N as an indicator of plant N status in N2-fixing plants grown under various environmental conditions, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. plants were subjected to distinct conditions of [CO2] (400 versus 700 mol mol-1, temperature (ambient versus ambient + 4ºC and water availability (fully watered versus water deficiency - WD. As expected, increased [CO2] and temperature stimulated photosynthetic rates and plant growth, whereas these parameters were negatively affected by WD. The determination of δ15N in leaves, stems, roots and nodules showed that leaves were the most representative organs of the plant response to increased [CO2] and WD. Depletion of heavier N isotopes in plants grown under higher [CO2] and WD conditions reflected decreased transpiration rates, but could also be related to a higher N demand in leaves, as suggested by the decreased leaf N and total soluble protein (TSP contents detected at 700 mol mol-1 [CO2] and WD conditions. In summary, leaf δ15N provides relevant information integrating parameters which condition plant responsiveness (e.g. photosynthesis, TSP, N demand and water transpiration to environmental conditions.

  18. Novel penalised likelihood reconstruction of PET in the assessment of histologically verified small pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teoh, Eugene J.; Gleeson, Fergus V. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McGowan, Daniel R. [University of Oxford, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiation Physics and Protection, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Kevin M. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); Belcher, Elizabeth; Black, Edward [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Thoracic Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Investigate the effect of a novel Bayesian penalised likelihood (BPL) reconstruction algorithm on analysis of pulmonary nodules examined with 18F-FDG PET/CT, and to determine its effect on small, sub-10-mm nodules. 18F-FDG PET/CTs performed for nodule evaluation in 104 patients (121 nodules) were retrospectively reconstructed using the new algorithm, and compared to time-of-flight ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) reconstruction. Nodule and background parameters were analysed semi-quantitatively and visually. BPL compared to OSEM resulted in statistically significant increases in nodule SUV{sub max} (mean 5.3 to 8.1, p < 0.00001), signal-to-background (mean 3.6 to 5.3, p < 0.00001) and signal-to-noise (mean 24 to 41, p < 0.00001). Mean percentage increase in SUV{sub max} (%ΔSUV{sub max}) was significantly higher in nodules ≤10 mm (n = 31, mean 73 %) compared to >10 mm (n = 90, mean 42 %) (p = 0.025). Increase in signal-to-noise was higher in nodules ≤10 mm (224 %, mean 12 to 27) compared to >10 mm (165 %, mean 28 to 46). When applying optimum SUV{sub max} thresholds for detecting malignancy, the sensitivity and accuracy increased using BPL, with the greatest improvements in nodules ≤10 mm. BPL results in a significant increase in signal-to-background and signal-to-noise compared to OSEM. When semi-quantitative analyses to diagnose malignancy are applied, higher SUV{sub max} thresholds may be warranted owing to the SUV{sub max} increase compared to OSEM. (orig.)

  19. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.

  20. Characterization of Feeding Injuries Caused by Ceresa nigripectus Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Membracidae) on Alfalfa Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, T P; Mercado, M I; Ponessa, G I; Conci, L R; Virla, E G

    2016-04-01

    Piercing-sucking insects cause mechanical and physiological injury to plants. Ceresa nigripectus Remes Lenicov is a pest of alfalfa in subtropical regions of South America and a carrier of the ArAWB phytoplasma. The aim of this study was to determine the feeding habits of this treehopper and to describe the effects of the feeding injuries on stem vascular tissues in alfalfa. Adults and nymphs of C. nigripectus inserted their stylets repeatedly girdling the stem. One week after feeding, alfalfa stems exhibited numerous feeding canals with salivary deposits, most of which reached the phloem. Two weeks after feeding, cortex and phloem cells next to the salivary sheath collapsed, mature tracheal elements became sparse and appeared with an increased cross-section area, and phenolic compounds increased in cells and cell walls compared to undamaged plants. Three weeks after feeding, an annular callus, formed by abnormal cell division and hypertrophy of preexisting cortex and vascular cambium cells, appeared immediately above the stem girdle. Parenchyma cells from the outer layers of the callus differentiated to form secondary anomalous amphicribal bundles in the wound. The aerial parts above the stem girdle eventually withered and died.

  1. Partitioning and mobilization of photoassimilate in alfalfa subjected to water deficits. [Medicago sativa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.H. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow (USA)); Sheaffer, C.C.; Heichel, G.H. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (USA))

    Faster regrowth of a stressed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) crop compared to an unstressed crop after rewatering has been reported. The bases of this compensatory response are unknown, but they may be important to understanding adaptation to water stress and to developing crop water management strategies. The authors objectives was to determine the effect of stress induced by water deficit on photoassimilate partitioning and the utilization of stored assimilates during regrowth of alfalfa. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted using cultivars differing in winterhardiness. Plants were subjected to water stress, pulse-labeled with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, and sampled following 0, 1, 14, 21, and 28-d translocation periods. Following the 14-d sampling, herbage was harvested and water stress was removed. Cultivars contrasting in winterhardiness responded similarly to water stress. Stressed plant roots contained 73 and 114% more total plant radioactivity (TPR) than the control at the 1 and 14-d translocation periods, respectively. Water stress significantly increased root starch and TPR percentage in the starch fraction, but had much smaller effects on root soluble-sugar concentration and TPR percentage of the root sugar fraction. Herbage regrowth mass following harvest and rewatering of the water-stressed plants was similar to that of the control. Compared to the control, water-stressed alfalfa has greater total nonstructural carbohydrates in the roots, apparently due to increased photoassimilate partitioning to the roots. However, the greater root carbohydrate concentrations did not result in compensatory herbage regrowth following rewatering.

  2. Identification and Selection for Salt Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Ecotypes via Physiological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a serious environmental problem throughout the world which may be partially relieved by breeding cultivars that can tolerate salt stress. Plant breeding may provide a relatively cost effective short-term solution to the salinity problem by producing cultivars able to remain productive at low to moderate levels of salinity. Five alfalfa cultivars, �Seyah-Roud�, �Ahar-Hourand�, �Oskou�, �Malekan� and �Sefida-Khan� were assessed for salt tolerance at mature plant stage. A greenhouse screening system was used to evaluate individual alfalfa plants grown in perlit medium, and irrigated with water containing different amounts of NaCl. Three salt levels were achieved by adding 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl to Hoagland nutrient solution, respectively. Forage yield, sodium and potassium contents and K/Na ratio was determined. Also, leaf samples were analyzed for proline and chlorophyll contents. The ecotypes Seyha-Roud and �Sefida-Khan� had comparatively less sodium contents than �Oskou�, �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� ecotypes, also potassium content increased under saline condition. Forage yield of different alfalfa ecotypes was significantly influenced by the salinity. The ecotypes �Malekan�, Ahar- Hourand and �Oskou� were successful in maintaining forage yield under salinity stress. Sodium contents increased due to salinity in all alfalfa ecotypes however ecotypes �Ahar-Hourand� and �Malekan� maintained the highest leaf Na concentration. They showed higher content of K than other ecotypes but had lower K/Na ratio. It was concluded that, two ecotypes �Malekan� and �Ahar-Hourand� were better.

  3. Transcriptional networks leading to symbiotic nodule organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyano, Takashi; Hayashi, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    The symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria leading to root nodules is a relatively recent evolutionary innovation and limited to a distinct order of land plants. It has long been a mystery how plants have invented this complex trait. However, recent advances in molecular genetics of model legumes has elucidated genes involved in the development of root nodules, providing insights into this process. Here we discuss how the de novo assembly of transcriptional networks may account for the predisposition to nodulate. Transcriptional networks and modes of gene regulation from the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, nitrate responses and aspects of lateral root development have likely all contributed to the emergence and development of root nodules.

  4. Mechanistic action of gibberellins in legume nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satomi; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J

    2014-10-01

    Legume plants are capable of entering into a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia bacteria. This results in the formation of novel organs on their roots, called nodules, in which the bacteria capture atmospheric nitrogen and provide it as ammonium to the host plant. Complex molecular and physiological changes are involved in the formation and establishment of such nodules. Several phytohormones are known to play key roles in this process. Gibberellins (gibberellic acids; GAs), a class of phytohormones known to be involved in a wide range of biological processes (i.e., cell elongation, germination) are reported to be involved in the formation and maturation of legume nodules, highlighted by recent transcriptional analyses of early soybean symbiotic steps. Here, we summarize what is currently known about GAs in legume nodulation and propose a model of GA action during nodule development. Results from a wide range of studies, including GA application, mutant phenotyping, and gene expression studies, indicate that GAs are required at different stages, with an optimum, tightly regulated level being key to achieve successful nodulation. Gibberellic acids appear to be required at two distinct stages of nodulation: (i) early stages of rhizobia infection and nodule primordium establishment; and (ii) later stages of nodule maturation.

  5. Mechanistic action of gibberellins in legume nodulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satomi Hayashi; Peter MGresshoff; Brett J.Ferguson

    2014-01-01

    Legume plants are capable of entering into a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia bacteria. This results in the formation of novel organs on their roots, cal ed nodules, in which the bacteria capture atmospheric nitrogen and provide it as ammonium to the host plant. Complex molecular and physiological changes are involved in the formation and establishment of such nodules. Several phytohormones are known to play key roles in this process. Gibberel ins (gibberel ic acids;GAs), a class of phytohormones known to be involved in a wide range of biological processes (i.e., cellelongation, germination) are reported to be involved in the formation and maturation of legume nodules, highlighted by recent tran-scriptional analyses of early soybean symbiotic steps. Here, we summarize what is currently known about GAs in legume nodulation and propose a model of GA action during nodule development. Results from a wide range of studies, including GA application, mutant phenotyping, and gene expression studies, indicate that GAs are required at different stages, with an optimum, tightly regulated level being key to achieve successful nodulation. Gibberel ic acids appear to be required at two distinct stages of nodulation:(i) early stages of rhizobia infection and nodule primordium establishment;and (i ) later stages of nodule maturation.

  6. Optimal image reconstruction for detection and characterization of small pulmonary nodules during low-dose CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, SayedMasoud; Cobbold, Richard S.C. [University of Toronto, Institute of Biomaterial and Biomedical Engineering, Toronto, ON (Canada); Mehrez, Hatem [Toshiba of Canada Ltd, Markham, ON (Canada); Paul, Narinder S. [University Health Network, Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    To optimize the slice thickness/overlap parameters for image reconstruction and to study the effect of iterative reconstruction (IR) on detectability and characterization of small non-calcified pulmonary nodules during low-dose thoracic CT. Data was obtained from computer simulations, phantom, and patient CTs. Simulations and phantom CTs were performed with 9 nodules (5, 8, and 10 mm with 100, -630, and -800 HU). Patient data were based on 11 ground glass opacities (GGO) and 9 solid nodules. For each analysis the nodules were reconstructed with filtered back projection and IR algorithms using 10 different combinations of slice thickness/overlap (0.5-5 mm). The attenuation (CT) and the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were measured. Spearman's coefficient was used to correlate the error in CT measurements and slice thickness. Paired Student's t test was used to measure the significance of the errors. CNR measurements: CNR increases with increasing slice thickness/overlap for large nodules and peaks at 4.0/2.0 mm for smaller ones. Use of IR increases the CNR of GGOs by 60 %. CT measurements: Increasing slice thickness/overlap above 3.0/1.5 mm results in decreased CT measurement accuracy. Optimal detection of small pulmonary nodules requires slice thickness/overlap of 4.0/2.0 mm. Slice thickness/overlap of 2.0/2.0 mm is required for optimal nodule characterization. IR improves conspicuity of small ground glass nodules through a significant increase in nodule CNR. (orig.)

  7. EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ON NODULE PRIMORDIA OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max Merrill IN ACID SOILS IN RHIZOTRON EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyo Hadi Waluyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To clarify whether P had a direct or indirect effect on the nodulation  process of soybean grown in acid soils from Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia, a series of rhizotron experiments, with special attention given to formation of nodule primordia, was conducted at Laboratory of  Microbiology, Wageningen University in 1998-2000. It was shown that Ca and P were essential nutrients for root growth, nodule formation, and growth of soybean in the acid soils (Oxisols. Ca increased root growth, number of nodule primordia, nodules, and growth of the soybean plant. This positive effect of Ca was increased considerably by the application of P. Ca and P have a synergistic effect on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF of soybean in acid soils. Ca is important for the establishment of nodules, whilst P is essential for the development and function of the formed nodules. P increased number of nodule primordia, thus it also has an important role in the initiation of nodule formation. From this study, it can be concluded that Ca and P are the most limiting nutrients for BNF of soybean in the acid soils of Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia.

  8. Sinorhizobium meliloti nifA gene exerts a pleiotropic effect on nodulation through the enhanced plant defense response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti nifA gene is required for the expression of a bunch of nif and fix genes. Here, we report its pleiotropic effects on the nodule formation. Compared with wild type strain, nifA mutant significantly reduced nodule suppression rate in split-root system. The plants inoculated with mutant strain produced lower amount of daidzein and less necrotic cells on their roots. In addition, the defense genes failed to be evoked by nifA mutant at the early nodulation stage. These findings indicated that host defense response was one of the mechanisms mediated by nifA gene to regulate nodule formation during symbiosis. Even though nifA mutant could increase the number of nodules in host plant, it synthesized lower Nod factors than wild type. This suggested that nifA gene mediated multiple and diverse instances in nodulation formation.

  9. Ultrasonography diagnosis and imaging-based management of thyroid nodules: Revised Korean society of thyroid radiology consensus statement and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hee [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-06-15

    The rate of detection of thyroid nodules and carcinomas has increased with the widespread use of ultrasonography (US), which is the mainstay for the detection and risk stratification of thyroid nodules as well as for providing guidance for their biopsy and nonsurgical treatment. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) published their first recommendations for the US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in 2011. These recommendations have been used as the standard guidelines for the past several years in Korea. Lately, the application of US has been further emphasized for the personalized management of patients with thyroid nodules. The Task Force on Thyroid Nodules of the KSThR has revised the recommendations for the ultrasound diagnosis and imaging-based management of thyroid nodules. The review and recommendations in this report have been based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and the consensus of experts.

  10. Observaciones sobre el Cultivo de la Alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía. Pedro Nel

    1947-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1940, la Secretaría de Agricultura de Caldas estableció en la fracción de la Enea del Municipio de Manizales un pequeño predio experimental o campo de observación para forrajes, destinado al fomento y divulgación de los mismos. Los datos que consignamos en el presente estudio se refiere a los retados experimentales del lote de alfalfa N° 3 de la granja, que está compuesto por una área de 1947 metros cuadrados. Sirve esto para que las personas interesadas hagan la reducción a la plaza (6.400 metros cuadrados y a la hectárea (10.000 metros cuadrados.

  11. EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME ON ALFALFA SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir ČUPIĆ

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a crop characterised by presence of hard (dormant seed that are viable but do not germinate in seed quality testing. In Republic of Croatia seed are frequently stored for three to four years due to low needs for seed of alfalfa and considerable import. The share of hard seed is decreased by storage time, temperature and air moisture changes and therefore directly keeps the level of seed germination in a longer period of storage.

  12. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Tamara L. Church; Harris, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l−1 CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wh...

  13. Ultrasound elastography in the diagnostic evaluation of indeterminate thyroid nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Fathy Abdelrahman

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Thyroid nodules with suspicious US criteria can be evaluated by US elastography that seems to be a useful addition for the assessment of such indeterminate nodules. It may reduce FNAC or select a nodule for aspiration.

  14. Effect of alfalfa forage preservation method and particle length on performance of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets and tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, S G; Reynal, S M; Grummer, R R

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including alfalfa preserved either as silage or long-stem or chopped hay on DMI and milk fat production of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with supplemental tallow (T). Fifteen Holstein cows that averaged 117 DIM were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments (DM basis) were: 1) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate without T (CS); 2) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (CST); 3) 25% corn silage:25% short-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (SAHT); 4) 25% corn silage:25% long-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (LAHT); and 5) 25% corn silage:25% alfalfa silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (AST). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a TMR fed 4 times daily. Diets averaged 16.4% CP and 30.3% NDF. Including 2% T in diets with corn silage as the sole forage source decreased DMI and milk fat percentage and yield. Replacing part of corn silage with alfalfa in diets with 2% T increased milk fat percentage and yield. The milk fat of cows fed CST was higher in trans-10 C18:1 than that of cows fed diets with alfalfa. No effect of alfalfa preservation method or hay particle length was observed on DMI and milk production. The milk fat percentage and yield were lower, and the proportion of trans-10 C18:1 in milk fat was higher for cows fed LAHT than for cows fed SAHT. Alfalfa preservation method had no effect on milk fat yield. Ruminal pH was higher for cows fed alfalfa in the diets, and it was higher for cows fed LAHT than SAHT. Feeding alfalfa silage or chopped hay appears to be more beneficial than long hay in sustaining milk fat production when 2% T is fed with diets high in corn silage. These results support the role of trans fatty acids in milk fat depression.

  15. Application limestone forms and doses for alfalfa in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cristina Bertusso Toffolli

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. requires good soil fertility. Brazil is characterized by acidic soils which reduce the potential of the crop. Generally, liming is incorporated into the soil, but in tillage systems it is inadvisable. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the lime application method and dose on pH, Al+3, V % and Ca+Mg in the soil and on dry matter yield of alfalfa cultivated under a consolidated no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Paraná Agronomic Institute, located in Pato Branco city, in Paraná state. The plots consisted of the types of lime application (plowing+harrowing, subsoil and surface, the sub-plots was the lime dose (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Mg ha-1 and the sub-sub-plots were the sampled soil depth (0-5; 5-10; 10-20 and 20-30 cm. The results show the application of lime, even superficially, caused increases in pH, concentration of Ca and Mg and base saturation of the soil, while also reducing the concentration of Al, especially in the surface layers of the soil. The practice of plowing and harrowing or of subsoiling, with the aim of lime incorporation in a consolidated no-tillage system is unnecessary. If it is required, the application of lime to the soil should be done superficially for alfalfa cultivated in this system.

  16. Association of AFLP and SCAR markers with common leafspot resistance in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Bi, B; Yuan, Q H; Li, X L; Gao, J M

    2012-03-14

    To identify amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers associated with resistance or susceptibility of alfalfa to common leafspot (CLS) caused by the fungus Pseudopeziza medicaginis (Dermateaceae), bulked segregant analysis was conducted based on an F(1(M × M)) population of 93 plants and a BC(1)S population of 91 plants. Three AFLP markers, ACTCAA(R206), TAGCAC(R185), and GGACTA(S264), were found to be associated with CLS resistance or susceptibility. All three markers were found at significantly different frequencies (71.9, 80.3 and 91.8%) compared to resistant or susceptible plants in the original population. Subsequently, these three AFLP markers were converted into three SCAR markers, ACTCAA(R136), TAGCAC(R128) and GGACTA(S254), which are easier to employ in breeding programs. The three SCAR markers were used in a randomly selected population with 50% resistance; the probability of finding one resistant plant was increased to 67.3, 66.7 and 90.0% with markers ACTCAA(R136), TAGCAC(R128) and GGACTA(S254), independently. If two of the SCAR markers were used simultaneously, the probability would be higher than 89%. The three SCAR markers identified in this study would be applicable for selection for CLS resistance in alfalfa breeding programs. Moreover, the genetic analysis indicated that CLS resistance in alfalfa is conferred by a single dominant gene.

  17. Transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and human CYP2E1 show enhanced resistance to mixed contaminates of heavy metals and organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan [Department of Pharmaceutics, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, P.O. Box 70, Qingdao 266042 (China); Liu, Junhong, E-mail: liujh@qust.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, P.O. Box 70, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Transgenic alfalfa plants simultaneously expressing human CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were generated from hypocotyl segments by the use of an Agrobacterium transformation system for the phytoremediation of the mixed contaminated soil with heavy metals and organic pollutants. The transgenic alfalfa plants were screened by a combination of kanamycin resistance, PCR, GST and CYP2E1 activity and Western blot analysis. The capabilities of mixed contaminants (heavy metals-organic compounds) resistance of pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants became markedly increased compared with the transgenic alfalfa plants expressing single gene (GST or CYP2E1) and the non-transgenic control plants. The pKHCG alfalfa plants exhibited strong resistance towards the mixtures of cadmium (Cd) and trichloroethylene (TCE) that were metabolized by the introduced GST and CYP2E1 in combination. Our results show that the pKHCG transgenic alfalfa plants have good potential for phytoremediation because they have cross-tolerance towards the complex contaminants of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Therefore, these transgenic alfalfa plants co-expressing GST and human P450 CDNAs may have a great potential for phytoremediation of mixed environmental contaminants.

  18. Incidentally detected lung nodules: clinical predictors of adherence to fleischner society surveillance guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2014-02-28

    The objective of this study was to determine adherence to incidentally detected lung nodule computed tomographic (CT) surveillance recommendations and identify demographic and clinical factors that increase the likelihood of CT surveillance.

  19. Design improvements in box dredges to enhance the collection of manganese nodules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernando, V.; Sonawane, A.V.

    in significant increase of the dredge haul. Consequent field data is included. Design of a simple feeding concept to enhance the concentration of nodules at the dredge mouth is briefly dealt with for future application....

  20. Pulmonary nodule detection using a cascaded SVM classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtholdt, Martin; Wiemker, Rafael; Klinder, Tobias

    2016-03-01

    Automatic detection of lung nodules from chest CT has been researched intensively over the last decades resulting also in several commercial products. However, solutions are adopted only slowly into daily clinical routine as many current CAD systems still potentially miss true nodules while at the same time generating too many false positives (FP). While many earlier approaches had to rely on rather few cases for development, larger databases become now available and can be used for algorithmic development. In this paper, we address the problem of lung nodule detection via a cascaded SVM classifier. The idea is to sequentially perform two classification tasks in order to select from an extremely large pool of potential candidates the few most likely ones. As the initial pool is allowed to contain thousands of candidates, very loose criteria could be applied during this pre-selection. In this way, the chances that a true nodule is falsely rejected as a candidate are reduced significantly. The final algorithm is trained and tested on the full LIDC/IDRI database. Comparison is done against two previously published CAD systems. Overall, the algorithm achieved sensitivity of 0.859 at 2.5 FP/volume where the other two achieved sensitivity values of 0.321 and 0.625, respectively. On low dose data sets, only slight increase in the number of FP/volume was observed, while the sensitivity was not affected.

  1. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  2. Role of baseline nodule density and changes in density and nodule features in the discrimination between benign and malignant solid indeterminate pulmonary nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, D.M.; van Klaveren, R.J.; de Bock, G.H.; Leusveld, A.L.M.; Dorrius, M.D.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y.; de Koning, H.J.; Scholten, E.T.; Verschakelen, J.; Prokop, M.; Oudkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate whether baseline nodule density or changes in density or nodule features could be used to discriminate between benign and malignant solid indeterminate nodules. Materials and methods: Solid indeterminate nodules between 50 and 500 mm(3) (4.6-9.8 mm) were assessed

  3. Nodule carbohydrate catabolism is enhanced in the Medicago truncatula A17-Sinorhizobium medicae WSM419 symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estibaliz eLarrainzar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic association between Medicago truncatula and Sinorhizobium meliloti is a well-established model system in the legume-Rhizobium community. Despite its wide use, the symbiotic efficiency of this model has been recently questioned and an alternative microsymbiont, S. medicae, has been proposed. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms behind the higher symbiotic efficiency of S. medicae WSM419. In the present study, we inoculated M. truncatula Jemalong A17 with either S. medicae WSM419 or S. meliloti 2011 and compared plant growth, photosynthesis, N2-fixation rates, and plant nodule carbon and nitrogen metabolic activities in the two systems. M. truncatula plants in symbiosis with S. medicae showed increased biomass and photosynthesis rates per plant. Plants grown in symbiosis with S. medicae WSM419 also showed higher N2-fixation rates, which were correlated with a larger nodule biomass, while nodule number was similar in both systems. In terms of plant nodule metabolism, M. truncatula-S. medicae WSM419 nodules showed increased sucrose-catabolic activity, mostly associated with sucrose synthase, accompanied by a reduced starch content, whereas nitrogen-assimilation activities were comparable to those measured in nodules infected with S. meliloti 2011. Taken together, these results suggest that S. medicae WSM419 is able to enhance plant carbon catabolism in M. truncatula nodules, which allows for the maintaining of high symbiotic N2-fixation rates, better growth and improved general plant performance.

  4. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules at Colorectal Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of indeterminate pulmonary nodules and specific radiological and clinical characteristics that predict malignancy of these at initial staging chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with colorectal cancer. A considerable number of indeterminate...... pulmonary nodules, which cannot readily be classified as either benign or malignant, are detected at initial staging chest CT in colorectal cancer patients....

  5. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norini, M.P.; Beguiristain, Th.; Leyval, C. [LIMOS UMR 7137 CNRS-UHP Nancy - Faculty of Sciences, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2005-07-01

    (Medicago sativa L.), inoculated or not with an AM fungus (Glomus intraradices) and fertilized with Hewitt solution. Control non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants were included. There was four replicates per treatment. After 2 months, plant survival and growth was measured, as well as mycorrhizal colonization of roots. PAH in rhizosphere soils was analyzed using ASE and GC-FID. Major and trace elements in plants were analyzed after acid digestion using ICP. AM fungal and bacterial communities present in roots and rhizosphere were also analysed after DNA extraction with a PCR-TGGE technique. Plant survival rate was significantly lower in the soil treated with bio-pile than in untreated soil. Non-inoculated and non fertilized alfalfa biomass was lower with soil treated with bio-pile and thermal desorption than with untreated soil. Mycorrhizal inoculation as well as fertilization significantly improved alfalfa growth in the soil treated with bio-pile. In the soil treated with thermal desorption, shoot and root biomass were significantly higher with mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilization. Estimation of root colonization showed that the roots of un-inoculated plants growing on the untreated contaminated soil contained indigenous mycorrhizal fungi. With the soil treated with bio-pile, mycorrhizal colonization of un-inoculated plants was significantly lower, while no colonization was observed in the roots in the soil treated with thermal desorption. Inoculation with a mycorrhizal fungus increased root colonization rate in both treated soils. It also significantly increased the number of rhizobia nodules. Phosphorus concentration in plant roots and shoots was significantly improved by mycorrhizal inoculation in soil treated with thermal desorption. Data on PAH concentration in soils and fungal and bacterial communities will be also presented and discussed.

  6. Benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Helle; Bennedbaek, Finn Noe; Karstrup, Steen;

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ultrasonography (US)-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on the volume of benign solitary solid cold thyroid nodules and any nodule-related symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ILP was performed in 16 patients with normal thyroid function and a solid...... to evaluate the size of the untreated thyroid nodule. RESULTS: In the 16 patients treated with ILP, the mean thyroid nodule volume decreased from 10 to 5.4 mL (P .... Pressure symptoms were significantly reduced (P =.0002) after 6 months. The treatment was well-tolerated in all patients. No significant change in thyroid nodule volume was seen in the control group. CONCLUSION: US-guided ILP could become a useful nonsurgical alternative in the treatment of the benign...

  7. A Nodule-Specific Lipid Transfer Protein AsE246 Participates in Transport of Plant-Synthesized Lipids to Symbiosome Membrane and Is Essential for Nodule Organogenesis in Chinese Milk Vetch1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Chen, Ling; Shi, Xiaofeng; Li, Yixing; Wang, Jianyun; Chen, Dasong; Xie, Fuli; Li, Youguo

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobia in legume root nodules fix nitrogen in symbiosomes, organelle-like structures in which a membrane from the host plant surrounds the symbiotic bacteria. However, the components that transport plant-synthesized lipids to the symbiosome membrane remain unknown. This study identified and functionally characterized the Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus) lipid transfer protein AsE246, which is specifically expressed in nodules. It was found that AsE246 can bind lipids in vitro. More importantly, AsE246 can bind the plant-synthesized membrane lipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol in vivo. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that AsE246 and digalactosyldiacylglycerol localize in the symbiosome membrane and are present in infection threads. Overexpression of AsE246 resulted in increased nodule numbers; knockdown of AsE246 resulted in reduced nodule numbers, decreased lipids contents in nodules, diminished nitrogen fixation activity, and abnormal development of symbiosomes. AsE246 knockdown also resulted in fewer infection threads, nodule primordia, and nodules, while AsE246 overexpression resulted in more infection threads and nodule primordia, suggesting that AsE246 affects nodule organogenesis associated with infection thread formation. Taken together, these results indicate that AsE246 contributes to lipids transport to the symbiosome membrane, and this transport is required for effective legume-rhizobium symbiosis. PMID:24367021

  8. Transcript analysis in two alfalfa salt tolerance selected breeding populations relative to a non-tolerant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M Y; Xia, J; Yu, M; Steppuhn, H; Wall, K; Messer, D; Sharpe, A G; Acharya, S N; Wishart, D S; Johnson, D; Miller, D R; Taheri, A

    2017-02-01

    With the growing limitations on arable land, alfalfa (a widely cultivated, low-input forage) is now being selected to extend cultivation into saline lands for low-cost biofeedstock purposes. Here, minerals and transcriptome profiles were compared between two new salinity-tolerant North American alfalfa breeding populations and a more salinity-sensitive western Canadian alfalfa population grown under hydroponic saline conditions. All three populations accumulated two-fold higher sodium in roots than shoots as a function of increased electrical conductivity. At least 50% of differentially expressed genes (p population growing under high salinity, while expression remained unchanged in the saline-tolerant populations. In particular, most reduction in transcript levels in the salt-sensitive population was observed in genes specifying cell wall structural components, lipids, secondary metabolism, auxin and ethylene hormones, development, transport, signalling, heat shock, proteolysis, pathogenesis-response, abiotic stress, RNA processing, and protein metabolism. Transcript diversity for transcription factors, protein modification, and protein degradation genes was also more strongly affected in salt-tolerant CW064027 than in salt-tolerant Bridgeview and salt-sensitive Rangelander, while both saline-tolerant populations showed more substantial up-regulation in redox-related genes and B-ZIP transcripts. The report highlights the first use of bulked genotypes as replicated samples to compare the transcriptomes of obligate out-cross breeding populations in alfalfa.

  9. Potential application of high hydrostatic pressure to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouted seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neetoo, Hudaa; Ye, Mu; Chen, Haiqiang

    2008-12-10

    Sprouts eaten raw are increasingly being perceived as hazardous foods as they have been implicated in Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks where the seeds were found to be the likely source of contamination. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential of using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology for alfalfa seed decontamination. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of E. coli O157:H7 were subjected to pressures of 500 and 600 MPa for 2 min at 20 degrees C in a dry or wet (immersed in water) state. Immersing seeds in water during pressurization considerably enhanced inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 achieving reductions of 3.5 log and 5.7 log at 500 and 600 MPa, respectively. When dry seeds were pressurized, both pressure levels reduced the counts by 5 log reduction in the population was achieved when 600 MPa was applied for durations of > or =6 min although survivors were still detected by enrichment. When the pressure was stepped up to 650 MPa, the threshold time required to achieve complete elimination was 15 min. Un-inoculated seeds pressure-treated at 650 MPa for 15 min at 20 degrees C successfully sprouted achieving a germination rate identical to untreated seeds after eight days of sprouting. These results therefore demonstrate the promising application of HHP on alfalfa seeds to eliminate the risk of E. coli O157:H7 infections associated with consumption of raw alfalfa sprouts.

  10. Fulda thyroid nodule prognosis program; Das Fuldaer Schilddruesen-Knoten-Prognose-Programm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber-Hafner, N.; Koerber, C. [Nuklearmedizinische Praxis Fulda, Fulda (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The 'Fulda'-program calculates for thyroid nodule patients the probability of management with respect to surgery, follow up, radioiodine therapy or fine needle aspiration biopsy by use of the weighted factors: pre-existing results, patient age, palpation, thyroid volume, marginal nodule perfusion, echo texture, thyroid volume increase and TSH level. As the following definite management is in good correlation to the precalculated management, the 'Fulda'-program could be useful for organisation and strategy of thyroid nodule patients. (orig.)

  11. EVALUATION OF THYROID NODULES: AN ULTRASONOGRAPHIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Thyroid nodules are common in adults, with a reported prevalence of up to 50%. (1 – 5. Furthermore, 9% to 15% of nodules identified during clinical examinations are diagnosed as malignant (6 – 8. It is gen erally accepted that sonography and sonographically guided fine - needle aspiration cytologic examination are the modalities of choice for differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules (1 , 9 . Thyroid ultrasonography (USG is the major diagnostic moda lity for evaluating thyroid nodules. Using USG, a thyroid nodule appears as a nodular lesion within the thyroid gland that is distinguishable from the adjacent parenchyma. Several USG features, such as marked hypoechogenicity, irregular margin, micro calci fications, and a taller - than - wide shape have been introduced as potential predictors for the presence of thyroid malignancies. AIMS & OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of USG diagnosis for thyroid nodules. MATERIALS & METHODS: Th e present study was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, TMMC & RC, TMU, Moradabad. Patients under the study were referred from department of Surgery, Paediatrics, Medicine, ENT, Gynaecology and Obstetrics. Patients for the study were evaluated b y Clinical & Radiological examination. The total number of patients were 120. RESULT: On clinical examination, multiple nodules were found only in 17% of cases, whereas on USG, multiple nodules were found in 58%. 50% of clinically solitary nodules were d emonstrated to be multiple on USG. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, similar to the recent literature reviewed so far, for a large majority of patients, diagnosis changed after ultrasonography, so the results necessitate the use of ultrasonography, which is a non invasive method, as a complementary method to physical examination in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, especially thyroid nodules.

  12. Role of digital tomosynthesis and dual energy subtraction digital radiography in detecting pulmonary nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvana G. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Garg, Mandeep Kumar, E-mail: gargmandeep01@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan; Gupta, Pankaj [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Gupta, Dheeraj; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Bansal, Subash Chand [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Accuracy of digital tomosynthesis for nodule detection is substantially higher. • Improvement in diagnostic accuracy is most pronounced for nodules <10 mm. • There is five times increase in radiation dose compared to DR. - Abstract: Objective: Digital tomosynthesis (DT) and dual-energy subtraction digital radiography (DES-DR) are known to perform better than conventional radiography in the detection of pulmonary nodules. Yet the comparative diagnostic performances of DT, DES-DR and digital radiography (DR) is not known. The present study compares the diagnostic performances of DT, DES-DR and DR in detecting pulmonary nodules. Subjects and methods: The institutional Review Board approved the study and informed written consent was obtained. Fifty-five patients (30 with pulmonary nodules, 25 with non-nodular focal chest pathology) were included in the study. DT and DES-DR were performed within14 days of MDCT. Composite images acquired at high kVp as part of DES-DR were used as DR images. Images were analyzed for presence of nodules and calcification in nodules. Interpretations were assigned confidence levels from 1 to 5 according to Five-Point rating scale. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were compared using Z test. Results: A total of 110 (88 non-calcified, 22 calcified) nodules were identified on MDCT. For detection of nodules, DR showed cumulative sensitivity and specificity of 25.45% and 67.97%, respectively. DT showed a cumulative sensitivity and specificity of 60.9% and 85.07%, respectively. The performance was significantly better than DR (p < 0.003). DES-DR showed sensitivity and specificity of 27.75% and 82.64%, not statistically different from those of DR (p—0.92). In detection of calcification, there was no statistically significant difference between DT, DES-DR and DR. Conclusions: DT performs significantly better than DES-DR and DR at the cost of moderate increase in radiation dose.

  13. Application of CT-PSF-based computer-simulated lung nodules for evaluating the accuracy of computer-aided volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, Ayumu; Ohkubo, Masaki; Wada, Shinichi; Murao, Kohei; Matsumoto, Toru; Niizuma, Shinji

    2012-07-01

    With the wide dissemination of computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer, measuring the nodule volume accurately with computer-aided volumetry software is increasingly important. Many studies for determining the accuracy of volumetry software have been performed using a phantom with artificial nodules. These phantom studies are limited, however, in their ability to reproduce the nodules both accurately and in the variety of sizes and densities required. Therefore, we propose a new approach of using computer-simulated nodules based on the point spread function measured in a CT system. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by the excellent agreement obtained between computer-simulated nodules and phantom nodules regarding the volume measurements. A practical clinical evaluation of the accuracy of volumetry software was achieved by adding simulated nodules onto clinical lung images, including noise and artifacts. The tested volumetry software was revealed to be accurate within an error of 20 % for nodules >5 mm and with the difference between nodule density and background (lung) (CT value) being 400-600 HU. Such a detailed analysis can provide clinically useful information on the use of volumetry software in CT screening for lung cancer. We concluded that the proposed method is effective for evaluating the performance of computer-aided volumetry software.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host.

  15. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  16. Digital tomosynthesis for evaluating metastatic lung nodules: Nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Chang Min; Bahn, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Jin; Song, Yong Sub; Hwang, Eui Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To evaluate nodule visibility, learning curves, and reading times for digital tomosynthesis (DT). We included 80 patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and DT before pulmonary metastasectomy. One experienced chest radiologist annotated all visible nodules on thin-section CT scans using computer-aided detection software. Two radiologists used CT as the reference standard and retrospectively graded the visibility of nodules on DT. Nodule detection performance was evaluated in four sessions of 20 cases each by six readers. After each session, readers were unblinded to the DT images by revealing the true-positive markings and were instructed to self-analyze their own misreads. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were determined. Among 414 nodules on CT, 53.3% (221/414) were visible on DT. The main reason for not seeing a nodule on DT was small size (93.3%, < or = 5 mm). DT revealed a substantial number of malignant nodules (84.1%, 143/170). The proportion of malignant nodules among visible nodules on DT was significantly higher (64.7%, 143/221) than that on CT (41.1%, 170/414) (p < 0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) values at the initial session were > 0.8, and the average detection rate for malignant nodules was 85% (210/246). The inter-session analysis of the AUC showed no significant differences among the readers, and the detection rate for malignant nodules did not differ across sessions. A slight improvement in reading times was observed. Most malignant nodules > 5 mm were visible on DT. As nodule detection performance was high from the initial session, DT may be readily applicable for radiology residents and board-certified radiologists.

  17. Alteration of enod40 expression modifies medicago truncatula root nodule development induced by sinorhizobium meliloti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, C; Sousa, C; Crespi, M; Kondorosi, A

    1999-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms involved in the control of root nodule organogenesis in the plant host are poorly understood. One of the nodulin genes associated with the earliest phases of this developmental program is enod40. We show here that transgenic Medicago truncatula plants overexpressing enod40 exhibit accelerated nodulation induced by Sinorhizobium meliloti. This resulted from increased initiation of primordia, which was accompanied by a proliferation response of the region close to the root tip and enhanced root length. The root cortex of the enod40-transformed plants showed increased sensitivity to nodulation signals. T(1) and T(2) descendants of two transgenic lines with reduced amounts of enod40 transcripts (probably from cosuppression) formed only a few and modified nodulelike structures. Our results suggest that induction of enod40 is a limiting step in primordium formation, and its function is required for appropriate nodule development. PMID:10521525

  18. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  19. Modeling feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) occurrence using topographical and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because alfalfa is a perennial species cross pollinated by bees and can establish along roadsides and ruderal areas, there is concern that feral plants can serve as reservoirs and conduits for transgenic genes. The objective of this study was to survey feral alfalfa in alfalfa seed production areas ...

  20. Enhancing pollination by attracting & retaining leaf cutting bees (Megachile rotundata) in alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), has become an important managed pollinator of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. One problem when using alfalfa leafcutting bees as managed pollinator, is the dispersal of many females upon release, even when adequate nesting sites are present. While d...

  1. 75 FR 8299 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal... and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated as events J101 and J163 as regulated... determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines...

  2. Pythium species causing damping-off of alfalfa in Minnesota: Identification, pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damping-off and seed rot is an important disease of alfalfa, severely affecting stand establishment when conditions favor the disease. Globally, 15 Pythium species are reported to cause damping-off and seed rot of alfalfa, although surveys of species causing disease on alfalfa in Minnesota are lacki...

  3. Do glyphosate resistant feral plants and hay fields spread the transgene to conventional alfalfa seed fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to meeting domestic needs, large amounts of alfalfa seed and hay produced in the US are being exported overseas. Because alfalfa is an insect pollinated crop, gene flow is a concern. Adding to this alfalfa readily naturalizes along roadsides, irrigation ditches, and unmanaged habitats; a...

  4. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  5. 76 FR 5780 - Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate based on APHIS... decision and determination on the petition regarding the regulated status of alfalfa genetically...

  6. 75 FR 1585 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal... determination on the status of the Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International alfalfa lines designated... Monsanto/Forage Genetics International (FGI) alfalfa events J101 and J163 were no longer...

  7. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  8. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Church, Tamara L; Harris, Andrew T

    2012-12-07

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l(-1) CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wheat seedlings exposed to CNTs. Remarkably, catalyst impurities also enhanced root elongation in alfalfa seedlings as well as wheat germination. Thus the impurities, not solely the CNTs, impacted the plants. CNT internalization by plants was investigated using electron microscopy and two-dimensional Raman mapping. The latter showed that CNTs were adsorbed onto the root surfaces of alfalfa and wheat without significant uptake or translocation. Electron microscopy investigations of internalization were inconclusive owing to poor contrast, so Fe(3)O(4)-functionalized CNTs were prepared and studied using energy-filter mapping of Fe(3)O(4). CNTs bearing Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were detected in the epidermis of one wheat root tip only, suggesting that internalization was possible but unusual. Thus, alfalfa and wheat tolerated high concentrations of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs, which adsorbed onto their roots but were rarely taken up.

  9. VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 expression during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation on Vicia sativa roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijn, I; Yang, W C; Pallisgård, N

    1995-01-01

    We isolated ENOD5, ENOD12 and ENOD40 homologues from Vicia sativa and studied their expression pattern during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Comparison of the VsENOD40 nucleotide sequence with the pea, soybean and alfalfa ENOD40 sequences showed that the sequences contain two conserved regions...... the expression pattern of VsENOD5, VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 during Rhizobium-induced nodule formation. Although the expression of these genes is largely similar to that of the pea counterparts, differences where found for the expression of VsENOD12 and VsENOD40 in Vicia. VsENOD12 is expressed in the whole...

  10. Co-transforming bar and CsLEA enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyu; Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-03-25

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict alfalfa productivity. A dehydrin protein, CsLEA, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica was transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the bar gene as a selectable marker, and the drought and salt stress tolerances of the transgenic plants were assessed. Thirty-nine of 119 transformants were positive, as screened by Basta, and further molecularly authenticated using PCR and RT-PCR. Phenotype observations revealed that the transgenic plants grew better than the wild-type (WT) plants after 15d of drought stress and 10d of salt stress: the leaves of WT alfalfa turned yellow, whereas the transgenic alfalfa leaves only wilted; after rewatering, the transgenic plants returned to a normal state, though the WT plants could not be restored. Evaluation of physiologic and biochemical indices during drought and salt stresses showed a relatively lower Na(+) content in the leaves of the transgenic plants, which would reduce toxic ion effects. In addition, the transgenic plants were able to maintain a higher relative water content (RWC), higher shoot biomass, fewer photosystem changes, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress injury. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the CsLEA gene can enhance the drought and salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa; in addition, carrying the bar gene in the genome may increase herbicide resistance.

  11. Activation of cell divisions in legume nodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadzieja, Marcin

    organogenesis. Coordination of these two interdependent processes results in formation of nodules - bacterial accommodating structures where fixation of atmospheric nitrogen takes place. Plant hormones such as auxin and cytokinin play important roles in nodulation. In some legumes the infection process...... of auxin transport inhibitors or cytokinin alone was shown to induce cortical cell divisions in the absence of rhizobia in certain legume species. While the roles of auxin and cytokinin in nodulation have been studied extensively, the precise timing, location and means of molecular crosstalk between...

  12. Effect of foliar feeding on nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa plants at insufficient molybdenum supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristozkova, Marieta; Geneva, Maria; Stancheva, Ira

    2009-06-01

    The influence of foliar feeding on the nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa plants under conditions of Mo shortage was studied. It was established that foliar fertilization with 0.3% solution of Agroleaf® resulted in increase of nitrogen fixation and nitrogen assimilation in the absence of Mo. Insufficient molybdenum supply leads to significant reduction of plant Mo content and nitrogen-fixing activity, while stress induced amino acids as alanine, GABA, threonine, proline and serine increased repeatedly. The negative effect of Mo deficiency on the enzyme activities related to the primary nitrogen assimilation (NR, GS, GOGAT) and plant growth diminished due to the foliar absorbed nutrients.

  13. Effects of tallow in diets based on corn silage or alfalfa silage on digestion and nutrient use by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L D; Drackley, J K; Bremmer, D R; Clark, J H

    2003-02-01

    Six multiparous Holstein cows (average 31 days in milk; 36.3 kg/d of milk) fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square with 21-d periods to investigate the effects of diets that varied in forage source and amount of supplemental tallow. Isonitrogenous diets in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement were based on either high corn silage (40:10 corn silage to alfalfa silage, % of dry matter) or high alfalfa silage (10:40 corn silage to alfalfa silage, % of dry matter) and contained 0, 2, or 4% tallow. Intakes of dry matter and total fatty acids were lower when cows were fed the high corn silage diet. Tallow supplementation linearly decreased dry matter intake. Milk yield was unaffected by diet; yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk were higher for the high alfalfa silage diet but were unaffected by tallow. Milk fat percentage was higher for the high alfalfa silage and tended to decrease when tallow was added to the high corn silage diet. Contents of trans-C18:1 isomers in milk fat were increased by high corn silage and tallow, and tended to be increased more when tallow was fed in the high corn silage diet. Ruminal pH and acetate:propionate were lower when high corn silage was fed. Ruminal acetate:propionate decreased linearly as tallow increased; the molar proportion of acetate was decreased more when tallow was added to the high corn silage diet. Ruminal liquid dilution rates were higher for the alfalfa silage diet; ruminal volume and solid passage rates were similar among diets. Total tract apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, starch, energy, and total fatty acids were unaffected by diet. Digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, and cellulose were lower when high corn silage was fed. The high alfalfa silage diet increased intakes of metabolizable energy and N, and increased milk energy and productive N. Tallow decreased the amount of N absorbed but had few other effects on

  14. Retrospective epidemiological study of thyroid nodules by ultrasound in asymptomatic subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharen Gaowa; Zhang Bo; Zhao Ruina; Sun Jie; Gai Xiaorong; Lou Huiping

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to conduct thyroid ultrasound examinations on a large sample of subjects and explore the occurrence,distribution,and characteristics of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer to provide some information on the epidemic trend of thyroid nodules and cancer.Methods The thyroid ultrasonic examination results of 19 895 healthy physical examinees who visited the Department of Health Management,Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2009 to December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively to determine the detection rate and characteristics of thyroid nodules.Fine needle aspiration or surgical resection was suggested to subjects suspected of having thyroid cancer.Results The detection rate of thyroid nodules was 42.6% (8 480/19 895),40.0% (4 661/11 678) in men and 46.5% (3 819/8 217) in women.The detection rate noticeably increased with increasing age.The detection rate of thyroid nodules by palpation was obviously lower than by ultrasonic examination in various age groups.Among those with thyroid nodules,61.3% were multiple and 38.7% were solitary; multiple nodule was the major type both in men and women.Twenty-nine cases of malignant nodules were solitary,and 30 cases of malignant nodules were multiple.There was no significant difference.The detection rate of thyroid cancer was 0.30% for the entire group of examinees,and 0.15% in men and 0.50% in women.Among all sex and age groups,30-to 40-year-old women had the highest detection rate (0.76%).The detection rate of thyroid nodules correlated with age,systolic blood pressure,height,and weight.Increasing age and/or higher systolic blood pressure correlated with a higher detection rate,while smaller height and weight also correlated with a higher detection rate with significant differences.However,there were no significant correlations between the detection rate and diastolic blood pressure or body mass index.Conclusions The detection of thyroid cancer increased

  15. The importance of nodule CO2 fixation for the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in pea at vegetative growth and during pod formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischinger, Stephanie Anastasia; Schulze, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Nodule CO2 fixation is of pivotal importance for N2 fixation. The process provides malate for bacteroids and oxaloacetate for nitrogen assimilation. The hypothesis of the present paper was that grain legume nodules would adapt to higher plant N demand and more restricted carbon availability at pod formation through increased nodule CO2 fixation and a more efficient N2 fixation. Growth, N2 fixation, and nodule composition during vegetative growth and at pod formation were studied in pea plants (Pisum sativum L.). In parallel experiments, 15N2 and 13CO2 uptake, as well as nodule hydrogen and CO2 release, was measured. Plants at pod formation showed higher growth rates and N2 fixation per plant when compared with vegetative growth. The specific activity of active nodules was about 25% higher at pod formation. The higher nodule activity was accompanied by higher amino acid concentration in nodules and xylem sap with a higher share of asparagine. Nodule 13CO2 fixation was increased at pod formation, both per plant and per 15N2 fixed unit. However, malate concentration in nodules was only 40% of that during vegetative growth and succinate was no longer detectable. The data indicate that increased N2 fixation at pod formation is connected with strongly increased nodule CO2 fixation. While the sugar concentration in nodules at pod formation was not altered, the concentration of organic acids, namely malate and succinate, was significantly lower. It is concluded that strategies to improve the capability of nodules to fix CO2 and form organic acids might prolong intensive N2 fixation into the later stages of pod formation and pod filling in grain legumes.

  16. Toxic effects of low concentrations of Cu on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopittke, Peter M. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: p.kopittke@uq.edu.au; Dart, Peter J. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Although Cu is phytotoxic at Cu{sup 2+} activities as low as 1-2 {mu}M, the effect of Cu{sup 2+} on the nodulation of legumes has received little attention. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on nodulation of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) was examined in a dilute solution culture system utilising a cation exchange resin to buffer solution Cu{sup 2+}. The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than both shoot and root growth; whilst a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 1.0 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in the relative yield of the shoots and roots, a Cu{sup 2+} activity of 0.2 {mu}M corresponded to a 10% reduction in nodulation. This reduction in nodulation with increasing Cu{sup 2+} activity was associated with an inhibition of root hair formation in treatments containing {>=}0.77 {mu}M Cu{sup 2+}, rather than to a reduction in the size of the Rhizobium population. - The nodulation process was more sensitive to increasing Cu{sup 2+} activities than either shoot or root growth.

  17. Multiple centroid method to evaluate the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Nascimento

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of multiple centroids to study the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.. In this method, the genotypes are compared with ideotypes defined by the bissegmented regression model, according to the researcher's interest. Thus, genotype classification is carried out as determined by the objective of the researcher and the proposed recommendation strategy. Despite the great potential of the method, it needs to be evaluated under the biological context (with real data. In this context, we used data on the evaluation of dry matter production of 92 alfalfa cultivars, with 20 cuttings, from an experiment in randomized blocks with two repetitions carried out from November 2004 to June 2006. The multiple centroid method proved efficient for classifying alfalfa genotypes. Moreover, it showed no unambiguous indications and provided that ideotypes were defined according to the researcher's interest, facilitating data interpretation.

  18. Adaptability of Alfalfa and Ryegrass to New Reclamation Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZHAO-FENG; ZHANG Lei-na; FENG Yong-jun; KANG Jing-tao

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the adaptability of the alfalfa and ryegrass to the new artificial soil that was composed of fly ash and furfural residue. The potted experiments were taken to compare the growth conditions, yields, and qualities of both grasses. Some pots were covered with wheat stalks and others without. The medium Fluvo-aquic soil was taken as control. The results indicated that the growth of two grasses in the mixture were inferior to their growth in the control in initial period. With the leaching of rain and irrigation, the two grasses improved gradually. The alfalfa and ryegrass both could grow in the new mixture, and the ryegrass would be better to plant in no covered material and the alfalfa in covered. This will be a new way to reclaim subsided land and to improve the environment in mining area.

  19. Ground-Glass Opacity Lung Nodules in the Era of Lung Cancer CT Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Saghir, Zaigham; Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie

    2016-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography screening for lung cancer will increase the incidence of ground-glass opacity (GGO) nodules detected and referred for diagnostic evaluation and management. GGO nodules remain a diagnostic challenge; therefore, a more systematic approach is necessary to ensure......, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the British Thoracic Society. In addition, we discuss the management and follow-up of GGO nodules in the light of experience from screening trials. Minimally invasive tissue biopsies and the marking of GGO nodules for surgery are new and rapidly developing fields...... that will yield improvements in both diagnosis and treatment. The standard-of-care surgical treatment of early lung cancer is still minimally invasive lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. However, recent research has shown that some GGO lesions may be treated with sublobar resections; these findings...

  20. A rapid method of ferromanganese nodule mounting

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, R.

    in character and hence, any attempt to polish these materials following the normal procedure of rock polishing is extremely difficult. Only a few of the large number of publications on ferromanganese nodules deal ,vith sample preparation techniques...

  1. Nodule bottom backscattering study using multibeam echosounder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Raju, Y.S.N.; Nair, R.R.

    A study is carried out to observe the angular dependence of backscattering strength at nodule area where grab sample and photographic data is available. Theoretical study along with the experimentally observed data shows that the backscattering...

  2. Surgical and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Dobrinja; Stella Bernardi; Bruno Fabris; Rita Eramo; Petra Makovac; Gabriele Bazzocchi; Lanfranco Piscopello; Enrica Barro; Nicolò de Manzini; Deborah Bonazza; Maurizio Pinamonti; Fabrizio Zanconati; Fulvio Stacul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been recently advocated as an effective technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. It is not known to what extent it may affect any subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 64 symptomatic Thy2 nodules (benign nodules) and 6 symptomatic Thy3 nodules (follicular lesions/follicular neoplasms). Two Thy3 nodules regrew after the procedure, and these patients accepted t...

  3. Nodule Formation and Development in Soybeans (Glycine max L.) in Response to Phosphorus Supply in Solution Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Shu-Jie; QIAO Yun-Fa; HAN Xiao-Zeng; M. AN

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is necessary for growth and nitrogen fixation, and thus its deficiency is a major factor limiting legume production in most agricultural soils. The effect of phosphorus supply on nodule development and its role in soybeans (Glycine max L.) was studied in a nutrient solution. Plants were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and grown for 35 days in a glasshouse at a day and night temperature of 25 ℃ and 15 ℃, respectively. Although increasing P supply increased the concentrations of P and N in the shoots and roots, the external P supply did not significantly affect the P concentration in the nodules, and the N fixed per unit nodule biomass decreased with increasing P supply. The nitrogen content in the shoots correlated well with the P content (r = 0.92**). At an inoculation level of 102 cells mL-1, the P supply did not affect the number of nodules; however, at inoculation levels of 103.5 and 105 cells mL-1, increasing P supply increased both the number and size of nodules. Irrespective of the inoculation level, increasing P supply increased the nodule biomass relative to the biomass of the host plant. It is suggested that the P deficiency specifically inhibited the nodule development and thereby the total N2 fixation.

  4. Leptomeningeal rheumatoid nodules: diagnosis and failed therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Cassie; Willshire, Luke; Quan, Doreen; Shaw, Cameron; Batchelor, Peter

    2015-02-01

    A 67-year-old woman presented with recurrent transient ischaemic attack-like episodes over a 2 year period. Nodular enhancing leptomeningeal changes were detected on MRI and were consistent with meningeal rheumatoid nodules on biopsy. The patient's nodular disease continued to progress and regress clinically and radiologically irrespective of disease modifying agents and peripheral and serological rheumatoid arthritis control. This patient's unique presentation and diagnostic work-up is discussed alongside the dilemma of therapeutic management of meningeal rheumatoid nodules.

  5. Solitary nodule of the great toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Wilde, J L; Sartori, C R; Elston, D M

    2001-07-01

    We describe a 21-year-old woman with a subungual exostosis exhibiting both skin and nail findings. The patient presented with a firm, flesh-colored, nontender, subungual nodule in the distal nail bed of the great toe. Radiographic examination revealed focal calcification of the nodule, with direct communication to the underlying phalanx. Subungual exostosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any digital mass. Surgical excision, followed by curettage of the base, is the treatment of choice.

  6. Correlations between choroidal abnormalities, Lisch nodules, and age in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shinji Makino, Hironobu Tampo, Yusuke Arai, Hiroto ObataDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: To evaluate correlations between choroidal abnormalities, Lisch nodules, and age in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, we examined ten cases with NF1 using near-infrared reflectance imaging. Patients ranged in age from 4 to 39 years. The angle used for near-infrared reflectance imaging was 55°. We counted the total number of choroidal abnormalities in an area within a 55° angle centered on the fovea and the total number of Lisch nodules on the iris by slit-lamp examination. No positive correlation was found between the number of Lisch nodules and patient age (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient ρ=0.117, P=0.7414. Choroidal abnormalities tended to increase with age (ρ=0.6150, but this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.0650. A positive correlation was found between the number of choroidal abnormalities and Lisch nodules (ρ=0.783, P=0.0267. In conclusion, choroidal abnormalities tend to increase with patient age and are correlated with the number of Lisch nodules.Keywords: neurofibromatosis type 1, near-infrared reflectance, choroidal abnormality, Lisch nodule, age

  7. Evaluation of ensilage potential of alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, ALG; Costa,Ciniro; Arrigoni, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the ensilage potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L,.). The material used in the evaluation was harvested from an experiment in a complete randomized blocks design with three replicates, with seventeen alfalfa cultivars, Criouil, Florida 77, P555, P581, Moapa, Gilboa, 34 Linea, C/W 8754, C/W 4468, C/W 86, C/W 8746, Hunter Field, Trifecta, Sequel, CUF 101, Aurora e Siriver, during three years. The harvest used for the determinations was collected at 30...

  8. Differential Pathogenicity of Four Pratylenchus neglectus Populations on Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    A Pratylenchus neglectus population from lltah (UT3) was more virulent to Lahontan alfalfa than other P. neglectus populations from Utah (UT1, UT2) and Wyoming (WY). All alfalfa plants survived at 24 ± 3 C when inoculated with WY, UT1, or UT2 at initial populations (Pi) of 500, 1,000, and 5,000 nematodes per plant. At Pi 10,000 with WY, UT1, or UT2, plant mortality was 15, 15, and 20%, respectively; at Pi 5,000 and 10,000 with UT3, plant mortality was 10 and 40%. The WY, UT1, and UT2 populati...

  9. The role of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of cold thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezosi, E.; Bajnok, L.; Sztojka, I.; Szabo, J.; Leovey, A.; Kakuk, G.; Nagy, E. [Department of Medicine, University Medical School, Debrecen (Hungary); Gyory, F. [Department of Surgery, University Medical School, Debrecen (Hungary); Varga, J.; Galuska, L. [Nuclear Medicine Centre, University Medical School, Debrecen (Hungary)

    1999-08-01

    Various diagnostic techniques have been successfully used in the clinical management of cold nodules; however, the decision on whether to employ surgery or a conservative treatment is not always easy. This study was designed to appraise the diagnostic value of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy in the assessment of cold nodules detected using {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate. Fifty-two patients were included in the study. All had already been selected for surgery, based on their clinical and laboratory findings, including fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The total number of cold nodules on {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate scans was 59. The thyroid scan was performed 20-40 min after i.v. injection of 400 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI. Uptake of MIBI in thyroid nodules was compared with that in the surrounding normal thyroid tissue, and a score of between 0 and 3 was assigned to each nodule as follows: 0, cold; 1, decreased; 2, equal; 3, hot. Definitive histology revealed nodular goitre in 24 cases, adenoma in 19, thyroiditis in 1, differentiated cancer in 12, medullary cancer in 2, and anaplastic cancer in 1. None of the degenerative nodules were hot on MIBI scan, while the adenomas showed a variety of MIBI imaging patterns, most frequently the score 3 pattern. In the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer the sensitivities of score 3 and score 2+3 MIBI uptake patterns were 83% (10/12) and 100%, respectively. The score 3 MIBI uptake pattern had a specificity of 100% and a positive predictive value of 100% with respect to thyroid (benign and malignant) neoplastic diseases, whereas a specificity of 72% and a positive predictive value of 43% were observed in the detection of differentiated cancer. After a cold nodule had been detected using {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate, a second scan with high MIBI uptake increased by 7.8 times the probability that this nodule would be a differentiated cancer. In conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy is a useful method in the

  10. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  11. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  12. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Greene

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1 evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2 determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  13. Diagnostic Criteria and Accuracy of Categorizing Malignant Thyroid Nodules by Ultrasonography and Ultrasound Elastography with Pathologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Naglaa Mostafa; Elkhatib, Yasser Atta

    2016-03-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common medical and surgical concern. Thyroid ultrasound (US) is the primary imaging modality used for initial evaluation and assortment of nodules for fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology/biopsy. Ultrasound elastography (USE) is believed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of US in distinguishing benign from malignant nodules. The aim of the work described here is to evaluate the diagnostic criteria and accuracy of US and USE in the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules. A prospective study of 88 patients who have thyroid nodules was performed. US, color Doppler, and USE were evaluated using a Philips iU22 equipped with a 5 to 12 MHz, linear transducer, followed by FNA of the each scanned nodule. The most sensitive US criteria for malignant nodules were a height-to-width ratio greater than one and the absence of a halo sign (sensitivity 0.875% and 1.000%, respectively). The most specific criteria for malignancy were a spiculated/blurred margin and the presence of microcalcifications (specificity 0.968% and 0.888%, respectively). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the cutoff diagnostic criteria of malignancy are two US characteristics and an elastography score of 4. The diagnostic accuracy of US for malignant thyroid nodules increases by combining US and USE.

  14. Modulation of Isoflavones on Bone-nodule Formation in Rat Calvaria Osteoblasts in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of two main isoflavones, daidzein and genistein on the bone-nodule formation in rat calvaria osteoblasts in vitro. Methods Osteoblasts obtained from newborn Sprague-dawley rat calvarias were cultured for several generations. The second generation cells were cultured in Minimum Essential Medium supplemented with ascorbic acid and Na-beta-glycerophosphate for several days, in the presence of daidzein and genistein, with or without the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780. Number of nodules was counted at the end of the incubation period (day 20) by staining with Alizarin Red S calcium stain. The release of osteocalcin, as a marker of osteoblast activity, was also determined on day 7 and day 12 during the incubation period. Results Compared with the control, the numbers of nodules were both increased by incubation with daidzein and genistein. 17a-estradiol was used as a positive control and proved to be a more effective inducer of the increase in bone-nodules formation than daidzein and genistein. The release of osteocalcin into culture media was also increased in the presence of daidzein and genistein, as well as 17a-estradiol on day 7 and day 12 (day 12 were higher). The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182780 completely blocked the genistein- and 17a-estradiol-induced increase of nodule numbers and osteocalcin release in osteoblasts. However, the effects induced by daidzein could not be inhibited by ICI 182780. Conclusion These findings suggest that geinistein can stimulate bone-nodule formation and increase the release of osteocalcin in rat osteoblasts. The effects, like those induced by 17a-estradiol, are mediated by the estrogen receptor dependent pathway. Daidzein also can stimulate bone-nodule formation and increase the release of osteocalcin in rat osteoblasts, but it is not, at least not merely, mediated by the estrogen receptor dependent pathway.

  15. Characteristic sonographic and follow up features of thyroid nodules according to children age groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Bo Da; Chang, Yun Woo; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Dong Hwan [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We analyzed the spectrum and the significance of pediatric thyroid nodules depicted on sonography and evaluated the follow-up change according to the age group. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic features of 82 nodules in 69 patients (6.6%) among 1282 children less than 13 years of age without a palpable lesion, from January 2006 to January 2013. Patients were divided into three age groups; infants, preschoolers, and schoolers. Thyroid nodules were evaluated according to their sonographic characteristics (simple cyst, colloid cyst, solid mass, or intrathyroid thymus) and the changes detected at follow-up (disappearance, decrease in size, no change or increase in size) were reported. There was a significant difference in the nodule patterns among the age groups (p < 0.001). The nodules in infants included a simple cyst (n = 12), a solid mass (n = 12), or an intra-thyroid thymus (n = 9). The preschoolers had a simple cyst (n = 11), a colloid cyst (n = 5), a solid mass (n = 3) or an intra-thyroid thymus (n = 5). However, the schoolers had a simple cyst (n = 2), a colloid cyst (n = 18), and a solid mass (n = 5), but there was no case of intra-thyroid thymus. Follow-up of 38 cases revealed significant differences among the age groups (p = 0.018). The nodules in infants showed findings such as disappearance of nodules (n = 9) and no change (n = 10) on follow-up sonography. In preschoolers, the nodules had disappeared (n = 2), decreased in size (n = 1), and showed no change (n = 11). However, the nodules in schoolers were found to be decreased in size (n = 1), show no change (n = 2), and increased in size (n = 2). The proven pathologic finding was benign in four patients. There were significant differences in the prevalence and the interval change of thyroid nodules among infants, preschoolers, and schoolers. A large series of intrathyroid thymus was seen in infants and preschoolers, and masses did not increase in size in these age groups. The frequency of a

  16. A model to discriminate malignant from benign thyroid nodules using artificial neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Cheng Zhu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to construct a model for using in differentiating benign and malignant nodules with the artificial neural network and to increase the objective diagnostic accuracy of US. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 618 consecutive patients (528 women, 161 men with 689 thyroid nodules (425 malignant and 264 benign nodules were enrolled in the present study. The presence and absence of each sonographic feature was assessed for each nodule - shape, margin, echogenicity, internal composition, presence of calcifications, peripheral halo and vascularity on color Doppler. The variables meet the following criteria: important sonographic features and statistically significant difference were selected as the input layer to build the ANN for predicting the malignancy of nodules. RESULTS: Six sonographic features including shape (Taller than wide, p<0.001, margin (Not Well-circumscribed, p<0.001, echogenicity (Hypoechogenicity, p<0.001, internal composition (Solid, p<0.001, presence of calcifications (Microcalcification, p<0.001 and peripheral halo (Absent, p<0.001 were significantly associated with malignant nodules. A three-layer 6-8-1 feed-forward ANN model was built. In the training cohort, the accuracy of the ANN in predicting malignancy of thyroid nodules was 82.3% (AURO  = 0.818, the sensitivity and specificity was 84.5% and 79.1%, respectively. In the validation cohort, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity was 83.1%, 83.8% and 81.8%, respectively. The AUROC was 0.828. CONCLUSION: ANN constructed by sonographic features can discriminate benign and malignant thyroid nodules with high diagnostic accuracy.

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the presence of thyroid nodules in the euthyroid population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Shen

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with extragastric diseases. The thyroid may be one of the targets of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to investigate whether H. pylori infections were associated with the presence of thyroid nodules. A total of 988 euthyroid subjects from China were included in this cross-sectional study. Four hundred thirty-five (44.0% subjects were diagnosed as having thyroid nodules, and 486 (49.2% were diagnosed with H. pylori infections. The thyroid nodules group had a higher proportion of H. pylori infections than the control group (P = 0.002. Free thyroxine (FT4 levels were lower and the prevalence of thyroid nodules was higher in patients with H. pylori infection compared to those without infection, even after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI; all P < 0.05. The prevalence of H. pylori infection showed a decreasing trend as serum FT4 level increased (P(trend = 0.020. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the risk of thyroid nodules (odds ratio: 1.390, 95% confidence interval: 1.059-1.824, P = 0.018. Our results suggested that H. pylori infections were positively associated with the presence of thyroid nodules in the euthyroid population, whose thyroid functions were in the reference range.

  18. Analysis of nodule meristem persistence and ENOD40 functioning in Medicago truncatula nodule formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan Xi,

    2007-01-01

    Medicago root nodules are formed as a result of the interaction of the plant with the soil-borne bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Several plant genes are induced during nodule formation and MtENOD40 is one of the earliest genes activated. The precise function as well as the molecule harboring the b

  19. Control of endophytic Frankia sporulation by Alnus nodule metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay De-Bettignies, Anne-Emmanuelle; Boubakri, Hasna; Buonomo, Antoine; Rey, Marjolaine; Meiffren, Guillaume; Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Comte, Gilles; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2017-01-10

    A unique case of microbial symbiont capable of dormancy within its living host cells has been reported in actinorhizal symbioses: some Frankia strains, named Sp+, are able to sporulate inside plant cells, contrarily to Sp- strains. The presence of metabolically slowed down bacterial structures in host cells alters our understanding of symbiosis based on reciprocal benefits between both partners, and its impact on the symbiotic processes remains unknown. The present work reports a metabolomic study of Sp+ and Sp- nodules (from Alnus glutinosa), in order to highlight variabilities associated with in-planta sporulation. A total of 21 amino acids (AA), 44 sugars and organic acids (SOA), and 213 secondary metabolites (M) were detected using UV and mass spectrometric-based profiling. Little change was observed in primary metabolites, suggesting that in-planta sporulation would not strongly affect the primary functionalities of the symbiosis. One secondary metabolite (M27) was detected only in Sp+ nodules. It was identified as Gentisic acid 5-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, previously reported as involved in plant defenses against microbial pathogens. This metabolite significantly increased Frankia in-vitro sporulation, unlike another metabolite significantly more abundant in Sp- nodules (M168 = (5R)-1,7-bis-(3,4-) dihydroxyphenyl)-heptane-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside). All these results suggest that the plant could play an important role in Frankia ability to sporulate in-planta, and allow us to discuss a possible sanction emitted by the host against less cooperative Sp+ symbionts.

  20. Risks and benefits of compost-like materials prepared by the thermal treatment of raw scallop hepatopancreas for supplying cadmium and the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kensuke; Fukushima, Masami; Kanno, Shinya; Kanno, Itoko; Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Scallop hepatopancreas, fishery waste, contains relatively high levels of Cd and organic nitrogen compounds, the latter of which represent a fertilizer. In this study, raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue was thermally treated with sawdust and red loam in the presence of an iron catalyst to produce compost-like materials (CLMs). Two CLM samples were prepared by varying the content of raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue: 46 wt.% for CLM-1 and 18 wt.% for CLM-2. Mixtures of control soil (CTL) and CLMs (CLM content: 10 and 25 wt.%) were examined for the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to evaluate the risks and benefits of using this material for fertilization. The Cd content in shoots and roots of alfalfa, that were grown in the presence of CLMs, was significantly higher than those for the plants grown in the CTL, indicating that Cd had accumulated in the plants from CLMs. The accumulation of Cd in the alfalfa roots was quite high in the case of the 25% CLM-1 sample. However, alfalfa growth was significantly promoted in the presence of 10% CLM-1. This can be attributed to the higher levels of nitrogen and humic substances, which serve as fertilizer components. Although the fertilization effect in case of CLM-1showed a potential benefit, the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa was clearly increased in the presence of both CLMs. In conclusion, the use of CLMs produced from raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue can be considered to have a desirable benefit from standpoint of its use as fertilizer, but is accompanied by a risk of the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa plants.

  1. False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

    2007-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

  2. ‘I still don’t know diddly’: a longitudinal qualitative study of patients’ knowledge and distress while undergoing evaluation of incidental pulmonary nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Donald R.; Golden, Sara E.; Ganzini, Linda; Hansen, Lissi; Slatore, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hundreds of thousands of incidental pulmonary nodules are detected annually in the United States, and this number will increase with the implementation of lung cancer screening. The lengthy period for active pulmonary nodule surveillance, often several years, is unique among cancer regimens. The psychosocial impact of longitudinal incidental nodule follow-up, however, has not been described. Aims: We sought to evaluate the psychosocial impact of longitudinal follow-up of incidenta...

  3. Oxidative burst in alfalfa-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiotic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R; Hérouart, D; Sigaud, S; Touati, D; Puppo, A

    2001-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced as an early event in plant defense response against avirulent pathogens. We show here that alfalfa responds to infection with Sinorhizobium meliloti by production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. This similarity in the early response to infection by pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria addresses the question of which mechanism rhizobia use to counteract the plant defense response.

  4. Impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock while stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profi...

  5. Modeling of desorption of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) stems and leaves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Huisman, W.; Müller, J.

    2011-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture content of agricultural products is necessary to optimize drying process and helps to keep the quality of the product during the period of storage. The main aim of this research was to find the best model which could define well, the exchange of moisture between alfalfa (Med

  6. PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L. GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Tucak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate phenotypic diversity in the alfalfa germplasm collections using multivariate analysis to examine the extent of genetic diversity and contribution of selected characters to the total diversity and finally to select the most promising clusters/populations for further breeding work. Forty alfalfa populations/cultivars of different geographical origin were evaluated for 12 agro-morphological characters during two consecutive years. The populations/ cultivars were grouped into six clusters. In most cases populations/cultivars within clusters were not associated with their geographical origin. Intercluster distances were larger than the intracluster ones. This research revealed a broad phenotypic diversity within and between the alfalfa germplasm collections. The following characters contributed most to the total phenotypic diversity: dry matter yield in the first production year, plant height and length of central leaflet. Based on the mean value of the evaluated characters and determined distances between clusters, the most promising populations/cultivars belong to the clusters IV and V. Selected populations/cultivars could be considered as a valuable genetic material for the yield and quality improvement of alfalfa in our breeding programme.

  7. Strategies for managing foliar and root rot diseases of alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases can be a major source of yield loss and stand decline in alfalfa. Surveys were conducted to determine the distribution of pathogens for which there is limited resistance in commercial varieties and tests were done with new crop chemicals to determine their effectiveness in controlling sever...

  8. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  9. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  10. Managing puncturevine in alfalfa hay and along field edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) is a nuisance and difficult to control weed in alfalfa hay field edges and borders. Puncturevine contaminated hay can contain high levels of nitrates and burs can injure mouths of livestock, lowering the value and quality of the hay. Puncturevine is a summer annual...

  11. Characterization of alfalfa populations contrasting for root system architecture (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root system architecture affects the capacity for nutrient and water uptake thus impacting biomass yield production and may contribute to the persistence of perennial plants. The objectives of this study were to phenotype the roots of three alfalfa populations and identify differences between di...

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of three isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes from alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Long, Ruicai; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun; Zhang, Ze; Zhou, He; Yang, Qingchuan

    2013-02-01

    Isoprenoid is the precursor for the biosynthesis of saponins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, chlorophylls and many other products in plants. Saponins are an important group of bioactive plant natural products. The alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) saponins are glycosides of different triterpene aglycones and possess many biological activities. We isolated three genes (MsFPPS, MsGPPS and MsGGPPS) encoding isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDS) from alfalfa via a homology-based PCR approach. The enzyme activity assay of purified recombined MsFPPS and MsGGPPS expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that they all had IDS activity. Expression analysis of the three genes in different alfalfa tissues using real time PCR displayed that they were expressed in all tissues although they had a different expression patterns. MsFPPS and MsGPS displayed a significant increase in transcript level in response to methyl jasmonate, but the transcript level of MsGGPPS decreased obviously. To elucidate the functions of the three IDSs, their overexpression driven by a constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco plants was applied and analyzed. The T(0) transgenic plants of MsFPPS showed high levels of squalene content when compared with control. However, no differences were detected in T(0) transgenic plants of MsGPPS and MsGGPPS. In addition, the overexpression of MsFPPS induced senescence response in transgenic plant leaves. This result may indicate that MsFPPS performs a role not only in phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis, but also in growth regulation.

  13. Toxic effects of copper-based nanoparticles or compounds to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren M; Zhao, Lijuan; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Keller, Arturo A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The increased production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) has generated concerns about their impact on living organisms. In this study, nCu, bulk Cu, nCuO, bulk CuO, Cu(OH)2 (CuPRO 2005, Kocide 3000), and CuCl2 were exposed for 15 days to 10 days-old hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Each compound was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1). At harvest, we measured the size of the plants and determined the concentration of Cu, macro and microelements by using ICP-OES. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was also determined. Results showed that all Cu NPs/compounds reduced the root length by 49% in both plant species. All Cu NPs/compounds increased Cu, P, and S (>100%, >50%, and >20%, respectively) in alfalfa shoots and decreased P and Fe in lettuce shoot (>50% and >50%, respectively, excluding Fe in CuCl2 treatment). Biochemical assays showed reduced catalase activity in alfalfa (root and shoot) and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in roots of both plant species. Results suggest that Cu NPs/compounds not only reduced the size of the plants but altered nutrient content and enzyme activity in both plant species.

  14. Circulating fluidized bed combustion product addition to acid soil: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) composition and environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Dick, Warren A; Kost, David

    2006-06-28

    To reduce S emissions, petroleum coke with a high concentration of S was combusted with limestone in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The combustion process creates a bed product that has potential for agricultural uses. This CFB product is often alkaline and enriched in S and other essential plant nutrients, but also contains high concentrations of Ni and V. Agricultural land application of CFB product is encouraged, but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts. CFB product and agricultural lime (ag-lime) were applied at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The 2.0x LR application rate of CFB product was equivalent to 67.2 Mg ha(-1). Alfalfa yield was increased 4.6 times by CFB product and 3.8 times by ag-lime compared to untreated control. Application of CFB product increased the concentration of V in soil and alfalfa tissue, but not in soil water, and increased the concentration of Ni in soil and soil water, but not in alfalfa tissue. However, these concentrations did not reach levels that might cause environmental problems.

  15. In vivo characterization of the effects of abscisic acid and drying protocols associated with the acquisition of desiccation tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) somatic embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreedhar, L.; Wolkers, W.F.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Bewley, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Although somatic embryos of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) had acquired some tolerance to desiccation at the cotyledonary stage of development (22 d after plating), additional culturing in 20 ?M abscisic acid (ABA) for 8 d induced greater desiccation tolerance, as determined by increased germination.

  16. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Dick, W.A.; Nelson, S.

    2001-07-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha{sup -1}. Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils.

  17. Both plant and bacterial nitrate reductases contribute to nitric oxide production in Medicago truncatula nitrogen-fixing nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horchani, Faouzi; Prévot, Marianne; Boscari, Alexandre; Evangelisti, Edouard; Meilhoc, Eliane; Bruand, Claude; Raymond, Philippe; Boncompagni, Eric; Aschi-Smiti, Samira; Puppo, Alain; Brouquisse, Renaud

    2011-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling and defense molecule of major importance in living organisms. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, NO production has been detected in the nitrogen fixation zone of the nodule, but the systems responsible for its synthesis are yet unknown and its role in symbiosis is far from being elucidated. In this work, using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we explored the enzymatic source of NO production in M. truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti nodules under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. When transferred from normoxia to hypoxia, nodule NO production was rapidly increased, indicating that NO production capacity is present in functioning nodules and may be promptly up-regulated in response to decreased oxygen availability. Contrary to roots and leaves, nodule NO production was stimulated by nitrate and nitrite and inhibited by tungstate, a nitrate reductase inhibitor. Nodules obtained with either plant nitrate reductase RNA interference double knockdown (MtNR1/2) or bacterial nitrate reductase-deficient (napA) and nitrite reductase-deficient (nirK) mutants, or both, exhibited reduced nitrate or nitrite reductase activities and NO production levels. Moreover, NO production in nodules was found to be inhibited by electron transfer chain inhibitors, and nodule energy state (ATP-ADP ratio) was significantly reduced when nodules were incubated in the presence of tungstate. Our data indicate that both plant and bacterial nitrate reductase and electron transfer chains are involved in NO synthesis. We propose the existence of a nitrate-NO respiration process in nodules that could play a role in the maintenance of the energy status required for nitrogen fixation under oxygen-limiting conditions.

  18. Nitrogen Fixation (C(2)H(2) Reduction) by Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Nodules and Bacteroids under Water-Restricted Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, V; Trinchant, J C; Rigaud, J

    1990-03-01

    Water potentials of leaves and nodules of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivated on a sandy mixture were linearly and highly (r(2) = 0.99) correlated throughout a water deprivation of plants. A decrease of 0.2 megapascal of the nodule water potential (Psi(nod)) induced an immediate 25% inhibition of the highest level of acetylene reduction of broad bean nodules attached to roots. This activity continued to be depressed when water stress increased, but the effect was less pronounced. Partial recovery of optimal C(2)H(2) reduction capacity of mildly water stressed nodules (Psi(nod) = -1.2 megapascals) was possible by increasing the external O(2) partial pressure up to 60 kilopascals. The dense packing of the cortical cells of nodules may be responsible for the limitation of O(2) diffusion to the central tissue. Bacteroids isolated from broad bean nodules exhibited higher N(2) fixation activity with glucose than with succinate as an energy-yielding substrate. Bacteroids from stressed nodules appeared more sensitive to O(2), and their optimal activity declined with increasing nodule water deprivation. This effect could be partly due to decreased bacteroid respiration capacity with water stress. Water stress was also responsible for a decrease of the cytosolic protein content of the nodule and more specifically of leghemoglobin. The alteration of the bacteroid environment appears to contribute to the decline in N(2) fixation under water restricted conditions.

  19. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Genes Potentially Involved in Al Stress Response in Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxian; Xiong, Conghui; Yan, Longfeng; Zhang, Zhengshe; Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Yajie; Liu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa is the most extensively cultivated forage legume, yet most alfalfa cultivars are not aluminum tolerant, and the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress are largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to understand how alfalfa responds to Al stress by identifying and analyzing Al-stress-responsive genes in alfalfa roots at the whole-genome scale. The transcriptome changes in alfalfa roots under Al stress for 4, 8, or 24 h were analyzed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing platforms. A total of 2464 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and most were up-regulated at early (4 h) and/or late (24 h) Al exposure time points rather than at the middle exposure time point (8 h). Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the DEGs involved in ribosome, protein biosynthesis, and process, the citrate cycle, membrane transport, and hormonal regulation were preferentially enriched and regulated. Biosynthesis inhibition and signal transduction downstream of auxin- and ethylene-mediated signals occur during alfalfa responses to root growth inhibition. The internal Al detoxification mechanisms play important roles in alfalfa roots under Al stress. These findings provide valuable information for identifying and characterizing important components in the Al signaling network in alfalfa and enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying alfalfa responses to Al stress. PMID:28217130

  20. Possibilities of nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules treatment by percutaneous ethanol injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the current principles, autonomous functional thyroid nodules are treated by surgery or by radioiodin therapy. Ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection into solid tumors of the soft tissues was a starting point in attempts to treat the thyroid nodules by the same method. The aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of percutaneous injection in treating solitary, nontoxic, autonomous thyroid nodules of up to 15 mL volume. Methods. In 25 patients with solitary nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules diagnosed by tehnetium-99m scanning as an intensive area having a complete supremacy in the paranodal tissue, an ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection was applied. The procedure was carried out repeatedly once a week until the reduction in nodule size to 50% of the initial size was achieved. Results. An average size of the nodule before curing was 9.68 ± 5.01 mL. An average quantity of the injected ethanol was 9.52 ± 5.08 mL, ie 1.06 ± 0.48 mL/mg of the tissue. The regression of the nodule size in the successfully (Δvol% u = - 57.09 ± 13.75%, p < 0.001 and partly successfully cured (Δvol du = -48.45 ± 14.35%, p < 0.05 was statistically significant compared to the size before the treatment. After ceasing ethanol injection, 18 months later, a further size regression (Δvol% = -79.20 ± 9.89% compared to the initial one (p < 0.001 was noticed. Soon, after the procedure was finished, a statistically significant concentration increase of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH was noticed compared to the initial values (0.18 ± 0.16 vs 0.34 ± 0.31 mU/L, p < 0.01. According to the given criteria, in two female patients satisfactory results were not achieved, but, a year later, in one of them the nodule was not seen by repeated scintigram. The number and frequency of side effects were insignificant. Conclusion. Repeated percutaneous ethanol injections into nontoxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules result in

  1. Effect of nitrogen fertilization on yield, N content, and nitrogen ifxation of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass grown alone or in mixture in greenhouse pots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kai-yun; LI Xiang-lin; HE Feng; ZHANG Ying-jun; WAN Li-qiang; David B Hannaway; WANG Dong; QIN Yan; Gamal M A Fadul

    2015-01-01

    Planting grass and legume mixtures on improved grasslands has the potential advantage of realizing both higher yields and lower environmental pol ution by optimizing the balance between applied N fertilizer and the natural process of legume biological nitrogen ifxation. However, the optimal level of N fertilization for grass-legume mixtures, to obtain the highest yield, quality, and contribution of N2 ifxation, varies with species. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the temporal dynamics of N2 ifxation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown alone and in mixture with smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) in response to the addition of fertilizer N. Three levels of N (0, 75, and 150 kg ha–1) were examined using 15N-labeled urea to evaluate N2 ifxation via the 15N isotope dilution method. Treatments were designated N0 (0.001 g per pot), N75 (1.07 g per pot) and N150 (2.14 g per pot). Alfalfa grown alone did not beneift from the addition of fertilizer N;dry matter was not signiifcantly increased. In contrast, dry weight and N content of smooth bromegrass grown alone was increased signiifcantly by N application. When grown as a mixture, smooth bromegrass biomass was increased signiifcantly by N application, resulted in a decrease in alfalfa biomass. In addition, individual alfalfa plant dry weight (shoots+roots) was signiifcantly lower in the mixture than when grown alone at al N levels. Smooth bromegrass shoot and root dry weight were signiifcantly higher when grown with alfalfa than when grown alone, regardless of N application level. When grown alone, alfalfa’s N2 ifxation was reduced with N fertilization (R2=0.9376, P=0.0057). When grown in a mixture with smooth bromegrass, with 75 kg ha–1 of N fertilizer, the percentage of atmospheric N2 ifxation contribution to total N in alfalfa (%Ndfa) had a maximum of 84.07 and 83.05%in the 2nd and 3rd harvests, respectively. Total 3-harvest%Ndfa was higher when alfalfa was grown in a mixture than when

  2. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Svend; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Ussatjuk, Anna; Jochimsen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Kasper; Goffard, Nicolas; Ventosa, Miguel; Lorentzen, Andrea; Gupta, Vikas; Andersen, Stig U; Enghild, Jan J; Ronson, Clive W; Roepstorff, Peter; Stougaard, Jens

    2014-02-01

    Legume symbiosis with rhizobia results in the formation of a specialized organ, the root nodule, where atmospheric dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia. In Lotus japonicus (Lotus), several genes involved in nodule development or nodule function have been defined using biochemistry, genetic approaches, and high-throughput transcriptomics. We have employed proteomics to further understand nodule development. Two developmental stages representing nodules prior to nitrogen fixation (white) and mature nitrogen fixing nodules (red) were compared with roots. In addition, the proteome of a spontaneous nodule formation mutant (snf1) was determined. From nodules and roots, 780 and 790 protein spots from 2D gels were identified and approximately 45% of the corresponding unique gene accessions were common. Including a previous proteomics set from Lotus pod and seed, the common gene accessions were decreased to 7%. Interestingly, an indication of more pronounced PTMs in nodules than in roots was determined. Between the two nodule developmental stages, higher levels of pathogen-related 10 proteins, HSPs, and proteins involved in redox processes were found in white nodules, suggesting a higher stress level at this developmental stage. In contrast, protein spots corresponding to nodulins such as leghemoglobin, asparagine synthetase, sucrose synthase, and glutamine synthetase were prevalent in red nodules. The distinct biochemical state of nodules was further highlighted by the conspicuous presence of several nitrilases, ascorbate metabolic enzymes, and putative rhizobial effectors.

  3. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: The Galaxy Population Detected by ALFALFA

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Shan; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2012-01-01

    Making use of HI 21 cm line measurements from the ALFALFA survey (alpha.40) and photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and GALEX, we investigate the global scaling relations and fundamental planes linking stars and gas for a sample of 9417 common galaxies: the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX sample. In addition to their HI properties derived from the ALFALFA dataset, stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived from fitting the UV-optical spectral energy distributions. 96% of the alpha.40-SDSS-GALEX galaxies belong to the blue cloud, with the average gas fraction f_HI = M_HI/M_* ~ 1.5. A transition in SF properties is found whereby below M_* ~ 10^9.5 M_sun, the slope of the star forming sequence changes, the dispersion in the specific star formation rate (SSFR) distribution increases and the star formation efficiency (SFE) mildly increases with M_*. The evolutionary track in the SSFR-M_* diagram, as well as that in the color magnitude diagram are linked to the HI content; below this trans...

  4. Variable salinity responses of 12 alfalfa genotypes and comparative expression analyses of salt-response genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Devinder; Cornacchione, Monica V.; Ferreira, Jorge F. S.; Suarez, Donald L.

    2017-01-01

    Twelve alfalfa genotypes that were selected for biomass under salinity, differences in Na and Cl concentrations in shoots and K/Na ratio were evaluated in this long-term salinity experiment. The selected plants were cloned to reduce genetic variability within each genotype. Salt tolerance (ST) index of the genotypes ranged from 0.39 to 1. The most salt-tolerant genotypes SISA14-1 (G03) and AZ-90ST (G10), the top performers for biomass, exhibited the least effect on shoot number and height. SISA14-1 (G03) accumulated low Na and Cl under salinity. Most genotypes exhibited a net reduction in shoot Ca, Mg, P, Fe, and Cu, while Mn and Zn increased under salinity. Salinity reduced foliar area and stomatal conductance; while net photosynthetic rate and transpiration were not affected. Interestingly, salinity increased chlorophyll and antioxidant capacity in most genotypes; however neither parameter correlated well to ST index. Salt-tolerant genotypes showed upregulation of the SOS1, SOS2, SOS3, HKT1, AKT1, NHX1, P5CS1, HSP90.7, HSP81.2, HSP71.1, HSPC025, OTS1, SGF29 and SAL1 genes. Gene expression analyses allowed us to classify genotypes based on their ability to regulate different components of the salt tolerance mechanism. Pyramiding different components of the salt tolerance mechanism may lead to superior salt-tolerant alfalfa genotypes. PMID:28225027

  5. Hypokalemia associated with a solitary pulmonary nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeian, Samira; Ghayumi, Seiyed Mohammad Ali; Shams, Mesbah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Differential diagnosis of hypokalemia and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome often presents challenging in endocrinology and requires careful clinical, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations. Hypokalemia is a common abnormality and systematic approach is required to avoid delays in diagnosis of important underlying causes. Case Summary: A 49-year-old woman presented with moderate hypokalemia. Further evaluation showed hypercortisolism due to ectopic ACTH secretion. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a peripheral solitary pulmonary nodule. Excision biopsy of the nodule showed carcinoid tumor. After excision biopsy, all of the patient's symptoms improved and electrolytes and ACTH levels also became normal. Conclusion: Carciniod tumors should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with hypokalemia and ectopic ACTH syndrome. Carcinoid tumor often present as solitary pulmonary nodule and excision biopsy can be curative. PMID:27977570

  6. Value of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in judging benignancy or malignancy of nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yun Zhao; Hai-Xia Liu; Wei Tong; Jin-Zhong Huang; Chun Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the value of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in judging benignancy or malignancy of nodules.Methods: Patients diagnosed with thyroid nodule and receiving ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in our hospital were selected for study and divided into benign group and malignant group according to fine needle biopsy or the pathological results after surgical resection; mean strain values of quantitative indicators, blue region area and disorder of ultrasonic strain elastography, expression levels of malignant biological molecules in nodule tissue as well as the contents of serum tumor markers were detected.Results:Mean strain value of malignant group was lower than that of benign group, blue region area and disorder were higher than those of benign group, and standard deviation, complexity, kurtosis, skewness, contrast, equality, consistency and correlation were without significant differences; mRNA contents ofFascin-1, S100A4, STAT3, TC-1, MUC1 andMUC15 in thyroid nodules as well as serum Midkine, Galectin-3, CEACAM1 and TFF3 contents of malignant group were significantly higher than those of benign group, negatively correlated with mean strain value and positively correlated with blue region area and disorder.Conclusions:Mean strain values of quantitative indicators, blue region area and disorder of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography can judge benign or malignant nodules and assess the malignant degree.

  7. Impact of image quality, radiologists, lung segments, and Gunnar eyewear on detectability of lung nodules in chest CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christe, Andreas [Dept. of Radiology, Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford (United States); Dept. of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Inselspital, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)], e-mail: andreas.christe@insel.ch; Ebner, Lukas; Steiger, Philipp; Vock, Peter [Dept. of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Inselspital, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Parikh, Sachin R. [Dept. of Radiology, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta (United States); Shah, Akash D. [Proscan Imaging, Cincinnati (United States); Roychoudhury, Kingshuk [Statistics Dept., Univ. Coll. Cork, Cork (Ireland); Roos, Justus E. [Dept. of Radiology, Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Background: Despite the increasingly higher spatial and contrast resolution of CT, nodular lesions are prone to be missed on chest CT. Tinted lenses increase visual acuity and contrast sensitivity by filtering short wavelength light of solar and artificial origin. Purpose: To test the impact of Gunnar eyewear, image quality (standard versus low dose CT) and nodule location on detectability of lung nodules in CT and to compare their individual influence. Material and Methods: A pre-existing database of CT images of patients with lung nodules >5 mm, scanned with standard does image quality (150 ref mAs/120 kVp) and lower dose/quality (40 ref mAs/120 kVp), was used. Five radiologists read 60 chest CTs twice: once with Gunnar glasses and once without glasses with a 1 month break between. At both read-outs the cases were shown at lower dose or standard dose level to quantify the influence of both variables (eyewear vs. image quality) on nodule sensitivity. Results: The sensitivity of CT for lung nodules increased significantly using Gunnar eyewear for two readers and insignificantly for two other readers. Over all, the mean sensitivity of all radiologist raised significantly from 50% to 53%, using the glasses (P value = 0.034). In contrast, sensitivity for lung nodules was not significantly affected by lowering the image quality from 150 to 40 ref mAs. The average sensitivity was 52% at low dose level, that was even 0.7 % higher than at standard dose level (P value = 0.40). The strongest impact on sensitivity had the factors readers and nodule location (lung segments). Conclusion: Sensitivity for lung nodules was significantly enhanced by Gunnar eyewear (+3 %), while lower image quality (40 ref mAs) had no impact on nodule sensitivity. Not using the glasses had a bigger impact on sensitivity than lowering the image quality.

  8. The Indian Ocean nodule field: Geology and resource potential

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, A.K.; Iyer, S.D.

    the nodules and crusts are presented. The nodules and crusts are exhaustively described and their genesis in terms of variables such as source material, local and regional tectonic activities, and mid-plate secondary volcanisms are examined. A value...

  9. Large philipsite crystal as ferromanganese nodule nucleus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    .C. Road, Calcutta 700 019, India Ranadhir Mukhopadhyay (\\[~) National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India pher 1978) and also occur as grains and laths within the oxide layers of manganese nodules (Burns and Bums 1977). Zeolite... 1993a). The crust underlying the sam- ple location was generated from the fast spreading Indian 60 11 mm I I Fig. 1 Photograph of the ferromanganese nodule sample in this study (dimensions: 39 x 28 mm). The top part of oxide layers was removed...

  10. Ultrasound elastography for thyroid nodules: recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Ultrasonography (US)-based elastography has been introduced as a noninvasive technique for evaluating thyroid nodules that encompasses a variety of approaches such as supersonic shear imaging and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging as well as real-time tissue elastography. However, the diagnostic performances for differentiating malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones with elastography as an adjunctive tool of gray-scale US is still under debate. In this review article, diagnostic performances of conventional US and a combination of conventional US and elastography are compared according to the type of elastography. Further, the interobserver variability of elastography is presented according to the type of elastography.

  11. Radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, S; Stacul, F; Zecchin, M; Dobrinja, C; Zanconati, F; Fabris, B

    2016-09-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are an extremely common occurrence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is gaining ground as an effective technique for their treatment, in case they become symptomatic. Here we review what are the current indications to RFA, its outcomes in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and cost, and also how it compares to the other conventional and experimental treatment modalities for benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, we will also address the issue of treating with this technique patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), as it is a rather frequent occurrence that has never been addressed in detail in the literature.

  12. Etude structurale des sites de nodulation et induction des nodules caulinaires chez Sesbania pubescens

    OpenAIRE

    TOMEKPE, Kodjo; Traore, A S; Ndiaye, S.; Spencer-Barreto, M.M.; Détrez, C.

    1992-01-01

    #Sesbania pubescens$ est une légumineuse annuelle voisine de #Sesbania rostrata$ qui se rencontre généralement sur les sols temporairement inondés de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Des sites de nodulation préformes ont été mis en évidence sur sa tige et ses branches. Ces sites prennent naissance à l'aisselle des cotylédons et des feuilles. Comme chez la plupart des légumineuses à nodules de tige, les sites de nodulation caulinaire de #S. pubescens$ se développent en racines lorsque les tiges sont imme...

  13. Identification of Alfalfa Leaf Diseases Using Image Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Liu, Dongxia; Sun, Bingda; Ruan, Liu; Ma, Zhanhong; Wang, Haiguang

    2016-01-01

    Common leaf spot (caused by Pseudopeziza medicaginis), rust (caused by Uromyces striatus), Leptosphaerulina leaf spot (caused by Leptosphaerulina briosiana) and Cercospora leaf spot (caused by Cercospora medicaginis) are the four common types of alfalfa leaf diseases. Timely and accurate diagnoses of these diseases are critical for disease management, alfalfa quality control and the healthy development of the alfalfa industry. In this study, the identification and diagnosis of the four types of alfalfa leaf diseases were investigated using pattern recognition algorithms based on image-processing technology. A sub-image with one or multiple typical lesions was obtained by artificial cutting from each acquired digital disease image. Then the sub-images were segmented using twelve lesion segmentation methods integrated with clustering algorithms (including K_means clustering, fuzzy C-means clustering and K_median clustering) and supervised classification algorithms (including logistic regression analysis, Naive Bayes algorithm, classification and regression tree, and linear discriminant analysis). After a comprehensive comparison, the segmentation method integrating the K_median clustering algorithm and linear discriminant analysis was chosen to obtain lesion images. After the lesion segmentation using this method, a total of 129 texture, color and shape features were extracted from the lesion images. Based on the features selected using three methods (ReliefF, 1R and correlation-based feature selection), disease recognition models were built using three supervised learning methods, including the random forest, support vector machine (SVM) and K-nearest neighbor methods. A comparison of the recognition results of the models was conducted. The results showed that when the ReliefF method was used for feature selection, the SVM model built with the most important 45 features (selected from a total of 129 features) was the optimal model. For this SVM model, the

  14. Growth With of Alfalfa Mutant in Different Nitrogen Fertilizer and Defoliation Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyati Slamet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate growth  of alfalfa mutan (plant height increment, number of leaves and dry matter production in different  Nitrogen Fertilizer and defoliation intensity. The design used was randomized block design 4x2 factorial with 3 replications. The first was dosage of Nitrogen fertilizerNitrogen   (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N / ha,  the second factor was defoliation intensity (5 and 10 cm. Variables observed alfalfa growth (plant height increment, number of leaves, the production of dry matter (DM forage. The results showed that different N fertilization did not affect the growth of alfalfa mutants. Defoliation intensity  affectedmnumber of leaves and   DM  production of alfalfa mutant. Fertilization to 90 kg N / ha has not affected the growth and   defoliation  intensity 10 cm gave better growth on alfalfa mutant.   [Keywords: alfalfa mutant; Nitrogen fertilizer; defoliation; growth

  15. Performance of Three Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera:Miridae) on Flowering and Non-lfowering Cotton and Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen; PAN Hong-sheng; LIU Bing; LU Yan-hui; LIANG Ge-mei

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera:Miridae) is a group of key insect pests in cotton ifelds in China that includes three dominant species:A. suturalis (Jakovlev), A. lineolatus (Goeze) and A. fasciaticollis (Reuter). Previous ifeld surveys have found that adults of these Adelphocoris species usually move onto speciifc host plants when the plants enter the lfowering stage. To determine the potential trade-offs for this host-plant preference behavior, the performance of these three Adelphocoris spp. on lfowering and non-lfowering cotton and alfalfa were compared in the laboratory. The results showed that Adelphocoris spp. had signiifcantly higher nymphal developmental and survival rates, along with increased adult longevity and fecundity on lfowering cotton and alfalfa than on non-lfowering plants of either species. In addition, compared with cotton plants, alfalfa generally promoted better performance of these three Adelphocoris species, especially for A. lineolatus. Simple correlation analysis indicated that female adult longevity was positively correlated to male adult longevity and female fecundity, and female fecundity was positively correlated to nymphal development and survival rates. This study demonstrated a positive correlation between adult preference and offspring/adult performance for all three Adelphocoris species, with no evidence of any trade-offs for this preference for lfowering host plants. These ifndings support the hypothesis that hemimetabolous insects such as mirid bugs have positive adult preference-adult/nymphal performance relationships, which is likely due to the similar feeding habits and nutritional requirements of adults and nymphs.

  16. Overexpression of BetS, a Sinorhizobium meliloti high-affinity betaine transporter, in bacteroids from Medicago sativa nodules sustains nitrogen fixation during early salt stress adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Alexandre; Van de Sype, Ghislaine; Le Rudulier, Daniel; Mandon, Karine

    2006-08-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti possesses several betaine transporters to cope with salt stress, and BetS represents a crucial high-affinity glycine and proline betaine uptake system involved in the rapid acquisition of betaines by cells subjected to osmotic upshock. Using a transcriptional lacZ (beta-galactosidase) fusion, we showed that betS is expressed during the establishment of the symbiosis and in mature nitrogen-fixing nodules. However, neither Nod nor Fix phenotypes were impaired in a betS mutant. BetS is functional in isolated bacteroids, and its activity is strongly activated by high osmolarity. In bacteroids from a betS mutant, glycine betaine and proline betaine uptake was reduced by 85 to 65%, indicating that BetS is a major component of the overall betaine uptake activity in bacteroids in response to osmotic stress. Upon betS overexpression (strain UNA349) in free-living cells, glycine betaine transport was 2.3-fold higher than in the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the accumulation of proline betaine, the endogenous betaine synthesized by alfalfa plants, was 41% higher in UNA349 bacteroids from alfalfa plants subjected to 1 week of salinization (0.3 M NaCl) than in wild-type bacteroids. In parallel, a much better maintenance of nitrogen fixation activity was observed in 7-day-salinized plants nodulated with the overexpressing strain than in wild-type nodulated plants. Taken altogether, these results are consistent with the major role of BetS as an emergency system involved in the rapid uptake of betaines in isolated and in planta osmotically stressed bacteroids of S. meliloti.

  17. The Validity of Ultrasonography-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in Thyroid Nodules 4 cm or Larger Depends on Ultrasonography Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwa Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB according to ultrasonography (US characteristics in thyroid nodules 4 cm and larger.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the cases of 263 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for thyroid nodules larger than 4 cm between January 2001 and December 2010.ResultsThe sensitivity of US-FNAB was significantly higher in nodules with calcifications (micro- or macro- than those without (97.9% vs. 87.% P<0.05. The accuracy of US-FNAB was higher in large thyroid nodules with US features suspicious of malignancy, such as a solid component, ill-defined margin, hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity, or any calcifications (micro- or macro- compared to thyroid nodules with none of these features. Furthermore, the accuracy improved as the number of these features increased. The overall false negative rate (FNR was 11.9%. The FNR of thyroid nodules that appeared benign on US, such as mixed nodules (7.7% or nodules without calcification (9.8%, trended toward being lower than that of solid nodules (17.9% or nodules with any microcalcification or macrocalcification (33.3%. In nodules without suspicious features of malignancy, the FNR of US-FNAB was 0% (0/15.ConclusionWe suggest individualized strategies for large thyroid nodules according to US features. Patients with benign FNAB can be followed in the absence of any malignant features in US. However, if patients exhibit any suspicious features, potential false negative results of FNAB should be kept in mind and surgery may be considered.

  18. SRAP polymorphisms associated with superior freezing tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa spp. sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Yves; Cloutier, Jean; Bertrand, Annick; Michaud, Réal; Laberge, Serge

    2010-05-01

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis was used to uncover genetic polymorphisms among alfalfa populations recurrently selected for superior tolerance to freezing (TF populations). Bulk DNA samples (45 plants/bulk) from each of the cultivar Apica (ATF0), and populations ATF2, ATF4, ATF5, and ATF6 were evaluated with 42 different SRAP primer pairs. Several polymorphisms that progressively intensified or decreased with the number of recurrent cycles were identified. Four positive polymorphisms (F10-R14, Me4-R8, F10-R8 and F11-R9) that, respectively, yielded 540-, 359-, 213-, and 180-bp fragments were selected for further analysis. SRAP amplifications with genotypes within ATF populations confirmed that the polymorphisms identified with bulk DNA samples were reflecting changes in the frequency of their occurrence in response to selection. In addition, the number of genotypes cumulating multiple polymorphisms markedly increased in response to recurrent selection. Independent segregation of the four SRAP polymorphisms suggests location at unlinked loci. Homology search gave matches with BAC clones from syntenic Medicago truncatula for the four SRAP fragments. Analysis of the relationship with low temperature tolerance showed that multiple SRAP polymorphisms are more frequent in genotypes that maintain superior regrowth after freezing. These results show that SRAP analysis of bulk DNA samples from recurrent selections is an effective approach for the identification of genetic polymorphisms associated with quantitative traits in allogamous species. These polymorphisms could be useful tools for indirect selection of freezing tolerance in alfalfa.

  19. Leguminosae. A source book of characteristics, uses and nodulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, O.N.; Allen, E.K

    1981-01-01

    Following a review of the nature and occurrence of root nodulation in the family, the main body of the book presents synopses, for each of the 750 known genera, containing information on morphological characteristics, taxonomy, distribution, habitat preferences, and uses (including brief notes on timbers), and lists of known nodulated and non-nodulated species.

  20. Geochemistry of polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A; Khadge, N.H.; Desa, J.A

    the thirteen different types of nodules present, only spherical and ellipsoidal nodules ranging in size from 2 cm to 2-4 cm with a rough, granular texture are abundant in the siliceous sediments. Different-sized nodules from the CIOB suggest formation...

  1. Proteome reference maps of the Lotus japonicus nodule and root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend Secher; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Ussatjuk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Legume symbiosis with rhizobia results in the formation of a specialized organ, the root nodule, where atmospheric dinitrogen is reduced to ammonia. In Lotus japonicus (Lotus), several genes involved in nodule development or nodule function have been defined using biochemistry, genetic approaches...

  2. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation is the result of a complex bacterial infection process, which depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial nodulation outer proteins (Nops)...

  3. Plant regeneration from proroplasts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) via somatic embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Mariza; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Valarini,Maria José; Oliveira, Carlos Alberto; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    Alfalfa is one of the most frequently studied species from the production of tissue culture-derived embryos point of view. In this study, five alfalfa cultivars were analyzed with reference to their ability to regenerate plants from protoplast cultures via somatic embryogenesis. Plant regeneration from leaf-derived protoplasts isolated from the cultivar Rangelander was achieved using a protocol defined for alfalfa cell suspension-derived embryogenesis. Because of its high efficiency, this pro...

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Resistant and Susceptible Alfalfa Cultivars Infected With Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Postnikova, Olga A.; Maria Hult; Jonathan Shao; Andrea Skantar; Nemchinov, Lev G.

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute...

  5. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  6. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra (Madison, WI); Koegel, Richard G. (Madison, WI); Straub, Richard J. (Brooklyn, WI); Cook, Mark (Madison, WI)

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  7. Shape and texture based novel features for automated juxtapleural nodule detection in lung CTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşcı, Erdal; Uğur, Aybars

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the types of cancer with highest mortality rate in the world. In case of early detection and diagnosis, the survival rate of patients significantly increases. In this study, a novel method and system that provides automatic detection of juxtapleural nodule pattern have been developed from cross-sectional images of lung CT (Computerized Tomography). Shape-based and both shape and texture based 7 features are contributed to the literature for lung nodules. System that we developed consists of six main stages called preprocessing, lung segmentation, detection of nodule candidate regions, feature extraction, feature selection (with five feature ranking criteria) and classification. LIDC dataset containing cross-sectional images of lung CT has been utilized, 1410 nodule candidate regions and 40 features have been extracted from 138 cross-sectional images for 24 patients. Experimental results for 10 classifiers are obtained and presented. Adding our derived features to known 33 features has increased nodule recognition performance from 0.9639 to 0.9679 AUC value on generalized linear model regression (GLMR) for 22 selected features and being reached one of the most successful results in the literature.

  8. Approach and management of thyroid nodule. A literature review = Nódulo tiroideo, enfoque y manejo. Revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-González, Alejandro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid nodules are commonly found, and their incidence is increasing. The main objective during the evaluation of these nodules is to determine if they are benign or malignant. Materials and methods: We made a narrative review of the literature by searching Ovid, Medline and Lilacs from 1950 to 2010. Results: Most thyroid nodules are benign, but in 4% to 8% of cases they may be malignant, hence the importance of appropriate study and management. Nodules larger than 1 cm should undergo fine needle aspirate; however, the clinical features of the patient and the characteristics of the nodule on ultrasound assessment should always be taken into account. The following are risk factors associated with the presence of thyroid nodules: age over 45 years, female gender and smoking. The measurement of tumor markers in the initial study of patients with thyroid nodule is not recommended.Conclusion: Ultrasound and thyroid fine needle aspirate are the most important diagnostic methods in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, because they enable to make changes in therapeutic decisions thus decreasing the number of unnecessary thyroidectomies. Treatment and prognosis of thyroid nodules will depend on the patient´s risk factors and the cytological and pathological findings.

  9. OLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOLITARY THYROID NODULES TO PREDICT BENIGN OR MALIGNANT NATURE: A STUDY IN A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madnavi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available rpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of high frequency Ultrasonography to differentiate the benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to correlate the sonological findings with cytopathological diagnosis. Individual sonological c riteria to indicate the malignant nature of a nodule are discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study done between January , 2012 and November , 2013 in the Department of Radio - diagnosis at Maharajah’s Institute of Medical Sciences , Nelli merla , Andhra Pradesh . A total of 180 patients with solitary nodule proved on ultrasonography , followed by ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration ( FNA were included in our study. The sonological characteristics of nodules studied were size , shape , margins , echogenicity , calcification , internal composition , presence or absence of peripheral hallow and vascularity pattern. The results were compared to cytopathological findings. RESULTS: Among the 180 nodules examined , 135 nodules ( 75% were proved to be benign and 45 nodules (25% were proved to be malignant. Patients belonging to all age groups were seen with a clear female preponderance. CONCLUSION: High frequency ultrasound is of great value in characterization and differentiation of benign and mali gnant nodules. It can be successfully used as a guideline to select the patients for fine needle aspiration , in case of suspicious malignant nodule. The sonological criteria favoring malignancy are irregular margins , hypoechogenicity , taller than wide shap e , microcalcifications and internal vascularity. The combination of multiple parameters increases the pridictive value of ultrasonography

  10. The incidental pulmonary nodule in a child. Part 2: Commentary and suggestions for clinical management, risk communication and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Thacker, Paul G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Podberesky, Daniel J. [Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Iyer, Ramesh S. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Hegde, Shilpa V. [Arkansas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Little Rock, AR (United States); Guillerman, R.P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The incidental detection of small lung nodules in children is a vexing consequence of an increased reliance on CT. We present an algorithm for the management of lung nodules detected on CT in children, based on the presence or absence of symptoms, the presence or absence of elements in the clinical history that might explain these nodules, and the imaging characteristics of the nodules (such as attenuation measurements within the nodule). We provide suggestions on how to perform a thoughtfully directed and focused search for clinically occult extrathoracic disease processes (including malignant disease) that may present as an incidentally detected lung nodule on CT. This algorithm emphasizes that because of the lack of definitive information on the natural history of small solid nodules that are truly detected incidentally, their clinical management is highly dependent on the caregivers' individual risk tolerance. In addition, we present strategies to reduce the prevalence of these incidental findings, by preventing unnecessary chest CT scans or inadvertent inclusion of portions of the lungs in scans of adjacent body parts. Application of these guidelines provides pediatric radiologists with an important opportunity to practice patient-centered and evidence-based medicine. (orig.)

  11. Effect of Co-Inoculation with Mycorrhiza and Rhizobia on the Nodule Trehalose Content of Different Bean Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Almanza, L; Altamirano-Hernandez, J; Peña-Cabriales, J.J; Santoyo, G; Sanchez-Yañez, J.M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Macias-Rodriguez, L; Lopez-Bucio, J; Cardenas-Navarro, R; Farias-Rodriguez, R

    2010-01-01

    Studies on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis show that trehalose content in nodules under drought stress correlates positively with an increase in plant tolerance to this stress. Fewer reports describe trehalose accumulation in mycorrhiza where, in contrast with rhizobia, there is no flux of carbohydrates from the microsymbiont to the plant. However, the trehalose dynamics in the Mycorrhiza-Rhizobium-Legume tripartite symbiosis is unknown. The present study explores the role of this tripartite symbiosis in the trehalose content of nodules grown under contrasting moisture conditions. Three wild genotypes (P. filiformis, P. acutifolis and P. vulgaris) and two commercial genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris (Pinto villa and Flor de Mayo) were used. Co-inoculation treatments were conducted with Glomus intraradices and a mixture of seven native rhizobial strains, and trehalose content was determined by GC/MS. The results showed a negative effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on nodule development, as mycorrhized plants showed fewer nodules and lower nodule dry weight compared to plants inoculated only with Rhizobium. Mycorrhizal colonization was also higher in plants inoculated only with Glomus as compared to plants co-inoculated with both microsymbionts. In regard to trehalose, co-inoculation negatively affects its accumulation in the nodules of each genotype tested. However, the correlation analysis showed a significantly positive correlation between mycorrhizal colonization and nodule trehalose content. PMID:21253462

  12. Citric acid- and Tween(®) 80-assisted phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) performance and remediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Huguenot, D; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was designed to assess the phytoremediation potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in a co-contaminated (i.e., heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons) soil and the influence of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 (polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate), applied individually and combined together, for their possible use in chemically assisted phytoremediation. The results showed that alfalfa plants could tolerate and grow in a co-contaminated soil. Over a 90-day experimental time, shoot and root biomass increased and negligible plant mortality occurred. Heavy metals were uptaken by alfalfa to a limited extent, mostly by plant roots, and their concentration in plant tissues were in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb. Microbial population (alkane-degrading microorganisms) and activity (lipase enzyme) were enhanced in the presence of alfalfa with rhizosphere effects of 9.1 and 1.5, respectively, after 90 days. Soil amendments did not significantly enhance plant metal concentration or total uptake. In contrast, the combination of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 significantly improved alkane-degrading microorganisms (2.4-fold increase) and lipase activity (5.3-fold increase) in the rhizosphere of amended plants, after 30 days of experiment. This evidence supports a favorable response of alfalfa in terms of tolerance to a co-contaminated soil and improvement of rhizosphere microbial number and activity, additionally enhanced by the joint application of citric acid and Tween(®) 80, which could be promising for future phytoremediation applications.

  13. A histochemical study of root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    In cooperation with soil bacteria of the genera Rhizobium , Bradyrhizobium or Azorhizobium , many members of the legume family are able to form specialized organs on their roots, called root nodules. The bacteria, wrapped up inside a plant membrane, are accomodated in large parenchymatic cells locat

  14. GROWTH AND NODULATION OF LEUCAENA AND PROSOPIS SEEDLINGS IN SOIL PLUS TANNERY SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to evaluate the growth and nodulation of Leucaena and Prosopis seedlings in soil plus tannery sludge. The study was conducted in a greenhouse, using bags containing soil plus tannery sludge. Seedlings of Leucaena and Prosopis inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp were used. Results were evaluated 90 days after plant emergency. The application of tannery sludge, in the rate of 11.250 kg per hectare significantly increased plant height, stem diameter, and above ground dry mass ofLeucaena. Regarding Prosopis, there were no significant increases in these variables with tannery sludge application, except for aerial dry mass. No significant differences were seen between the treatments with sludge and inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. as to nodule number and dry mass. Tannery sludge evaluated in this work did not affect nodulation, besides favoring Leucaena and Prosopis seedling growth.

  15. Bioinformatics Analysis of Zinc Transporter from Baoding Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo WANG; Junyun GUO

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to perform the bioinformatics analysis of Zinc transporter (ZnT) from Baoding Alfalfa. [Method] Based on the amino acid sequence, the physical and chemical properties, hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, secondary structure of ZnT from Baoding alfalfa were predicted by a series of bioinformatics software. And the transmembrane domains were predicted by using different online tools. [Result] ZnT is a hydrophobic protein containing 408 amino acids with the theoretical pl of 5.94, and it has 7 potential transmembrane hydrophobic regions. In the sec- ondary structure, co-helix (Hh) accounted for 48.04%, extended strand (Ee) for 9.56%, random coil (Cc) for 42.40%, which was accored with the characteristic of transmembrane protein. [Conclusion] mZnT is a member of CDF family, responsible for transporting Zn^2+ out of the cell membrane to reduce the concentration and toxicity of Zn^2+.

  16. Proteomics analysis of alfalfa response to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Li

    Full Text Available The proteome responses to heat stress have not been well understood. In this study, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Huaiyin seedlings were exposed to 25 °C (control and 40 °C (heat stress in growth chambers, and leaves were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. The morphological, physiological and proteomic processes were negatively affected under heat stress. Proteins were extracted and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE, and differentially expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry (MS. Totally, 81 differentially expressed proteins were identified successfully by MALDI-TOF/TOF. These proteins were categorized into nine classes: including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, protein destination/storage, transporters, intracellular traffic, cell structure, signal transduction and disease/defence. Five proteins were further analyzed for mRNA levels. The results of the proteomics analyses provide a better understanding of the molecular basis of heat-stress responses in alfalfa.

  17. Developing PYTHON Codes for the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Ryan, Nicholas; Alfalfa Team

    2016-03-01

    We describe here progress toward developing a number of new PYTHON routines to be used by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team. The codes are designed to analyze HI spectra and assist in identifying and categorizing some of the intriguing sources found in the initial blind ALFALFA survey. Numerical integration is performed on extragalactic sources using 21cm line spectra produced with the L-Band Wide receiver at the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Prior to the integration, polynomial fits are employed to obtain an appropriate baseline for each source. The codes developed here are part of a larger team effort to use new PYTHON routines in order to replace, upgrade, or supplement a wealth of existing IDL codes within the collaboration. This work has been supported by NSF Grant AST-1211005.

  18. Autoantibody Signature Enhances the Positive Predictive Power of Computed Tomography and Nodule-Based Risk Models for Detection of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massion, Pierre P.; Healey, Graham F.; Peek, Laura J.; Fredericks, Lynn; Sewell, Herb F.; Murray, Andrea; Robertson, John F. R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of pulmonary nodules is increasing with the movement toward screening for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given the large number of benign nodules detected by computed tomography, an adjunctive test capable of distinguishing malignant from benign nodules would benefit practitioners. The ability of the EarlyCDT-Lung blood test (Oncimmune Ltd., Nottingham, United Kingdom) to make this distinction by measuring autoantibodies to seven tumor-associated antigens was evaluated in a prospective registry. Methods Of the members of a cohort of 1987 individuals with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act authorization, those with pulmonary nodules detected, imaging, and pathology reports were reviewed. All patients for whom a nodule was identified within 6 months of testing by EarlyCDT-Lung were included. The additivity of the test to nodule size and nodule-based risk models was explored. Results A total of 451 patients (32%) had at least one nodule, leading to 296 eligible patients after exclusions, with a lung cancer prevalence of 25%. In 4- to 20-mm nodules, a positive test result represented a greater than twofold increased relative risk for development of lung cancer as compared with a negative test result. Also, when the “both-positive rule” for combining binary tests was used, adding EarlyCDT-Lung to risk models improved diagnostic performance with high specificity (>92%) and positive predictive value (>70%). Conclusions A positive autoantibody test result reflects a significant increased risk for malignancy in lung nodules 4 to 20 mm in largest diameter. These data confirm that EarlyCDT-Lung may add value to the armamentarium of the practitioner in assessing the risk for malignancy in indeterminate pulmonary nodules. PMID:27615397

  19. US Diagnosis for Thyroid Nodules with an Indeterminate Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong Geun; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Woo [Saegyaero Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to assess the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid ultrasound (US) for evaluating thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. Among 1865 nodules in 1278 patients who received a prospective US diagnosis of their thyroid nodule(s) and who subsequently underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration, 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology were enrolled in the study. Each thyroid nodule was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 5 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'probably benign', 'indeterminate', 'suspicious for malignancy' and 'malignant.' The solid nodules were classified using all 5 categories and the partially cystic nodules classified using 4 categories ('indeterminate' was omitted). We calculated the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid US by comparing the US diagnoses with the pathology results. Of 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology (130/1865, 7.0%), 62 nodules were surgically removed. Nineteen nodules were assigned to the indeterminate category on US. The malignantly rate of the US-indeterminate category was 56.5% (35/62). The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 81.0%, 81.8%, 81.0%, 81.8% and 81.4%, respectively, when US-indeterminate nodules were excluded. There was no significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as malignant, but there was a significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as benign. Our US classification may be a feasible method for managing thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology

  20. A multicenter prospective validation study for the Korea thyroid imaging reporting and data system in patients with thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Eun Ju [Dept. of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Won Jin; Choi, Nami [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Gyu; Kim, Soo Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen [Dept. of Radiology, Ansan Hospital, Korea University School of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To validate a new risk stratification system for thyroid nodules, the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS), using a prospective design. From June 2013 to May 2015, 902 thyroid nodules were enrolled from four institutions. The type and predictive value of ultrasonography (US) predictors were analyzed according to the combination of the solidity and echogenicity of nodules; in addition, we determined malignancy risk and diagnostic performance for each category of K-TIRADS, and compared the efficacy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with a three-tier risk categorization system published in 2011. The malignancy risk was significantly higher in solid hypoechoic nodules, as compared to partially cystic or isohyperechoic nodules (each p < 0.001). The presence of any suspicious US features had a significantly higher malignancy risk (73.4%) in solid hypoechoic nodules than in partially cystic or isohyperechoic nodules (4.3–38.5%; p < 0.001). The calculated malignancy risk in K-TIRADS categories 5, 4, 3, and 2 nodules were 73.4, 19.0, 3.5, and 0.0%, respectively; and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for malignancy were 95.5, 58.6, 44.5, 96.9, and 69.5%, respectively, in K-TIRADS categories 4 and 5. The efficacy of FNA for detecting malignancy based on K-TIRADS was increased from 18.6% (101/544) to 22.5% (101/449), as compared with the three-tier risk categorization system (p < 0.001). The proposed new risk stratification system based on solidity and echogenicity was useful for risk stratification of thyroid nodules and the decision for FNA. The malignancy risk of K-TIRADS was in agreement with the findings of a previous retrospective study.

  1. Computer-aided detection of lung cancer: combining pulmonary nodule detection systems with a tumor risk prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setio, Arnaud A. A.; Jacobs, Colin; Ciompi, Francesco; van Riel, Sarah J.; Winkler Wille, Mathilde M.; Dirksen, Asger; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) has been shown to be a promising tool for automatic detection of pulmonary nodules from computed tomography (CT) images. However, the vast majority of detected nodules are benign and do not require any treatment. For effective implementation of lung cancer screening programs, accurate identification of malignant nodules is the key. We investigate strategies to improve the performance of a CAD system in detecting nodules with a high probability of being cancers. Two strategies were proposed: (1) combining CAD detections with a recently published lung cancer risk prediction model and (2) the combination of multiple CAD systems. First, CAD systems were used to detect the nodules. Each CAD system produces markers with a certain degree of suspicion. Next, the malignancy probability was automatically computed for each marker, given nodule characteristics measured by the CAD system. Last, CAD degree of suspicion and malignancy probability were combined using the product rule. We evaluated the method using 62 nodules which were proven to be malignant cancers, from 180 scans of the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The malignant nodules were considered as positive samples, while all other findings were considered negative. Using a product rule, the best proposed system achieved an improvement in sensitivity, compared to the best individual CAD system, from 41.9% to 72.6% at 2 false positives (FPs)/scan and from 56.5% to 88.7% at 8 FPs/scan. Our experiment shows that combining a nodule malignancy probability with multiple CAD systems can increase the performance of computerized detection of lung cancer.

  2. A Multicenter Prospective Validation Study for the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in Patients with Thyroid Nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Eun Ju [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Won-Jin [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Gyu [Department of Radiology, Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul 06524 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen [Department of Radiology, Ansan Hospital, Korea University School of Medicine, Ansan 15355 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Nami [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Jin [Department of Radiology, Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul 06524 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, New Korea Hospital, Gimpo 10086 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Kyun [Department of Radiology, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul 06973 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To validate a new risk stratification system for thyroid nodules, the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS), using a prospective design. From June 2013 to May 2015, 902 thyroid nodules were enrolled from four institutions. The type and predictive value of ultrasonography (US) predictors were analyzed according to the combination of the solidity and echogenicity of nodules; in addition, we determined malignancy risk and diagnostic performance for each category of K-TIRADS, and compared the efficacy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with a three-tier risk categorization system published in 2011. The malignancy risk was significantly higher in solid hypoechoic nodules, as compared to partially cystic or isohyperechoic nodules (each p < 0.001). The presence of any suspicious US features had a significantly higher malignancy risk (73.4%) in solid hypoechoic nodules than in partially cystic or isohyperechoic nodules (4.3–38.5%; p < 0.001). The calculated malignancy risk in K-TIRADS categories 5, 4, 3, and 2 nodules were 73.4, 19.0, 3.5, and 0.0%, respectively; and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for malignancy were 95.5, 58.6, 44.5, 96.9, and 69.5%, respectively, in K-TIRADS categories 4 and 5. The efficacy of FNA for detecting malignancy based on K-TIRADS was increased from 18.6% (101/544) to 22.5% (101/449), as compared with the three-tier risk categorization system (p < 0.001). The proposed new risk stratification system based on solidity and echogenicity was useful for risk stratification of thyroid nodules and the decision for FNA. The malignancy risk of K-TIRADS was in agreement with the findings of a previous retrospective study.

  3. The Effect of Monensin or Protexin on Gas Production Parameters of Alfalfa and Barley in the Ruminal Fungi Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid sobhanirad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Since the legislation of European Union has prohibited the use of growth-promoting antibiotics such as: monensin, there is an interest in alternatives to manipulate the rumen fermentation. The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animal feeds is banned in Europe due to having potential risks such as the spread of antibiotic resistance genes or the contamination of milk or meat with antibiotic residues. Recently, probiotics have been increasingly evaluated to replace or facilitate reductions in the use of antibiotics. Thus, the aim of this study was investigating the comparison of antibiotic (sodium monensin and probiotic (protexin on the gas production parameters and organic matter digestibility of feedstuffs (alfalfa hay, barley grain, and alfalfa+ barley mixture Materials and Methods Experimental treatments were included control (basal feeds without additive, basal feeds supplemented with sodium monensin or protexin probiotic at levels of 500 or 1000 mg per kg of DM in a rumen fungi culture. Ruminal fluid was collected from two fistulated sheep (49.5±2.5 kg and all samples were withdrawn 2 h after the morning ration had been consumed. Collected ruminal contents were strained through four layers of cheesecloth and brought immediately to the laboratory. To have a pure ruminal fungi culture, whole ruminal fluid was centrifuged at 1000 g for 10 min and added 0.100 mg/ml antibacterial agent (streptomycin sulfate, penicillin G, and chloramphenicol (14, 35. Gas production technique was used to detect the fermentation parameters of the treatments (16.Three parallel syringes of each treatment were prepared in this experiment. To measure the total gas production (A and the rate of gas production (c, cumulative gas production, organic digestibility and metabolizable energy of treatments until 120 h. Gas production was measured directly from the volume of the syringes at 0, 3, 6, 16, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Statistical analysis of data

  4. Identifying OH Imposters in the ALFALFA Neutral Hydrogen Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Suess, Katherine A; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI), OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 HI optical counterparts. Sixty candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colors of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ fro...

  5. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... of the soybean plants, in a manner analogous to that recently described for Lupinus albus. This Lb-NO complex is present at lower concentrations in older nodules, and is almost completely absent from senescent nodules. Exposure of young and mature nodules to oxidant stress, in the form of hydrogen peroxide...

  6. Community shifts of soybean stem-associated bacteria responding to different nodulation phenotypes and N levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Okubo, Takashi; Kaneko, Takakazu; Inaba, Shoko; Maekawa, Tomiya; Eda, Shima; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2010-03-01

    The diversity of stem-associated bacteria of non-nodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)) and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans were evaluated by clone library analyses of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Soybeans were dressed with standard nitrogen (SN) fertilization (15 kg N ha(-1)) and heavy nitrogen (HN) fertilization (615 kg N ha(-1)). The relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria in Nod(+) soybeans (66%) was smaller than that in Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans (75-76%) under SN fertilization, whereas that of Gammaproteobacteria showed the opposite pattern (23% in Nod(+) and 12-16% in Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans). Principal coordinate analysis showed that the bacterial communities of Nod(-) and Nod(++) soybeans were more similar to each other than to that of Nod(+) soybeans under SN fertilization. HN fertilization increased the relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteria in all nodulation phenotypes (33-57%) and caused drastic shifts of the bacterial community. The clustering analyses identified a subset of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level in Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria responding to both the nodulation phenotypes and nitrogen fertilization levels. Meanwhile, the abundance of Betaproteobacteria was relatively constant in all libraries constructed under these environmental conditions. The relative abundances of two OTUs in Alphaproteobacteria (Aurantimonas sp. and Methylobacterium sp.) were especially sensitive to nodulation phenotype and were drastically decreased under HN fertilization. These results suggested that a subpopulation of proteobacteria in soybeans is controlled in a similar manner through both the regulation systems of plant-rhizobia symbiosis and the nitrogen signaling pathway in plants.

  7. Comparative scanning of thyroid nodules with technetium-99m pertechnetate and technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foeldes, I.; Levay, A. (Central Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Stotz, G. (Central Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Pathology)

    1993-04-01

    Thyroid imaging was performed using technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile and technetium-99m pertechnetate in 58 patients. The [sup 99m]Tc-pertechnetate scans showed a total of 77 nodules: 60 cold, 13 hot and 4 of normal acitivity. There was no [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI accumulation in 46.4% of [sup 99m]TC-pertechnetate cold nodules; 27 (45%) of these nodules showed [sup 99m]TC-MIBI uptake with the same intensity as the surrounding normal tissue, and five (8.6%) became hot with [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI. Of the [sup 99m]TC-pertechnetate hot nodules 11 (84.6%) could not be differentiated from the normal extranodular tissue on the [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI scan. The histopathology of 34 surgically removed nodules proved that increased, normal or decreased [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI accumulation is not specific for thyroid malignance and that the [sup 99m]Tc-MIBI uptake depends mainly on the viability of thyroid tissue. (orig.).

  8. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (Hifu) Treatment For Thyroid Nodules: Experimental And First Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnault, Olivier; Franc, Brigitte; Leenhardt, Laurence; Rouxel, Agnès; Ménégaux, Fabrice; Lacoste, François

    2007-05-01

    OBJECTIVE: Thyroid nodules are common and can only be removed by surgery. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) could be a possible minimally invasive alternative treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using HIFU to precisely ablate thyroid nodules without affecting neighbouring structures. METHODS: HIFU was generated by a 3-MHz spherical piezocomposite transducer moved across the target in a stepwise fashion. In a first clinical study 25 patients had their nodules treated with HIFU 2 weeks prior to planned thyroidectomy, using increasing energy. The last patients received a local anesthesia. The lesions were assessed by the pathologist. RESULTS: The histological lesions were clearly visible in most of the fully treated patients, particularly those who received higher energy. Superficial and reversible skin blisters were observed in 7 patients. The design of the treatment head was subsequently modified to eliminate such risk. CONCLUSION: The patient trials confirmed the precision of the targeting and set the energy levels for safe thyroid nodule ablation with HIFU. Further study is needed to assess nodule's changes at longer follow-up.

  9. The Cysteine Protease–Cysteine Protease Inhibitor System Explored in Soybean Nodule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dorcas Quain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Almost all protease families have been associated with plant development, particularly senescence, which is the final developmental stage of every organ before cell death. Proteolysis remobilizes and recycles nitrogen from senescent organs that is required, for example, seed development. Senescence-associated expression of proteases has recently been characterized using large-scale gene expression analysis seeking to identify and characterize senescence-related genes. Increasing activities of proteolytic enzymes, particularly cysteine proteases, are observed during the senescence of legume nodules, in which a symbiotic relationship between the host plant and bacteria (Rhizobia facilitate the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. It is generally considered that cysteine proteases are compartmentalized to prevent uncontrolled proteolysis in nitrogen-fixing nodules. In addition, the activities of cysteine proteases are regulated by endogenous cysteine protease inhibitors called cystatins. These small proteins form reversible complexes with cysteine proteases, leading to inactivation. However, very little is currently known about how the cysteine protease-cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin system is regulated during nodule development. Moreover, our current understanding of the expression and functions of proteases and protease inhibitors in nodules is fragmented. To address this issue, we have summarized the current knowledge and techniques used for studying proteases and their inhibitors including the application of “omics” tools, with a particular focus on changes in the cysteine protease-cystatin system during nodule development.

  10. The carbon-nitrogen balance of the nodule and its regulation under elevated carbon dioxide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libault, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  11. Phenotypical and genotypical characteristics of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from annual Medicago spp. in Soummam Valley (Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Sebbane, N.; Sahnoune, M.; Zakhia, Frédéric; Willems, A.; Benallaoua, S.; De Lajudie, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Aims: In the framework of agro-pastoral system management using local annual medics coupled with their native root-nodulating bacteria to extend pasture zones, increase forage yields and improve ovine and bovine breeding in Algeria, we investigated diversity of rhizobia from annual Medicago spp. (Medicago arabica, Medicago polymorpha, Medicago minima and Medicago orbicularis). Methods and Results: Ten nodulating-isolates were characterized by morphological, cultural, physiological and biochem...

  12. [An ovarian mucinous borderline tumour with mixed mural nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhouibi, A; Denoux, Y; Touil, N; Devouassoux Shisheboran, M; Carbonnel, M; Baglin, A C

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of mural nodules in serous or mucinous ovarian tumours is not frequent. Mural nodule can be developed in benign, borderline or malignant tumours. They can be benign, malignant or mixed type. Thus the prognosis of the ovarian tumour can be dramatically modified by the presence if these nodules. Eighty-two cases of mural nodules were reported in the literature, among which we account four cases of mixed nodules type. We report an additional case of mixed type mural nodules of anaplastic carcinoma and sarcoma-like developed in an ovarian mucinous borderline tumour at a 60-year-old woman.We give details about the classification, the differential diagnosis and prognosis of theses nodules.

  13. The value of HIC1 and SIRT1 expression levels in thyroid nodule for assessing benign or malignant nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Hua Fang; Ying-Jie Xu; Hui-Ming Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the value of HIC1 and SIRT1 expression levels in thyroid nodule for assessing benign or malignant nodules.Method: 70 cases of surgically removed thyroid cancer tissue samples were collected as pathology group, 70 cases of corresponding para-carcinoma tissue specimens were collected as control group, immunohistochemistry was used to detect HIC1 and SIRT1 protein expression levels, and fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of HIC1 and SIRT1 as well as OXTR, CDH1, RASSF1A, TIMP3, MMP13, S100A4, CCNG2 and MK.Results: HIC1 expression levels in thyroid carcinoma tissue of pathology group were significantly lower than those of control group while SIRT1 expression levels were significantly higher than those of control group; compared with thyroid cancer tissue with TNM I-II stage, negative ductal infiltration and negative lymph node metastasis, HIC1 expression levels significantly decreased while SIRT1 expression levels significantly increased in thyroid cancer tissue with TNM III-IV stage, positive ductal infiltration and positive lymph node metastasis; in thyroid cancer tissue with positive HIC1 expression, OXTR, CDH1, RASSF1A and TIMP3 expression levels were significantly higher than those in thyroid cancer tissue with negative HIC1 expression; in thyroid cancer tissue with positive SIRT1 expression, MMP13, S100A4, CCNG2 and MK expression levels were significantly higher than those in thyroid cancer tissue with negative SIRT1 expression. Conclusion:HIC1 expression deletion and SIRT1 expression increase in thyroid nodule tissue are associated with the occurrence and development of thyroid carcinoma, and methylation and deacetylation may be epigenetic mechanism of HIC1 and SIRT1 to regulate cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis.

  14. Computed Tomography Guided Hook-wire Precise Localization and Minimally Invasive Resection of Pulmonary Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong WANG

    2015-11-01

    hyperplasia (AAH, and 2 nonspecific chronic inflammations. Conclusion The preoperative CT-guided Hook-wire localization for pulmonary nodules particularly for GGOs is an effective and safe technique to assist VATS resection of the nodules. It can increase the ratio of lung wedge resection with little complications and may be better used in clinical diagnosis and treatment of small pulmonary nodules with VATS. Lung mGGOs carry a high risk of malignancy. Aggressive surgical resection of these mGGOs is necessary and feasible.

  15. Expression of novel cytosolic malate dehydrogenases (cMDH) in Lupinus angustifolius nodules during phosphorus starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Marcellous; Phiri, Ethel; Khan, Wesaal; Sakiroğlu, Muhammet; Valentine, Alex; Khan, Sehaam

    2014-11-01

    During P deficiency, the increased activity of malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) can lead to malate accumulation. Cytosolic- and nodule-enhanced MDH (cMDH and neMDH, respectively) are known isoforms, which contribute to MDH activity in root nodules. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the cMDH isoforms in nodule malate supply under P deficiency. Nodulated lupins (Lupinus angustifolius var. Tanjil) were hydroponically grown at adequate P (+P) or low P (-P). Total P concentration in nodules decreased under P deficiency, which coincided with an increase in total MDH activity. A consequence of higher MDH activity was the enhanced accumulation of malate derived from dark CO2 fixation via PEPC and not from pyruvate. Although no measurable neMDH presence could be detected via PCR, gene-specific primers detected two 1kb amplicons of cMDH, designated LangMDH1 (corresponding to +P, HQ690186) and LangMDH2 (corresponding to -P, HQ690187), respectively. Sequencing analyses of these cMDH amplicons showed them to be 96% identical on an amino acid level. There was a high degree of diversification between proteins detected in this study and other known MDH proteins, particularly those from other leguminous plants. Enhanced malate synthesis in P-deficient nodules was achieved via increased anaplerotic CO2 fixation and subsequent higher MDH activities. Novel isoforms of cytosolic MDH may be involved, as shown by gene expression of specific genes under P deficiency.

  16. Effect of graded levels of ifber from alfalfa meal on apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids of growing pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; GAO Li-xiang; LIU Li; DING Ze-ming; ZHANG Hong-fu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ifber level from alfalfa meal and sampling time on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in growing pigs. A total of 24 ileal-can-nulated pigs (Duroc×(Large White×Landrace) with body weight (21.4±1.5) kg) were randomly alotted to 4 treatments. The pigs were provided a corn-soybean meal diet or a diet containing 5, 10 or 20% of alfalfa meal during two 10-d experimental periods. The AID of AA was measured. Six ileal-cannulated pigs were fed a protein-free diet in order to estimate the en-dogenous protein losses and SID of AA. Ileal AA digestibility was not affected by inclusion of 5 or 10% alfalfa meal in the diet (P>0.05). The AID of His, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Val, Ala, Asp, Cys, Gly, Pro, Ser and Tyr reduced by 2.0–6.8% with the addition level of alfalfa meal (linear,P0.05). A multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account both the soluble and insoluble ifber content in the diets, explained more than 36% of variation in SID of Ser and Thr (P<0.05). In conclusion, the corn-soybean meal diet containing 10% of alfalfa meal did not affect ileal AA digestion. The AID and SID of AA were similar between two sampling times. Increasing the concentration of total dietary ifber from 12.3 to 21.4% by adding graded levels of alfalfa meal (0–20%) to a corn-soybean meal control diet induced a linear reduction in AID and SID of most AA. Soluble and insoluble ifbers from alfalfa meal have differential roles in the AA digestion, which may help explain the variation observed in the SID of partial AA. These ifndings would provide important information for dietary ifber level and composition related to AA digestion.

  17. Extra-copy nifA enhances the nodulation efficiency of Sinorhizobium fredii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that nifA gene is involved in nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation regulation of Rhizobium. We study the role of nifA on nodulation of leguminous plants. We found that Sinorhizobium fredii harboring multi-copy plasmid carrying the constitutively expressed Klebsiella pneumoniae nifA exhibited an increase of noduiation activity and nodulation competitiveness on soybean plants. The Nod-factor secreted by the rhizobia cells containing the multi-copied nifA was assayed,and preliminary results showed that S. fredii containing the multi-copy plasmid carrying nifA produced higher strength of Nod-factor than the rhizobia containing the same plasmid carrying the vector did.

  18. Antioxidant treatments counteract the non-culturability of bacterial endophytes isolated from legume nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresu, Rosella; Tondello, Alessandra; Polone, Elisa; Sulas, Leonardo; Baldan, Barbara; Squartini, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    In many wild legumes, attempts to cultivate nodule bacteria fail. We hypothesized that the limited culturability could be related to injury from oxidative stress caused by disruption of plant tissues during isolation. To test that, we isolated bacteria from nodules of Hedysarum spinosissimum and Tetragonolobus purpureus using buffers supplemented with scavenging systems to prevent damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatments included the following: antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbate, EDTA) or enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase), tested either as modified squashing buffers or added in plates. Some combinations yielded dramatic increases of culturability. Different endophytes were found, including additional Rhizobiaceae that were not the primary symbiont and were unable to nodulate. Their H2O2 tolerance in broth culture showed differences consistent with the unequal culturability observed. In wild legumes species, ROS generation during extraction appears to be a major factor limiting microbiota isolation, and protocols presented here significantly improve the recovery of culturable bacterial endophytes from plants.

  19. The Lung TIME: annotated lung nodule dataset and nodule detection framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejsi, Martin; Kybic, Jan; Polovincak, Michal; Tuma, Stanislav

    2009-02-01

    The Lung Test Images from Motol Environment (Lung TIME) is a new publicly available dataset of thoracic CT scans with manually annotated pulmonary nodules. It is larger than other publicly available datasets. Pulmonary nodules are lesions in the lungs, which may indicate lung cancer. Their early detection significantly improves survival rate of patients. Automatic nodule detecting systems using CT scans are being developed to reduce physicians' load and to improve detection quality. Besides presenting our own nodule detection system, in this article, we mainly address the problem of testing and comparison of automatic nodule detection methods. Our publicly available 157 CT scan dataset with 394 annotated nodules contains almost every nodule types (pleura attached, vessel attached, solitary, regular, irregular) with 2-10mm in diameter, except ground glass opacities (GGO). Annotation was done consensually by two experienced radiologists. The data are in DICOM format, annotations are provided in XML format compatible with the Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC). Our computer aided diagnosis system (CAD) is based on mathematical morphology and filtration with a subsequent classification step. We use Asymmetric AdaBoost classifier. The system was tested using TIME, LIDC and ANODE09 databases. The performance was evaluated by cross-validation for Lung TIME and LIDC, and using the supplied evaluation procedure for ANODE09. The sensitivity at chosen working point was 94.27% with 7.57 false positives/slice for TIME and LIDC datasets combined, 94.03% with 5.46 FPs/slice for the Lung TIME, 89.62% sensitivity with 12.03 FPs/slice for LIDC, and 78.68% with 4,61 FPs/slice when applied on ANODE09.

  20. Effects of phosphorous fertilizer on seedlings growth and nodulation capabilities of some popular agroforestry tree species of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Belal Uddin; Sharif Ahmed Mukul; Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin Khan; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Phosphorous (P) fertilizer (I.e. TSP or triple super phosphate @ 80 kg/hm2) on seedling growth and nodulation capabilities of three potentially important agroforestry tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Albizia lebbeck and Albizia procera) of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in nursery beds with six-month-old polybag seedlings of A. Auriculi formis, A. Lebbeck and A. Procera. The effects of P fertilizer on seedling growth and nodulation were compared with that of the seedlings grown in control (I.e. Unfertilized soil). The observations revealed that the seedling growth was enhanced significantly with the application of P fertilizer.hegrowth was found more pronounced in A. Auriculiformis, whereas it was not apparent and shows depressed growth in case of A. Lebbeck. The study also suggests that the nodulation in terms of nodule number and size was also increased significantly with the application of P fertilizer.

  1. Detecting hepatic nodules and identifying feeding arteries of hepatocellular carcinoma:efifcacy of cone-beam computed tomography in transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiro Ushijima; Tsuyoshi Tajima; Akihiro Nishie; Yoshiki Asayama; Kousei Ishigami; Masakazu Hirakawa; Daisuke Kakihara; Daisuke Okamoto; Hiroshi Honda

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) to detect hapatocelular carcinoma (HCC) nodules and their feeding arteries.Methods: Twenty-four patients with HCCs who underwent TACE using CBCT in addition to conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were enroled. After both conventional DSA and CBCT through the hepatic artery were acquired, TACE were performed. The nodules were deifned as an HCC when dense accumulation of iodized oil was found within the nodule on CT obtained 2 weeks after the TACE. The number of detected nodules and identiifed feeding arteries, and their correlations with anatomical locations were assessed.Results: A total of 39 HCC nodules (tumor diameter, 7-40 mm; mean, 17.4 ± 7.9 mm) were detected. Thirty-one nodules were detected by DSA alone but 8 nodules were additionaly detected by adding CBCT to DSA. There were 53 feeding arteries associated with the 39 HCC nodules. Among these arteries, 21 were identiifed by DSA alone; however, 47 were identiifed by combining CBCT with DSA. Additional feeding arteries, especialy for the nodules located at the right and caudate lobes, were identiifed by CBCT. On the other hand, there was no difference in detection of nodules between the anatomical locations by CBCT.Conclusion: The use of CBCT in addition to DSA offers potential for increasing the number of detected nodules, and the number of their feeding arteries at the right and caudate lobes. CBCT might improve the quality of TACE procedure for HCC than DSA alone.

  2. Medicago sativa--Sinorhizobium meliloti Symbiosis Promotes the Bioaccumulation of Zinc in Nodulated Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, Kais; Nouairi, Issam; Slama, Ines; Talbi-Zribi, Ons; Mhadhbi, Haythem

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated effects of Zn supply on germination, growth, inorganic solutes (Zn, Ca, Fe, and Mg) partitioning and nodulation of Medicago sativa This plant was cultivated with and without Zn (2 mM). Treatments were plants without (control) and with Zn tolerant strain (S532), Zn intolerant strain (S112) and 2 mM urea nitrogen fertilisation. Results showed that M. sativa germinates at rates of 50% at 2 mM Zn. For plants given nitrogen fertilisation, Zn increased plant biomass production. When grown with symbionts, Zn supply had no effect on nodulation. Moreover, plants with S112 showed a decrease of shoot and roots biomasses. However, in symbiosis with S532, an increase of roots biomass was observed. Plants in symbiosis with S. meliloti accumulated more Zn in their roots than nitrogen fertilised plants. Zn supply results in an increase of Ca concentration in roots of fertilised nitrogen plants. However, under Zn supply, Fe concentration decreased in roots and increased in nodules of plants with S112. Zn supply showed contrasting effects on Mg concentrations for plants with nitrogen fertilisation (increase) and plants with S112 (decrease). The capacity of M. sativa to accumulate Zn in their nodulated roots encouraged its use in phytostabilisation processes.

  3. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 12. Sequence analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) cDNA clones and appearance of PAL transcripts in elicitor-treated cell cultures and developing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowri, G; Paiva, N L; Dixon, R A

    1991-09-01

    An expression library containing cDNAs derived from transcripts from fungal elicitor-treated alfalfa cell suspension cultures was screened with an antiserum raised against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) from alfalfa. A single immunoreactive clone was isolated which encoded a full-length PAL cDNA (APAL1) consisting of a 2175 bp open reading frame, 96 bp 5'-untranslated leader and 128 bp 3'-non-coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence was 86.5% similar to that of the PAL2 gene of bean, and encoded a polypeptide of Mr 78,865. A second PAL cDNA species was isolated, whose 3'-untranslated region was 86% identical to that of APAL1. Southern blot analysis indicated that PAL is encoded by a small multigene family in alfalfa. PAL transcript levels were rapidly and massively induced, and preceded increased PAL extractable activity, on exposure of alfalfa suspension cells to elicitor from baker's yeast. PAL transcripts were most abundant in roots, stems and petioles during growth and development of alfalfa seedlings. These studies provide the basis for an examination of the developmental and environmental control of a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid synthesis in a plant species which is readily amenable to stable genetic transformation.

  4. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can serve as a cover crop and subsequent forage crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...

  5. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  6. Mechanisms of qualitative and quantitative resistance to Aphanomyces root rot in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphanomyces root rot (ARR), caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, is one of the most important diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in the United States. Two races of the pathogen are currently recognized. Most modern alfalfa cultivars have high levels of resistance to race 1 but few cultivars have resi...

  7. Mapping fall dormancy and winter injury in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is a widely planted perennial forage crop. Dormancy in autumn (fall dormancy) is generally negatively correlated with winter injury in alfalfa. To understand the genetic basis of the two traits, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling autumn growth and winter injury using a...

  8. Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa, traditionally used for animal feed, has attracted attention as a potential feedstock for biofuels and the viability of the process would be enhanced by co-products with value-added uses. This study describes extraction of protein from dried alfalfa leaves and the functional properties of th...

  9. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  10. Roadside alfalfa: Innocent bystanders or conveyers of genetically-engineered traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clumps of alfalfa are a common sight along roads and vacant lots in areas that grow alfalfa for hay or seed. So what role do feral roadside plants play in dispersing transgenes? Is there a risk that transgenic feral plants serve as reservoirs or conduits that might facilitate the movement of transg...

  11. Alfalfa transgene dispersal and adventitious presence: understanding grower perception of risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of coexistence, the alfalfa industry has developed a set of Best Management Practices (BMP) to maintain separation of GE and conventional production. But the success of BMP depends upon the degree that growers comply. Therefore we surveyed 530 alfalfa hay and seed producer...

  12. Interaction of bale size and preservative rate for large-round bales of alfalfa hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, two studies conducted at the US Dairy Forage Research Center have reported inconsistent storage responses following the application of propionic-acid-based preservatives to alfalfa or alfalfa-orchardgrass hays. One of these studies utilized 5-foot-diameter round bales, and produced disappo...

  13. A mineral seed coating for control of seedling diseases of alfalfa suitable for organic production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with the systemic fungicide mefenoxam (Apron XL) for control of soilborne seedling diseases. However, Apron XL does not have activity against Aphanomyces euteiches, the causal agent of Aphanomyces root rot (ARR), which is an important component of the alfalfa root rot co...

  14. Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

  15. The Productivity and Quality of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in Romanian Forest Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai STAVARACHE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative use of alfalfa, for various purposes, including the production of biofuels or food supplement for human alimentation, is a study topic still in its early stages of research. Studying and understanding the biology of alfalfa and the factors with a major influence on it are very important activities. The productivity and quality of alfalfa are two indicators that help determine, in addition to economic value, the way in which alfalfa can be used. Evolution of alfalfa yield and quality depends on many factors, such as the growth stage of alfalfa plants at harvesting. It was observed over three years of vegetation the influence of alfalfa plant growth stage at harvest on plant height, leaves/stems ratio, production of leaves, stems and whole plant (DM - dry matter per hectare and on quality indicators (CP - crude protein, NDF - neutral detergent fiber and ADF - acid detergent fiber. The results showed that, with the advancement of phenological phases, from early bud stage to complete flowering, the total biomass output raised from 2.79 Mg·ha-1 to 4.60 Mg·ha-1, the neutral detergent fiber raised from 48.4-50.6% to 62.0-67.7%, while crude protein content decreased from 21.2-24.0% to 13.3-16.5%. The parameter values were correlated with alfalfa growth stage during the harvesting (significant at the 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels.

  16. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  17. Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules in Colorectal-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPN) at staging computed tomography (CT) for colorectal cancer (CRC), and the optimal diagnostic approach, are debated. This study aimed to analyse variability in radiologists' detection of IPN at staging CT for CRC. METHODS......: All patients with CRC referred to our center between 2006 and 2011 were included. Primary staging CT scans were re-evaluated by an experienced thoracic radiologist whose findings were entered into a dedicated database and merged with data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database, the National...... Patient Registry, the Danish Pathology Registry, and the primary CT evaluation. Inter-reader agreement was calculated by Kappa statistics, and associations between variables and malignancy of pulmonary nodules were analyzed with χ (2) and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests. Multivariable logistic regression...

  18. Genetic dissection of nitrogen nutrition in pea through a QTL approach of root, nodule, and shoot variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourion, Virginie; Rizvi, Syed Masood Hasan; Fournier, Sarah; de Larambergue, Henri; Galmiche, Fabien; Marget, Pascal; Duc, Gérard; Burstin, Judith

    2010-06-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the third most important grain legume worldwide, and the increasing demand for protein-rich raw material has led to a great interest in this crop as a protein source. Seed yield and protein content in crops are strongly determined by nitrogen (N) nutrition, which in legumes relies on two complementary pathways: absorption by roots of soil mineral nitrogen, and fixation in nodules of atmospheric dinitrogen through the plant-Rhizobium symbiosis. This study assessed the potential of naturally occurring genetic variability of nodulated root structure and functioning traits to improve N nutrition in pea. Glasshouse and field experiments were performed on seven pea genotypes and on the 'Cameor' x 'Ballet' population of recombinant inbred lines selected on the basis of parental contrast for root and nodule traits. Significant variation was observed for most traits, which were obtained from non-destructive kinetic measurements of nodulated root and shoot in pouches, root and shoot image analysis, (15)N quantification, or seed yield and protein content determination. A significant positive relationship was found between nodule establishment and root system growth, both among the seven genotypes and the RIL population. Moreover, several quantitative trait loci for root or nodule traits and seed N accumulation were mapped in similar locations, highlighting the possibility of breeding new pea cultivars with increased root system size, sustained nodule number, and improved N nutrition. The impact on both root or nodule traits and N nutrition of the genomic regions of the major developmental genes Le and Af was also underlined.

  19. Benign Papules and Nodules of Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Gürel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the more common benign oral papules and nodules of oral mucosa with emphasis on their etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathology, and treatment. These lesions include mucocele, traumatic fibroma, epulis, pyogenic granuloma, oral papilloma, oral warts, lymphangioma, hemangioma, lipoma, oral nevi and some soft tissue benign tumors. These benign lesions must be separated clinically and histologically from precancerous and malign neoplastic lesions. Accurate clinico-pathological diagnosis is mandatory to insure appropriate therapy.

  20. Pemphigus vulgaris with solitary toxic thyroid nodule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfishawy, Mostafa; Anwar, Karim; Elbendary, Amira; Daoud, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is reported to be associated with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases. However we report herein a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with autonomous toxic nodule. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old woman was evaluated for blisters and erosions that develop on her trunk, face, and extremities, with a five-year history of progressively enlarging neck mass, and a past medical history of pemphigus vulgaris seven years ago. The condition was associated with palpitation, dyspnea, and heat intolerance. Thyroid function tests and thyroid scan were compatible with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis due to autonomous toxic nodule. Exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris was proved by skin biopsy from the patient which revealed histologic picture of pemphigus vulgaris. Conclusion. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are reported to associate pemphigus vulgaris. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the English literature to report association between pemphigus vulgaris and autonomous toxic nodule and highlights the possibility of occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris with a nonautoimmune thyroid disease raising the question: is it just a coincidence or is there an explanation for the occurrence of both conditions together?

  1. Pemphigus Vulgaris with Solitary Toxic Thyroid Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Alfishawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is reported to be associated with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases. However we report herein a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with autonomous toxic nodule. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old woman was evaluated for blisters and erosions that develop on her trunk, face, and extremities, with a five-year history of progressively enlarging neck mass, and a past medical history of pemphigus vulgaris seven years ago. The condition was associated with palpitation, dyspnea, and heat intolerance. Thyroid function tests and thyroid scan were compatible with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis due to autonomous toxic nodule. Exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris was proved by skin biopsy from the patient which revealed histologic picture of pemphigus vulgaris. Conclusion. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are reported to associate pemphigus vulgaris. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the English literature to report association between pemphigus vulgaris and autonomous toxic nodule and highlights the possibility of occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris with a nonautoimmune thyroid disease raising the question: is it just a coincidence or is there an explanation for the occurrence of both conditions together?

  2. Modulation of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in bacteroids within Medicago sativa nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, C; Senatore, B; Arbucci, S; Pieraccini, G; Defez, R

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the dose-response effects of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on Medicago plant growth and dry weight production, we increased the synthesis of IAA in both free-living and symbiosis-stage rhizobial bacteroids during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. For this purpose, site-directed mutagenesis was applied to modify an 85-bp promoter sequence, driving the expression of iaaM and tms2 genes for IAA biosynthesis. A positive correlation was found between the higher expression of IAA biosynthetic genes in free-living bacteria and the increased production of IAA under both free-living and symbiotic conditions. Plants nodulated by RD65 and RD66 strains, synthetizing the highest IAA concentration, showed a significant (up to 73%) increase in the shoot fresh weight and upregulation of nitrogenase gene, nifH, compared to plants nodulated by the wild-type strain. When these plants were analyzed by confocal microscopy, using an anti-IAA antibody, the strongest signal was observed in bacteroids of Medicago sativa RD66 (Ms-RD66) plants, even when they were located in the senescent nodule zone. We show here a simple system to modulate endogenous IAA biosynthesis in bacteria nodulating legumes suitable to investigate which is the maximum level of IAA biosynthesis, resulting in the maximal increase of plant growth.

  3. Effects of lime and calcium on root development and nodulation of clovers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, D.; Ritchey, D.; Belesky, D. [USDA ARS, Booneville, AR (USA). SPA Dale Bumpers Small Farms Research Centre

    2002-07-01

    Acidic soils can reduce the nodulation of forage legumes. Studies with a Gilpin series silt loam (fine loamy, mixed mesic Typic Hapludult) from New, WV, USA were conducted to determine the effects of lime on root development, and to assess effects of soil Ca and pH on nodulation. Liming increased soil pH from 4.8 to 5.3, nodulation, and root growth of white clover (Trifolium repens L., cultivar Huia) 28 d after planting. Seedlings from unlimed soil formed fewer indeterminate and determinate roots. Next, soils were amended with either CaCO{sub 3} or a mixture of CaCO{sub 3} and CaSO{sub 4} to achieve a soil pH of 4.7 to 6.1 and soil Ca of 170 to 680 mg kg{sup -1} soil. There was a strong quadratic relationship between number of nodules per white clover seedling 28 d after planting and soil pH. Another experiment was conducted to determine if these trends were expressed under field conditions. In 1993, field plots were amended with lime or a coal combustion by-product that supplied Ca as CaSO{sub 4} and seeded in 1994 to cool-season grasses. In spring of 1998, plots were drilled with either red (Trifolium pratense, L.) or white clover. The nodules per primary root were determined in May (1998,1999) and August (1998). Number of nodules per primary root was more closely associated with soil pH than soil Ca.

  4. Identification and Dynamic Regulation of microRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Functional Soybean Nodules by High-Throughput Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Both symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia and nitrogen fixation in functional nodules are dramatically affected by salt stress. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the salt tolerance of functional nodules is essential for genetic improvement of nitrogen fixation efficiency. microRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in stress responses in many plants and in symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF in soybean. However, the dynamic regulation of miRNAs in functioning nodules during salt stress response remains unknown. We performed deep sequencing of miRNAs to understand the miRNA expression profile in normal or salt stressed-soybean mature nodules. We identified 110 known miRNAs belonging to 61 miRNA families and 128 novel miRNAs belonging to 64 miRNA families. Among them, 104 miRNAs were dramatically differentially expressed (>2-fold or detected only in one library during salt stress. qRT-PCR analysis of eight miRNAs confirmed that these miRNAs were dynamically regulated in response to salt stress in functional soybean nodules. These data significantly increase the number of miRNAs known to be expressed in soybean nodules, and revealed for the first time a dynamic regulation of miRNAs during salt stress in functional nodules. The findings suggest great potential for miRNAs in functional soybean nodules during salt stress.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF ALFALFA LOCAL POPULATIONS FOR CREATION OF NEW BREEDING GERMPLAZM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Čupić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield of dry matter and green mass are important factors in selection of fodder crop cultivars. Low genetic gain was achieved during the long time of fodder crops breeding for yield. Therefore we investigated possibility of using local populations of alfalfa for yield increase with direct and indirect selection. Strong and significant influence of genotypes and environments was recorded for all examined traits and their interactions at the level p<0.01. The highest variability was recorded for green mass yield 48.21%; while the lowest variation was for height 13.18%. High share of genotype variance as well as high heritability were recorded in total variance for the traits number of stem and plant height.

  6. The difference in antioxidant capacity of four alfalfa cultivars in response to Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hui-Ping; Shan, Chang-Juan; Zhao, Hua; Li, Jun-Chao; Jia, Gen-Liang; Jiang, Hai; Wu, San-Qiao; Wang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidative responses in roots, stem and leaves of four alfalfa cultivars to different concentrations of zinc (Zn) (0, 300, 600 and 900 μM) for 23 days. Among the four cultivars, Aohan displayed the highest Zn concentrations in tissues and the largest Zn amount in aerial parts. Zn stress induced the production of H2O2 and increased the content of free proline and activities of antioxidative enzymes in roots, stem and leaves of Aohan. Based on the above results, we concluded that Aohan is superior to other three cultivars for Zn phyto-remediation, which indicated that Aohan is a novel Zn accumulator and able to tolerate Zn-induced toxicity by activating the antioxidative defense system.

  7. Effect of UV-C on Drought Tolerance of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa Callus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Ehsanpour

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Water stress and unfavorable climate decrease the growth and development of plant globally. Medicago is a valuable plant as a source of food for animal, foliage and for medicine. Since, Iran is located in a dry area; consequently, the study of plant responses to water stress is important. In this research UV-C radiation was used to induce physiological and genetic changes in alfalfa callus. In vitro grown calluses of M. sativa were exposed to UV-C for 0, 15, 30 and 60 min and then, were transferred to MS medium containing 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30% PEG. All explants were kept in the dark in the culture room. Calluses tolerate to osmotic stress were selected according to fresh weight. Results showed that radiation of UV-C for 60 min increased the osmotic tolerance and decreased the effect of drought stress.

  8. Interactive effects of molasses by homofermentative and heterofermentative inoculants on fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation, nutritive value and aerobic stability of wilted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Taghizadeh, A; Kargar, S; Yang, W Z

    2014-04-01

    The effect of adding molasses (0, UM or 50 g/kg on DM basis, M) and two types of inoculant including homofermentative (HO) and a combination of homofermentative and propionate-producing bacterial (HOPAB) inoculants on silage fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation and aerobic stability of pre-bloom, wilted alfalfa (AS) was determined in laboratory silos. The HOPAB inoculant was more effective than HO in reducing the alfalfa silage pH but increased propionate content in the absence of M (p alfalfa crop with M and HOPAB improved aerobic stability by increasing the concentration of acetate and propionate of AS respectively. Adding M tended (p < 0.10) to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cumulative gas production (CGP). HOPAB alone increased DM disappearance at 24 h post-incubation and effective degradability assuming outflow rate of 8%/h relative to untreated AS (p < 0.05). It was concluded that adding M had no pronounced effects on AS fermentation quality, but increased aerobic stability. HOPAB-inoculated AS with no addition of M improved fermentation quality and increased DM degradability compared with HO.

  9. CEUS: An essential component in a multimodality approach to small nodules in patients at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyun-Jung, E-mail: Hyun-Jung.jang@uhn.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Kim, Tae Kyoung, E-mail: Taekyoung.Kim@uhn.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, 585 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2N2 (Canada); Burns, Peter N, E-mail: burns@sri.utoronto.ca [Department of Imaging Research, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Health Sciences centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto ON M4 N 3M5 (Canada); Wilson, Stephanie R, E-mail: Stephanie.wilson@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Foothills Medical Centre, 1403 29 Street NW, Calgary, AB T2R 1M5 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • CEUS resolves hypervascular pseudolesions, frequent on CT and MR, from vascular shunts. • US has the advantage of showing a baseline nodule for characterization. • CEUS shows excellent sensitivity to contrast agents, providing superior arterial phase sensitivity. • Real-time CEUS performance shows optimally perfusion patterns of benign tumor nodules. • CEUS performed at surveillance detection of nodules is efficient and effective. - Abstract: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) plays an essential role in the evaluation of small nodules in livers at high-risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and offers unique advantages over CT/MRI. These include the sensitive depiction of arterial hypervascularity of HCC, better demonstration of rapid washout for non-HCC malignancy as well as of very late washout of HCC. Visualization of early vascular filling patterns for benign hypervascular lesions is of indisputable value. A frequently uncounted benefit of CEUS includes the value of its performance following nodule detection at ultrasound surveillance, including one-stop exclusion of typical benignancy, preclusion of arterial pseudolesions shown on CT/MR, and the avoidance of miscorrelation of a nodule on surveillance and subsequent diagnostic imaging. Therefore, CEUS can effectively be used in the diagnostic algorithm for new liver nodules detected during HCC surveillance. Despite the fact that CEUS is actively used as a major diagnostic test for HCC in Asia, Europe, and Canada with increasing demands in clinical practice, CEUS is not included in the diagnostic tests for HCC in some major practice guidelines. In this manuscript, we focus on small nodules in patients at high-risk for HCC, and review some of the unique advantages of CEUS that contribute to lesion characterization and subsequent patient management, showing why CEUS should be an essential component of the diagnostic algorithm for HCC.

  10. Diversity pattern of nitrogen fixing microbes in nodules of Trifolium arvense (L. at different initial stages of ecosystem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schloter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Legumes can be considered as pioneer plants during ecosystem development, as they form a symbiosis with different nitrogen fixing rhizobia species, which enable the plants to grow on soils with low available nitrogen content. In this study we compared the abundance and diversity of nitrogen fixing microbes based on the functional marker gene nifH, which codes for a subunit of the Fe-protein of the dinitrogenase reductase, in nodules of different size classes of Trifolium arvense (L.. Additionally, carbon and nitrogen contents of the bulk soil and plant material were measured. Plants were harvested from different sites, reflecting 2 (2a and 5 (5a yr of ecosystem development, of an opencast lignite mining area in the south of Cottbus, Lower Lusatia (Germany where the artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" was constructed to study the development of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants from the 5a site revealed higher amounts of carbon and nitrogen, although nifH gene abundances in the nodules and carbon and nitrogen contents between the two soils did not differ significantly. Analysis of the nifH clone libraries showed a significant effect of the nodule size on the community composition of nitrogen fixing microbes. Medium sized nodules (2–5 mm contained a uniform community composed of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, whereas the small nodules (Rhizobium nifH gene sequences. Regarding the impact of the soil age on the community composition a clear distinction between the small and the medium nodules can be made. While clone libraries from the medium nodules were pretty similar at both soil ages, soil age had a significant effect on the community compositions of the small nodules, where the proportion of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii increased with soil age.

  11. Diversity pattern of nitrogen fixing microbes in nodules of Trifolium arvense (L. at different initial stages of ecosystem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schloter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes can be considered as pioneer plants during ecosystem development, as they form a symbiosis with different nitrogen fixing rhizobia species, which enable the plants to grow on soils with low available nitrogen content. In this study we compared the abundance and diversity of nitrogen fixing microbes based on the functional marker gene nifH, which codes for a subunit of the Fe-protein of the dinitrogenase reductase, in nodules of different size classes of Trifolium arvense (L.. Additionally, carbon and nitrogen contents of the bulk soil and plant material were measured. Plants were harvested from different sites, reflecting 2 (2a and 5 (5a yr of ecosystem development, of an opencast lignite mining area in the south of Cottbus, Lower Lusatia (Germany where the artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" was constructed to study the development of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants from the 5a site revealed higher amounts of carbon and nitrogen, although nifH gene abundances in the nodules and carbon and nitrogen contents between the two soils did not differ significantly. Analysis of the nifH clone libraries showed a significant effect of the nodule size on the community composition of nitrogen fixing microbes. Medium sized nodules (2–5 mm contained a uniform community composed of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, whereas the small nodules (Rhizobium nifH gene sequences. Regarding the impact of the soil age on the community composition a clear distinction between the small and the medium nodules can be made. While clone libraries from the medium nodules were pretty similar at both soil ages, soil age had a significant effect on the community compositions of the small nodules, where the proportion of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii increased with soil age.

  12. Diversity pattern of nitrogen fixing microbes in nodules of Trifolium arvense (L.) at different initial stages of ecosystem development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S.; Engel, M.; Fischer, D.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Welzl, G.; Schloter, M.

    2013-02-01

    Legumes can be considered as pioneer plants during ecosystem development, as they form a symbiosis with different nitrogen fixing rhizobia species, which enable the plants to grow on soils with low available nitrogen content. In this study we compared the abundance and diversity of nitrogen fixing microbes based on the functional marker gene nifH, which codes for a subunit of the Fe-protein of the dinitrogenase reductase, in nodules of different size classes of Trifolium arvense (L.). Additionally, carbon and nitrogen contents of the bulk soil and plant material were measured. Plants were harvested from different sites, reflecting 2 (2a) and 5 (5a) yr of ecosystem development, of an opencast lignite mining area in the south of Cottbus, Lower Lusatia (Germany) where the artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" was constructed to study the development of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants from the 5a site revealed higher amounts of carbon and nitrogen, although nifH gene abundances in the nodules and carbon and nitrogen contents between the two soils did not differ significantly. Analysis of the nifH clone libraries showed a significant effect of the nodule size on the community composition of nitrogen fixing microbes. Medium sized nodules (2-5 mm) contained a uniform community composed of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, whereas the small nodules (<2 mm) consisted of a diverse community including clones with non-Rhizobium nifH gene sequences. Regarding the impact of the soil age on the community composition a clear distinction between the small and the medium nodules can be made. While clone libraries from the medium nodules were pretty similar at both soil ages, soil age had a significant effect on the community compositions of the small nodules, where the proportion of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii increased with soil age.

  13. Origin of Phosphorite Nodules of Lebedinsky Iron Deposit in Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA) of the Russian Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tourba Kamaye; Phillip Romanovitch

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorite has become increasingly important as the raw material for phosphatic fertilizer. Phosphorite nodules are widespread in the Kursk complex deposit (Russian platform). Genesis of these nodules has long been a matter of debate, and this has hampered understanding of the mechanism and controls in the formation of the nodules. In this paper, we report the petrographical, mineralogical, and geochemical data of the Lebedinsky phosphorite nodules. Petrographic study reveals complex phosphatic cement resulting in the replacement of apatite minerals around quartz grains. The main mineral composition consists of quartz, phosphate minerals (apatite, francolite mainly), feldspar, iron hydroxides and carbonate minerals. These results, when combined with available data, are used to address the origin of the phosphorite nodules. The nodules are characterized by the universal presence of biogenic and chemical signatures which is phosphorus crown around crystal grains. The structure of the nodules is massive. Their texture is depicted by basaltic cement and concretion, which consists mainly of apatite and its varieties, with general formula: Ca10 (PO4, CO3) 6(F,OH,Cl). Variation of mineralogy appears dependent on geological setting. Microscopic observations of biogenic fossils in Lebedinsky phosphorite favor a chemical and biogenic origin of phosphorites. Weathering has been suggested to be capable of liberating as much as 20 %-35 % P2O5 from sedimentary rocks. Previous investigations demonstrate that weathering of the Proterozoic substratum was the main cause in the formation of Fe, Mo, Mn, Pb, Zn, and P in the Russian platform. We therefore suggest that both weathering and biochemical processes have been positive in the formation of the Lebedinsky phosporite nodules. However, whether continental weathering or oceanic bio-chemical processes are more relevant in the phosphorite accumulation remains undetermined.

  14. Effect of Lanthanum on Nodule Count and Nodularity of Ductile Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The present study aims at finding out the effect of the addition of a single rare earth element, that is, lanthanum on the nodularity and nodule count of ductile iron under controlled conditions. For this purpose, four melts with different compositions were made, using a 28 kg inductotherm medium frequency induction furnace. The temperature was carefully maintained between 1400 and 1450 ℃ for these heats. A good quality charge consisting of Sorel metal, ferrosilicon, Swedish iron, ferrosilicon magnesium, and ferrosilicon lanthanum was used for the production of melts. A vertically parted sand mould was used for casting of 10 test bars made from local silica sand. Standard coin samples were chill-cast to conduct chemical analysis of the ductile iron. Microstructure study of the samples was conducted using a Leica optical microscope. Nodule count and nodularity of the samples were carried out using an image analyzer. The results obtained indicated that with the increased addition of lanthanum the nodule count of ductile iron increased, thus making it evident that it played a significant role in increasing the mechanical properties. The highest nodule count of 467 was obtained with the addition of 0.03% lanthanum. However, the effect of lanthanum on nodularity was negligible with nodularity ranging from 81% to 83%.

  15. Lung nodule volumetry: segmentation algorithms within the same software package cannot be used interchangeably.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashraf, H.; Hoop, B. de; Shaker, S.B.; Dirksen, A.; Bach, K.S.; Hansen, H.; Prokop, M.; Pedersen, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the reproducibility of lung nodule volumetry software that offers three different volumetry algorithms. METHODS: In a lung cancer screening trial, 188 baseline nodules >5 mm were identified. Including follow-ups, these nodules formed a study-set of 545 nodules. Nodules were

  16. Value of TIRADS, BSRTC and FNA-BRAFV600E mutation analysis in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-zhi; Xu, Ting; Cui, Dai; Li, Xiao; Yao, Qing; Gong, Hai-yan; Liu, Xiao-yun; Chen, Huan-huan; Jiang, Lin; Ye, Xin-hua; Zhang, Zhi-hong; Shen, Mei-ping; Duan, Yu; Yang, Tao; Wu, Xiao-hong

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) and Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology (BSRTC) have been used for interpretation of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results of thyroid nodules. BRAFV600E mutation analysis is a molecular tool in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic value of these methods in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. Total 220 patients with high-risk thyroid nodules were recruited in this prospective study. They all underwent ultrasound, FNAC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of TIRADS were 73.1% and 88.4%. BSRTC had higher specificity (97.7%) and similar sensitivity (77.6%) compared with TIRADS. The sensitivity and specificity of BRAFV600E mutation (85.1%, 100%) were the highest. The combination of BSRTC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis significantly increased the efficiency, with 97.8% sensitivity, 97.7% specificity. In patients with BSRTC I-III, the mutation rate of BRAFV600E was 64.5% in nodules with TIRADS 4B compared with 8.4% in nodules with TIRADS 3 or 4A (P < 0.001). Our study indicated that combination of BSRTC and BRAFV600E mutation analysis bears a great value in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. The TIRADS is useful in selecting high-risk patients for FNAB and patients with BSRTC I-III for BRAFV600E mutation analysis. PMID:26597052

  17. The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in the Development of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Karadayı

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the role of IGF-1 in the development of nodular thyroid disease. Material and Methods: A total number of 100 consecutive patients operated for nodular thyroid disease in our institution were included in this prospective study. In addition to classical pathological examinations, nodules and extranodular healthy tissues were sampled and immunochemically stained for IGF-1. The materials were independently evaluated using an Allred Scoring System ranging from 0 to 8. If the score was ≥1, the tissue was accepted as IGF-1 positive.Results: IGF-1 positivity was observed in 88% and 58% of the samples obtained from nodules and extranodular healthy tissues, respectively. Allred 8-unit scores were higher in benign nodules (n=89; 4.1±2.3 and papillary carcinomas (n=7; 6.7±1.3, than in extranodular healthy tissues in the same patients (2.3±2.3 and 3.3±1.9, respectively; and higher in papillary carcinomas than in benign nodules, when the scores were compared to each other (p<0.01 for all comparisons. Conclusions: Allred 8-unit scores for IGF-1 increase in the presence of benign thyroid nodules, papillary cancer. The results of our study support the findings of previous studies demonstrating the role of IGF-1 in the development of thyroidal nodules.

  18. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  19. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Cabeza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules, was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants.

  20. The Activity of Nodules of the Supernodulating Mutant Mtsunn Is not Limited by Photosynthesis under Optimal Growth Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Ricardo A.; Lingner, Annika; Liese, Rebecca; Sulieman, Saad; Senbayram, Mehmet; Tränkner, Merle; Dittert, Klaus; Schulze, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Legumes match the nodule number to the N demand of the plant. When a mutation in the regulatory mechanism deprives the plant of that ability, an excessive number of nodules are formed. These mutants show low productivity in the fields, mainly due to the high carbon burden caused through the necessity to supply numerous nodules. The objective of this study was to clarify whether through optimal conditions for growth and CO2 assimilation a higher nodule activity of a supernodulating mutant of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) can be induced. Several experimental approaches reveal that under the conditions of our experiments, the nitrogen fixation of the supernodulating mutant, designated as sunn (super numeric nodules), was not limited by photosynthesis. Higher specific nitrogen fixation activity could not be induced through short- or long-term increases in CO2 assimilation around shoots. Furthermore, a whole plant P depletion induced a decline in nitrogen fixation, however this decline did not occur significantly earlier in sunn plants, nor was it more intense compared to the wild-type. However, a distinctly different pattern of nitrogen fixation during the day/night cycles of the experiment indicates that the control of N2 fixing activity of the large number of nodules is an additional problem for the productivity of supernodulating mutants. PMID:24727372

  1. Star Formation in Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Haynes, Martha P.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Miller, Brendan P.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Troischt, Parker; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team; ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT) Groups project is a coordinated study of gas and star formation properties of galaxies in and around 36 nearby (zwork undertaken by faculty and students at different institutions within the UAT. Here we present results from our wide area Hα and broadband R imaging project carried out with the WIYN 0.9m+MOSAIC/HDI at KPNO, including an analysis of radial star formation rates and extents of galaxies in the NGC 5846, Abell 779, NRGb331, and HCG 69 groups/clusters. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  2. Segmentation of ultrasound images of thyroid nodule for assisting fine needle aspiration cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Li; Tian, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid nodule is very high and generally increases with the age. Thyroid nodule may presage the emergence of thyroid cancer. Most thyroid nodules are asymptomatic which makes thyroid cancer different from other cancers. The thyroid nodule can be completely cured if detected early. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly classify the thyroid nodule to be benign or malignant. Fine needle aspiration cytology is a recognized early diagnosis method of thyroid nodule. There are still some limitations in the fine needle aspiration cytology, such as the difficulty in location and the insufficient cytology specimen. The accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis of thyroid nodule improves constantly, and it has become the first choice for auxiliary examination of thyroid nodular disease. If we could combine medical imaging technology and fine needle aspiration cytology, the diagnostic rate of thyroid nodule would be improved significantly. The properties of ultrasound, such as echo, shadow, and reflection, will degrade the image quality, which makes it difficult to recognize the edges for physicians. Image segmentation technique based on graph theory has become a research hotspot at present. Normalized cut (Ncut) is a representative one, whose biggest advantage is not prone to small region segmentation but suitable for segmentation of feature parts of medical image. However, how to solve the normalized cut has become a problem, which needs large memory capacity and heavy calculation of weight matrix. It always generates over segmentation or less segmentation which leads to inaccurate in the segmentation. The speckle noise produced in the formation process of B ultrasound image of thyroid tumor makes the quality of the image deteriorate. In the light of this characteristic, we combine the anisotropic diffusion model with the normalized cut in this paper. After the enhancement of anisotropic diffusion model, it removes the noise in the B ultrasound image while

  3. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Legume Nodules: Metabolism and Regulatory Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Sulieman; Lam-Son Phan Tran

    2014-01-01

    The special issue “Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Legume Nodules: Metabolism and Regulatory Mechanisms” aims to investigate the physiological and biochemical advances in the symbiotic process with an emphasis on nodule establishment, development and functioning. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of nodule metabolism and various regulatory pathways, which could have important future implications. This issue also included...

  4. Nodule senescence and biomass components in common bean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Fernández Luqueño; David Espinosa Victoria; Antonio Munive; Langen Corlay Chee; Luis M. Serrano Covarrubias

    2008-01-01

    Most legumes establish mutualistic symbiotic relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), giving origin to nodules. Nodules exhibit natural or induced aging which coincides with the drop in nitrogenase activity at the flowering period or at the pod filling stage. In this research, the onset of nodule senescence (NS) was evaluated under greenhouse conditions in five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of two growth habits, determined (Type I) and indeterminate ...

  5. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Valcavi, Roberto [Endocrinology Division and Thyroid Disease Center, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Pacella, Claudio M. [Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology Department, Ospedale Regina Apostolorum, Albano Laziale-Rome (IT); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Kyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation.

  6. DROUGHT-INDUCED EFFECTS AND RECOVERY OF NITRATE ASSIMILATION AND NODULE ACTIVITY IN COWPEA PLANTS INOCULATED WITH BRADYRHIZOBIUM SPP. UNDER MODERATE NITRATE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to establish comparative effects of drought and recovery on the nitrate assimilation and nodule activity related to N2 fixation in cowpea plants [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.] previously inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. BR-3256 (CB-756 strain in the presence of 5 mol m-3 NO-3. Twenty-eight-day-old nodulated plants were submitted to water deprivation during 4 consecutive days and afterwards resupplied with nutrient solution during 2 days. The water deprivation caused a rapid increase in the nitrate content in root and a marked reduction in leaf nitrate reductase (NR activity. In contrast nodule NR activity was slightly increased by water deprivation. Concomitantly, in nodules of water stressed plants, leghemoglobin and glutamine synthetase (GS activity declined and a progressive reduction in ureide-N concentration in xylem sap was observed. Leaf-NR activity increased rapidly after rehydration while leaf nitrate content declined. In contrast both GS activity and soluble protein content in the nodule continued to decline in rewatered plants. In addition the concentration of leghemoglobin recovered well, while the xylem ureide-N content experienced a slight increase after rehydration. Despite the nitrate assimilation in leaves and the nodule activity had been both severely affected by water stress, the rapid recovery of nitrate reductase activity suggests that the nitrate assimilation process is less sensitive to drought/rehydration cycle when cowpea plants are nodulated in presence of moderate nitrate level.

  7. Rheumatoid nodule presenting as Morton’s neuroma

    OpenAIRE

    Chaganti, S; Joshy, S.; Hariharan, K; Rashid, M

    2012-01-01

    Among 101 feet that presented with symptoms and signs similar to Morton’s neuroma, intermetatarsal rheumatoid nodules were found in five feet (three patients). Two patients had bilateral involvement. Histology of the excised tissue showed the presence of a rheumatoid nodule and Morton’s neuroma in four feet and a rheumatoid nodule with unremarkable nerve bundles in one. A rheumatoid nodule can coexist with Morton’s neuroma, as seen in our patients, and the presentation is often similar to tha...

  8. Manganese nodules as a possible source of precious metals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.

    - nese nodules 8,9 , it is est i mated that at the present market value, more than Rs 750 bil - lion worth precious metal s (e.g. Pt, Pd, Ag), may be present in the entire nodule resources in the Ce n tral Indian Basin (CIB), covering an area... was calculated by multipl y ing the mean elemental concen tration (on dry basis) in nodules with the nodule tonnage and the prevailing inte r national market rate. A comparison o f the conce n tration of a few precious metals in the manganese depo - sits...

  9. The chemical properties of soil for alfalfa production after biofertiliser applicationAtributos químicos no solo e produção de alfafa sob doses de biofertilizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luis Lemes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of biofertilisers for the production of alfalfa shoot, root and nodule dry matter, and also, to evaluate the chemical properties of the soil. This study was conducted in the greenhouse of the Support Department, Animal Production and Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine/UNESP, Araçatuba – SP, from May to October 2010. The experimental design was completely randomised with six biofertiliser doses (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 m3 ha-1 and five replicates. The biofertiliser doses were the primary treatments and the cuts (five were subplots. The cuts were performed, on average, every 27 days at 10 cm above the soil. At the end of the experiment, the roots, nodules and soil from all experimental units were collected for chemical analysis. We observed a linear increase in dry matter production of the shoots relative to the doses studied. The dry matter production of the roots and nodules was not significantly different. The chemical properties of the soil significantly improved for calcium and magnesium as well as the sum of bases and base saturation with biofertiliser application. Biofertilisers can be used for agricultural production and favourably alter the soil characteristics. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de doses de biofertilizante na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, raízes e nódulos da alfafa, e os atributos químicos do solo. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Apoio, Produção e Saúde Animal da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária/UNESP, Campus de Araçatuba – SP, de maio a outubro de 2010. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, sendo seis doses de biofertilizante (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 e 400 m3 ha-1 e cinco repetições. As doses de biofertilizante foram consideradas como tratamentos principais e os cortes (cinco como subparcelas. Os cortes foram realizados, em média, a cada 27 dias, a 10 cm de altura do

  10. The Removal and Remediation of Phenanthrene and Pyrene in Soil by Mixed Cropping of Alfalfa and Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Sheng-wang; WEI Shi-qiang; YUAN Xin; CAO Sheng-xian

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms and efficiencies of the removal and remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils by different planting patterns with rape (Brassica campeslris) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were studied by pot experiments in a greenhouse. Results showed that the remediation efficiencies under mixed cropping of alfalfa and rape significantly exceeded those under single cropping when the initial concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene were at 20.05-322.06 mg kg-1 and 20.24-321.42 mg kg-1, respectively. After 70 days plantation of crops, the contents of extractable PAHs in soils under mixed cropping were much lower than those under single cropping. About 65.17-83.52% of phenanthrene and 60.09%-75.34% of pyrene was removed from the soils under mixed cropping, respectively, which were averagely 43.26 and 40.38% for phenanthrene, and 11.03 and 16.29% for pyren higher than those under single cropping. Alfalfa or rape did absorb and accumulate PAHs from the soils apparently; the PAHs concentrations in plants monotonically increased with the increase of initial PAHs concentrations in soil; the accumulations of PAHs in plants showed following sequence as roots> above parts, phenanthrene> pyrene and single cropping> mixed cropping at same contamination level. Despite the presence of vegetation significantly enhanced the remediation of PAHs in soils, contributions of abiotic loss, plant uptake, accumulation and microbial degradation was much lower than those of plant-microbial interactions in the process of phytoremediation. Thus plant-microbial interactions are the main mechanisms for the remediation enhancement of soil PAHs pollution under mixed cropping models. Results suggested a feasibility of the establishment of multi-species phytoremediation for the improvement of remediation efficiencies of PAHs, which may decrease accumulations of PAHs in crops and thus reduce their risks.

  11. Short communication: The effects of dry matter and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Kung, L

    2016-07-01

    During the ensiling of feeds, various processes result in chemical changes that can affect their ultimate nutritive value at feed out. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged ensiling times on potential changes in in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF-D) of alfalfa ensiled at about 33% [low dry matter (DM), LDM] or 45% (high DM, HDM) whole-plant DM. Alfalfa from the same field (direct chopped or wilted) was chopped with a conventional forage harvester set for a theoretical length of cut of 0.95 cm and ensiled in mini silos for 45, 180, 270, and 360 d. Fresh forages and silages were analyzed for nutrient content, fermentation end-products, and 30-h NDF-D. The pH of the fresh forages ranged from 6.1 to 6.2 and decreased to approximately 4.7 and 4.3 in HDM and LDM silages, respectively. Production of acids and alcohols were less in HDM compared with LDM as expected. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N also increased with time of storage as expected but soluble protein was greater, whereas NH3-N was lower in HDM compared with LDM silage. The effect of length of storage and DM on hemicellulose and NDF concentrations were very small, whereas DM content at harvest tended to slightly increase the concentration of acid detergent fiber in HDM compared with LDM up to 270 d of storage. The NDF-D was greater in fresh forage compared with corresponding silages. However, time of storage between 45 and 360 d had no effect on the NDF-D of alfalfa silage, regardless of DM concentration at ensiling.

  12. Pectins esterification in the apoplast of aluminum-treated pea root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena; Borucki, Wojciech

    2015-07-20

    Aiming to elucidate the possible involvement of pectins in aluminum-mediated growth inhibition the distribution of pectins in the apoplast of root nodules was investigated. Experiments were performed on the pea (Pisum sativum L.) root nodules treated with aluminum (50 μM AlCl3, for 2 or 24h). For histochemical acidic pectin localization we used ruthenium red staining. Immunolabeling techniques with monoclonal antibodies specific to high methyl-esterified pectin (JIM7), low methyl-esterified pectin (JIM5) and calcium cross-linked pectin (2F4) were used to re-examine the pattern of pectin esterification and distribution. After immunolabeling the samples were observed using a fluorescent and transmission electron microscope. Ruthenium red staining showed that acid pectin content increased in the apoplast of Al-treated nodules and immunolocalization of pectin epitopes revealed that the fraction of de-esterified pectins increased significantly under Al stress. JIM5 and 2F4 epitopes were located on the inner surface of the primary cell wall with higher intensity at cell corners lining the intercellular spaces and at infection threads (ITs) walls. By contrast, JIM 7 labels all walls uniformly throughout the nodule. In the presence of Al, the increase of JIM5 and 2F4 labeling in thick plant and IT walls, together with a decrease of JIM7 labeling was observed. These results indicate a specific role for pectin de-esterification in the process of wall thickening and growth inhibition. In particular, Al-dependent increase in pectin content and their low methyl esterification degree correlate with wall thickness and higher rigidity, and in this way, may affect IT and nodules growth.

  13. Rhizobia Isolated from Coal Mining Areas in the Nodulation and Growth of Leguminous Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginaini Grazielli Doin de Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An alternative for recovery of areas degraded by coal mining is revegetation with rapidly growing leguminous trees, which often do not establish in low fertility soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of native rhizobia isolated from coal mining areas in the nodulation and growth of leguminous trees. We isolated 19 strains of rhizobia from a degraded soil near Criciúma, SC, Brazil, and evaluated the nodulation and growth-promoting capacity of the inoculated isolates for bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella, maricá (M. bimucronata and angico-vermelho (Parapiptadenia rigida. Isolates UFSC-B2, B6, B8, B9, B11 and B16 were able to nodulate bracatinga, providing average increases of 165 % in shoot dry matter, with a significant contribution to N accumulation. Isolates UFSC-B5, B12, and M8 favored nodulation and growth of maricá, especially isolate UFSC-B12, which promoted increases of 370 % in N accumulation compared to treatment with N fertilizer. All strains were inefficient in promoting growth and N uptake by angico-vermelho. In conclusion, isolation and use of selected rhizobia for bracatinga and maricá plant inoculation can contribute to the growth and accumulation of N, with prospects for use in programs for revegetation of degraded soils in coal mining areas.

  14. Effects of lactic acid bacteria with bacteriocinogenic potential on the fermentation profile and chemical composition of alfalfa silage in tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, V P; Pereira, O G; Leandro, E S; Da Silva, T C; Ribeiro, K G; Mantovani, H C; Santos, S A

    2016-03-01

    The fermentation profile, chemical composition, and microbial populations of alfalfa silages treated with microbial inoculants (MI) at different fermentation periods (T) were evaluated in tropical conditions. A 4×6 factorial arrangement was used in a randomized design with 3 replicates. Fresh alfalfa was treated with (1) no treatment (CTRL), (2) commercial inoculant (CIN), (3) Pediococcus acidilactici (strain 10.6, S1), and (4) Pediococcus pentosaceus (strain 6.16, S2). An inoculant application rate of 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage was used. The fermentation periods were 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d. Alfalfa was harvested 82 d after sowing at the early flowering stage, chopped into 1.5-cm particle size, and ensiled in 25 × 35 cm vacuum-sealed plastic bags. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, mold, and yeast in alfalfa before ensiling were 5.42, 5.58, 4.82, and 4.8 log cfu/g, respectively. Silage chemical composition was evaluated only at 56 d. All parameters were affected by the interaction MI × T, except the concentrations of lactic and propionic acids. Alfalfa silage treated with S1 or S2 had lower pH values than CTRL from the first day until 28 d. However, the inoculants resulted in similar pH after 56 d, and these values were lower than the CTRL. The highest concentration of lactic acid was observed in the silage treated with S1 and S2 at 7 and 14 d of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid was lower in the silages treated with S1 and S2 than the CTRL and CIN at 3 and 28 d of fermentation. There was no effect of MI or MI × T interaction on the microbial populations. However, the number of enterobacteria decreased over the fermentation period until 14 d and increased slightly after this time point. The chemical composition of alfalfa silage was not affected by MI at 56 d of ensiling. The strain P. pentosaceus 6.16 was the most efficient in dominating the fermentation process by decreasing the pH more quickly and increasing the concentration

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L TO FIND SPECIFIC FUNGI WHICH IMPROVED THE GROWTH OF ALFALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yudiarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to identify all kinds of fungi which can life in the alfalfa plantation inBaturaden Purwokerto-Central Java. Fungi used in this study was 38 isolates. All fungi have been takenfrom the isolation of soil and root of diseased plant. Macroscopic and microscopic methods were usedfor identification. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. All fungi wereidentified using book identification of fungi. The results showed that from 38 isolates, six species wasdetermined and one was unidentifed. Those species identified were Cuninghammela sp, Trichoderma sp,Vertilicium sp, Eupenicillium sp, Pythium sp, Aspergillus sp.

  16. The HI mass function in ALFALFA 70% and the role of confusion in future HI surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The HI mass function represents a fundamental component of our understanding of the the gas content of galaxies. How its form varies throughout the local Universe and as a function of redshift, is key to developing a complete picture of galaxy evolution.We use the ALFALFA 70% catalog, the largest uniform catalog of extragalactic HI sources to date, to explore the environmental dependence of the HI mass function based on the projected neighbour densities in both SDSS and 2MRS. The Schechter function 'knee' mass is found to increase by approximately 0.2 dex from the lowest to highest density quartiles. However, this dependence is seen only when environment is defined by SDSS neighbours, and not with 2MRS. We interpret this as an indication of local, rather than large scale, environmental depedence. In addition, we find no evidence for any change in the faint-end slope; which is a source of tension with HI surveys of galaxy groups, and DM halo simulations.As HI surveys push deeper in an attempt to assess the HI content of the Universe towards a redshift of order unity, only the integral of the HI mass function will be measurable through stacking. We present an anaytic, and thus computationally cheap, method to estimate the contribution of HI confusion noise to these stacks and explore the design implications for upcoming SKA-precusor surveys.The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF grants AST-0607007 and AST-1107390 to RG and MPH and by grants from the Brinson Foundation.

  17. Effect of oligogalacturonides on root length, extracellular alkalinization and O₂⁻-accumulation in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camejo, Daymi; Martí, María C; Jiménez, Ana; Cabrera, Juan C; Olmos, Enrique; Sevilla, Francisca

    2011-04-15

    The effects of an oligogalacturonic acid (OGA) pool on root length of intact alfalfa seedlings (Medicago sativa L.), on extracellular pH and on both extracellular and intracellular O₂⁻ dynamics were examined in this study. Lower OGA concentrations (25, 50 and 75 μg mL⁻¹)promoted root length, but 50 μg mL⁻¹ had a stronger effect in promoting growth, while the higher OGA concentration (100 μg mL⁻¹)had no significant effect. Extracellular alkalinization was tested only at concentrations higher than 50 μg mL⁻¹ OGA, showing that the response is determined not only by the specific size of OGA, but also by the concentration of OGA. The promoting effect of OGA on root growth at 25, 50 and 75 μg mL⁻¹ OGA concentrations in alfalfa root appeared to be unrelated to extracellular alkalinization. A possible explanation could be the induction of an O₂⁻ burst at non-toxic levels, which could drive directly or indirectly several processes associated with root elongation in 25, 50 and 75 μg mL⁻¹ OGA-treated seedlings. Analyses using confocal microscopy showed that the increase in the O₂⁻ generation, mainly in the epidermal cells, induced by 50 μg mL⁻¹ OGA could be related to the promoting effect on root growth. The combination of OGA with DPI allowed us to demonstrate that there are different O₂⁻-generating sources in the epidermal cells of the meristematic zone, likely NADPH oxidase and oxidases or oxido-reductase enzymes, insensitive to DPI, that maintain detectable O₂⁻ accumulation at 60 and 120 min of treatment. These results suggest that OGA induce an oxidative burst by several O₂⁻-generating sources in the active growth zones.

  18. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  19. Overexpression of Medicago sativa TMT elevates the α-tocopherol content in Arabidopsis seeds, alfalfa leaves, and delays dark-induced leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Jia, Huili; Feng, Guangyan; Wang, Zan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-08-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume for livestock and a target for improving their dietary quality. Vitamin E is an essential vitamin that animals must obtain from their diet for proper growth and development. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), which catalyzes the conversion of δ- and γ-tocopherols (or tocotrienols) to β- and α-tocopherols (or tocotrienols), respectively, is the final enzyme involved in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway. The overexpression of M. sativa L.'s γ-TMT (MsTMT) increased the α-tocopherol content 10-15 fold above that of wild type Arabidopsis seeds without altering the total content of vitamin E. Additionally, in response to osmotic stress, the biomass and the expression levels of several osmotic marker genes were significantly higher in the transgenic lines compared with wild type. Overexpression of MsTMT in alfalfa led to a modest, albeit significant, increase in α-tocopherol in leaves and was also responsible for a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Additionally, the crude protein content was increased, while the acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were unchanged in these transgenic lines. Thus, increased α-tocopherol content occurred in transgenic alfalfa without compromising the nutritional qualities. The targeted metabolic engineering of vitamin E biosynthesis through MsTMT overexpression provides a promising approach to improve the α-tocopherol content of forage crops.

  20. Nutritional Value of Raisin by- Product and its Effect on Late Flower Alfalfa Hay Fermentation Profile and Nutrient Availability in Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Yari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using agro-industrial by-products in ruminants feeding could help in semi arid climate condition throughout the year. Raisin by-product is produced in huge magnitude in Malayer city, Hamedan province. Local different raisin by-products which produced during machinery cleaning and sorting of sun dried treated grapevine cluster (Vitisvinifera L. cv. Sultana, are as:1 some outer layer of flesh and skin and pedicle of berries; 2 rejected raisins mostly un-ripped berries with their pedicles and 3 peduncles and rachises with their lateral branches of clusters. They may have suitable nutritive value in ruminants. However, their nutrient profile and availability and anti nutrient factors such as lignin and tannin should be considered. Alfalfa hay is usually the important forage used in dairy cow’s diet. However, it has lower fiber digestibility and higher ruminal crude protein degradability. Increasing alfalfa hay fiber digestibility and decreasing ruminal crude protein degradability can help its feeding value. Raisin by-product may help to achieve those in the case of alfalfa hay. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of raisin by-product in ruminant feeding compared with late flower alfalfa hay and consideration of its effect on in vitro fermentation of alfalfa hay. Material and methods Based on completely randomized block design, two original samples (two blocks for each of alfalfa hay and raisin by-product from local availabilities were collected. In first experiment, chemical and phenolic (total phenol and tannin composition analysis was measured by two replicates for each block according to AOAC methods. In second experiment, in situ ruminal degradation kinetics of alfalfa hay and raisin by-product was measured using two fistulated Mehraban rams. For ruminal incubation times of 0, 3, 6, 16, 36, and 72 h respectively 2, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 filled nylon bags used which randomly assigned in animals. In situ

  1. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  2. In vivo Characterization of the Effects of Abscisic Acid and Drying Protocols Associated with the Acquisition of Desiccation Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Somatic Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    SREEDHAR, LEKHA; Wolkers, Willem F.; Hoekstra, Folkert A.; BEWLEY, J. DEREK

    2002-01-01

    Although somatic embryos of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) had acquired some tolerance to desiccation at the cotyledonary stage of development (22 d after plating), additional culturing in 20 μm abscisic acid (ABA) for 8 d induced greater desiccation tolerance, as determined by increased germination. Compared with fast drying, slow drying of the ABA‐treated embryos improved desiccation tolerance. However, slow drying of non‐ABA‐treated embryos led to the complete loss of germination capacity, w...

  3. Assessment of stress tolerance, productivity, and forage quality in T1 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 from Zygophyllum xanthoxylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Kang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinization, desertification, and soil nutrient deprivation are threatening the production of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in northern China. We have previously generated T0 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes with enhanced salt and drought tolerance. To further develop this excellent breeding material into the new forage cultivar, stress tolerance, productivity, and forage quality of T1 transgenic alfalfa (GM were assessed in this study. The GM inherited the traits of salt and drought tolerance from T0 generation. Most importantly, co-overexpression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 enhanced the tolerance to Pi deficiency in GM, which was associated with more Pi accumulation in plants. Meanwhile, T1 transgenic alfalfa developed a larger root system with increased root size, root dry weight and root/shoot ratio, which may be one important reason for the improvement of phosphorus nutrition and high biomass accumulation in GM under various conditions. GM also accumulated more crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, and crude ash than wild-type (WT plants, especially under stress conditions and in the field. More interestingly, the crude fat contents sharply dropped in WT (by 66%-74%, whereas showed no change or decreased less in GM, when subjected to salinity, drought or low-Pi. Our results indicate that T1 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 shows stronger stress tolerance, higher productivity and better forage quality. This study provides a solid foundation for creating the alfalfa cultivars with high yield, good quality and wide adaptability on saline, dry and nutrient-deprived marginal lands of northern China.

  4. Modelling the dynamics of feral alfalfa populations and its management implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukumar V Bagavathiannan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Feral populations of cultivated crops can pose challenges to novel trait confinement within agricultural landscapes. Simulation models can be helpful in investigating the underlying dynamics of feral populations and determining suitable management options. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a stage-structured matrix population model for roadside feral alfalfa populations occurring in southern Manitoba, Canada. The model accounted for the existence of density-dependence and recruitment subsidy in feral populations. We used the model to investigate the long-term dynamics of feral alfalfa populations, and to evaluate the effectiveness of simulated management strategies such as herbicide application and mowing in controlling feral alfalfa. Results suggest that alfalfa populations occurring in roadside habitats can be persistent and less likely to go extinct under current roadverge management scenarios. Management attempts focused on controlling adult plants alone can be counterproductive due to the presence of density-dependent effects. Targeted herbicide application, which can achieve complete control of seedlings, rosettes and established plants, will be an effective strategy, but the seedbank population may contribute to new recruits. In regions where roadside mowing is regularly practiced, devising a timely mowing strategy (early- to mid-August for southern Manitoba, one that can totally prevent seed production, will be a feasible option for managing feral alfalfa populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Feral alfalfa populations can be persistent in roadside habitats. Timely mowing or regular targeted herbicide application will be effective in managing feral alfalfa populations and limit feral-population-mediated gene flow in alfalfa. However, in the context of novel trait confinement, the extent to which feral alfalfa populations need to be managed will be dictated by the tolerance levels established by specific production

  5. [Malignant pleural mesothelioma with multiple nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Nishi, Hideyuki; Taguchi, Koji; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2011-12-01

    A 62-year-old man with left chest pain had left pleural effusion pointed out on a chest radiograph. Chest CT scans showed multiple nodules on the left parietal pleura and pleural effusion. He was referred to our hospital and we performed thoracoscopic examination. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (biphasic type) was diagnosed, based on the pathological findings of a parietal nodular mass, including immunohistological analysis. Chemotherapy using carboplatin and pemetrexed reduced the size of tumor and left pleural effusion. This is a rare case with atypical CT findings of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  6. Penile nodules in the penal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jack; Horowitz, David

    2012-05-01

    The insertion of inert spherical objects under the skin of the penile shaft with the intent of enhancing the sexual experience of one's partner has been reported mostly among Southeast Asian men. This practice is gaining popularity among the Hispanic jail population and prison inmates in southern California. We present a case series of 4 inmate patients with genital modifications (artificial penis nodules [APNs]), including one patient with vitiligo that was induced by his APN. Additionally, we review the literature pertaining to this practice and the relevant clinical implications.

  7. Pulmonary nodules and metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    significance of IPN and SPCM detected at the primary staging in CRC. Study I was a systematic review of published studies on IPN in CRC focusing on the prevalence and radiological characteristics of IPN proving to be malignant. This knowledge would be of value in management strategies for IPN. On average 9....... This approach might reduce the need for additional work-up for IPN and calls for clarification in future prospective studies. Identification of patients in particular risk of SPCM could be of value in the assessment of pulmonary nodules. Several biomarkers have been proposed for differential metastatic patterns...

  8. Evaluation of the incidence on insufficient cytology results comparing different ultrasound-guided aspiration techniques for thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hyng; Park, Jun Hyun; Park, Ji Kang [Dept. of Radiology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    We compared the incidence of insufficient thyroid cytology due to blood-stained materials or low cellularity in terms of aspiration technique, especially focusing on the degree of suction pressure and needle size. Three experienced radiologists performed ultrasound-guided aspiration for thyroid nodules in 1174 thyroid nodules consecutively. Three different techniques were used; (A) using a 25 gauge needle with mainly capillary technique in 269 nodules; (B) using a 25 gauge needle with 3 cc syringe and minimal suction pressure in 303 nodules; (C) using a 22-23 gauge needle with 10 cc syringe and aspirator in 602 nodules. The differences of the incidence of the insufficient cytology among the three aspiration techniques and relationships of the incidence and needle size/degree of suction pressure was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test with linear-by-linear association. Overall, the difference in insufficient cytology was significant across the three aspiration technique (p = 0.004), and the incidence tended to increase significantly with increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure (p < 0.001). A pairwise comparison of aspiration techniques found significant differences (p = 0.003) between techniques (A) and (C), and no differences between technique (B) and (C) (p 0.07) and between techniques (A) and (B) (p = 0.10). The incidence of insufficient cytology was significantly low in the capillary technique, and it increased significantly with the increase of needle size and degree of suction pressure.

  9. Comparison of muscle-to-nodule and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: Which one should we use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Ramazan, E-mail: raydin1984@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Samsun Education and Research Hospital, Samsun (Turkey); Elmali, Muzaffer, E-mail: muzafel@yahoo.com.tr [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Polat, Ahmet Veysel, E-mail: veyselp@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Danaci, Murat, E-mail: danacim55@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Akpolat, Ilkser, E-mail: ilkserakpolat@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of muscle-to-nodule strain ratio (MNSR) in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and to see if there was a difference between MNSR and parenchyma-to-nodule strain ratios (PNSR) in diagnosis. Methods: A total of 106 consecutive patients (88 women and 18 men; age range 19–79 years) with thyroid nodules were prospectively examined using ultrasound and sonoelastography before the fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The mean MNSR and PNSR were calculated for each nodule and the elasticity score was determined according to four-point scoring system. Results: According to the four-point scoring system, 44 of the 83 benign nodules had a score of one or two while 22 of the 23 malignant nodules had a score of three or four (p < 0.001). Using ROC analysis, the best cutoff point for MNSR 1.85 and for PNSR 3.14 was calculated. The sensitivity and specificity for the MNSR were 95.6%, 92.8%, respectively; for the PNSR were 95.6%, 93.4%, respectively, when the best cutoff points were used (p < 0.001). The κ value for the PNSR and MNSR methods was 0.87, which indicated an almost perfect agreement (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Sonoelastography has a high diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. There was no significant difference between MNSR and PNSR in the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Therefore, we think that MNSR could safely be used in situations where PNSR could not be used.

  10. Genetic diversity of root nodule bacteria nodulating Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampomah, Osei Yaw; Huss-Danell, Kerstin

    2011-06-01

    Very little is known about the genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia nodulating Lotus species in northern temperate regions. We have therefore studied the genetic diversity among a total of 61 root nodule bacteria isolated from Lotus corniculatus and Anthyllis vulneraria from different geographic sites and habitats in Sweden by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer between their 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA (IGS) region. A high diversity consisting of 26 IGS types from 54 L. corniculatus isolates and five IGS types from seven A. vulneraria isolates was found. The 16S rRNA sequences and phylogeny of representatives of the different IGS types showed four interesting exceptions from the majority of the isolates belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium: Two isolates were both found to be closely related to Rhodococcus spp., and two other isolates showed close relationship with Geobacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp., respectively. The nodA sequences and phylogeny showed that all the isolates, including those not belonging to the traditional rhizobia genera, harbored nodA sequences which were typical of Mesorhizobium loti. Generally, the 16S rRNA and nodA phylogenetic trees were not congruent in that isolates with similar 16S rRNA sequences were associated with isolates harboring different nodA sequences. All the isolates were confirmed to nodulate L. corniculatus in an inoculation test. This is the first report of members of these non-rhizobia genera being able to nodulate legumes, and we suggest that they may have acquired their nodulating properties through lateral gene transfer.

  11. Relationship of Resistance to Meloidogyne chitwoodi (race 2) and M. hapla in Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Per H McCord

    2012-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is host to two species of root-knot nematodes, including race 2 of the Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) and the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla). In addition to the damage caused to alfalfa itself by M. hapla, alfalfa’s host status to both species leaves large numbers of nematodes available to damage rotation crops, of which potato is the most important. A nematode-resistant alfalfa germplasm release, W12SR2...

  12. Evaluación cuantitativa de diez variedades de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Vázquez, Perpetuo

    2013-01-01

    En México, la alfalfa es la leguminosa más utilizada en la alimentación del ganado lechero, debido a su alto rendimiento y valor nutritivo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las variables que determinan el crecimiento y rendimiento de diez variedades de alfalfa a intervalos de corte definidos estacionalmente. El estudio se realizó de septiembre de 2011 a septiembre de 2012 en el Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Texcoco, México. Las variedades de alfalfa estudiadas fuero...

  13. Chloroform extract of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by downregulating ERK/NF-κB signaling and cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Choon; Hwang, Jung-Min; Bang, Sung-Jun; Kim, Beom-Tae; Kim, Dong-Hern; Chae, Minseon; Lee, Seung-Ah; Choi, Gi Jun; Kim, Da Hye; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2013-05-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is commonly used as a traditional medicine and functional food. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of alfalfa and the mechanisms involved. The chloroform extract of alfalfa aerial parts inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated immune responses more than ether, butanol, or water soluble extracts. Treatment with 1 μg/mL LPS increased nitrite concentrations to 44.3 μM in RAW267.4 macrophages, but it was reduced to 10.6 μM by adding 100 μg/mL chloroform extract. LPS treatment also increased the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β to 41.3, 11.6, and 0.78 ng/mL in culture supernatants of the cells, but these cytokine levels decreased to 12.5, 3.1, and 0.19 ng/mL, respectively, by pretreating with 100 μg/mL of the extract. ICR mice injected with LPS (30 mg/kg body weight) alone showed a 0% survival rate after 48 h of the injection, but 48-h survival of the mice increased to 60% after oral administration of the extract. Subfractions of the chloroform extract markedly suppressed LPS-mediated activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa-B. Cinnamic acid derivatives and fatty acids were found to be active constituents of the extract. This research demonstrated that alfalfa aerial parts exert anti-inflammatory activity and may be useful as a functional food for the prevention of inflammatory disorders.

  14. Semantics and image content integration for pulmonary nodule interpretation in thoracic computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raicu, Daniela S.; Varutbangkul, Ekarin; Cisneros, Janie G.; Furst, Jacob D.; Channin, David S.; Armato, Samuel G., III

    2007-03-01

    Useful diagnosis of lung lesions in computed tomography (CT) depends on many factors including the ability of radiologists to detect and correctly interpret the lesions. Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems can be used to increase the accuracy of radiologists in this task. CAD systems are, however, trained against ground truth and the mechanisms employed by the CAD algorithms may be distinctly different from the visual perception and analysis tasks of the radiologist. In this paper, we present a framework for finding the mappings between human descriptions and characteristics and computed image features. The data in our study were generated from 29 thoracic CT scans collected by the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). Every case was annotated by up to 4 radiologists by marking the contour of nodules and assigning nine semantic terms to each identified nodule; fifty-nine image features were extracted from each segmented nodule. Correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression were applied to find correlations among semantic characteristics and image features and to generate prediction models for each characteristic based on image features. From our preliminary experimental results, we found high correlations between different semantic terms (margin, texture), and promising mappings from image features to certain semantic terms (texture, lobulation, spiculation, malignancy). While the framework is presented with respect to the interpretation of pulmonary nodules in CT images, it can be easily extended to find mappings for other modalities in other anatomical structures and for other image features.

  15. Lotus corniculatus nodulation specificity is changed by the presence of a soybean lectin gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhijn P; Goldberg; Hirsch

    1998-08-01

    Plant lectins have been implicated as playing an important role in mediating recognition and specificity in the Rhizobium-legume nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. To test this hypothesis, we introduced the soybean lectin gene Le1 either behind its own promoter or behind the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter into Lotus corniculatus, which is nodulated by R. loti. We found that nodulelike outgrowths developed on transgenic L. corniculatus plant roots in response to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which nodulates soybean and not Lotus spp. Soybean lectin was properly targeted to L. corniculatus root hairs, and although infection threads formed, they aborted in epidermal or hypodermal cells. Mutation of the lectin sugar binding site abolished infection thread formation and nodulation. Incubation of bradyrhizobia in the nodulation (nod) gene-inducing flavonoid genistein increased the number of nodulelike outgrowths on transgenic L. corniculatus roots. Studies of bacterial mutants, however, suggest that a component of the exopolysaccharide surface of B. japonicum, rather than Nod factor, is required for extension of host range to the transgenic L. corniculatus plants.

  16. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN-XANTHOPHYLL (PX CONCENTRATE OF ALFALFA ADDITIVE TO CRUDE PROTEIN-REDUCED DIETS ON NITROGEN EXCRETION, GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz GRELA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  17. Buried nodules from the central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    are recovered only by sediment cores. Despite, the slower growth rates of nodules (few mm/Ma) compared to associated sediment (few mm/ka), the phenomena of keeping nodules at the sediment surface still remains an enigma. More than 60 sediment cores (spade...

  18. Partially Cystic Thyroid Nodules: Ultrasound Findings of Malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang Mi; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kwag, Hyon Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To seek for the ultrasound (US) findings of partially cystic thyroid nodules that are associated with malignancy. We reviewed the US characteristics of 22 surgically confirmed partially cystic papillary carcinomas, and compared them with those of 80 benign partially cystic nodules. The review cases were selected in a random order from a total of 1029 partially cystic nodules that were diagnosed with an US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy over a period of 8 years (June 2003 to October 2010) at our institution. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, a taller-than-wide shape (100%, p<0.001) and spiculated or microlobulated margin (58.3%, p 0.003) were significantly associated with malignancy. In terms of internal solid portion of the nodule, eccentric configuration (68.0%, p<0.001), non-smooth margin (81.3%, p<0.001), hypoechogenecity (30.0%, p<0.042), and microcalcification (89.5%, p<0.001) were more frequently demonstrated in malignant nodules than benign ones. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, understanding the characteristics of US findings is important to make a precise diagnosis of malignant nodules.

  19. Uranium in Pacific Deep-Sea Sediments and Manganese Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Pluger, W. L.; Friedrich, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1344 manganese nodules and 187 pelagic sediments from 9 areas in the North and the South Pacific were analyzed for U by the delayed-neutron counting technique. A strong positive correlation between U and Fe in nodules and sediments suggests a co-precipitative removal from sea water int...

  20. Surgical and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrinja, Chiara; Bernardi, Stella; Fabris, Bruno; Eramo, Rita; Makovac, Petra; Bazzocchi, Gabriele; Piscopello, Lanfranco; Barro, Enrica; de Manzini, Nicolò; Bonazza, Deborah; Pinamonti, Maurizio; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Stacul, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been recently advocated as an effective technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. It is not known to what extent it may affect any subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 64 symptomatic Thy2 nodules (benign nodules) and 6 symptomatic Thy3 nodules (follicular lesions/follicular neoplasms). Two Thy3 nodules regrew after the procedure, and these patients accepted to undergo a total thyroidectomy. Here we present how RFA has affected the operation and the final pathological features of the surgically removed nodules. Results and Conclusions. RFA is effective for the treatment of Thy2 nodules, but it should not be recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of Thy3 nodules (irrespective of their mutational status), as it delays surgery in case of malignancy. Moreover, it is unknown whether RFA might promote residual tumor progression or neoplastic progression of Thy3 lesions. Nevertheless, here we show for the first time that one session of RFA does not affect subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. PMID:26265914

  1. Surgical and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Dobrinja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA has been recently advocated as an effective technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. It is not known to what extent it may affect any subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 64 symptomatic Thy2 nodules (benign nodules and 6 symptomatic Thy3 nodules (follicular lesions/follicular neoplasms. Two Thy3 nodules regrew after the procedure, and these patients accepted to undergo a total thyroidectomy. Here we present how RFA has affected the operation and the final pathological features of the surgically removed nodules. Results and Conclusions. RFA is effective for the treatment of Thy2 nodules, but it should not be recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of Thy3 nodules (irrespective of their mutational status, as it delays surgery in case of malignancy. Moreover, it is unknown whether RFA might promote residual tumor progression or neoplastic progression of Thy3 lesions. Nevertheless, here we show for the first time that one session of RFA does not affect subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis.

  2. Surgical and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrinja, Chiara; Bernardi, Stella; Fabris, Bruno; Eramo, Rita; Makovac, Petra; Bazzocchi, Gabriele; Piscopello, Lanfranco; Barro, Enrica; de Manzini, Nicolò; Bonazza, Deborah; Pinamonti, Maurizio; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Stacul, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been recently advocated as an effective technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. It is not known to what extent it may affect any subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 64 symptomatic Thy2 nodules (benign nodules) and 6 symptomatic Thy3 nodules (follicular lesions/follicular neoplasms). Two Thy3 nodules regrew after the procedure, and these patients accepted to undergo a total thyroidectomy. Here we present how RFA has affected the operation and the final pathological features of the surgically removed nodules. Results and Conclusions. RFA is effective for the treatment of Thy2 nodules, but it should not be recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of Thy3 nodules (irrespective of their mutational status), as it delays surgery in case of malignancy. Moreover, it is unknown whether RFA might promote residual tumor progression or neoplastic progression of Thy3 lesions. Nevertheless, here we show for the first time that one session of RFA does not affect subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis.

  3. The relationship between occupational radiation exposure and thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering that thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer occur more frequently in people chronically exposed to radiation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid nodules in a population occupationally exposed to radiation in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the prevalence of thyroid nodules in staff members occupationally exposed to radiation was determined by ultrasonography. The results were compared with the results of another study among the adult population of Isfahan which selected by cluster random sampling method. The 2 studied groups were matched according to sex and age. Results: The case and control groups included 124 and 471 persons, respectively. The prevalence of thyroid nodules in the case and control groups was 22.6% and 24.6%, respectively (p > 0.05. Although thyroid nodules were significantly more prevalent in females in the control group, no such difference was observed between females and males of the case group (p > 0.05. The number of thyroid nodules (single or multiple and calcification were not different between the two groups (p > 0.05. In addition, hypoechogenicity of thyroid nodules was not different between the two groups for (p > 0.05. Conclusion: In our study, there was not any correlation between chronic occupational exposure to low dose of radiation and the risk of developing thyroid nodules. Further studies with larger sample sizes, at different doses of radiation, and considering iodine status and thyroid function are thus required.

  4. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B; ShyamPrasad

    shoals, Rodriguez Ridge, and the Sudan Bank of the Mascarene Plateau and Mascarene Basin. Of the 57 locations sampled, manganese nodules were recovered at 11 sampling stations. The nodules were confined to a small area of approximately 11,900 km2...

  5. Management of subsolid pulmonary nodules in CT lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The distinct appearance and behavior of subsolid pulmonary nodules (SSNs) has resulted in separate recommendations for the management of solitary SSNs, both for incidentally detected as well as for screen detected nodules. However, these guidelines have been based primarily on expert opinion. Recent

  6. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) shoot saponins: identification and bio-activity by the assessment of aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery-Laghab, H; Yazdi-Samadi, B; Bagheri, M; Bagheri, A R

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical components in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), such as saponins, can act as protecting factors against bio-stresses. Saponins are also antifeedants and show oral toxicity towards higher and lower animals. Changes in saponins, such as variation in the carbon skeleton, or hydrolysis of saponin glycosides and other conjugates, may change their biological effects. The aims of this research were to study saponin variation in different growth stages of alfalfa and to investigate the biological role of saponins in the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata. Saponins from alfalfa shoots in different growth stages were extracted, chemically purified and analysed by TLC. Specific saponins such as soyasaponin1 from root and shoot and two bisdesmosides of medicagenic acid, one from shoot and another from root tissues, were identified using reference compounds allowing changes in saponin composition during plant development in different shoot tissues of alfalfa to be assessed. The response of the alfalfa aphid to feeding on alfalfa in different growth stages was studied. No significant difference in the survival of aphids, from neonate to adult, was observed, but due to the antibiotic effects of saponins, two differences were found in the onset of nymph production and cumulative nymph production. The results show that the saponin composition in alfalfa changes with plant development and this, in turn, can often negatively affect the development of specific insect pests such as the spotted alfalfa aphid, suggesting a possible biological role of alfalfa saponins.

  7. Dictionary learning-based CT detection of pulmonary nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Panpan; Xia, Kewen; Zhang, Yanbo; Qian, Xiaohua; Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong

    2016-10-01

    Segmentation of lung features is one of the most important steps for computer-aided detection (CAD) of pulmonary nodules with computed tomography (CT). However, irregular shapes, complicated anatomical background and poor pulmonary nodule contrast make CAD a very challenging problem. Here, we propose a novel scheme for feature extraction and classification of pulmonary nodules through dictionary learning from training CT images, which does not require accurately segmented pulmonary nodules. Specifically, two classification-oriented dictionaries and one background dictionary are learnt to solve a two-category problem. In terms of the classification-oriented dictionaries, we calculate sparse coefficient matrices to extract intrinsic features for pulmonary nodule classification. The support vector machine (SVM) classifier is then designed to optimize the performance. Our proposed methodology is evaluated with the lung image database consortium and image database resource initiative (LIDC-IDRI) database, and the results demonstrate that the proposed strategy is promising.

  8. Effects of chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole on fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage inoculated with or without Lactobacillus plantarum LP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Zhu; Wang, Xianguo; Na, Risu

    2017-03-01

    The effects of pesticides and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) on fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage were investigated. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole were sprayed on the surface of alfalfa plants at 658.6 and 45.0 g active ingredient/ha, respectively. Alfalfa plants were harvested on day 5 post-application and ensiled with or without LP. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole decreased the yeast count of alfalfa material (P alfalfa silage (P alfalfa silage treated with pesticides (P alfalfa silage (P alfalfa silage and affected the fermentation process, whereas LP improved the fermentation quality of pesticides-contaminated alfalfa silage and slowed down the dissipation of chlorpyrifos.

  9. Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules: variability in automated analysis tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juluru, Krishna; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William; King, Tara; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2007-03-01

    Over the past decade, several computerized tools have been developed for detection of lung nodules and for providing volumetric analysis. Incidentally detected lung nodules have traditionally been followed over time by measurements of their axial dimensions on CT scans to ensure stability or document progression. A recently published article by the Fleischner Society offers guidelines on the management of incidentally detected nodules based on size criteria. For this reason, differences in measurements obtained by automated tools from various vendors may have significant implications on management, yet the degree of variability in these measurements is not well understood. The goal of this study is to quantify the differences in nodule maximum diameter and volume among different automated analysis software. Using a dataset of lung scans obtained with both "ultra-low" and conventional doses, we identified a subset of nodules in each of five size-based categories. Using automated analysis tools provided by three different vendors, we obtained size and volumetric measurements on these nodules, and compared these data using descriptive as well as ANOVA and t-test analysis. Results showed significant differences in nodule maximum diameter measurements among the various automated lung nodule analysis tools but no significant differences in nodule volume measurements. These data suggest that when using automated commercial software, volume measurements may be a more reliable marker of tumor progression than maximum diameter. The data also suggest that volumetric nodule measurements may be relatively reproducible among various commercial workstations, in contrast to the variability documented when performing human mark-ups, as is seen in the LIDC (lung imaging database consortium) study.

  10. Mezclas de Alfalfa y Gramíneas en la Serie Sabana de Bogotá Tipo Franco Arcilloso.

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    Chaverra Gil. Hernán

    1960-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, Tibaitatá, y en la serie de suelos Sabana de Bogotá, tipo frnaco arcilloso, se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos con mezclas de alfalfa y gramíneas. En el primer ensayo, se sembraron simultáneamente con la alfalfa, ryegrass inglés, rygrass anual y orchoso. Los métodos de siembra utilizados fueron: a alfalfa y gramíneas sembradas al voleo, b alfalfa y gramíneas en el mismo surco, c alfalfa y gramíneas en surcos alternos, d alfalfa en surcos y gramíneas al voleo y e alfalfa en surcos y trébol blanco al voleo. En el segundo experimento se sembró la alfalfa en surcos separados 25 cm. Después de establecida la alfalfa e inmediatamente después del 4° corte se sembraron al voleo las siguientes gramíneas: ryegrass inglés, rygrass anual, orchoro, festuca media, pasto cinta y pasto rescate. Las finalidades del estudio fueron las de valorar el comportamiento de las gramíneas en mezcla con la alfalfa, mediante la determinación progresiva de la composición botánica y el rendimiento de forraje seco de las mezclas. La siembra simultánea de ryegrass inglés y ryegrass anual con la alfalfa dio como resultado una mala población de la leguminosa, especialmente en los dos primeros cortes. La competencia ejercida por estas dos gramíneas a la alfalfa, se redujo casi completamente, cuando se sembraron en surcos alternos o en la alfalfa establecida. Sea cual fuere el pasto sembrado, la siembra de gramíneas en alfalfa establecida, redujo la competencia entre los pastos asociados. En este ensayo el factor más importante en el establecimiento de las gramíneas, fue el agua disponible en el suelo. Bajo las condiciones del primer experimento el orchoro fue la gramínea que mejor creció en asocio de la alfalfa en todos los métodos de siembra estudiado. La producción promedia de la mezcla varió entre 2600 y 3145 Kg/hect. De forreje seco por corte y la proporción de orchoro entre

  11. Phosphate Rock Application on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Production and Macronutrients in Latosol Soil

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    Y. Liani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphate rocks (PRs fertilizer compared to chemical P fertilizer for the best crop production and macronutrients of alfalfa. A completely randomized design under 3x3 factorial patterns was used in this research. The first factor was different sources of P fertilizer: Guizhou Phosphate Rock (GPR, Jingxiang Phosphate Rock (JPR, and Single Super Phosphate (SSP. The second factor was level of P fertilizer: 75, 100, and 125 mg P2O5/kg soil. A control treatment (without addition of P fertilizer, CK was added as a comparison with the treatments. The results showed that JPR was the best for alfalfa production, whereas GPR and SSP were better for nutrient content in the alfalfa tissue than JPR. On the whole, phosphate rocks had similar effect on alfalfa growth compared to SSP at the experimental conditions.

  12. Effcet of Rhizobium Inoculation on Growth and Nodulation of Albizzia procera,Albizzia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.K.ARYAL; M.A.U.MRIDHA; 等

    1999-01-01

    Effects of inoculation of Rhizobium suspension on nodulation and plant growth were examined with Albizzia procera,Albizzia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala seedlings grown on sterilized and non-sterilized soil media.Inoculation resulted in nodule number increases of 28.6,29.02and 23.9 times in sterilized soil and 3.4,3.6and 3.27 times in non-sterilized soil for A.procera,A.lebbeck and L.leucocephala seedlings respectively.Total dry mass increased by 127.6%,66.7%and 60.7% in sterilized soil and 100%,95.5%and 52.65% in non-sterilized soil for these three legume trees,respectively,after a period of two months.Significantly high inoculation responses of oot length,root diameter,collar diameter,shoot length,and dry mass of root,shoot,leaves and nodules were also observed in both steilized and non-sterilized soil media as compared to respective control treatments,The response to inoculation was strong in sterilized and modest in non-sterilized soils.The significantly higher response to Rhizobium inoculation over control in all the species tested suggested that application of Rhizobium greatly enhanced plant growth ,nodulation,biomass production and nitrogen-fixing activity of the nodules.

  13. Effect of nodule count and austempering heat treatment on segregation behavior of alloying elements in ductile cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Akbarzadeh Chiniforush

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium partition ratio, k, has been measured for Mn, Mo, Si, Ni and Cu in a ductile iron with composition (wt.%: 3.45C, 0.25Mn, 0.25Mo, 2.45Si, 0.5Ni and 0.5Cu with different nodule counts obtained from different section sizes of 13, 25, 75 mm in the as cast, austenitized (at 870 °C for times 1, 4 and 6 hours and austempered (at 375 °C for times 1 to 1,440 min samples. Results show that Mn and Mo segregate positively at cell boundaries, but Si, Ni and Cu concentrate in an inverse manner in the vicinity of graphite nodules and there is a depletion of these elements at cell boundaries. Segregation curves for Ni and Cu are more smooth than for Si. Carbide formation has been observed at cell boundaries. Based on the results, the partition ratios for all elements decrease with increasing the nodule count. More carbide with coarser morphology has been observed in the microstructure with a lower nodule count. Austenitization for a longer time can decrease partition ratio, but cannot eliminate it entirely. Increasing the austenitization temperature has the same effect. Austenitizing parameters have no significant effect on carbides volume fraction. The kinetics of austempering is faster in higher nodule counts and subsequently better mechanical properties including higher ductility, strength and toughness have been observed for all austempering conditions studied.

  14. Characterization of root-nodule bacteria isolated from Vicia faba and selection of plant growth promoting isolates.