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Sample records for alfalfa medicago sativa

  1. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  2. Mengenal Karakter Tanaman Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Subantoro, Renan

    2009-01-01

    Alfalfa in Arab Ianguage have meaning as "Father from all food" trusted as functioning crop to heal various disease. Factor influencing growth of alfalfa crop is internal and eksternal factor. Inhibitor factor growth of alfalfa crop do not only land : land, water, temperature, and light intencity, and also weeds factor. Study in this article use literature study method from various source of research result and book which have been done by writer. The crop Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L) hav...

  3. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessmann, H.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R.A.; Geno, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    The isoflavonoid conjugates medicarpin-3-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (MGM), afrormosin-7-O-glucoside (AG), and afrormosin-7-O-glucoside-6 double-prime-O-malonate (AGM) were isolated and characterized from cell suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), where they were the major constitutive secondary metabolites. They were also found in alfalfa roots but not in other parts of the plant. The phytoalexin medicarpin accumulated rapidly in suspension cultured cells treated with elicitor from Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and this was subsequently accompanied by an increase in the levels of MGM. In contrast, net accumulation of afrormosin conjugates was not affected by elicitor treatment. Labeling studies with [ 14 C]phenylalanine indicated that afrormosin conjugates were the major de novo synthesized isoflavonoid products in unelicited cells. During elicitation, [ 14 C]phenylalanine was incorporated predominantly into medicarpin, although a significant proportion of the newly synthesized medicarpin was also conjugated. Treatment of 14 C-labeled, elicited cells with L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, a potent inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in the initial appearance of labeled medicarpin of very low specific activity, suggesting that the phytoalexin could be released from a preformed conjugate under these conditions. Our data draw attention to the involvement of isoflavone hydroxylases during the constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoids and their conjugates in alfalfa cell cultures

  4. Genetic Engineering of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.

  5. Over-Expression of Arabidopsis EDT1 Gene Confers Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Guangshun; Fan, Cunying; Di, Shaokang; Wang, Xuemin; Xiang, Chengbin; Pang, Yongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is an important legume forage crop with great economic value. However, as the growth of alfalfa is seriously affected by an inadequate supply of water, drought is probably the major abiotic environmental factor that most severely affects alfalfa production worldwide. In an effort to enhance alfalfa drought tolerance, we transformed the Arabidopsis Enhanced Drought Tolerance 1 (AtEDT1) gene into alfalfa via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Compared with wild ...

  6. Asparagine Biosynthesis in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Root Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, S S; Vance, C P

    1986-10-01

    Rapid direct conversion of exogenously supplied [(14)C]aspartate to [(14)C] asparagine and to tricarboxylic cycle acids was observed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) nodules. Aspartate aminotransferase activity readily converted carbon from exogenously applied [(14)C]aspartate into the tricarboxylic acid cycle with subsequent conversion to the organic acids malate, succinate, and fumarate. Aminooxyacetate, an inhibitor of aminotransferase activity, reduced the flow of carbon from [(14)C]aspartate into tricarboxylic cycle acids and decreased (14)CO(2) evolution by 99%. Concurrently, maximum conversion of aspartate to asparagine was observed in aminooxyacetate treated nodules (30 nanomoles asparagine per gram fresh weight per hour. Metabolism of [(14)C]aspartate and distribution of nodulefixed (14)CO(2) suggest that two pools of aspartate occur in alfalfa nodules: (a) one involved in asparagine biosynthesis, and (b) another supplying a malate/aspartate shuttle. Conversion of [(14)C]aspartate to [(14)C]asparagine was not inhibited by methionine sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor, or azaserine, a glutmate synthetase, inhibitor. The data did not indicate that asparagine biosynthesis in alfalfa nodules has an absolute requirement for glutamine. Radioactivity in the xylem sap, derived from nodule (14)CO(2) fixation, was markedly decreased by treating nodulated roots with aminooxyacetate, methionine sulfoximine, and azaserine. Inhibitors decreased the [(14)C]aspartate and [(14)]asparagine content of xylem sap by greater than 80% and reduced the total amino nitrogen content of xylem sap (including nonradiolabeled amino acids) by 50 to 80%. Asparagine biosynthesis in alfalfa nodules and transport in xylem sap are dependent upon continued aminotransferase activity and an uninterrupted assimilation of ammonia via the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway. Continued assimilation of ammonia apparently appears crucial to continued root nodule CO(2) fixation in

  7. Biofertilizer in the nutritional quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luis Lemes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in the nutritional composition to the application of biofertilizers. The experiment was conducted with increasing doses of biofertilizers in a greenhouse at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine / UNESP, Araçatuba - Sao Paulo, Brazil, from April to October 2010. The experimental design was completely randomized with six biofertilizer doses from cattle manure (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m3 ha-1 and five replications. Cuts were performed, on average, every 27 days, 10 cm above the ground when 10% of the plants were flowering. Biofertilization had a positive significant impact on foliar nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and shoot iron concentrations. The values of crude protein, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ between doses of biofertilizers. Biofertilization is a viable alternative for nutrition of this species, showing positive results in the nutritional composition of alfalfa. However, but long-term studies are necessary to assess the environmental impact of these fertilizers.

  8. The effects of ascorbic acid on salt induced alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascorbic acid as an antioxidant agent has already been used for increasing of stress tolerance. Callus was produced from stem segments of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on MS medium supplemented with 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, naphthalene acetic acid and kinetin (2 mg/l each).Calli were then transferred to the ...

  9. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage production, tissue and soil nutrient concentration under three N based broiler litter regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is considered as most important forage legume grown in Kentucky. Alfalfa supports many livestock production systems including the beef, dairy, and horse industries in Kentucky. Being a legume, alfalfa typically meets its N requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation, but h...

  10. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  11. Over-Expression of Arabidopsis EDT1 Gene Confers Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is an important legume forage crop with great economic value. However, as the growth of alfalfa is seriously affected by an inadequate supply of water, drought is probably the major abiotic environmental factor that most severely affects alfalfa production worldwide. In an effort to enhance alfalfa drought tolerance, we transformed the Arabidopsis Enhanced Drought Tolerance 1 (AtEDT1 gene into alfalfa via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Compared with wild type plants, drought stress treatment resulted in higher survival rates and biomass, but reduced water loss rates in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, transgenic alfalfa plants had increased stomatal size, but reduced stomatal density, and these stomatal changes contributed greatly to reduced water loss from leaves. Importantly, transgenic alfalfa plants exhibited larger root systems with larger root lengths, root weight, and root diameters than wild type plants. The transgenic alfalfa plants had reduced membrane permeability and malondialdehyde content, but higher soluble sugar and proline content, higher superoxide dismutase activity, higher chlorophyll content, enhanced expression of drought-responsive genes, as compared with wild type plants. Notably, transgenic alfalfa plants grew better in a 2-year field trial and showed enhanced growth performance with increased biomass yield. All of our morphological, physiological, and molecular analyses demonstrated that the ectopic expression of AtEDT1 improved growth and enhanced drought tolerance in alfalfa. Our study provides alfalfa germplasm for use in forage improvement programs, and may help to increase alfalfa production in arid lands.

  12. Over-Expression of Arabidopsis EDT1 Gene Confers Drought Tolerance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangshun; Fan, Cunying; Di, Shaokang; Wang, Xuemin; Xiang, Chengbin; Pang, Yongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) is an important legume forage crop with great economic value. However, as the growth of alfalfa is seriously affected by an inadequate supply of water, drought is probably the major abiotic environmental factor that most severely affects alfalfa production worldwide. In an effort to enhance alfalfa drought tolerance, we transformed the Arabidopsis Enhanced Drought Tolerance 1 ( AtEDT1 ) gene into alfalfa via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. Compared with wild type plants, drought stress treatment resulted in higher survival rates and biomass, but reduced water loss rates in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, transgenic alfalfa plants had increased stomatal size, but reduced stomatal density, and these stomatal changes contributed greatly to reduced water loss from leaves. Importantly, transgenic alfalfa plants exhibited larger root systems with larger root lengths, root weight, and root diameters than wild type plants. The transgenic alfalfa plants had reduced membrane permeability and malondialdehyde content, but higher soluble sugar and proline content, higher superoxide dismutase activity, higher chlorophyll content, enhanced expression of drought-responsive genes, as compared with wild type plants. Notably, transgenic alfalfa plants grew better in a 2-year field trial and showed enhanced growth performance with increased biomass yield. All of our morphological, physiological, and molecular analyses demonstrated that the ectopic expression of AtEDT1 improved growth and enhanced drought tolerance in alfalfa. Our study provides alfalfa germplasm for use in forage improvement programs, and may help to increase alfalfa production in arid lands.

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host.

  14. On the relationship between C and N fixation in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Molero Milán, Gemma; Tcherkez, G.; Araus Ortega, José Luis; Nogués Mestres, Salvador; Aranjuelo Michelena, Iker

    2014-01-01

    Legumes such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are vital N2-fixing crops accounting for a global N2 fixation of ~35 MtNyear-1. Although enzymatic and molecular mechanisms of nodule N2 fixation are now well documented, some uncertainty remains as to whether N2 fixation is strictly coupled with photosynthetic carbon fixation. That is, the metabolic origin and redistribution of carbon skeletons used to incorporate nitrogen are still relatively undefined. Here, we conducted isotopic labelling with ...

  15. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins.

  16. Metabolomic Analysis of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Root-Symbiotic Rhizobia Responses under Alkali Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Tingting; Xu, Huihui; Sun, Na; Jiang, Liu; Tian, Pu; Yong, Yueyuan; Yang, Weiwei; Cai, Hua; Cui, Guowen

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline salts (e.g., NaHCO3 and Na2CO3) causes more severe morphological and physiological damage to plants than neutral salts (e.g., NaCl and Na2SO4) due to differences in pH. The mechanism by which plants respond to alkali stress is not fully understood, especially in plants having symbotic relationships such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate the metabolic response of the root-nodule symbiosis in alfalfa under alkali stress using comparative metab...

  17. Allelopathic interference of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes to annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Hasan Muhammad; Pratley, James E; Sandral, G A; Humphries, A

    2017-07-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) genotypes at varying densities were investigated for allelopathic impact using annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) as the target species in a laboratory bioassay. Three densities (15, 30, and 50 seedlings/beaker) and 40 alfalfa genotypes were evaluated by the equal compartment agar method (ECAM). Alfalfa genotypes displayed a range of allelopathic interference in ryegrass seedlings, reducing root length from 5 to 65%. The growth of ryegrass decreased in response to increasing density of alfalfa seedlings. At the lowest density, Q75 and Titan9 were the least allelopathic genotypes. An overall inhibition index was calculated to rank each alfalfa genotype. Reduction in seed germination of annual ryegrass occurred in the presence of several alfalfa genotypes including Force 10, Haymaster7 and SARDI Five. A comprehensive metabolomic analysis using Quadruple Time of Flight (Q-TOF), was conducted to compare six alfalfa genotypes. Variation in chemical compounds was found between alfalfa root extracts and exudates and also between genotypes. Further individual compound assessments and quantitative study at greater chemical concentrations are needed to clarify the allelopathic activity. Considerable genetic variation exists among alfalfa genotypes for allelopathic activity creating the opportunity for its use in weed suppression through selection.

  18. Production of aerial biomass and equivalent land use in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) intercropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra, T. W.; Pagliaricci, H. R.; Ohanian, A. E.; Bonvillani, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Productivity increase has traditionally been associated to yield increase through breeding and crop management practices. Nevertheless, if production is considered per area and time unit, the intercropping system may be another way to improve cost-effectiveness. The objective of the experiment was to determine the produced biomass and the equivalent land use in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) monocrop and intercrops with sorghum Sudan (Sorghum sudanense L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.). The aerial biomass of all the treatments (expressed per surface unit) and the equivalent land use were determined. The design was completely randomized, arranged in blocks with two repetitions. The results were subject to an ANAVA and the means were compared through Duncan's test, by means of the statistical pack INFOSTAT. The alfalfa-sorghum intercrop triplicated the alfalfa production with regards to the monocrop, while alfalfa-oat did not exceed the production of pure alfalfa in the winter months. The alfalfa-sorghum intercrop was 57 % more efficient in land use than the respective monocrops, while alfalfa-oat did not surpass the unit. (author)

  19. Identification of novel RNA viruses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa): an Alphapartitivirus, a Deltapartitivirus, and a Marafivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyein; Park, Dongbin; Hahn, Yoonsoo

    2018-01-05

    Genomic RNA molecules of plant RNA viruses are often co-isolated with the host RNAs, and their sequences can be detected in plant transcriptome datasets. Here, an alfalfa (Medicago sativa) transcriptome dataset was analyzed and three new RNA viruses were identified, which were named Medicago sativa alphapartitivirus 1 (MsAPV1), Medicago sativa deltapartitivirus 1 (MsDPV1), and Medicago sativa marafivirus 1 (MsMV1). The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of MsAPV1, MsDPV1, and MsMV1 showed about 68%, 58%, and 46% amino acid sequence identity, respectively, with their closest virus species. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analyses indicated that MsAPV1, MsDPV1, and MsMV1 were novel RNA virus species that belong to the genus Alphapartitivirus of the family Partitiviridae, the genus Deltapartitivirus of the family Partitiviridae, and the genus Marafivirus of the family Tymoviridae, respectively. The bioinformatics procedure applied in this study may facilitate the identification of novel RNA viruses from plant transcriptome data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolomic Analysis of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Root-Symbiotic Rhizobia Responses under Alkali Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Song

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline salts (e.g., NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 causes more severe morphological and physiological damage to plants than neutral salts (e.g., NaCl and Na2SO4 due to differences in pH. The mechanism by which plants respond to alkali stress is not fully understood, especially in plants having symbotic relationships such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate the metabolic response of the root-nodule symbiosis in alfalfa under alkali stress using comparative metabolomics. Rhizobium-nodulized (RI group and non-nodulized (NI group alfalfa roots were treated with 200 mmol/L NaHCO3 and, roots samples were analyzed for malondialdehydyde (MDA, proline, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and peroxidase (POD content. Additionally, metabolite profiling was conducted using gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS. Phenotypically, the RI alfalfa exhibited a greater resistance to alkali stress than the NI plants examined. Physiological analysis and metabolic profiling revealed that RI plants accumulated more antioxidants (SOD, POD, GSH, osmolytes (sugar, glycols, proline, organic acids (succinic acid, fumaric acid, and alpha-ketoglutaric acid, and metabolites that are involved in nitrogen fixation. Our pairwise metabolomics comparisons revealed that RI alfalfa plants exhibited a distinct metabolic profile associated with alkali putative tolerance relative to NI alfalfa plants. Data provide new information about the relationship between non-nodulized, rhizobium-nodulized alfalfa and alkali resistance.

  1. Promotion of pyrene degradation in rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuxiu; Li, Peijun; Gong, Zongqiang; Ren, Wanxia; He, Na

    2008-04-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation of pyrene-contaminated soil using alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Alfalfa biomasses, microbial viable counts, dehydrogenase activity, residual pyrene concentration and pyrene removal percentage were determined after 60 days of alfalfa growth. The results indicated that pyrene had an inhibitive effect on alfalfa growth, and higher pyrene concentration seriously affected alfalfa growth. In addition, the inhibitive effect on the root was more severe than that on the shoot. When pyrene concentration reached 492 mg kg(-1) in soil, the shoot and root biomasses were only 34% and 22% of those of alfalfa growing in non-spiked soil, respectively. The rhizospheric bacterial and fungi counts were 5.0-7.5 and 1.8-2.3 times higher than those in non-rhizosphere soil, respectively. The residual concentrations of pyrene in the rhizosphere soil were lower than those in the non-rhizosphere soil. After 60 days, 69-85% and 59-80% of spiked pyrene disappeared from the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, respectively. The removal percentage decreased with increasing pyrene concentration. However, the average removal of pyrene in the rhizosphere soil was 6% higher than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. Therefore, the presence of alfalfa roots was effective in promoting the phytoremediation of freshly added pyrene into the soil.

  2. Metabolomic Analysis of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Root-Symbiotic Rhizobia Responses under Alkali Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tingting; Xu, Huihui; Sun, Na; Jiang, Liu; Tian, Pu; Yong, Yueyuan; Yang, Weiwei; Cai, Hua; Cui, Guowen

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline salts (e.g., NaHCO 3 and Na 2 CO 3 ) causes more severe morphological and physiological damage to plants than neutral salts (e.g., NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 ) due to differences in pH. The mechanism by which plants respond to alkali stress is not fully understood, especially in plants having symbotic relationships such as alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.). Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate the metabolic response of the root-nodule symbiosis in alfalfa under alkali stress using comparative metabolomics. Rhizobium-nodulized (RI group) and non-nodulized (NI group) alfalfa roots were treated with 200 mmol/L NaHCO 3 and, roots samples were analyzed for malondialdehydyde (MDA), proline, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) content. Additionally, metabolite profiling was conducted using gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). Phenotypically, the RI alfalfa exhibited a greater resistance to alkali stress than the NI plants examined. Physiological analysis and metabolic profiling revealed that RI plants accumulated more antioxidants (SOD, POD, GSH), osmolytes (sugar, glycols, proline), organic acids (succinic acid, fumaric acid, and alpha-ketoglutaric acid), and metabolites that are involved in nitrogen fixation. Our pairwise metabolomics comparisons revealed that RI alfalfa plants exhibited a distinct metabolic profile associated with alkali putative tolerance relative to NI alfalfa plants. Data provide new information about the relationship between non-nodulized, rhizobium-nodulized alfalfa and alkali resistance.

  3. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical responses of Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to determine NaCl salinity effects on antioxidant enzyme s activities, reducing sugar contents and lipid peroxidation in two alfalfa cultivars. Plants grown in solution cultures were subjected to 0, 100, 150 and 200 mM solutions of sodium chloride. Yazdi and Diabolourde alfalfa were used as ...

  5. [Natural nucleotide polymorphism of the Srlk gene that determines salt stress tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaia, M S; Pavlov, A V; Dziubenko, E A; Dziubenko, N I; Potokina, E K

    2014-04-01

    Based on legume genome syntheny, the nucleotide sequence of Srlk gene, key role of which in response to salt stress was demonstrated for the model species Medicago truncatula, was identified in the major forage and siderate crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In twelve alfalfa samples originating from regions with contrasting growing conditions, 19 SNPs were revealed in the Srlk gene. For two nonsynonymous SNPs, molecular markers were designed that could be further used to analyze the association between Srlk gene nucleotide polymorphism and the variability in salt stress tolerance among alfalfa cultivars.

  6. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa.

  7. The Current Status, Problems, and Prospects of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangli Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status, methodology, achievements, and prospects of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. breeding in China. There are 77 cultivars that have been registered in the country, these include 36 cultivars bred through breeding programs, 17 introduced from overseas, 5 domesticated from wild ecotypes, and 19 through regional collection/breeding programs. Cultivars have been selected for cold resistance, disease resistance, salt tolerance, grazing tolerance, high yield, and early maturity. Most of these cultivars have been developed through conventional breeding techniques, such as selective and cross breeding, and some are now being evaluated that have been developed through the application of transgenic technology. The major problems for alfalfa breeding in China include low success rate, slow progress to breed resistant varieties, lack of breeding materials and their systematic collection, storage and evaluation, lack of advanced breeding techniques, and low adoption rate of new cultivars. There are gaps in alfalfa breeding between China and the developed world. Improvement of alfalfa breeding techniques, development of cultivars with adaptations to different regions within China, and the protection and utilization of alfalfa germplasm resources have been identified as major strategies to improve the efficiency of alfalfa breeding in China.

  8. Development of simple sequence repeat markers and diversity analysis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zan; Yan, Hongwei; Fu, Xinnian; Li, Xuehui; Gao, Hongwen

    2013-04-01

    Efficient and robust molecular markers are essential for molecular breeding in plant. Compared to dominant and bi-allelic markers, multiple alleles of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are particularly informative and superior in genetic linkage map and QTL mapping in autotetraploid species like alfalfa. The objective of this study was to enrich SSR markers directly from alfalfa expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 12,371 alfalfa ESTs were retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Total 774 SSR-containing ESTs were identified from 716 ESTs. On average, one SSR was found per 7.7 kb of EST sequences. Tri-nucleotide repeats (48.8 %) was the most abundant motif type, followed by di-(26.1 %), tetra-(11.5 %), penta-(9.7 %), and hexanucleotide (3.9 %). One hundred EST-SSR primer pairs were successfully designed and 29 exhibited polymorphism among 28 alfalfa accessions. The allele number per marker ranged from two to 21 with an average of 6.8. The PIC values ranged from 0.195 to 0.896 with an average of 0.608, indicating a high level of polymorphism of the EST-SSR markers. Based on the 29 EST-SSR markers, assessment of genetic diversity was conducted and found that Medicago sativa ssp. sativa was clearly different from the other subspecies. The high transferability of those EST-SSR markers was also found for relative species.

  9. Studi tentang pola produksi alfalfa tropis (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Dwi Wahyuni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research aims to determine the growth pattern of alfalfa in the tropical region, which later can be used as a source of information for the people needed. Research methods used are experimental; the data acquired during the 90 days was showed in a graph and then analyzed using regression analysis with two variables, namely independent variables (cutting age and dependent variables (the nutritive value, height of plants, and production of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP. The growth pattern of alfalfa in the range 20 to 90 days was quadratic, with the equation of y= -0.0092x2 + 1.6113x – 19.257. At that range of time the alfalfa was still in vegetative growth phase. With increasing age of cutting, the alfalfa chemical compositions of DM and OM increased, but the content of CP decreased.While the production of DM, OM, and CP increased with increasing cutting age. Key words: nutrition, growth, alfalfa, tropics

  10. Metabolic responses of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) leaves to low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... previous studies in spinach, chickpea and raspberry (Guy et al., 1992; Palonen et al., 2000; Nayyar et al., 2005). In addition, our results documented that, LT and HT lowered starch content and enhanced soluble reducing sugar in alfalfa leaves and LT showed a remarkable impact. It was believed that, LT ...

  11. Modeling of desorption of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) stems and leaves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Huisman, W.; Müller, J.

    2011-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture content of agricultural products is necessary to optimize drying process and helps to keep the quality of the product during the period of storage. The main aim of this research was to find the best model which could define well, the exchange of moisture between alfalfa

  12. Metabolic responses of alfalfa ( Medicago Sativa L.) leaves to low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To explore adaptation mechanism of alfalfa to cold and heat stresses, status of sucrose metabolism and relative water content (RWC) in leaves under low and high temperature treatments were studied. Seedlings (35 day old) were transferred to chambers for treatments. First group was subjected to 5°C as low temperature ...

  13. PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L. GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Tucak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate phenotypic diversity in the alfalfa germplasm collections using multivariate analysis to examine the extent of genetic diversity and contribution of selected characters to the total diversity and finally to select the most promising clusters/populations for further breeding work. Forty alfalfa populations/cultivars of different geographical origin were evaluated for 12 agro-morphological characters during two consecutive years. The populations/ cultivars were grouped into six clusters. In most cases populations/cultivars within clusters were not associated with their geographical origin. Intercluster distances were larger than the intracluster ones. This research revealed a broad phenotypic diversity within and between the alfalfa germplasm collections. The following characters contributed most to the total phenotypic diversity: dry matter yield in the first production year, plant height and length of central leaflet. Based on the mean value of the evaluated characters and determined distances between clusters, the most promising populations/cultivars belong to the clusters IV and V. Selected populations/cultivars could be considered as a valuable genetic material for the yield and quality improvement of alfalfa in our breeding programme.

  14. Toxicological responses in alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ) under joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joint effects of Cd2+ and napropamide in seeds, roots or leaves of alfalfa were investigated under different treatments. It was shown that single stress of Cd2+ or napropamide decreased chlorophyll content after 30 days of treatment in different concentrations. The decrease in chlorophyll content became insignificant under ...

  15. [Study on phytoremediation of phenanthrene-contaminated soil with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shu-xiu; Li, Pei-jun; Gong, Zong-qiang; He, Na; Zhang, Li-hong; Ren, Wan-xia; Verkhozina, V A

    2007-09-01

    Pot experiment was used to investigate phytoremediation of phenanthrene-contaminated soil with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Results indicated that phenanthrene had inhibitive effect on alfalfa growth, and higher phenanthrene concentration seriously prevent alfalfa growth. When the concentration was 445.22 mg/kg, the shoot and root biomasses were only 57.31% and 31.20% of control respectively. Alfalfa significantly promoted phenanthrene degradation in the soil. After 60 days, 85.68%-91.40% and 75.25%-86.61% of spiked phenanthrene disappeared from the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils respectively. And the average removal ratio of phenanthrene in rhizosphere soils was 6.33% higher than that in non-rhizoshpere soils. The residual concentration of phenanthrene in the rhizosphere was lower than that in the non-rhizosphere but the dehydrogenase activity was on the contrary. With phenanthrene concentration increase the removal ratio and dehydrogenase activity decreased. A positive correlation was observed between the soil dehydrogenase activity and the removal ratio of phenanthrene in both the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. Therefore the presence of alfalfa roots was effective in promoting the phytoremediation of phenanthrene.

  16. MicroRNA156 improves drought stress tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by silencing SPL13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad; Feyissa, Biruk A; Amyot, Lisa; Aung, Banyar; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2017-05-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is an important forage crop that is often grown in areas that frequently experience drought and water shortage. MicroRNA156 (miR156) is an emerging tool for improving various traits in plants. We tested the role of miR156d in drought response of alfalfa, and observed a significant improvement in drought tolerance of miR156 overexpression (miR156OE) alfalfa genotypes compared to the wild type control (WT). In addition to higher survival and reduced water loss, miR156OE genotypes also maintained higher stomatal conductance compared to WT during drought stress. Furthermore, we observed an enhanced accumulation of compatible solute (proline) and increased levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and antioxidants in miR156OE genotypes. Similarly, alfalfa plants with reduced expression of miR156-targeted SPL13 showed reduced water loss and enhanced stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic assimilation. Several genes known to be involved in drought tolerance were differentially expressed in leaf and root of miR156 overexpression plants. Taken together, our findings reveal that miR156 improves drought tolerance in alfalfa at least partially by silencing SPL13. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins during alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1, pollination (S2, and the post-pollination senescence period (S3. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD. Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs, carbonic anhydrase (CA, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein (NQOLs. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower

  18. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  19. Resistant and susceptible responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the central and western U.S. and has been reported in Australia and Europe. The disease is not always recognized because symptoms are often associated with frost damage. Two culti...

  20. Gamma-Ray Doses Affected on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, E.M; Tarrad, M.M.; Abd El-Daem, G.A.N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at the experimental from, Nuclear Research Center at Inshas. Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) at Egypt during 2011– 2012 growing seasons on alfalfa genotype. The aim of this investigation to evaluate the effect of different gamma ray doses (100-300 Gy) on the alfalfa yield and related traits. Seeds lots of alfalfa genotype were subjected to five gamma ray treatments (100,150,200,250 and 300 Gray). Over all cuts, the dose treatment 300 Gy increased the majority of studied traits i.e., plant height, No. of shoots/plant, fresh weight/plant, fresh yield/Fadden and dry weight yield/fed. The results observed indicated that. In addition, dose of 200 and 250 Gy increased No. of leaves /plant, No. of shoots/plant, stem diameter and fresh weight /plant. However, the plant dry weight was decreased by all doses used and over all cuts, but the dose of 100 and 150 Gy increased leaves /stem ratio. Meanwhile, the later cuts were more affected by irradiation treatments than the earlier ones. In general, the low doses had negative effects on yield traits, but, the relatively high doses exhibited an increase in yield traits

  1. Micromonospora from nitrogen fixing nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A new promising Plant Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación; Trujillo, Martha E; Igual, José M; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    2014-09-17

    Biotic interactions can improve agricultural productivity without costly and environmentally challenging inputs. Micromonospora strains have recently been reported as natural endophytes of legume nodules but their significance for plant development and productivity has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity and function of Micromonospora isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules. Micromonospora-like strains from field alfalfa nodules were characterized by BOX-PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The ecological role of the interaction of the 15 selected representative Micromonospora strains was tested in M. sativa. Nodulation, plant growth and nutrition parameters were analyzed. Alfalfa nodules naturally contain abundant and highly diverse populations of Micromonospora, both at the intra- and at interspecific level. Selected Micromonospora isolates significantly increase the nodulation of alfalfa by Ensifer meliloti 1021 and also the efficiency of the plant for nitrogen nutrition. Moreover, they promote aerial growth, the shoot-to-root ratio, and raise the level of essential nutrients. Our results indicate that Micromonospora acts as a Rhizobia Helper Bacteria (RHB) agent and has probiotic effects, promoting plant growth and increasing nutrition efficiency. Its ecological role, biotechnological potential and advantages as a plant probiotic bacterium (PPB) are also discussed.

  2. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaojuan, E-mail: xiaojuanwang@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Song, Yu [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China); Environment Management College of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma Yanhua [Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhuo Renying [Key Lab of Tree Genomics, Research Institute of Subtropical of Forest, Chinese Academy of Forest, Fuyang 311400 (China); Jin Liang [School of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 61, Lanzhou 730020 (China)

    2011-12-15

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible. - Highlights: > Evaluate Cd tolerance in wide sources of alfalfa accessions. > Identify Cd-hyperaccumulators potentially useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments. > Cloned differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes. > Characteristics and deduced protein sequence of MsMT2a and MsMT2b were analyzed. > MsMT2a might be a universally gene of alfalfa but MsMT2b might be an inductive gene. - Two Cd tolerant alfalfa genotypes were screened and their metallothionein genes were cloned which showed that MsMT2a was universally expressed but MsMT2b was Cd inducible expression.

  3. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaojuan; Song, Yu; Ma Yanhua; Zhuo Renying; Jin Liang

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible. - Highlights: → Evaluate Cd tolerance in wide sources of alfalfa accessions. → Identify Cd-hyperaccumulators potentially useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments. → Cloned differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes. → Characteristics and deduced protein sequence of MsMT2a and MsMT2b were analyzed. → MsMT2a might be a universally gene of alfalfa but MsMT2b might be an inductive gene. - Two Cd tolerant alfalfa genotypes were screened and their metallothionein genes were cloned which showed that MsMT2a was universally expressed but MsMT2b was Cd inducible expression.

  4. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, W.D.; Zhu, Y.G.; Liang, Y.C.; Zhang, J.; Smith, F.A.; Yang, M.

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with V max of 2.25 μmol g -1 fresh weight h -1 , and K m of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag + . OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg 2+ , suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg 2+ on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process. - Plant uptake of antibiotic oxytetracycline is energy-dependent

  5. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, W.D. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Y.G. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn; Liang, Y.C. [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, Institute of Soils and Fertilizers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, J. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F.A. [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, DP 636, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Yang, M. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with V {sub max} of 2.25 {mu}mol g{sup -1} fresh weight h{sup -1}, and K {sub m} of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag{sup +}. OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg{sup 2+}, suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg{sup 2+} on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process. - Plant uptake of antibiotic oxytetracycline is energy-dependent.

  6. Asymmetric somatic hybrid plants between Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa, lucerne) and Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y G; Tanner, G J; Delves, A C; Larkin, P J

    1993-12-01

    This paper reports on the production of intergeneric somatic hybrid plants between two sexually incompatible legume species. Medicago sativa (alfalfa, lucerne) leaf protoplasts were inactivated by lethal doses of iodoacetamide. Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) suspension-cell protoplasts were gamma-irradiated at lethal doses. Following electrofusion under optimized conditions about 50,000 viable heterokaryons were produced in each test. The fusion products were cultured with the help of alfalfa nurse protoplasts. Functional complementation permitted only the heterokaryons to survive. A total of 706 putative heterokaryon-derived plantlets were regenerated and 570 survived transplantation to soil. Experimentation was aimed at the introduction of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) from sainfoin, a bloat-safe plant, to alfalfa, a bloat-causing forage crop; however, no tannin-positive regenerant plants were detected. Most regenerant plants have shown morphological differences from the fusion parents, although, as expected, all resembled the "recipient" parent, alfalfa. Southern analysis using an improved total-genomic probing technique has shown low levels of sainfoin-specific DNA in 43 out of 158 tested regenerants. Cytogenetic analysis of these asymmetric hybrids has confirmed the existence of euploid (2n=32; 17%) as well as aneuploid (2n=30, 33-78; 83%) plants. Pollen germination tests have indicated that the majority of the hybrids were fertile, while 35% had either reduced fertility or were completely sterile.

  7. Uptake of oxytetracycline and its phytotoxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, W D; Zhu, Y G; Liang, Y C; Zhang, J; Smith, F A; Yang, M

    2007-05-01

    A series of experiments were conducted in a hydroponic system to investigate the uptake of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its toxicity to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). OTC inhibited alfalfa shoot and root growth by up to 61% and 85%, respectively. The kinetics of OTC uptake could be well described by Michaelis-Menten equation with Vmax of 2.25 micromol g-1 fresh weight h-1, and Km of 0.036 mM. The uptake of OTC by alfalfa was strongly inhibited by the metabolic inhibitor, 2,4-DNP (2,4-dinitrophenol), at pH 3.5 and 6.0, but not by the aquaporin competitors, glycerol and Ag+. OTC uptake, however, was significantly inhibited by Hg2+, suggesting that the inhibition of influx was due to general cellular stress rather than the specific action of Hg2+ on aquaporins. Results from the present study suggested that OTC uptake into alfalfa is an energy-dependent process.

  8. Selective lignin downregulation leads to constitutive defense response expression in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2011-05-01

    • Downregulation of hydroxycinnamoyl CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) reduces lignin levels and improves forage quality and saccharification efficiency for bioethanol production. However, the plants have reduced stature. It was previously reported that HCT-down-regulated Arabidopsis have impaired auxin transport, but this has recently been disproved. • To address the basis for the phenotypes of lignin-modified alfalfa, we measured auxin transport, profiled a range of metabolites including flavonoids and hormones, and performed in depth transcriptome analyses. • Auxin transport is unaffected in HCT antisense alfalfa despite increased flavonoid biosynthesis. The plants show increased cytokinin and reduced auxin levels, and gibberellin levels and sensitivity are both reduced. Levels of salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids are elevated, associated with massive upregulation of pathogenesis and abiotic stress-related genes and enhanced tolerance to fungal infection and drought. • We suggest that HCT downregulated alfalfa plants exhibit constitutive activation of defense responses, triggered by release of bioactive cell wall fragments and production of hydrogen peroxide as a result of impaired secondary cell wall integrity. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Screening of Cd tolerant genotypes and isolation of metallothionein genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Song, Yu; Ma, Yanhua; Zhuo, Renying; Jin, Liang

    2011-12-01

    In order to evaluate Cd tolerance in wide-ranging sources of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and to identify Cd tolerant genotypes which may potentially be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated environments, thirty-six accessions of alfalfa were screened under hydroponic culture. Our results showed that the relative root growth rate varied from 0.48 to 1.0, which indicated that different alfalfa accessions had various responses to Cd stress. The candidate fragments derived from differentially expressed metallothionein (MT) genes were cloned from leaves of two Cd tolerant genotypes, YE and LZ. DNA sequence and the deduced protein sequence showed that MsMT2a and MsMT2b had high similarity to those in leguminous plants. DDRT-PCR analysis showed that MsMT2a expressed in both YE and LZ plants under control and Cd stress treatment, but MsMT2b only expressed under Cd stress treatment. This suggested that MsMT2a was universally expressed in leaves of alfalfa but expression of MsMT2b was Cadmium (Cd) inducible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Selection Indices for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan MONIRIFAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of selection indices in alfalfa improvement, an experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2007 at East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Iran. A set of 29 native ecotypes, which were collected in 2000 and 2001 from Azerbaijan (Iran, together with one improved variety were used to conduct a polycross nursery. For the purpose of random mating, a randomized complete block design was used with 12 replications arranged in this nursery. The resulting 30 half-sib families were planted individually in pots and the 30 days old seedlings were transplanted to the field in May, 2004. Each 3-row plot consisted of 45 HS plants. Several traits, such as individual plants� fresh weight and individual plants� dry weight (IPFW, IPDW, number of shoots per plant (NS and plant height (PH in each harvest and also, days until 10% flowering, the ratio of fresh and dry weight of leaves/plant and size of trifoliate leaves were measured for three cropping seasons. The results of analysis of variance showed large variation among polycross progenies. Six selection indices (Ii with different number of traits at adult plant stage were evaluated. Based on the result of this investigation, if number of shoots and height of adult plant, excluding yield, are recorded, I2 is suggested. If, in addition to fresh yield, height of adult plant is measured, I6 is recommended. I4 is useful when number of shoots and plant height with dry yield are included in the index. In conclusion, the importance of mature plant traits in selection indices was in the order of yield > plant height > number of shoots. The results provided more evidence that selection indices incorporating the component of dry yield are more advantageous. The most efficient selection index consisted of NS, IPDW and PH, having a relative efficiency of 280%.

  11. Toxic effects of copper-based nanoparticles or compounds to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren M; Zhao, Lijuan; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Keller, Arturo A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The increased production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) has generated concerns about their impact on living organisms. In this study, nCu, bulk Cu, nCuO, bulk CuO, Cu(OH)2 (CuPRO 2005, Kocide 3000), and CuCl2 were exposed for 15 days to 10 days-old hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Each compound was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1). At harvest, we measured the size of the plants and determined the concentration of Cu, macro and microelements by using ICP-OES. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was also determined. Results showed that all Cu NPs/compounds reduced the root length by 49% in both plant species. All Cu NPs/compounds increased Cu, P, and S (>100%, >50%, and >20%, respectively) in alfalfa shoots and decreased P and Fe in lettuce shoot (>50% and >50%, respectively, excluding Fe in CuCl2 treatment). Biochemical assays showed reduced catalase activity in alfalfa (root and shoot) and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in roots of both plant species. Results suggest that Cu NPs/compounds not only reduced the size of the plants but altered nutrient content and enzyme activity in both plant species.

  12. Enhanced salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by rstB gene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Jun; Wang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Generating salt tolerance forage plant is essential for use of the land affected by high salinity. A salt tolerance gene rstB was used as a selectable marker gene in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco under a selective regime of 170mM NaCl. The transgenic plants showed clear improvement in salt tolerance. To improve salt tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), rstB gene was introduced into alfalfa genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. No abnormal phenotype was observed among the transgenic plants when compared with wild type (wt) plants. Significant enhancement of resistance to salt-shock treatment was noted on the rstB transgenic (T0) plants. Transgenic second-generation (T1) seeds showed improved germination rate and seedling growth under salt-stress condition. Hindered Na(+) accumulation, but enhanced Ca(2+) accumulation was observed on the rstB T1 plants when subjected to salt-stresses. Enhanced calcium accumulation in transgenic plants was also verified by cytohistochemical localization of calcium. Under salt-stress of 50mM NaCl, about 15% of the transgenic plants finished their life-cycle but the wt plants had no flower formation. The results demonstrated that the expression of rstB gene improved salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weed control in dormant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. with active ingredients’ metribuzin, imazetapyr and pronamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2008 – 2010 to evaluate weed control in dormant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. with metribuzin, imazetapyr and pronamide. The weed population in all experimental years was consisted mainly of annual winter and spring grass and broadleaf weeds, and some perennial weeds. The number of weed species and weed density increased with the years of alfalfa growing, from second to the fourth year. Weed density in the untreated control plots was 201.0, 217.2 and 240.5 plants per m2 in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. The most dominant weeds were Anthemis cotula, Capsell bursa-pastoris and Taraxacum officinale in 2008, Alopecurus myosuroides and Poa pratensis in 2009 and Millium vernale and Arabidopsis thaliana in 2010. Efficacy of herbicides in control of weeds was ranged of 91.8% (pronamide to 98.4% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2008, 93.1% (imazetapyr to 97.3% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2009 and 92.1% (imazetapyr to 97.3% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2010, respectively. Efficacy of herbicides in control of prevailing weeds during the 3 years field trial period was ranged of 48.5% to 100.0%. No visual alfalfa injured was determined by any rates during the experimental period, and consequently, none of the applied herbicides reduced first-harvest alfalfa yields. Alfalfa yield was markedly affected by herbicide efficacy in all experimental years, particularly in the second year, where yields of herbicide treatments were similar to that of the weed free control.

  14. Identification of genetic loci associated with crude protein and mineral concentrations in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Congjun; Wu, Xinming; Chen, Min; Wang, Yunqi; Liu, Xiqiang; Gong, Pan; Xu, Qingfang; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Zan

    2017-06-06

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is one of the most important legume forage species in China and many other countries of the world. It provides a quality source of proteins and minerals to animals. Genetic underpinnings for these important traits, however, are elusive. An alfalfa (M. sativa) association mapping study for six traits, namely crude protein (CP), rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and four mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg and P), was conducted in three consecutive years using a large collection encompassing 336 genotypes genotyped with 85 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. All the traits were significantly influenced by genotype, environment, and genotype × environment interaction. Eight-five significant associations (P alfalfa quality. The markers could be used in assisting selection for the individual traits in breeding populations for developing new alfalfa cultivars.

  15. Cloning and characterization of chromosomal markers in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feng; Lei, Yunting; Li, Yuan; Dou, Quanwen; Wang, Haiqing; Chen, Zhiguo

    2013-07-01

    Eleven tandemly repetitive sequences were identified from a Cot-1 library by FISH and sequence analysis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Five repetitive sequences (MsCR-1, MsCR-2, MsCR-3, MsCR-4, and MsCR-5) were centromeric or pericentromeric, of which three were satellite DNAs and two were minisatellite DNAs. Monomers of 144, 148, and 168 bp were identified in MsCR-1, MsCR-2, and MsCR-3, respectively, while 15 and 39 bp monomers were identified in MsCR-4 and MsCR-5, respectively. Three repetitive sequences were characterized as subtelomeric; one repetitive sequence, MsTR-1, had a 184 bp monomer, and two repetitive sequences had fragments of 204 and 327 bp. Sequence analysis revealed homology (70-80 %) between MsTR-1 and a highly repeated sequence (C300) isolated from M. ssp. caerulea. Three identified repetitive sequences produced hybridization signals at multiple sites in a few of the chromosomes; one repetitive sequence was identified as the E180 satellite DNA previously isolated from M. sativa, while the other 163 and 227 bp fragments had distinct sequences. Physical mapping of the repetitive sequences with double-target FISH revealed different patterns. Thus, nine novel tandemly repetitive sequences that can be adopted as distinct chromosome markers in alfalfa were identified in this study. Furthermore, the chromosome distribution of each sequence was well described. Though significant chromosome variations were detected within and between cultivars, a molecular karyotype of alfalfa was suggested with the chromosome markers we identified. Therefore, these novel chromosome markers will still be a powerful tool for genome composition analysis, phylogenetic studies, and breeding applications.

  16. Soil decontamination of 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene by alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, S; Habibi-Rezaei, M; Khayami, M; Heydari, R

    2007-12-15

    Present study investigate the toxicity effect of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on a terrestrial plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in artificial soils. In this study, TNT toxicity assessment was performed on spiked silica with this nitroaromatic compound by determination of the percent of emergence and shoots and roots biomasses at the concentration range of 3.2-10000 mg kg(-1) Dry Weight (DW). The emergence was reduced by 22-32% after 5 days of exposure at TNT concentrations up to 100 mg kg(-1) DW; shoot and root biomasses were reduced by 48-50 and 63-74%, respectively after 30 days exposure at TNT concentrations root and shoot were measured by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Analyses of TNT spiked soil extracts reveal hat during alfalfa cultivation for 30 days, TNT was partially transformed at the extent of 15-27%. This transformation decreased at higher TNT soil concentrations. TNT is taken up and metabolized by plants to its downstream derivatives.

  17. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Nonphotosynthetic CO2 fixation by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots and nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Vance, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) root and nodule nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation on the supply of currently produced photosynthate and nodule nitrogenase activity was examined a various times after phloem-girdling and exposure of nodules to Ar:O 2 . Phloem-girdling was effected 20 hours and exposure to Ar:O 2 was effected 2 to 3 hours before initiation of experiments. Nodule and root CO 2 fixation rates of phloem-girdled plants were reduced to 38 and 50%, respectively, of those of control plants. Exposure to Ar:O 2 decreased nodule CO 2 fixation rates to 45%, respiration rates to 55%, and nitrogenase activities to 51% of those of the controls. The products of nodule CO 2 fixation were exported through the xylem to the shoot mainly as amino acids within 30 to 60 minutes after exposure to 14 CO 2 . In contrast to nodules, roots exported very little radioactivity, and most of the 14 C was exported as organic acids. The nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation rate of roots and nodules averaged 26% of the gross respiration rate, i.e. the sum of net respiration and nonphotosynthetic CO 2 assimilation. Nodules fixed CO 2 at a rate 5.6 times that of roots, but since nodules comprised a small portion of root system mass, roots accounted for 76% of the nodulated roots system CO 2 fixation. The results indicate that nodule CO 2 fixation in alfalfa is associated with N assimilation

  19. Nutraceutical Potential of New Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Ingredients for Beverage Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Zarazúa, Maria Guadalupe; Bah, Moustapha; Costa, Anabela Silvia Gomes; Rodrigues, Francisca; Pimentel, Filipa Botelho; Rojas-Molina, Isela; Rojas, Alejandra; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz Prior Pinto

    2017-10-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been extensively used as animal feed, due to its fiber, protein, minerals, and vitamins, being also a useful source of phenolic compounds with potential therapeutic benefits. Nevertheless, its potential use as human ingredient is scarce. The aim of this work was to assess the nutritional composition, amino acid profile, and antioxidant capacity (AOC) of freeze-dried juice (FDJ) and fibrous residual material (RM), two new alfalfa-derived products (Adps) recently launched as ingredients for beverage preparations. Results demonstrated a high content of proteins (23-30 g/100 g FDJ and 13-17 g/100 g RM), crude fiber (29 g/100 g RM), and minerals (such as sodium, calcium, iron, and zinc). No significant difference was found in caloric content (4 kcal/g). Essential and nonessential amino acids were quantified in both Adps being leucine and lysine the most abundant. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) and their changes along the different harvesting periods of the year were also examined. FDJ presented the highest TPC in May (19 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight [dw]), while in October TFC had the maximum value (4 mg catechin equivalents/g dw). Both products exhibited an interesting AOC by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. This study reports the nutraceutical potential of two new types of Adps.

  20. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) shoot saponins: identification and bio-activity by the assessment of aphid feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery-Laghab, H; Yazdi-Samadi, B; Bagheri, M; Bagheri, A R

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical components in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), such as saponins, can act as protecting factors against bio-stresses. Saponins are also antifeedants and show oral toxicity towards higher and lower animals. Changes in saponins, such as variation in the carbon skeleton, or hydrolysis of saponin glycosides and other conjugates, may change their biological effects. The aims of this research were to study saponin variation in different growth stages of alfalfa and to investigate the biological role of saponins in the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata. Saponins from alfalfa shoots in different growth stages were extracted, chemically purified and analysed by TLC. Specific saponins such as soyasaponin1 from root and shoot and two bisdesmosides of medicagenic acid, one from shoot and another from root tissues, were identified using reference compounds allowing changes in saponin composition during plant development in different shoot tissues of alfalfa to be assessed. The response of the alfalfa aphid to feeding on alfalfa in different growth stages was studied. No significant difference in the survival of aphids, from neonate to adult, was observed, but due to the antibiotic effects of saponins, two differences were found in the onset of nymph production and cumulative nymph production. The results show that the saponin composition in alfalfa changes with plant development and this, in turn, can often negatively affect the development of specific insect pests such as the spotted alfalfa aphid, suggesting a possible biological role of alfalfa saponins.

  1. Comparative analysis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf transcriptomes reveals genotype-specific salt tolerance mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunting; Xu, Yuxing; Hettenhausen, Christian; Lu, Chengkai; Shen, Guojing; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Song, Juan; Lin, Honghui; Wu, Jianqiang

    2018-02-15

    Soil salinity is an important factor affecting growth, development, and productivity of almost all land plants, including the forage crop alfalfa (Medicago sativa). However, little is known about how alfalfa responds and adapts to salt stress, particularly among different salt-tolerant cultivars. Among seven alfalfa cultivars, we found that Zhongmu-1 (ZM) is relatively salt-tolerant and Xingjiang Daye (XJ) is salt-sensitive. Compared to XJ, ZM showed slower growth under low-salt conditions, but exhibited stronger tolerance to salt stress. RNA-seq analysis revealed 2237 and 1125 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ZM and XJ in the presence and absence of salt stress, among which many genes are involved in stress-related pathways. After salt treatment, compared with the controls, the number of DEGs in XJ (19373) was about four times of that in ZM (4833). We also detected specific differential gene expression patterns: In response to salt stress, compared with XJ, ZM maintained relatively more stable expression levels of genes related to the ROS and Ca 2+ pathways, phytohormone biosynthesis, and Na + /K + transport. Notably, several salt resistance-associated genes always showed greater levels of expression in ZM than in XJ, including a transcription factor. Consistent with the suppression of plant growth resulting from salt stress, the expression of numerous photosynthesis- and growth hormone-related genes decreased more dramatically in XJ than in ZM. By contrast, the expression levels of photosynthetic genes were lower in ZM under low-salt conditions. Compared with XJ, ZM is a salt-tolerant alfalfa cultivar possessing specific regulatory mechanisms conferring exceptional salt tolerance, likely by maintaining high transcript levels of abiotic and biotic stress resistance-related genes. Our results suggest that maintaining this specific physiological status and/or plant adaptation to salt stress most likely arises by inhibition of plant growth in ZM through

  2. Effect of cumulative growing degree day on accumulation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. root reserve saccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Hakl

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between growing degree day method and accumulation of root reserve saccharides before over wintering by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in the condition of Czech Republic. In 2002–2004, the field experiment was conducted at the Research station of the Czech University of Life Sciences in central Bohemia. The interval between summer and last autumn harvest was 40–50 days or 60–70 days, respectively. These intervals were expressed as cumulative growing degree-days (GDD for each year. The plants were sampled in each autumn with four replicates for each variant; the average depth of sampling was 150 mm. The weight of roots, amount of starch, and water soluble saccharides (WSC per m2 was determined. The total accumulation of root reserve saccharides was determined mainly by conditions during all vegetation period. The length of the interval or cumulative GDD influenced only variation of this basic amount. The GDD was corresponded better with starch content whilst WSC was more related to length of the interval. In central Bohemia condition, the GDD 600–700 °C was preliminary determined for maximal accumulation of root reserve saccharides. The GDD above this level did not significantly increase the root reserve accumulation. For exact verify of this model, other experiments in more sites are needed.

  3. Concerted changes in N and C primary metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under water restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Molero, Gemma; Gilard, Françoise; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Nogués, Salvador

    2013-02-01

    Although the mechanisms of nodule N(2) fixation in legumes are now well documented, some uncertainty remains on the metabolic consequences of water deficit. In most cases, little consideration is given to other organs and, therefore, the coordinated changes in metabolism in leaves, roots, and nodules are not well known. Here, the effect of water restriction on exclusively N(2)-fixing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants was investigated, and proteomic, metabolomic, and physiological analyses were carried out. It is shown that the inhibition of nitrogenase activity caused by water restriction was accompanied by concerted alterations in metabolic pathways in nodules, leaves, and roots. The data suggest that nodule metabolism and metabolic exchange between plant organs nearly reached homeostasis in asparagine synthesis and partitioning, as well as the N demand from leaves. Typically, there was (i) a stimulation of the anaplerotic pathway to sustain the provision of C skeletons for amino acid (e.g. glutamate and proline) synthesis; (ii) re-allocation of glycolytic products to alanine and serine/glycine; and (iii) subtle changes in redox metabolites suggesting the implication of a slight oxidative stress. Furthermore, water restriction caused little change in both photosynthetic efficiency and respiratory cost of N(2) fixation by nodules. In other words, the results suggest that under water stress, nodule metabolism follows a compromise between physiological imperatives (N demand, oxidative stress) and the lower input to sustain catabolism.

  4. Stem nematode counteracts plant resistance of aphids in alfalfa, Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ricardo A; Spears, Lori R

    2014-10-01

    Plants are exploited by a diverse community of insect herbivores and phytopathogens that interact indirectly through plant-mediated interactions. Generally, plants are thought to respond to insects and pathogens through different defensive signaling pathways. As plants are selected for resistance to one phytophagous organism type (insect vs. pathogen) in managed systems, it is not clear how this selection may affect community interactions. This study examined the effect of nematode-resistant varieties on aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) suppression, and then determined how infection by the stem nematode, Ditylenchus dipsaci, mediated ecological effects on aphids and on plant defense proteins. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties were selected with resistance to nematodes only (+,-), aphids only (-,+), nematodes and aphids (+,+), and susceptibility to nematodes and aphids (-,-). Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to isolate the effect of nematode infection and aphid abundance on each variety. We found that varieties resistant to nematode, regardless of aphid resistance, had the lowest aphid counts, suggesting possible cross-resistance. Aphid abundance, however, increased when plants were exposed to nematodes. Resistant varieties were associated with elevated saponins but these compounds were not affected by insect or pathogen feeding. Concentrations of peroxidases and trypsin inhibitors, however, were increased in nematode resistant varieties when exposed to nematodes and aphids, respectively. The patterns of plant defense were variable, and a combination of resistance traits and changes in nutrient availability may drive positive interactions between nematodes and aphids aboveground.

  5. Modeling feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) occurrence using topographical and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because alfalfa is a perennial species cross pollinated by bees and can establish along roadsides and ruderal areas, there is concern that feral plants can serve as reservoirs and conduits for transgenic genes. The objective of this study was to survey feral alfalfa in alfalfa seed production areas ...

  6. Nisbah Daun Batang, Nisbah Tajuk Akar Dan Kadar Serat Kasar Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa) Pada Pemupukan Nitrogen Dan Tinggi Defoliasi Berbeda

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawati, Viata; Sumarsono, Sumarsono; Slamet, Widyati

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effect of nitrogen fertilization and defoliation of different height to the leaf stem ratio, shot root ratio and crude fiber content in alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa). This research used factorial randomized block design (FRBD) 4x2 with 3 replicate. The main factor is the dose of nitrogen fertilization (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N/ha), the second factor is the heigth of the defoliation (5 and 10 cm). Parameters measured were leaf stem ratio, shot root ratio and crude...

  7. Molecular Diversity and Population Structure of a Worldwide Collection of Cultivated Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) Germplasm as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Haiping; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengli; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and population structure of a tetraploid alfalfa collection might be valuable in effective use of the genetic resources. A set of 336 worldwide genotypes of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) was genotyped using 85 genome-wide distributed SSR markers to reveal the genetic diversity and population structure in the alfalfa. Genetic diversity analysis identified a total of 1056 alleles across 85 marker loci. The average expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values were 0.677 and 0.638, respectively, showing high levels of genetic diversity in the cultivated tetraploid alfalfa germplasm. Comparison of genetic characteristics across chromosomes indicated regions of chromosomes 2 and 3 had the highest genetic diversity. A higher genetic diversity was detected in alfalfa landraces than that of wild materials and cultivars. Two populations were identified by the model-based population structure, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses, corresponding to China and other parts of the world. However, lack of strictly correlation between clustering and geographic origins suggested extensive germplasm exchanges of alfalfa germplasm across diverse geographic regions. The quantitative analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure in this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and utilization of the genetic variation in alfalfa breeding.

  8. Molecular Diversity and Population Structure of a Worldwide Collection of Cultivated Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) Germplasm as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Haiping; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengli; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and population structure of a tetraploid alfalfa collection might be valuable in effective use of the genetic resources. A set of 336 worldwide genotypes of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) was genotyped using 85 genome-wide distributed SSR markers to reveal the genetic diversity and population structure in the alfalfa. Genetic diversity analysis identified a total of 1056 alleles across 85 marker loci. The average expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values were 0.677 and 0.638, respectively, showing high levels of genetic diversity in the cultivated tetraploid alfalfa germplasm. Comparison of genetic characteristics across chromosomes indicated regions of chromosomes 2 and 3 had the highest genetic diversity. A higher genetic diversity was detected in alfalfa landraces than that of wild materials and cultivars. Two populations were identified by the model-based population structure, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses, corresponding to China and other parts of the world. However, lack of strictly correlation between clustering and geographic origins suggested extensive germplasm exchanges of alfalfa germplasm across diverse geographic regions. The quantitative analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure in this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and utilization of the genetic variation in alfalfa breeding. PMID:25901573

  9. Paenibacillus medicaginis sp. nov. a chitinolytic endophyte isolated from the root nodule of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-An; Hameed, Asif; Lin, Shih-Yao; Hung, Mei-Hua; Hsu, Yi-Han; Liu, You-Cheng; Shahina, Mariyan; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-08-04

    A Gram-stain-variable, short-rod-shaped, endospore-forming, strictly aerobic, non-motile, chitinolytic and endophytic bacterium, designated strain CC-Alfalfa-19T, exhibiting unusual bipolar appendages was isolated from the root nodule of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Taiwan and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomy. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CC-Alfalfa-19T was found to be most closely related to Paenibacillus puldeungensis CAU 9324T (95.2 %), whereas other Paenibacillus species shared ≤95.0 % sequence similarity. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a distinct phyletic lineage established by strain CC-Alfalfa-19T with respect to other Paenibacillus species. Fatty acids comprised predominantly anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C16. Menaquinone 7 (MK-7) was identified as the sole respiratory quinone and the genomic DNA G+C content was 42.7 mol%. Polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified lipid. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic evidences that were in line with the genus Paenibacillus and additional distinguishing characteristics, strain CC-Alfalfa-19T is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus medicaginis sp. nov. (type strain CC-Alfalfa-19T = BCRC 80441T = JCM 18446T) is proposed.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Mapping and Genomic Selection for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Forage Quality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazzi, Elisa; Nazzicari, Nelson; Pecetti, Luciano; Brummer, E Charles; Palmonari, Alberto; Tava, Aldo; Annicchiarico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Genetic progress for forage quality has been poor in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most-grown forage legume worldwide. This study aimed at exploring opportunities for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection of forage quality traits based on breeding values of parent plants. Some 154 genotypes from a broadly-based reference population were genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and phenotyped for leaf-to-stem ratio, leaf and stem contents of protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL), and leaf and stem NDF digestibility after 24 hours (NDFD), of their dense-planted half-sib progenies in three growing conditions (summer harvest, full irrigation; summer harvest, suspended irrigation; autumn harvest). Trait-marker analyses were performed on progeny values averaged over conditions, owing to modest germplasm × condition interaction. Genomic selection exploited 11,450 polymorphic SNP markers, whereas a subset of 8,494 M. truncatula-aligned markers were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). GWAS confirmed the polygenic control of quality traits and, in agreement with phenotypic correlations, indicated substantially different genetic control of a given trait in stems and leaves. It detected several SNPs in different annotated genes that were highly linked to stem protein content. Also, it identified a small genomic region on chromosome 8 with high concentration of annotated genes associated with leaf ADL, including one gene probably involved in the lignin pathway. Three genomic selection models, i.e., Ridge-regression BLUP, Bayes B and Bayesian Lasso, displayed similar prediction accuracy, whereas SVR-lin was less accurate. Accuracy values were moderate (0.3-0.4) for stem NDFD and leaf protein content, modest for leaf ADL and NDFD, and low to very low for the other traits. Along with previous results for the same germplasm set, this study indicates that GBS data can be exploited to improve both quality traits

  11. Speciation Matters: Bioavailability of Silver and Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles to Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, John P; Schwab, Fabienne; Colman, Benjamin P; Webb, Samuel M; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Winkler, Christopher; Wiesner, Mark R; Lowry, Gregory V

    2015-07-21

    Terrestrial crops are directly exposed to silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and their environmentally transformed analog silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NPs) when wastewater treatment biosolids are applied as fertilizer to agricultural soils. This leads to a need to understand their bioavailability to plants. In the present study, the mechanisms of uptake and distribution of silver in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were quantified and visualized upon hydroponic exposure to Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and AgNO3 at 3 mg total Ag/L. Total silver uptake was measured in dried roots and shoots, and the spatial distribution of elements was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based X-ray imaging techniques. Despite large differences in release of Ag(+) ions from the particles, Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs, and Ag(+) became associated with plant roots to a similar degree, and exhibited similarly limited (<1%) amounts of translocation of silver into the shoot system. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping revealed differences in the distribution of Ag into roots for each treatment. Silver nanoparticles mainly accumulated in the (columella) border cells and elongation zone, whereas Ag(+) accumulated more uniformly throughout the root. In contrast, Ag2S-NPs remained largely adhered to the root exterior, and the presence of cytoplasmic nano-SixOy aggregates was observed. Exclusively in roots exposed to particulate silver, NPs smaller than the originally dosed NPs were identified by TEM in the cell walls. The apparent accumulation of Ag in the root apoplast determined by XRF, and the presence of small NPs in root cell walls suggests uptake of partially dissolved NPs and translocation along the apoplast.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Mapping and Genomic Selection for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa Forage Quality Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Biazzi

    Full Text Available Genetic progress for forage quality has been poor in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., the most-grown forage legume worldwide. This study aimed at exploring opportunities for marker-assisted selection (MAS and genomic selection of forage quality traits based on breeding values of parent plants. Some 154 genotypes from a broadly-based reference population were genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, and phenotyped for leaf-to-stem ratio, leaf and stem contents of protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL, and leaf and stem NDF digestibility after 24 hours (NDFD, of their dense-planted half-sib progenies in three growing conditions (summer harvest, full irrigation; summer harvest, suspended irrigation; autumn harvest. Trait-marker analyses were performed on progeny values averaged over conditions, owing to modest germplasm × condition interaction. Genomic selection exploited 11,450 polymorphic SNP markers, whereas a subset of 8,494 M. truncatula-aligned markers were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS. GWAS confirmed the polygenic control of quality traits and, in agreement with phenotypic correlations, indicated substantially different genetic control of a given trait in stems and leaves. It detected several SNPs in different annotated genes that were highly linked to stem protein content. Also, it identified a small genomic region on chromosome 8 with high concentration of annotated genes associated with leaf ADL, including one gene probably involved in the lignin pathway. Three genomic selection models, i.e., Ridge-regression BLUP, Bayes B and Bayesian Lasso, displayed similar prediction accuracy, whereas SVR-lin was less accurate. Accuracy values were moderate (0.3-0.4 for stem NDFD and leaf protein content, modest for leaf ADL and NDFD, and low to very low for the other traits. Along with previous results for the same germplasm set, this study indicates that GBS data can be exploited to improve both

  13. Effects of chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole on fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage inoculated with or without Lactobacillus plantarum LP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Zhu; Wang, Xianguo; Na, Risu

    2017-03-01

    The effects of pesticides and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) on fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage were investigated. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole were sprayed on the surface of alfalfa plants at 658.6 and 45.0 g active ingredient/ha, respectively. Alfalfa plants were harvested on day 5 post-application and ensiled with or without LP. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole decreased the yeast count of alfalfa material (P butyric acid content of alfalfa silage (P butyric acid content, and increased lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid contents of alfalfa silage treated with pesticides (P fermentation of alfalfa silage and affected the fermentation process, whereas LP improved the fermentation quality of pesticides-contaminated alfalfa silage and slowed down the dissipation of chlorpyrifos. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Identification of molecular markers associated with Verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. using high-resolution melting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejun Zhang

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt, caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to Verticillium wilt, a bulk segregant analysis was conducted in susceptible or resistant pools constructed from 13 synthetic alfalfa populations, followed by association mapping in two F1 populations consisted of 352 individuals. Simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers were used for genotyping. Phenotyping was done by manual inoculation of the pathogen to replicated cloned plants of each individual and disease severity was scored using a standard scale. Marker-trait association was analyzed by TASSEL. Seventeen SNP markers significantly associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified and they were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7 and 8. SNP markers identified on chromosomes 2, 4 and 7 co-locate with regions of Verticillium wilt resistance loci reported in M. truncatula. Additional markers identified on chromosomes 1 and 8 located the regions where no Verticillium resistance locus has been reported. This study highlights the value of SNP genotyping by high resolution melting to identify the disease resistance loci in tetraploid alfalfa. With further validation, the markers identified in this study could be used for improving resistance to Verticillium wilt in alfalfa breeding programs.

  15. Identification of molecular markers associated with Verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) using high-resolution melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiejun; Yu, Long-Xi; McCord, Per; Miller, David; Bhamidimarri, Suresh; Johnson, David; Monteros, Maria J; Ho, Julie; Reisen, Peter; Samac, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to Verticillium wilt, a bulk segregant analysis was conducted in susceptible or resistant pools constructed from 13 synthetic alfalfa populations, followed by association mapping in two F1 populations consisted of 352 individuals. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used for genotyping. Phenotyping was done by manual inoculation of the pathogen to replicated cloned plants of each individual and disease severity was scored using a standard scale. Marker-trait association was analyzed by TASSEL. Seventeen SNP markers significantly associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified and they were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7 and 8. SNP markers identified on chromosomes 2, 4 and 7 co-locate with regions of Verticillium wilt resistance loci reported in M. truncatula. Additional markers identified on chromosomes 1 and 8 located the regions where no Verticillium resistance locus has been reported. This study highlights the value of SNP genotyping by high resolution melting to identify the disease resistance loci in tetraploid alfalfa. With further validation, the markers identified in this study could be used for improving resistance to Verticillium wilt in alfalfa breeding programs.

  16. How planting configuration influences plant secondary metabolites and total N in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theories suggest that incorporating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Alf) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) into endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb.; E+TF) pasturelands may improve livestock production. We investigated how planting configuration might influence p...

  17. Diseño y validación de herramientas biotecnológicas para la mejora del valor nutricional de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fresquet Corrales, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), is a forage legume with a significant content of protein, being the most widely cultivated forage around the world. In this species, the protein content decreased during growth processes as well as other resources used by the plant during the flowering process. Alfalfa also contains a lower concentration of condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins (PAs), less than required to remedy the digestive disorder of ruminant livestock causing pasture bloat by producti...

  18. Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on seedlings establishment and morphological parameters of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in rangeland of Bahar Kish Quchan

    OpenAIRE

    R. Azimi; M. Jankju; H.R. Asghari

    2016-01-01

    Plant establishment is the most critical stage in biological renovation of rangelands. The processes which normally fails, due to the harsh conditions in the arid and semiarid environments. New technologies may be used to overcome this problem. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possibility of enhancing seedling establishment and growth rate of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under natural habitats by inoculation with mycorrhiza species. Seeds of alfalfa were sown under gree...

  19. Co-Expression of Bacterial Aspartate Kinase and Adenylylsulfate Reductase Genes Substantially Increases Sulfur Amino Acid Levels in Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Zongyong; Xie, Can; Ma, Lei; Liu, Liping; Jin, Yongsheng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forage crops used to feed livestock, such as cattle and sheep, and the sulfur amino acid (SAA) content of alfalfa is used as an index of its nutritional value. Aspartate kinase (AK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate to Asp-phosphate, the first step in the aspartate family biosynthesis pathway, and adenylylsulfate reductase (APR) catalyzes the conversion of activated sulfate to sulfite, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesi...

  20. The succinoglycan endoglycanase encoded by exoK is required for efficient symbiosis of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 with the host plants Medicago truncatula and Medicago sativa (Alfalfa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Hajeewaka C; Queiroux, Clothilde; Brewer, Tess E; Davis, Olivia M; Washburn, Brian K; Jones, Kathryn M

    2013-09-01

    The acidic polysaccharide succinoglycan produced by the nitrogen-fixing rhizobial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 is required for this bacterium to invade the host plant Medicago truncatula and to efficiently invade the host plant M. sativa (alfalfa). The β-glucanase enzyme encoded by exoK has previously been demonstrated to cleave succinoglycan and participate in producing the low molecular weight form of this polysaccharide. Here, we show that exoK is required for efficient S. meliloti invasion of both M. truncatula and alfalfa. Deletion mutants of exoK have a substantial reduction in symbiotic productivity on both of these plant hosts. Insertion mutants of exoK have an even less productive symbiosis than the deletion mutants with the host M. truncatula that is caused by a secondary effect of the insertion itself, and may be due to a polar effect on the expression of the downstream exoLAMON genes.

  1. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaf extracts in sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatouillat, Grégory; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Bertin, Eric; Okiemy-Akeli, Marie-Genevieve; Morjani, Hamid; Lavaud, Catherine; Madoulet, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been used to cure a wide variety of ailments. However, only a few studies have reported its anticancer effects. In this study, extracts were obtained from alfalfa leaves and their cytotoxic effects were assessed on several sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells lines. Using the mouse leukaemia P388 cell line and its doxorubicin-resistant counterpart (P388/DOX), we showed that the inhibition of cell growth induced by alfalfa leaf extracts was mediated through the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation analysis. The execution of programmed cell death was achieved via the activation of caspase-3, leading to PARP cleavage. Fractionation of toluene extract (To-1), the most active extract obtained from crude extract, led to the identification of 3 terpene derivatives and 5 flavonoids. Among them, (-)-medicarpin, (-)-melilotocarpan E, millepurpan, tricin, and chrysoeriol showed cytotoxic effects in P388 as well as P388/DOX cells. These results demonstrate that alfalfa leaf extract may have interesting potential in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.

  2. Salicornia europaea L. Na⁺/H⁺ antiporter gene improves salt tolerance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L Q; Niu, Y D; Huridu, H; Hao, J F; Qi, Z; Hasi, A

    2014-07-24

    In order to obtain a salt-tolerant perennial alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), we transferred the halophyte Salicornia europaea L. Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene, SeNHX1, to alfalfa by using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. The transformants were confirmed by both PCR and RT-PCR analyses. Of 197 plants that were obtained after transformation, 36 were positive by PCR analysis using 2 primer pairs for the CaMV35S-SeNHX1 and SeNHX1-Nos fragments; 6 plants survived in a greenhouse. RT-PCR analysis revealed that SeNHX1 was expressed in 5 plants. The resultant transgenic alfalfa had better salt tolerance. After stress treatment for 21 days with 0.6% NaCl, the chlorophyll and MDA contents in transgenic plants were lower, but proline content and SOD, POD, and CAT activities were higher than those in wild-type plants. These results suggest that the salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa was improved by the overexpression of the SeNHX1 gene.

  3. Paenibacillus medicaginis sp. nov. a chitinolytic endophyte isolated from a root nodule of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-An; Hameed, Asif; Lin, Shih-Yao; Hung, Mei-Hua; Hsu, Yi-Han; Liu, You-Cheng; Shahina, Mariyan; Shen, Fo-Ting; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-11-01

    A Gram-stain-variable, short-rod-shaped, endospore-forming, strictly aerobic, non-motile, chitinolytic and endophytic bacterium, designated strain CC-Alfalfa-19T, exhibiting unusual bipolar appendages was isolated from a root nodule of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Taiwan and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CC-Alfalfa-19T was found to be most closely related to Paenibacillus puldeungensis CAU 9324T (95.2 %), whereas other species of the genus Paenibacillus shared ≤ 95.0 % sequence similarity. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a distinct phyletic lineage established by strain CC-Alfalfa-19T with respect to other species of the genus Paenibacillus. Fatty acids comprised predominantly anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. Menaquinone 7 (MK-7) was identified as the sole respiratory quinone and the genomic DNA G+C content was 42.7 mol%. Polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified glycolipid and an unidentified lipid. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic evidence that was in line with the genus Paenibacillus and additional distinguishing characteristics, strain CC-Alfalfa-19T is considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Paenibacillus medicaginis sp. nov. (type strain CC-Alfalfa-19T = BCRC 80441T = JCM 18446T) is proposed.

  4. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the drought tolerance gene MsHSP70 from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyi; Long, Ruicai; Zhang, Tiejun; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Yang, Qingchuan; Kang, Junmei; Sun, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a ubiquitously expressed class of protective proteins that play a key role in plant response to stressful conditions. This study aimed to characterize and investigate the function of an HSP gene in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). MsHSP70, which contains a 2028-bp open reading frame, was identified through homology cloning. MsHSP70 shares high sequence identity (94.47%) with HSP70 from Medicago truncatula. Expression analysis of MsHSP70 in alfalfa organs revealed a relatively higher expression level in aerial organs such as flowers, stems and leaves than in roots. MsHSP70 was induced by heat shock, abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide. Transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing MsHSP70 were hyposensitive to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ABA treatments, suggesting that exogenous expression of MsHSP70 enhanced Arabidopsis tolerance to these stresses. Examination of physiological indexes related to drought and ABA stress demonstrated that in comparison with non-transgenic plants, T3 transgenic Arabidopsis plants had an increased proline content, higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Furthermore, higher relative water content (RWC) was detected in transgenic plants compared with non-transgenic plants under drought stress. These findings clearly indicate that molecular manipulation of MsHSP70 in plants can have substantial effects on stress tolerance.

  5. A saturated genetic linkage map of autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) developed using genotyping-by-sequencing is highly syntenous with the Medicago truncatula genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuehui; Wei, Yanling; Acharya, Ananta; Jiang, Qingzhen; Kang, Junmei; Brummer, E Charles

    2014-08-21

    A genetic linkage map is a valuable tool for quantitative trait locus mapping, map-based gene cloning, comparative mapping, and whole-genome assembly. Alfalfa, one of the most important forage crops in the world, is autotetraploid, allogamous, and highly heterozygous, characteristics that have impeded the construction of a high-density linkage map using traditional genetic marker systems. Using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), we constructed low-cost, reasonably high-density linkage maps for both maternal and paternal parental genomes of an autotetraploid alfalfa F1 population. The resulting maps contain 3591 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers on 64 linkage groups across both parents, with an average density of one marker per 1.5 and 1.0 cM for the maternal and paternal haplotype maps, respectively. Chromosome assignments were made based on homology of markers to the M. truncatula genome. Four linkage groups representing the four haplotypes of each alfalfa chromosome were assigned to each of the eight Medicago chromosomes in both the maternal and paternal parents. The alfalfa linkage groups were highly syntenous with M. truncatula, and clearly identified the known translocation between Chromosomes 4 and 8. In addition, a small inversion on Chromosome 1 was identified between M. truncatula and M. sativa. GBS enabled us to develop a saturated linkage map for alfalfa that greatly improved genome coverage relative to previous maps and that will facilitate investigation of genome structure. GBS could be used in breeding populations to accelerate molecular breeding in alfalfa. Copyright © 2014 Li et al.

  6. Strontium-90 in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) around the Hanford site in southeastern Washington state: an evaluation of surveillance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Jaquish, R.E.; Antonio, E.J.; Patton, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    From 1988–1994, 90 Sr concentrations in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown in areas receiving irrigation water from the Columbia River downstream of Hanford have exceeded concentrations observed in alfalfa grown nearby using other irrigation water sources. Surveillance data indicate that the relationship is not linked to atmospheric releases from Hanford. Attributing the apparent differences in 90 Sr concentrations to irrigation water is equivocal. Evaluations of 90 Sr in Columbia River water fail to consistently show a statistically significant (P > 0.05) contribution at locations immediately downstream of Hanford. Modeling of past 90 Sr fallout accumulation in soil indicates that the potential contribution from Hanford liquid effluents entering the Columbia River, subsequently used as irrigation water from 1972 to 1992, would account for ~ 2% of 90 Sr in soil. The remaining 98% arises from historic atomic weapons testing fallout. Radiological doses modeled for an alfalfa-cow's milk-human pathway indicate that the maximum 50 year effective dose equivalent to a standard man who consumes 270 l of milk per year was 0.9 μSv, which is < 0.03% of the 3 mSv annual dose resulting from natural sources of radiation exposure

  7. Low-fiber alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) meal in the laying hen diet: effects on productive traits and egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Introna, M; Tufarelli, V

    2014-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from partial substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber alfalfa (LFA; Medicago sativa L.) meal in the diet of early-phase laying hens. ISA Brown layers, 18 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were fed 2 wheat middling-based diets: a control diet, which contained SBM (15% of diet), and a test diet containing LFA (15% of diet) as the main protein source. Low-fiber alfalfa meal was obtained by a combination of sieving and air-classification processes. Feed intake was recorded daily, and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were weekly collected to evaluate egg components and quality. The partial substitution of SBM with LFA had no adverse effect on growth performance of early-phase laying hens. Egg production and none of the egg-quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P alfalfa meal in the laying-hen diet can positively influence yolk quality without adversely affecting productive traits. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) by Sinorhizobium Meliloti at Al-Qassim Regions, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Barakah, F. N.; Mridha, M. A. U.

    2016-01-01

    The nodulation status in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants by Sinorhizobium meliloti under Saudi field condition was assessed in some selected farms in four seasons for two years. In the present study, we also monitored the introduced S. meliloti strains activity under Saudi soil conditions. The samples were collected at regular seasonal intervals from the selected farms. The total number of nodules, morphology of the nodules and the effectiveness of N/sub 2/-fixation was assessed. In general, it was revealed that soils in the selected areas in Saudi Arabia have sufficient bacteria of the proper types to nodulate the alfalfa plants. These nodules are high in number, small in size and white in color. The nodules obtained from most of the selected farms are ineffective for nitrogen fixation. Inoculation of alfalfa seeds with imported S. meliloti strains failed to fix the atmospheric nitrogen sufficiently and also the growth improvement of alfalfa plants. There was a wide variation in the occurrence of number of nodules among the four seasons in two years. It was also observed that summer season severely affected the nodulation making it nearly zero. This low number of nodules exerts a very slow recovery of nodule formation in the next year. The introduced strains were always over competing with the native strains but they did not survive because of hot and dry summer. Nitrogenase activity of the nodules collected from both the inoculated and non-inoculated farms were always very low in all the collected samples, which indicates that the ability of fixing nitrogen by S. meliloti strains in alfalfa under Saudi soils conditions is very low. (author)

  9. Manejo de água para estabelecimento de alfafa (Medicago sativa L. Water management for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bartolomeu Rassini

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O manejo de água para o desenvolvimento da alfafa cv. Crioula foi avaliado a campo, com a finalidade de verificar seus efeitos no estabelecimento da planta, até o 1º corte, em 1997. Para isso, verificou-se o comportamento em três estádios de desenvolvimento (E1 = início do estádio vegetativo, E2 = vegetativo pleno e E3 = reprodutivo até colheita em quatro níveis de água (A = 100%, B = 80%, C = 45-50% e D = 20-25% de uma lâmina de irrigação por aspersão. Foram avaliados oito experimentos: 111, 110, 100, 101, 001, 011, 010, 000, em que o primeiro dígito se refere a E1; o segundo, a E2; e o terceiro, a E3. O valor 0 representa a época em que o estádio não recebeu água, coberto por uma estrututura móvel, que deslizava sobre trilhos, e também protegia contra precipitações pluviais casuais. O valor 1 refere-se à época em que houve aplicação dos níveis de água de irrigação. Os estádios de desenvolvimento da planta, em termos de rendimento de matéria seca, responderam de maneira diferente às condições hídricas, sendo E2 e E3 (planta estabelecida os mais sensíveis e E1 (início do estádio vegetativo, o menos sensível, no qual a água foi prejudicial ao estabelecimento e rendimento da planta.The water management for growth of Crioula alfalfa cultivar was evaluated in a field study, in order to assess the effects in the plant establishment up to the first cut, at 1977. The study was carried out in 1997. So that, the behaviour at three growth stages (E1 = early vegetative stage, E2 = full vegetative stage, and E3 = reproductive stage until harvest in the presence of four water levels (A = 100%, B = 80%, C = 45-50%, and D = 20-25% from a sprinkler irrigation was studied. Eight combinations were evaluated: 111, 110, 100, 101, 001, 011, 010, 000, where the first digit is E1, the second is E2 and the third is E3. The number 0 in the figures represents the period in which growth stage did not receive water, cover by a

  10. Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plans for Estimating Alfalfa Caterpillar, Colias lesbia, Egg Density in Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, Fields in Córdoba, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Gerardo V.; Porta, Norma C. La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies. PMID:23909840

  11. Effects of compost organic amendments on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Montemurro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following fertiliser treatments were compared during the years 2002 and 2003 on alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.: compost obtained from the organic fraction of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW; olive pomace compost (OPC; mineral fertiliser (Min. All the treatments allowed a distribution of 75kg ha-1 of P2O5. Three cuttings occurred: at 168, 206 and 351 days after compost application (DAA in 2002; 119, 152 and 320 DAA in 2003. Cumulative biomass and dry matter yields were measured during each experimental year. Furthermore, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DMd, organic matter (OMd, crude protein (CPd and NDF (NDFd were determined. MSW treatment showed a significantly (P<0.01 higher content of ADL than OPC and Min (77.0, 66.0 and 65.0g kg-1 DM, respectively. Fertiliser treatments also affected (P<0.01 digestibility parameters. In fact, DMd and OMd values showed the same trend with lower percentages in MSW treatment than in the OPC and Min ones. The NDFd differed in all treatments having the highest value in OPC (40.1%. The results indicated that the soil distribution of organic materials offer the possibility to reduce the application of mineral fertilisers and production costs without decreasing alfalfa yield, forage chemical composition and in vitro digestibility.

  12. Soil bulk electrical resistivity and forage ground cover: nonlinear models in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is a highly productive and fertility-building forage crop; its performance, can be highly variable as influenced by within-field soil spatial variability. Characterising the relations between soil and forage- variation is important for optimal management. The aim of this work was to model the relationship between soil electrical resistivity (ER and plant productivity in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. field in Southern Italy. ER mapping was accomplished by a multi-depth automatic resistivity profiler. Plant productivity was assessed through normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI at 2 dates. A non-linear relationship between NDVI and deep soil ER was modelled within the framework of generalised additive models. The best model explained 70% of the total variability. Soil profiles at six locations selected along a gradient of ER showed differences related to texture (ranging from clay to sandy-clay loam, gravel content (0 to 55% and to the presence of a petrocalcic horizon. Our results prove that multi-depth ER can be used to localise permanent soil features that drive plant productivity.

  13. Influencia del estado de madurez a cosecha sobre la calidad de semillas de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENZI, J.P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. recién cosechada presenta dormición física debida a la dureza de sus tegumentos que puede afectar la producción de forraje en el primer año de implantación. Aunque se conoce que la temperatura y la humedad durante la fructificación son factores exógenos asociados a la dureza, se desconoce el efecto del grado de madurez a cosecha sobre la calidad de las semillas de alfalfa. Se recolectaron vainas en diferentes estados de madurez al inicio y en el fin de la fructificación de lotes comerciales de multiplicación de semilla de alfalfa del Valle Bonaerense del Río Colorado (VBRC. Al finalizar la estación de crecimiento, se realizaron pruebas de calidad, incluyendo la dureza de semilla. La cosecha a partir de vainas amarillas produjo los mayores valores de poder germinativo (plántulas normales + semillas duras. La recolección en vainas verdes aumentó el porcentaje de semillas muertas y plántulas anormales. Se observaron altos valores de dureza asociados a la cosecha con vainas amarillas que bajaron con la recolección en el estado de vainas marrones. Las vainas marrones del tercio superior del canopeo originaron semillas más duras que la de los estratos inferiores, posiblemente porque estas últimas estuvieron expuestas a un mayor período con fluctuaciones ambientales que habrían acelerado la pérdida de la dureza por envejecimiento.AbstractAlfalfa (Medicago sativa L. seed recently harvested have high physical dormancy (hard seeds, which can affect forage production in the first year of establishment. Although it is know that the temperature, air moisture and water stress are exogenous factors associated with the hard seed, there are few information about the effects of harvest maturity stages on germination and physical dormancy of alfalfa. The study was conducted on commercial lots of alfalfa seed multiplication of the Colorado River Valley Bonaerense (VBRC. The pods were hand harvested at

  14. Transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity shows enhanced growth when grown under N2-fixing conditions.

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    Gebril, Sayed; Seger, Mark; Villanueva, Fabiola Muro; Ortega, Jose Luis; Bagga, Suman; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2015-10-01

    Overexpression of SPS in alfalfa is accompanied by early flowering, increased plant growth and an increase in elemental N and protein content when grown under N2-fixing conditions. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.3.1.14) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of sucrose in plants. The outcome of overexpression of SPS in different plants using transgenic approaches has been quite varied, but the general consensus is that increased SPS activity is associated with the production of new sinks and increased sink strength. In legumes, the root nodule is a strong C sink and in this study our objective was to see how increasing SPS activity in a legume would affect nodule number and function. Here we have transformed alfalfa (Medicago sativa, cv. Regen SY), with a maize SPS gene driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. Our results showed that overexpression of SPS in alfalfa, is accompanied by an increase in nodule number and mass and an overall increase in nitrogenase activity at the whole plant level. The nodules exhibited an increase in the level of key enzymes contributing to N assimilation including glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase. Moreover, the stems of the transformants showed higher level of the transport amino acids, Asx, indicating increased export of N from the nodules. The transformants exhibited a dramatic increase in growth both of the shoots and roots, and earlier flowering time, leading to increased yields. Moreover, the transformants showed an increase in elemental N and protein content. The overall conclusion is that increased SPS activity improves the N status and plant performance, suggesting that the availability of more C in the form of sucrose enhances N acquisition and assimilation in the nodules.

  15. MsZEP, a novel zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), confers drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yafang; Chang, Leqin; Zhang, Tong; An, Jie; Liu, Yushi; Cao, Yuman; Zhao, Xia; Sha, Xuyang; Hu, Tianming; Yang, Peizhi

    2016-02-01

    The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene ( MsZEP ) was cloned and characterized from alfalfa and validated for its function of tolerance toward drought and salt stresses by heterologous expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) plays important roles in plant response to various environment stresses due to its functions in ABA biosynthetic and the xanthophyll cycle. To understand the expression characteristics and the biological functions of ZEP in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a novel gene, designated as MsZEP (KM044311), was cloned, characterized and overexpressed in Nicotiana tabacum. The open reading frame of MsZEP contains 1992 bp nucleotides and encodes a 663-amino acid polypeptide. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that deduced MsZEP protein was highly homologous to other plant ZEP sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MsZEP was grouped into a branch with other legume plants. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that MsZEP gene expression was clearly tissue-specific, and the expression levels were higher in green tissues (leaves and stems) than in roots. MsZEP expression decreased in shoots under drought, cold, heat and ABA treatment, while the expression levels in roots showed different trends. Besides, the results showed that nodules could up-regulate the MsZEP expression under non-stressful conditions and in the earlier stage of different abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the MsZEP gene in N. tabacum could confer tolerance to drought and salt stress by affecting various physiological pathways, ABA levels and stress-responsive genes expression. Taken together, these results suggested that the MsZEP gene may be involved in alfalfa responses to different abiotic stresses and nodules, and could enhance drought and salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco by heterologous expression.

  16. Identification of transcriptome involved in atrazine detoxification and degradation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exposed to realistic environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Jing; Lu, Yi Chen; Zhang, Shu Hao; Lu, Feng Fan; Yang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of toxic compounds (or xenobiotics) such as pesticides (or herbicides). Atrazine (ATZ) as herbicide has become one of the environmental contaminants due to its intensive use during crop production. Plants have evolved strategies to cope with the adverse impact of ATZ. However, the mechanism for ATZ degradation and detoxification in plants is largely unknown. Here we employed a global RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) strategy to dissect transcriptome variation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exposed to ATZ. Four libraries were constructed including Root-ATZ (root control, ATZ-free), Shoot-ATZ, Root+ATZ (root treated with ATZ) and Shoot+ATZ. Hierarchical clustering was performed to display the expression patterns for all differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under ATZ exposure. Transcripts involved in ATZ detoxification, stress responses (e.g. oxidation and reduction, conjugation and hydrolytic reactions), and regulations of cysteine biosynthesis were identified. Several genes encoding glycosyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases or ABC transporters were up-regulated notably. Also, many other genes involved in oxidation-reduction, conjugation, and hydrolysis for herbicide degradation were differentially expressed. These results suggest that ATZ in alfalfa can be detoxified or degraded through different pathways. The expression patterns of some DEGs by high-throughput sequencing were well confirmed by qRT-PCR. Our results not only highlight the transcriptional complexity in alfalfa exposed to ATZ but represent a major improvement for analyzing transcriptional changes on a large scale as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene regulating flowering time from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiejun; Chao, Yuehui; Kang, Junmei; Ding, Wang; Yang, Qingchuan

    2013-07-01

    Genes that regulate flowering time play crucial roles in plant development and biomass formation. Based on the cDNA sequence of Medicago truncatula (accession no. AY690425), the LFY gene of alfalfa was cloned. Sequence similarity analysis revealed high homology with FLO/LFY family genes of other plants. When fused to the green fluorescent protein, MsLFY protein was localized in the nucleus of onion (Allium cepa L.) epidermal cells. The RT-qPCR analysis of MsLFY expression patterns showed that the expression of MsLFY gene was at a low level in roots, stems, leaves and pods, and the expression level in floral buds was the highest. The expression of MsLFY was induced by GA3 and long photoperiod. Plant expression vector was constructed and transformed into Arabidopsis by the agrobacterium-mediated methods. PCR amplification with the transgenic Arabidopsis genome DNA indicated that MsLFY gene had integrated in Arabidopsis genome. Overexpression of MsLFY specifically caused early flowering under long day conditions compared with non-transgenic plants. These results indicated MsLFY played roles in promoting flowering time.

  18. Producción de biomasa aérea y uso equivalente de la tierra en intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

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    T. W Pereyra

    Full Text Available Tradicionalmente, el incremento de la productividad se ha asociado al aumento del rendimiento a través del mejoramiento genético y las prácticas de manejo del cultivo. Sin embargo, si se considera la producción por unidad de área y de tiempo, el sistema de intercultivos puede ser otra forma de mejorar la rentabilidad. El objetivo del experimento fue determinar la biomasa producida y el uso equivalente de la tierra en monocultivo e intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. con sorgo sudán (Sorghum sudanense L. y avena (Avena sativa L.. Se determinó la biomasa aérea de todos los tratamientos (expresada por unidad de superficie y el uso equivalente de la tierra. El diseño fue completamente aleatorizado, dispuesto en bloques con dos repeticiones. Los resultados se sometieron a un ANOVA y las medias se compararon mediante la prueba de Duncan, a través del paquete estadístico INFOSTAT. El intercultivo alfalfa-sorgo triplicó la producción de alfalfa en relación con el monocultivo, mientras que alfalfa-avena no superó la producción de alfalfa pura en los meses de invierno. El intercultivo alfalfa-sorgo fue un 57 % más eficiente en el uso de la tierra que sus respectivos monocultivos, mientras que alfalfa-avena no logró superar la unidad.

  19. The thiol compounds glutathione and homoglutathione differentially affect cell development in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Taras; Asard, Han; Potters, Geert; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an important scavenger of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), precursor of metal chelating phytochelatins, xenobiotic defence compound and regulator of cell proliferation. Homoglutathione (hGSH) is a GSH homologue that is present in several taxa in the family of Fabaceae. It is thought that hGSH performs many of the stress-defence roles typically ascribed to GSH, yet little is known about the potential involvement of hGSH in controlling cell proliferation. Here we show that hGSH/GSH ratios vary across organs and cells and that these changes in hGSH/GSH ratio occur during dedifferentiation and/or cell cycle activation events. The use of a GSH/hGSH biosynthesis inhibitor resulted in impaired cytokinesis in isolated protoplasts, showing the critical importance of these thiol-compounds for cell division. However, exposure of isolated protoplasts to exogenous GSH accelerated cytokinesis, while exogenous hGSH was found to inhibit the same process. We conclude that GSH and hGSH have distinct functional roles in cell cycle regulation in Medicago sativa L. GSH is associated with meristemic cells, and promotes cell cycle activation and induction of somatic embryogenesis, while hGSH is associated with differentiated cells and embryo proliferation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Cloning and characterization of a heme oxygenase-2 gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guang-Qing; Jin, Qi-Jiang; Lin, Yu-Ting; Feng, Jian-Fei; Nie, Li; Shen, Wen-Biao; Zheng, Tian-Qing

    2011-11-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO, EC 1.14.99.3) catalyzes the oxidation of heme and performs vital roles in plant development and stress responses. Two HO isozymes exist in plants. Between these, HO-1 is an oxidative stress-response protein, and HO-2 usually exhibited constitutive expression. Although alfalfa HO-1 gene (MsHO1) has been investigated previously, HO2 is still poorly understood. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of HO2 gene, MsHO2, from alfalfa (Medica sativa L.). The full-length cDNA of MsHO2 contains an ORF of 870 bp and encodes for 290 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 33.3 kDa. Similar to MsHO1, MsHO2 also appears to have an N-terminal transit peptide sequence for chloroplast import. Many conserved residues in plant HO were also conserved in MsHO2. However, unlike HO-1, the conserved histidine (His) required for heme-iron binding and HO activity was replaced by tyrosine (Tyr) in MsHO2. Further biochemical activity analysis of purified mature MsHO2 showed no HO activity, suggesting that MsHO2 may not be a true HO in nature. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed its maximum expression in the germinating seeds. Importantly, the expression levels of MsHO2 were up-regulated under sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and H(2)O(2) (especially) treatment, respectively.

  1. [Simulation on the restoration effect of soil moisture in alfalfa (Medicago sativa)-grain rotation system in semi-arid and drought-prone regions of Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Chun; Li, Jun; Fang, Xin-Yu; Sun, Jian; Tahir, Muhammad Naveed

    2011-01-01

    With the combination of field survey and EPIC modeling, this paper simulated the restoration effect of soil moisture in different alfalfa (Medicago sativa)-grain rotation systems in semi-arid and drought-prone regions of Loess Plateau. In perennial alfalfa field and in grain crop field after alfalfa, the correlation coefficients between the simulated and observed values of soil moisture content in 0-10 m layer were larger than 0.9 (P root mean square errors were between 0.05 and 0.16, with the relative errors less than 10%. The dynamic changes of the simulated soil moisture contents in different soil layers were consistent with those of the observed values. In the study regions, it was difficult for the restoration of soil moisture in the deep soil layers of alfalfa field. During the cultivation of alfalfa, the soil moisture content in the layers at 8-10 m depth should not be less than 5.7%. Considering the sustainable development of agricultural production, the appropriate cultivation duration of alfalfa should be 4-6 years and no more than 8 years. For the restoration of soil moisture after alfalfa cultivation in the study regions, the rotation system potato (Solanum tuberosum) --> potato --> spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) could be adopted, and alfalfa could be cultivated again after 32-33 years.

  2. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Contrasting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Varieties to PEG-Induced Osmotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuimei Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive, were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1.2 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 treatments for 15 days. The results showed that the levels of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, hydroxyl free radical (OH• and superoxide anion free radical (O2•- in both varieties were significantly increased, while the root activity, the superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GR activities, and the ratios of reduced/oxidized ascorbate (AsA/DHA and reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG were significantly decreased. The soluble protein and soluble sugar contents, the total antioxidant capability (T-AOC and the activities of peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX first increased and then decreased with the increase in treatment days. Under osmotic stress, Longzhong exhibited lower levels of MDA, H2O2, OH• and O2•- but higher levels of SOD, CAT, APX, T-AOC and ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG compared with Gannong No.3. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ, 142 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs were identified from two alfalfa varieties, including 52 proteins (34 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated in Longzhong, 71 proteins (28 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated in Gannong No. 3, and 19 proteins (13 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated shared by both varieties. Most of these DAPs were involved in stress and defense, protein metabolism, transmembrane transport, signal transduction, as well as cell wall and

  3. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Contrasting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Varieties to PEG-Induced Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuimei; Shi, Shangli

    2018-01-01

    Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1.2 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) treatments for 15 days. The results showed that the levels of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hydroxyl free radical (OH • ) and superoxide anion free radical (O 2 •- ) in both varieties were significantly increased, while the root activity, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and the ratios of reduced/oxidized ascorbate (AsA/DHA) and reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were significantly decreased. The soluble protein and soluble sugar contents, the total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) first increased and then decreased with the increase in treatment days. Under osmotic stress, Longzhong exhibited lower levels of MDA, H 2 O 2 , OH • and O 2 •- but higher levels of SOD, CAT, APX, T-AOC and ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG compared with Gannong No.3. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), 142 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified from two alfalfa varieties, including 52 proteins (34 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in Longzhong, 71 proteins (28 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated) in Gannong No. 3, and 19 proteins (13 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated) shared by both varieties. Most of these DAPs were involved in stress and defense, protein metabolism, transmembrane transport, signal transduction, as well as cell

  4. Allelopathic Potential of Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) on Perennial Ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Junfeng; An, Yu; Ma, Yongqing; Ichizen, Nobumasa

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated allelopathy and its chemical basis in nine switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) accessions. Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) were used as test species. Undiluted aqueous extracts (5 g plant tissue in 50 ml water) from the shoots and roots of most of the switchgrass accessions inhibited the germination and growth of the test species. However, the allelopathic effect of switchgrass declined when extracts were diluted 5- or 50-fold. Seedling growth was more sensitive than seed germination as an indicator of allelopathic effect. Allelopathic effect was related to switchgrass ecotype but not related to ploidy level. Upland accessions displayed stronger allelopathic potential than lowland accessions. The aqueous extract from one switchgrass accession was separated into phenols, organic acids, neutral chemicals, and alkaloids, and then these fractions were bioassayed to test for allelopathic potential. Alkaloids had the strongest allelopathic effect among the four chemical fractions. In summary, the results indicated that switchgrass has allelopathic potential; however, there is not enough evidence to conclude that allelopathic advantage is the main factor that has contributed to the successful establishment of switchgrass on China’s Loess Plateau.

  5. Mycorrhizal Glomus spp. vary in their effects on the dynamics and turnover of fine alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, A.; Waly, N.; Chunhui, M.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fine roots in the soil profile has important implications related to water and nutrient uptake. The Objective of this study was to compare the effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the fine root dynamics of Medicago sativa L. cv. Sanditi. We used minirhizotrons to observe changes in fine root length density (FRLD, mm/cm2) and fine root surface area density (FRSAD, mm2/cm2) during the growing season. Fine root P concentrations and turnover rate were also measured. The colonization rate of fine roots varied depending on the AMF species. Colonization rates were highest when roots were inoculated with Glomus mosseae and lowest when roots were inoculated G. intraradices. Inoculation with AMF significantly increased both FRLD and FRSAD. G. versiforme increased FRLD and FRSAD most, whereas G. mosseae had the least effect. Inoculation with AMF also decreased fine root turnover rates. Inoculation with a mixture of AMF species increased fine root turnover and P concentrations more than inoculation with a single AMF species. Fine root length density increased to a maximum on Aug. 6 and then decreased. In comparison, FRSAD exhibited two peaks during the growing season. Overall, the Results indicated that inoculation with AMF can significantly promote fine root growth and P uptake by alfalfa growing on soil with low P availability. The AMF may preserve fine root function late in the growing season. (author)

  6. Bacterial population dynamics during the ensiling of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and subsequent exposure to air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To describe, at high resolution, the bacterial population dynamics and chemical transformations during the ensiling of alfalfa and subsequent exposure to air. Methods and Results: Samples of alfalfa, ensiled alfalfa, and silage exposed to air were collected and their bacterial population stru...

  7. Mapping fall dormancy and winter injury in tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is a widely planted perennial forage crop. Dormancy in autumn (fall dormancy) is generally negatively correlated with winter injury in alfalfa. To understand the genetic basis of the two traits, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling autumn growth and winter injury using a...

  8. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a novel allexivirus from alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of the family Alphaflexiviridae provisionally named Alfalfa virus S (AVS) was diagnosed in alfalfa samples originating from Sudan. A complete nucleotide sequence of the viral genome consisting of 8,349 nucleotides excluding the 3’ poly(A) tail was determined by Illumina NGS technology ...

  9. Efficacy of progeny tests in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.: Breeding for yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is one of the most important forage crops in the world and it is spread across the globe on over 30 million hectares. The objectives of this study were to assess the importance and effectiveness of progeny tests used in alfalfa breeding for dry matter yield and crude protein content and to determine which of these tests provides the best information for choosing parental components to improve the success of alfalfa breeding. The experiment tested 35 alfalfa genotypes of different geographic and genetic origin. The rank correlations obtained in our study indicate that open pollination and self pollination progeny tests are effective tools for evaluating alfalfa parents for dry matter yield and crude protein content, respectively. Alfalfa breeding for improved quality can be effective if crosses are made between genetically divergent populations in order to produce hybrid combinations that will be used as donors of genes for quality in the development of new synthetic cultivars, all the while making sure that yield is maintained as an essential factor in alfalfa breeding.

  10. Phosphate Rock Application on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Production and Macronutrients in Latosol Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphate rocks (PRs fertilizer compared to chemical P fertilizer for the best crop production and macronutrients of alfalfa. A completely randomized design under 3x3 factorial patterns was used in this research. The first factor was different sources of P fertilizer: Guizhou Phosphate Rock (GPR, Jingxiang Phosphate Rock (JPR, and Single Super Phosphate (SSP. The second factor was level of P fertilizer: 75, 100, and 125 mg P2O5/kg soil. A control treatment (without addition of P fertilizer, CK was added as a comparison with the treatments. The results showed that JPR was the best for alfalfa production, whereas GPR and SSP were better for nutrient content in the alfalfa tissue than JPR. On the whole, phosphate rocks had similar effect on alfalfa growth compared to SSP at the experimental conditions.

  11. Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ahmad H; Hossain, Mohammad M; Khatun, Most A; Mandal, Abul; Haider, Syed A

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2 (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants.

  12. Role of silicon counteracting cadmium toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Kabir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase and MsMT2 (metallothionein] and PC (phytochelatin accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter, MsNramp1 (metal transporter and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants.

  13. Resistant and susceptible responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa to bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

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    Lev G Nemchinov

    Full Text Available Bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Little is known about host-pathogen interactions and host defense mechanisms. Here, individual resistant and susceptible plants were selected from cultivars Maverick and ZG9830 and used for transcript profiling at 24 and 72 hours after inoculation (hai with the isolate PssALF3. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs in resistant and susceptible genotypes. Although resistant plants from each cultivar produced a hypersensitive response, transcriptome analyses indicated that they respond differently at the molecular level. The number of DEGs was higher in resistant plants of ZG9830 at 24 hai than in Maverick, suggesting that ZG9830 plants had a more rapid effector triggered immune response. Unique up-regulated genes in resistant ZG9830 plants included genes encoding putative nematode resistance HSPRO2-like proteins, orthologs for the rice Xa21 and soybean Rpg1-b resistance genes, and TIR-containing R genes lacking both NBS and LRR domains. The suite of R genes up-regulated in resistant Maverick plants had an over-representation of R genes in the CC-NBS-LRR family including two genes for atypical CCR domains and a putative ortholog of the Arabidopsis RPM1 gene. Resistance in both cultivars appears to be mediated primarily by WRKY family transcription factors and expression of genes involved in protein phosphorylation, regulation of transcription, defense response including synthesis of isoflavonoids, and oxidation-reduction processes. These results will further the identification of mechanisms involved in resistance to facilitate selection of parent populations and development of commercial varieties.

  14. Resistant and susceptible responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchinov, Lev G; Shao, Jonathan; Lee, Maya N; Postnikova, Olga A; Samac, Deborah A

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial stem blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae is a common disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L). Little is known about host-pathogen interactions and host defense mechanisms. Here, individual resistant and susceptible plants were selected from cultivars Maverick and ZG9830 and used for transcript profiling at 24 and 72 hours after inoculation (hai) with the isolate PssALF3. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in resistant and susceptible genotypes. Although resistant plants from each cultivar produced a hypersensitive response, transcriptome analyses indicated that they respond differently at the molecular level. The number of DEGs was higher in resistant plants of ZG9830 at 24 hai than in Maverick, suggesting that ZG9830 plants had a more rapid effector triggered immune response. Unique up-regulated genes in resistant ZG9830 plants included genes encoding putative nematode resistance HSPRO2-like proteins, orthologs for the rice Xa21 and soybean Rpg1-b resistance genes, and TIR-containing R genes lacking both NBS and LRR domains. The suite of R genes up-regulated in resistant Maverick plants had an over-representation of R genes in the CC-NBS-LRR family including two genes for atypical CCR domains and a putative ortholog of the Arabidopsis RPM1 gene. Resistance in both cultivars appears to be mediated primarily by WRKY family transcription factors and expression of genes involved in protein phosphorylation, regulation of transcription, defense response including synthesis of isoflavonoids, and oxidation-reduction processes. These results will further the identification of mechanisms involved in resistance to facilitate selection of parent populations and development of commercial varieties.

  15. Medicago sativa spp. falcata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Falcata (Medicago sativa spp. falcata L.), with its high resistance to cold weather, drought and disease, .... 40 plants. Seeds were grown in a greenhouse and seedlings were transplanted three months later to the experiment station in Hebei province ..... latitude range (from northern latitude 29° to northern.

  16. De novo characterization of fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf transcriptome and identification of candidate genes related to fall dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Senhao; Shi, Yinghua; Cheng, Ningning; Du, Hongqi; Fan, Wenna; Wang, Chengzhang

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated perennial forage legumes worldwide. Fall dormancy is an adaptive character related to the biomass production and winter survival in alfalfa. The physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms causing fall dormancy and the related genes have not been well studied. In this study, we sequenced two standard varieties of alfalfa (dormant and non-dormant) at two time points and generated approximately 160 million high quality paired-end sequence reads using sequencing by synthesis (SBS) technology. The de novo transcriptome assembly generated a set of 192,875 transcripts with an average length of 856 bp representing about 165.1 Mb of the alfalfa leaf transcriptome. After assembly, 111,062 (57.6%) transcripts were annotated against the NCBI non-redundant database. A total of 30,165 (15.6%) transcripts were mapped to 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. We also identified 41,973 simple sequence repeats, which can be used to generate markers for alfalfa, and 1,541 transcription factors were identified across 1,350 transcripts. Gene expression between dormant and non-dormant alfalfa at different time points were performed, and we identified several differentially expressed genes potentially related to fall dormancy. The Gene Ontology and pathways information were also identified. We sequenced and assembled the leaf transcriptome of alfalfa related to fall dormancy, and also identified some genes of interest involved in the fall dormancy mechanism. Thus, our research focused on studying fall dormancy in alfalfa through transcriptome sequencing. The sequencing and gene expression data generated in this study may be used further to elucidate the complete mechanisms governing fall dormancy in alfalfa.

  17. Contrasting Storage Protein Synthesis and Messenger RNA Accumulation during Development of Zygotic and Somatic Embryos of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko, J E; Pramanik, S K; Bewley, J D

    1992-05-01

    During development on hormone-free media, somatic embryos pass through distinct morphological stages that superficially resemble those of zygotic embryo development (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledonary stages). Despite these similarities, they differ from zygotic embryos in the extent of cotyledonary development and the patterns of synthesis and quantitative expression of seed-specific storage proteins (7S, 11S, and 2S proteins). Alfin (7S) is the first storage protein synthesized in developing zygotic embryos (stage IV). The 11S (medicagin) and 2S (Low Molecular Weight, LMW) storage proteins are not detectable until the following stage of development (stage V), although all three are present before the completion of embryo enlargement. Likewise, the 7S storage protein is the first to be synthesized in developing somatic embryos (day 5). Medicagin is evident by day 7 and the LMW protein by day 10. In contrast to zygotic embryos, alfin remains the predominant storage protein in somatic embryos throughout development. Not only are the relative amounts of medicagin and the LMW protein reduced in somatic embryos but the LMW protein is accumulated much later than the other proteins. Quantification of the storage protein mRNAs (7S, 11S, and 2S) by northern blot analysis confirms that there are substantial differences in the patterns of message accumulation in zygotic and somatic embryos of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In zygotic embryos, the 7S, 11S, and 2S storage protein mRNAs are abundant during maturation and, in particular, during the stages of maximum protein synthesis (alfin, stages VI and VII; medicagin, stage VII; LMW, stage VII). In somatic embryos, the predominance of the 7S storage protein is correlated with increased accumulation of its mRNA, whereas the limited synthesis of the 11S storage protein is associated with much lower steady-state levels of its message. The mRNA for the LMW protein is present already by 3 days after transfer to hormone-free media

  18. The effects of ascorbic acid on salt induced alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    plants in natural environments remains difficult. Salin soils are typically very patchy in their salinity2, and ions other than Na and Cl could contribute to the high electrical conductivity of salt-affected lands3. Medicago species are relatively salt tolerant4. The production of activated oxygen species. (AOS) which can damage ...

  19. Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojilla-Evangelista, Mila P; Selling, Gordon W; Hatfield, Ronald; Digman, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Alfalfa is considered a potential feedstock for biofuels; co-products with value-added uses would enhance process viability. This work evaluated dried alfalfa leaves for protein production and describes the functional properties of the protein. Dried alfalfa leaves contained 260 g kg -1 dry basis (DB) crude protein, with albumins being the major fraction (260 g kg -1 of total protein). Alkali solubilization for 2 h at 50 °C, acid precipitation, dialysis, and freeze-drying produced a protein concentrate (600 g kg -1 DB crude protein). Alfalfa leaf protein concentrate showed moderate solubility (maximum 500 g kg -1 soluble protein from pH 5.5 to 10), excellent emulsifying properties (activity 158-219 m 2  g -1 protein, stability 17-49 min) and minimal loss of solubility during heating at pH ≥ 7.0. It is technically feasible to extract protein with desirable emulsifying and heat stability properties from dried alfalfa leaves; however, the dried form may not be a practical starting material for protein production, given the difficulty of achieving high yields and high-purity protein product. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed yield in relation to phosphorus fertilization and honeybee pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kahtani, Saad Naser; Taha, El-Kazafy Abdou; Al-Abdulsalam, Mohammed

    2017-07-01

    This investigation was conducted at the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, during the alfalfa growing season in 2014. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of phosphorus fertilization and honeybee pollination on alfalfa seed production. The experiment was divided into 9 treatments of open pollination, honeybee pollination, and non-pollination with three different levels (0, 300 or 600 kg P 2 O 5 /ha/year) of triple super phosphate. All vegetative growth attributes of Hassawi alfalfa were significantly higher in the non-insect pollination plots, while the yield and yield component traits were significantly higher with either open pollination or honeybee pollination in parallel with the increasing level of phosphorus fertilizer up to 600 kg P 2 O 5 /ha/year in light salt-affected loamy sand soils. There was no seed yield in Hassawi alfalfa without insect pollination. Therefore, placing honeybee colonies near the fields of Hassawi alfalfa and adding 600 kg P 2 O 5 /ha/year can increase seed production.

  1. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci for Salt Tolerance during Germination in Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Liu, Xinchun; Boge, William; Liu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of major abiotic stresses limiting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production in the arid and semi-arid regions in US and other counties. In this study, we used a diverse panel of alfalfa accessions previously described by Zhang et al. (2015) to identify molecular markers associated with salt tolerance during germination using genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Phenotyping was done by germinating alfalfa seeds under different levels of salt stress. Phenotypic data of adjusted germination rates and SNP markers generated by GBS were used for marker-trait association. Thirty six markers were significantly associated with salt tolerance in at least one level of salt treatments. Alignment of sequence tags to the Medicago truncatula genome revealed genetic locations of the markers on all chromosomes except chromosome 3. Most significant markers were found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. BLAST search using the flanking sequences of significant markers identified 14 putative candidate genes linked to 23 significant markers. Most of them were repeatedly identified in two or three salt treatments. Several loci identified in the present study had similar genetic locations to the reported QTL associated with salt tolerance in M. truncatula. A locus identified on chromosome 6 by this study overlapped with that by drought in our previous study. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mapping loci associated with salt tolerance during germination in autotetraploid alfalfa. Further investigation on these loci and their linked genes would provide insight into understanding molecular mechanisms by which salt and drought stresses affect alfalfa growth. Functional markers closely linked to the resistance loci would be useful for MAS to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced resistance to drought and salt stresses. PMID:27446182

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci for Salt Tolerance during Germination in Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Liu, Xinchun; Boge, William; Liu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of major abiotic stresses limiting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production in the arid and semi-arid regions in US and other counties. In this study, we used a diverse panel of alfalfa accessions previously described by Zhang et al. (2015) to identify molecular markers associated with salt tolerance during germination using genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Phenotyping was done by germinating alfalfa seeds under different levels of salt stress. Phenotypic data of adjusted germination rates and SNP markers generated by GBS were used for marker-trait association. Thirty six markers were significantly associated with salt tolerance in at least one level of salt treatments. Alignment of sequence tags to the Medicago truncatula genome revealed genetic locations of the markers on all chromosomes except chromosome 3. Most significant markers were found on chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. BLAST search using the flanking sequences of significant markers identified 14 putative candidate genes linked to 23 significant markers. Most of them were repeatedly identified in two or three salt treatments. Several loci identified in the present study had similar genetic locations to the reported QTL associated with salt tolerance in M. truncatula. A locus identified on chromosome 6 by this study overlapped with that by drought in our previous study. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mapping loci associated with salt tolerance during germination in autotetraploid alfalfa. Further investigation on these loci and their linked genes would provide insight into understanding molecular mechanisms by which salt and drought stresses affect alfalfa growth. Functional markers closely linked to the resistance loci would be useful for MAS to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced resistance to drought and salt stresses.

  3. Boosting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Production With Rhizobacteria From Various Plants in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Daur, Ihsanullah

    2018-04-04

    This study focused on rhizobacteria to promote sustainable crop production in arid regions of Saudi Arabia. The study isolated 17 tightly root-adhering rhizobacteria from various plants at Hada Al Sham in Saudi Arabia. All 17 rhizobacterial isolates were confirmed as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria by classical biochemical tests. Using 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, the strains were identified as Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Subsequently, the strains were assessed for their ability to improve the physiology, nutrient uptake, growth, and yield of alfalfa plants grown under desert agriculture conditions. The field trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design. Inoculation of alfalfa with any of these 17 strains improved the relative water content; chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b; carotenoid contents; nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and potassium contents; plant height; leaf-to-stem ratio; and fresh and dry weight. Acinetobacter pittii JD-14 was most effective to increase fresh and dry weight of alfalfa by 41 and 34%, respectively, when compared to non-inoculated control plants. Nevertheless, all strains enhanced crop traits when compared to controls plants, indicating that these desert rhizobacterial strains could be used to develop an eco-friendly biofertilizer for alfalfa and possibly other crop plants to enhance sustainable production in arid regions.

  4. Boosting Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Production With Rhizobacteria From Various Plants in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsanullah Daur

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on rhizobacteria to promote sustainable crop production in arid regions of Saudi Arabia. The study isolated 17 tightly root-adhering rhizobacteria from various plants at Hada Al Sham in Saudi Arabia. All 17 rhizobacterial isolates were confirmed as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria by classical biochemical tests. Using 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, the strains were identified as Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter. Subsequently, the strains were assessed for their ability to improve the physiology, nutrient uptake, growth, and yield of alfalfa plants grown under desert agriculture conditions. The field trials were conducted in a randomized complete block design. Inoculation of alfalfa with any of these 17 strains improved the relative water content; chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b; carotenoid contents; nitrogen (N, phosphorus, and potassium contents; plant height; leaf-to-stem ratio; and fresh and dry weight. Acinetobacter pittii JD-14 was most effective to increase fresh and dry weight of alfalfa by 41 and 34%, respectively, when compared to non-inoculated control plants. Nevertheless, all strains enhanced crop traits when compared to controls plants, indicating that these desert rhizobacterial strains could be used to develop an eco-friendly biofertilizer for alfalfa and possibly other crop plants to enhance sustainable production in arid regions.

  5. Isolation, taxonomic analysis, and phenotypic characterization of bacterial endophytes present in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, José Luis; Alvarez, Florencia; Príncipe, Analía; Salas, María Eugenia; Lozano, Mauricio Javier; Draghi, Walter Omar; Jofré, Edgardo; Lagares, Antonio

    2018-02-10

    A growing body of evidence has reinforced the central role of microbiomes in the life of sound multicellular eukaryotes, thus more properly described as true holobionts. Though soil was considered a main source of plant microbiomes, seeds have been shown to be endophytically colonized by microorganisms thus representing natural carriers of a selected microbial inoculum to the young seedlings. In this work we have investigated the type of culturable endophytic bacteria that are carried within surface-sterilized alfalfa seeds. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the presence of bacteria that belonged to 40 separate genera, distributed within four taxa (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes). Nonsymbiotic members of the Rhizobiaceae family were also found. The evaluation of nine different in-vitro biochemical activities demonstrated isolates with complex combinations of traits that, upon a Principal-Component-Analysis, could be classified into four phenotypic groups. That isolates from nearly half of the genera identified had been able to colonize alfalfa plants grown under axenic conditions was remarkable. Further analyses should be addressed to investigating the colonization mechanisms of the alfalfa seeds, the evolutionary significance of the alfalfa-seed endophytes, and also how after germination the seed microbiome competes with spermospheric and rhizospheric soil bacteria to colonize newly emerging seedlings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial population dynamics during the ensiling of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and subsequent exposure to air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, J A; Franco, R B; Palumbo, J D; Hnasko, R; Stanker, L; Mitloehner, F M

    2013-06-01

    To describe, at high resolution, the bacterial population dynamics and chemical transformations during the ensiling of alfalfa and subsequent exposure to air. Samples of alfalfa, ensiled alfalfa and silage exposed to air were collected and their bacterial population structures compared using 16S rRNA gene libraries containing approximately 1900 sequences each. Cultural and chemical analyses were also performed to complement the 16S gene sequence data. Sequence analysis revealed significant differences (P alfalfa-derived library contained mostly sequences associated with the Gammaproteobacteria (including the genera: Enterobacter, Erwinia and Pantoea); the ensiled material contained mostly sequences associated with the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (including the genera: Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Lactococcus). Exposure to air resulted in even greater percentages of LAB, especially among the genus Lactobacillus, and a significant drop in bacterial diversity. In-depth 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed significant bacterial population structure changes during ensiling and again during exposure to air. This in-depth description of the bacterial population dynamics that occurred during ensiling and simulated feed out expands our knowledge of these processes. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to US Government works.

  7. Co-transforming bar and CsLEA enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyu; Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-03-25

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict alfalfa productivity. A dehydrin protein, CsLEA, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica was transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the bar gene as a selectable marker, and the drought and salt stress tolerances of the transgenic plants were assessed. Thirty-nine of 119 transformants were positive, as screened by Basta, and further molecularly authenticated using PCR and RT-PCR. Phenotype observations revealed that the transgenic plants grew better than the wild-type (WT) plants after 15d of drought stress and 10d of salt stress: the leaves of WT alfalfa turned yellow, whereas the transgenic alfalfa leaves only wilted; after rewatering, the transgenic plants returned to a normal state, though the WT plants could not be restored. Evaluation of physiologic and biochemical indices during drought and salt stresses showed a relatively lower Na(+) content in the leaves of the transgenic plants, which would reduce toxic ion effects. In addition, the transgenic plants were able to maintain a higher relative water content (RWC), higher shoot biomass, fewer photosystem changes, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress injury. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the CsLEA gene can enhance the drought and salt tolerance of transgenic alfalfa; in addition, carrying the bar gene in the genome may increase herbicide resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of physiological and miRNA responses to Pi deficiency in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyi; Xu, Hongyu; Li, Yue; Wan, Xiufu; Ma, Zhao; Cao, Jing; Li, Zhensong; He, Feng; Wang, Yufei; Wan, Liqiang; Tong, Zongyong; Li, Xianglin

    2018-03-01

    The induction of miR399 and miR398 and the inhibition of miR156, miR159, miR160, miR171, miR2111, and miR2643 were observed under Pi deficiency in alfalfa. The miRNA-mediated genes involved in basic metabolic process, root and shoot development, stress response and Pi uptake. Inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency is known to be a limiting factor in plant development and growth. However, the underlying miRNAs associated with the Pi deficiency-responsive mechanism in alfalfa are unclear. To elucidate the molecular mechanism at the miRNA level, we constructed four small RNA (sRNA) libraries from the roots and shoots of alfalfa grown under normal or Pi-deficient conditions. In the present study, alfalfa plants showed reductions in biomass, photosynthesis, and Pi content and increases in their root-to-shoot ratio and citric, malic, and succinic acid contents under Pi limitation. Sequencing results identified 47 and 44 differentially expressed miRNAs in the roots and shoots, respectively. Furthermore, 909 potential target genes were predicted, and some targets were validated by RLM-RACE assays. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses showed prominent enrichment in signal transducer activity, binding and basic metabolic pathways for carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids; cellular response to hormone stimulus and response to auxin pathways were also enriched. qPCR results verified that the differentially expressed miRNA profile was consistent with sequencing results, and putative target genes exhibited opposite expression patterns. In this study, the miRNAs associated with the response to Pi limitation in alfalfa were identified. In addition, there was an enrichment of miRNA-targeted genes involved in biological regulatory processes such as basic metabolic pathways, root and shoot development, stress response, Pi transportation and citric acid secretion.

  9. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) with maralfalfahay (Pennisetum sp.) in diets of lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscioni, P.; Marti, J.V.; Pérez-Baena, I.

    2016-01-01

    tThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa (Medicagosativa) with maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp.) on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methaneemission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in latelactation (45.7 ± 2.96 kg...... of body weight [BW]) were selected in a 2-treatment and crossoverdesign experiment where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group offive goats was fed a mixed ration with alfalfa as forage (A diet) and the other diet replacedalfalfa with maralfalfa (M diet) in a forage concentrate ratio...... of 40/60. Diets were isoen-ergetic and isoproteic. The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 17d of adaptation, feed intake, total faecal and urine output and milk yield were recordeddaily over a 5 d period. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded individually by amobile open...

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L) TO FIND SPECIFIC FUNGI WHICH IMPROVED THE GROWTH OF ALFALFA

    OpenAIRE

    T. Yudiarti; S. Sumarsono; D.W. Widjayanto

    2014-01-01

    Objective of the study was to identify all kinds of fungi which can life in the alfalfa plantation inBaturaden Purwokerto-Central Java. Fungi used in this study was 38 isolates. All fungi have been takenfrom the isolation of soil and root of diseased plant. Macroscopic and microscopic methods were usedfor identification. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium was used to grow the fungi. All fungi wereidentified using book identification of fungi. The results showed that from 38 isolates, six speci...

  11. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of resistant and susceptible alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.) after thrips infestation

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Xiongbing; Liu, Zhongkuan; Zhang, Zehua

    2018-01-01

    Background Plant breeding for resistance to agricultural pests is an essential element in the development of integrated crop management systems; however, the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying resistance are poorly understood. In this pilot study, a transcriptomic analysis of a resistant (R) vs. a susceptible (S) variety of alfalfa, with (+T) or without (−T) thrips (= 4 treatments) was conducted, ‘GN-1’ (China) was defined as the resistant cultivar, and ‘WL323’ (America) was defined ...

  12. Effect of Non Thermal Plasma on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Forage Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Daem, G.A.N.A.; El-Aragi, G.M.; Tarrad, M.M.; Zayed, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) Farm, at Inshas, Egypt during 2011–2012 on alfalfa. The aim of this investigation to caused mutation in alfalfa to obtain new variation. Seeds of the alfalfa were subjected to six doses of non-thermal plasma pulse. The plasma (consisting of ozone, UV and visible light) was injected into the seed samples for different durations or number of pulses. The doses used treatments were 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 pulses (P) and non-treated control. The results showed difference seeds in both level field performances from cut 1st to cut 10th in the forage production. The results showed differences between the Control and treatment (number of pulses (P)) in each of all cuts for the productivity. The results showed the impact of plant height, Number of leaves/plant and number of branches/leaf and stem diameter as well as fresh weight of plant, fresh/weight (t/fed), dry yield (t/fed) in some cuts for Pulses 2, 4 and 10, and the ten pulses were the best for the majority of the qualities and cuts.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF SOIL FUNGI ISOLATED FROM ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L TO FIND SPECIFIC FUNGI WHICH IMPROVED THE GROWTH OF ALFALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yudiarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to identify all kinds of fungi which can life in the alfalfa plantation inBaturaden Purwokerto-Central Java. Fungi used in this study was 38 isolates. All fungi have been takenfrom the isolation of soil and root of diseased plant. Macroscopic and microscopic methods were usedfor identification. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. All fungi wereidentified using book identification of fungi. The results showed that from 38 isolates, six species wasdetermined and one was unidentifed. Those species identified were Cuninghammela sp, Trichoderma sp,Vertilicium sp, Eupenicillium sp, Pythium sp, Aspergillus sp.

  14. Overexpression of Medicago sativa TMT elevates the α-tocopherol content in Arabidopsis seeds, alfalfa leaves, and delays dark-induced leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Jia, Huili; Feng, Guangyan; Wang, Zan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-08-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume for livestock and a target for improving their dietary quality. Vitamin E is an essential vitamin that animals must obtain from their diet for proper growth and development. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), which catalyzes the conversion of δ- and γ-tocopherols (or tocotrienols) to β- and α-tocopherols (or tocotrienols), respectively, is the final enzyme involved in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway. The overexpression of M. sativa L.'s γ-TMT (MsTMT) increased the α-tocopherol content 10-15 fold above that of wild type Arabidopsis seeds without altering the total content of vitamin E. Additionally, in response to osmotic stress, the biomass and the expression levels of several osmotic marker genes were significantly higher in the transgenic lines compared with wild type. Overexpression of MsTMT in alfalfa led to a modest, albeit significant, increase in α-tocopherol in leaves and was also responsible for a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Additionally, the crude protein content was increased, while the acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were unchanged in these transgenic lines. Thus, increased α-tocopherol content occurred in transgenic alfalfa without compromising the nutritional qualities. The targeted metabolic engineering of vitamin E biosynthesis through MsTMT overexpression provides a promising approach to improve the α-tocopherol content of forage crops. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Humic Acid on some Agronomic Characters of some Varieties of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tadayyon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of humic acid on some cultural characters of some alfalfa varieties, a field experiment was conducted as factorial split plot based on RCBD design with three replications in 2014. In this experiment, 5 varieties of alfalfa (Yazdi, Hamedani, Baghdadi, Bami and Ranger and three levels of humic acid (5 and 10 lha-1 and without humic acid, as control were considered as the first factor and harvest time was as the second factor. Result indicated that except plant height, other characteristics such as dry weight yield, dry weight per plant, root and shoot dry weight per plant, number of leaves and stem diameter were affected by triple interaction effect of harvest time×variety×humic acid. Plant height was affected by double interaction effect of variety×humic acid and also harvest time×variety. Yazdi and Bami had the highest and Ranger had the least values of traits under study in two cuttings, respectively. Also in the between of humic acid treatments, 10 lha-1 treatment produced highest traits measured as compared to control and 5 lha-1 treatment. Bami, Ranger and Yazdi varieties with 10 lha-1of humic acid in two cuttings produced the highest dry weight yield (3.64, 3.55 and 3.26 t.ha-1 respectively in this experiment.

  16. Photosynthesis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in response to landfill leachate contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lie; Sun, Tiantian; Liu, Yanli; Guo, Houqing; Lv, Lixin; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chang

    2017-11-01

    Thousands of unlined landfills and open dumpsites have put great threat on the security of soil and ground water due to leachate leakage. Alfalfa is believed potential as a phytoremediation plant for leachate contamination based on strong root system and the excellent capacity of removing various kinds of pollutants. A lab-scale investigation was conducted to figure out the sensitiveness of alfalfa photosynthesis in response to leachate contamination. The results demonstrated that both of the maximum photosynthetic efficiency (F v /F m ) and net photosynthetic rate (P n ) were slightly inhibited in the high-dosage group. Based on statistical analysis, higher sensitivity of P n to leaching parameters than F v /F m was observed. There were significant correlations between most of leaching parameters (pH, ammonium and COD) and P n with correlation coefficients of 0.530, -0.580 and -0.578 (p < 0.01), respectively. Therefore, P n is potential for acting as an effective indicator for staple leaching characteristics of leachate contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological effects and RAPD analysis of alfalfa (medicago sativa L.) irradiated by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Weibo; Zhang Yuexue; Tang Fenglan; Liu Jielin; Liu Fengqi; Shang Chen; Kong Fuquan; Wang Xiao; Liu Luxiang

    2011-01-01

    Dry seeds of alfalfa variety Zhaodong were irradiated by fast neutrons generated by linear accelerator with three fluences, 3.60 × 10 11 , 7.10 × 10 11 and 3.54 × 10 12 /cm 2 respectively. Seed germination, growth, and RAPD analysis on the mutation were reported in this study. The results showed that germination vigor and germination rate of irradiated seeds were higher than those of control, but seedling height and root length were reduced with the increase of fluences. When the dosages reached 3.54 × 10 12 /cm 2 , seedling root length decreased by 81.63% compared with the control, but the seedling didn't grow any true leaves except for cotyledon. 36 primers were used in RAPD analysis, and the results showed that the RAPD polymorphic loci rate was 7.25%, 6.52% and 5.80% among the 3.60 × 10 11 /cm 2 , 7.10 × 10 11 /cm 2 and 3.54 × 10 12 /cm 2 treated M 1 plants. RAPD polymorphic loci rate in the 3.60 × 10 11 /cm 2 treated plants was the highest among three treatment. It is concluded that 3.60 × 10 11 /cm 2 could be on optimum fluences for a alfalfa mutation by fast neutrons. (authors)

  18. Co-expression of bacterial aspartate kinase and adenylylsulfate reductase genes substantially increases sulfur amino acid levels in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L..

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    Zongyong Tong

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is one of the most important forage crops used to feed livestock, such as cattle and sheep, and the sulfur amino acid (SAA content of alfalfa is used as an index of its nutritional value. Aspartate kinase (AK catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate to Asp-phosphate, the first step in the aspartate family biosynthesis pathway, and adenylylsulfate reductase (APR catalyzes the conversion of activated sulfate to sulfite, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesis of cysteine, methionine, and other essential metabolites and secondary compounds. To reduce the feedback inhibition of other metabolites, we cloned bacterial AK and APR genes, modified AK, and introduced them into alfalfa. Compared to the wild-type alfalfa, the content of cysteine increased by 30% and that of methionine increased substantially by 60%. In addition, a substantial increase in the abundance of essential amino acids (EAAs, such as aspartate and lysine, was found. The results also indicated a close connection between amino acid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. The total amino acid content and the forage biomass tested showed no significant changes in the transgenic plants. This approach provides a new method for increasing SAAs and allows for the development of new genetically modified crops with enhanced nutritional value.

  19. Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on seedlings establishment and morphological parameters of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in rangeland of Bahar Kish Quchan

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    R. Azimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant establishment is the most critical stage in biological renovation of rangelands. The processes which normally fails, due to the harsh conditions in the arid and semiarid environments. New technologies may be used to overcome this problem. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possibility of enhancing seedling establishment and growth rate of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. under natural habitats by inoculation with mycorrhiza species. Seeds of alfalfa were sown under greenhouse for 20 days and inculcated with two species of Glomus intraradices and G. mosseae. After 30 days seedlings were transplanted the rangeland as sub plots as split plot based on RCBD (Randomized complete block design were evaluated with three replication. Root colonization percent with G. mosseae was 62/7 % and with of G . intraradices was 72%. Mycorrhozal inoculation increased establishment of alfalfa at the early and late growth stages, with stronger effects of G. intraradices than G. mosseae. Furthermore leaf and root dry matter, total dry matter and the shoot/root, was increased as a result of G. intraradices, compared with G. mosseae inoculation. In conclusions, G. intraradices can be used as a biological fertilizer for establishment of alfalfa in semiarid rangeland of Bahar Kish, Quchan.

  20. Co-expression of bacterial aspartate kinase and adenylylsulfate reductase genes substantially increases sulfur amino acid levels in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Xie, Can; Ma, Lei; Liu, Liping; Jin, Yongsheng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important forage crops used to feed livestock, such as cattle and sheep, and the sulfur amino acid (SAA) content of alfalfa is used as an index of its nutritional value. Aspartate kinase (AK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate to Asp-phosphate, the first step in the aspartate family biosynthesis pathway, and adenylylsulfate reductase (APR) catalyzes the conversion of activated sulfate to sulfite, providing reduced sulfur for the synthesis of cysteine, methionine, and other essential metabolites and secondary compounds. To reduce the feedback inhibition of other metabolites, we cloned bacterial AK and APR genes, modified AK, and introduced them into alfalfa. Compared to the wild-type alfalfa, the content of cysteine increased by 30% and that of methionine increased substantially by 60%. In addition, a substantial increase in the abundance of essential amino acids (EAAs), such as aspartate and lysine, was found. The results also indicated a close connection between amino acid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The total amino acid content and the forage biomass tested showed no significant changes in the transgenic plants. This approach provides a new method for increasing SAAs and allows for the development of new genetically modified crops with enhanced nutritional value.

  1. Rhizobium favelukesii sp. nov., isolated from the root nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Althabegoiti, María Julia; Nilsson, Juliet Fernanda; Niehaus, Karsten; Schlüter, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Del Papa, María Florencia; Lagares, Antonio; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Pistorio, Mariano

    2016-11-01

    Strains LPU83T and Or191 of the genus Rhizobium were isolated from the root nodules of alfalfa, grown in acid soils from Argentina and the USA. These two strains, which shared the same plasmid pattern, lipopolysaccharide profile, insertion-sequence fingerprint, 16S rRNA gene sequence and PCR-fingerprinting pattern, were different from reference strains representing species of the genus Rhizobium with validly published names. On the basis of previously reported data and from new DNA-DNA hybridization results, phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses, strains LPU83T and Or191 can be considered to be representatives of a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium favelukesii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this species is LPU83T (=CECT 9014T=LMG 29160T), for which an improved draft-genome sequence is available.

  2. Detoxification of Atrazine by Low Molecular Weight Thiols in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

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    Zhang, Jing Jing; Xu, Jiang Yan; Lu, Feng Fan; Jin, She Feng; Yang, Hong

    2017-10-16

    Low molecular weight (LMW) thiols in higher plants are a group of sulfur-rich nonprotein compounds and play primary and multiple roles in cellular redox homeostasis, enzyme activities, and xenobiotics detoxification. This study focused on identifying thiols-related protein genes from the legume alfalfa exposed to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) residues in environment. Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing, a set of ATZ-responsive thiols-related protein genes highly up-regulated and differentially expressed in alfalfa was identified. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were involved in regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing the genes involved in thiols-mediated redox homeostasis, we found that many of them were thiols-synthetic enzymes such as γ-glutamylcysteine synthase (γECS), homoglutathione synthetase (hGSHS), and glutathione synthetase (GSHS). Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we further characterized a group of ATZ-thiols conjugates, which are the detoxified forms of ATZ in plants. Cysteine S-conjugate ATZ-HCl+Cys was the most important metabolite detected by MS. Several other ATZ-conjugates were also examined as ATZ-detoxified metabolites. Such results were validated by characterizing their analogs in rice. Our data showed that some conjugates under ATZ stress were detected in both plants, indicating that some detoxified mechanisms and pathways can be shared by the two plant species. Overall, these results indicate that LMW thiols play critical roles in detoxification of ATZ in the plants.

  3. Seed Priming to Overcome Salinity Stress in Persian Cultivars of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

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    Ali SEPEHRI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of hydro-priming on seed germination with distilled water on germination of five Alfalfa cultivars under salinity stress, an experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Seven levels of hydro-priming and salinity of NaCl including prime and non-salinity, prime and 50 mM salinity, prime and 100 mM salinity, prime and 150 mM salinity, prime and 200 mM salinity, prime and 250 mM salinity and without prime and salinity and five alfalfa varieties, including ‘Hamedani’, ‘Isfahani’, ‘Bami’, ‘Yazdi’ and ‘Ghareh Yonjeh’ were used. The results showed that the main effect of prime, salinity and cultivars and their interaction in all studied traits were significantly affected at the 5% probability level. Priming treatments in non-salinity of all cultivars were the highest. In all cultivars, final germination percentage, length and weight of radicle, plumule and seedling, germination rate and time, relative radicle elongation, vigor index and stress index, were significantly improved in response to priming in salinity levels of 50-200 mM, compared to control. Radicle produced higher length and weight than the plumule in hydro- priming and salinity treatments. ‘Hamedani’ cultivar in most of studied characteristics had a better response than others. The lowest response to salinity stress and priming was observed in ‘Yazdi’ cultivar.

  4. Plant physiology and proteomics reveals the leaf response to drought in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

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    Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Erice, Gorka; Avice, Jean Christophe; Nogués, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Despite its relevance, protein regulation, metabolic adjustment, and the physiological status of plants under drought is not well understood in relation to the role of nitrogen fixation in nodules. In this study, nodulated alfalfa plants were exposed to drought conditions. The study determined the physiological, metabolic, and proteomic processes involved in photosynthetic inhibition in relation to the decrease in nitrogenase (N(ase)) activity. The deleterious effect of drought on alfalfa performance was targeted towards photosynthesis and N(ase) activity. At the leaf level, photosynthetic inhibition was mainly caused by the inhibition of Rubisco. The proteomic profile and physiological measurements revealed that the reduced carboxylation capacity of droughted plants was related to limitations in Rubisco protein content, activation state, and RuBP regeneration. Drought also decreased amino acid content such as asparagine, and glutamic acid, and Rubisco protein content indicating that N availability limitations were caused by N(ase) activity inhibition. In this context, drought induced the decrease in Rubisco binding protein content at the leaf level and proteases were up-regulated so as to degrade Rubisco protein. This degradation enabled the reallocation of the Rubisco-derived N to the synthesis of amino acids with osmoregulant capacity. Rubisco degradation under drought conditions was induced so as to remobilize Rubisco-derived N to compensate for the decrease in N associated with N(ase) inhibition. Metabolic analyses showed that droughted plants increased amino acid (proline, a major compound involved in osmotic regulation) and soluble sugar (D-pinitol) levels to contribute towards the decrease in osmotic potential (Ψ(s)). At the nodule level, drought had an inhibitory effect on N(ase) activity. This decrease in N(ase) activity was not induced by substrate shortage, as reflected by an increase in total soluble sugars (TSS) in the nodules. Proline accumulation

  5. Quantitation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from UVB-irradiated alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaite, F.E.; Sutherland, B.M.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone will increase the solar ultraviolet radiation in the range from 290-320 nm (UVB) that reaches the surface of the earth, placing an increased UV burden on exposed organisms. One consequence of increased UVB may be decreased productivity of crop plants. A principal lesion caused by UV in DNA is the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. We have adapted a method for measuring these dimers in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA for use in UV-irradiated plants. We find that biologically relevant doses of broad band UVB radiation induce easily detectable frequencies of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of irradiated alfalfa sprout leaves and that the dose response for dimer formation is linear up to doses of at least 690 J/m 2 . We also find easily measurable frequencies of dimers in the leaves of seedlings grown in glass filtered sunlight but not exposed to additional UVB, suggesting that significant number of dimers are formed in plants exposed to normal sunlight. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Combining -Omics to Unravel the Impact of Copper Nutrition on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Stem Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Bruno; Guerriero, Gea; Sergeant, Kjell; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Guignard, Cédric; Renaut, Jenny; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2016-02-01

    Copper can be found in the environment at concentrations ranging from a shortage up to the threshold of toxicity for plants, with optimal growth conditions situated in between. The plant stem plays a central role in transferring and distributing minerals, water and other solutes throughout the plant. In this study, alfalfa is exposed to different levels of copper availability, from deficiency to slight excess, and the impact on the metabolism of the stem is assessed by a non-targeted proteomics study and by the expression analysis of key genes controlling plant stem development. Under copper deficiency, the plant stem accumulates specific copper chaperones, the expression of genes involved in stem development is decreased and the concentrations of zinc and molybdenum are increased in comparison with the optimum copper level. At the optimal copper level, the expression of cell wall-related genes increases and proteins playing a role in cell wall deposition and in methionine metabolism accumulate, whereas copper excess imposes a reduction in the concentration of iron in the stem and a reduced abundance of ferritins. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis suggests a role for the apoplasm as a copper storage site in the case of copper toxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  7. EFICIENCIA DEL AGUA DE RIEGO EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE MAÍZ FORRAJERO (Zea mays L. Y ALFALFA (Medicago sativa: IMPACTO SOCIAL Y ECONÓMICO

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    Aurelio Pedroza Sandoval

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El maíz y la alfalfa, son los dos principales cultivos forrajeros en la Cuenca Lechera de la Laguna de los estados de Coahuila y Durango, México, donde el recurso hídrico es el mayor factor limitante. El objetivo de este estudio fue hacer una evaluación de la eficiencia biológica, económica y social del uso de agua de riego en los cultivos de maíz forrajero (Zea mays L. y alfalfa (Medicago sativa, mediante un análisis económico comparativo y de eficiencia de productividad. El maíz fue más eficiente que la alfalfa, puesto que un m3 de agua subterránea produjo 5.72 kg de biomasa, $0.67 de ganancia por m3 de agua usada y 100 000 m3 de agua produjeron 0.65 empleos durante el ciclo del cultivo; mientras que la alfalfa produjo 0.215 kg de biomasa, $0.90 de ganancia y se generaron 0.43 empleos con los mismos volúmenes de agua indicados en el maíz. El cultivo de maíz forrajero fue más eficiente en producción de biomasa por volumen de agua utilizado y empleos generados, pero menos eficiente en ganancias, donde la alfalfa fue mejor. Una combinación durante el año de cultivos forrajeros con calidad energética y proteica como el maíz y la alfalfa respectivamente, éstos producidos bajo un programa de rotación, habrán de redundar en un equilibrio entre calidad de forraje, productividad del mismo, un mayor beneficio social y un menor impacto ambiental.

  8. Risks and benefits of compost-like materials prepared by the thermal treatment of raw scallop hepatopancreas for supplying cadmium and the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kensuke; Fukushima, Masami; Kanno, Shinya; Kanno, Itoko; Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Scallop hepatopancreas, fishery waste, contains relatively high levels of Cd and organic nitrogen compounds, the latter of which represent a fertilizer. In this study, raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue was thermally treated with sawdust and red loam in the presence of an iron catalyst to produce compost-like materials (CLMs). Two CLM samples were prepared by varying the content of raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue: 46 wt.% for CLM-1 and 18 wt.% for CLM-2. Mixtures of control soil (CTL) and CLMs (CLM content: 10 and 25 wt.%) were examined for the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to evaluate the risks and benefits of using this material for fertilization. The Cd content in shoots and roots of alfalfa, that were grown in the presence of CLMs, was significantly higher than those for the plants grown in the CTL, indicating that Cd had accumulated in the plants from CLMs. The accumulation of Cd in the alfalfa roots was quite high in the case of the 25% CLM-1 sample. However, alfalfa growth was significantly promoted in the presence of 10% CLM-1. This can be attributed to the higher levels of nitrogen and humic substances, which serve as fertilizer components. Although the fertilization effect in case of CLM-1showed a potential benefit, the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa was clearly increased in the presence of both CLMs. In conclusion, the use of CLMs produced from raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue can be considered to have a desirable benefit from standpoint of its use as fertilizer, but is accompanied by a risk of the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa plants.

  9. Uso del agua en la alfalfa (Medicago sativa con riego por goteo subsuperficial

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    José Alfredo Montemayor Trejo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar la eficiencia en el uso del agua con el sistema de riego por goteo subsuperficial y por gravedad, durante el año 2004 se realizó la investigación en la Comarca Lagunera de los estados de Coahuila y Durango, México. Se estableció un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y tres tratamientos de separación de cintas de riego de 0.8, 0.9 y 1.0 m, y como testigo se evaluó el método de riego por gravedad. Se utilizó el método de regresión lineal simple entre las variables días después de siembra y lámina de agua aplicada, para obtener modelos de aplicación de agua con riego por goteo subsuperficial (RGS y riego por gravedad. La variedad de alfalfa establecida fue la WL 712 con una densidad de siembra de 40 kg ha-1, el gasto de la cinta fue de 3 L/h por metro lineal con orificios espaciados a 30 cm y espesor de 10,000 micrones. La lámina de riego aplicada fue de 1.39 m en el sistema por gravedad y 1.16 m con riego por goteo subsuperficial. Los consumos de agua promedio diario de los modelos presentaron diferencias t(a=0.05 y fueron 0.417 y 0.299 cm dia-1 en gravedad y RGS. El rendimiento de materia seca en siete cortes y la eficiencia en el uso del agua fueron de 24.08 t ha-1, 2.04 kg m-3 en subsuperficial y 18.46 t ha-1, 1.33 kg m-3 en gravedad (P<0.05.

  10. Integrative analysis of transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. suggests new metabolic control mechanisms for monolignol biosynthesis.

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    Yun Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The entanglement of lignin polymers with cellulose and hemicellulose in plant cell walls is a major biological barrier to the economically viable production of biofuels from woody biomass. Recent efforts of reducing this recalcitrance with transgenic techniques have been showing promise for ameliorating or even obviating the need for costly pretreatments that are otherwise required to remove lignin from cellulose and hemicelluloses. At the same time, genetic manipulations of lignin biosynthetic enzymes have sometimes yielded unforeseen consequences on lignin composition, thus raising the question of whether the current understanding of the pathway is indeed correct. To address this question systemically, we developed and applied a novel modeling approach that, instead of analyzing the pathway within a single target context, permits a comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of different datasets in wild type and transgenic plants. Specifically, the proposed approach combines static flux-based analysis with a Monte Carlo simulation in which very many randomly chosen sets of parameter values are evaluated against kinetic models of lignin biosynthesis in different stem internodes of wild type and lignin-modified alfalfa plants. In addition to four new postulates that address the reversibility of some key reactions, the modeling effort led to two novel postulates regarding the control of the lignin biosynthetic pathway. The first posits functionally independent pathways toward the synthesis of different lignin monomers, while the second postulate proposes a novel feedforward regulatory mechanism. Subsequent laboratory experiments have identified the signaling molecule salicylic acid as a potential mediator of the postulated control mechanism. Overall, the results demonstrate that mathematical modeling can be a valuable complement to conventional transgenic approaches and that it can provide biological insights that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  11. Measuring residual feed intake in dairy heifers fed an alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cube diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, G C; Macdonald, K A; Williams, Y; Davis, S R; Spelman, R J

    2012-03-01

    Selection for divergence between individuals for efficiency of feed utilization (residual feed intake, RFI) has widespread application in the beef industry and is usually undertaken when animals are fed diets based on silages with grain. The objective of this research was to develop a feeding system (using Gallagher, Hamilton, New Zealand, electronics) to measure RFI for growth in Holstein-Friesian heifers (aged 5-9 mo), and identify divergent individuals to be tested for RFI during lactation. A dry forage diet (alfalfa cubes) was fed because intakes could be measured accurately, and the New Zealand dairy industry (4.4 million milking cows in lactation) relies heavily on forage feeding. The evaluation was undertaken over 3 yr with 1,052 animals fed in a facility for 7 wk, and weighed 3 times weekly. The mean age at the start of measurements was 215 d, body weight (BW) 189 kg, and mean daily dry matter intakes averaged 6.7 kg. Body weight gain (all animals) averaged 0.88 kg/d. The RFI was determined as the residuals from the regression of mean intake on mean BW(0.75) and daily BW gain of individuals. Actual and fitted intakes were strongly related (R(2) = 0.82). In terms of gross efficiency (feed intake/BW gain), RFI+year explained 43% of the variation, BW gain+year explained 66%, and RFI+BW gain+year explained 79% of the variation (all PDaily BW gains (kg) of the most and least efficient 10% averaged (± standard deviation) 0.88 ± 0.15 and 0.88 ± 0.12 (P = 0.568), respectively, and the divergence between mean intakes was 1.46 kg of dry matter/d. The most and least efficient animals will be tested for RFI during lactation and genetic markers will be identified for the trait. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Citric acid- and Tween(®) 80-assisted phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil: alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) performance and remediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Huguenot, D; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was designed to assess the phytoremediation potential of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in a co-contaminated (i.e., heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons) soil and the influence of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 (polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate), applied individually and combined together, for their possible use in chemically assisted phytoremediation. The results showed that alfalfa plants could tolerate and grow in a co-contaminated soil. Over a 90-day experimental time, shoot and root biomass increased and negligible plant mortality occurred. Heavy metals were uptaken by alfalfa to a limited extent, mostly by plant roots, and their concentration in plant tissues were in the following order: Zn > Cu > Pb. Microbial population (alkane-degrading microorganisms) and activity (lipase enzyme) were enhanced in the presence of alfalfa with rhizosphere effects of 9.1 and 1.5, respectively, after 90 days. Soil amendments did not significantly enhance plant metal concentration or total uptake. In contrast, the combination of citric acid and Tween(®) 80 significantly improved alkane-degrading microorganisms (2.4-fold increase) and lipase activity (5.3-fold increase) in the rhizosphere of amended plants, after 30 days of experiment. This evidence supports a favorable response of alfalfa in terms of tolerance to a co-contaminated soil and improvement of rhizosphere microbial number and activity, additionally enhanced by the joint application of citric acid and Tween(®) 80, which could be promising for future phytoremediation applications.

  13. Comunidad de arañas (Arachnida, Araneae del cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa en Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Andrea Armendano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se ha dado un interés creciente en el uso de enemigos naturales para controlar plagas de insectos, como arañas. Se estudió una comunidad de arañas en Argentina mediante un muestreo cada dos semanas durante el periodo 2004-2006 en lotes de una hectárea. En el estrato del suelo las arañas fueron colectadas con redes de arrastre y trampas de caída. Se recolecto un total de 6 229 ejemplares (15 familias y 50 especies. Siete familias se encuentran en el estrato herbáceo, las más abundantes fueron: Thomisidae (n=2 012, 32.30%, Araneidae (n=1 516, 24.33% y Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%. El suelo habían 14 familias, principalmente: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10% y Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%. Predominaron las arañas cazadoras: por emboscadas (32.99%, al acecho (11.77%, corredoras de suelo (10.84% y tejedoras orbiculares (27.56%. Los índices de diversidad fueron: H´=2.97, Dsp=0.11 y J=0.79, evidenciando una comunidad de arañas moderadamente diversa, con predominio de Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus, Lycosa poliostoma and L. erythrognatha. Las arañas estuvieron presentes durante el desarrollo fenológico del cultivo con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano.Spider community (Arachnida, Araneae of alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Over the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural enemies to control pest insects, including spiders. We studied a spider community in Argentina by sampling every two weeks during 2004-2006 in one-hectare lots. Soil stratum spiders were collected using nets and pitfall traps. A total of 6229 specimens were collected (15 families and 50 species. Seven families were found in the herbal stratum, the most abundant were Thomisidae (n=2012, 32.30%, Araneidae (n=1516, 24.33% and Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%. The soil had 14 families, mainly: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10% and Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%. Hunting spiders predominated: ambushers (32

  14. Effects of sowing methods and potassium application on the performance of two Alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhag, B.B.M.

    2007-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic University of Omdurman during the period from december 2004 to may 2006 to evaluate the effects of three sowing methods (sowing on flat, ridges and mustaba) and the tow levels of potassium fertilizer, (0 k 0 and 50 kg/ha k 1 ) on the performance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). This was carried out using tow cultivars, Hegazi (local) and Alfanafa (introduced). A randomized complete block design with four applications in factorial experiment was used to layout the work field. Sowing was done in the last week of december 2004 at a seed rate of 20 kg/ha by broadcasting the seeds on flat, ridge and mustaba. The first irrigation was applied immediately and the second was done five days after sowing. Subsequent irrigations were performed at an interval of seven days between irrigations during summer and ten days during winter, depending on the weather conditions. A seedling emergence was observed 3 to 5 days after sowing. Weeding was done manually when necessary. The first cut was done 70 days after sowing, when 50% of the plants were in the bloom stage, and the subsequent ones were done monthly, using a sickle, just a above the soil surface. A After the last cut (in Feb 2006), when environmental conditions were favorable, the plants were left were for seed yield which was harvested in April, 2006. Data were collected on plant height, plant population, leaf area index, leaf to stem ratio, fresh weight, dry weight, potassium content in plant, seed-yield and its components. The results revealed that there were significant differences between cultivars, sowing methods, potassium application and all possible interactions between the different treatments for all parameters except number of pods/raceme and total seed-weight in all treatments, leaf to stem ratio, leaf area index, number of racemes/plant, number of seeds/pod and 1000-seed weight in sowing methods and potassium

  15. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. overseeding on mature switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. stand: biomass yield and nutritive value after the establishment year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Mantino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perennial crops can positively act on the environment providing a better inter-annual protection of soil cover from water erosion, limiting soil fertility degradation, the risk of nutrient leaching and the exploitation of water for irrigation. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., a warm-season grass native from North America, has been cultivated for decades as forage crop and only recently as bioenergy crop. Even if several studies reported a positive effect of nitrogen (N supply on switchgrass yield and quality, potential indirect and direct environmental risks (e.g., eutrophication and greenhouse gas emission are related to this practice. For this reason grass-legume intercropping can represent a sustainable practice able to increase biomass yield and quality, and at the same time to improve N use efficiency, soil structure and fertility. Based on this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of switchgrass to Mediterranean environment as forage crop and to improve biomass yield and its nutritional value by intercropping with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. During spring 2013, in two switchgrass pure stands (varieties Alamo and Blackwell, respectively, alfalfa was established through direct seeding implementing a split-plot experimental design. Our first year results report a positive effect of the intercropping in increasing the total annual yield of the stand, of about 20% with respect to the pure switchgrass stand. However, the presence of alfalfa negatively affected switchgrass yield in the mixture. In both varieties, the crude protein content was higher in the mixture than in the pure switchgrass stands. Conversely, the neutral detergent fibre content in the mixture was lower than in pure switchgrass. Then, our results show that switchgrass-alfalfa intercropping leads to increase the profitability of grassland-based livestock production.

  16. Chloroform extract of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by downregulating ERK/NF-κB signaling and cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Choon; Hwang, Jung-Min; Bang, Sung-Jun; Kim, Beom-Tae; Kim, Dong-Hern; Chae, Minseon; Lee, Seung-Ah; Choi, Gi Jun; Kim, Da Hye; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2013-05-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is commonly used as a traditional medicine and functional food. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of alfalfa and the mechanisms involved. The chloroform extract of alfalfa aerial parts inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated immune responses more than ether, butanol, or water soluble extracts. Treatment with 1 μg/mL LPS increased nitrite concentrations to 44.3 μM in RAW267.4 macrophages, but it was reduced to 10.6 μM by adding 100 μg/mL chloroform extract. LPS treatment also increased the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β to 41.3, 11.6, and 0.78 ng/mL in culture supernatants of the cells, but these cytokine levels decreased to 12.5, 3.1, and 0.19 ng/mL, respectively, by pretreating with 100 μg/mL of the extract. ICR mice injected with LPS (30 mg/kg body weight) alone showed a 0% survival rate after 48 h of the injection, but 48-h survival of the mice increased to 60% after oral administration of the extract. Subfractions of the chloroform extract markedly suppressed LPS-mediated activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa-B. Cinnamic acid derivatives and fatty acids were found to be active constituents of the extract. This research demonstrated that alfalfa aerial parts exert anti-inflammatory activity and may be useful as a functional food for the prevention of inflammatory disorders.

  17. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  18. Manejo de Água de Irrigação para Alfafa (Medicago sativa L. Management of Water for Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Irrigation

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    Joaquim Bartolomeu Rassini

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a metodologia do balanço da demanda climática (ECA = evaporação do tanque classe A e PRP = precipitação pluvial com as condições edáficas (CAD -- capacidade de armazenamento de água do solo de um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo (LVA, a fim de manejar a irrigação suplementar para alfafa cv. Crioula, em condições de campo. Com base nessa tecnologia, procurou-se aumentar a eficiência do uso de água pela alfafa, avaliando-se o comportamento de alfafa em três condições hídricas (H1 = testemunha sem irrigação; H2 = uso mais eficiente da água, a partir do estádio vegetativo pleno da planta, quando ECA -- PRP > ou = 30 mm; H3 = uso pleno da água, durante todo ciclo da planta quando ECA -- PRP > ou = 20 mm. Verificou-se que a tecnologia empregada é eficiente para manejar a irrigação suplementar, no LVA, bem como podem-se aumentar os lucros com alfafa, por meio do uso mais eficiente da água (H2 = ECA -- PRP > ou = 30 mm.This study was conducted to evaluate methods of balancing climatic demand (ECA = class A tank evaporation and PRP = rainfall with soil conditions (CAD = water storage capacity of na Hapludox soil, in order to manage supplementary water of alfalfa cultivar Crioula on field conditions. Therefore, the behavior of alfalfa under three soil water conditions (H1 = no irrigation; H2 = efficient water use at plants full vegetative stage when ECA -- PRP > or = 30 mm; H3 = full use of water during the entire plant cycle when ECA -- PRP > or = 20 mm were evaluated based on these methods, looking of efficient water use by alfalfa. Results indicated that the technology employed is very efficient in managing supplementary water, in the Hapludox, and that increasing not economic returns with alfalfa, by way of efficient water use (H2 = ECA -- PRP > or = 30 mm, can be achieved.

  19. Expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) peroxidase gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana enhances resistance to NaCl and H2O2.

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    Teng, K; Xiao, G Z; Guo, W E; Yuan, J B; Li, J; Chao, Y H; Han, L B

    2016-05-23

    Peroxidases (PODs) are enzymes that play important roles in catalyzing the reduction of H2O2 and the oxidation of various substrates. They function in many different and important biological processes, such as defense mechanisms, immune responses, and pathogeny. The POD genes have been cloned and identified in many plants, but their function in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is not known, to date. Based on the POD gene sequence (GenBank accession No. L36157.1), we cloned the POD gene in alfalfa, which was named MsPOD. MsPOD expression increased with increasing H2O2. The gene was expressed in all of the tissues, including the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, particularly in stems and leaves under light/dark conditions. A subcellular analysis showed that MsPOD was localized outside the cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis with MsPOD exhibited increased resistance to H2O2 and NaCl. Moreover, POD activity in the transgenic plants was significantly higher than that in wild-type Arabidopsis. These results show that MsPOD plays an important role in resistance to H2O2 and NaCl.

  20. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-10-01

    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem vascular tissue suggests a role for invertase in cell wall cellulose synthesis.

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    Samac, Deborah A; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Miller, Susan S; Yang, S Samuel; O'Rourke, Jamie A; Shin, Sanghyun; Vance, Carroll P

    2015-12-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a widely adapted perennial forage crop that has high biomass production potential. Enhanced cellulose content in alfalfa stems would increase the value of the crop as a bioenergy feedstock. We examined if increased expression of sucrose synthase (SUS; EC 2.4.1.13) would increase cellulose in stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with a truncated alfalfa phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter (PEPC7-P4) fused to an alfalfa nodule-enhanced SUS cDNA (MsSUS1) or the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. Strong GUS expression was detected in xylem and phloem indicating that the PEPC7-P4 promoter was active in stem vascular tissue. In contrast to expectations, MsSUS1 transcript accumulation was reduced 75-90 % in alfalfa plants containing the PEPC7-P4::MsSUS1 transgene compared to controls. Enzyme assays indicated that SUS activity in stems of selected down-regulated transformants was reduced by greater than 95 % compared to the controls. Although SUS activity was detected in xylem and phloem of control plants by in situ enzyme assays, plants with the PEPC7-P4::MsSUS1 transgene lacked detectable SUS activity in post-elongation stem (PES) internodes and had very low SUS activity in elongating stem (ES) internodes. Loss of SUS protein in PES internodes of down-regulated lines was confirmed by immunoblots. Down-regulation of SUS expression and activity in stem tissue resulted in no obvious phenotype or significant change in cell wall sugar composition. However, alkaline/neutral (A/N) invertase activity increased in SUS down-regulated lines and high levels of acid invertase activity were observed. In situ enzyme assays of stem tissue showed localization of neutral invertase in vascular tissues of ES and PES internodes. These results suggest that invertases play a primary role in providing glucose for cellulose biosynthesis or compensate for the loss of SUS1 activity in stem vascular tissue.

  2. Co-transforming bar and CsALDH genes enhanced resistance to herbicide and drought and salt stress in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen eDuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict the productivity of alfalfa. By application of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, an oxidative responsive gene, CsALDH12A1, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica together with the bar gene associated with herbicide resistance, were co-transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. From the all 90 transformants, 16 were positive as screened by spraying 1 mL L-1 10% Basta solution and molecularly diagnosis using PCR. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that drought and salt stress induced high CsALDH expression in the leaves of the transgenic plants. The CsALDH expression levels under drought (15 d and salt stress (200 mM NaCl were 6.11 and 6.87 times higher than in the control plants, respectively. In comparison to the WT plants, no abnormal phenotypes were observed among the transgenic plants, which showed significant enhancement of tolerance to 15 d of drought and 10 d of salinity treatment. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical indices during drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants revealed relatively lower Na+ content and higher K+ content in the leaves relative to the WT plants, a reduction of toxic on effects and maintenance of osmotic adjustment. In addition, the transgenic plants could maintain a higher relative water content (RWC level, higher shoot biomass, fewer changes in the photosystem, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress. These results indicate that the co-expression of the introduced bar and CsALDH genes enhanced the herbicide, drought and salt tolerance of alfalfa and therefore can potentially be used as a novel genetic resource for the future breeding programs to develop new cultivars.

  3. Co-transforming bar and CsALDH Genes Enhanced Resistance to Herbicide and Drought and Salt Stress in Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen; Zhang, Daiyu; Zhang, Jianquan; Di, Hongyan; Wu, Fan; Hu, Xiaowen; Meng, Xuanchen; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Drought and high salinity are two major abiotic factors that restrict the productivity of alfalfa. By application of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, an oxidative responsive gene, CsALDH12A1, from the desert grass Cleistogenes songorica together with the bar gene associated with herbicide resistance, were co-transformed into alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). From the all 90 transformants, 16 were positive as screened by spraying 1 mL L-1 10% Basta solution and molecularly diagnosis using PCR. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that drought and salt stress induced high CsALDH expression in the leaves of the transgenic plants. The CsALDH expression levels under drought (15 d) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) were 6.11 and 6.87 times higher than in the control plants, respectively. In comparison to the WT plants, no abnormal phenotypes were observed among the transgenic plants, which showed significant enhancement of tolerance to 15 d of drought and 10 d of salinity treatment. Evaluation of the physiological and biochemical indices during drought and salt stress of the transgenic plants revealed relatively lower Na+ content and higher K+ content in the leaves relative to the WT plants, a reduction of toxic on effects and maintenance of osmotic adjustment. In addition, the transgenic plants could maintain a higher relative water content level, higher shoot biomass, fewer changes in the photosystem, decreased membrane injury, and a lower level of osmotic stress. These results indicate that the co-expression of the introduced bar and CsALDH genes enhanced the herbicide, drought and salt tolerance of alfalfa and therefore can potentially be used as a novel genetic resource for the future breeding programs to develop new cultivars. PMID:26734025

  4. Salt-tolerant and -sensitive alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars have large variations in defense responses to the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera litura under normal and salt stress condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunting; Liu, Qing; Hettenhausen, Christian; Cao, Guoyan; Tan, Qing; Zhao, Weiye; Lin, Honghui; Wu, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    In nature, plants are often exposed to multiple stress factors at the same time. Yet, little is known about how plants modulate their physiology to counteract simultaneous abiotic and biotic stresses, such as soil salinity and insect herbivory. In this study, insect performance bioassays, phytohormone measurements, quantification of transcripts, and protein determination were employed to study the phenotypic variations of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars in response to insect Spodoptera litura feeding under normal and salt stress condition. When being cultivated in normal soil, the salt-tolerant alfalfa cultivar Zhongmu-1 exhibited lower insect resistance than did the salt-sensitive cultivar Xinjiang Daye. Under salinity stress, the defense responses of Xinjiang Daye were repressed, whereas Zhongmu-1 did not show changes in resistance levels. It is likely that salinity influenced the resistance of Xinjiang Daye through suppressing the accumulation of jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile), which is the bioactive hormone inducing herbivore defense responses, leading to attenuated trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI) activity. Furthermore, exogenous ABA supplementation suppressed the insect herbivory-induced JA/JA-Ile accumulation and levels of JAR1 (jasmonate resistant 1) and TPI, and further decreased the resistance of Xinjiang Daye, whereas Zhongmu-1 showed very little response to the increased ABA level. We propose a mechanism, in which high levels of abscisic acid induced by salt treatment may affect the expression levels of JAR1 and consequently decrease JA-Ile accumulation and thus partly suppress the defense of Xinjiang Daye against insects under salt stress. This study provides new insight into the mechanism by which alfalfa responds to concurrent abiotic and biotic stresses.

  5. Disponibilidade hídrica relacionada ao conteúdo de nitrogênio e à produtividade da alfafa (Medicago sativa L. Water availability on yield and nitrogen contents of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladecir Salles de Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    resultado do aumento da transpiração.Variation in the abundance of 13C and biological nitrogen fixation in legume plants such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. can be used in cultivar selection programs allowing a better understanding of the physiological processes related to water use, photosynthesis and biological nitrogen fixation and their interdependence. This would supply data for selection programs for the improvement of dry matter yield (DM, water use efficiency (WUE and biomass quality. Thus evaluation of the plant under contrasting conditions becomes necessary, therefore in this study, the plants were evaluated under rainfall and irrigated conditions in lysimeters. In this study, 12 and 6 alfalfa cultivars was evaluated respectively in two experiments installed in lysimeters by split-plot statistical design under constant irrigation and regime of rains. The results showed the existence of a complex interdependence between the agronomic characteristics of the alfalfa cultivars. Under controlled conditions the alfalfa responded positively to irrigation, in relation to both quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The cultivars Crioula Chilena and Crioula Brasileira showed the best results. In the first evaluation (after 6 months correlations between carbon isotopic discrimination (CID, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, dry matter yield (DM and water use efficiency (WUE were not significant. In the second evaluation (after 1 year, under irrigated conditions CID was negatively correlated with DM (-0.92**, WUE (-0.94** and BNF (-0.79*. BNF was positively correlated with DM (0.93** and WUE (0.87*. Under non-irrigated conditions correlation between these parameters was not significant. There exists a tendency for a positive correlation between DM and CID in studies with C3 plants that can be altered when water is limiting, root development is limited or when contrasting cultivars are used. If a positive correlation is maintained, the possibility of increasing the

  6. Cloning and expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase cDNA induced by thidiazuron during somatic embryogenesis of alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bi-Hong; Wu, Bei; Zhang, Chun-Rong; Huang, Xia; Chen, Yun-Feng; Huang, Xue-Lin

    2012-01-15

    Embryogenic callus (EC) induced from petioles of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Jinnan) on B5h medium turned green, compact and non-embryogenic when the kinetin (KN) in the medium was replaced partially or completely by thidiazuron (TDZ). The application of CoCl₂, which is an inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO), counteracted the effect of TDZ. Ethylene has been shown to be involved in the modulation of TDZ-induced morphogenesis responses. However, very little is known about the genes involved in ethylene formation during somatic embryogenesis (SE). To investigate whether ethylene mediated by ACO is involved in the effect of TDZ on inhibition of embryogenic competence of the alfalfa callus. In this study we cloned full-length ACO cDNA from the alfalfa callus, named MsACO, and observed changes in this gene expression during callus formation and induction of SE under treatment with TDZ or TDZ plus CoCl₂. RNA blot analysis showed that during the EC subcultural period, the expression level of MsACO in EC was significantly increased on the 2nd day, rose to the highest level on the 8th day and remained at this high level until the 21st day. However, the ACO expression in the TDZ (0.93 μM)-treated callus was higher than in the EC especially on the 8th day. Moreover the ACO expression level increased with increasing TDZ concentration during the subcultural/maintenance period of the callus. It is worth noting that comparing the treatment with TDZ alone, the treatment with 0.93 μM TDZ plus 50 μM CoCl₂ reduced both of the ACO gene expressions and ACO activity in the treated callus. These results indicate that the effect of TDZ could be counteracted by CoCl₂ either on the ACO gene expression level or ACO activity. Thus, a TDZ inhibitory effect on embryogenic competence of alfalfa callus could be mediated by ACO gene expression. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of four short-chain fatty acids or salts on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xian J; Wen, Ai Y; Wang, Jian; Desta, Seare T; Dong, Zhi H; Shao, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of four chemicals on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Wilted alfalfa was ensiled without additive (control), or with formic acid (FA), potassium diformate (KDF), sodium diacetate (SDA) or calcium propionate (CAP). After 60 days of ensiling, the pH values in FA, KDF and SDA silages were lower (P < 0.05) compared to that of control and CAP silages, and chemicals (P < 0.05) decreased butyric acid and ammonia N concentrations and populations of aerobic bacteria and yeasts compared to the control. The SDA and CAP silages had a higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid bacteria content compared to the FA and KDF silages. The SDA and CAP silages had higher (P < 0.05) acetic and propionic acid contents compared to the other silages, respectively. The ammonia N concentrations in the FA and KDF silages were lower compared to the other silages during the first 5 days of aerobic exposure, and then increased sharply to 105 and 100 g kg -1 total N, respectively, which was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the SDA and CAP silages on day 9 of aerobic exposure. Yeasts and aerobic bacteria counts in SDA silage slowly increased and remained at lower levels compared to the other silages after 7 days of aerobic exposure. Additives prolonged the aerobic stability duration compared to the control, and the SDA and CAP silages remained stable for more than 216 h, followed by the KDF and FA silages (202 and 196 h, respectively). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Impacts of coal fly ash on plant growth and accumulation of essential nutrients and trace elements by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown in a loessial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Dong, Zhigang; Peng, Qi; Wang, Xia; Fan, Chenbin; Zhang, Xingchang

    2017-07-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a problematic solid waste all over the world. One distinct beneficial reuse of CFA is its utilization in land application as a soil amendment. A pot experiment was carried out to assess the feasibility of using CFA to improve plant growth and increase the supply of plant-essential elements and selenium (Se) of a loessial soil for agricultural purpose. Plants of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were grown in a loessial soil amended with different rates (5%, 10%, 20% and 40%) of CFA for two years and subjected to four successive cuttings. Dry mass of shoots and roots, concentrations of plant-essential elements and Se in plants were measured. Shoot dry mass and root dry mass were always significantly increased by 5%, 10% and 20% CFA treatments, and by 40% CFA treatment in all harvests except the first one. The CFA had a higher supply of exchangeable phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), and Se than the loessial soil. Shoot P, calcium (Ca), Mg, Mo, boron (B), and Se concentrations were generally markedly increased, but shoot potassium (K), Cu, and Zn concentrations were generally reduced. The CFA can be a promising source of some essential elements and Se for plants grown in the loessial soil, and an application rate of not higher than 5% should be safe for agricultural purpose without causing plant toxicity symptoms in the studied loessial soil and similar soils. Field trials will be carried out to confirm the results of the pot experiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contrasting Storage Protein Synthesis and Messenger RNA Accumulation during Development of Zygotic and Somatic Embryos of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko, Joan E.; Pramanik, Saroj K.; Bewley, J. Derek

    1992-01-01

    During development on hormone-free media, somatic embryos pass through distinct morphological stages that superficially resemble those of zygotic embryo development (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledonary stages). Despite these similarities, they differ from zygotic embryos in the extent of cotyledonary development and the patterns of synthesis and quantitative expression of seed-specific storage proteins (7S, 11S, and 2S proteins). Alfin (7S) is the first storage protein synthesized in developing zygotic embryos (stage IV). The 11S (medicagin) and 2S (Low Molecular Weight, LMW) storage proteins are not detectable until the following stage of development (stage V), although all three are present before the completion of embryo enlargement. Likewise, the 7S storage protein is the first to be synthesized in developing somatic embryos (day 5). Medicagin is evident by day 7 and the LMW protein by day 10. In contrast to zygotic embryos, alfin remains the predominant storage protein in somatic embryos throughout development. Not only are the relative amounts of medicagin and the LMW protein reduced in somatic embryos but the LMW protein is accumulated much later than the other proteins. Quantification of the storage protein mRNAs (7S, 11S, and 2S) by northern blot analysis confirms that there are substantial differences in the patterns of message accumulation in zygotic and somatic embryos of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In zygotic embryos, the 7S, 11S, and 2S storage protein mRNAs are abundant during maturation and, in particular, during the stages of maximum protein synthesis (alfin, stages VI and VII; medicagin, stage VII; LMW, stage VII). In somatic embryos, the predominance of the 7S storage protein is correlated with increased accumulation of its mRNA, whereas the limited synthesis of the 11S storage protein is associated with much lower steady-state levels of its message. The mRNA for the LMW protein is present already by 3 days after transfer to hormone-free media

  10. Assessing of the contributions of pod photosynthesis to carbon acquisition of seed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxu; Mao, Peisheng; Li, Yuan; Wang, Mingya; Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Hui

    2017-02-07

    The distribution of carbon from a branch setting pod in alfalfa was investigated during the seed development of seeds to determine the relative contribution of pod and leaf photoassimilates to the total C balance and to investigate the partitioning of these photoassimilates to other plant organs. A 13 Clabeling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates of pods and leaves in alfalfa, and the Δ 13 C values of a pod, leaves, a section of stem and roots were measured during seed development on day 10, 15, 20 and 25 after labeling of the pod. The results showed that the alfalfa pod had photosynthetic capacity early in the development of seeds, and that pod photosynthesis could provide carbon to alfalfa organs including seeds, pods, leaves, stems and roots, in addition to leaf photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in the pod affected the total C balance of the alfalfa branch with the redistribution of a portion of pod assimilates to other plant organs. The assimilated 13 C of the pod was used for the growth requirements of plant seeds and pods. The requirements for assimilated C came primarily from the young pod in early seed development, with later requirements provided primarily from the leaf.

  11. Genotyping-by-sequencing-based genome-wide association studies on Verticillium wilt resistance in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Tiejun; Rodringuez, Jonas; Main, Dorrie

    2017-02-01

    Verticillium wilt (VW) is a fungal disease that causes severe yield losses in alfalfa. The most effective method to control the disease is through the development and use of resistant varieties. The identification of marker loci linked to VW resistance can facilitate breeding for disease-resistant alfalfa. In the present investigation, we applied an integrated framework of genome-wide association with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to identify VW resistance loci in a panel of elite alfalfa breeding lines. Phenotyping was performed by manual inoculation of the pathogen to healthy seedlings, and scoring for disease resistance was carried out according to the standard test of the North America Alfalfa Improvement Conference (NAAIC). Marker-trait association by linkage disequilibrium identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers significantly associated with VW resistance. Alignment of the SNP marker sequences to the M. truncatula genome revealed multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Three, two, one and five markers were located on chromosomes 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. Resistance loci found on chromosomes 7 and 8 in the present study co-localized with the QTLs reported previously. A pairwise alignment (blastn) using the flanking sequences of the resistance loci against the M. truncatula genome identified potential candidate genes with putative disease resistance function. With further investigation, these markers may be implemented into breeding programmes using marker-assisted selection, ultimately leading to improved VW resistance in alfalfa. PUBLISHED 2016. THIS ARTICLE IS A U.S. GOVERNMENT WORK AND IS IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN IN THE USA.

  12. Overexpression of GsZFP1 enhances salt and drought tolerance in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lili; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Luo, Xiao; Wang, Zhenyu; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xuedong; Cui, Lin; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Yanming; Bai, Xi

    2013-10-01

    GsZFP1 encodes a Cys2/His2-type zinc-finger protein. In our previous study, when GsZFP1 was heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited enhanced drought and cold tolerance. However, it is still unknown whether GsZFP1 is also involved in salt stress. GsZFP1 is from the wild legume Glycine soja. Therefore, the aims of this study were to further elucidate the functions of the GsZFP1 gene under salt and drought stress in the forage legume alfalfa and to investigate its biochemical and physiological functions under these stress conditions. Our data showed that overexpression of GsZFP1 in alfalfa resulted in enhanced salt tolerance. Under high salinity stress, greater relative membrane permeability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were observed and more free proline and soluble sugars accumulated in transgenic alfalfa than in the wild-type (WT) plants; in addition, the transgenic lines accumulated less Na(+) and more K(+) in both the shoots and roots. Overexpression of GsZFP1 also enhanced the drought tolerance of alfalfa. The fold-inductions of stress-responsive marker gene expression, including MtCOR47, MtRAB18, MtP5CS, and MtRD2, were greater in transgenic alfalfa than those of WT under drought stress conditions. In conclusion, the transgenic alfalfa plants generated in this study could be used for farming in salt-affected as well as arid and semi-arid areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomic Architecture and Phenotypic Plasticity of Forage Quality in Response to Water Deficit in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A panel of alfalfa cultivars and landraces originated worldwide with potential value of drought tolerance were selected from USDA-Western Region Plant Germplasm Center. Field trials were conducted in the in Roza farm in Prosser, WA and a gradient of water deficits were applied. Aboveground biomass w...

  14. Nitrogen reserves, spring regrowth and winter survival of field-grown alfalfa (Medicago sativa) defoliated in the autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Catherine; Castonguay, Yves; Nadeau, Paul; Bélanger, Gilles; Drapeau, Raynald; Laberge, Serge; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Chalifour, François-P

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize variations in proline, arginine, histidine, vegetative storage proteins, and cold-inducible gene expression in overwintering roots of field-grown alfalfa, in response to autumn defoliation, and in relation to spring regrowth and winter survival. Field trials, established in 1996 in eastern Canada, consisted of two alfalfa cultivars ('AC Caribou' and 'WL 225') defoliated in 1997 and 1998 either only twice during the summer or three times with the third defoliation taken 400, 500 or 600 growing degree days (basis 5 degrees C) after the second summer defoliation. The root accumulation of proline, arginine, histidine and soluble proteins of 32, 19 and 15 kDa, characterized as alfalfa vegetative storage proteins, was reduced the following spring by an early autumn defoliation at 400 or 500 growing degree days in both cultivars; the 600-growing-degree-days defoliation treatment had less or no effect. Transcript levels of the cold-inducible gene msaCIA, encoding a glycine-rich protein, were markedly reduced by autumn defoliation in 'WL 225', but remained unaffected in the more winter-hardy cultivar 'AC Caribou'. The expression of another cold-inducible gene, the dehydrin homologue msaCIG, was not consistently affected by autumn defoliation. Principal component analyses, including components of root organic reserves at the onset of winter, along with yield and plant density in the following spring, revealed that (a) amino acids and soluble proteins are positively related to the vigour of spring regrowth but poorly related to winter survival and (b) winter survival, as indicated by plant density in the spring, is associated with higher concentrations of cryoprotective sugars in alfalfa roots the previous autumn. An untimely autumn defoliation of alfalfa reduces root accumulation of specific N reserves such as proline, arginine, histidine and vegetative storage proteins that are positively related to the vigour of spring

  15. Evaluation of microbial biomass C and N content of the soils cultivated with vetch (Vicia sativa L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Bolat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume forage crops have the ability of retaining free nitrogen in the air through symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria found in their roots. Additionally, microbial biomass (MB–an essential living component of soil and a significant factor influencing plant nutrient dynamics–is considered to be accurate indicator of soil’s biological condition. Given the aforementioned aspects, soil MB C (Cmic and MB N (Nmic of different legume forage crops were investigated in this study. Soil samples were taken in order to identify certain physical and chemical characteristics of the soil using volume cylinders (0 – 6.5 cm depth from Vicia sativa L. (VSP and Medicago sativa L. planted (MSP areas. To determine the Cmic and Nmic contents, topsoil samples were also taken from 0 – 6.5 cm depth. Cmic and Nmic contents were identified using chloroform – fumigation – extraction method. There was no statistical significance for particle density, bulk density, electrical conductivity, CaCO3 %, and decomposition ratio (Corg/Ntotal of the VSP and MSP soil (P > 0.05. However, some other soil characteristics such as temperature, porosity, sand, silt and clay contents, pH, organic C and total N differed significantly (P < 0.05. Compared to VSP soil, the Cmic contents were determined to be 27 % higher (P < 0.05 in MSP soil. In VSP soil, the soil Nmic content ranged from 83.38 µg g-1 to 124.67 µg g-1, while it ranged from 91.62 µg g-1 to 187.07 µg g-1 in MSP soil. The Nmic content of the MSP soil was observed to be approximately 35 % higher than VSP soil, and a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was noticed between the two. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found not only between the Cmic and organic C contents (r = 0.667; P < 0.05 but also between the Nmic and total N contents of MSP and VSP soil (r = 0.881; P < 0.01. The results of the study revealed that soil Cmic and Nmic values differ as the types of planted legume forage crops

  16. The Medicago sativa gene index 1.2: a web-accessible gene expression atlas for investigating expression differences between Medicago sativa subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Jamie A; Fu, Fengli; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Yang, S Sam; Samac, Deborah A; Lamb, JoAnn F S; Monteros, Maria J; Graham, Michelle A; Gronwald, John W; Krom, Nick; Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick X; Vance, Carroll P

    2015-07-07

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the primary forage legume crop species in the United States and plays essential economic and ecological roles in agricultural systems across the country. Modern alfalfa is the result of hybridization between tetraploid M. sativa ssp. sativa and M. sativa ssp. falcata. Due to its large and complex genome, there are few genomic resources available for alfalfa improvement. A de novo transcriptome assembly from two alfalfa subspecies, M. sativa ssp. sativa (B47) and M. sativa ssp. falcata (F56) was developed using Illumina RNA-seq technology. Transcripts from roots, nitrogen-fixing root nodules, leaves, flowers, elongating stem internodes, and post-elongation stem internodes were assembled into the Medicago sativa Gene Index 1.2 (MSGI 1.2) representing 112,626 unique transcript sequences. Nodule-specific and transcripts involved in cell wall biosynthesis were identified. Statistical analyses identified 20,447 transcripts differentially expressed between the two subspecies. Pair-wise comparisons of each tissue combination identified 58,932 sequences differentially expressed in B47 and 69,143 sequences differentially expressed in F56. Comparing transcript abundance in floral tissues of B47 and F56 identified expression differences in sequences involved in anthocyanin and carotenoid synthesis, which determine flower pigmentation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) unique to each M. sativa subspecies (110,241) were identified. The Medicago sativa Gene Index 1.2 increases the expressed sequence data available for alfalfa by ninefold and can be expanded as additional experiments are performed. The MSGI 1.2 transcriptome sequences, annotations, expression profiles, and SNPs were assembled into the Alfalfa Gene Index and Expression Database (AGED) at http://plantgrn.noble.org/AGED/ , a publicly available genomic resource for alfalfa improvement and legume research.

  17. An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) ethylene response factor gene, MsERF11, enhances salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Yang, Qingchuan; Zhang, Xinquan; Ding, Wang; Gruber, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    A novel orthologue of ethylene response factor gene, MsERF11, was isolated from alfalfa in this study. It has an open reading frame of 807 bp, encoding a predicted polypeptide of 268 amino acids. Sequence similarity analysis clearly suggested that MsERF11 encoded an ethylene response factor protein. The results of transient expression of MsERF11 in onion epidermal cells indicated that MsERF11 is a nuclear protein. The expression pattern of MsERF11 gene was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and a higher level of expression was observed in leaves than was observed in roots, stems, flower buds and flowers. Furthermore, the expression was induced by PEG6000, NaCl, Al2(SO4)3 and six different hormones. Over-expressing MsERF11 resulted in enhanced tolerances to salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. This research indicates that MsERF11 has the potential to be used for improving crop's salt tolerance in areas where salinity is a limiting factor for agricultural productivity. MsERF11 was isolated from alfalfa. Its expression was induced by different abiotic stresses and hormones. Over-expressing MsERF11 resulted in enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  18. Effects of Inoculation with Rhizobium and Mycorhizae on the Response of Three Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa Populations to Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ashrafi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of inoculation of rhizobium and mycorhizae on the response of alfafa cultivars to different salinity levels a pot experiment was conducted. The experiment was arranged as factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments included three alfafa cultivars (Rehnani, Hamadani and Bami, four levels of salinity (0, 60, 120 and 180 mmol (NaCl, and four inoculations (rhizobium, mycorhizae, rhizobium + mycorhizae, and control. There was a decrease in plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry matter, percentage of mycorhizae infection, and root characteristics. The highest amounts of the above-mentioned growth characteristics were obtained in rhizobium + mycorhizae, mycorhizae, rhizobium, and control, respectively. The highest values of root mycorhizal infection and the number and weight of nodules were also achieved in dual inoculation treatment. Root was more affected than shoot by inoculation. The extent of positive effect of mycorhizae on alfalfa was greater than that of rhizobium. Rehnani was recognized to be more a salt tolerant cultivar as compared to Hamadani and Bami. The decrease in plant dry matter due to salinity was more in non-inoculated than in inoculated treatments. The results of our experiment showed that coinoculation of rhizobium and mycorhizae may cause synergistic effects on alfalfa dry matter accumulation. However, dual inoculation was not significantly superior to other inoculation treatments in terms of the alleviation of salinity effects.

  19. Effect of photoperiod prior to cold acclimation on freezing tolerance and carbohydrate metabolism in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Annick; Bipfubusa, Marie; Claessens, Annie; Rocher, Solen; Castonguay, Yves

    2017-11-01

    Cold acclimation proceeds sequentially in response to decreases in photoperiod and temperature. This study aimed at assessing the impact of photoperiod prior to cold acclimation on freezing tolerance and related biochemical and molecular responses in two alfalfa cultivars. The fall dormant cultivar Evolution and semi-dormant cultivar 6010 were grown in growth chambers under different photoperiods (8, 10, 12, 14 or 16h) prior to cold acclimation. Freezing tolerance was evaluated as well as carbohydrate concentrations, levels of transcripts encoding enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism as well as a K-3dehydrin, before and after cold acclimation. The fall dormant cultivar Evolution had a better freezing tolerance than the semi-dormant cultivar 6010. The effect of photoperiod prior to cold acclimation on the level of freezing tolerance differed between the two cultivars: an 8h-photoperiod induced the highest level of freezing tolerance in Evolution and the lowest in 6010. In Evolution, the 8h-induced superior freezing tolerance was associated with higher concentration of raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFO). The transcript levels of sucrose synthase (SuSy) decreased whereas those of sucrose phosphatase synthase (SPS) and galactinol synthase (GaS) increased in response to cold acclimation in both cultivars. Our results indicate that RFO metabolism could be involved in short photoperiod-induced freezing tolerance in dormant alfalfa cultivars. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cloning and function analysis of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) zinc finger protein promoter MsZPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qingchuan; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun; Gruber, Margaret Yvonne; Fang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    A 1272 bp upstream sequence of MsZFN gene was cloned from alfalfa, which was designed as MsZPP (Genbank accession number: FJ 161979.2) using an adaptor-mediated genome walking method. A sole transcription start site was located 69 bp upstream of the translation start site. Its pattern of expression included roots, stem vascular tissues, floral reproductive organs, and leaves, but the promoter did not express in seeds, petals or sepals. Transcription levels can be stimulated by dark, MeJA, and IAA. However, GUS fusion activities had no change by treatments of GA, ABA, drought and high salt for 3 days. Deletion analysis revealed that all sections of the promoter can drive gus gene expression in the root, stem, leaves and floral reproductive organs; however, only fragments longer than the -460 bp promoter can stimulate strong gus gene expression in these organs. In addition, the -460 bp promoter fragment can drive gus expression not only in the vascular tissue, but also in leaf guard cells. The results suggest that the promoter MsZPP plays roles in the regulation of transgene expression, particularly due to its darkness, MeJA, and IAA responsiveness.

  1. Exploitation of alfalfa seed (Medicago sativa L.) flour into gluten-free rice cookies: Nutritional, antioxidant and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Rocchetti, Gabriele; Sigolo, Samantha; Fortunati, Paola; Lucini, Luigi; Gallo, Antonio

    2018-01-15

    In an effort to increase the nutritional value of common gluten-free (GF) cereal-based foods, GF cookies using alfalfa seed flour (ASF), at different substitution levels to common rice flour (0% as control, 15%, 30% and 45% w/w), were produced. Crude protein, total dietary fibre, total polyunsaturated, total n-3 and n-6 fatty acid contents increased linearly (p<0.05) by raising the substitution levels of rice with ASF. The hardness, the total phenolic content, the in vitro antioxidant capacity and the resistant starch increased linearly (p<0.05), whereas the starch hydrolysis index decreased linearly (p<0.05) by raising the substitution levels of rice flour with ASF. Despite the fact that ASF-substituted GF cookies had inferior sensory attributes compared to the control, the score given by the panellists remained at fairly good levels for all tested parameters, showing acceptability of the substituted GF cookies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel alkaline hemicellulosic heteroxylan isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem and its thermal and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Dai, Bona; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2015-03-25

    A novel hemicellulosic polysaccharide (ACAP) was purified from the cold alkali extraction of alfalfa stems and characterized as a heteroxylan with a weight-average molecular weight of 7.94 × 10(3) kDa and a radius of 58 nm. Structural analysis indicated that ACAP consisted of a 1,4-linked β-D-Xylp backbone with 4-O-MeGlcpA and T-L-Araf substitutions at O-2 and O-3 positions, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination revealed the entangled chain morphology of ACAP molecules. The evaluation of thermal degradation property revealed a primary decomposition temperature range of 238.8-314.0 °C with an apparent activation energy (Ea) and a pre-exponential factor (A) of 220.0 kJ/mol and 2.81 × 10(24)/s, respectively. ACAP also showed significant inhibitory activities on IL-1β, IL-6, and COX-2 gene expressions in cultured RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. These results suggested the potential utilization of ACAP in functional foods and dietary supplement products.

  3. Structural, thermal, and anti-inflammatory properties of a novel pectic polysaccharide from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Yaqiong; Dai, Bona; An, Yuan; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2015-04-01

    A pectic polysaccharide (APPS) was purified from the cold alkali extract of alfalfa stem and characterized to be a rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) type pectin with the molecular weight of 2.38 × 10(3) kDa and a radius of 123 nm. The primary structural analysis indicated that APPS composed of a →2)-α-l-Rhap-(1→4)-α-d-GalpA-(1→ backbone with 12% branching point at C-4 of Rhap forming side chains by l-arabinosyl and d-galactosyl oligosaccharide units. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a primary linear-shaped structure with a few branches in its assembly microstructures. The thermal decomposition evaluation revealed the stability of APPS with an apparent activation energy (Ea) of 226.5 kJ/mol and a pre-exponential factor (A) of 2.10 × 10(25)/s, whereas its primary degradation occurred in the temperature range from 215.6 to 328.0 °C. In addition, APPS showed significant anti-inflammatory effect against mRNA expressions of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, especially for IL-1β, suggesting its potential utilization in functional foods and dietary supplement products.

  4. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, Anastasis; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia; Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L −1 ) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H 2 O 2 and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H + -ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H 2 O 2 in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H + -ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H 2 O 2 may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H + -ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the detoxification of PhACs in plants. • Results

  5. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Anastasis; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia; Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10μgL(-1)) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H2O2 and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H(+)-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H2O2 in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H(+)-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Miaw-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA. The cytokine profile and life span of BALB/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip injection of 15 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory mice were negatively correlated with serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β at 9 hr after LPS-injection, which indicated that suppressing these cytokines in the late phase of inflammation may be beneficial for survival. The in vitro experiment then showed that ASEA significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1β production and the NF-κB trans-activation activity of mitogen-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ASEA in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 25 mg ASEA/kg BW/day in 50 μl sunflower oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent groups were tube-fed with 50 μl sunflower oil/day only. After one week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50 mg/kg BW PDTC and one hour later, all of the mice were injected with 15 mg/kg BW LPS. The results showed that the ASEA and PDTC groups had significantly lower serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels at 9 hr after LPS challenge, and significantly higher survival rates than the control group. This study suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards.

  7. Rendimiento y valor nutritivo de forraje de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. con diferentes dosis de estiércol bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirilo Vázquez-Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en la Comarca Lagunera, estado de Coahuila, México. El objetivo fue evaluar la producción y el valor nutritivo del forraje de tres variedades de alfalfa tratamientos de fertilizado con estiércol de bovino y con riego por goteo subsuperficial. Se determinó la composición del N, P, K, Ca y Mg en el tejido vegetal como un indicador de los volúmenes de extracción para cada nutrimento. Las variedades fueron: CUF 101, Sandor y Altaverde. Se aplicaron cinco tratamientos de estiércol (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 t ha-1 y uno de fertilizante químico (30-100 kg ha-1 de N y P como testigo. Respecto al forraje seco se presentaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos de estiércol pero no para variedades. Los valores de producción más altos se observaron en los cortes marzo, abril y junio en los tratamientos de estiércol de 80, 120 y 160 t ha-1 con valores superiores de 4 t ha-1 de forraje seco. En las variables de valor nutritivo del forraje (proteína cruda, fibra acido detergente, fibra neutro detergente y energía, tampoco se detectaron diferencias significativas entre variedades ni entre tratamientos de fertilización. Con respecto a la extracción de N, P, K, Ca y Mg por las plantas, en los cortes 5º al 8º es donde se presentó la mayor extracción de dichos elementos con aproximadamente 160 kg ha-1 de nitrógeno, 12-14 kg ha-1 de fósforo y 125 kg ha-1 de potasio.

  8. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christou, Anastasis [Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus); Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas [NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fatta-Kassinos, Despo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fotopoulos, Vasileios, E-mail: vassilis.fotopoulos@cut.ac.cy [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus)

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L{sup −1}) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H{sup +}-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the

  9. Effects of untreated and treated wastewater at the morphological, physiological and biochemical levels on seed germination and development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekik, Imen; Chaabane, Zayneb; Missaoui, Amara; Bouket, Ali Chenari; Luptakova, Lenka; Elleuch, Amine; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2017-03-15

    Wastewater reuse in agriculture may help mitigate water scarcity. This may be reached if high quality treatments removing harmful pollutants are applied. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of untreated (UTW) and treated wastewater (TW) on germination and seedlings development of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). UTW presented high turbidity (130 NTU), chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, 719mgL -1 , BOD 5, 291mgL -1 ) and metal concentrations. These levels caused mortality (18% for fescue), decreased germination speed in seeds (37.5% for alfalfa) and reductions of root and stem length in seedlings (80% and 22% respectively for alfalfa). Adverse effects on seeds germination were reflected at the biochemical level by increased H 2 O 2 levels (6 times for sorghum after 5days) and by increased Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (more than 600 times for sorghum roots) during seedlings development. When TW was used, these parameters were close to control seeds ones. They were also dependent on plant species and developmental stage. Therefore, for efficient reclaimed wastewater reuse in irrigation, suitable crops, displaying wide tolerance to toxic contents during germination and later seedling development stages have to be selected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efecto de las arañas (Arachnida: Araneae como depredadoras de insectos plaga en cultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Armendano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae in Argentina. Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1x1m were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids. The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C=2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1651-1662. Epub 2011 December 01Las arañas son depredadoras capaces de reducir las poblaciones de insectos plaga en agroecosistemas. Para medir la selectividad frente a distintas presas, se realizaron ensayos de consumo diario, efecto de los depredadores aisladamente y en conjunto sobre el número de presas y efecto indirecto de los depredadores sobre la vegetación; se utilizaron jaulas experimentales de 1x1m cubiertas con una fina malla plástica. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus y

  11. Comparison of the phytoremediation potentials of Medicago falcata L. And Medicago sativa L. in aged oil-sludge-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Leonid; Muratova, Anna; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen-year monitoring of the vegetation growing in the industrial and adjacent areas of an oil refinery showed the prevalence of yellow medick (Medicago falcata L.) over other plant species, including alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A comparative field study of the two Medicago species established that yellow medick and alfalfa exhibited similar resistance to soil petroleum hydrocarbons and that the pollutant concentration in their rhizosphere was 30% lower than that in the surrounding bulk soil. In laboratory pot experiments, yellow medick reduced the contaminant content by 18% owing to the degradation of the major heavy oil fractions, such as paraffins, naphthenes, and alcohol and benzene tars; and it was more successful than alfalfa. Both species were equally effective in stimulating the total number of soil microorganisms, but the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, was larger in the root zone of alfalfa. In turn, yellow medick provided a favorable balance of available nitrogen. Both Medicago species equally stimulated the dehydrogenase and peroxidase activities of the soil, and yellow medick increased the activity of soil polyphenol oxidase but reduced the activity of catalase. The root tissue activity of catalase, ascorbate oxidase, and tyrosinase was grater in alfalfa than in yellow medick. The peroxidase activity of plant roots was similar in both species, but nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed some differences in the peroxidase profiles of the root extracts of alfalfa and yellow medick. Overall, this study suggests that the phytoremediation potentials of yellow medick and alfalfa are similar, with some differences.

  12. Fotossíntese em alfafa (Medicago sativa L. sob supressão e ressuprimento de fosfato Photosynthesis in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. under phosphate suppression and ressuply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Gomes

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos da supressão e do ressuprimento de fosfato (Pi sobre a fotossíntese e eficiência fotoquímica de plantas de Medicago sativa cv. Flórida 77, em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento vegetativo (V3, V4 e reprodutivo (R6, R8. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e as plantas cultivadas na solução nutritiva de HOAGLAND & ARNON (1950, contendo 0,14mmol L-1 de Pi. A supressão de Pi por dez dias reduziu os teores de fósforo nas folhas amostradas, em todos os estádios do desenvolvimento. Entretanto, com o ressuprimento, somente nos estádios vegetativos, os valores foram semelhantes ao tratamento controle. A fotossíntese por área foliar, em todos os estádios do desenvolvimento diminuiu com a supressão de Pi. De modo geral, o ressuprimento de Pi à solução nutritiva resultou em recuperação na fotossíntese, excetuando-se as plantas no estádio V3, uma indicação de que o período de supressão não causou danos permanentes no aparato fotossintético. Os teores dos pigmentos fotossintéticos e a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II (FS II, avaliada pela relação Fv/Fm, não foram alterados quando as plantas foram submetidas à supressão de Pi. Esse resultado demonstra que o transporte de elétrons através do FS II não limitou a fotossíntese nas folhas amostradas, sob supressão de Pi, sugerindo que a supressão causou efeito mais pronunciado na etapa bioquímica da fotossíntese.This work evaluated the phosphate (Pi suppression and ressupply on photosynthesis and photochemical efficiency from Medicago sativa plants cv. Florida 77, in different growth stages (V3 and V4 and reproductive (R6 and R8. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse, the plants being cultivated in HOAGLAND & ARMOND (1950 nutritive solution containing 0,14mmol L-1 of Pi. Pi suppression for ten days reduced Pi levels in sampled leaves, in all growth stages. However, with the re-supply only in the

  13. Nodule-enhanced expression of a sucrose phosphate synthase gene member (MsSPSA) has a role in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the nodules of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Lorenzo; Ortega, Jose Luis; Martinez-Grimes, Martha; Seger, Mark; Holguin, Francisco Omar; Uribe, Diana J; Garcia-Ibilcieta, David; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2010-01-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of sucrose in photosynthetic tissues. We characterized the expression of three different isoforms of SPS belonging to two different SPS gene families in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a previously identified SPS (MsSPSA) and two novel isoforms belonging to class B (MsSPSB and MsSPSB3). While MsSPSA showed nodule-enhanced expression, both MsSPSB genes exhibited leaf-enhanced expression. Alfalfa leaf and nodule SPS enzymes showed differences in chromatographic and electrophoretic migration and differences in V (max) and allosteric regulation. The root nodules in legume plants are a strong sink for photosynthates with its need for ATP, reducing power and carbon skeletons for dinitrogen fixation and ammonia assimilation. The expression of genes encoding SPS and other key enzymes in sucrose metabolism, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and sucrose synthase, was analyzed in the leaves and nodules of plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti. Based on the expression pattern of these genes, the properties of the SPS isoforms and the concentration of starch and soluble sugars in nodules induced by a wild type and a nitrogen fixation deficient strain, we propose that SPS has an important role in the control of carbon flux into different metabolic pathways in the symbiotic nodules.

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) heme oxygenase-1 gene, MsHO1, which is pro-oxidants-regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guang-Qing; Xu, Sheng; Xie, Yan-Jie; Han, Bin; Nie, Li; Shen, Wen-Biao; Wang, Ren

    2011-07-01

    It has been documented that plant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; EC 1.14.99.3) is both development- and stress-regulated, thus it plays a vital role in light signalling and stress responses. In this study, an alfalfa (Medica sativa L.) HO-1 gene MsHO1 was isolated and sequenced. It contains four exons and three introns within genomic DNA sequence and encodes a polypeptide with 283 amino acids. MsHO1 had a conserved HO signature sequence and showed high similarity to other HOs in plants, especially HO-1 isoform. The MsHO1:GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast. Further biochemical activity analysis of mature MsHO1, which was expressed in Escherichia coli, showed that the Vmax was 48.78 nmol biliverdin-IXα (BV) h⁻¹ nmol⁻¹ protein with an apparent Km value for hemin of 2.33 μM, and the optimum Tm and pH were 37 °C and 7.2, respectively. Results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot showed that the expressions of MsHO1 were higher in alfalfa stems and leaves than those in germinating seeds and roots. Importantly, MsHO1 gene expression and protein level were induced significantly by some pro-oxidant compounds, including hemin and nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). In conclusion, MsHO1 may play an important role in oxidative responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioaccumulation and degradation of pentachloronitrobenzene in Medicago sativa.

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    Li, Ying Ying; Yang, Hong

    2013-04-15

    Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) is a fungicide belonging to the organochlorine family and used extensively in agriculture for crop production. Many studies have implied that PCNB has become an environmental concern due to its widespread contamination in eco-systems. However, whether PCNB is bioaccumulated, degraded and phytotoxic in plants is poorly understood. In this study, several alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars were grown in soil with PCNB to investigate their absorption and catabolism, including PCNB residues in the soil and PCNB-induced toxic responses in plants. Alfalfa plants varied widely in their ability to accumulate and degrade PCNB. The degradation rate of PCNB was 66.26-77.68% after alfalfa growth in the soils for 20 d, while the rates in the control (soil without alfalfa) were only 48.42%. Moreover, concentrations of PCNB residues in the rhizosphere soil were significantly higher than those in the non-rhizosphere soils. Alfalfa exposed to 10 mg kg(-1) PCNB showed inhibited growth and oxidative damage, but the effects of PCNB on the cultivars differed significantly, indicating that the alfalfa cultivars have different tolerance to PCNB. Activities of invertase (INV), urease (URE), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) were assayed in the treated soils and showed that the enzyme activities were altered after PCNB exposure. The URE, PPO, ALP and ACP activities were increased in soil following the planting of alfalfa. The objective of the study was to analyze the potential of different cultivars of alfalfa to accumulate and degrade PCNB from the contaminated soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, Edwin; Armour, David; Irwin, John

    2013-01-01

    Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arbore...

  17. The demography of feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations occurring in roadside habitats in Southern Manitoba, Canada: implications for novel trait confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Gulden, Robert H; Begg, Graham S; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-09-01

    Feral populations of cultivated crops can act as reservoirs for novel genetically engineered (GE) traits and aid in trait movement at the landscape level. However, little information is available on the potential of cultivated crops to become feral. In this study, we investigated the ferality of alfalfa populations (non-GE version) occurring in roadside habitats. Knowledge on the nature of roadside alfalfa populations would be useful for designing efficient trait confinement protocols and coexistence strategies in alfalfa. We investigated roadside alfalfa populations from 2006 to 2009 in three rural municipalities (Hanover, MacDonald, and Springfield) in Southern Manitoba, Canada. We studied the demography of these populations including seedbank, seedling recruitment, and fecundity and examined the impact of road verge mowing on key life stages of these populations. We also compared the growth and reproductive attributes of roadside and cultivated alfalfa populations. Alfalfa is reproductively successful in roadside habitats and capable of establishing self-perpetuating populations. A substantial portion of the alfalfa seeds we extracted from seedbank samples were viable but not germinable, suggesting some degree of seedbank persistence in roadside habitats. In the roadside habitat, alfalfa seedlings recruited successfully, however, seedling mortality was high when seedlings were in close proximity to well-established alfalfa plants. Mowing dramatically reduced the reproductive success of roadside alfalfa. Generally, the growth and reproduction of roadside alfalfa was comparable to cultivated alfalfa except for total fecundity. Considering the long lifespan (>10 years) of alfalfa and the levels of fecundity, seedbank, and seedling survival we observed, long-term persistence of roadside alfalfa populations seems reasonable. In the context of novel trait confinement, our results suggest that feral alfalfa populations required to be managed if there is a desire

  18. Occurrence of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations along roadsides in southern Manitoba, Canada and their potential role in intraspecific gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Gulden, Robert H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2011-04-01

    Alfalfa is a highly outcrossing perennial species that can be noticed in roadsides as feral populations. There remains little information available on the extent of feral alfalfa populations in western Canadian prairies and their role in gene flow. The main objectives of this study were (a) to document the occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, and (b) to estimate the levels of outcrossing facilitated by feral populations. A roadside survey confirmed widespread occurrence of feral alfalfa populations, particularly in alfalfa growing regions. The feral populations were dynamic and their frequency ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 populations km(-1). In many cases, the nearest feral alfalfa population from alfalfa production field was located within a distance sufficient for outcrossing in alfalfa. The gene flow study confirmed that genes can move back and forth between feral and cultivated alfalfa populations. In this study, the estimated outcrossing levels were 62% (seed fields to feral), 78% (feral to seed fields), 82% (hay fields to feral) and 85% (feral to feral). Overall, the results show that feral alfalfa plants are prevalent in alfalfa producing regions in western Canada and they can serve as bridges for gene flow at landscape level. Management of feral populations should be considered, if gene flow is a concern. Emphasis on preventing seed spill/escapes and intentional roadside planting of alfalfa cultivars will be particularly helpful. Further, realistic and pragmatic threshold levels should be established for markets sensitive to the presence of GE traits.

  19. Identification of single-nucleotide polymorphic loci associated with biomass yield under water deficit in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) using genome-wide sequencing and association mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is a worldwide grown forage crop and is important due to its high biomass production and nutritional value. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by adverse environmental stress factors such as drought and other stresses. Developing drought resistance alfalfa is an important breed...

  20. First report of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed rot, seedling root rot, and damping off caused by Pythium spp. in Sudanese soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is an important forage crop in Sudan but has relatively low biomass yields. In September 2016 soil samples were collected from three commercial alfalfa production fields near Khartoum, Sudan with poor seedling establishment and rapid stand decline. Soil samples from each field were evaluated...

  1. Porcentagens de saponinas e taninos em vinte e oito cultivares de alfafa (Medicago sativa L. em duas épocas de corte - Botucatu - SP Saponins and tannins in twenty-eight alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cultivates grown in Botucatu - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eunice de Queiroz Vieira

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi determinar os conteúdos de saponinas, taninos e a solubilidade da proteína (SP de 28 cultivares de alfafa: Crioula, Monarca, BR 4, Alto Great, MH 4, SW 9210 A, 5929, BR 1, EL Grande, 5715, MH 15, Valley Plus, BR 2, Rio, SW 8210, Maricopa, ICI 990, 5888, P 30, Alfa-200, WL 516, SW 8112 A, BR 3, Florida 77, Araucana, Falcon, Semit 921 e Sutter. O material analisado foi obtido do 10º e 14º corte, respectivamente; em 08/12/97 e 16/04/98, de um experimento desenvolvido na Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, UNESP, Botucatu. Amostras de cada cultivar foram colhidas, pesadas e secas em estufa a 52ºC. As saponinas foram extraídas com solvente hidrofílico e lipofílico e o conteúdo foi calculado pela equação y=0,8121x-1,4759, R² = 1,00. A extração dos taninos totais e condensados foi efetuada por meio de ultra-som (12 min, sendo os taninos totais determinados pela equação: y=44,978 + 0,5644 com R²=0,9977 e os condensados, multiplicando-se a absorbância por 78,26 dividido pelo teor de matéria seca. A SP foi determinada pelo método de KOH, de acordo com a seguinte fórmula: SP (% = proteína solúvel x 100/proteína bruta da amostra. Os teores de saponinas, taninos totais e condensados e a solubilidade da proteína não diferiram (P>0,05 entre as cultivares. Houve efeito (PThe experiment was carried out to evaluate saponins and tannins contents, the proteins solubility (PS of 28 alfalfa cultivates: Crioula, Monarca, BR 4, Alto Great, MH 4, SW 9210 A, 5929, BR 1, El Grande, 5715, MH 15, Valley Plus, BR 2, Rio, SW 8210, Maricopa, ICI 990, 5888, P 30, Alfa-200, WL 516, SW 8112 A, BR 3, Florida 77, Araucana, Falcon, Semit 921 and Sutter. The analyzed material came from the 10th and 14th harvests (which occurred on 12/08/97 and 04/16/98, respectively from an experiment conducted at the College of veterinary medicine and Animal Science, UNESP, Botucatu. Samples from each cultivate were weighed and oven

  2. INCREMENTO EN INVERNADERO DE LA CALIDAD Y CANTIDAD DEL FOLLAJE DE LA ALFALFA (Medicago Sativa L.) VARIEDAD FLORIDA 77 CAUSADO POR LA COMBINACIÓN DE FERTILIZACIÓN BIOLÓGICA Y QUÍMICA EN UN SUELO DE LA SERIE BERMEO DE LA SABANA DE BOGOTÁ

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tovar-Franco

    2006-01-01

    En la Sabana de Bogotá existe la necesidad de incrementar la producción de forrajes que den buen rendimiento, con alta calidad nutricional y que podrían ser un aporte al desarrollo de la industria de concentrados de animales.El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer el efecto de la inoculación rizobio-hongo micorriza arbuscular (MA) sobre la fijación simbiótica de nitrógeno, la absorción de fósforo y el porcentaje de micorrización en alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.) en un suelo andept de la serie...

  3. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  4. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  5. Changes in soil physicochemical properties and soil bacterial community in mulberry (Morus alba L.)/alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) intercropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Meng; Wang, Ning; Hu, Yan-Bo; Sun, Guang-Yu

    2018-03-13

    A better understanding of tree-based intercropping effects on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community has a potential contribution to improvement of agroforestry productivity and sustainability. In this study, we investigated the effects of mulberry/alfalfa intercropping on soil physicochemical properties and soil bacterial community by MiSeq sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The results showed a significant increase in the contents of available nitrogen, available phosphate, available potassium, and total carbon in the rhizosphere soil of the intercropped alfalfa. Sequencing results showed that intercropping improved bacterial richness and diversity of mulberry and alfalfa based on richness estimates and diversity indices. The relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes were significantly higher in intercropping mulberry than in monoculture mulberry; and the abundances of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gemmatimonadetes in the intercropping alfalfa were markedly higher than that in monoculture alfalfa. Bacterial taxa with soil nutrients cycling were enriched in the intercropping system. There were higher relative abundances of Bacillus (0.32%), Pseudomonas (0.14%), and Microbacterium (0.07%) in intercropping mulberry soil, and Bradyrhizobium (1.0%), Sphingomonas (0.56%), Pseudomonas (0.18%), Microbacterium (0.15%), Rhizobium (0.09%), Neorhizobium (0.08%), Rhodococcus (0.06%), and Burkholderia (0.04%) in intercropping alfalfa soil. Variance partition analysis showed that planting pattern contributed 26.7% of the total variation of bacterial community, and soil environmental factors explained approximately 56.5% of the total variation. This result indicated that the soil environmental factors were more important than the planting pattern in shaping the bacterial community in the field soil. Overall, mulberry/alfalfa intercropping changed soil bacterial community, which was related to changes in soil total carbon

  6. Identification of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphic Loci Associated with Biomass Yield under Water Deficit in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Using Genome-Wide Sequencing and Association Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Xi Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is a worldwide grown forage crop and is important due to its high biomass production and nutritional value. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by adverse environmental factors such as drought and other stresses. Developing drought resistance alfalfa is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. In the present study, we used genotyping-by-sequencing and genome-wide association to identify marker loci associated with biomass yield under drought in the field in a panel of diverse germplasm of alfalfa. A total of 28 markers at 22 genetic loci were associated with yield under water deficit, whereas only four markers associated with the same trait under well-watered condition. Comparisons of marker-trait associations between water deficit and well-watered conditions showed non-similarity except one. Most of the markers were identical across harvest periods within the treatment, although different levels of significance were found among the three harvests. The loci associated with biomass yield under water deficit located throughout all chromosomes in the alfalfa genome agreed with previous reports. Our results suggest that biomass yield under drought is a complex quantitative trait with polygenic inheritance and may involve a different mechanism compared to that of non-stress. BLAST searches of the flanking sequences of the associated loci against DNA databases revealed several stress-responsive genes linked to the drought resistance loci, including leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, B3 DNA-binding domain protein, translation initiation factor IF2, and phospholipase-like protein. With further investigation, those markers closely linked to drought resistance can be used for MAS to accelerate the development of new alfalfa cultivars with improved resistance to drought and other abiotic stresses.

  7. Transformation with TT8 and HB12 RNAi Constructs in Model Forage (Medicago sativa, Alfalfa) Affects Carbohydrate Structure and Metabolic Characteristics in Ruminant Livestock Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Zhang, Yonggen; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-11-04

    Lignin, a phenylpropanoid polymer present in secondary cell walls, has a negative impact on feed digestibility. TT8 and HB12 genes were shown to have low expression levels in low-lignin tissues of alfalfa, but to date, there has been no study on the effect of down-regulation of these two genes in alfalfa on nutrient chemical profiles and availability in ruminant livestock systems. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of transformation of alfalfa with TT8 and HB12 RNAi constructs on carbohydrate (CHO) structure and CHO nutritive value in ruminant livestock systems. The results showed that transformation with TT8 and HB12 RNAi constructs reduced rumen, rapidly degraded CHO fractions (RDCA4, P = 0.06; RDCB1, P ruminant livestock systems when lignification is much higher.

  8. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) with subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal in diets of Najdi goats: effect on digestion activity of rumen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Jolazadeh, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by subabul leaf meal (SLM) on digestion, fermentation parameters and rumen bacteria and fungi activity of Najdi goats. Six Najdi goats (150 ± 15 days of age and initial body weight of 35 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (three goats per treatment) for 56 days. Experimental treatments included alfalfa hay as control group and diet containing SLM (SLM replacing alfalfa hay at 50% level). Bacterial and fungi activity and rumen fermentation parameters of animals fed experimental diets were determined. Dry matter disappearance (DMD) was unaffected by replacing SLM with alfalfa hay for both rumen bacteria and fungi in different incubation times, except for 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria, which decreased for SLM group (P > 0.05). NDF disappearance (NDFD) and ADF disappearance (ADFD) after 24 and 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria was not affected by experimental diets (P > 0.05). However, 72 h after incubation, NDFD in SLM treatment decreased (P > 0.05). Gas production parameters of rumen bacteria were similar for both experimental diets, but partitioning factor (PF), efficiency microbial biomass production (EMBP), microbial protein production (MP), and organic matter truly digested (OMTD) decreased (p replacement of alfalfa hay by SLM had no major effect on rumen microorganisms' activity of Najdi goats, so it may be used as an alternative for alfalfa (at 50% level) in susceptible areas.

  9. Identification of Loci Associated with Drought Resistance Traits in Heterozygous Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Using Genome-Wide Association Studies with Genotyping by Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiejun; Yu, Long-Xi; Zheng, Ping; Li, Yajun; Rivera, Martha; Main, Dorrie; Greene, Stephanie L

    2015-01-01

    Drought resistance is an important breeding target for enhancing alfalfa productivity in arid and semi-arid regions. Identification of genes involved in drought tolerance will facilitate breeding for improving drought resistance and water use efficiency in alfalfa. Our objective was to use a diversity panel of alfalfa accessions comprised of 198 cultivars and landraces to identify genes involved in drought tolerance. The panel was selected from the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System alfalfa collection and genotyped using genotyping by sequencing. A greenhouse procedure was used for phenotyping two important traits associated with drought tolerance: drought resistance index (DRI) and relative leaf water content (RWC). Marker-trait association identified nineteen and fifteen loci associated with DRI and RWC, respectively. Alignments of target sequences flanking to the resistance loci against the reference genome of M. truncatula revealed multiple chromosomal locations. Markers associated with DRI are located on all chromosomes while markers associated with RWC are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Co-localizations of significant markers between DRI and RWC were found on chromosomes 3, 5 and 7. Most loci associated with DRI in this work overlap with the reported QTLs associated with biomass under drought in alfalfa. Additional significant markers were targeted to several contigs with unknown chromosomal locations. BLAST search using their flanking sequences revealed homology to several annotated genes with functions in stress tolerance. With further validation, these markers may be used for marker-assisted breeding new alfalfa varieties with drought resistance and enhanced water use efficiency.

  10. Effects of AN Alfalfa (medicago Sativa) Buffer Strip on Leached δ15NNITRATE Values: Implications for Management of Hydrologic N Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. J.; Keller, C. K.; Smith, J. L.; Evans, R. D.; Harlow, B.

    2011-12-01

    Buffer strips are commonly used to decrease agricultural runoff with the objective of limiting sediment and agrochemicals fluxes to surface waters. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an alfalfa buffer strip on the magnitude and source(s) of leached nitrate from a dryland agricultural field. Previous research at the Cook Agronomy Farm has inferred two sources of nitrate in tile drain discharge, a high-discharge-season (January through May) synthetic fertilizer source, and a low-discharge-season (June through December) soil organic nitrogen source. This study examines how a change in management strategy and crop species alters the low discharge season nitrate source. In the spring of 2006 an alfalfa buffer strip approximately 20 m wide was planted running approximately north-south in the lowland portion of a 12 ha tile-drained field bordering a ditch that drains into Missouri Flat Creek. Three-year (2003 through 2005) average NO3--N flux prior to the planting of the alfalfa buffer strip was ~0.40 kg ha-1 year-1. After planting, the three-year (2006 through 2008) average NO3--N flux was ~0.38 kg ha-1 year-1. The lack of evident buffer-strip influence on the fluxes may be due in part to the large variation in precipitation amounts and timing that control water flows through the system. Three-year average δ15Nnitrate values for the tile drain pre and post planting of the alfalfa buffer strip were 6.9 ± 1.1 % and 4.2 ± 0.9 % respectively. We hypothesize that the significant difference indicates that the alfalfa strip affects the source of leached nitrate. Before planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the interpreted source of nitrate was mineralization of soil organic nitrogen from non-N2 fixing crops (spring and summer wheat varieties). After planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the source of nitrate was interpreted to be a mixture of mineralized soil organic nitrogen from N2 fixing alfalfa and non-N2 fixing crops. Further work is needed to test

  11. Aluminium-induced reduction of plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is mediated by interrupting auxin transport and accumulation in roots

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shengyin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Huang, Bingru; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate Al3+-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al3+-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100??M AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6?mg L?1 IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress signi...

  12. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norini, M.P.; Beguiristain, Th.; Leyval, C.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of persistent and toxic soil pollutants that are of major public concern due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic property. Phyto-remediation is the use of plants and their associated microorganisms for remediation of polluted soils. Phyto-remediation could be used in conjunction with other remediation technologies to reduce the contamination to safe levels and maintain or restore soil physico-chemical and biological properties. Most plant species form mycorrhizas with symbiotic fungi. It was shown that AM fungi enhance survival and plant growth in PAH contaminated soils. Mycorrhizal fungi also enhance the biotransformation or biodegradation of PAH, although the effect differed between soils. A rhizosphere and myco-rhizosphere gradient of PAH concentrations was observed, with decreased PAH concentration with decreased distance to roots. Different microbial communities were found in the rhizosphere of AM and non-mycorrhizal plants in comparison to bulk soil, suggesting that AM could affect PAH degradation by changing microbial communities. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal fungi and nutrients on the ability of alfalfa to grow on soil contaminated with PAHs before and after two remediation treatments. We used soil from an industrial site (Homecourt, North East part of France) highly contaminated with PAH (2000 mg kg -1 ), which has been partially treated by two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption). The bio-pile treatment consisted of piling the contaminated soil with stimulation of aerobic microbial activity by aeration and addition of nutrient solution, and reduced PAH concentration to around 300 mg kg-1. With the thermal desorption treatment the soil was heated to around 500 deg. C so that PAH vaporized and were separated from the soil. The residual PAH concentration in soil was 40 mg kg -1 . Treated and non-treated contaminated soil was planted with alfalfa (Medicago

  13. The effect of melliferous bee (Apis mellifera carnica poll and mechanical means on seed yield, yield components and quality of alfalfa seed (Medicago sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Goran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of alfalfa pollinators in free pollination was investigated as well as effect of measures that promote pollination alfalfa (using sugar syrup and mechanical means. In first year of investigations, with higher precipitation, higher number of others pollinators (80,8 then honeybees (45,6 on alfalfa field was determined. In second year, there were much more honeybees (139,5 then all others alfalfa pollinators (12,37. Pollination improvement with sugar syrup had positive effect on seed yield and seed yield components since by this way more seeds were obtained compare to free pollination and by using mechanical means. Highest seed yield was obtained with sugar syrup (44,90 gm-2, with mechanical improvement of pollination 40,74 gm-2 and in free pollination 30,41 gm-2. As for yield components pollination improvement gave better results compare to free pollination. Pod setting and number of seeds per pod were especially significant compare to control. There were no statistically significant differences between free pollination and improved pollination for seed quality components (mass of 1000 seeds, energy of germination and germination ability.

  14. Detection of the genetic variation of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene 2 in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using an improved SSCP technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Z; Liu, H Q; Wang, Y; Yuan, Q H; Xin, N; Zhang, X; Li, X L; Pi, Y S; Gao, J M

    2014-12-04

    In this study, 2 approaches were adopted to obtain good single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) data for autotetraploid alfalfa; primers were added to PCR products, and fluorescent-labeled primers were utilized. PCR-SSCP conditions for a 331-bp fragment in the coding region of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein gene 2 in alfalfa (MsPGIP2) were optimized, and the results showed that the best SSCP gel pattern could be obtained when the loading mixture was made by mixing 1 μL PCR products, 0.2 to 0.8 μL unlabeled primers (50 μM) and 4 to 16 μL loading buffer. Furthermore, the use of the fluorescent-labeled primers resulted in 2 separated electrophoresis images from 2 complementary single DNA strands, thus making the determination of alleles and idiotypes a relatively easy task. In addition, the results of sequencing prove that the determination of alleles and idiotypes were accurate based on SSCP analysis. Finally, a total of 9 alleles with 18 SNP sites were identified for MsPGIP2 in the alfalfa variety 'Algonquin'. In conclusion, MsPGIP2 possessed great genetic variation, and the addition of primers to the PCR products in combination with the fluorescent labeling of primers could significantly improve the sensitivity and resolution of SSCP analysis. This technique could be used for genetic diversity detection and marker-assisted breeding of useful genes in autopolyploid species such as alfalfa.

  15. Investigation of trace level binding of PtCl6 and PtCl4 to alfalfa biomass (Medicago sativa) using Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, J.G.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Tiemann, K.J.; Gamez, G.

    2002-01-01

    Batch laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the effects of pH, chemical modification, time dependency, and interference studies on the binding of trace concentrations of hexachloroplatinate(IV) and tetrachloroplatinate(II) to alfalfa biomass. The pH profiles were measured between pH 2.0 and 6.0. It was found that the binding of trace concentrations of platinum(IV and II) to alfalfa biomass was dependent on pH with a maximum binding occurring at pH 3.0 and a minimum at pH 6.0. When the alfalfa biomass was chemically modified (esterified), maximum binding occurred at pH 6.0 for both oxidation states of platinum. From the batch time dependency experiments, it was found that binding took at least 20 min to level off for both platinum oxidation states. Batch experiments were performed with various concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sodium (0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 ppm) and it was found that calcium affected the binding of platinum(II and IV) to the alfalfa biomass. It was determined that magnesium and sodium did not interfere appreciably with the binding of platinum in either of the oxidation states studied. Finally, batch experiments were performed with Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and Na + in solutions at various concentrations, and it was observed that the binding was affected similarly to that by calcium alone

  16. Ensifer, Phyllobacterium and Rhizobium species occupy nodules of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Melilotus alba (sweet clover) grown at a Canadian site without a history of cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phage resistant and susceptible bacteria from nodules of alfalfa and sweet clover grown at a site without a known history of cultivation, were identified as Ensifer, Rhizobium and Phyllobacterium species based on sequence analysis of ribosomal (16S and 23S rRNA)and protein encoding (atpD and recA) g...

  17. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue

  18. Extractable copper, arsenic and antimony by EDTA solution from agricultural Chilean soils and its transfer to alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Ida; Fuentes, Edwar; Olivares, David; Pinochet, Hugo

    2004-01-01

    Following our research on copper, arsenic and antimony in Chilean ecosystems, a study to understand the mobility and transport of these elements from soil to plants was carried out. So, the aim of this study, which follows on from the previous work, was to demonstrate if the total concentrations of these elements or their fractions extracted by 0.05 M EDTA pH 7 from different Chilean soils correlate with the respective total concentrations in the edible tissue of alfalfa plants collected simultaneously from 20 different sites affected or unaffected by mining activities. The highest copper fractions extracted by EDTA solutions were obtained in contaminated soils from the central region (41-69%); however the northern soils presented the highest extractable fractions of arsenic (9-34%). The antimony fraction was low in all soils (0.4-8.0%). Alfalfa plants from all contaminated sites presented high copper, arsenic and antimony concentrations (19-126 mg kg(-1), 5.7-16.3 mg kg(-1) and 0.16-1.7 mg kg(-1), respectively). Statistically significant correlations were obtained between the total contents of copper and arsenic and their respective extractable fractions in soils. Good correlations were found between elements in alfalfa plants. Correlations were also obtained between the total concentrations of three elements in soils and in alfalfa plants. However, excepting for antimony in the northern samples, higher correlation coefficients were evaluated when the extractable fractions were considered. Samples from the north region presented the highest copper transfer factor and the lowest for arsenic, in spite of the high concentration of this metalloid extracted by EDTA solution in these soils. There was not a clear trend on the transfer factor for antimony, probably due to the low content of this element in alfalfa plants and/or the low recovery obtained for this element by EDTA.

  19. A salt stress-responsive cytokinin receptor homologue isolated from Medicago sativa nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coba de la Peña, Teodoro; Cárcamo, Claudia B; Almonacid, Luis; Zaballos, Angel; Lucas, M Mercedes; Balomenos, Dimitrios; Pueyo, José J

    2008-03-01

    A new cytokinin receptor homologue, MsHK1, was isolated from Medicago sativa root nodules. MsHK1 expression was induced in alfalfa seedlings by exogenous application of the cytokinin trans-zeatin. Transcript accumulation was detected in different plant organs. MsHK1 expression was induced by salt stress in alfalfa roots, leaves and nodules, and transcript accumulation in the vascular bundles pointed to a putative role in osmosensing for MsHK1 and/or other close cytokinin receptor homologues. Expression in the meristem and the invasion zone of the nodule suggest a role for cytokinin receptors in cytokinin sensing during nodule cell division and differentiation.

  20. In situ phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by intercropping alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and associated soil microbial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingming; Fu, Dengqiang; Teng, Ying; Shen, Yuanyuan; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Christie, Peter [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast (United Kingdom). Agri-Environment Branch

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: A 7-month field experiment was conducted to investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) remediation potential of two plant species and changes in counts of soil PAH-degrading bacteria and microbial activity. Materials and methods: Alfalfa and tall fescue were grown in monoculture and intercropped for 7 months in contaminated field soil. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for PAHs. Plant biomass, densities of PAH-degradation soil bacteria, soil microbial biomass C and N, enzyme activities, and the physiological profile of the soil microbial community were determined. Results and discussion: Average removal percentage of total PAHs in intercropping (30.5%) was significantly higher than in monoculture (19.9%) or unplanted soil (-0.6%). About 7.5% of 3-ring, 12.3% of 4-ring, and 17.2% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed from the soil by alfalfa, with corresponding values of 25.1%, 10.4%, and 30.1% for tall fescue. Intercropping significantly enhanced the remediation efficiency. About 18.9% of 3-ring, 30.9% of 4-ring, and 33.4% of 5(+6)-ring PAHs were removed by the intercropping system. Higher counts of soil culturable PAH-degrading bacteria and elevated microbial biomass and enzyme activities were found after intercropping. Soil from intercropping showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) average well-color development obtained by the BIOLOG Ecoplate assay and Shannon-Weaver index compared with monoculture. Conclusions: Cropping promoted the dissipation of soil PAHs. Tall fescue gave greater removal of soil PAHs than alfalfa, and intercropping was more effective than monoculture. Intercropping of alfalfa and tall fescue may be a promising in situ bioremediation strategy for PAH-contaminated soils. (orig.)

  1. Expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) ethylene response factor gene MsERF8 in tobacco plants enhances resistance to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Yang, Qingchuan; Gruber, Margaret; Kang, Junmei; Sun, Yan; Ding, Wang; Zhang, Tiejun; Zhang, Xinquan

    2012-05-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERF) play crucial roles in plant development and response to stresses. Here, a novel cDNA fragment (MsERF8) encoding an ERF protein with an AP2 domain was isolated and characterized from alfalfa. The MsERF8 cDNA has an open reading frame of 603 bp and encodes a nuclear protein of 201 amino acids. Q-RT-PCR analysis revealed that MsERF8 was strongly enriched in roots and leaves compared with stems, flower buds and flowers of mature alfalfa plants. Bioinformatic analysis of the MsERF8 promoter indicated a number of elements associated with stress-related responses, and MsERF8 transcripts in alfalfa seedlings were induced by NaCl, PEG6000, Al(2)(SO(4))(3) and five different hormones. Expression of MsERF8 in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in higher tolerance to salinity than with non-transgenic plants. This data shows that MsERF8 is a gene which prevents or alleviates salinity damage and has strong potential to impart salt tolerance to other crop plants.

  2. Interactive effects of molasses by homofermentative and heterofermentative inoculants on fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation, nutritive value and aerobic stability of wilted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Taghizadeh, A; Kargar, S; Yang, W Z

    2014-04-01

    The effect of adding molasses (0, UM or 50 g/kg on DM basis, M) and two types of inoculant including homofermentative (HO) and a combination of homofermentative and propionate-producing bacterial (HOPAB) inoculants on silage fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation and aerobic stability of pre-bloom, wilted alfalfa (AS) was determined in laboratory silos. The HOPAB inoculant was more effective than HO in reducing the alfalfa silage pH but increased propionate content in the absence of M (p alfalfa crop with M and HOPAB improved aerobic stability by increasing the concentration of acetate and propionate of AS respectively. Adding M tended (p < 0.10) to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cumulative gas production (CGP). HOPAB alone increased DM disappearance at 24 h post-incubation and effective degradability assuming outflow rate of 8%/h relative to untreated AS (p < 0.05). It was concluded that adding M had no pronounced effects on AS fermentation quality, but increased aerobic stability. HOPAB-inoculated AS with no addition of M improved fermentation quality and increased DM degradability compared with HO. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Predicción de la digestibilidad in vivo de forrajes conservados de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) mediante técnicas de solubilidad enzimática

    OpenAIRE

    Riveros Veas, Edmundo; Argamentería Gutiérrez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Se estudiaron 3 métodos de predicción de la digestibilidad in vivo de 17 muestras de forrajes conservados de alfalfa, utilizando solubilidad en celulasas con pepsina, fibra neutro detergente y ácido clorhídrico, respectivamente.La mejor predicción, medida a través de los coeficientes de correlación, la presentó el método ácido clorhídrico celulasa, seguido del pepsina celulasa. El método fibra neutro detergente celulasa, que presentó los valores más bajos de coeficiente de correlación cuando ...

  4. Differential response to water deficit stress in alfalfa ( Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was fixed as objective to compare the response to water deficit (33% of field capacity, FC) stress of eight cultivars of Medicago sativa, originating from the Mediterranean basin. Comparison was performed on some key parameters such as growth, relative water content, leaf water potential, MDA tissue ...

  5. Influence of different Sinorhizobium meliloti inocula on abundance of genes involved in nitrogen transformations in the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Katarina Huić; Schauss, Kristina; Hai, Brigitte; Sikora, Sanja; Redzepović, Sulejman; Radl, Viviane; Schloter, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Inoculation of leguminous seeds with selected rhizobial strains is practised in agriculture to ameliorate the plant yield by enhanced root nodulation and nitrogen uptake of the plant. However, effective symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia does not only depend on the capacity of nitrogen fixation but also on the entire nitrogen turnover in the rhizosphere. We investigated the influence of seed inoculation with two indigenous Sinorhizobium meliloti strains exhibiting different efficiency concerning plant growth promotion on nitrogen turnover processes in the rhizosphere during the growth of alfalfa. Quantification of six target genes (bacterial amoA, nirK, nirS, nosZ, nifH and archaeal amoA) within the nitrogen cycle was performed in rhizosphere samples before nodule formation, at bud development and at the late flowering stage. The results clearly demonstrated that effectiveness of rhizobial inocula is related to abundance of nifH genes in the late flowering phase of alfalfa. Moreover, other genes involved in nitrogen turnover had been affected by the inocula, e.g. higher numbers of amoA copies were observed during flowering when the more effective strain had been inoculated. However, the respective gene abundances differed overall to a greater extent between the three plant development stages than between the inoculation variants.

  6. Aluminium-induced reduction of plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is mediated by interrupting auxin transport and accumulation in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengyin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Huang, Bingru; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-07-20

    The objective of this study was to investigate Al(3+)-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al(3+)-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100 μM AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6 mg L(-1) IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress significantly decreased the IAA concentration in apical buds and root tips. The distribution of IAA fluorescence signals in root tips was disturbed, and the IAA transportation from shoot base to root tip was inhibited. The highest intensity of fluorescence signals was detected in the apical meristematic zone. Exogenous application of IAA markedly alleviated the Al(3+)-induced inhibition of root growth by increasing IAA accumulation and recovering the damaged cell structure in root tips. In addition, Al(3+) stress up-regulated expression of AUX1 and PIN2 genes. These results indicate that Al(3+)-induced reduction of root growth could be associated with the inhibitions of IAA synthesis in apical buds and IAA transportation in roots, as well as the imbalance of IAA distribution in root tips.

  7. Overexpression of EsMcsu1 from the halophytic plant Eutrema salsugineum promotes abscisic acid biosynthesis and increases drought resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Ma, Z Y; Zhu, L; Guo, J S; Zhu, J; Wang, J F

    2015-12-17

    The stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays pivotal roles in plants' adaptive responses to adverse environments. Molybdenum cofactor sulfurases influence aldehyde oxidase activity and ABA biosynthesis. In this study, we isolated a novel EsMcsu1 gene encoding a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase from Eutrema salsugineum. EsMcus1 transcriptional patterns varied between organs, and its expression was significantly upregulated by abiotic stress or ABA treatment. Alfalfa plants that overexpressed EsMcsu1 had a higher ABA content than wild-type (WT) plants under drought stress conditions. Furthermore, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ion leakage, and malondialdehyde were lower in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants after drought treatment, suggesting that the transgenic plants experienced less ROS-mediated damage. However, the expression of several stress-responsive genes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmolyte (proline and total soluble sugar) levels in the transgenic plants were higher than those in the WT plants after drought treatment. Therefore, EsMcsu1 overexpression improved drought tolerance in alfalfa plants by activating a series of ABA-mediated stress responses.

  8. Interaction effect of calcium and sulphur on the growth and nutrient composition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Pers), using 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulakh, M.S.; Dev, G.

    1978-01-01

    In a pot culture experiment, application of S or Ca alone increased dry matter production, S content and total S removal per pot. With graded levels of applied S, the S in plant derived from the fertilizer as well as from the native soil source increased. Ca content in alfalfa increased with successive levels of applied Ca. A positive signficant interaction was found between Ca and S; with increase in level of Ca from 0 to 25 ppm in presence of various S levels, the total S content and its removal, N content and utilization of fertilizer S continued to increase and at 50 ppm Ca, this effect was lost. A combination of 25 ppm Ca and 20 ppm S produced maximum efficiency of applied S with a constant N : S ratio of 11 : 1 in the plants. (Auth.)

  9. INFLUENCE OF pH AND TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION ENERGY, GERMINATION, ROOT AND SEEDLINGS HYPOCOTIL LENGTH OF VARIOUS ALFALFA CULTIVARS (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bukvić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traits of germination energy, seed germination, as well as root and hypocotyls length of domestic alfalfa cultivars (Slavonka, Stela, Vuka were investigated in a climate chamber. The experiment was set up at two pH levels of water solution (4.00 and 6.00 and temperature levels of 10°C and 20°C using rolled filter paper method. Significant difference between cultivars (p=0.01, p=0.05 was determined for germination energy, seed germination and hypocotyls length. Cultivar Slavonka had the highest average values for germination energy and seed germination, and the lowest for hypocotyls length. Cultivar Vuka had the lowest germination energy (but with the same germination as Stela and the longest hypocotyls. Seed germination as well as root and hypocotyl length significantly depended (p=0.01 on pH of water solution. The higher average values of all traits were found at pH 4.00, except for germination energy. Temperature also significantly affected on all investigated traits (p=0.01, whilst the higher values were attained at higher temperature. Interactions cultivar x pH and cultivar x temperature were significant (p=0.01 for all traits, while pH x temperature interaction was not significant only for seed germination.

  10. Evaluating Agronomic Performance and Investigating Molecular Structure of Drought and Heat Tolerant Wild Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Collection from the Southeastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basbag, Mehmet; Aydin, Ali; Sakiroglu, Muhammet

    2017-02-01

    Drought is a major stress factor for agricultural production including alfalfa production. One way to counterbalance the yield losses is the introgression of drought tolerant germplasm into breeding programs. As an effort to exploit such germplasm, 16 individual plants were selected from the Southeastern Turkey from their natural habitat and clonally propagated in field trials with an ultimate goal to use the germplasm as parents for releasing a synthetic cultivar. Forage yield and forage quality traits were evaluated and molecular genetic diversity among genotypes were determined using inter simple sequence repeat markers. Genotypes showed a variation from growth habit to yield and quality traits indicating sufficient phenotypic variation for diverse breeding efforts (for grazing or harvesting) and long term selection schemes. A large amount of genetic variation was observed even with a limited number of marker and genotypes. However, no pattern of spatial genetic structure was observed for the scale of the study when genetic variation is linked to the geographic origin. We conclude that ex situ natural variation provides a wealth of germplasm that could be incorporated into breeding programs aiming to improve drought tolerance. We also suggest an extensive collection of seeds/plant tissue from unique plants with desirable traits rather than putting more efforts to create a spatial germplasm sampling efforts in narrow regions.

  11. SPL13 regulates shoot branching and flowering time in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Gruber, Margaret Y; Amyot, Lisa; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2018-01-01

    Our results show SPL13 plays a crucial role in regulating vegetative and reproductive development in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), and that MYB112 is targeted and downregulated by SPL13 in alfalfa. We previously showed that transgenic Medicago sativa (alfalfa) plants overexpressing microRNA156 (miR156) show a bushy phenotype, reduced internodal length, delayed flowering time, and enhanced biomass yield. In alfalfa, transcripts of seven SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors, including SPL13, are targeted for cleavage by miR156. Thus, association of each target SPL gene to a trait or set of traits is essential for developing molecular markers for alfalfa breeding. In this study, we investigated SPL13 function using SPL13 overexpression and silenced alfalfa plants. Severe growth retardation, distorted branches and up-curled leaves were observed in miR156-impervious 35S::SPL13m over-expression plants. In contrast, more lateral branches and delayed flowering time were observed in SPL13 silenced plants. SPL13 transcripts were predominantly present in the plant meristems, indicating that SPL13 is involved in regulating shoot branch development. Accordingly, the shoot branching-related CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 8 gene was found to be significantly downregulated in SPL13 RNAi silencing plants. A R2R3-MYB gene MYB112 was also identified as being directly silenced by SPL13 based on Next Generation Sequencing-mediated transcriptome analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, suggesting that MYB112 may be involved in regulating alfalfa vegetative growth.

  12. Inoculação microbiana da silagem de alfafa (Medicago sativa e seu efeito sobre o consumo de matéria seca e sobre a fermentação ruminal em bovinos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2074 Microbial inoculation of alfalfa silage (Medicago sativa and its effect on dry matter intake and ruminal fermentation in bovines - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2074

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da inoculação microbiana da alfafa (Medicago sativa para ensilagem sobre o consumo de matéria seca, fermentação ruminal e taxa de passagem de líquidos em bovinos. Doze vacas não-gestantes e não-lactantes foram distribuídas em um delineamento em blocos, e os tratamentos corresponderam à silagem pré-secada de alfafa (60% de MS e 19,5% de PB controle ou inoculada com o produto Silobac® (Lactobacillus plantarum e Pediococcus pentosaceus. A dieta experimental continha 50% de silagem de alfafa e 50% de concentrado. O experimento teve duração total de 21 dias, sendo o 21º dia utilizado para colheitas de líquido ruminal realizadas às 0h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 8h, 10h e 12h, após a 1a refeição. A inoculação microbiana da silagem de alfafa não alterou o consumo de MS (inoculada = 2,56 vs. controle = 2,39% PV, o pH do líquido ruminal (6,15 vs. 6,27, a concentração ruminal de N-NH3 (19,0 vs. 18,2mg/dl, a concentração total de AGVs (122,5 vs. 113,8mM ou a proporção molar de ácido acético (66,1 vs. 66,8% molar, propiônico (21,1 vs. 19,6% molar e butírico (12,8 vs. 13,6% molar. Parâmetros relativos à dinâmica líquida ruminal, como o volume líquido (59,5 vs. 63,4 litros e a taxa de passagem de líquidos (8,6 vs. 8,0%/h, também não foram alterados com a inoculação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa for ensiling on dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation and liquid passage rate in twelve non pregnant dry cows. A randomized block design was used and the treatments were alfalfa haylage control (60% DM and 19.5% CP or inoculated with Silobac® product (Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Experimental diet contained 50% of alfalfa silage and 50% of concentrate. Experimental period lasted for twenty-one days; the 21st day was used for ruminal liquid sampling at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 e 12 hours

  13. Triterpenoid glycosides from Medicago sativa as antifungal agents against Pyricularia oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruscato, Pamela; Tosi, Solveig; Crispino, Laura; Biazzi, Elisa; Menin, Barbara; Picco, Anna M; Pecetti, Luciano; Avato, Pinarosa; Tava, Aldo

    2014-11-19

    The antifungal properties of saponin mixtures from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) tops and roots, the corresponding mixtures of prosapogenins from tops, and purified saponins and sapogenins against the causal agent of rice blast Pyricularia oryzae isolates are presented. In vitro experiments highlighted a range of activities, depending upon the assayed metabolite. The antifungal effects of the most promising prosapogenin mixture from alfalfa tops were confirmed by means of in planta tests using three different Italian cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica), known to possess high, medium, and low blast resistance. The evidenced antifungal properties of the tested metabolites allowed some considerations on their structure-activity relationship. Results indicate that prosapogenins are active compounds to prevent the fungal attack of P. oryzae on different rice cultivars. Therefore, if properly formulated, these substances could represent a promising and environmentally friendly treatment to control rice blast.

  14. Diseño de planes de muestreo con niveles fijos de precisión del pulgón manchado de la alfalfa, Therioaphis trifolii Monell (Homoptera: Aphididae) en alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Javier E.; Trumper, Eduardo V.; Edelstein, Julio D.

    1999-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue construir planes secuenciales de muestreo para el pulgón manchado de la alfalfa, Therioaphis trifolii Monell (Homoptera: Aphididae), con niveles fijos de precisión para estimar su densidad en función de toma de decisiones. El estudio de la disposición espacial basado en la Ley de Potencia de Taylor y regresión de Iwao, indicó que esta especie se distribuye de manera agregada en el cultivo de alfalfa, aunque con diferentes grados de agregación según el estado de...

  15. Impacto de una intervención alimentaria con un concentrado proteico de Medicago sativa L (alfalfa, en niños pre escolares con desnutrición crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soberón

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Estudios realizados a nivel preclínico han demostrado el valor biológico del concentrado proteico obtenido de Medicago sativa L, alfalfa (CPA, por lo que este producto puede ser una alternativa para reducir la desnutrición. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del consumo de CPA por niños preescolares con desnutrición crónica, mediante indicadores bioquímicos y hematológicos. Diseño: Estudio analítico de intervención, de tipo longitudinal y prospectivo. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes: Niños preescolares con desnutrición crónica, provenientes de una comunidad de Pampas, Huancavelica, Perú. Intervenciones: Previo consentimiento informado de los padres, se evaluó el estado alimentario-nutricional, bioquímico y hematológico de 23 niños menores de seis años, para establecer la condición de desnutrición. Luego, se desarrolló una intervención alimentario nutricional con el CPA como complemento alimenticio, por 25 días, en niños seleccionados. Finalmente, se repitió la evaluación una vez concluido el período de intervención. Las determinaciones bioquímicas fueron hemoglobina, proteínas totales, albúmina y globulina, creatinina, transaminasas, y las hematológicas, hematocrito, recuento de reticulocitos. Se utilizó el programa Excel y t-student, a fin de obtener la inferencia en los resultados. Resultados: Para el indicador talla/edad, 84,5% de los niños padecía desnutrición crónica; respecto a calorías y nutrientes consumidos por los niños, los valores de energía estuvieron entre 563 kcal y 2 597 kcal; de proteína, 9,7 g a 78 g; de grasas, 5,1 g a 53,8 g; carbohidratos, 79,8 g a 495,1 g; calcio, entre 180,9 mg y 986 mg; y hierro, 1,9 mg y 21,5 mg. Los valores de hemoglobina, proteínas totales, globulinas, creatinina, transaminasas y hematocrito obtenidos antes y después de la ingesta de

  16. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bingham

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids. However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed.

  17. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Edwin; Armour, David; Irwin, John

    2013-05-31

    Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids). However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed.

  18. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Edwin; Armour, David; Irwin, John

    2013-01-01

    Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids). However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed. PMID:27137379

  19. Characterization and genetic dissection of resistance to spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii) in Medicago truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Lars G.; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Peng, Kefan; Guo, Su-Min; Klingler, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Aphids cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide. Medicago truncatula, a model legume, cultivated pasture species in Australia and close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), was used to study the defence response against Therioaphis trifolii f. maculate [spotted alfalfa aphid (SAA)]. Aphid performance and plant damage were compared among three accessions. A20 is highly susceptible, A17 has moderate resistance, and Jester is strongly resistant. Subsequent analyses using A17 and A20, reciprocal F1s and an A17×A20 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population revealed that this moderate resistance is phloem mediated and involves antibiosis and tolerance but not antixenosis. Electrical penetration graph analysis also identified a novel waveform termed extended potential drop, which occurred following SAA infestation of M. truncatula. Genetic dissection using the RIL population revealed three quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 3, 6, and 7 involved in distinct modes of aphid defence including antibiosis and tolerance. An antibiosis locus resides on linkage group 3 (LG3) and is derived from A17, whereas a plant tolerance and antibiosis locus resides on LG6 and is derived from A20, which exhibits strong temporary tolerance. The loci identified reside in regions harbouring classical resistance genes, and introgression of these loci in current medic cultivars may help provide durable resistance to SAA, while elucidation of their molecular mechanisms may provide valuable insight into other aphid–plant interactions. PMID:24058162

  20. Characterization and genetic dissection of resistance to spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii) in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Kamphuis, L. G.

    2013-09-21

    Aphids cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide. Medicago truncatula, a model legume, cultivated pasture species in Australia and close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), was used to study the defence response against Therioaphis trifolii f. maculate [spotted alfalfa aphid (SAA)]. Aphid performance and plant damage were compared among three accessions. A20 is highly susceptible, A17 has moderate resistance, and Jester is strongly resistant. Subsequent analyses using A17 and A20, reciprocal F1s and an A17×A20 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population revealed that this moderate resistance is phloem mediated and involves antibiosis and tolerance but not antixenosis. Electrical penetration graph analysis also identified a novel waveform termed extended potential drop, which occurred following SAA infestation of M. truncatula. Genetic dissection using the RIL population revealed three quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 3, 6, and 7 involved in distinct modes of aphid defence including antibiosis and tolerance. An antibiosis locus resides on linkage group 3 (LG3) and is derived from A17, whereas a plant tolerance and antibiosis locus resides on LG6 and is derived from A20, which exhibits strong temporary tolerance. The loci identified reside in regions harbouring classical resistance genes, and introgression of these loci in current medic cultivars may help provide durable resistance to SAA, while elucidation of their molecular mechanisms may provide valuable insight into other aphid–plant interactions.

  1. WATER DEFICIT EFFECT ON YIELD AND FORAGE QUALITY OF MEDICAGO SATIVA POPULATIONS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS IN MARRAKESH AREA (MOROCCO)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed FARISSI; Cherki GHOULAM; Abdelaziz BOUIZGAREN

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused the effect of water deficit on agronomic potential and some traits related to forage quality in plants of Moroccan Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations (Taf 1, Taf 2, Dem and Tata) originated from Oasis and High Atlas of Morocco and an introduced variety from Australia (Siriver). The experiment was conducted under field conditions in experimental station of INRA-Marrakech and under two irrigation treatments. The first treatment was normal irrigation, providing an...

  2. Análisis de la variabilidad de caracteres de raíz en poblaciones de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. con alto número de raíces laterales Root traits variability in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. populations with a high number of lateral roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Odorizzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para atenuar el daño provocado por los gorgojos de la alfalfa en la Argentina, el mejoramiento orientado al aumento del número de raíces laterales puede ser importante. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estimar bajo cuatro condiciones ambientales, componentes de varianza, heredabilidad en sentido amplio (H y correlaciones entre biomasa aérea y caracteres de raíz en 10 poblaciones de alfalfa de grado 6 a 9 de reposo invernal, mejoradas por sistema de raíz ramificada en la E.E.A. Manfredi-INTA. Los caracteres evaluados fueron: rendimiento de biomasa promedio (BP, diámetro de raíz pivotante (DP, número de raíces laterales (NRLR, diámetro de raíces laterales (DRLR y sistema radicular tipo ramificado (R. Hubo ausencia de correlación entre BP y los caracteres de raíz en la mayoría de los ambientes, indicando que se debe seleccionar por ambos caracteres en forma específica e individual. En ambientes con riego, DP fue el que más se correlacionó con BP (r =0,47; p In order to provide some level of tolerance to the alfalfa root curculio in Argentina, the improvement directed to increasing the number of secondary roots could be important. The objectives of this work were to estimate under four environmental conditions, variance components, trait heritabilities (H and correlations among aerial and root traits in 10 alfalfa populations ranging from 6 to 9 fall dormancy, obtained by the alfalfa breeding program at the Exp. Stn. of Manfredi- INTA. The evaluated traits were average forage yield per cut (BP, taproot diameter (DP, number of lateral roots (NRLR, lateral root diameter (DRLR and branched-type root system (R. Considerable variation for all traits was detected across all environments. There was no correlation between BP and most of root traits in almost every environmental condition, indicating that selection for yield and root traits could be independently managed. Under irrigation, DP was positively (r =0,47; p<0,01 correlated

  3. Isolation and functional characterization of salt-stress induced RCI2-like genes from Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ruicai; Zhang, Fan; Li, Zhenyi; Li, Mingna; Cong, Lili; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun; Zhao, Zhongxiang; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qingchuan

    2015-07-01

    Salt stress is one of the most significant adverse abiotic factors, causing crop failure worldwide. So far, a number of salt stress-induced genes, and genes improving salt tolerance have been characterized in a range of plants. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a salt stress-induced Medicago sativa (alfalfa) gene (MsRCI2A), which showed a high similarity to the yeast plasma membrane protein 3 gene (PMP3) and Arabidopsis RCI2A. The sequence comparisons revealed that five genes of MtRCI2(A-E) showed a high similarity to MsRCI2A in the Medicago truncatula genome. MsRCI2A and MtRCI2(A-E) encode small, highly hydrophobic proteins containing two putative transmembrane domains, predominantly localized in the plasma membrane. The transcript analysis results suggest that MsRCI2A and MtRCI2(A-D) genes are highly induced by salt stress. The expression of MsRCI2A and MtRCI2(A-C) in yeast mutants lacking the PMP3 gene can functionally complement the salt sensitivity phenotype resulting from PMP3 deletion. Overexpression of MsRCI2A in Arabidopsis plants showed improved salt tolerance suggesting the important role of MsRCI2A in salt stress tolerance in alfalfa.

  4. In silico identification of transcription factors in Medicago sativa using available transcriptomic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikova, Olga A; Shao, Jonathan; Nemchinov, Lev G

    2014-06-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that govern organismal development and response to the environment by regulating gene expression. Information on the amount and diversity of TFs within individual plant species is critical for understanding of their biological roles and evolutionary history across the plant kingdom. Currently, only scattered information on separate TFs is available for alfalfa, the most extensively cultivated forage legume in the world. In the meantime, several large transcriptomic resources that can be used to identify and characterize alfalfa TF genes are freely accessible online. In this study, we have performed an in silico analysis of transcriptome data generated in our laboratory and publicly acquirable from other sources to reveal and systematize alfalfa transcription factors. Transcriptome-wide mining enabled prediction of 983 TFs along with their sequence features and putative phylogenies of the largest families. All data were assembled into a simple open-access database named AlfalfaTFDB ( http://plantpathology.ba.ars.usda.gov/alfalfatfdb.html ). Transcriptomic analysis used in this work represents an effective approach for the identification of TF genes in plants with incomplete genomes, such as alfalfa. Integrated TF repertoires of Medicago sativa will provide an important tool for studying regulation of gene expression in other complex non-model species of agricultural significance.

  5. Relaciones entre propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo y raíces de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. afectada por "manchoneo" Relantionships between soil physical and chemical properties and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. roots in patched soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bonadeo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue relacionar propiedades físicas y físico-químicas del suelo con el sistema de raíces de un alfalfar para situaciones de desarrollo "normal" (N y de "manchoneo" (M de la pastura. El pH y el porcentaje de sodio intercambiable (PSI aumentan con la profundidad en N y M, siendo más notorio el incremento en M. Un pH de 9 ocurre a los 24 y a los 55 cm, para M y N, respectivamente. En el período comprendido entre noviembre de 2001 y abril de 2002, la mayor conductividad eléctrica medida en N fue de 1,83 dS m-¹ a los 70 cm y en M de 3,92 dS m-¹, a los 30 cm. El menor número total de raíces y la menor profundidad alcanzada en M, en 2001, se atribuyen principalmente a diferencias en el contenido salino, debido a la tolerancia de la alfalfa al elevado PSI. En 2001, hasta los 30 cm, la densidad de longitud de raíces de N superó significativamente a M. En 2002 se observaron diferencias significativas en la profundidad máxima. Se concluye que existe una relación estrecha entre la conductividad eléctrica del suelo y los parámetros radicales evaluados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the soil physical and physical-chemistries properties as related with the development of the alfalfa root system. Two situations were studied: "normal" (N and "patched" (M growth. Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP and pH increase with the depth in N and M, being more noticeable in M. pH values of 9 occurred at 24 and 55 cm in M and N, respectively. The ESP shows a similar tendency. In the period between November 2001 and April 2002, the highest measured electrical conductivity in N was 1.83 dS m-1 at 70 cm, and in M 3.92 dS m-1 at 30 cm. In 2001, the lower total root number and the shallower depth reached in M, were due to differences in the saline content mainly. This is probably due to the tolerance of the alfalfa to the high ESP. In 2001, the roots length density until 30 cm, was significantly superior in N. In 2002

  6. Evaluación de daño de gorgojos en poblaciones de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. con alto número de raíces laterales Evaluation of root curculio/weevil damage in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. populations with large numbers of lateral roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Odorizzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El aumento del número de raíces laterales a través del mejoramiento puede ser importante para reducir el daño provocado por el complejo de gorgojos de la alfalfa. El objetivo fue evaluar, en cuatro ambientes (siembras de otoño y primavera con y sin riego, el comportamiento de 10 poblaciones seleccionadas por alto número de raíces laterales. Los caracteres evaluados fueron: categoría (Cat de daño de gorgojos (de 1 = sin daño a 5 = daño severo, rendimiento promedio de forraje (BP, número de raíces secundarias (NRLR y diámetro de raíces laterales (DRLR. Las poblaciones s755, s545 y s614 presentaron los mayores valores de DRLR y NRLR, el menor daño de gorgojos (Cat 2+3 y la mayor variabilidad para los caracteres estudiados. Las poblaciones s545 y s616 exhibieron el mayor DRLR y el menor NRLR, respectivamente. Las condiciones de riego propiciaron un menor daño, y fueron menos afectadas en estos ambientes las poblaciones s545, s614 y s617; por el contrario, las poblaciones s461, s755, s463 resultaron las más afectadas. Los daños más severos (Cat 4+5 se observaron en secano y las poblaciones s618 y s616 fueron las más afectadas; sólo bajo estas condiciones el mayor daño se correlacionó con menor BP.Increasing the number of lateral roots through breeding may be important to reduce the damage caused by the root curculio complex in alfalfa in Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the performance of ten alfalfa experimental populations selected for their large number of lateral roots under four environmental conditions (fall and spring planting with or without irrigation. The evaluated traits were curculio damage (Categories (Cat 1 = no damage to 5 = very severe damage, dry matter yield (BP, number of secondary roots (NRLR, and diameter of lateral roots (DRLR. Populations s755, s545 and s614 had the highest values for DRLR and NRLR, the least damage from weevil (Cat 2 +3, and the largest variability (mean square for all the

  7. Influencia del agregado de enmiendas básicas sobre la producción de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en ámbitos templados argentinos Basic amendment application effects on alfalfa production in Argentine temperate areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Vázquez

    2010-12-01

    ,1-0,9 unidad de pH en la capa superficial. La capacidad de intercambio catiónica aumentó de 0,2 a 5,3 cmol kg-1, y el Ca intercambiable hasta un máximo de 2,6 cmol kg-1. Se registró un efecto negativo del encalado sobre el contenido de P extractable, sugiriendo la necesidad de acompañar la práctica con diagnósticos de este elemento.Natural and anthropic factors may produce soil acidification in temperate areas, causing deficiencies/unbalances of basic nutrients, particularly Ca and Mg. This problem requires regional experimentation to generate regulations for the election of the amendment, rate and application form. The aim of this study was to compare the alfalfa yield of three areas in the argentine temperate region, the basic nutrient concentration in the plants, and the changes in edaphic properties caused by the different rates and types of amendments. Two trials were conducted in Typic Argiudolls and one in an Entic Hapludoll of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe and Córdoba provinces. The treatments consisted in the application of 0 and 700, or 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 kg ha-1 of shell/calcite and dolomite, according to the site. The effect of the additional application of 200 kg ha-1 of gypsum was evaluated. Alfalfa dry matter yield, foliar concentration of Ca and Mg and the effect of the treatments on edaphic properties were measured. The smaller rates (700-1,000 kg ha-1, with or without gypsum, produced the greatest yield increases. These increases were of 9, 16.5 and 18.8% respect to the control, for the trial of Santa Fe (C1000; 6 harvests, Buenos Aires (C1000, 5 harvests and Córdoba (C700, 10 harvests, respectively, and of 11.7; 14.4 and 9.1% respect to the control, for the trial of Santa Fe (D1000, Buenos Aires (D1000 and Córdoba (D700, respectively. The residuality extended all along the evaluation time (27 months. The treatments did not produce mayor differences in the foliar concentrations of Ca and Mg, although they increased the availability of both nutrients

  8. Sample preparation of Medicago sativa L. hay for chemical analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the grinding procedure on the moisture and crude protein concentration of a ground Medicago sativa L. hay sample for quality grading. An additional aim was to investigate the accuracy of electronic moisture testers (EMT). Variance of analyses revealed significant ...

  9. Sample preparation of Medicago sativa L. hay for chemical analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFS Campus

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the grinding procedure on the moisture and crude protein concentration of a ground Medicago sativa L. hay sample for quality grading. An additional aim was to investigate the accuracy of electronic moisture testers (EMT). Variance of analyses revealed.

  10. Prediction of chemical composition of South African Medicago sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict chemical and digestibility parameters was investigated. Samples (n = 168) representing the spectral characteristics of the South African. Medicago sativa L. hay population were chemically analysed for the development of calibration equations. Values for r² and ...

  11. Productivity evaluation of Medicago sativa cultivars under irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many Medicago sativa cultivars are available in South Africa, each with unique characteristics. This study evaluated 26 cultivars under irrigation on two ecotopes in terms of number of cuttings, dry matter (DM) production, seasonal DM production curve, DM production curve over lifespan and plant density, over nine growing ...

  12. A model for assessing Medicago Sativa L. hay quality | Scholtz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to identify chemical parameters and/or models for assessing. Medicago sativa L. (L) hay quality, using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis and Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) milk prediction as a criterion of accuracy. Milk yield (MY) derived from the ...

  13. Chemical modification and degradation of atrazine in Medicago sativa through multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Jing; Lu, Yi Chen; Yang, Hong

    2014-10-08

    Atrazine is a member of the triazine herbicide family intensively used to control weeds for crop production. In this study, atrazine residues and its degraded products in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were characterized using UPLC-TOF-MS/MS. Most of atrazine absorbed in plants was found as chemically modified derivatives like deisopropylated atrazine (DIA), dehydrogenated atrazine (DHA), or methylated atrazine (MEA), and some atrazine derivatives were conjugated through different functional groups such as sugar, glutathione, and amino acids. Interestingly, the specific conjugates DHA+hGSH (homoglutathione) and MEA-HCl+hGSH in alfalfa were detected. These results suggest that atrazine in alfalfa can be degraded through different pathways. The increased activities of glycosyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase were determined to support the atrazine degradation models. The outcome of the work uncovered the detailed mechanism for the residual atrazine accumulation and degradation in alfalfa and will help to evaluate whether the crop is suitable to be cultivated in the atrazine-polluted soil.

  14. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-02-26

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility.

  15. Differential antifungal activity of alfalfa (Medicago santva L. saponins originated from roots and aerial parts for some ornamental plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins isolated from aerial parts and roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. at the concentration of 0,01%, 0,05% and 0,1% showed differential influence on the mycelium growth of Alternaria zinniae, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis tulipae, Phoma narcissi, Phoma poolensis and Rhizoctonia solani. A higher inhibitory effect on in vitro growth of mycelium of all tested pathogens indicated saponins from roots of alfalfa than from aerial parts. Tested saponins from roots at lhe concentration of 0,1% totally inhibited linear growth of Phoma narcissi, and linear growth of Alternaria zinniae was limited about 67%, Botrytis cinerea about 74%, Botrytis tulipae about 68%, Phoma poolensis about 38%, and Rhizoctonia solani about 74% in comparison to the control. The saponins of alfalfa from roots at the concentration of 0,1% and 0,2% applied as preinoculation sprays evidently inhibited the development of Phoma narcissi on Hippeastrum leaves. This dose of aerial saponins of alfalfa did not effect the development of necrotic spots on the leaves.

  16. A PROPOSITO DE UN ENSAYO CON ABONOS (cal y harina de huesos EN ALFALFAl (Medicago sativa

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    Isidoro Mogilner

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, los autores estudian el efecto que sobre el rendimiento de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa produce la incorporación de diferentes dosis de cal y harina de huesos, en un suelo pobre de P y Ca; de una textura pesada con alto contenido de arcilla en todos los horizontes, de un pH ácido (5.1 a 6.2 y que es característico de la zona donde fué hecha la experiencia.Se han obtenido resultados referentes a la influencia de la inoculación de la semilla con Rhizobium y el agregado de cal y harina de huesos sobre los rendimientos.

  17. An Insight into T-DNA Integration Events in Medicago sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolia, Alessandro; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Veronesi, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of transferred DNA (T-DNA) integration into the plant genome are still not completely understood. A large number of integration events have been analyzed in different species, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms involved, and on the frequent transfer of vector sequences outside the T-DNA borders, the so-called vector backbone (VB) sequences. In this work, we characterized 46 transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants (events), generated in previous works, for the presence of VB tracts, and sequenced several T-DNA/genomic DNA (gDNA) junctions. We observed that about 29% of the transgenic events contained VB sequences, within the range reported in other species. Sequence analysis of the T-DNA/gDNA junctions evidenced larger deletions at LBs compared to RBs and insertions probably originated by different integration mechanisms. Overall, our findings in alfalfa are consistent with those in other plant species. This work extends the knowledge on the molecular events of T-DNA integration and can help to design better transformation protocols for alfalfa. PMID:28895894

  18. Physiological and antioxidant responses of Medicago sativa-rhizobia symbiosis to cyanobacterial toxins (Microcystins) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khalloufi, Fatima; Oufdou, Khalid; Lahrouni, Majida; Faghire, Mustapha; Peix, Alvaro; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Oudra, Brahim

    2013-12-15

    Toxic cyanobacteria in freshwaters can induce potent harmful effects on growth and development of plants irrigated with contaminated water. In this study, the effect of cyanobacteria extract containing Microcystins (MC) on Medicago sativa-rhizobia symbiosis was investigated in order to explore plants response through biomass production, photosynthetic pigment and antioxidant enzymes analysis: Peroxidase (POD), Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and Catalase (CAT). Alfalfa plants were inoculated with two endosymbiotic rhizobial strains: RhOL1 (MC less sensitive strain) and RhOL3 (MC more sensitive strain), to evaluate the rhizobial contribution on the plant response cultured under cyanobacterial toxins stress. The two rhizobia strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti by sequence analysis of their rrs and atpD genes. The chronic exposure to MC extract showed shoot, root and nodules dry weight decrease, in both symbiosis cultures. The rate of decline in plants inoculated with RhOL3 was higher than that in symbiosis with RhOL1 mainly at 20 μg L(-1) of MC. Cyanotoxins also reduced photosynthetic pigment content and generated an oxidative stress observed at cellular level. POD, PPO and CAT activities were significantly increased in leaves, roots and nodules of alfalfa plants exposed to MC. These enzyme activities were higher in plants inoculated with RhOL3 especially when alfalfa plants were exposed to 20 μg L(-1) of MC. The present paper reports new scientific finding related to the behavior of rhizobia-M. sativa associations to MC (Microcystins) for later recommendation concerning the possible use of these symbiosis face to crops exposure to MC contaminated water irrigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic adaptations to mercury-induced oxidative stress in roots of Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhao Sheng; Huang, Si Qi; Guo, Kai; Mehta, Surya Kant; Zhang, Peng Chao; Yang, Zhi Min

    2007-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) roots were treated with mercuric ions in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and lipid peroxidation was studied biochemically as well as histochemically along with other physiological responses. Histochemical staining with Schiff's reagent and Evans blue revealed that the peroxidation of membrane lipids and loss of plasma membrane integrity in Hg-treated roots occurred in the meristem and the elongation zone. The histochemical observations were supported by the quantitative determinations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). However, under the mercuric ions stress, the alfalfa plants showed no significant alteration of hydrogen peroxide in roots. Analysis of lipoxygenase activity by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) showed that there were two isoforms in the root of alfalfa plants, but they showed quite different patterns under the Hg exposure. Also, using non-denaturing PAGE, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were determined in roots after treatment with Hg ions. The total activities of SOD and POD increased in roots after Hg treatment of roots. Activity of ascorbate peroxides (APX) was stimulated at relatively high concentration of Hg (40microM), and after prolonged Hg exposure (20microM, 24h). In contrast, glutathione reductase activity was depressed at higher concentrations of Hg (10-20microM). Treatments of seedlings with 10-40microM Hg decreased the ascorbate and glutathione amounts but increased total non-protein thiols. The above results indicated that Hg exerted its toxic effect on the root growth of alfalfa by induction of oxidative stress.

  20. Effect of the inherent variation in the mineral concentration of alfalfa cultivars on aphid populations Efeito da variação inata da concentração de minerais em cultivares de alfafa (Medicago sativa em população de afídeos (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida e Silva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have inherent variability of mineral content which affects their physiology and consequently the herbivorous insects feeding on them. Besides, insects need considerable amounts of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium in their diets, whereas little calcium, sodium and chloride are required. In this study, the inherent variation on mineral (Ca, S, Mg, N, P, K and also C:N ratio concentrations and aphid (Acyrthosiphon spp., Therioaphis maculata, Aphis craccivora populations on three alfalfa (Medicago sativa cultivars (P3; Crioula, the most widely cultivated in Brazil, and CUF 101, an aphid-resistant were studied between September/1997 and August/1998. A significant variation on mineral concentrations and aphid populations was observed among different sampling times and cultivars. The correlations between C:N ratio, Mg, N, P and S concentrations and aphid density variation suggest that the mineral status affects aphid population dynamics under field conditions.As plantas têm variação inata do conteúdo de minerais e seu estado nutricional afeta sua fisiologia cloretos. A variação inata na concentração de minerais (Ca, S, Mg, N, P, K e também a razão C:N e na população de afídeos (Acyrthosiphon spp., Therioaphis maculata, Aphis craccivora em três cultivares de alfafa (M. sativa - P3; Crioula, as mais cultivadas no Brasil, e CUF 101, resistente a afídeos - foi estudada entre setembro/1997 a agosto/1998 neste trabalho. A concentração de minerais e as populações de pulgões variaram significativamente entre os diferentes períodos de coleta e cultivares. As correlações encontradas entre as concentrações de Mg, N, P, S e a razão C:N e a variação no número de pulgões sugerem que os minerais da planta afetam a dinâmica populacional dos pulgões em campo.

  1. Determination of sugars and cyclitols isolated from various morphological parts of Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Suod, Hossam; Ratiu, Ileana-Andreea; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2018-03-01

    Plant research interest has increased all over the world, and a large body of evidence has been collected to show the huge potential of medicinal plants in various disease treatments. Medicago sativa L., known as alfalfa, is a rich source of biologically active components and secondary metabolites and was frequently used from the ancient times both as fodder crop and as a traditional medicine in the treatment of various diseases. Cyclitols, naturally occurring in this plant, have a particular interest for us due to their significant anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. In the present study we revealed the isolation, the identification, and the quantification of some cyclitols and sugars extracted from different morphological parts of alfalfa plant. Soxhlet extraction and solid phase extraction were used as extraction and purification methods, while for the analyses derivatization followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was involved. The obtained results showed significant differences in the quantities of cyclitols and sugars found in the investigated morphological parts, ranging between 0.02 and 13.86 mg/g of plant in case of cyclitols, and in the range of 0.09 and 40.09 mg/g of plant for sugars. However, roots have the richest part of cyclitols and sugars in contrast to the leaves. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Alfalfa Biomass Germplasms: SFP Detection and Transcriptome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) subsp. sativa] breeding, molecular genetics, and genomics have been slow because this crop is an allogamous autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) with complex polysomic inheritance. Increasing cellulose and decreasing lignin in alfalfa stem cell walls would improve ...

  3. Determinación microbiológica y de metales pesados en jugos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) usado en la preparación de jugos naturales de fruta, expendidos en los diferentes mercados del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Quishpe Puga, Karina Marisol

    2016-01-01

    The natural juice of alfalfa is a popular mixture in Ecuador that is used with medicinal and nutritional purposes. The plant has properties like antihemostatic, appetite stimulant among other uses (Ríos, Koziol, Pedersen, & Granda, 2007). This product is distributed through the metropolitan system of commercialization, but it isn’t has researches which assure its quality. Considering it, we chose the 50% of the metropolitan district territory and found 29 markets that ...

  4. The coupling of the plant and microbial catabolisms of phenanthrene in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratova, Anna; Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Golubev, Sergey; Grinev, Vyacheslav; Chernyshova, Marina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2015-09-01

    We studied the catabolism of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene by four rhizobacterial strains and the possibility of enzymatic oxidation of this compound and its microbial metabolites by the root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in order to detect the possible coupling of the plant and microbial metabolisms under the rhizospheric degradation of the organic pollutant. A comparative study of phenanthrene degradation pathways in the PAH-degrading rhizobacteria Ensifer meliloti, Pseudomonas kunmingensis, Rhizobium petrolearium, and Stenotrophomonas sp. allowed us to identify the key metabolites from the microbial transformation of phenanthrene, including 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 2-carboxybenzaldehyde, and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic, salicylic, and o-phthalic acids. Sterile alfalfa plants were grown in the presence and absence of phenanthrene (0.03 g kg(-1)) in quartz sand under controlled environmental conditions to obtain plant root exudates. The root exudates were collected, concentrated by ultrafiltration, and the activity of oxidoreductases was detected spectrophotometrically by the oxidation rate for various substrates. The most marked activity was that of peroxidase, whereas the presence of oxidase and tyrosinase was detected on the verge of the assay sensitivity. Using alfalfa root exudates as a crude enzyme preparation, we found that in the presence of the synthetic mediator, the plant peroxidase could oxidize phenanthrene and its microbial metabolites. The results indicate the possibility of active participation of plants in the rhizospheric degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their microbial metabolites, which makes it possible to speak about the coupling of the plant and microbial catabolisms of these contaminants in the rhizosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of the weed density on grass yield of Alfalfa ( Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, in which the effects of different row spacing applications on weed density and on grass yield of Medicago sativa L. were investigated, was carried out in Van-Turkey from 2006 - 2008. Randomized blocks design was adopted with three replications. Row spacing applications of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 cm were ...

  6. From model to crop: functional analysis of a STAY-GREEN gene in the model legume Medicago truncatula and effective use of the gene for alfalfa improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanen; Han, Lu; Pislariu, Catalina; Nakashima, Jin; Fu, Chunxiang; Jiang, Qingzhen; Quan, Li; Blancaflor, Elison B; Tang, Yuhong; Bouton, Joseph H; Udvardi, Michael; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2011-11-01

    Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model legume. Its close relative alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the most widely grown forage legume crop in the United States. By screening a large population of M. truncatula mutants tagged with the transposable element of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell type1 (Tnt1), we identified a mutant line (NF2089) that maintained green leaves and showed green anthers, central carpels, mature pods, and seeds during senescence. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that the mutation was caused by Tnt1 insertion in a STAY-GREEN (MtSGR) gene. Transcript profiling analysis of the mutant showed that loss of the MtSGR function affected the expression of a large number of genes involved in different biological processes. Further analyses revealed that SGR is implicated in nodule development and senescence. MtSGR expression was detected across all nodule developmental zones and was higher in the senescence zone. The number of young nodules on the mutant roots was higher than in the wild type. Expression levels of several nodule senescence markers were reduced in the sgr mutant. Based on the MtSGR sequence, an alfalfa SGR gene (MsSGR) was cloned, and transgenic alfalfa lines were produced by RNA interference. Silencing of MsSGR led to the production of stay-green transgenic alfalfa. This beneficial trait offers the opportunity to produce premium alfalfa hay with a more greenish appearance. In addition, most of the transgenic alfalfa lines retained more than 50% of chlorophylls during senescence and had increased crude protein content. This study illustrates the effective use of knowledge gained from a model system for the genetic improvement of an important commercial crop.

  7. Valor nutritivo do capim-elefante (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, do feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa, L. e do feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. para eqüinos Nutritive value of elephant grass (Penninsetum purpureum, Schum, alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, L. and coast-cross grass hay (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. for horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Vieira de Almeida

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes nos alimentos volumosos capim-elefante, feno de alfafa e feno de capim coast-cross em eqüinos adultos. Dezoito éguas adultas da raça Mangalarga Marchador foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos, que consistiram em dietas contendo os seguintes alimentos volumosos: T1 - capim-elefante, T2 - feno de alfafa e T3 - feno de capim coast-cross. Os animais foram alimentados ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia. O período experimental constituiu de uma fase de oito dias para adaptação às dietas e cinco dias para a coleta total das fezes. Não houve diferenças no consumo diário de matéria seca (MS das forragens, sendo observados valores médios de 6,27 kg MS, 68,41 g MS/kg0,75 ou 1,51%PV. Os coeficientes médios de digestibilidade aparente do capim-elefante e dos fenos de alfafa e capim coast-cross foram de 43,10; 55,20; e 49,80% para a MS; 41,60; 53,40; e 47,90% para a energia bruta; 24,60; 71,20; e 56,10% para a proteína bruta; e 40,60; 35,50; e 63,30% para a fibra em detergente neutro.The objective of this work was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients of elephant grass forages, alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays in adult horses. Eighteen adult Mangalarga Marchador mares were allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments that consisted on diets with the following forages: T1 - elephant grass, T2 - alfalfa hay, T3 - coast-cross grass hay. The animals were ad libitum fed twice a day. The experimental period was constituted by a phase of eight days for diet adaptation and a phase of five days for total collection of feces. There were no differences of forage dry matter intake, with average values of 6.27 kg DM, 68.41 g DM/kg0,75 or 1.51% LW. The average coefficients of apparent digestibility of elephant grass and alfalfa and coast-cross grass hays were 43.10, 55

  8. Genome-wide identification of different dormant Medicago sativa L. MicroRNAs in response to fall dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenna; Zhang, Senhao; Du, Hongqi; Sun, Xiaoge; Shi, Yinghua; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) that regulate gene post-transcriptional expression in plants and animals. High-throughput sequencing technology is capable of identifying small RNAs in plant species. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated perennial forage legumes worldwide, and fall dormancy is an adaptive characteristic related to the biomass production and winter survival in alfalfa. Here, we applied high-throughput sRNA sequencing to identify some miRNAs that were responsive to fall dormancy in standard variety (Maverick and CUF101) of alfalfa. Four sRNA libraries were generated and sequenced from alfalfa leaves in two typical varieties at distinct seasons. Through integrative analysis, we identified 51 novel miRNA candidates of 206 families. Additionally, we identified 28 miRNAs associated with fall dormancy in standard variety (Maverick and CUF101), including 20 known miRNAs and eight novel miRNAs. Both high-throughput sequencing and RT-qPCR confirmed that eight known miRNA members were up-regulated and six known miRNA members were down-regulated in response to fall dormancy in standard variety (Maverick and CUF101). Among the 51 novel miRNA candidates, five miRNAs were up-regulated and three miRNAs were down-regulated in response to fall dormancy in standard variety (Maverick and CUF101), and five of them were confirmed by Northern blot analysis. We identified 20 known miRNAs and eight new miRNA candidates that were responsive to fall dormancy in standard variety (Maverick and CUF101) by high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs from Medicago sativa. Our data provide a useful resource for investigating miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms of fall dormancy in alfalfa, and these findings are important for our understanding of the roles played by miRNAs in the response of plants to abiotic stress in general and fall dormancy in alfalfa.

  9. VALOR NUTRITIVO DA CASCA DE CAFÉ (Coffea arabica L. TRATADA COM HIDRÓXIDO DE SÓDIO E/OU URÉIA SUPLEMENTADA COM FENO DE ALFAFA (Medicago sativa L. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF COFFEE (Coffea arabica L. HULLS TREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND/OR UREA SUPPLEMENTED WITH ALFALFA (Medicago sativa L. HAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Afonso Leitão

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o valor nutritivo da casca de café tratada ou não com hidróxido de sódio e/ou uréia. Foram utilizados vinte carneiros, em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e cinco tratamentos constituídos de 50% de feno de alfafa e 50% de casca de café tradada ou não, assim distribuídos: T1-feno de alfafa e casca de café pura; T2-feno e casca de café + 5% uréia; T3-feno e casca de café + 1,5% NaOH; T4-feno e casca de café + 1,5% NaOH + 5% uréia; T5-100% feno de alfafa. O tratamento da casca de café com uréia propiciou apenas aumento no teor de proteína bruta (PB, e com NaOH não provocou alterações na composição química. A casca tratada ou não provocou depressão no consumo. Houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto ao consumo de proteína digestível (CPD, consumo de energia digestível (CED e digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta (DAPB. Considerando-se a composição bromatológica e a digestiblidade da casca de café pura, ela é um subproduto que pode ser aproveitado pelos ruminantes. Devido ao baixo consumo da casca de café tratada ou não, deve-se fornecêla junto a outro alimento de melhor valor nutritivo, principalmente com um melhor teor de energia.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Consumo; digestibilidade; ruminantes; subprodutos agrícolas.

    The aim of this work was to assess the nutritive value of coffee hulls treated with sodium hydroxide and urea. Twenty sheeps were utilized in a randomized block design, with four blocks and five treatments combining 50% alfalfa hay and 50% treated or untreated coffee hulls, as follows: T1-alfalfa hay and pure coffee hulls; T2-hay and coffee hulls + 5% urea; T3-hay + coffee hulls + 1.5% NaOH; T4-hay + coffee hulls + 1.5% NaOH + 5% urea; T5-100% hay. The treatment coffee hulls with

  10. Peroxidases from root exudates of Medicago sativa and Sorghum bicolor: Catalytic properties and involvement in PAH degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Golubev, Sergey; Muratova, Anna; Grinev, Vyacheslav; Bondarenkova, Anastasiya; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2017-02-01

    Peroxidases from root exudates of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were purified and characterized, and their ability to oxidize native PAHs and PAH-derivatives was evaluated. The obtained data confirm that peroxidases are involved in the rhizosphere degradation of PAHs. Nondenaturing PAGE showed that the peroxidases of both plants were represented by a range of isoforms/isoenzymes (five to eight). Minor forms were lost during further purification, and as a result, the major anionic form from alfalfa root exudates and the major cationic form from those of sorghum were obtained. Both electrophoretically homogeneous peroxidases were monomeric proteins with a molecular weight of about 46-48 kDa. The pH optima and the main catalytic constants for the test substrates were determined. On the basis of their molecular and catalytic properties, the obtained enzymes were found to be typical plant peroxidases. Derivatives of PAHs and potential products of their microbial degradation (9-phenanthrol and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone), unlike the parent PAH (phenanthrene), inhibited the catalytic activity of the peroxidases, possibly indicating greater availability of the enzymes' active centers to these substances. Peroxidase-catalyzed decreases in the concentrations of a number of PAHs and their derivatives were observed. Sorghum peroxidase oxidized anthracene and phenanthrene, while alfalfa peroxidase oxidized only phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid was best oxidized by peroxidase of alfalfa. However, quinone derivatives of PAHs were unavailable to sorghum peroxidase, but were oxidized by alfalfa peroxidase. These results indicate that the major peroxidases from root exudates of alfalfa and sorghum can have a role in the rhizosphere degradation of PAHs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Cell Wall-Related Genes in Organs of Medicago sativa L. under Different Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Marc; Legay, Sylvain; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2015-07-16

    Abiotic constraints are a source of concern in agriculture, because they can have a strong impact on plant growth and development, thereby affecting crop yield. The response of plants to abiotic constraints varies depending on the type of stress, on the species and on the organs. Although many studies have addressed different aspects of the plant response to abiotic stresses, only a handful has focused on the role of the cell wall. A targeted approach has been used here to study the expression of cell wall-related genes in different organs of alfalfa plants subjected for four days to three different abiotic stress treatments, namely salt, cold and heat stress. Genes involved in different steps of cell wall formation (cellulose biosynthesis, monolignol biosynthesis and polymerization) have been analyzed in different organs of Medicago sativa L. Prior to this analysis, an in silico classification of dirigent/dirigent-like proteins and class III peroxidases has been performed in Medicago truncatula and M. sativa. The final goal of this study is to infer and compare the expression patterns of cell wall-related genes in response to different abiotic stressors in the organs of an important legume crop.

  12. Agronomic performance of seven varieties of alfalfa (Medicago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven varieties of alfalfa, namely Iroquois, Vernal, Mohawk, Pike F0185, WL 318, Oneda and WL 514, were screened for agronomic performance at Cape Coast in the coastal savanna ecological zone of Ghana during the period from May 1992 to May 1993. A total of 10 harvests were taken at monthly intervals after 3 ...

  13. Toxic effects of arsenic on Sinorhizobium-Medicago sativa symbiotic interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajuelo, Eloisa [Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, 41012 Seville (Spain); Rodriguez-Llorente, Ignacio D. [Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, 41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: irodri@us.es; Dary, Mohammed; Palomares, Antonio J. [Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Recently, the Rhizobium-legume symbiotic interaction has been proposed as an interesting tool in bioremediation. However, little is known about the effect of most common contaminants on this process. The phytotoxic effects of arsenic on nodulation of Medicago sativa have been examined in vitro using the highly arsenic resistant and symbiotically effective Sinorhizobium sp. strain MA11. The bacteria were able to grow on plates containing As concentrations as high as 10 mM. Nevertheless, as little as 25-35 {mu}M arsenite produced a 75% decrease in the total number of nodules, due to a 90% reduction in the number of rhizobial infections, as could be determined using the strain MA11 carrying a lacZ reporter gene. This effect was associated to root hair damage and a shorter infective root zone. However, once nodulation was established nodule development seemed to continue normally, although earlier senescence could be observed in nodules of arsenic-grown plants. - First steps of nodulation of alfalfa, in particular infection thread formation, are more sensitive to As than nitrogen fixation due to plant effects.

  14. Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Medicago sativa L. by fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Wilber S; Manoel, Evelin A; Santos, Noemi S; Nunes, Rosane O; Domiciano, Giselli C; Soares, Marcia R

    2017-04-01

    Green technologies, such as phytoremediation, are effective for removing organic pollutants derived from oil and oil products, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the increasing popularity of these sustainable remediation techniques, methods based on fluorescence microscopy and multiphoton microscopy for the environmental monitoring of such pollutants have emerged in recent decades as effective tools for phytoremediation studies aimed at understanding the fate of these contaminants in plants. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in PAH uptake, responses and degradation by plants. Thus, the present study aimed to detect the location of pyrene, anthracene and phenanthrene using fluorescence microscopy techniques in shoots and roots of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) plants grown in artificially contaminated soil (150ppm PAHs) for 40days. Leaflet and root samples were then collected and observed under a fluorescence microscope to detect the presence of PAHs in various tissues. One important finding of the present study was intense fluorescence in the glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs) of plants grown in contaminated soil. These trichomes, with a previously unknown function, may be sites of PAH conjugation and degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Profiling of metabolome and bacterial community dynamics in ensiled Medicago sativa inoculated without or with Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus buchneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X S; Ke, W C; Ding, W R; Ding, L M; Xu, D M; Wang, W W; Zhang, P; Yang, F Y

    2018-01-10

    Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the PacBio single molecule with real-time sequencing technology (SMRT), we analyzed the detailed metabolomic profiles and microbial community dynamics involved in ensiled Medicago sativa (alfalfa) inoculated without or with the homofermenter Lactobacillus plantarum or heterofermenter Lactobacillus buchneri. Our results revealed that 280 substances and 102 different metabolites were present in ensiled alfalfa. Inoculation of L. buchneri led to remarkable up-accumulation in concentrations of 4-aminobutyric acid, some free amino acids, and polyols in ensiled alfalfa, whereas considerable down-accumulation in cadaverine and succinic acid were observed in L. plantarum-inoculated silages. Completely different microbial flora and their successions during ensiling were observed in the control and two types of inoculant-treated silages. Inoculation of the L. plantarum or L. buchneri alters the microbial composition dynamics of the ensiled forage in very different manners. Our study demonstrates that metabolomic profiling analysis provides a deep insight in metabolites in silage. Moreover, the PacBio SMRT method revealed the microbial composition and its succession during the ensiling process at the species level. This provides information regarding the microbial processes underlying silage formation and may contribute to target-based regulation methods to achieve high-quality silage production.

  16. WATER DEFICIT EFFECT ON YIELD AND FORAGE QUALITY OF MEDICAGO SATIVA POPULATIONS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS IN MARRAKESH AREA (MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed FARISSI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused the effect of water deficit on agronomic potential and some traits related to forage quality in plants of Moroccan Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. populations (Taf 1, Taf 2, Dem and Tata originated from Oasis and High Atlas of Morocco and an introduced variety from Australia (Siriver. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in experimental station of INRA-Marrakech and under two irrigation treatments. The first treatment was normal irrigation, providing an amount of water corresponding to the potential evapo-transpiration of the crop, and the second treatment was water deficit stress (one irrigation per cut. For each treatment, the experiment was conducted as a split plot based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. The plants were measured and analyzed over three cuts. Some agronomic traits as, plant height, fresh and dry forage yields were measured. The forage quality was evaluated by leaf:stem ratio and the contents of plants in proteins and nitrogen. The results indicated that the water deficit has negatively affected the plant height and forage yield. The decrease in leaf:stem ratio was observed under water deficit conditions. However, the proteins and nitrogen contents were unaffected. The behavior of tested alfalfa genotypes was significantly different. The Moroccan alfalfa populations were more adapted to water deficit conditions comparatively to Siriver variety and the Tata population was the most adapted one.

  17. Sexual Polyploidization in Medicago sativa L.: Impact on the Phenotype, Gene Transcription, and Genome Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Daniele; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Allegrucci, Stefano; Capomaccio, Stefano; Zago, Elisa Debora; Leonetti, Paola; Balech, Bachir; Aversano, Riccardo; Carputo, Domenico; Reale, Lara; Veronesi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidization as the consequence of 2n gamete formation is a prominent mechanism in plant evolution. Studying its effects on the genome, and on genome expression, has both basic and applied interest. We crossed two diploid (2n = 2x = 16) Medicago sativa plants, a subsp. falcata seed parent, and a coerulea × falcata pollen parent that form a mixture of n and 2n eggs and pollen, respectively. Such a cross produced full-sib diploid and tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) hybrids, the latter being the result of bilateral sexual polyploidization (BSP). These unique materials allowed us to investigate the effects of BSP, and to separate the effect of intraspecific hybridization from those of polyploidization by comparing 2x with 4x full sib progeny plants. Simple sequence repeat marker segregation demonstrated tetrasomic inheritance for all chromosomes but one, demonstrating that these neotetraploids are true autotetraploids. BSP brought about increased biomass, earlier flowering, higher seed set and weight, and larger leaves with larger cells. Microarray analyses with M. truncatula gene chips showed that several hundred genes, related to diverse metabolic functions, changed their expression level as a consequence of polyploidization. In addition, cytosine methylation increased in 2x, but not in 4x, hybrids. Our results indicate that sexual polyploidization induces significant transcriptional novelty, possibly mediated in part by DNA methylation, and phenotypic novelty that could underpin improved adaptation and reproductive success of tetraploid M. sativa with respect to its diploid progenitor. These polyploidy-induced changes may have promoted the adoption of tetraploid alfalfa in agriculture. PMID:26858330

  18. Enhancing pollination by attracting & retaining leaf cutting bees (Megachile rotundata) in alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.), has become an important managed pollinator of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. One problem when using alfalfa leafcutting bees as managed pollinator, is the dispersal of many females upon release, even when adequate nesting sites are present. While d...

  19. Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. J Chen, F Tang, R Zhu, C Gao, G Di, Y Zhang. Abstract. The productivity and quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is strongly influenced by cutting frequency (F). To clarify that the yield and quality of alfalfa if affected by F, ...

  20. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 contributes to the amelioration of aluminum-induced oxidative stress in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiti; Zhang, Jing; Xuan, Wei; Xie, Yanjie

    2013-10-15

    In this report, pharmacological, histochemical and molecular approaches were used to investigate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) up-regulation on the alleviation of aluminum (Al)-induced oxidative stress in Medicago sativa. Exposure of alfalfa to AlCl3 (0-100 μM) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of root elongation as well as the enhancement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content. 1 and 10 μM (in particular) Al(3+) increased alfalfa HO-1 transcript or its protein level, and HO activity in comparison with the decreased changes in 100 μM Al-treated samples. After recuperation, however, TBARS levels in 1 and 10 μM Al-treated alfalfa roots returned to control values, which were accompanied with the higher levels of HO activity. Subsequently, exogenous CO, a byproduct of HO-1, could substitute for the cytoprotective effects of the up-regulation of HO-1 in alfalfa plants upon Al stress, which was confirmed by the alleviation of TBARS and Al accumulation, as well as the histochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and loss of plasma membrane integrity. Theses results indicated that endogenous CO generated via heme degradation by HO-1 could contribute in a critical manner to its protective effects. Additionally, the pretreatments of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and hemin, an inducer of HO-1, exhibited the similar cytoprotective roles in the alleviation of oxidative stress, both of which were impaired by the potent inhibitor of HO-1, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). However, the Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was not influenced by CO, BHT and hemin, respectively. Together, the present results showed up-regulation of HO-1 expression could act as a mechanism of cell protection against oxidative stress induced by Al treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Ectopic expression of GsPPCK3 and SCMRP in Medicago sativa enhances plant alkaline stress tolerance and methionine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhe; Sun, Xiaoli; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Chaoyue; Duanmu, Huizi; Yu, Yang; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    So far, it has been suggested that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) and PEPC kinases (PPCKs) fulfill several important non-photosynthetic functions. However, the biological functions of soybean PPCKs, especially in alkali stress response, are not yet well known. In previous studies, we constructed a Glycine soja transcriptional profile, and identified three PPCK genes (GsPPCK1, GsPPCK2 and GsPPCK3) as potential alkali stress responsive genes. In this study, we confirmed the induced expression of GsPPCK3 under alkali stress and investigated its tissue expression specificity by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then we ectopically expressed GsPPCK3 in Medicago sativa and found that GsPPCK3 overexpression improved plant alkali tolerance, as evidenced by lower levels of relative ion leakage and MDA content and higher levels of chlorophyll content and root activity. In this respect, we further co-transformed the GsPPCK3 and SCMRP genes into alfalfa, and demonstrated the increased alkali tolerance of GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines. Further investigation revealed that GsPPCK3-SCMRP co-overexpression promoted the PEPC activity, net photosynthetic rate and citric acid content of transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. Moreover, we also observed the up-regulated expression of PEPC, CS (citrate synthase), H(+)-ATPase and NADP-ME genes in GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. As expected, we demonstrated that GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines displayed higher methionine content than wild type alfalfa. Taken together, results presented in this study supported the positive role of GsPPCK3 in plant response to alkali stress, and provided an effective way to simultaneously improve plant alkaline tolerance and methionine content, at least in legume crops.

  2. Ectopic expression of GsPPCK3 and SCMRP in Medicago sativa enhances plant alkaline stress tolerance and methionine content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhe Sun

    Full Text Available So far, it has been suggested that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs and PEPC kinases (PPCKs fulfill several important non-photosynthetic functions. However, the biological functions of soybean PPCKs, especially in alkali stress response, are not yet well known. In previous studies, we constructed a Glycine soja transcriptional profile, and identified three PPCK genes (GsPPCK1, GsPPCK2 and GsPPCK3 as potential alkali stress responsive genes. In this study, we confirmed the induced expression of GsPPCK3 under alkali stress and investigated its tissue expression specificity by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then we ectopically expressed GsPPCK3 in Medicago sativa and found that GsPPCK3 overexpression improved plant alkali tolerance, as evidenced by lower levels of relative ion leakage and MDA content and higher levels of chlorophyll content and root activity. In this respect, we further co-transformed the GsPPCK3 and SCMRP genes into alfalfa, and demonstrated the increased alkali tolerance of GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines. Further investigation revealed that GsPPCK3-SCMRP co-overexpression promoted the PEPC activity, net photosynthetic rate and citric acid content of transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. Moreover, we also observed the up-regulated expression of PEPC, CS (citrate synthase, H(+-ATPase and NADP-ME genes in GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. As expected, we demonstrated that GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines displayed higher methionine content than wild type alfalfa. Taken together, results presented in this study supported the positive role of GsPPCK3 in plant response to alkali stress, and provided an effective way to simultaneously improve plant alkaline tolerance and methionine content, at least in legume crops.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization alters subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Medicago sativa L. and resists cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanpeng; Huang, Jing; Gao, Yanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Some plants can tolerate and even detoxify soils contaminated with heavy metals. This detoxification ability may depend on what chemical forms of metals are taken up by plants and how the plants distribute the toxins in their tissues. This, in turn, may have an important impact on phytoremediation. We investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices, on the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium (Cd) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) that were grown in Cd-added soils. The fungus significantly colonized alfalfa roots by day 25 after planting. Colonization of alfalfa by G. intraradices in soils contaminated with Cd ranged from 17% to 69% after 25-60 days and then decreased to 43%. The biomass of plant shoots with AM fungi showed significant 1.7-fold increases compared to no AM fungi addition under the treatment of 20 mg kg(-1) Cd. Concentrations of Cd in the shoots of alfalfa under 0.5, 5, and 20 mgkg(-1) Cd without AM fungal inoculation are 1.87, 2.92, and 2.38 times higher, respectively, than those of fungi-inoculated plants. Fungal inoculation increased Cd (37.2-80.5%) in the cell walls of roots and shoots and decreased in membranes after 80 days of incubation compared to untreated plants. The proportion of the inactive forms of Cd in roots was higher in fungi-treated plants than in controls. Furthermore, although fungi-treated plants had less overall Cd in subcellular fragments in shoots, they had more inactive Cd in shoots than did control plants. These results provide a basis for further research on plant-microbe symbioses in soils contaminated with heavy metals, which may potentially help us develop management regimes for phytoremediation.

  4. Ectopic Expression of GsPPCK3 and SCMRP in Medicago sativa Enhances Plant Alkaline Stress Tolerance and Methionine Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Chaoyue; DuanMu, Huizi; Yu, Yang; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    So far, it has been suggested that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCs) and PEPC kinases (PPCKs) fulfill several important non-photosynthetic functions. However, the biological functions of soybean PPCKs, especially in alkali stress response, are not yet well known. In previous studies, we constructed a Glycine soja transcriptional profile, and identified three PPCK genes (GsPPCK1, GsPPCK2 and GsPPCK3) as potential alkali stress responsive genes. In this study, we confirmed the induced expression of GsPPCK3 under alkali stress and investigated its tissue expression specificity by using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Then we ectopically expressed GsPPCK3 in Medicago sativa and found that GsPPCK3 overexpression improved plant alkali tolerance, as evidenced by lower levels of relative ion leakage and MDA content and higher levels of chlorophyll content and root activity. In this respect, we further co-transformed the GsPPCK3 and SCMRP genes into alfalfa, and demonstrated the increased alkali tolerance of GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines. Further investigation revealed that GsPPCK3-SCMRP co-overexpression promoted the PEPC activity, net photosynthetic rate and citric acid content of transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. Moreover, we also observed the up-regulated expression of PEPC, CS (citrate synthase), H+-ATPase and NADP-ME genes in GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic alfalfa under alkali stress. As expected, we demonstrated that GsPPCK3-SCMRP transgenic lines displayed higher methionine content than wild type alfalfa. Taken together, results presented in this study supported the positive role of GsPPCK3 in plant response to alkali stress, and provided an effective way to simultaneously improve plant alkaline tolerance and methionine content, at least in legume crops. PMID:24586886

  5. Toxicological responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL-021

    2012-11-13

    Nov 13, 2012 ... the biosphere in many places worldwide. Among them, cadmium (Cd), a nonessential element present in the atmosphere, soil, and water, is one of the most aggres- sive and persistent element in natural environments. Cd released into the environment may be concentrated in the soil, where it is available ...

  6. Biochemical responses of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... peroxidase;. DHAR, dehydroascorbate reductase; MDHAR, monodehydro ascorbate reductase; GR, glutathione reductase; PPFD, photo period flow ...... reductase from cold-hardened and non-hardened spinach leaf tissue. Cryobiol. 21: 454-464. Hajihashemi S, Kiarostami K, Enteshari S, Saboora A (2006) ...

  7. Harvest impacts on alfalfa stem neutral detergent fiber concentration and digestibility and cell wall concentration and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stem fiber concentration and digestibility, lignin, and polysaccharide composition impact energy availability for livestock and biofuel conversion efficiency and are affected by maturity stage and environmental influences. We evaluated stem neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ...

  8. Development and characterization of the first infectious clone of alfalfa latent virus, a strain of Pea streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a natural host plant for many plant pathogens including fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses. Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa. The first complete genomic sequence of the ALV that was recently obtained i...

  9. Biological nitrogen fixation by lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) in acid soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, J.

    1990-01-01

    Growth of lucerne( Medicago sativa L.) is poor in soils with values of pH-H2O below 6. This is often due to nitrogen deficiency, resulting from a hampered performance of the symbiosis withRhizobium

  10. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO VARIA L.) GENETICLALY ENGINEERED TO EXPRESS A HUMAN METALLOTHIONEIN (HMT) GENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of these studies were two-fold: (1) to determine efficacy of low and high expression hMT gene constructs by assessing accumulation of Cu in shoots of parental and transgenic plants of alfalfa (Medicago varia L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO4 by addit...

  11. Effects of salinity and drought stress on germination, biomass and growth in three varieties of Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castroluna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En plántulas de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. se evaluó la germinación y el crecimiento y su tolerancia al estrés osmótico inducido por Polietilenglicol 6000 (PEG6000 y salinidad (NaCl en tres genotipos distintos: Dk166, Verdor y Salina. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo con un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, con cinco réplicas y los parámetros que se determinaron fueron: energía y poder germinativo, largo de hojas y peso fresco y peso seco de raíces y hojas. Los resultados mostraron que la germinación fue retrasada en todas las variedades con ambas soluciones, con diferencias entre genotipos. El crecimiento de las plántulas, bajo un ligero estrés mostraron un incremento de la biomasa aérea y en un estrés hídrico y salino severo, muerte de las plantas excepto en Var. Salina (tolerante. PEG causó muerte en la variedad Verdor que mostró más sensibilidad a PEG que a NaCl. En raíces, los genotipos más sensibles frente a leves estrés salinos detuvieron su crecimiento y bajo leves situaciones de estrés hídrico lo incrementaron. Nuestros estudios nos permiten definir las variedades comerciales de Medicago sativa como moderadamente tolerantes a salinidad y sequía la variedad DK166, sensible o intolerante a salinidad y sequía la variedad Verdor y con una alta tolerancia a salinidad e insensible a sequía la variedad Salina.

  12. Isolation, chemical characterization and biological activity of alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. root saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Oleszek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins from alfalfa (Medicago media Pers. roots were isolated and their acid hydrolysis revealed several aglycones that were obtained in crystalline form and characterized. Medicagenic acid, hederagenin and soyasapogenols A. B, C. D, E and F were found. Crude saponins were separated into cholesterol-precipitable and nonprecipitable fractions. The precipitable fraction consisted of medicagenic acid glycosides: glucose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose were found as their sugar chain components. The nonprecipitable fraction was a mixture of hederagenine and soyasapogenol glycosides, and glucose arthinose. xylose. galactose and glucuronic acid were found in the sugar component,. 7 he medicagenic acid glycosides made up 6% of root dry matter and showed high biological activity. They cuased red blood cells lysis (haemolytic index 3000, completely inhibited Trichoderma viride growth at the concentration of 2.5 Mg. 100 cm-3 of growth medium and retarded wheat seedling growth at concentrations as low as 100 ppm. The cholesterol-nonprecipitable fraction caused no blood cell lysis and fungus growth inhibition, although it did inhibit seedling growth, but to a much lesser extent than medicagenic acrd glycosides. The detrimental effect of alfalfa root saponins on winter wheat crop after alfalfa is discussed.

  13. La simbiosis fijadora de nitrógeno Sinorhizobium meliloti-alfalfa: aproximaciones ómicas aplicadas a la identificación y caracterización de determinantes genéticos del rizobio asociados a la colonización temprana de la raíz de alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, María Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti es una α-proteobacteria capaz de establecer asociaciones simbióticas con plantas de los géneros Medicago, Melilotus y Trigonella. Esta asociación es el resultado de un complejo diálogo molecular entre los simbiontes, que se diferencian a lo largo de la interacción para dar lugar a un nuevo órgano en las raíces de las plantas, el nódulo fijador de nitrógeno. El nicho simbiótico accesible a los rizobios está naturalmente limitado, y resulta ocupado por aquellas cepas que ...

  14. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa (Medic ago Sativa L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.; Mohamad, A.

    1997-04-01

    The effects of 20% increase of UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) and two cultivars of soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Mer) under field conditions have been investigated. The increase of UVB dose ranged between 1.746 and 7.112 J/cm 2 during experiment. The results showed that soybean yield decrease by 16% and 31% in A. 3803 and A. 2522 cultivars respectively, under UVB exposure. The dry weight and leaf area were sensitive in the A. 3803 cultivar, while they were tolerant in the A. 2522 cultivar. Alfalfa response to UVB varied during the different stages of growth, whereas the yield was 12% less in the exposed plants. (author). 21 refs., 17 tabs

  15. Identification of loci Associated with Resistance to Root-Rot Diseases in Autotetraploid Alfalfa using Genome-Wide Sequencing and Association Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the world-wide forage crop. Changing trends to multipurpose uses increases demand for alfalfa. However, the production of alfalfa is challenged by endemic and emerging diseases. Identification of genes/loci controlling disease resistance will facilitate breeding for i...

  16. PHYSIOLOGICAL, CYTOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STABILITY OF Medicago sativa L. CELL CULTURE AFTER 27 YEARS OF CRYOGENIC STORAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, L A; Urmantseva, V V; Popova, E V; Nosov, A M

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of long-term cryogenic storage to prevent somaclonal variations in plant cell cultures and retain their major cytogenetic and biochemical traits remains under debate. In particular, it is not clear how stress conditions associated with cryopreservation, such as low temperature, dehydration and toxic action of some cryoprotectants (DMSO in particular), affect post-storage regrowth and genetic integrity of cell samples. We assessed growth, cytogenetic and biochemical characteristics of the peroxidase-producing strain of Medicago sativa L. cell culture recovered after 27 years of cryogenic storage as compared to the same culture before cryopreservation. In 1984, M. sativa L. cell culture was cryopreserved using programmed freezing and 7% DMSO as a cryoprotectant. In 2011, after rewarming in a water bath at 40 degree C for 90 s, cell culture was recovered and proliferated. Viability, growth profile, mitotic index, ploidy level, peroxidase activity and cell response to hypothermia and osmotic stress were compared between the recovered and the initial cell cultures using the records available from 1984. Viability of alfalfa cell culture after rewarming was below 20% but it increased to 80% by the 27th subculture cycle. Recovered culture showed higher mitotic activity and increased number of haploid and diploid cells compared to the initial cell line. Both peroxidase activity and response to abiotic stress in the recovered cell culture were similar to that of the initial culture. Cryopreservation by programmed freezing was effective at retaining the main characteristics of M. sativa undifferentiated cell culture after 27 years of storage. According to available data, this is longest period of successful cryopreservation of plant cell cultures reported so far. After storage, there was no evidence that DMSO had any detrimental effect on cell viability, growth or cytogenetics.

  17. From Model to Crop: Functional Analysis of a STAY-GREEN Gene in the Model Legume Medicago truncatula and Effective Use of the Gene for Alfalfa Improvement1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanen; Han, Lu; Pislariu, Catalina; Nakashima, Jin; Fu, Chunxiang; Jiang, Qingzhen; Quan, Li; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Tang, Yuhong; Bouton, Joseph H.; Udvardi, Michael; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model legume. Its close relative alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the most widely grown forage legume crop in the United States. By screening a large population of M. truncatula mutants tagged with the transposable element of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell type1 (Tnt1), we identified a mutant line (NF2089) that maintained green leaves and showed green anthers, central carpels, mature pods, and seeds during senescence. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that the mutation was caused by Tnt1 insertion in a STAY-GREEN (MtSGR) gene. Transcript profiling analysis of the mutant showed that loss of the MtSGR function affected the expression of a large number of genes involved in different biological processes. Further analyses revealed that SGR is implicated in nodule development and senescence. MtSGR expression was detected across all nodule developmental zones and was higher in the senescence zone. The number of young nodules on the mutant roots was higher than in the wild type. Expression levels of several nodule senescence markers were reduced in the sgr mutant. Based on the MtSGR sequence, an alfalfa SGR gene (MsSGR) was cloned, and transgenic alfalfa lines were produced by RNA interference. Silencing of MsSGR led to the production of stay-green transgenic alfalfa. This beneficial trait offers the opportunity to produce premium alfalfa hay with a more greenish appearance. In addition, most of the transgenic alfalfa lines retained more than 50% of chlorophylls during senescence and had increased crude protein content. This study illustrates the effective use of knowledge gained from a model system for the genetic improvement of an important commercial crop. PMID:21957014

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine stress

    OpenAIRE

    Fuqiang Song; Jize Li; Xiaoxu Fan; Quan Zhang; Wei Chang; Fengshan Yang; Gui Geng

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) protect host plants against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, and promote biodegradation of various contaminants. In this study effect of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine degradation was investigated. It was observed that the atrazine degradation rates with any addition level in mycorrhizal treatments were all significantly higher than those in non- mycorrhizal treatments. When atrazine was applied at 20?mg kg?1, the removal efficienc...

  19. ALFALFA

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Stjepanović; Robert Zimmer; Marijana Tucak; Gordana Bukvić; Svetislav Popović; Zvonimir Štafa

    2009-01-01

    The academic textbook Alfalfa contains the following chapters: Review outline, Foreword, Origin and spread of alfalfa, Economic importance of alfalfa, Biological properties and breeding alfalfa, Morphological traits of alfalfa, Growth and development of alfalfa, Ecological conditions for alfalfa growth, Agronomy of alfalfa for fodder production, Pests and diseases of alfalfa and their control, Usage of alfalfa and hay, silage and haylage production, Alfalfa seed production, Prospects for alfa...

  20. Mechanisms of qualitative and quantitative resistance to Aphanomyces root rot in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphanomyces root rot (ARR), caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, is one of the most important diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in the United States. Two races of the pathogen are currently recognized. Most modern alfalfa cultivars have high levels of resistance to race 1 but few cultivars have resi...

  1. First report of Fusarium wilt of alfalfa caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis, is an economically important vascular disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) throughout the world. Alfalfa plants with foliar wilt symptoms and reddish-brown arcs in roots consistent with Fusarium wilt were observed in disease assessment ...

  2. Forage accumulation and nutritive value of reduced lignin and reference alfalfa cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduced lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars have the potential to increase the feeding value of alfalfa for livestock by improving the forage fiber digestibility and to increase harvest management flexibility. The objectives were to compare the yield and forage nutritive value of reduced ...

  3. Characterization of the plant growth promoting bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae MSR1, isolated from roots of non-nodulating Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Ashraf Y Z; Alsyeeh, Abdel-Moneium; Almalki, Mohammed A; Saleh, Farag A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the endophytic bacterial strain designated MSR1 that was isolated from inside the non-nodulating roots of Medicago sativa after surface-sterilization. MSR1 was identified as Enterobacter cloacae using both 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and API20E biochemical identification system (Biomerieux, France). Furthermore, this bacterium was characterized using API50CH kit (Biomerieux, France) and tested for antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens. The results showed that E. cloacae consumed certain carbohydrates such as glycerol, d-xylose, d-maltose and esculin melibiose as a sole carbon source and certain amino acids such as arginine, tryptophan ornithine as nitrogen source. Furthermore, MSR1 possessed multiple plant-growth promoting characteristics; phosphate solubility, production of phytohormones acetoin and bioactive compounds. Inoculation of Pisum sativum with MSR1 significantly improved the growth parameters (the length and dry weight) of this economically important grain legume compared to the non-treated plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing E. cloacae which exist in roots of alfalfa growing in Al-Ahsaa region. The results confirmed that E. cloacae exhibited traits for plant growth promoting and could be developed as an eco-friendly biofertilizer for P. sativum and probably for other important plant species in future.

  4. P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE from Medicago sativa is involved in vitamin E biosynthesis and abscisic acid-mediated seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Chen, Zhihong; Ban, Liping; Wu, Yudi; Huang, Jianping; Chu, Jinfang; Fang, Shuang; Wang, Zan; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-01-01

    P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE (HPPD) is the first committed enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin E, and is characterized by catalyzing the conversion of p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisic acid (HGA). Here, an HPPD gene was cloned from Medicago sativa L. and designated MsHPPD, which was expressed at high levels in alfalfa leaves. PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol), NaCl, abscisic acid and salicylic acid were shown to significantly induce MsHPPD expression, especially in the cotyledons and root tissues. Overexpression of MsHPPD was found to significantly increase the level of β-tocotrienol and the total vitamin E content in Arabidopsis seeds. Furthermore, these transgenic Arabidopsis seeds exhibited an accelerated germination time, compared with wild-type seeds under normal conditions, as well as under NaCl and ABA treatments. Meanwhile, the expression level of several genes associated with ABA biosynthesis (NCED3, NCED5 and NCED9) and the ABA signaling pathway (RAB18, ABI3 and ABI5) were significantly down-regulated in MsHPPD-overexpressing transgenic lines, as well as the total free ABA content. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MsHPPD functions not only in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway, but also plays a critical role in seed germination via affecting ABA biosynthesis and signaling. PMID:28084442

  5. P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE from Medicago sativa is involved in vitamin E biosynthesis and abscisic acid-mediated seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Chen, Zhihong; Ban, Liping; Wu, Yudi; Huang, Jianping; Chu, Jinfang; Fang, Shuang; Wang, Zan; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-01-13

    P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE (HPPD) is the first committed enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin E, and is characterized by catalyzing the conversion of p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisic acid (HGA). Here, an HPPD gene was cloned from Medicago sativa L. and designated MsHPPD, which was expressed at high levels in alfalfa leaves. PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol), NaCl, abscisic acid and salicylic acid were shown to significantly induce MsHPPD expression, especially in the cotyledons and root tissues. Overexpression of MsHPPD was found to significantly increase the level of β-tocotrienol and the total vitamin E content in Arabidopsis seeds. Furthermore, these transgenic Arabidopsis seeds exhibited an accelerated germination time, compared with wild-type seeds under normal conditions, as well as under NaCl and ABA treatments. Meanwhile, the expression level of several genes associated with ABA biosynthesis (NCED3, NCED5 and NCED9) and the ABA signaling pathway (RAB18, ABI3 and ABI5) were significantly down-regulated in MsHPPD-overexpressing transgenic lines, as well as the total free ABA content. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MsHPPD functions not only in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway, but also plays a critical role in seed germination via affecting ABA biosynthesis and signaling.

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals differential root proteins in Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula in response to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruicai eLong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is an important abiotic stress that causes decreased crop yields. Root growth and plant activities are affected by salt stress through the actions of specific genes that help roots adapt to adverse environmental conditions. For a more comprehensive understanding of proteins affected by salinity, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to characterize the proteome-level changes associated with salt stress response in Medicago sativa cv. Zhongmu-1 and Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17 roots. Our physiological and phenotypic observations indicated that Zhongmu-1 was more salt tolerant than Jemalong A17. We identified 93 and 30 proteins whose abundance was significantly affected by salt stress in Zhongmu-1 and Jemalong A17 roots, respectively. The tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the differentially accumulated proteins resulted in the identification of 60 and 26 proteins in Zhongmu-1 and Jemalong A17 roots, respectively. Function analyses indicated molecule binding and catalytic activity were the two primary functional categories. These proteins have known functions in various molecular processes, including defense against oxidative stress, metabolism, photosynthesis, protein synthesis and processing, and signal transduction. The transcript levels of four identified proteins were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicate that some of the identified proteins may play key roles in salt stress tolerance.

  7. Medicarpin and millepurpan, two flavonoids isolated from Medicago sativa, induce apoptosis and overcome multidrug resistance in leukemia P388 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatouillat, Grégory; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Bertin, Eric; El btaouri, Hassan; Morjani, Hamid; Lavaud, Catherine; Madoulet, Claudie

    2015-12-01

    High consumption of flavonoids has been associated with a decrease risk of cancer. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaves have been widely used in traditional medicine and is currently used as a dietary supplement because of their high nutrient content. We previously reported the cytotoxic activity of alfalfa leaf extracts against several sensitive and multidrug resistant tumor cell lines. We aimed to determine whether medicarpin and millepurpan, two isoflavonoids isolated from alfalfa leaves, may have pro-apoptotic effects against drug-sensitive (P388) and multidrug resistant P388 leukemia cells (P388/DOX). Cells were incubated with medicarpin or millepurpan for the appropriate time. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. DNA fragmentation was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Cell cycle analysis was realized by flow cytometry technics. Caspases 3 and 9 activities were measured using Promega caspACE assay kits. Proteins and genes expression were visualized respectively by western-blot using specific antibodies and RT-PCR assay. P-glycoprotein-expressing P388/DOX cells did not show resistance to medicarpin (IC50 ≈ 90 µM for P388 and P388/DOX cells) and millepurpan (IC50 = 54 µM and 69 µM for P388 and P388/DOX cells, respectively). Treatment with medicarpin or millepurpan triggered apoptosis in sensitive as well as multidrug resistant P388 cells. These effects were mediated through the mitochondrial pathway by modifying the balance pro/anti-apoptotic proteins. While 3 µM doxorubicin alone could not induce cell death in P388/DOX cells, concomitant treatment with doxorubicin and subtoxic concentration of medicarpin or millepurpan restored the pro-apoptotic cascade. Each compound increased sensitivity of P388/DOX cells to doxorubicin whereas they had no effect in sensitive P388 cells. Vinblastine cytotoxicity was also enhanced in P388/DOX cells (IC50 = 210 nM to 23 and 25 nM with medicarpin and millepurpan, respectively). This improved

  8. Nitrogen accumulation in lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) under water deficit stress

    OpenAIRE

    Vasileva Viliana; Vasilev Emil

    2013-01-01

    In order to study nitrogen accumulation in aboveground and root dry mass in lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) under water deficit stress, a pot experiment was carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. The plants were grown under optimum water supply (75-80% FC) and 10-days water deficit stress was simulated at the stage of budding by interrupting the irrigation until soil moisture was reduced to 37-40% FC. Mineral nitrogen fertilization (ammonium nitrate) at the doses of 40, ...

  9. Natural occurrence of entomophthoroid fungi of aphid pests on Medicago sativa L. in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina G Manfrino

    Full Text Available Four species of entomophthoroid fungi, Pandora neoaphidis (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae, Zoophthora radicans (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae, Entomophthora planchoniana (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae and Neozygites fresenii (Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae were found to infect Aphis craccivora, Therioaphis trifolii, and Acyrthosiphon pisum and unidentified species of Acyrthosiphon on lucerne in Argentina. Samples were collected from five sites (Ceres, Rafaela, Sarmiento, Monte Vera and Bernardo de Irigoyen in the province of Santa Fe. In this study, Zoophthora radicans was the most important pathogen and was recorded mainly on Acyrthosiphon sp. Zoophthora radicans was successfully isolated and maintained in pure cultures. This study is the first report of entomophthoroid fungi infecting lucerne (Medicago sativa L. aphids in Argentina.

  10. Identification of the large subunit of Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase as a substrate for transglutaminase in Medicageo sativa L. (alfalfa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margosiak, S.A.; Dharma, A.; Carver, M.R.B.; Gonzales, A.P.; Louie, D.; Kuehn, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    Extract prepared from floral meristematic tissue of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were investigated for expression of the enzyme transglutaminase in order to identify the major protein substrate for transglutaminase-directed modifications among plant proteins. The large polymorphic subunits of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in alfalfa, with molecular weights of 52,700 and 57,600, are major substrates for transglutaminase in these extracts. This was established by: (a) covalent conjugation of monodansylcadaverine to the large subunit followed by fluorescent detection in SDS-polyacrylamide gels; (b) covalent conjugation of [ 14 C]putrescine to the large subunit with detection by autoradiography; (c) covalent conjugation of monodansylcadaverine to the large subunit and demonstration of immunocross-reactivity on nitrocellulose transblot of the modified large subunit with antibody prepared in rabbits against dansylated-ovalbumin; (d) demonstration of a direct dependence of the rate of transglutaminase-mediated, [ 14 C]putresciene incorporation upon the concentration of ribulose, 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from alfalfa or spinach; and (e) presumptive evidence from size exclusion chromatography that transglutaminase may cofractionate with native molecules of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in crude extracts

  11. Contact-Induced Emigration of Potato Leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) from Alfalfa-Forage Grass Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Roda, A. L.; Landis, D. A.; Miller, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the mechanisms leading to increased potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), emigration from alfalfa-forage grass mixtures. A laboratory behavioral bioassay was used to measure daily emigration rates of adult leafhoppers from alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.; smooth bromegrass, Bromus inermis Leyss.; orchardgrass, Dactylis glomerata L.; and timothy, Phleum pratense L., alone and in 1:1 mixtures of each grass with alfalfa. Emigration was ≍9-fold greater from pu...

  12. Transcriptome profiling of gene expression in fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Senhao; Wang, Chengzhang

    2014-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) is an adaptive trait in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). It appeared in the regrowth process in late summer or early autumn after alfalfa was harvested. FD affects the biomass accumulation and winter survival in high latitude area. However, the molecular mechanism under FD is still not clear at present. Performing RNA-seq of fall dormant and nondormant alfalfa varieties at different time points, we obtained differentially expressed genes between different FD types or time poin...

  13. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Naiying; Huang Honglin; Zhang Shuzhen; Zhu Yongguan; Christie, Peter; Zhang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 13 C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  14. Thiaminase activities and thiamine content of Pteridium aquilinum, Equisetum ramosissimum, Malva parviflora, Pennisetum clandestinum and Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P

    1989-06-01

    Thiaminase type 1 and 2 activities and thiamine content of five plants were determined. Of these Pteridium aquilinum and Equisetum ramosissimum were found to have considerably more thiaminase activity and lower thiamine content than Malva parviflora, Pennisetum clandestinum and Medicago sativa.

  15. ALFALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Stjepanović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Alfalfa contains the following chapters: Review outline, Foreword, Origin and spread of alfalfa, Economic importance of alfalfa, Biological properties and breeding alfalfa, Morphological traits of alfalfa, Growth and development of alfalfa, Ecological conditions for alfalfa growth, Agronomy of alfalfa for fodder production, Pests and diseases of alfalfa and their control, Usage of alfalfa and hay, silage and haylage production, Alfalfa seed production, Prospects for alfalfa in Croatia, Index and interpreter of terms and abbreviations, About authors. How to satisfy requirements of the “queen of fodder crops“ to achieve high yields of high quality fodder is the issue presented in the book Alfalfa is being grown in Croatia on about 42 000 hectares. Average fodder yields are low, about 5 t ha1, so the employment of genetical potential of varieties in rainfed farming is 35 to 40%, making the production more expensive.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a gene from Medicago sativa L., encoding a bZIP transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qingchuan; Fang, Feng; Kang, Junmei; Zhang, Tiejun

    2013-02-01

    A full-length cDNA of 1,537 nucleotides was cloned from Medicago sativa L. cv. "Zhongmu No. 1" by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It was designated as MsZIP, encoding a protein of 340 amino acids. The protein molecular weight was 36.43 kDa, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 5.72. The MsZIP preferentially localized in nucleus and have signal peptide. Blast analysis revealed that MsZIP shared the highest homology with some bZIP proteins of M. truncatula. The transcript of MsZIP was strongly enriched in leaf compared with root and stem of mature alfalfa plants. MsZIP was strongly induced by 15 % PEG6000 (polyethylene glycol), 50 μM abscisic acid, 200 mM NaCl, 70 μM gibberellic acid, 5 mM salicylic acid and 200 μM methyl jasmonate. Physiological resistance parameters were measured in the transgenic tobacco. Malondialdehyde content, relative water content, soluble sugar content, soluble protein content and proline content in transgenic tobacco increased compared with non-transgenic tobacco under salt stress or drought stress. The results showed that accumulation of the MsZIP protein in the vegetative tissues of transgenic plants enhanced their tolerance to osmotic pressure stress. These results demonstrate a role for the MsZIP protein in stress protection and suggest the potential of the MsZIP gene for genetic engineering of salt tolerance and drought tolerance.

  17. Activity and multiple forms of peroxidase in Zea mays and Medicago sativa treated and non-treated with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.

    1978-02-11

    The influence of lead on peroxidase was studied in young plants of Zee mays and Medicago sativa grown in solutions of Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/. The content of nitrate in the control- and the lead-solutions was equalized by NaNO/sub 3/. In the patterns of the multiple forms in roots and leaves of Zea and Medicago qualitatively no, or respectively negligible, change between control and lead-treated plants takes place. The temperature during the lead-treatment does not effect the numbers and the positions of bands. The bands' activity of peroxidase in lead-treated plants differs clearly from untreated plants, resulting in a different activity of the whole enzyme. In the roots and in the leaves of Zea as well as in the leaves of Medicago the relative activity of the peroxidase in lead-treated plants is raised. In the roots of Medicago the relative activity decreased slightly.

  18. Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa is an herb. People use the leaves, sprouts, and seeds to make medicine. Alfalfa is used for kidney conditions, bladder and prostate ... bleeding disorder called thrombocytopenic purpura. People also take alfalfa as a source of vitamins A, C, E, ...

  19. The effect of hydro and osmopriming on alfalfa seed germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) varieties, cv. Hamedani and Yazdi, were used to investigate the effects of osmo- and hydro-priming on seed germination, growth parameters, biochemical changes and antioxidant enzymes activities under high-level salt concentration (150 mM NaCl) stress. Seeds were primed with ...

  20. Decomposition of olive mill waste compost, goat manure and Medicago sativa in Lebanese soils using the litterbag technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Therese

    2014-05-01

    Organic amendments, green manure and plant residues incorporation are the main sources of nutrients in organic farming, their decomposition rate is crucial for the accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in soils. In this study the decomposition of compost from olive mill waste (N: 29.3 g kg-1; total dissolved nitrogen or TDN: 3.82 g kg-1), goat manure (N: 31.5 g kg-1; TDN: 0.94 g kg-1), the shoots (N: 33.6 g kg-1; TDN: 17.57 g kg-1) and roots (N: 22.12 g kg-1; TDN: 8.87 g kg-1) of Medicago sativa was followed in three Lebanese soils. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium released were followed over one year, starting in early winter (December-January). The mild sub-humid Mediterranean conditions allowed a rapid mass loss in alfalfa shoots 30 days after incorporation. Manure and compost were more persistent. Between 80 and 90% of TDN were released, after 30 days of in-situ incubation for compost, the release was over 90% for alfalfa shoots. The movement of P was slower, as the compost (6.99 g kg-1 of P) and manure (9.81 g kg-1 of P) lost 33% and 22%, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. After one year, 15 to 35% of P remained in the soils. The manure was the richest in potassium (19.66 g kg-1) followed by the alfalfa shoots (15.56 g kg-1), the compost (8.19 g kg-1) and the roots (5.96 g kg-1). The loss of potassium was important, as over 88% had disappeared over the year. All decomposition curves followed an exponential model. The calculated coefficients of decomposition for total nitrogen (lnfinal - lninitial/days) were significantly higher for alfalfa shoots (0.00547 day-1) and similar for the compost (0.00184 day-1) and the manure (0.00175 day-1). The ANOVA test showed a difference between two of the sites (Site A: 521 g kg-1 of clay and 42 g kg-1 of calcium carbonate; Site S: 260 g kg-1 of clay and 269 g kg-1 of CaCO3) and the third one (Site L: 315 g kg-1 of clay and 591 g kg-1 of CaCO3). The relationships between the soil calcium

  1. Toxic effects of arsenic on Sinorhizobium-Medicago sativa symbiotic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Eloísa; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Dary, Mohammed; Palomares, Antonio J

    2008-07-01

    Recently, the Rhizobium-legume symbiotic interaction has been proposed as an interesting tool in bioremediation. However, little is known about the effect of most common contaminants on this process. The phytotoxic effects of arsenic on nodulation of Medicago sativa have been examined in vitro using the highly arsenic resistant and symbiotically effective Sinorhizobium sp. strain MA11. The bacteria were able to grow on plates containing As concentrations as high as 10 mM. Nevertheless, as little as 25-35 microM arsenite produced a 75% decrease in the total number of nodules, due to a 90% reduction in the number of rhizobial infections, as could be determined using the strain MA11 carrying a lacZ reporter gene. This effect was associated to root hair damage and a shorter infective root zone. However, once nodulation was established nodule development seemed to continue normally, although earlier senescence could be observed in nodules of arsenic-grown plants.

  2. Nodulation of Medicago Sativa L. by Different Rhizobium Strains in the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Elshafie

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Three native Rhizobium strains were isolated from Musandam. Buraimi and the Agricultural Experiment Station at Sultan Qaboos University in the Sultanate of Oman. An internationally known Rhizobium strain (TAI. 1373} was obtained from the Nitrogen Fixation for Tropical Agriculture I.egume Collection at the University of Hawaii. U.S.A-. for comparison. The different abilities of the strains to nodulate  Medicago sativa I. were investigated. Different plant parameters namely, the fresh and dry weights of the shoot (g/plant . the number of nodules per plant and the nitrogenase  activity (u mole C2H2/sample/3hours were measured. The results showed that the native Rhizobia were capable of nodulating M saliva. But inoculation with effective known strains such as TAL1373 enhanced nodulation.

  3. Nitrogen accumulation in lucerne (Medicago sativa L. under water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileva Viliana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study nitrogen accumulation in aboveground and root dry mass in lucerne (Medicago sativa L. under water deficit stress, a pot experiment was carried out at the Institute of Forage Crops, Pleven, Bulgaria. The plants were grown under optimum water supply (75-80% FC and 10-days water deficit stress was simulated at the stage of budding by interrupting the irrigation until soil moisture was reduced to 37-40% FC. Mineral nitrogen fertilization (ammonium nitrate at the doses of 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg N kg-1 soil was applied. It was found that nitrogen accumulation in dry aboveground mass was reduced to 18.0%, and in dry root mass to 26.5% under water deficit stress. Mineral nitrogen fertilization contributed to easily overcome the stress conditions of water deficit stress in lucerne.

  4. Estudio del efecto de la interacción entre aumento de CO₂, temperatura y simbiosis con diferentes cepas de Sinorhizobium meliloti en la fotosíntesis, fijación de N₂ y calidad de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv Aragón)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, A. (Álvaro); Irigoyen, J.J. (Juan José); Erice, G. (Gorka)

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo general del estudio realizado, fue investigar la respuesta de plantas de alfalfa inoculadas con diferentes cepas de Sinorhizobium meliloti (102F78, 102F34 y 1032GMI) frente al aumento de CO₂ y temperatura. Los objetivos parciales planteados y desarrollados en los distintos capítulos de la memoria han sido: - Capítulo 1: Comprobar si plantas de alfalfa exclusivamente fijadoras de N₂ inoculadas con la cepa 102F78 tienen un aporte deficiente de N desde el nódulo que limita la res...

  5. Influence of mineral fertilization on the production of a mixture of alfalfa and orchard grass in the year III of vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntianu, Iulian Constantin; Stavarache, Mihai; Ciobanu, Ciprian; Samuil, Costel; Vintu, Vasile; Dale, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted during three production cycles of the third year of vegetation. The main objective was to determine the production of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) made under the influence of mixture and fertilization with nitrogen on P50 agrofond to alfalfa and orchard grass. To achieve these objectives, three variants of mixture were tested between alfalfa and cocksfoot that were applied to four rates of mineral fertilizers. The mixture 75% alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and...

  6. Investigating the origin of the Chinese name for alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Q. Z.; Xu, L. J.; Tang, X. J.; Ma, J. T.; Wang, D.; Li, D.; Liu, Q.; Tao, Y.; Li, F.

    2017-02-01

    It is assured that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was introduced in Han dynasty. There are cognitive differences on whether Zhang Qian introduced alfalfa. Based on the previous studies, research inductive method was used. The relationship between Zhang Qian and alfalfa introduction was analyzed from the motivation, experience and influence of Zhang Qian to the Western Regions and the image generation of Zhang Qian brought back alfalfa’s seeds. Till to now, there are four opinions about Zhang Qian introducing Alfalfa seeds, including : (1) Zhang Qian introduced alfalfa seeds;(2) Zhang Qian did not introduce alfalfa seeds;(3) the information of Zhang Qian transferring alfalfa;(4)for commemoration Zhang Qian to the Western Regions. Although there are not direct historical materials to support Zhang Qian brought alfalfa seed to Han dynasty, it believes and confirms that the introducing of alfalfa is inextricably interwoven with Zhang Qian’s western travel. Zhangqian brought relative information from western regions during the introduction, which was the basis of non-native theory, and after that, Chinese began to plant alfalfa in Han dynasty., According to historical literatures, it is clear that the Chinese diplomat brought alfalfa seeds back to China. Alfalfa, as the favorite forage to Ferghana horse, have been already planted in Dawan in Han dynasty. Despite the debate, Zhangqian played an important pioneering role in introducing alfalfa.

  7. STUDY ON PHYTOEXTRACTION BALANCE OF ZN, CD, PB FROM MINE-WASTE POLLUTED SOILS BY USING MEDICAGO SATIVA AND TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available For a term of two years was studied phytoextractive potential of Zn, Cd and Pb using successive culture of alfalfa (Medicago sativa and red clover (Trifolium pratense. In the experimental plot was incorporated a quantity of 20 kg mine waste per square meter, providing in soil 1209 mg Zn/kg d.s., 4.70 mg Cd/kg d.s. and 188.2 mg Pb/kg d.s. The metals content accumulated in plants was determined at the two moments of biomass harvesting, and through balance calculations we could establish the phytoextraction efficiency of the two forage-grasses species. The obtained results indicate that both perennial forage-legumes species have a good phytoextractive capacity and tolerance for Zn and Pb, especially Trifolium pratense specie. By using this species as phytoextractors on soil polluted with 3.76 times more Pb and 4.03 times more Zn, is provided the reduction of metallic ions concentration in soil to limits admitted by laws in a period of 3, respectively, 4 years.

  8. Melatonin systemically ameliorates drought stress-induced damage in Medicago sativa plants by modulating nitro-oxidative homeostasis and proline metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Chrystalla; Chatzimichail, Giannis; Xenofontos, Rafaella; Pavlou, Jan J; Panagiotou, Evangelia; Christou, Anastasis; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2017-05-01

    Recent reports have uncovered the multifunctional role of melatonin in plant physiological responses under optimal and suboptimal environmental conditions. In this study, we explored whether melatonin pretreatment could provoke priming effects in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants subsequently exposed to prolonged drought stress (7 days), by withholding watering. Results revealed that the rhizospheric application of melatonin (10 μmol L -1 ) remarkably enhanced the drought tolerance of alfalfa plants, as evidenced by the observed plant tolerant phenotype, as well as by the higher levels of chlorophyll fluorescence and stomatal conductance, compared with nontreated drought-stressed plants. In addition, lower levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA content) as well as of both H 2 O 2 and NO contents in primed compared with nonprimed stressed plants suggest that melatonin pretreatment resulted in the systemic mitigation of drought-induced nitro-oxidative stress. Nitro-oxidative homeostasis was achieved by melatonin through the regulation of reactive oxygen (SOD, GR, CAT, APX) and nitrogen species (NR, NADHde) metabolic enzymes at the enzymatic and/or transcript level. Moreover, melatonin pretreatment resulted in the limitation of cellular redox disruption through the regulation of the mRNA levels of antioxidant and redox-related components (ADH, AOX, GST7, GST17), as well via osmoprotection through the regulation of proline homeostasis, at both the enzymatic (P5CS) and gene expression level (P5CS, P5CR). Overall, novel results highlight the importance of melatonin as a promising priming agent for the enhancement of plant tolerance to drought conditions through the regulation of nitro-oxidative and osmoprotective homeostasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Evaluation for dinitrogen fixation of alfalfa in field based on δ15N value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yunyin; Chen Ming; Zhang Xizhong

    1992-12-01

    The dinitrogen fixation rate of alfalfa was estimated grown in pot and field experiments. β values (isotope fraction factor) of 7 cultivars of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) grown in N-free liquid culture medium were examined. Variations in the δ 15 N values of varieties of alfalfa at growing seasons and forage grasses grown under various conditions were measured. %Ndfa of alfalfa was estimated using the natural 15 N abundance method, 15 N isotope dilution method and total N difference, and their accuracy was compared

  10. Genetic transformation and analysis of rice OsAPx2 gene in Medicago sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Guan

    Full Text Available The OsAPx2 gene from rice was cloned to produce PBI121::OsAPx2 dual-expression plants, of which expression level would be increasing under stressful conditions. The enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX in the leaves and roots of the plants increased with increasing exposure time to different sodium chloride (NaCl and hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2concentrations, as indicated by protein gel blot analysis. The increased enzyme yield improved the ability of the plants to resist the stress treatments. The OsAPx2 gene was localized in the cytoplasm of epidermal onion cells as indicated by the instantaneous expression of green fluorescence. An 80% regeneration rate was observed in Medicago sativa L. plants transformed with the OsAPx2 gene using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, as indicated by specific primer PCR. The OsAPx2 gene was expressed at the mRNA level and the individual M. sativa (T#1,T#2,T#5 were obtained through assaying the generation of positive T2 using RNA gel blot analysis. When the seeds of the wild type (WT and the T2 (T#1,T#5 were incubated in culture containing MS with NaCl for 7 days, the results as shown of following: the root length of transgenic plant was longer than WT plants, the H(2O(2 content in roots of WT was more than of transgenic plants, the APX activity under stresses increased by 2.89 times compared with the WT, the malondialdehyde (MDA content of the WT was higher than the transgenic plants, the leaves of the WT turned yellow, but those of the transgenic plants remained green and remained healthy. The chlorophyll content in the WT leaves was less than in the transgenic plants, after soaking in solutions of H(2O(2, sodium sulfite (Na(2SO(3, and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3. Therefore, the OsAPx2 gene overexpression in transgenic M. sativa improves the removal of H(2O(2 and the salt-resistance compared with WT plants. A novel strain of M. sativa carrying a salt-resistance gene was obtained.

  11. Restauración ecológica del suelo aplicando biochar (carbón vegetal), y su efecto en la producción de Medicago sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Rafael Fiallos-Ortega; Luis Gerardo Flores-Mancheno; Nelson Duchi-Duchi; Cesar Ivan Flores-Mancheno; Darío Baño-Ayala; Luis Estrada-Orozco

    2015-01-01

    En la provincia de Chimborazo (Ecuador), cantón Riobamba, barrio San Pedro de las Abras, se realizó el estudio de restauración ecológica del suelo mediante la aplicación de diferentes niveles de carbón vegetal (10, 20, y 30 t.ha-1) y se evaluó su efecto en la producción forrajera de alfalfa Medicago sativa, bajo un Diseño de Bloques Completamente al Azar. Los resultados superiores se obtuvieron al aplicar 30 t.ha-1 de carbón vegetal, así: en el primer corte se alcanzó el menor tiempo de ocurr...

  12. Liming increases alfalfa yield and crude protein content in an acidic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Korisnik

    Total dry mass yields of a new planting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) increased up to 6500% by the .... were measured. Soil analyses were carried out by using the standard methods of the soil testing laboratory (van Reeuwijk,. 1995), except that plant available P and plant available K were determined by the method of a ...

  13. Soil sulfur amendments suppress Selenium uptake by alfalfa and western wheatgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. L. Mackowiak; M. C. Amacher

    2008-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a potential soil contaminant in many parts of the world where it can pose a health risk to livestock and wildlife. Phosphate ore mining in Southeast Idaho has resulted in numerous waste rock dumps revegetated with forages to stabilize the dumps and support grazing. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), smooth brome (Bromus inermis...

  14. Prohexadione-calcium rate and timing effects on alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohexadione-Ca (PHD) can enhance establishment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, L.) interseeded into silage corn (Zea mays, L.), but optimal application rates and timing for this growth regulator are unknown. Two experiments examined how single or split applications of 0.25 to 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 of PHD o...

  15. Alfalfa contains substantial 9-hydroperoxide lyase activity and a 3Z:2E-enal isomerase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Noordermeer, M.A.; Veldink, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid hydroperoxides formed by lipoxygenase can be cleaved by hydroperoxide lyase resulting in the formation of short-chain aldehydes and omega-oxo acids. Plant hydroperoxide lyases use 13- or 9-hydroperoxy linoleic and linolenic acid as substrates. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) has been

  16. Study of the boron distribution in pea and alfalfa plants using SSNTD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianming; Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" data-affiliation=" (Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China)> Inst. for Application of Atomic Energy)" >Deng Hongmin

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of boron in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was determined by using SSNTD. The results show that boron concentrations in leaves are highest, furthermore boron concentrations of the base leaves are higher than those of the top leaves. Among flower tissues, calyx has the highest boron concentration

  17. First report of 16SrII subgroup D phytoplasma in alfalfa in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants from four commercial fields in Sudan, each about 60 ha, were observed with leaf yellowing symptoms and stunted growth. Total nucleic acid was extracted from leaves of 14 symptomatic samples by a CTAB protocol and used as the template in PCR assays with the u...

  18. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  19. Comparative Physiological and Transcriptional Analyses of Two Contrasting Drought Tolerant Alfalfa Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Wenli; Liu, Xun; Wang, Haiqing; Chan, Zhulong

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological, and transcriptional levels. Under...

  20. Comparative physiological and transcriptional analyses of two contrasting drought tolerant alfalfa varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli eQuan; Wenli eQuan; Xun eLiu; Xun eLiu; Haiqing eWang; Zhulong eChan

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological and transcriptional levels. Under ...

  1. Liming increases alfalfa yield and crude protein content in an acidic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three year field trial examined the effect of three hydrated lime (HL, Ca(OH)2) rates (0, 1.5 and 3 Mg HL ha-1) on yield and quality characteristics of alfalfa on an acid soil (pHwater 1:2.5 4.7) in Western Serbia. Lime was applied only once. Total dry mass yields of a new planting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) increased up to ...

  2. Structural changes induced by NaCl in companion and transfer cells of Medicago sativa blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughanmi, N; Michonneau, P; Verdus, M-C; Piton, F; Ferjani, E; Bizid, E; Fleurat-Lessard, P

    2003-03-01

    Medicago sativa var. Gabes is a perennial glycophyte that develops new shoots even in high salinity (150 mM NaCl). In the upper exporting leaves, K(+) is high and Na(+) is low by comparison with the lower leaves, where Na(+) accumulation induces chlorosis after 4 weeks of NaCl treatment. By secondary ion mass spectroscopy, a low Na(+)/K(+) ratio was detected in the phloem complex of blade veins in these lower leaves. By transmission electron microscopy, the ultrastructural features were observed in the phloem complex. In the upper leaves of both control and NaCl-treated plants, companion cells in minor veins were found to be transfer cells. These cells may well be involved in the intravenous recycling of ions and in Na(+) flowing out of exporting leaves. Under the effect of NaCl, companion cells in the main veins develop transfer cell features, which may favor the rate of assimilate transport from exporting leaves toward meristems, allowing the positive balance necessary for the survival in salt conditions. These features no longer assist the lower leaves when transfer cells are necrotized in both minor and main veins of NaCl-treated plants. As transfer cells are the only degenerating phloem constituent, our observations emphasize their role in controlling nutrient (in particular, Na(+)) fluxes associated with the stress response.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fuqiang; Li, Jize; Fan, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Quan; Chang, Wei; Yang, Fengshan; Geng, Gui

    2016-02-02

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) protect host plants against diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, and promote biodegradation of various contaminants. In this study effect of Glomus mosseae/Medicago sativa mycorrhiza on atrazine degradation was investigated. It was observed that the atrazine degradation rates with any addition level in mycorrhizal treatments were all significantly higher than those in non-mycorrhizal treatments. When atrazine was applied at 20 mg kg(-1), the removal efficiency was up to 74.65%. Therefore, G. mosseae can be considered as ideal inhabitants of technical installations to facilitate phytoremediation. Furthermore, a total of 10.4 Gb was used for de novo transcriptome assembly, resulting in a comprehensive data set for the identification of genes corresponding to atrazine stress in the AM association. After comparative analysis with edgeR, a total of 2,060 differential expressed genes were identified, including 570 up-regulated genes and 1490 down-regulated genes. After excluding 'function unknown' and 'general function predictions only' genes, 172 up-regulated genes were obtained. The differentially expressed genes in AM association with and without atrazine stress were associated with molecular processes/other proteins, zinc finger protein, intracellular/extracellular enzymes, structural proteins, anti-stress/anti-disease protein, electron transport-related protein, and plant growth associated protein. Our results not only prove AMF has important ecological significance on atrazine degradation but also provide evidence for the molecular mechanisms of atrazine degradation by AMF.

  4. Voluntary intake and digestibility by sheep of alfalfa ensiled at different moisture concentrations following fertilization with dairy slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as an animal-sourced fertilizer in agronomic production. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if mois...

  5. Influence of pCO2 on carbon allocation in nodulated Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Gabriela; Hartmann, Henrik; Ziegler, Waldemar; Michalzik, Beate; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel; Trumbore, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (pCO_2) have been related to changes in plant carbon (C) availability and photosynthetic capacity, yet there is no clear consensus as to the effect of pCO2 on the plant C balance and on nitrogen fixation in symbiotic systems. We investigated how different pCO2 (Pleistocene: 170 ppm, ambient: 400 ppm and projected future: 700 ppm) influence C allocation in nodulated Medicago sativa L. We labeled 17 week old plants with depleted 13C (-34.7±1.2‰) and traced the label over a 9-day period, to assess the redistribution of newly assimilated C across different sinks, including nodules. We analyzed N concentrations in plant tissues and found no significant differences in leaves and roots across treatments. However, growth and C fixation rates increased with pCO_2, and differences were greatest between 170 ppm and 700 ppm. Across pCO2 treatments we observed a 13C-enrichment in roots compared to leaves. We further observed the highest 13C depletion of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) and respired CO2 in tissues of plants grown at 700 ppm, especially in leaves and nodules. Our preliminary results suggest that sink organs like roots and nodules are fed with newly-assimilated NSCs from leaves to support respiration, and especially in 170 ppm plants represented a major respiratory loss of newly assimilated C (≈ 35{%} of the total plant respiration). Our results suggest that although plant metabolic processes like photosynthesis and respiration are affected by changes in pCO_2, nitrogen acquisition in such a symbiotic system is not.

  6. Short communication. Nitrogen content of residual alfalfa taproots under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. residues can provide significant amounts of N to subsequent crops, but most of the data on this subject has been obtained from 1-2 year old alfalfa stands. The objective of this study was to determine the biomass of alfalfa taproots and their N content in irrigated alfalfa stands that are more than 2 years old. Twenty-two commercial irrigated alfalfa fields were evaluated in the Ebro Valley (Northeast Spain from 2006 to 2010. The taproot biomass in the arable layer (0 to 30 cm depth ranged from 1.8 to 10.1 Mg ha-1 and averaged 4.8 Mg ha-1. In contrast, the N concentration in alfalfa taproots was constant among fields and averaged 24.6 g N kg-1. The total amount of N contained in alfalfa taproots (0-30 cm depth ranged from 47 to 96 kg N ha-1 in 55% of the fields, ranged from 97 to 200 kg N ha-1 in 22% of the fields, and exceeded 200 kg N ha-1 in 23% of the fields. The N content of the irrigated alfalfa taproots studied here is in the upper range previously reported in other areas, mainly with younger alfalfa stands. Based on the current finding, a classification of the quality of irrigated alfalfa stands is proposed to improve the estimates of the residual-N effects of alfalfa on subsequent crops.

  7. The antibacterial effects of aqueous extract of Medicago sativa L. in comparsion with three antibiotics (Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin and Penicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam Rezaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, it has been recommended to use natural materials, instead of chemically synthesized drugs with side effects, in the control and treatment of infections. Increasing use of medicinal plants for medical treatment made for this branch of complementary medicine a unique position. The present research was done to study anti-microbial effect of Medicago sativa exctract in comparison with Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Penicillin antibiotics on clinical strains and phatogenic bacteria such as P. aeruginosa , E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted using micro broth dilution and disc diffusion methods, and MIC and MBC of the plant have been evaluatead. Results: MIC Medicago sativa extract was effective on gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes on the 206.25 and 6600 µg/ml and on the gram-negative bacteria tested in this study had no effect. Conclusion: Based on the research findings, mentioned herbal extract can be a good candidates for laboratory studies to separate active compounds in this plant to achieve effective antimicrobial drugs.

  8. Haem oxygenase-1 is involved in salicylic acid-induced alleviation of oxidative stress due to cadmium stress in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiti; Li, Le; Gao, Zhaozhou; Wu, Honghong; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao

    2012-09-01

    This work examines the involvement of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced alleviation of oxidative stress as a result of cadmium (Cd) stress in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedling roots. CdCl(2) exposure caused severe growth inhibition and Cd accumulation, which were potentiated by pre-treatment with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX), a potent HO-1 inhibitor. Pre-treatment of plants with the HO-1 inducer haemin or SA, both of which could induce MsHO1 gene expression, significantly reduced the inhibition of growth and Cd accumulation. The alleviation effects were also evidenced by a decreased content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The antioxidant behaviour was confirmed by histochemical staining for the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, haemin and SA pre-treatment modulated the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), or their corresponding transcripts. Significant enhancement of the ratios of reduced/oxidized homoglutathione (hGSH), ascorbic acid (ASA)/dehydroascorbate (DHA), and NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+), and expression of their metabolism genes was observed, consistent with a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution in the root tips. These effects are specific for HO-1, since ZnPPIX blocked the above actions, and the aggravated effects triggered by SA plus ZnPPIX were differentially reversed when carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HO-1, was added. Together, the results suggest that HO-1 is involved in the SA-induced alleviation of Cd-triggered oxidative stress by re-establishing redox homeostasis.

  9. Nitrogen fertilizer enhances growth and nutrient uptake of Medicago sativa inoculated with Glomus tortuosum grown in Cd-contaminated acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mohan; Sun, Jian; Li, Yang; Xiao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore whether nitrogen availability could influence mycorrhizal function and their associations with host plants in Cd-contaminated acidic soils or not. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation (non-mycorrhizal inoculation (NM), Glomus aggregatum (Ga), G. tortuosum (Gt) and G. versiforme (Gv)) and inorganic N amendment on the growth, nutrient and Cd uptake of Medicago sativa grown in Cd-contaminated acidic soils (10 mg Cd kg -1 soil). AMF inoculations significantly increased the shoot and total biomass and decreased the shoot Cd concentration in comparison to plants uninoculated. N addition increased markedly concentration and content of N and decreased those of P in plants at all inoculation treatments. Shoot K, Na and Mg concentration in plants inoculated with Ga and Gv were decreased by N addition, whereas shoot K, Na, Ca and Mg concentration in plants inoculated with Gt were not negatively affected. It was observed that N addition only increased mycorrhizal colonization, shoot biomass, shoot K, Ca and Mg content of plants inoculated with Gt. Irrespective of N addition, plants with Gt inoculation got the maximum shoot and root P concentration and content, as well as P/Cd concentration molar ratio among all inoculation treatment. Neither AMF nor N fertilizer contributed to the decrease of soil exchangeable Cd and increase of soil pH. These results suggested that N fertilizer only elevated plant performance of alfalfa with Gt inoculation grown in acidic soil, by diluting Cd concentration and alleviating of nutrient deficiency, especially P. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alfalfa domestication history, genetic diversity and genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Jenczewski, Eric; Muller, Marie-Helene; Fourtier, Stéphane; Sampoux, Jean-Paul; Ronfort, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    AGAP : GE²pop; The domestication history of alfalfa is poorly known. Here, we summarize recent results obtained from the investigation of the genetic diversity available in the Medicago sativa species complex, using different molecular markers and morphological characterization. We conclude that a large genetic diversity is still available in the wild form of the species, but original populations are restricted to a relatively small geographic area and in some instances submitted to gene flow...

  11. [Soil dryness characteristics of alfalfa cropland and optimal growth years of alfalfa on the Loess Plateau of central Gansu, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhu-zhu; Li, Ling-ling; Niu, Yi-ning; Cai, Li-qun; Zhang, Ren-zhi; Xie, Jun-hong

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigated soil moisture in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cropland with different growth years (1, 3, 8, 12 and 14 years) and discussed the optimum growth years of alfalfa on the Loess Plateau of central Gansu. The results showed that the soil moisture along 0-300 cm soil profile of alfalfa croplands with different growth years was obviously lower than that of the local soil stable moisture. The soil water contents in croplands with alfalfa that had grown for 12 and 14 years were only 9.2% and 7.1% of local soil stable moisture, respectively, which were even lower than the lower limit of alfalfa growth. The average soil dryness indexes along 0-300 cm soil profile in 1, 3, 8, 12 and 14 years alfalfa croplands were 125.4%, 30.5%, 18.4%, -34.2% and -83.3% respectively. The results indicated that soil dryness occurred to varying degrees with different growth years except croplands with alfalfa grown for 1 year. With the increase of growth years of alfalfa, the soil dryness intensity increased and the soil dryness rate decreased. According to the soil moisture and alfalfa productivity results in this study, it could be concluded that the optimum growth years of alfalfa are 8-10 years in semiarid areas of the Loess Plateau.

  12. In silico identification of transcription factors in medicago sativa using available transcriptomic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Functional genomics of alfalfa, the most extensively cultivated forage legume in the world, is in the developing stage. Although alfalfa genome sequence is not yet completed, several large transcriptomic resources that can be used to identify genes and determine the amount of their activity are free...

  13. Ractopamine uptake from soil by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ractopamine, a beta adrenergic agonist, is approved to use as feed additive in swine (Paylean®), cattle (Optaflexx®), and turkey (Topmax®) to improve daily weight gain, increase feed efficiency, and produce leaner meat. Because of this economic advantage, ractopamine is widely used. The transfer o...

  14. Collection and characterization of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in West Mediterranean coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfaalfa which is the one of the most quality roughages used in the animal nutrition and also utilized as the concentrate feed is grown in wide cultivation sites in the numerous countries of the world. However, this forage crop, a native plant of Turkey, has not been given in our country as much importance as in other countries and has not been able to provide an adequate development across the country. Alfaalfa agriculture is done with the native populations on a large scale in our country and improved alfaalfa species are limited. The purpose of this study was to collect superior alfaalfa species chosen from the natural vegetation in the West Mediterranean Coast Zone, 13 counties of Antalya, propagate vegetatively the clones and transplant the clones to the field, evaluate the phenological and morphological observations and transfer the materials to the breeding programme. The features of alfaalfa genotypes differed significantly. The growth rate after harvest of some genotypes were high. Natural plant height of alfaalfa genotypes were measured as 57.86-89.03 cm, the main stem lengths were measured as 67.45-101.28 cm. The significant differences between the number of branches in the root corolla were determined. The highest number of branches in the root corolla were determined as 71.00 pcs in Gazipaşa-1 population and 69.66 pcs in Kemer-1 population. Alanya-1 population had the earliest flowering day number with the 192.50 days between the alfaalfa genotypes, the other populations flowering day numbers were between the 193.00-205.33 days. The highest total dry matter yield was determined as 949.50 g in Gazipaşa-1 population, the total dry matter yields of the other populations differed between 331.40-763.46 g. the highest crude protein rates were estimated between 17.52-16.27 % in the Gazipaşa-1, Alanya-1, Aksu-1, Aksu-2, Kepez-1, Döşemealtı-1, Konyalatı-1, Kemer-1, Kumluca-2, Finike-1, Finike-2, Demre-1, Demre-2 and Kaş-1 genotypes, the lowest crude protein rate was estimated as the 12.75 % in Kaş-2 population. As a result of the research, Gazipaşa-1, Alanya-1, Aksu-1, Aksu-2, Kepez-1, Döşemealtı-1, Kemer-1, Finike-2, Demre-1 and Kaş-1 populations were chosen for using purpose of breeding.

  15. Effects of Shepherd’s Purse (Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic. on the Chemical Composition of Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in a pure stand of lucerne (variety Viktoria under natural weed infestation with shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic. on a slightly leached chernozem soil under nonirrigated conditions in the experimental field of the Institute ofForage Crops – Pleven during the 2006-2007 period. The effect of shepherd’s purse Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic. on the chemical composition of lucerne Medicago sativa (L. was analyzed.Statistically significant (P<0.05 functional relations were found between the chemical characteristics and percentage of Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic. participation in the lucerne sward, and forage quality. These relations indicated a multiple practical relevance and a necessity to control Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic. in lucerne stands in order to decrease weed density and improve forage quality.

  16. Resistance to uprooting of Alfalfa and Avena Sativa and related importance for flume experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Burlando, P.; Perona, P.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation influences sediment dynamics by stabilizing the alluvial sediment with its root system. Thus, vegetation engineers the riparian ecosystem by contributing to the formation and stabilization of river bars and islands. The resistance to uprooting of young plants in non-cohesive sediment depends on the competition between flow induced drag and root growth timescales. The investigation of flow-sediment-plant interactions in situ is difficult since variables cannot be controlled and material hardly be collected. In order to investigate ecomorphological processes, laboratory experiments are essential and have gained importance in the last decade. To achieve a better understanding of the dependence of resistance to uprooting on the root system (length and structure) we conducted vertical uprooting experiments with Alfalfa and Avena Sativa which are both species that have been used in flume experiments on vegetation-flow interactions (e.g. Tal and Paola, 2010; Perona et al., in press). Seeds were seeded on quartz sand and vertically uprooted with constant velocity whereat the weight force required to uproot a seedling was measured. After uprooting, roots were scanned and analyzed and the correlation of root parameters with the uprooting work was studied. Total root length was found to be the best explanatory variable, in particular the uprooting work increases following a power law with increasing root length. The impact of other root parameters (main root length, root number, tortuosity) on the uprooting work was as well analyzed. Still, not all influencing root parameters could be captured, like the angle between roots or root hair distribution. Environmental conditions like grain size and saturation were also found to have an effect on the uprooting resistance of roots. So, lower saturated sediment results in a higher uprooting work. This work is a first step to better understand the energy regime for vegetation uprooting and its dependence on various

  17. Impact of DOM from composted "alperujo" on soil structure, AM fungi, microbial activity and growth of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, J; Tortosa, G; Cegarra, J; Caravaca, F; Roldán, A

    2008-01-01

    Water-soluble extracts from compost may represent an alternative nutrient and organic matter source for crop production under drip irrigation. Dissolved organic matter (DOM), extracted from composted "alperujo", the main by-product from the Spanish olive oil industry, was applied to soil alone or in combination with either Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith or a mixture of G. intraradices, Glomus deserticola (Trappe, Bloss. and Menge) and Glomus mosseae (Nicol and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe. Response measurements included mycorrhizal colonisation, nutrient uptake and growth of Medicago sativa and microbiological and physical properties in the rhizosphere. Dissolved organic matter was added to soil at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 or 300mgCkg(-1) substrate. During the four months of the experiment, the plants were harvested three times. Both mycorrhizal inoculation treatments significantly increased soil aggregate stability. Only the mycorrhizal inoculations increased microbial biomass C and protease and phosphatase activities and decreased water-soluble C, particularly the mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. At the third harvest, the greatest increase in growth of M. sativa was observed in the inoculated plants with shoot biomass being 38% greater than for plants grown in the soil amended with the highest dose of DOM and 57% greater than for control plants. The addition of DOM was not sufficient to restore soil structure and microbial activity and did not affect the mycorrhizal development of introduced populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, but, depending on the dose, its fertiliser efficiency for improving plant growth was apparent.

  18. Facile synthesis, stabilization, and anti-bacterial performance of discrete Ag nanoparticles using Medicago sativa seed exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, Audra I; Gong, Bin; Marjo, Christopher E; Roessner, Ute; Harris, Andrew T

    2011-01-15

    The biogenic synthesis of metal nanomaterials offers an environmentally benign alternative to the traditional chemical synthesis routes. Colloidal silver (Ag) nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO(3) with Medicago sativa seed exudates under non-photomediated conditions. Upon contact, rapid reduction of Ag(+) ions was observed in nanotriangles with edge lengths of 86-108 nm, while pH adjustment to 11 resulted in monodisperse Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 12 nm. Repeated centrifugation and redispersion enhanced the percentage of nanoplates from 10% to 75% in solution. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation were monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and the Ag products were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the elements and chemical environment in the top layers of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles, while the metabolites in the exudate were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first account of M. sativa seed exudate assisted synthesis and stabilization of biogenic Ag nanoparticles; the nanoplates are notably smaller and better faceted compared with those synthesized by vascular plant extracts previously reported. Stabilized films of exudate synthesized Ag nanoparticles were effective anti-bacterial agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Plant Density and Water Stress on Competitive Ability and Yield of Medicago Sativa L. and Bromus tomentellus Boiss.in Mono and Mixed Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant density and water stress on yield of Medicago sativa and Bromus tomentellus was studied. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Isfahan University of Technology in 2013. The experiment included 18 treatments, three crop compositions (M.sativa, B. tomentellus or mixture of the two, two plant density levels, three watering regimes and four replicates, arranged in a completely randomized block design. Results showed that total yield of M. sativa mono-cropping was higher than mixed cropping and it was higher than B. tomentellus mono-cropping. Land Equivalent Ratio (LER values were less than 1 for all mixed cropping treatments, indicated the interspecific competition in mixed cropping. The biomass production per plant decreased with increasing density, competition for resource utilization and water stress. Compare of above-ground and below-ground dry matter showed that M. sativa appeared to be more constrained by intraspecific than by interspecific competition, Conversely, B. tomentellus was more suppressed by interspecific competition exerted by M. sativa than by intraspecific competition. Relative competition intensity (RCI values were positive for B. tomentellus and negative for M.sativa, implying that competitive ability of M.sativa was higher than B. tomentellus in mixed cropping .

  20. Water transfer in an alfalfa/maize association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corak, S.J.; Blevins, D.G.; Pallardy, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the possibility of interspecific water transfer in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) association. An alfalfa plant was grown through two vertically stacked plastic tubes. A 5 centimeter air gap between tubes was bridged by alfalfa roots. Five-week old maize plants with roots confined to the top tube were not watered, while associated alfalfa roots had free access to water in the bottom tube (the -/+ treatment). Additional treatments included: top and bottom tubes watered (+/+), top and bottom tubes droughted (-/-), and top tube droughted after removal of alfalfa root bridges and routine removal of alfalfa tillers (-*). Predawn leaf water potential of maize in the -/+ treatment fell to -1.5 megapascals 13 days after the start of drought; thereafter, predawn and midday potentials were maintained near -1.9 megapascals. Leaf water potentials of maize in the -/- and -* treatments declined steadily; all plants in these treatments were completely desiccated before day 50. High levels of tritium activity were detected in water extracted from both alfalfa and maize leaves after 3 H 2 O was injected into the bottom -/+ tube at day 70 or later. Maize in the -/+ treatment was able to survive an otherwise lethal period of drought by utilizing water lost by alfalfa roots

  1. Vegetative compatibility and RFLP analysis of Colletotrichum destructivum isolates from alfalfa and red clover

    OpenAIRE

    Vasić Tanja; Krnjaja Vesna; Jevremović Darko; Stanković Slavica; Terzić Dragan; Milenković Jasmina; Marković Jordan

    2016-01-01

    A total of 17 isolates of Colletotrichum from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) plants with anthracnose symptoms were collected from 11 districts in Serbia during 2005-2010 and tested for variability in vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Nitrate nonutilising (nit) mutants were isolated from each of investigated C. destructivum isolates by selecting chlorate-resistant...

  2. The effect of Medicago arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa saponins on the growth and development of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. tulipae apt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jarecka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work it was shown that total saponins originated from M. hybrida and M. sativa substantially limited mycelium growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. tulipae and symptoms of fusariosis on tulip bulbs. Out of 15 individual tested saponins originated from M. arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa, four compounds: 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→2α-L-arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin, hederagenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, medicagenic acid, medicagenic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside had the strongest inhibitory effect on mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae on PDA medium. The total saponins from M. arabica, M. hybrida and M. sativa inhibited the number of colony forming units of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae in artificially infested substrate. The use of saponins originated from Medicago as a fungicide is suggested.

  3. Investigation of Antileishmanial Effect of Alcoholic Extract and Essential Oil of Medicinal Plant Leaf Black Alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina), on The Number of Clinical Isolates of Leishmania Major Promastigotes in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    E Gharirvand Eskandari; M Doudi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Leishmaniasis has created enormous global health problems. Side effects, drug resistance and the lack of effective vaccines had led to the new effective compounds effective of plants. The aim of this study was to introduce a traditional medicinal plant called Black alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina) that can be used as a valuable resource against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: In this experimental study, alcoholic extract was prepared by maceration and essential oil by distillat...

  4. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae gives contradictory effects on phosphorus and arsenic acquisition by Medicago sativa Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baodong; Xiao Xueyi; Zhu Yongguan; Smith, F. Andrew; Miao Xie, Z.; Smith, Sally E.

    2007-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi may play an important role in protecting plants against arsenic (As) contamination. However, little is known about the direct and indirect involvement of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in detoxification mechanisms. A compartmented pot cultivation system ('cross-pots') is used here to investigate the roles of AMF Glomus mosseae in plant phosphorus (P) and As acquisition by Medicago sativa, and P-As interactions. The results indicate that fungal colonization dramatically increased plant dry weight by a factor of around 6, and also substantially increased both plant P and As contents (i.e. total uptake). Irrespective of P and As addition levels, AM plants had shoot and root P concentrations 2 fold higher, but As concentrations significantly lower, than corresponding uninoculated controls. The decreased shoot As concentrations were largely due to 'dilution effects' that resulted from stimulated growth of AM plants and reduced As partitioning to shoots. The study provides further evidence for the protective effects of AMF on host plants against As contamination, and have uncovered key aspects of underlying mechanisms. The possible application of AMF in remediation practices is discussed

  5. Restauración ecológica del suelo aplicando biochar (carbón vegetal, y su efecto en la producción de Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rafael Fiallos-Ortega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En la provincia de Chimborazo (Ecuador, cantón Riobamba, barrio San Pedro de las Abras, se realizó el estudio de restauración ecológica del suelo mediante la aplicación de diferentes niveles de carbón vegetal (10, 20, y 30 t.ha-1 y se evaluó su efecto en la producción forrajera de alfalfa Medicago sativa, bajo un Diseño de Bloques Completamente al Azar. Los resultados superiores se obtuvieron al aplicar 30 t.ha-1 de carbón vegetal, así: en el primer corte se alcanzó el menor tiempo de ocurrencia a la floración (40,50 días, la mayor cobertura basal (39,35 %, la mayor cobertura aérea (86,0%, la mejor altura (87,98 cm, el mayor número de hojas por tallo (103,45 y, sobre todo, la mayor producción en forraje, tanto en materia verde (15,80 tFVha-1corte como en seca(33,38 tMSha-1año, y en el segundo corte se alcanzó la mejor cobertura basal (86,55%y aérea (95,42%, así como la mayor producción en forraje verde (15,92 t.ha-1corte y en materia seca (33,70 t.ha-1 año. El análisis económico registró la mayor rentabilidad con30 t.ha-1 de carbón vegetal con un beneficio-costo de 1,63. Se recomienda aplicar en Medicago sativa, 30 t.ha-1 de carbón vegetal, por cuanto con esa cifra se obtuvo mayor cantidad de forraje verde por corte y se mejoró la calidad del suelo, lo que garantizará obtener rentabilidades económicas que beneficien a los productores y ganaderos, además de mejorar la calidad de los suelos.

  6. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lin, Guoqing [Laboratory Center of Life Sciences, Co. Laboratory of Nanjing Agricultural University and Carl Zeiss Far East, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Shen, Wenbiao, E-mail: wbshenh@njau.edu.cn [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H{sub 2} in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H{sub 2} in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems.

  7. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng; Lin, Guoqing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • HRW can alleviate Cd-induced alfalfa seedling growth inhibition and DNA laddering. • HRW alleviates Cd-induced oxidative stress by activating antioxidant enzymes. • Cd uptake in alfalfa seedling roots was decreased by HRW. • HRW can re-establish glutathione homeostasis under Cd stress. -- Abstract: Hydrogen gas (H 2 ) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H 2 in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H 2 in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems

  8. Design of optimal solvent for extraction of bio–active ingredients from six varieties of Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caunii Angela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive research has been performed worldwide and important evidences were collected to show the immense potential of plants used in various traditional therapeutic systems. The aim of this work is to investigate the different extracting solvents in terms of the influence of their polarity on the extracting ability of bioactive molecules (phenolic compounds from the M. sativa flowers. Results The total phenolic content of samples was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu (FC procedure and their antioxidant activity was assayed through in vitro radical decomposing activity using the radical DPPH° assay (IUPAC name for DPPH is (phenyl–(2,4,6–trinitrophenyl iminoazanium. The results showed that water was better than methanol and acetic acid for extracting bioactive compounds, in particular for total phenolic compounds from the flowers of alfalfa. The average content of bioactive molecules in methanol extract was 263.5±1.02 mg GAE/100g of dry weight lyophilized extract. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. However, all extracts were free–radical inhibitors, but the water extract was more potent than the acetic and the methanol ones. The order of inhibitor effectiveness (expressed by IC50 proved to be: water extract (0.924mg/mL > acetic acid extract (0.154mg/mL > methanol (0.079mg/mL. The profiles of each extract (fingerprint were characterized by FT–MIR spectroscopy. Conclusions The present study compares the fingerprint of different extracts of the M. sativa flowers, collected from the wild flora of Romania. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. The dependence of the extract composition on the solvent polarity (acetic acid vs. methanol vs. water was revealed by UV–VIS spectrometry and Infrared fingerprint.

  9. Multiple centroid method to evaluate the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Nascimento

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of multiple centroids to study the adaptability of alfalfa genotypes (Medicago sativa L.. In this method, the genotypes are compared with ideotypes defined by the bissegmented regression model, according to the researcher's interest. Thus, genotype classification is carried out as determined by the objective of the researcher and the proposed recommendation strategy. Despite the great potential of the method, it needs to be evaluated under the biological context (with real data. In this context, we used data on the evaluation of dry matter production of 92 alfalfa cultivars, with 20 cuttings, from an experiment in randomized blocks with two repetitions carried out from November 2004 to June 2006. The multiple centroid method proved efficient for classifying alfalfa genotypes. Moreover, it showed no unambiguous indications and provided that ideotypes were defined according to the researcher's interest, facilitating data interpretation.

  10. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Raza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6% and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%. Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  11. Effects of sodium diacetate on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, XianJun; Wen, AiYou; Desta, Seare T.; Wang, Jian; Shao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium diacetate (SDA) on fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Methods Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with various concentrations of SDA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g/kg of fresh forage). After 60 days of the ensiling, the samples were collected to examine the fermentative quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability. Results The application of SDA significantly (pensiling. Alfalfa silages treated with SDA at 7 g/kg had highest Flieg’s point and remained stable more than 9 d during aerobic exposure under humid and hot conditions in southern China. Conclusion SDA may be used as an additive for alfalfa silages at a level of 7 g/kg. PMID:28111451

  12. Responses of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) and rhizobia to copper-based fungicide application in two contrasting soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Martin; Dober, Melanie; Jöchlinger, Lisa; Keiblinger, Katharina; Soja, Gerhard; Mentler, Axel; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Bruckner, Alexander; Golestani Fard, Alireza; Wenzel, Walter; Zehetner, Franz

    2016-04-01

    For more than 120 years, salts of copper (Cu) have been used in viticulture to prevent damages by fungal diseases. Due to restrictions in the use of synthetic fungicides and mineral fertilizers, organic viticulture depends on Cu as well as on biological nitrogen fixation. Here, we conducted an eco-toxicological pot experiment with an acidic, sandy soil and a calcareous, loamy soil and incrementally increasing fungicide application rates from 0 to 5000 mg Cu kg-1 soil. Lucerne (Medicago sativa L. cultivar. Plato) was grown in the pots for 3 months under greenhouse conditions. Acetylene reduction assays performed with harvested nodules showed no response to elevated soil Cu concentrations indicating that the nitrogen fixing capacity of rhizobia was not compromised by Cu in our experiment. Nevertheless, the nodule biomass was very sensitive to Cu and strongly decreased due to reduced amounts of fine roots and less energy supply by the plant. Legumes are known to be Cu-sensitive, and our contribution also showed a decrease in harvest by 50 % (EC50) at 21 mg kg-1 plant Cu tissue concentration in the acidic soil and at 30 mg kg-1 in the calcareous soil. This corresponded to diffusional fluxes measured by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) of 202 and 368 fmol cm-2 s-1, respectively. DGT measurements showed that in the acidic soil, Cu was 2 to 10 times more available for plants, depending on the concentration applied, than in the calcareous soil. A modeling approach for estimating the effective concentration (EC) by including the DGT-estimated plant Cu content and the pH produced more accurate values (NRMSE of 21.9 to 20.1 %) than EC directly estimated from DGT.

  13. Contrasting impacts of defoliation on root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungi of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, K; Ruotsalainen, A L; Cahill, J F

    2014-05-01

    Individual plants typically interact with multiple mutualists and enemies simultaneously. Plant roots encounter both arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi, while the leaves are exposed to herbivores. AMF are usually beneficial symbionts, while the functional role of DSE is largely unknown. Leaf herbivory may have a negative effect on root symbiotic fungi due to decreased carbon availability. However, evidence for this is ambiguous and no inoculation-based experiment on joint effects of herbivory on AM and DSE has been done to date. We investigated how artificial defoliation impacts root colonization by AM (Glomus intraradices) and DSE (Phialocephala fortinii) fungi and growth of Medicago sativa host in a factorial laboratory experiment. Defoliation affected fungi differentially, causing a decrease in arbuscular colonization and a slight increase in DSE-type colonization. However, the presence of one fungal species had no effect on colonization by the other or on plant growth. Defoliation reduced plant biomass, with this effect independent of the fungal treatments. Inoculation by either fungal species reduced root/shoot ratios, with this effect independent of the defoliation treatments. These results suggest AM colonization is limited by host carbon availability, while DSE may benefit from root dieback or exudation associated with defoliation. Reductions in root allocation associated with fungal inoculation combined with a lack of effect of fungi on plant biomass suggest DSE and AMF may be functional equivalent to the plant within this study. Combined, our results indicate different controls of colonization, but no apparent functional consequences between AM and DSE association in plant roots in this experimental setup.

  14. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiti; Gao, Cunyi; Fang, Peng; Lin, Guoqing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2013-09-15

    Hydrogen gas (H₂) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H₂ in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H₂ in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aggressiveness and host range of Phoma medicaginis isolated from Medicago species growing in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Naceur DJEBALI

    2013-01-01

    Aggressiveness of 14 Phoma medicaginis isolates obtained from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic) and M. ciliaris (ciliate medic) growing in Tunisia was measured after inoculation on leaves and roots of M. truncatula. The ability of one isolate to cause disease on M. sativa (alfalfa), Cicer arietinum (chickpea), Pisum sativum (pea), Lens culinaris (lentil) and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was also tested. The pathogen caused dark lesions that enlarged and coalesced causing yellowing and pr...

  16. How rhizobial symbionts invade plants: the Sinorhizobium–Medicago model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kathryn M.; Kobayashi, Hajime; Davies, Bryan W.; Taga, Michiko E.; Walker, Graham C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants have evolved complex signal exchange mechanisms that allow a specific bacterial species to induce its host plant to form invasion structures through which the bacteria can enter the plant root. Once the bacteria have been endocytosed within a host-membrane-bound compartment by root cells, the bacteria differentiate into a new form that can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Bacterial differentiation and nitrogen fixation are dependent on the microaerobic environment and other support factors provided by the plant. In return, the plant receives nitrogen from the bacteria, which allows it to grow in the absence of an external nitrogen source. Here, we review recent discoveries about the mutual recognition process that allows the model rhizobial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti to invade and differentiate inside its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and the model host plant barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). PMID:17632573

  17. Medicago truncatula Gaertn. as a model for understanding the mechanism of growth promotion by bacteria from rhizosphere and nodules of alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Kępczyńska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    The present study showed all the 16 strains isolated and identified from the alfalfa rhizosphere and nodules, and registered in GenBank, to be good candidates for targeted use in studies addressing the rather weak known mechanism of plant growth promotion, including that of Medicago truncatula, a molecular crop model. Based on physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis, the 16 isolates obtained were ascribed to the following five families: Bacillaceae, Rhizobiaceae, Xantomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, within which 9 genera and 16 species were identified. All these bacteria were found to significantly enhance fresh and dry weight of root, shoots and whole 5-week-old seedlings. The bacteria were capable of the in vitro use of tryptophan to produce indolic compounds at various concentrations. The ability of almost all the strains to enhance growth of seedlings and individual roots was positively correlated with the production of the indolic compounds (r = 0.69; P = 0.0001), but not with the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) activity (no correlation). For some strains, it was difficult to conclude whether the growth promotion was related to the production of indolic compounds or to the ACCD activity. It is likely that promotion of M. truncatula root development involves also root interaction with pseudomonads, known to produce 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), a secondary metabolite reported to alter the root architecture by interacting with an auxin-dependent signaling pathway. Inoculation of seedlings with Pseudomonas brassicacearum KK 5, a bacterium known for its lowest ability to produce indolic compounds, the highest ACCD activity and the presence of the phlD gene responsible for DAPG precursor synthesis, resulted in a substantial promotion of root development. Inoculation with the strain increased the endogenous IAA level in M. truncatula leaves after inoculation of 5-week-old seedlings. Three other strains examined

  18. cycMs3, a novel B-type alfalfa cyclin gene, is induced in the G0-to-G1 transition of the cell cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Meskiene, I.; Bogre, L.; Dahl, M.; Pirck, M.; Ha, D. T.; Swoboda, I.; Heberle-Bors, E.; Ammerer, G.; Hirt, H.

    1995-01-01

    Cyclins are key regulators of the cell cycle in all eukaryotes. We have previously isolated two B-type cyclin genes, cycMs1 and cycMs2, from alfalfa that are primarily expressed during the G2-to-M phase transition and are most likely mitotic cyclin genes. Here, we report the isolation of a novel alfalfa cyclin gene, termed cycMs3 (for cyclin Medicago sativa), by selecting for mating type alpha-pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest suppression in yeast. The central region of the predicted amino ...

  19. Yields of alfalfa varieties with different fall dormancy levels in northeast china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.S.; Zhu, R.F.; Di, G.L.

    2014-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) is an important indicator of winter hardiness in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the relationship between FD and the yield potential of alfalfa varieties were investigated to survey annual dry matter (DM) yields with FD levels in the northeast regions with cold winters. During three consecutive years, all varieties of five FD levels survived over the winter without any persistency problems and there were no differences in annual DM yields of varieties among FD levels. Among the same FD varieties, DM yields for some of the dormant, semi-dormant and non-dormant varieties were found no correlated with FD levels. In conclusion, it suggests that different FD levels no effected on yields of alfalfa in the cold regions, such as North-east China. (author)

  20. Comunidad de arañas (Arachnida, Araneae del cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Armendano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se ha dado un interés creciente en el uso de enemigos naturales para controlar plagas de insectos, como arañas. Se estudió una comunidad de arañas en Argentina mediante un muestreo cada dos semanas durante el periodo 2004-2006 en lotes de una hectárea. En el estrato del suelo las arañas fueron colectadas con redes de arrastre y trampas de caída. Se recolecto un total de 6 229 ejemplares (15 familias y 50 especies. Siete familias se encuentran en el estrato herbáceo, las más abundantes fueron: Thomisidae (n=2 012, 32.30%, Araneidae (n=1 516, 24.33% y Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%. El suelo habían 14 familias, principalmente: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10% y Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%. Predominaron las arañas cazadoras: por emboscadas (32.99%, al acecho (11.77%, corredoras de suelo (10.84% y tejedoras orbiculares (27.56%. Los índices de diversidad fueron: H´=2.97, Dsp=0.11 y J=0.79, evidenciando una comunidad de arañas moderadamente diversa, con predominio de Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus, Lycosa poliostoma and L. erythrognatha. Las arañas estuvieron presentes durante el desarrollo fenológico del cultivo con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano.

  1. Effects of sowing methods and potassium application on the performance of two Alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matug, S. M.

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using irradiation technique (Gamma ray)-Cobalt-60 on destroying Salmonella in fish meal. The study consisted of 4 stages:-The first stage: included the isolation of Salmonella from locally produced fish meal in order to be used in this study. The second stage; Samples of sardine meal and tuna meal were contaminated with 3 different levels of active cells of Salmonella in test tubes (10 1 3, 10 5 , 10 7 , cell/gram), respectively. They were then irradiated with dose 1, 2, 3, 4 kGy of gamma rays. After that the number of Salmonella cells resistant to radiation were counted for each treatment and the optimum dose that gave a 100% kill of salmonella was determined. The third stage: In order to fined if the optimum dose (3 kGy) which was obtained on laboratory scale in stage 2 is sufficient for destroying Salmonella cells in commercial packages of fish meal. A commercial samples of sardine meal weighing 25 Kg each were contaminated with 10 3 , 10 5 , and 10 7 cell/gram of active salmonella and exposed to irradiation dose of 3 kGy and 4 kGy of gamma rays. The number of surviving cells were determined and the optimum dose was found. The fourth stage: biological evaluation of sardine meal irradiated with 4 kGy was carried out. The irradiated sardine meal was added to a broiler finisher ration to raise the protein content to 24%. This ration was fed to one week old chicks for a period of 5 weeks and were compared to a control (chicks fed with ration to which non irradiated meal was added to raise the protein level to 24%). Data for birds feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality were monitored during the experiment. At the end of the experiment samples of chicken were dissected for veterinary examination. Results from first stage indicated that 33% of samples were found contaminated with Salmonella. A direct relationship was observed between the percentage of Salmonella death and radiation dose, as the level of salmonella contamination increased, a higher dose was required for the destruction of Salmonella. It was also found that the effectiveness of radiation dose varies with the type of fish meal. A significant difference was obtained between the chemical composition of Sardine meal and Tuna meal. Mean while a non significant effect of radiation on chemical composition was obtained. Results from the third stage showed that the 3 KGy dose in not sufficient for destroying salmonella cells in commercial bags of fish meal and a 4 kGy is the needed dose to a achieve a 100% destruction of salmonella cells. from the biological evaluation of fish meals treated with 4 kGy, it was found that there was no significant effect of radiation on feed consumption, weight gain, feed conversion ratio on compare with the control. In addition to that no mortality was recorder in both treatment. The veterinary examination showed no abnormal effects or cases in birds that were given the feed contained the irradiated fish meal. (author)

  2. Effect of Planting Methods and Seeding Rates on Yield of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. CV. Hamedani in Bajgah, Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yazdani

    2015-06-01

    ha-1, respectively. Seeding rates also had a significant effect on number of weeds so that maximum and minimum weed numbers were obtained in 20 kg and 5 kg seed ha-1. Our results showed that 20 kg seed ha-1 and furrow planting method was the best treatment to gain maximum forage yield and minimum weed's detrimental impact.

  3. Investigation of Antileishmanial Effect of Alcoholic Extract and Essential Oil of Medicinal Plant Leaf Black Alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina, on The Number of Clinical Isolates of Leishmania Major Promastigotes in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gharirvand Eskandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis has created enormous global health problems. Side effects, drug resistance and the lack of effective vaccines had led to the new effective compounds effective of plants. The aim of this study was to introduce a traditional medicinal plant called Black alfalfa (Medicago Lupulina that can be used as a valuable resource against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods: In this experimental study, alcoholic extract was prepared by maceration and essential oil by distillation water method. Leishmania major promastigotes were cultured at 25 ± 2° C in N.N.N culturemedium, then in Schneider and next were cultured in RPMI- 1640. afterward, using MTT (Methyl Thiazole Tetrazolium, the IC50 (Inhibitory Concentrations 50% for extracts, essence and Glucantime were determined. The results using Tukey and t-test were analyzed and were presented by software SPSS16. MTT assay were repeated. 3 times for each sample. Results: IC50 for alfalfa leaf extract and essential oil of black alfalfa and Glucantime against L. major promastigotes was determined after 24, 48 and 72 hours, 240, 130 and 69 micrograms per ml, and 801, 340 and 190 micrograms per ml, also 26, 19 and 11 micrograms per ml , respectively. There was a significant differences between the IC50 plant extract and essential oil and Glucantime after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Conclusion: Alcoholic extracts and essential oil the plant had significant anti leishmaniasis effects in vitro. In this way, it can be considered as an anti-leishmaniasis among the herbs.

  4. Assessment of Clover Root Curculio, Sitona puncticollis Stephens (Col.: Curculionidae Injury on Lucerne (Medicago sativa in Pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pourhaji

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is one of the most important crops that are infested by Sitona species in Iran. Adults and larvae of Sitona spp. feed on foliage and root of legumes and cause serious damages on them. Collection of adults of this genus during 2003 -2004 years from alfalfa fields of eleven localities in East Azarbaidjan Province, Sitona puncticollis Stephens was found to be the dominant species. To estimate of damage of this species, 100 pots of common alfalfa cultivar (Ghara yonje were sowed and after 2.5 months. Fifty pots were infested with eggs of S. puncticollis and the rests were maintained as control. After two months, length of stem and roots and their dry and fresh weights were measured in 30 infested and 30 uninfested pots. The data of infested and uninfested pots were compared by T- test. Results showed that there were significant differences (P< 0.01 between all measured traits in infested and uninfested pots.

  5. Genetic relationships among alfalfa gemplasms resistant to common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... Valor. Ms. 83-241. Canada. B. HR. II. 25. England(3). Ms. 1872. England. B. HR. II. 26. WL202 G3057. Mv. 83-128. Canada. B. HR. II. 1Ms, Medicago sativa subssp. sativa; Mv, Medicago sativa subssp. x varia. 2 collection code of Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science.

  6. Effect of Age of Alfalfa Root on Penetration by Pratylenchus penetrans

    OpenAIRE

    Olthof, Th. H. A.

    1982-01-01

    Penetration by all migratory life stages of Pratylenchus penetrans into roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Du Puits) was inversely proportional to tissue age. Two-day-old tissue in the root hair zone was penetrated twice as much as 10- or 20-day-old sections of the tap root. Age-related differences were also observed in branch roots; these differences were not affected by increasing the number of nematodes from 1 to 10 per inoculation site, nor by increasing the length of the incubation...

  7. Alfalfa variety selection for maximum fiber content, protein and nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhland, Christopher T. [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Knox, John [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Ward, Susan [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Agarwal, V. J. [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Frey, John [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Carrow, Duane [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Jones, Bruce [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States); Rife, James [Minnesota State Univ., Mankato, MN (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The fertile soils of Southern Minnesota are highly productive from both a natural and agricultural standpoint. We chose to examine potential feedstock in both of these settings as a focus for our study. In part one of this report we detail our findings examining potential feedstock in prairie and wetlands in the Mankato, MN area in 2009. We were able to familiarize ourselves with techniques used to isolate and quantify concentrations of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in both a classroom and laboratory setting. These techniques were then used for our experiments that examined the effects of harvest regime, irrigation and salinity on eight potential-feedstock varieties of alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

  8. Aphids and ladybird beetle’s abundance and diversity in alfalfa fields of Yasouj, southwestern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mirfakhraie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is the oldest and the most important forage legume. It has been cultivated for forage longer than any other crop. Diversity indices provide information about community composition. Diversity indices are measured by species richness and species evenness therefore, it could give us more ecological information rather than a simple species list in the fields. During 2015-2016, aphids and ladybird beetle’s abundance and diversity were monitored in alfalfa fields of Yasouj. Samplings were conducted with 150 plants in the alfalfa fields from mid-May to mid-November. Species richness was measured using Shannon and Simpson indices. In this study, six aphids and five coccinellid species were collected and identified. Among the collected aphid species, Aphis fabae (Scopoli, 1763 and Therioaphis maculata (Buckton, 1899 were most abundant in the fields. For coccinellids, Coccinella septempunctata L. was the most abundant species. Highest aphid species diversity was observed on 17 May 2016.

  9. Tolerancia experimental de las especies vegetales Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea al boro, en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta L. de Viana

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La actividad de las industrias borateras constituye una fuente puntual y difusa de contaminación del aire, suelo y aguas superficiales y profundas. Por lo tanto, el estudio y experimentación acerca de las posibles formas de contrarrestar este impacto constituye una prioridad. Una técnica relativamente nueva para descontaminar suelos es la fitorremediación, que emplea plantas y microorganismos asociados. El primer paso es detectar las especies vegetales tolerantes, lo que constituye el objetivo de este trabajo. Se realizó un experimento en laboratorio para evaluar la germinación, la supervivencia y el crecimiento de distintas especies en diferentes concentraciones de boro. Al comienzo y al final del experimento se determinó la concentración de boro en el sustrato para cada tratamiento y para sustratos con y sin vegetación. Se encontraron diferencias significativas debidas al tratamiento, la especie y la interacción especie *tratamiento. M. sativa, N. glauca y J. mimosifolia fueron las especies de mayor tolerancia al boro. Las otras especies presentaron una disminución en todas las variables-respuesta en función de la concentración del contaminante. Todas presentaron una baja supervivencia en la máxima concentración. La disminución de boro fue máxima en el tratamiento de 30 ppm de boro con M. sativa y la menor se registró en los tratamiento de 20 ppm de boro con J. mimosifolia y de 30 ppm de boro con T. stans y S. oleraceae. Se concluye que N. glauca, M. sativa y J. mimosifolia podrían considerarse como prometedoras en remediación.Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina. The activity of boron industries is a punctual and diffuse source of air, soil and water pollution. Therefore, it is a priority to study possible ways of reducing this impact. A relatively new technology for reducing soil pollution is

  10. Comparación de dos índices cuantitativos de estimación del estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa Comparison of two quantitative indexes for the estimation of alfalfa development stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Bernáldez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. es una variable de estudio común en evaluaciones de cultivares, dada su relación con la composición química y la tasa de crecimiento de la pastura. La determinación de los índices cuantitativos "estado medio por conteo" y "estado medio por peso" (EMC y EMP respectivamente permite la descripción del estado de desarrollo en pasturas de alfalfa de una manera objetiva y reproducible. Los índices EMC y EMP describen igualmente el estado de desarrollo de la alfalfa cuando la pastura se encuentra próxima al momento de utilización recomendado en la práctica. La ventaja de estimar EMC en relación a EMP, se basa en la rapidez operativa que ofrece la generación de datos para el cálculo del primero.The developmental stage of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is an usual variable of study when evaluating cultivars because of its relationship with chemical composition and pasture growth rate. Determination of quantitative indexes such as "mean stage by count" and "mean stage by weight" (MSC and MSW respectively makes it possible to describe the developmental phenological stages of alfalfa pastures in a more objective and reproducible way. Likewise, both the MSC and MSW indexes, describe the developmental stages of alfalfa when the pasture is close to the recommended utilisation time in practice. The advantage of estimating MSC in relation to MSW is based on the higher operative efficiency offered by the former in data generation for its calculation.

  11. Lignin modification leads to increased nodule numbers in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Bhattarai, Kishor; Pislariu, Catalina I; Nakashima, Jin; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Udvardi, Michael K; Monteros, Maria J; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Reduction of lignin levels in the forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by down-regulation of the monolignol biosynthetic enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) results in strongly increased digestibility and processing ability of lignocellulose. However, these modifications are often also associated with dwarfing and other changes in plant growth. Given the importance of nitrogen fixation for legume growth, we evaluated the impact of constitutively targeted lignin modification on the belowground organs (roots and nodules) of alfalfa plants. HCT down-regulated alfalfa plants exhibit a striking reduction in root growth accompanied by an unexpected increase in nodule numbers when grown in the greenhouse or in the field. This phenotype is associated with increased levels of gibberellins and certain flavonoid compounds in roots. Although HCT down-regulation reduced biomass yields in both the greenhouse and field experiments, the impact on the allocation of nitrogen to shoots or roots was minimal. It is unlikely, therefore, that the altered growth phenotype of reduced-lignin alfalfa is a direct result of changes in nodulation or nitrogen fixation efficiency. Furthermore, HCT down-regulation has no measurable effect on carbon allocation to roots in either greenhouse or 3-year field trials.

  12. Evaluation of somatic embryos of alfalfa for recombinant protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guohua; Grbic, Vojislava; Ma, Shengwu; Tian, Lining

    2015-02-01

    Somatic embryos of alfalfa can accumulate higher levels of recombinant proteins comparing to vegetative organs. Somatic embryos may be explored as a new system for new protein production for plants. Plants have been explored via genetic engineering as an inexpensive system for recombinant protein production. However, protein expression levels in vegetative tissues have been low, which limits the commercial utilization of plant expression systems. Somatic embryos resemble zygotic embryos in many aspects and may accumulate higher levels of proteins as true seed. In this study, somatic embryo of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was investigated for the expression of recombinant proteins. Three heterologous genes, including the standard scientific reporter uid that codes for β-glucuronidase and two genes of interest: ctb coding for cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), and hIL-13 coding for human interleukin 13, were independently introduced into alfalfa via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Somatic embryos were subsequently induced from transgenic plants carrying these genes. Somatic embryos accumulated approximately twofold more recombinant proteins than vegetative organs including roots, stems, and leaves. The recombinant proteins of CTB and hIL-13 accumulated up to 0.15 and 0.18 % of total soluble protein in alfalfa somatic embryos, respectively. The recombinant proteins expressed in somatic embryos also exhibited biological activities. As somatic embryos can be induced in many plant species and their production can be scaled up via different avenues, somatic embryos may be developed as an efficient expression system for recombinant protein production.

  13. Contrasting Strategies of Alfalfa Stem Elongation in Response to Fall Dormancy in Early Growth Stage: The Tradeoff between Internode Length and Internode Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongli; Sun, Qizhong

    2015-01-01

    Fall dormancy (FD) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be described using 11 FD ratings, is widely used as an important indicator of stress resistance, productive performance and spring growth. However, the contrasting growth strategies in internode length and internode number in alfalfa cultivars with different FD rating are poorly understood. Here, a growth chamber study was conducted to investigate the effect of FD on plant height, aboveground biomass, internode length, and internode number in alfalfa individuals in the early growth stages. In order to simulate the alfalfa growth environment in the early stage, 11 alfalfa cultivars with FD ratings from one to 11 were chosen and seeded at the greenhouse, and then were transplanted into an artificial growth chamber. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement with three replicates. Plant height, above-ground biomass, internode length, and internode number were measured in early growth stage in all individuals. Our findings showed that plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa did not significantly differ among 11 different FD rated cultivars. Also, internode length and internode number positively affected plant height and the aboveground biomass of alfalfa individuals and the average internode length significantly increased with increasing FD rating. However, internode number tended to sharply decline when the FD rating increased. Moreover, there were no correlations, slightly negative correlations, and strongly negative correlations between internode length and internode number in alfalfa individuals among the three scales, including within-FD ratings, within-FD categories and inter-FD ratings, respectively. Therefore, our results highlighted that contrasting growth strategies in stem elongation were adopted by alfalfa with different FD ratings in the early growth stage. Alfalfa cultivars with a high FD rating have longer internodes, whereas more dormant alfalfa

  14. The photosynthetic and stomatal response of Medicago sativa cv. saranac to free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (F.A.C.E.) and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridson, N.P.

    1996-08-01

    Plots of Medicago sativa cv. saranac were grown in the field at ambient (355 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1} air) or elevated (600{mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1} air) CO{sub 2} concentrations. High (200kg yr{sup -1}) or low (20kg yr{sup -1}) nitrogen levels were applied to two isogeneic lines, one able and one unable to use nitrogen fixing bacteria. Plants were in the second year of field growth. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} was via a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment System (FACE). Elevated CO{sub 2} increased diurnal assimilation by between 12% and 92%. Analysis of A/C{sub i} responses showed that effective nitrogen fertilisation was more important to rubisCO and RuBP activity than elevated CO{sub 2}. No acclimation was consistently observed. Leaves lower down the canopy were found to have lower Vc{sub max} and J{sub max} values, though age may be the cause of the latter effect. FACE conditions have only a small effect on these responses. There was some evidence found for the down-regulation of photosynthesis in the late afternoon. The FACE conditions had no affect on stomatal density but did increase epidermal cell density.

  15. Genome-Wide Assessment of Polygalacturonases-Like (PGL) Genes of Medicago truncatula, Sorghum bicolor, Vitis vinifera and Oryza sativa Using Comparative Genomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Gautam; Yadav, Sangeeta; Tanveer, Aiman; Nasim, Jeya; Singh, Nitish K; Dubey, Amit K; Yadav, Dinesh

    2017-12-14

    The polygalacturonases (PG) is one of the important members of pectin-degrading glycoside hydrolases of the family GH28. In plants, PG represents multigene families associated with diverse processes. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the diversity of PG genes among monocots and dicots with respect to phylogeny, gene duplication and subcellular localization to get an insight into the evolutionary and functional attributes. The genome-wide assessment of Medicago truncatula, Vitis vinifera Sorghum bicolor, and Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica genomes revealed 53, 49, 38 and 35 PG-like (PGL) genes, respectively. The predominance of glyco_hydro_28 domain, hydrophilic nature and genes with multiple introns were uniformly observed. The subcellular localization showed the presence of signal sequences targeting the secretory pathways. The phylogenetic tree constructed marked uniformity with three distinct clusters for each plant irrespective of the variability in the genome sizes. The site-specific selection pressure analysis based on K a /K s values showed predominance of purifying selection pressures among different groups identified in these plants. The functional divergence analysis revealed significant site-specific selective constraints. Results of site-specific selective pressure analysis throw light on the functional diversity of PGs in various plant processes and hence its constitutive nature. These findings are further strengthened by functional divergence analysis which reveals functionally diverse groups in all the four species representing monocots and dicots. The outcome of the present work could be utilized for deciphering the novel functions of PGs in plants.

  16. Transcriptome responses in alfalfa associated with tolerance to intensive animal grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Zhao, Yan; Ray, Ian; Song, Mingzhou

    2016-01-01

    Tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to animal grazing varies widely within the species. However, the molecular mechanisms influencing the grazing tolerant phenotype remain uncharacterized. The objective of this study was to identify genes and pathways that control grazing response in alfalfa. We analyzed whole-plant de novo transcriptomes from grazing tolerant and intolerant populations of M. sativa ssp. falcata subjected to grazing by sheep. Among the Gene Ontology terms which were identified as grazing responsive in the tolerant plants and differentially enriched between the tolerant and intolerant populations (both grazed), most were associated with the ribosome and translation-related activities, cell wall processes, and response to oxygen levels. Twenty-one grazing responsive pathways were identified that also exhibited differential expression between the tolerant and intolerant populations. These pathways were associated with secondary metabolite production, primary carbohydrate metabolic pathways, shikimate derivative dependent pathways, ribosomal subunit composition, hormone signaling, wound response, cell wall formation, and anti-oxidant defense. Sequence polymorphisms were detected among several differentially expressed homologous transcripts between the tolerant and intolerant populations. These differentially responsive genes and pathways constitute potential response mechanisms for grazing tolerance in alfalfa. They also provide potential targets for molecular breeding efforts to develop grazing-tolerant cultivars of alfalfa. PMID:26763747

  17. Relative Aerial Biomass Yield of Intercroped Alfalfa with Winter Forage Cereals Rendimiento Relativo de Biomasa Aérea en Intercultivos de Alfalfa con Cereales Forrajeros de Invierno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Pereyra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the tropical regions of the world, intercropping is mostly associated with food grain production, whereas it is receiving increased attention in temperate regions as a means of efficient forage production. The aim of this work was to determine the relative yield of aerial biomass in alfalfa or lucerne (Medicago sativa L. and winter forage cereals intercrops. These were done in eight systems resulting from the combination of species sown at different dates. The biomass was measured in three situations: alfalfa and cereal sole-crop and alfalfa-cereal intercrops, the relative biomass yields were calculated by the relative yield index (RYI. The field experiment was conducted as a bifactorial array in a randomized complete block design of two replicates. The alfalfa-cereal intercrops provided RYI values ranging from 0.71 to 0.83. This showed that it is possible to produce, in the same area, between 71 and 83% of the biomass that both crops would produce in separate ones.En las regiones tropicales del mundo, el intercultivo está asociado con la producción de granos para la alimentación, mientras que en áreas templadas recibe mayor atención como medio de producción eficiente de forraje. El objetivo de este experimento fue determinar el rendimiento relativo de biomasa aérea en intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. y cereales forrajeros de invierno. Se establecieron ocho sistemas producto de la combinación con especies de cereales con distintas fechas de siembra. Las mediciones de biomasa se realizaron en tres situaciones: monocultivo de alfalfa, monocultivo de cereales e intercultivo de alfalfa-cereal, calculándose el rendimiento relativo del intercultivo (RRI. Se empleó un diseño con arreglo bifactorial y dos repeticiones en bloques completos al azar. Los intercultivos de alfalfa-cereal generaron valores de RRI entre 0,71 y 0,83, lo que indicó que en una misma superficie es posible producir entre el 71 y 83% de la biomasa que

  18. PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN KECERNAAN BAHAN KERING ALFALFA DENGAN PEMUPUKAN FOSFAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sunarni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago    sativa    L. as one of legume forage crops for ruminant livestock is very sensitive to the phosphorus deficiency. Phosphorus fertilizers have been used widely to overcome those problem. However, the high cost of superphosphate (SP is now focusing attention on cheaper rock phosphate (RP fertilizer. A field experiment was conducted on a latosolic soil (low pH, and low available Bray II extractable P. The objective of the research is to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer from difference sources on dry matter production, and in    vitro dry matter digestibility of alfalfa. Completely randomized block design with 7 treatments in 3 replicates was used in this field experiment. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (SP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T2 (SP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T3 (SP, 300 kg P2O5/ha, T4 (RP, 100 kg P2O5/ha, T5 (RP, 200 kg P2O5/ha, T6 (RP, 300 kg P2O5/ha. Size of each plot was 2 m x 2 m, and fertilized with P fertilizer (SP, RP according to the assigned treatment. All plot received basal fertilizer of urea (50 kg N/ha, KCl (100 kg K2O/ha and poultry manure (2 ton/ha. Medicago    sativa was defoliated on 12 weeks after planting and analyzed for dry matter (DM production and in    vitro DM digestibility. Result showed that DM production significantly influenced by the treatments. Superphosphate fertilization resulted DM production significantly higher compared to control and RP, except on RP 300 kg P2O5/ha was non-significant difference. In    vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of alfalfa was not affected by the treatment. There was non-significant difference in IVDMD between the treatments. Therefore, RP (300 kg P2O5/ha could replace SP to increased DM production and not affected for IVDMD of Medicago    sativa in acid latosolic soil.

  19. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa and soybean under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydon, S.A.; Mohamad, A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of 20% increase of UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) and two cultivars of soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Mer) under field conditions have been investigated. The increase of UVB dose ranged between 1.746 and 7.112 J/cm 2 during experiment. The results showed that soybean yield decrease by 16% and 31% in A. 3803 and A. 2522 cultivars respectively, under UVB exposure. The dry weight and leaf area were sensitive in the A. 3803 cultivar, while they were tolerant in the A. 2522 cultivar. Alfalfa response to UVB varied during the different stages of growth, whereas the yield was 12% less in the exposed plants. (author)

  20. Alfalfa nutritive quality for ruminant livestock as influenced by ambient air quality in west-central Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Nosal, M.; Muntifering, R.B.; Krupa, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nutritive quality response to ambient ozone (O 3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) were assessed at three locations in west-central Alberta, Canada (1998-2002). Yield data were segregated into high and low relative to overall median yield. Ozone concentrations (hourly median and 95th-percentile) and precipitation (P) contributed 69 and 29%, respectively, to the variability in crude protein (CP) concentration in low-yielding alfalfa, whereas mean temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) collectively influenced 98% of the variation in CP in high-yielding alfalfa. Three-fourths of the accounted variation in relative feed value (RFV) of low-yielding alfalfa was attributable to P, T and RH, whereas median and 95th-percentile hourly O 3 concentrations and SO 2 and NO x exposure integrals contributed 25%. In contrast, air quality, (mainly O 3 ) influenced 86% of the accounted variation in RFV of high-yielding alfalfa, and T and P collectively contributed 14%. - Exposure to ambient concentrations of phytotoxic air pollutants affected nutritive quality of alfalfa for ruminant livestock in a yield-dependent manner

  1. Preliminary Study on Effect of Herbicides on Alfalfa Yield and Weed Community Characteristics in Yellow River Delta, China

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    WANG Guo-liang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa(Medicago sativa is one of important legume forages worldwide. However, weed is the main factor limiting alfalfa production. Biomass quality and yield and stability of dry matter production during cultivation are directly associated with the interference of weeds which compete with alfalfa for water, light and nutrients. The use of herbicides is a good alternative for weed control. In order to control weed in alfalfa field with suitable herbicide in Yellow River delta, the effect of four herbicides(imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl, haloxyfop-r-methyl and oxyfluorfen with different concentration on afalfal yield and weed community characteristics were studied. The results showed that both imazethapyr and haloxyfop-r-methyl treatments could increase alfalfa yield, and the best herbicide application concentration was imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 and haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2, but oxyfluorfen treatment would limit alfalfa growth significantly. Weed species numbers in the treatments of imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl and oxyfluorfen decreased significantly. Digitariasanguinalis, Portulacaoleracea and Echinochloacrusgalli were more difficult to control from specie important value in all treatments. Species diversity index decreased with higher herbicide concentration in all treatments. From this study, herbicide imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 application concentration was the best weed control method, and the second one was haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2 application concentration.

  2. Transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the sweetpotato Orange gene exhibit enhanced abiotic stress tolerance.

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    Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2 promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants, three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8 selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands.

  3. Characterization of peptides in ensiled alfalfa treated with different chemical additives.

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    Ding, Wurong; Guo, Xusheng; Ataku, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    Effects of different chemical additives on peptide composition in ensiled alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were investigated by using gel filtration and determination of N characteristics. The alfalfa silages were prepared untreated (control) or with formic acid, formaldehyde or tannic acid as additives at ensiling. All additives reduced non-protein N (NPN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) and amino acid N (AA-N) in the ensiled forage, and the most effective reduction of NPN and AA-N was observed in the formaldehyde-treated silages. Peptides in the control silage were mainly dipeptides to peptides with five amino acid residues. Most peptides in the formic acid-treated silage contained 4-12 amino acid residues. Although most peptides in the formaldehyde-treated silages contained 4-6 amino acid residues, there was a considerable proportion of peptides with 7-11 amino acid residues. Tannic acid had little effect on peptide size of ensiled alfalfa extract in which most peptides contained 5-6 amino acid residues. Peptide size in formic acid-treated alfalfa silage was greater than that in the other treatments. Addition of formic acid and formaldehyde not only increased the peptide concentration in alfalfa silage, but enlarged the peptide size. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

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    Arjan Jonker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  5. Transgenic Alfalfa Plants Expressing the Sweetpotato Orange Gene Exhibit Enhanced Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Myoung Duck; Kim, Sun Ha; Ji, Chang Yoon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Park, Woo Sung; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Li, Hongbing; Xu, Bingcheng; Deng, Xiping; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), a perennial forage crop with high nutritional content, is widely distributed in various environments worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the sweetpotato Orange gene (IbOr) is involved in increasing carotenoid accumulation and enhancing resistance to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, in an effort to improve the nutritional quality and environmental stress tolerance of alfalfa, we transferred the IbOr gene into alfalfa (cv. Xinjiang Daye) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase (SWPA2) promoter through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Among the 11 transgenic alfalfa lines (referred to as SOR plants), three lines (SOR2, SOR3, and SOR8) selected based on their IbOr transcript levels were examined for their tolerance to methyl viologen (MV)-induced oxidative stress in a leaf disc assay. The SOR plants exhibited less damage in response to MV-mediated oxidative stress and salt stress than non-transgenic plants. The SOR plants also exhibited enhanced tolerance to drought stress, along with higher total carotenoid levels. The results suggest that SOR alfalfa plants would be useful as forage crops with improved nutritional value and increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, which would enhance the development of sustainable agriculture on marginal lands. PMID:25946429

  6. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of the MsHSP17.7 gene from Medicago sativa L.

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    Li, Zhen-Yi; Long, Rui-Cai; Zhang, Tie-Jun; Yang, Qing-Chuan; Kang, Jun-Mei

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous protective proteins that play crucial roles in plant development and adaptation to stress, and the aim of this study is to characterize the HSP gene in alfalfa. Here we isolated a small heat shock protein gene (MsHSP17.7) from alfalfa by homology-based cloning. MsHSP17.7 contains a 477-bp open reading frame and encodes a protein of 17.70-kDa. The amino acid sequence shares high identity with MtHSP (93.98 %), PsHSP17.1 (83.13 %), GmHSP17.9 (74.10 %) and SlHSP17.6 (79.25 %). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MsHSP17.7 belongs to the group of cytosolic class II small heat shock proteins (sHSP), and likely localizes to the cytoplasm. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that MsHSP17.7 was induced by heat shock, high salinity, peroxide and drought stress. Prokaryotic expression indicated that the salt and peroxide tolerance of Escherichia coli was remarkably enhanced. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing MsHSP17.7 exhibited increased root length of transgenic Arabidopsis lines under salt stress compared to the wild-type line. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the transgenic lines were significantly lower than in wild-type, although proline levels were similar between transgenic and wild-type lines. MsHSP17.7 was induced by heat shock, high salinity, oxidative stress and drought stress. Overexpression analysis suggests that MsHSP17.7 might play a key role in response to high salinity stress.

  8. Determination of alfalfa leaf area by non-destructive method

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    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of plant leaf area is important to evaluate the vegetal growth. The objective of this research was to determine a mathematical equation to estimate successfully alfalfa (Medicago sativa leaf area by measuring linear dimensions of the leaf blade of the plant leaflets. The leaves were collected from cultivar ‘Crioula’ cropped at field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP,Brazil. The leaflets length, width and leaf blade area were determined electronically. Linear, geometric and exponential equations were tested, considering the length and width separately and the length × width relation. The lateral leaflets showed similar dimensions and they were different to the central leaflet. So, it was opted to analyze the lateral leaflets together. All equations described satisfactorily the alfalfa leaf area, but it was opted for the linear equation passing through the origin due to its better practical application, showing high significance and normal distribution of residuals. This equation was validated with coefficient of correlation of 0.96, showing high significance (P < 0.01. The alfalfa leaf area can be estimated by the equation LA = 0,691156 × LWct + 0,3652754 × LWlt, where LWct is the central leaflet length × width and LWlt is the sum of the left and right lateral leaflets length × width.

  9. Photosynthate partitioning in alfalfa before harvest and during regrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cralle, H.T.; Heichel, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    During the harvest regrowth cycle of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants, factors such as source to sink distance, sink size, and inter-organ competition continually change. However, consequent changes in the pattern of photosynthate partitioning from leaves to other organs are poorly understood. The authors objective was to examine photosynthate partitioning from upper and lower alfalfa leaves at intervals before herbage harvest and during regrowth after harvest. The uppermost or lowest fully expanded leaf on the longest or dominant stem was labeled with 14 CO 2 . After a 24-h translocation period, the plants were divided into various organs to determine distribution of the radiocarbon. At that time, the upper leaf preferentially partitioned photosynthate to the shoot apex, unexpanded leaves and auxillary shoots of the dominant shoot, whereas the lower leaf preferentially distributed photosynthate to the crown shoots, crown, root, and nodules. Expressions of 14 C partitioning were affected differently by organ mass. While the smallest organs such as nodules and unexpanded leaves always ranked higher for 14 C based on relative specific activity, the largest organs such as roots and crown shoots accumulated the largest percentage of total plant recovered radioactivity. The results illustrate the importance of growth stage and leaf position in photosynthate partitioning in alfalfa and the dominance of herbage meristems for current photosynthate during regrowth

  10. Alfalfa Responses to Gypsum Application Measured Using Undisturbed Soil Columns

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    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum is an excellent source of Ca and S, both of which are required for crop growth. Large amounts of by-product gypsum [Flue gas desulfurization gypsum-(FGDG] are produced from coal combustion in the United States, but only 4% is used for agricultural purposes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of (1 untreated, (2 short-term (4-year annual applications of gypsum totaling 6720 kg ha−1, and (3 long-term (12-year annual applications of gypsum totaling 20,200 kg ha−1 on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth and nutrient uptake, and gypsum movement through soil. The study was conducted in a greenhouse using undisturbed soil columns of two non-sodic soils (Celina silt loam and Brookston loam. Aboveground growth of alfalfa was not affected by gypsum treatments when compared with untreated (p > 0.05. Total root biomass (0–75 cm for both soils series was significantly increased by gypsum application (p = 0.04, however, increased root growth was restricted to 0–10 cm depth. Soil and plant analyses indicated no unfavorable environmental impact from of the 4-year and 12-year annual application of FGDG. We concluded that under sufficient water supply, by-product gypsum is a viable source of Ca and S for land application that might benefit alfalfa root growth, but has less effect on aboveground alfalfa biomass production. Undisturbed soil columns were a useful adaptation of the lysimeter method that allowed detailed measurements of alfalfa nutrient uptake, root biomass, and yield and nutrient movement in soil.

  11. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Sinorhizobium meliloti strains isolated from the roots of Medicago sativa in Iran

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    Mahboobeh Nakhaei Moghaddam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Rhizobium-legume interaction leads to biological nitrogen-fixation and increases nitrogen of soil. The aim of this study was to characterize the properties of Sinorhizobium isolates from the roots of alfalfa plantsin Iran. Materials and methods: Bacteria were isolated in yeast extract mannitol Agar and confirmed by plant infection test. After evaluation from the point of morphological and biochemical properties, a fragment of 16S rDNA gene with a size of approximately 1500 base pair was amplified using fD1 and rD1 primers. PCR (polymerase chain reaction products were analyzed for digestion pattern by Taq1 endonuclease. Results: 63 bacteria were isolated from homogenized nodules. 42 isolates generated nodules in three replicates in infection test. Of the 42 isolates 8, were resistant to salinity. Seven isolates had better growth than others at pH 4. All isolates were resistant to CuCl2 (0.5 mmol, CdCl2 (0.65 mmol, MnSO4 (0.75 and 1.5 mmol and ZnSO4 (0.125 mmol. Isolates S3Q and S22K were more resistant to salinity, acidity, temperature and heavy metals stresses. PCR products of all bacteria had the same restricted profile after digestion by Taq1 nuclease. Discussion and conclusion: The results showed that among isolated bacteria, there were some differences in the resistance to salinity, acidity, temperature and heavy metals stresses.  Identification of native strains of rhizobia, especially strains resistant to salinity, temperature, heavy metals and acidity could be valuable due to their potentiality for using biological fertilizers in harsh conditions.

  12. From model to crop: functional characterization of SPL8 in M. truncatula led to genetic improvement of biomass yield and abiotic stress tolerance in alfalfa.

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    Gou, Jiqing; Debnath, Smriti; Sun, Liang; Flanagan, Amy; Tang, Yuhong; Jiang, Qingzhen; Wen, Jiangqi; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2018-04-01

    Biomass yield, salt tolerance and drought tolerance are important targets for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) improvement. Medicago truncatula has been developed into a model plant for alfalfa and other legumes. By screening a Tnt1 retrotransposon-tagged M. truncatula mutant population, we identified three mutants with enhanced branching. Branch development determines shoot architecture which affects important plant functions such as light acquisition, resource use and ultimately impacts biomass production. Molecular analyses revealed that the mutations were caused by Tnt1 insertions in the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE 8 (SPL8) gene. The M. truncatula spl8 mutants had increased biomass yield, while overexpression of SPL8 in M. truncatula suppressed branching and reduced biomass yield. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that SPL8 inhibited branching by directly suppressing axillary bud formation. Based on the M. truncatula SPL8 sequence, alfalfa SPL8 (MsSPL8) was cloned and transgenic alfalfa plants were produced. MsSPL8 down-regulated or up-regulated alfalfa plants exhibited similar phenotypes to the M. truncatula mutants or overexpression lines, respectively. Specifically, the MsSPL8 down-regulated alfalfa plants showed up to 43% increase in biomass yield in the first harvest. The impact was even more prominent in the second harvest, with up to 86% increase in biomass production compared to the control. Furthermore, down-regulation of MsSPL8 led to enhanced salt and drought tolerance in transgenic alfalfa. Results from this research offer a valuable approach to simultaneously improve biomass production and abiotic stress tolerance in legumes. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Alfalfa carbon and nitrogen sequestration patterns and effects of temperature and precipitation in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China.

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    Shujuan Chang

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a primary and widely cultivated forage crop in China. As a perennial leguminous grass, continuous planted alfalfa may influence carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa, planted for different lengths of time, and temperature and precipitation on soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (TN contents, and estimated soil SOC and TN inventories from 0-60 cm in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China. Alfalfa SOC and TN storage patterns were significantly different with increasing soil depths between the three regions of northern China. Continuous alfalfa grassland planted had a positive effect on accumulation of both SOC and TN in the Northwest region, whereas SOC storage peaked 6-7 years after planting in the Northeast and North region. Moreover, relatively higher TN storage appeared 7 years after planting in the Northeast and North regions. This study controlled as many factors as possible, but we caution that such temporal inferences could be artifacts of site selection. The regression analysis indicated that SOC and TN accumulation was mainly dependent on temperature (≥10°C of effective total accumulated temperature in the North region. Precipitation in the growing season was the main limiting factor for SOC storage in the Northwest region and TN accumulation in the North regions. Therefore, the different climate factors affecting SOC and TN sequestration in alfalfa occurred at a regional scale.

  14. Alfalfa carbon and nitrogen sequestration patterns and effects of temperature and precipitation in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shujuan; Liu, Nan; Wang, Xiaoya; Zhang, Yingjun; Xie, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a primary and widely cultivated forage crop in China. As a perennial leguminous grass, continuous planted alfalfa may influence carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils. We evaluated the effect of alfalfa, planted for different lengths of time, and temperature and precipitation on soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents, and estimated soil SOC and TN inventories from 0-60 cm in three agro-pastoral ecotones of northern China. Alfalfa SOC and TN storage patterns were significantly different with increasing soil depths between the three regions of northern China. Continuous alfalfa grassland planted had a positive effect on accumulation of both SOC and TN in the Northwest region, whereas SOC storage peaked 6-7 years after planting in the Northeast and North region. Moreover, relatively higher TN storage appeared 7 years after planting in the Northeast and North regions. This study controlled as many factors as possible, but we caution that such temporal inferences could be artifacts of site selection. The regression analysis indicated that SOC and TN accumulation was mainly dependent on temperature (≥10°C of effective total accumulated temperature) in the North region. Precipitation in the growing season was the main limiting factor for SOC storage in the Northwest region and TN accumulation in the North regions. Therefore, the different climate factors affecting SOC and TN sequestration in alfalfa occurred at a regional scale.

  15. Using RNA-Seq for gene identification, polymorphism detection and transcript profiling in two alfalfa genotypes with divergent cell wall composition in stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Alfalfa, [Medicago sativa (L.) sativa], a widely-grown perennial forage has potential for development as a cellulosic ethanol feedstock. However, the genomics of alfalfa, a non-model species, is still in its infancy. The recent advent of RNA-Seq, a massively parallel sequencing method for transcriptome analysis, provides an opportunity to expand the identification of alfalfa genes and polymorphisms, and conduct in-depth transcript profiling. Results Cell walls in stems of alfalfa genotype 708 have higher cellulose and lower lignin concentrations compared to cell walls in stems of genotype 773. Using the Illumina GA-II platform, a total of 198,861,304 expression sequence tags (ESTs, 76 bp in length) were generated from cDNA libraries derived from elongating stem (ES) and post-elongation stem (PES) internodes of 708 and 773. In addition, 341,984 ESTs were generated from ES and PES internodes of genotype 773 using the GS FLX Titanium platform. The first alfalfa (Medicago sativa) gene index (MSGI 1.0) was assembled using the Sanger ESTs available from GenBank, the GS FLX Titanium EST sequences, and the de novo assembled Illumina sequences. MSGI 1.0 contains 124,025 unique sequences including 22,729 tentative consensus sequences (TCs), 22,315 singletons and 78,981 pseudo-singletons. We identified a total of 1,294 simple sequence repeats (SSR) among the sequences in MSGI 1.0. In addition, a total of 10,826 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted between the two genotypes. Out of 55 SNPs randomly selected for experimental validation, 47 (85%) were polymorphic between the two genotypes. We also identified numerous allelic variations within each genotype. Digital gene expression analysis identified numerous candidate genes that may play a role in stem development as well as candidate genes that may contribute to the differences in cell wall composition in stems of the two genotypes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that RNA-Seq can be

  16. Effect of exchanging Onobrychis viciifolia and Lotus corniculatus for Medicago sativa on ruminal fermentation and nitrogen turnover in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Brinkhaus, A; Bee, G; Silacci, P; Kreuzer, M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of feeding sainfoin (SF; Onobrychis viciifolia) and birdsfoot trefoil (BT; Lotus corniculatus), 2 temperate climate forage legumes that contain condensed tannins (CT), on ruminal fermentation and N turnover in dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated multiparous dairy cows (milk yield=40kg/d; 36 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design. All animals were fed basal diets containing 20% pelleted SF (223g of CT/kg of dry matter), BT (30.3g of CT/kg of dry matter), or alfalfa (AL) and concentrate to meet their predicted nutrient requirements. Each experimental period consisted of a 21-d adaptation period in a tiestall, followed by a 7-d collection period in metabolic crates, where feces and urine were collected quantitatively. During the 7-d period, milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were taken at each milking. Blood, ruminal fluid, and papillae were sampled on d 2 and 5. The relative abundance of selected bacterial strains in ruminal fluid and the gene expression of transporter genes in the papillae were determined with quantitative PCR. Total volatile fatty acids and the abundance of the cellulolytic bacteria Prevotella spp. and Ruminococcus flavefaciens decreased with SF compared with AL. The relative gene expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 was increased with BT compared with AL and SF. Total yields of milk, milk fat, and milk protein were similar among treatments. The proportion of 18:3n-3 in milk fat was greater and those of 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were lower with SF than with BT. The contents of urea N in blood (2.71, 3.45, and 3.90mmol/L for SF, AL, and BT, respectively), milk (79.8, 100.1, and 110.9mg/kg for SF, AL, and BT, respectively), and urine were lower with SF than with AL and BT, and a trend toward a lower ruminal ammonia content occurred with SF compared with BT. Intake and excretion of N with milk were similar among treatments, but urine N was lower with SF

  17. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Glomus spp. Inoculation on Alfalfa Growth in Soils with Copper Efecto de la Inoculación con Hongos Micorrízicos Arbusculares Glomus spp. sobre el Crecimiento de Alfalfa en Suelos con Cobre

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    Daniela Novoa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils near mining centers usually have high heavy metal (HM levels. It has been found that some plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF improve growth and tolerance to HM in soils. This symbiosis is a biological resource for degraded soil recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculating AMF (Glomus spp. on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. growth in agricultural soils with different copper (Cu levels for degraded soil recovery. To this effect, alfalfa seeds were grown in soils from the Catemu and Casablanca valleys and inoculated with AMF. Plant height, stem diameter, and number of leaves were measured weekly. Dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu concentration in alfalfa plant tissues were measured after 81 days. Inoculation increased plant height by 24%, stem diameter by 11%, and number of leaves by 34%. Inoculation had a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on alfalfa plants that were grown in soil with the highest Cu concentration, but had no effect on Cu accumulation in alfalfa plant tissues. A direct relationship was observed between Cu accumulation in alfalfa and Cu concentration in soils. It was concluded that alfalfa inoculated with Glomus spp. is applicable to the soil recovery process whenever soil properties can ensure inoculum effectiveness on alfalfa growth, and avoid toxicity by excessive Cu in alfalfa plant tissues.Los suelos cercanos a centros de actividad minera suelen presentar altos niveles de metales pesados (HM. Se ha encontrado que algunas plantas asociadas a hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (AMF mejoran su crecimiento y tolerancia a los HM presentes en los suelos. Esta simbiosis constituye un recurso biológico para la recuperación de suelos degradados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la inoculación con AMF (Glomus spp. sobre el crecimiento de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. en suelos agrícolas con distintos niveles de cobre (Cu para la recuperación de

  18. Fiber length and pulping characteristics of switchgrass, alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood.

  19. Lignin Modification Leads to Increased Nodule Numbers in Alfalfa1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Bhattarai, Kishor; Pislariu, Catalina I.; Nakashima, Jin; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Udvardi, Michael K.; Monteros, Maria J.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of lignin levels in the forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa) by down-regulation of the monolignol biosynthetic enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl coenzyme A:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) results in strongly increased digestibility and processing ability of lignocellulose. However, these modifications are often also associated with dwarfing and other changes in plant growth. Given the importance of nitrogen fixation for legume growth, we evaluated the impact of constitutively targeted lignin modification on the belowground organs (roots and nodules) of alfalfa plants. HCT down-regulated alfalfa plants exhibit a striking reduction in root growth accompanied by an unexpected increase in nodule numbers when grown in the greenhouse or in the field. This phenotype is associated with increased levels of gibberellins and certain flavonoid compounds in roots. Although HCT down-regulation reduced biomass yields in both the greenhouse and field experiments, the impact on the allocation of nitrogen to shoots or roots was minimal. It is unlikely, therefore, that the altered growth phenotype of reduced-lignin alfalfa is a direct result of changes in nodulation or nitrogen fixation efficiency. Furthermore, HCT down-regulation has no measurable effect on carbon allocation to roots in either greenhouse or 3-year field trials. PMID:24406794

  20. Potential of plant growth regulator and chlormequat chloride on alfalfa seed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. S.; Lin, H.; Han, W.

    2016-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators (PGRs) has opened new prospects for increased seed production in grasses and legumes, but little information is available on the effects of PGRs combination with chlormequat chloride (CCC) on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed yield components. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of applying chlormequat chloride in combination with three PGRs (Naphthylacetic acid (NAA), gibberellic acid 3 (GA), and brassinolide (BR)) on seed yield, aboveground biomass, plant height, lodging, yield components. CCC was applied annually at the stooling stage while three PGRs were applied twice each year at the stages of flower bud formation and peak flowering. Results provides evidence that: (i) each PGR consistently increased seed yields, and the numbers of seeds per stem compared to untreated plants; (ii) CCC treatment reduced plant height and lodging, but also significantly decreased seed yield and did not affect aboveground biomass. (iii) effectiveness of CCC application depends on climatic conditions, especially in North-east China. (iiii) the optimum combination of CCC with a PGR to increase alfalfa seed production was failed to identify. (iiiii) no interactions between PGRs and CCC on seed yield were observed and neither the PGRs nor the CCC. But alfalfa seed yield could be improved by combining a PGR such as NAA. Our Results suggest that these PGRs could be used in alfalfa breeding to increase seed yield while maintaining high seed quality. (author)

  1. Flavonoids Released Naturally from Alfalfa Seeds Enhance Growth Rate of Rhizobium meliloti1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Ueli A.; Joseph, Cecillia M.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) releases different flavonoids from seeds and roots. Imbibing seeds discharge 3′,4′,5,7-substituted flavonoids; roots exude 5-deoxy molecules. Many, but not all, of these flavonoids induce nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. The dominant flavonoid released from alfalfa seeds is identified here as quercetin-3-O-galactoside, a molecule that does not induce nod genes. Low concentrations (1-10 micromolar) of this compound, as well as luteolin-7-O-glucoside, another major flavonoid released from germinating seeds, and the aglycones, quercetin and luteolin, increase growth rate of R. meliloti in a defined minimal medium. Tests show that the 5,7-dihydroxyl substitution pattern on those molecules was primarily responsible for the growth effect, thus explaining how 5-deoxy flavonoids in root exudates fail to enhance growth of R. meliloti. Luteolin increases growth by a mechanism separate from its capacity to induce rhizobial nod genes, because it still enhanced growth rate of R. meliloti lacking functional copies of the three known nodD genes. Quercetin and luteolin also increased growth rate of Pseudomonas putida. They had no effect on growth rate of Bacillus subtilis or Agrobacterium tumefaciens, but they slowed growth of two fungal pathogens of alfalfa. These results suggest that alfalfa can create ecochemical zones for controlling soil microbes by releasing structurally different flavonoids from seeds and roots. PMID:16668056

  2. Uptake and translocation of sulfamethazine by alfalfa grown under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan; Struckhoff, Garrett; Pugh, Kameron; Singh, Om

    2017-03-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used in intensive animal agriculture operations collectively known as Concentrated Animal Feed Operations (CAFO) which include dairy, poultry and swine farms. Wastewater generated by CAFOs often contains low levels of antibiotics and is typically managed in an anaerobic lagoon. The objective of this research is to investigate the uptake and fate of aqueous sulfamethazine (SMN) antibiotic by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grass grown under hydroponic conditions. Uptake studies were conducted using hydroponically grown alfalfa in a commercially available nutrient solution supplemented with 10mg/L of SMN antibiotic. Analysis of alfalfa sap, root zone, middle one-third, and top portion of the foliage showed varying uptake rate and translocation of SMN. The highest average amount of SMN (8.58μg/kg) was detected in the root zone, followed by the top portion (1.89μg/kg), middle one-third (1.30μg/kg), and sap (0.38μg/kg) samples, indicating a clear distribution of SMN within the sampled regions. The ultraviolet (UV) spectra of parent SMN and translocated SMN identified in different parts of the plant present the possibility of metabolization during the uptake process. Uptake of SMN using alfalfa grown under hydroponic conditions has potential as a promising remediation technology for removal of similar antibiotics from wastewater lagoons. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE FEED QUALITY OF FESTULOLIUM BRAUNII MIXTURES WITH MICROBIOLOGICALLY SUPPLIED RED CLOVER AND ALFALFA

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    Jacek Sosnowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experience with cultivation of Festulolium braunii (Felopa variety in mixtures with red clover (Tenia variety, and alfalfa (Tula variety, was founded in April 2007 on an experimental object of Grassland Department and Green Areas Creation UP-H in Siedlce. The first experimental factor were 3-grass-legumes mixtures having the following composition: M1 – Festulolium braunii 50%, Trifolium pretense L. 50%, M2 – Festulolium braunii 50%, Medicago sativa ssp. media 50%, M3 – Festulolium braunii 50%, Trifolium pratense L. 25%, Medicago sativa ssp. media 25%. Combinations with soil’s medium amendment was marked as UG, and without soil’s medium amendment – BUG. In addition, nitrogen fertilization in the annual dose of 60 kg N∙ha-1, potassium 120 kg K2O∙ha-1 and phosphorus in the amount of 80 kg P2O5∙ha-1 were applied on all plots. Detailed study included the chemical composition of plant, which was determined at the Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty. The obtained results were used to calculate the following measures of the energy of and protein value feed: NEL – net energy of lactation, JPM∙kg-1D.M. – feed unit for milk production, JPŻ∙kg-1 D.M. – feed unit for livestock production, nBO – useful protein, BNŻ – rumen nitrogen balance. Furthermore, using the multivariate comparative of taxonomic analysis method the synthetic comparative measure of forage quality Q was evaluated. The use of soil’s medium amendment, regardless of the types of mixture, cuts and years of research, resulted in higher values of all measures. However, the analysis of synthetic measure of feed quality showed that in terms feed quality the best was the three component Festulolium braunii mixture with Trifolium pratense L. and Medicago sativa ssp. media.

  4. Genome-Wide Investigation of MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Response to Freezing Stress in Medicago sativa L., Based on High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yongjun; Liu, Ying; Li, Wei; Song, Lili; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Changhong

    2016-01-22

    Winter damage, especially in northern climates, is a major limitation of the utilization of perennial forages such as alfalfa. Therefore, improving freezing tolerance is imperative in alfalfa genetic breeding. However, freezing tolerance is a complex trait that is determined by many genes. To understand the complex regulation mechanisms of freezing tolerance in alfalfa, we performed small RNA sequencing analysis under cold (4°) and freezing (-8°) stress. The sequencing results revealed that 173 known, and 24 novel miRNAs were expressed, and that the expression of 35 miRNAs was affected by cold and/or freezing stress. Meanwhile, 105 target genes cleaved by these miRNAs were characterized by degradome sequencing. These targets were associated with biological regulation, cellular processes, metabolic processes, and response to stress. Interestingly, most of them were characterized as transcription factors (TFs), including auxin response factors, SBP, NAC, AP2/ERF, and GRF, which play important roles in plant abiotic responses. In addition, important miRNAs and mRNAs involved in nodulation were also identified, for example, the relationship between miR169 and the TF CCAAT (also named as NF-YA/HAP2), which suggested that nodulation has an important function in freezing tolerance in alfalfa. Our results provide valuable information to help determine the molecular mechanisms of freezing tolerance in alfalfa, which will aid the application of these miRNAs and their targets in the improvement of freezing tolerance in alfalfa and related plants. Copyright © 2016 Shu et al.

  5. The uptake, distribution and translocation of 86Rb in alfalfa plants susceptible and resistant to the bacterial wilt and the effect of Corynebacterium insidiosum upon these processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanker, I.; Kudelova, A.

    1981-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants susceptible (S) and resistant (R) to bacterial wilt were fed via roots with a nutrient solution labelled with 86 Rb + , at different times after inoculation with Corynebacterium insidiosum (McCull.) H.L. Jens. The infection did not affect 86 Rb + uptake per plant in the course of a 14-day-period following inoculation; however, it affected its distribution differently in the S- and the R-plants. 86 Rb + uptake significantly decreased due to the infection in the S-plants on the day 49 after inoculation (a 4-h-exposure to 86 Rb + ), with the ions more slowly translocated to the shoots in diseased S-plants than in diseased R-plants. Likely factors causing these effects and their relationship to alfalfa resistance to bacterial wilt are discussed. (author)

  6. Changes in the chemical properties and swelling coefficient of alfalfa root cell walls in the presence of toluene as a toxic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, M; Khoshgoftarmanesh, A H; Hadadzadeh, H

    2016-04-01

    The influence of toluene pollution on the chemical properties and swelling coefficient of root cell walls in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was investigated. Two sets of alfalfa seedlings were selected and one set was treated with 450 mg L(-1) toluene in the nutrient solution under hydroponic culture. Thirty days after treatment with toluene, alfalfa plants were harvested and the root cell walls were isolated. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out for the characterization of the root cell walls composition. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the swelling coefficient of the root cell walls (Kcw) were estimated at various pH values. The toluene contamination significantly reduced the mass of the cell wall material in the alfalfa roots. According to the FTIR spectra, the toluene pollution can change the alfalfa root cell wall properties by reducing the cell wall functional groups. These functional groups are probably related to the proteins and polysaccharides in the cell wall. Also, toluene pollution strongly reduced CEC and Kcw of the root cell walls. The results show that the decrease in the active sites of adsorption on the root cell walls as a response to toluene pollution can affect the water flow rate and the mineral nutrients uptake by roots.

  7. MsmiR156 affects global gene expression and promotes root regenerative capacity and nitrogen fixation activity in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Banyar; Gao, Ruimin; Gruber, Margaret Y; Yuan, Ze-Chun; Sumarah, Mark; Hannoufa, Abdelali

    2017-08-01

    MicroRNA156 (miR156) regulates a network of downstream genes to affect plant growth and development. We previously generated alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants that overexpress homologous miR156 (MsmiR156OE), and identified three of its SPL target genes. These plants exhibited increased vegetative yield, delayed flowering and longer roots. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of miR156 on the root system, including effect on nodulation and nitrogen fixation. We found that MsmiR156 overexpression increases root regeneration capacity in alfalfa, but with little effect on root biomass at the early stages of root development. MsmiR156 also promotes nitrogen fixation activity by upregulating expression of nitrogenase-related genes FixK, NifA and RpoH in roots inoculated with Sinorrhizobium meliloti. Furthermore, we conducted transcriptomics analysis of MsmiR156OE alfalfa roots and identified differentially expressed genes belonging to 132 different functional categories, including plant cell wall organization, peptidyl-hypusine synthesis, and response to water stress. Expression analysis also revealed miR156 effects on genes involved in nodulation, root development and phytohormone biosynthesis. The present findings suggest that miR156 regulates root development and nitrogen fixation activity. Taken together, these findings highlight the important role that miR156 may play as a tool in the biotechnological improvement of alfalfa, and potentially other crops.

  8. Ruminal degradability of alfalfa in the Costa Rica’s Central Valley, Eastern zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini Figueroa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate in dairy cows, the potential of ruminal degradability of four alfalfa (Medicago sativa varieties developed in Argentina. The research was carried out in the Alfredo Volio Mata Experimental Station, located in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica; the area has a mean temperature of 17.9°C; a height of 1542 masl, and 1465.9 mm of rain evenly distributed between the months of May and November. Sampling was performed during 2014’s rainy season with ground level harvest of alfalfa, with samples of the varieties of Mora, Patricia, Victoria and Super Monarca, with harvest age of 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 days; all samples were dried, minced and incubated by duplicate on two Jersey-Reyna ruminally fistulated cows, for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The results were analyzed through the Marquardt algorithm with the SAS software. Statical differences were only found between soluble fraction and degradation rate (p<0.05 according to harvest ages, with values of soluble, potentially degradable and degradation rate of 35.34%-44.65%, 36.46%-39.96% and 0.0734/h-0.1176/h, respectively. Likewise, effective degradability percentages of 59.06%-67.09%, with passage rates of 6%/h, according to harvest ages were obtained. Given the obtained results, the analyzed varieties of M. sativa showed a digestible forage, which could be used for the feeding of highly production animals.

  9. A cell cycle-regulated histone H3 gene of alfalfa with an atypical promoter structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A J; Kapros, T; Waterborg, J H

    1997-01-01

    The control of cell cycle expression of histone genes in plants is incompletely understood. A new histone H3 gene was cloned from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) that codes for the replication-dependent histone H3.1 variant protein. Despite lacking all promoter sequence motifs that have been associated with cell cycle-dependent histone gene expression in plants, northern analysis of synchronized cells clearly linked gene expression to DNA replication. TTAATNA was recognized as a new sequence element in the 3' untranslated regions of this and all other cell cycle-dependent histone H3 genes of dicotyledonous plants. It is not found in the replication-independent histone H3 genes.

  10. Biological activity of saponins from alfalfa tops and roots against Colorado potato beetle larvae

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    Maryla Szczepaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The total saponins of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., included in the diet of Colorado potato beetle larvae reduced their feeding, growth rate and survival. The biological activity of those compounds coming both from the roots and from the aerial parts is closely correlated with the dose. Larvae reared on leaves treated with a 0,5% dose virtually did not feed at all and died after 4-6 days. Lower saponin doses (0,01 and 0,001 % reduced the insects' feeding to a lesser degree. However, they inhibited their growth, caused an extension of the larval stage and mortality at a level of 76,7- 100%. No major differences have been found in saponin activity depending on its localization in the plant.

  11. Boron nutrition and yield of alfalfa cultivar crioula in relation to boron supply

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    Santos Anacleto Ranulfo dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa cultivar Crioula (Medicago sativa cv. Crioula is grown in South Brazil and only a few studies on the plants' boron requirement are available. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with alfalfa to measure boron acquisition, production and distribution in the plant; data on critical level and production potentials were recorded. Plants were grown in ground quartz added with 1 L of solution, with the following boron rates: 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 mg L-1. Plants were harvested at 46 days of growth. Forage dry mass was increased by boron supply and dry matter accumulation was considerably low in control. Boron concentration in the leaves was higher than in the stems or roots. Boron utilization from the external solution reached 90% at 0.0625 mg L-1 and sharply decreased with further increasing boron rates. Boron concentration and content in the leaves and in plant tops were at maximum when applied boron was between 1.5 and 1.6 mg L-1. Critical levels of boron in plant were 61 mg kg-1 in the leaves and 39 mg kg-1 in plant tops for this cultivar of alfalfa.

  12. Concurrent synthesis and release of nod-gene-inducing flavonoids from alfalfa roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, C.A.; Phillips, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Flavonoid signals from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) induce transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. Alfalfa roots release three major nod-gene inducers: 4',7-dihydroxyflavanone, 4',7-dihydroxyflavone, and 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone. The objective of the present study was to define temporal relationships between synthesis and exudation for those flavonoids. Requirements for concurrent flavonoid biosynthesis were assessed by treating roots of intact alfalfa seedlings with [U- 14 C]-L-phenylalanine in the presence or absence of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibitor L-2-aminoxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP). In the absence of AOPP, each of the three flavonoids in exudates contained 14 C. In the presence of AOPP, 14 C labeling and release of all the exuded nod-gene inducers were reduced significantly. AOPP inhibited labeling and release of the strongest nod-gene inducer, methoxychalcone, by more than 90%. The release process responsible for exudation of nod-gene inducers appears to be specific rather than a general phenomenon such as a sloughing off of cells during root growth

  13. Partitioning and mobilization of photoassimilate in alfalfa subjected to water deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, M.H.; Sheaffer, C.C.; Heichel, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Faster regrowth of a stressed alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) crop compared to an unstressed crop after rewatering has been reported. The bases of this compensatory response are unknown, but they may be important to understanding adaptation to water stress and to developing crop water management strategies. The authors objectives was to determine the effect of stress induced by water deficit on photoassimilate partitioning and the utilization of stored assimilates during regrowth of alfalfa. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted using cultivars differing in winterhardiness. Plants were subjected to water stress, pulse-labeled with 14 CO 2 , and sampled following 0, 1, 14, 21, and 28-d translocation periods. Following the 14-d sampling, herbage was harvested and water stress was removed. Cultivars contrasting in winterhardiness responded similarly to water stress. Stressed plant roots contained 73 and 114% more total plant radioactivity (TPR) than the control at the 1 and 14-d translocation periods, respectively. Water stress significantly increased root starch and TPR percentage in the starch fraction, but had much smaller effects on root soluble-sugar concentration and TPR percentage of the root sugar fraction. Herbage regrowth mass following harvest and rewatering of the water-stressed plants was similar to that of the control. Compared to the control, water-stressed alfalfa has greater total nonstructural carbohydrates in the roots, apparently due to increased photoassimilate partitioning to the roots. However, the greater root carbohydrate concentrations did not result in compensatory herbage regrowth following rewatering

  14. Application limestone forms and doses for alfalfa in no-tillage system

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    Letícia Cristina Bertusso Toffolli

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. requires good soil fertility. Brazil is characterized by acidic soils which reduce the potential of the crop. Generally, liming is incorporated into the soil, but in tillage systems it is inadvisable. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the lime application method and dose on pH, Al+3, V % and Ca+Mg in the soil and on dry matter yield of alfalfa cultivated under a consolidated no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Paraná Agronomic Institute, located in Pato Branco city, in Paraná state. The plots consisted of the types of lime application (plowing+harrowing, subsoil and surface, the sub-plots was the lime dose (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Mg ha-1 and the sub-sub-plots were the sampled soil depth (0-5; 5-10; 10-20 and 20-30 cm. The results show the application of lime, even superficially, caused increases in pH, concentration of Ca and Mg and base saturation of the soil, while also reducing the concentration of Al, especially in the surface layers of the soil. The practice of plowing and harrowing or of subsoiling, with the aim of lime incorporation in a consolidated no-tillage system is unnecessary. If it is required, the application of lime to the soil should be done superficially for alfalfa cultivated in this system.

  15. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on in vitro culture and plant regeneration of alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Lin Tingan

    1992-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray irradiation ranged 0-16 kR was used to treat the cotyledons and hypocotyls of 5 cultivars of a alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The effects of irradiation on the frequency of callus, fresh weight of callus, the frequency of somatic embryo induction and plantlet regeneration were studied. The results showed as follows: the radiosensitivities of cotyledon was significantly higher than that of hypocotyl. Exposure of 2 kR could improve the growth of callus, embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration at various levels. Exposure of 12 kR completely inhibited the callus formation from explants of cotyledon. Callus from two cultivars, England 648 and Jining alfalfa, were irradiated with 0-8 kR. The results showed that exposure below 2 kR could promote the growth of callus and the formation of somatic embryo at different levels. The exposure of 8 kR had the effect of lethal. The optimum exposure for genetic improvement of alfalfa in vitro by inducing mutation was considered to be 4-6 kR

  16. Effects of cold plasma treatment on alfalfa seed growth under simulated drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinkui, FENG; Decheng, WANG; Changyong, SHAO; Lili, ZHANG; Xin, TANG

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different cold plasma treatments on the germination and seedling growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seeds under simulated drought stress conditions was investigated. Polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG 6000)with the mass fraction of 0% (purified water), 5%, 10%, and 15% were applied to simulate the drought environment. The alfalfa seeds were treated with 15 different power levels ranged between 0-280 W for 15 s. The germination potential, germination rate, germination index, seedling root length, seedling height, and vigor index were investigated. Results indicated significant differences between treated with proper power and untreated alfalfa seeds. With the increase of treatment power, these indexes mentioned above almost presented bimodal curves. Under the different mass fractions of PEG 6000, results showed that the lower power led to increased germination, and the seedlings presented good adaptability to different drought conditions. Meanwhile, higher power levels resulted in a decreased germination rate. Seeds treated with 40 W resulted in higher germination potential, germination rate, seedling height, root length, and vigor index. Vigor indexes of the treated seeds under different PEG 6000 stresses increased by 38.68%, 43.91%, 74.34%, and 39.20% respectively compared to CK0-0, CK5-0, CK10-0, and CK15-0 (the control sample under 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% PEG 6000). Therefore, 40 W was regarded as the best treatment in this research. Although the trend indexes of alfalfa seeds treated with the same power were statistically the same under different PEG 6000 stresses, the cold plasma treatment had a significant effect on the adaptability of alfalfa seeds in different drought environments. Thus, this kind of treatment is worth implementing to promote seed growth under drought situations.

  17. Isolation of a full-length mitotic cyclin cDNA clone CycIIIMs from Medicago sativa: chromosomal mapping and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savouré, A; Fehér, A; Kaló, P; Petrovics, G; Csanádi, G; Szécsi, J; Kiss, G; Brown, S; Kondorosi, A; Kondorosi, E

    1995-03-01

    Cyclins in association with the protein kinase p34cdc2 and related cyclin-dependent protein kinases (cdks) are key regulatory elements in controlling the cell division cycle. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a full-length cDNA clone of alfalfa mitotic cyclin, termed CycIIIMs. Computer analysis of known plant cyclin gene sequences revealed that this cyclin belongs to the same structural group as the other known partial alfalfa cyclin sequences. Genetic segregation analysis based on DNA-DNA hybridization data showed that the CycIIIMs gene(s) locates in a single chromosomal region on linkage group 5 of the alfalfa genetic map between RFLP markers UO89A and CG13. The assignment of this cyclin to the mitotic cyclin class was based on its cDNA-derived sequence and its differential expression during G2/M cell cycle phase transition of a partially synchronized alfalfa cell culture. Sequence analysis indicated common motifs with both the A- and B-types of mitotic cyclins similarly to the newly described B3-type of animal cyclins.

  18. Increased photosynthetic acclimation in alfalfa associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and cultivated in greenhouse under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Nieves; Baslam, Marouane; Erice, Gorka; Irigoyen, Juan José

    2014-11-15

    Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) can exhibit photosynthetic down-regulation when grown in greenhouse conditions under elevated atmospheric CO2. This forage legume can establish a double symbiosis with nitrogen fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which may increase the carbon sink effect of roots. Our aim was to assess whether the association of alfalfa with AMF can avoid, diminish or delay the photosynthetic acclimation observed in previous studies performed with nodulated plants. The results, however, showed that mycorrhizal (M) alfalfa at the end of their vegetative period had lower carbon (C) discrimination than non-mycorrhizal (NM) controls, indicating photosynthetic acclimation under ECO2 in plants associated with AMF. Decreased C discrimination was due to the acclimation of conductance, since the amount of Rubisco and the expression of genes codifying both large and small subunits of Rubisco were similar or slightly higher in M than in NM plants. Moreover, M alfalfa accumulated a greater amount of soluble sugars in leaves than NM plants, thus favoring a down-regulation effect on photosynthetic rates. The enhanced contents of sugars in leaves coincided with a reduced percentage of arbuscules in roots, suggesting decreased sink of carbohydrates from shoots to roots in M plants. The shorter life cycle of alfalfa associated with AMF in comparison with the NM controls may also be related to the accelerated photosynthetic acclimation in M plants. Further research is needed to clarify to what extent this behavior could be extrapolated to alfalfa cultivated in the field and subjected to periodic cutting of shoots under climatic change scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. CO2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil root nodules and partitioning of 14C to the plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, C.A.; Vance, C.P.; Heichel, G.H.; Stade, S.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if nonphotosynthetic CO 2 fixation by root nodules contributes carbon for the assimilation of fixed N 2 in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and if assimilation products are partitioned to different plant organs. Effective alfalfa nodules excised from or attached to roots had apparent 14 CO 2 fixation rates of 50 to 80 μg CO 2 kg -1 s -1 (dry weight) at 0.0012 to 0.0038 mole fraction CO 2 . Nodule CO 2 fixation rates increased six- to seven-fold as ambient CO 2 was raised from 0.0038 to 0.0663 mole fraction. Respiration rates of nodules (3 to 4 mg CO 2 kg -1 s -1 ) were 10 to 100-fold higher than 14 CO 2 fixation rates of nodules. Pulse chase experiments with 14 CO 2 combined with nodule and xylem sap analysis demonstrated the initial products of root and nodule CO 2 fixation were organic acids. However, the export of fixed 14 C from effective nodules was primarily in the form of amino acids. In contrast, nodule and/or root fixed 14 C in ineffectively nodulated alfalfa and denodulated effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil was transported primarily as organic acids. Aspartate, asparagine, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine were the most heavily labeled compounds in the amino acid fraction of both effective alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil nodules exposed to 14 CO 2 . By contrast, asparate, asparagine, and glutamine were the predominantly labeled amino acids in xylem sap collected from nodulated effective roots exposed to 14 CO 2 . The occurrence of nodule CO 2 fixation in alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil and the export of fixed carbon as asparagine and aspartate to roots and shoots is consistent with a role for CO 2 fixation by nodules in providing carbon skeletons for assimilation and transport of symbiotically fixed N 2

  20. Potentiality Of Stressed Alfalfa Plants To Modify Soil Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardees M. Mickky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous plants play a key role in the sustainability of agricultural systems. Nevertheless it is to somewhat scarce to find investigations about the interaction of such plants with the soil in which they grow under stress. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of graduated water regimes on the chemical features of different soil types varying in sand proportion before and after their cultivation with alfalfa Medicago sativa plants. The results indicated that soil cultivation with the studied plants whether water-satisfied or not generally increased the amount of soil ammonia nitrate peptide total soluble and total nitrogen. On contrary the amount of soil amino amide nitrite and protein nitrogen generally decreased after cultivation. Concerning soil ionic composition the post-planting values of soil sodium calcium magnesium and sodium potassium ratio were significantly lower than their pre-cultivation synonyms. Furthermore the percentages of decline caused by cultivating well-watered plants were higher than those caused by their moderately-droughted relatives which were in turn higher than those caused by severely-droughted ones. For soil chloride potassium sodium adsorption ratio and potassium adsorption ratio culturing water-unstressed plants reduced these ionic fractions while droughted plants markedly favored such values. As a general feature the maximum titers of all soil nitrogenous and ionic constituents were recorded for soil with the least sand proportion. The other chemical soil characteristics pH electric conductivity organic carbon organic matter calcium carbonate bicarbonates sulphates and total soluble salts were all fluctuated in a random fashion among the various soil types before and after planting water-stressed or control alfalfa plants. Thus the results obtained herein recommend alfalfa as a pioneer plant that can be introduced to infertile and or dry lands with a paramount efficacy to enhance soil

  1. Aggressiveness and host range of Phoma medicaginis isolated from Medicago species growing in Tunisia

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    Naceur DJEBALI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aggressiveness of 14 Phoma medicaginis isolates obtained from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic and M. ciliaris (ciliate medic growing in Tunisia was measured after inoculation on leaves and roots of M. truncatula. The ability of one isolate to cause disease on M. sativa (alfalfa, Cicer arietinum (chickpea, Pisum sativum (pea, Lens culinaris (lentil and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean was also tested. The pathogen caused dark lesions that enlarged and coalesced causing yellowing and premature abscission of leaves, resulting in decreased shoot fresh weight in barrel medic plants. All P. medicaginis isolates infected barrel medic roots causing collar rot, brown root discoloration, yellowing of cotyledons and reduced shoot and root development. The pathogen colonized the cortex and the stele of plants and produced fertile pycnidia on infected roots. Symptoms on leaves allowed for greater discrimination in aggressiveness among isolates in comparison to symptoms on roots. No correlations were observed between the parameters measured on leaves and roots suggesting organ specialization in this pathogen. Phoma medicaginis infected leaves of alfalfa, pea, common bean and chickpea causing necrosis and tissue yellowing at 15 d post inoculation (dpi. Pycnidium production was observed on dead and dying foliar tissues of alfalfa, pea and common bean, but not on chickpea. The pathogen caused symptoms of collar rot and brown root discoloration on alfalfa, chickpea, pea and common bean, but did not cause symptoms on leaves or roots of lentil at 15 dpi. Phoma medicaginis was more pathogenic on barrel medic, the host of origin, in comparison to the other legumes, suggesting that these species are likely to be secondary hosts for this pathogen.

  2. Availability of S from superphosphate and CaSO4.2H2O to alfafa (Medicago sativa L. Pers.) using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulakh, M.S.; Dev, G.

    1977-01-01

    The availability of S from superphosphate to alfalfa was evaluated and compared with CaSO 4 .2H 2 O (as the standard) in the greenhouse on a S deficient arid brown soil at 4 levels of applied S (0, 5, 10 and 20 ppm). A basal dose of N, P, K and Ca was made and the effect was studied for two growth stages (80 and 120 days). Sulphur application significantly increased the yield of dry matter, S content and total S removal in both the cuttings individually and for total harvest. In this effect, superphosphate was found to be more efficient. The radio-assay data confirmed that with graded levels of applied S, the fraction of fertilizer S in the plant increased without much off-setting S fraction from the native soil source, the effect being more with superphosphate treatment compared to CaSO 4 .2H 2 O. Phosphorus concentration in alfalfa decreased significantly with increasing level of applied S. The first cutting of alfalfa recorded higher P content in superphosphate series and in the second cutting, this difference between the two sources decreased. At optimum level of 20 ppm S, superphosphate was more effective than CaSO 4 .2H 2 O in narrowing N:S ratio to 11:1 and increasing S:P ratio to more than 1:1. (author)

  3. The effects of selenate and sulphate supply on the accumulation and volatilization of Se by cabbage, kohlrabi and alfalfa plants grown hydroponically

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    R. HAJIBOLAND

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Selenium (Se supplementation at five levels of 0 (control, 5, 10, 15, 20 ìM in plants supplied with one of four concentrations of sulphur (S including 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mM was investigated in two varieties of Brassica oleracea (cabbage and kohlrabi and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in a hydroponic experiment. In severely S deficient plants (0.05 mM, Se acted as a toxic element, alfalfa was the most susceptible plant that died at this treatment. However, in plants supplied with near adequate (0.5 mM or adequate (1.0 mM S, Se acted as a growth promoting element. The most pronounced stimulation of growth was observed in cabbage and the lowest in alfalfa. Increasing S concentration in the medium, reduced Se uptake and transport. In contrast, S uptake and transport increased in response to Se addition. Se volatilization was higher in alfalfa than cabbage and kohlrabi when expressed on unit shoot dry weight or leaf area basis, but not when expressed per plant. Results suggested that Se supplementation of plants supplied with adequate S, not only had beneficial effects on plants growth but also can have application in enrichment of livestock fodder and human food.;

  4. Weaned beef calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay have an enriched nasal microbiota compared with healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A.; Isaiah, Anitha; Estill, Charles T.; Pirelli, Gene J.; Suchodolski, Jan S.

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral important for immune function and overall health of cattle. The nasopharyngeal microbiota in cattle plays an important role in overall respiratory health, especially when stresses associated with weaning, transport, and adaptation to a feedlot affect the normal respiratory defenses. Recent evidence suggests that cattle diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease complex have significantly less bacterial diversity. The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding weaned beef calves Se-enriched alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay for 9 weeks in a preconditioning program prior to entering the feedlot alters nasal microbiota. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 45) were blocked by sex and body weight, randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups with 3 pens of 5 calves per treatment group, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 9 weeks. Alfalfa hay was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium selenate at a rate of 0, 45.0 or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected biweekly and analyzed for whole-blood Se concentrations. Nasal swabs were collected during week 9 from one or two calves from each pen (total n = 16). Calculated Se intake from dietary sources was 3.0, 15.6, and 32.2 mg Se/head/day for calves consuming alfalfa hay with Se concentrations of 0.34 to 2.42 and 5.17 mg Se/kg dry matter, respectively. Whole-blood Se concentrations after 8 weeks of feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay were dependent upon Se-application rates (0, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha) and were 155, 345, and 504 ng/mL (PLinear calves fed selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay compared with control calves showed that Se-supplementation tended to be associated with an enriched nasal microbiota. ANOSIM of unweighted UniFrac distances showed that calves fed high Se-biofortified alfalfa hay clustered separately when compared with control calves in the PCoA plot (R = 0.216, P = 0.04). The bacterial orders Lactobacillales and Flavobacteriales were increased in healthy

  5. The effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza isolated from Syrian soil on alfalfa growth and nitrogen fixation in saline soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Atrash, F

    2001-01-01

    The influence of vesicular - arbuscular Mycorrhiza fungi (VAM) on symbiotic fixation of N 2 n alfalfa plants has been observed. Beneficial effects of study the effect of VAM or phosphorous fertilization on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L,) yields, umber of nodules and N 2 fixation by N 15 isotope dilution at different salinity levels. This experiment was realized in green house conditions, using soil of 2.3 dsm -1 conductivity mixed with sand (5: 2V) for alfalfa plants growing at various levels of phosphorus, or infected by Mycorrhiza fungi. Different conductivities (13.18, 22.2, 28.8, 43.5 dsm -1 ) were applied on these treatment by increasing concentrations of Nacl, CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 and MgCl 2 by salinity soil irrigation. Ten days after planting, soil was enriched with 2 ppm of (NH 4 15 ) 2 SO 4 . Plant were grown under greenhouse condition for ten weeks. Our results confirmed that increased salinity reduced nitrogen - fixation and the number of nodules. The negative effect with increasing salinity was less in Mycorrhiza plants than in plants fertilized with various levels of phosphorus, and only the higher levels of salinity reduced significantly, the percentage of Mycorrhiza colonization, However, at all levels of salinity, VAM stimulated plant growth and nutrient uptake. (author)

  6. Population Responses of Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to Insecticide in Glandular-Haired and Non-glandular-Haired Alfalfa Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, R Mark; McCormick, John S; Hammond, Ronald B; Miller, David J

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting results have been reported on the ability of glandular-haired alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to reduce potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Harris, population abundance in field environments. We measured potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance and yield responses in a cultivar selected for high potato leafhopper resistance ('54H91') and in a non-glandular-haired susceptible cultivar ('54V54') with and without insecticide treatment across 3 yr. Treatments included no insecticide and insecticide applied either early or late in each summer growth cycle. Date × cultivar × treatment interactions were found for potato leafhopper population abundance. In the absence of insecticides, total potato leafhopper abundance (adults + nymphs per sweep) was lower in 54H91 than in 54V54 on 85% of sampling dates; cultivar differences were especially evident as potato leafhopper abundance peaked. Insecticide treatment reduced potato leafhopper populations in both cultivars, but populations recovered and often exceeded the normal action threshold in both cultivars within 2-3 wk of insecticide application. Yield gain from early insecticide treatment of 54V54 was >400 kg/ha in 11 of 14 summer harvests, whereas in 54H91 the yield gain was alfalfa cultivars with high levels of potato leafhopper resistance significantly suppress potato leafhopper adult and nymph abundance, reduce yield losses in the absence of insecticides, and have potential within an integrated pest management strategy to reduce insecticide use in alfalfa production systems. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  7. Grazing methods and stocking rates for direct-seeded alfalfa pastures: II. Pasture quality and diet selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, M L; Wachenheim, C J; Benson, M E; Ames, N K; Rust, S R

    2000-08-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to determine the effects of two grazing methods (GM) and two stocking rates (SR) on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. var. WL225) pasture quality and diet selection by Holstein steers. Eight pasture plots (.76 ha) were seeded in 1988 and divided into two blocks of four pastures each. Pastures were managed to allow a 36-d rest period with an average grazing season of 105 d. Before steers entered the next paddock, canopy heights (CH) of alfalfa plants were determined and pasture-forage samples were collected. Forage samples were analyzed for DM, OM, CP, and in vitro OM digestibility (IVOMD). At 12-d intervals beginning with the second grazing cycle, extrusa samples were collected from steers with esophageal fistulas. Extrusa samples were frozen, freeze-dried, and analyzed for OM, CP, IVOMD, in situ ruminal DM degradation, and ruminal undegradable protein. There were no effects of GM on alfalfa CH or pasture DM, OM, CP, and IVOMD. Increasing the SR increased pasture CP content in both years and increased DM, OM, and IVOMD in the 2nd yr. There was no effect of GM or SR on the quality of forage selected by esophageally fistulated steers. Esophageally fistulated steers selected forage that had greater OM, CP, and IVOMD than the average nutrient content of the forage. Although forage quality was greater when stocking rates were increased, the quantity of forage available per animal may have limited gains.

  8. [Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Viana, Marta L; Albarracín Franco, Silvia

    2008-09-01

    The activity of boron industries is a punctual and diffuse source of air, soil and water pollution. Therefore, it is a priority to study possible ways of reducing this impact. A relatively new technology for reducing soil pollution is phytoremediation, which uses plants and associate microorganisms. The first step in phytoremediation is to detect tolerant plant species, which is the objective of this work. A laboratory experiment to assess the germination, survival and growth of different species at different boron concentrations was carried out following a factorial design with two factors: plant species and boron concentration. Boron concentrations were determined at the beginning and the end of the experiment, taking into account substrates with and without vegetation. We found significant differences for treatment, species and the interaction species*treatment. N. glauca, M. sativa and J. mimosifolia were the most tolerant species. The other species had a decrease in the response variables, with the concentration of the pollutant. All the species had a low survival at the highest boron concentration. The reduction in boron concentration at the end of the experiment was higher in the 30 ppm treatment with M. sativa and the lower was registered in the 20 ppm treatment with J. mimosifolia and in 30 ppm with T. stans and S. oleraceae. We conclude that N. glauca, M. sativa and J. mimosifolia can be considered in remediation plans.

  9. Experimental tolerance to boron of the plant species Nicotiana glauca, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Tecoma stans, Medicago sativa y Spinacea oleracea in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Marta L. de; Albarracin Franco, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    The activity of the borate deposits industries constitutes a point source and diffuse pollution of air, soil and water. Therefore, the study and experimentation on possible ways to offset this impact is a priority. A relatively new technique to decontaminate soils is phytoremediation, which uses plants and associated microorganisms. The first step is to identify tolerant plant species, which is the focus of this work. An experiment was conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the germination, survival and growth of different species in different concentrations of boron. At the beginning and end of the experiment was determined concentration of boron in the substrate for each treatment and for substrates with and without vegetation. Significant differences due to treatment, the species and species-treatment interaction. M. sativa, N. glauca and J. mimosifolia were the species most tolerant to boron. The other species showed a decrease in all variables-response function of the concentration of the contaminant. All had low survival in the highest concentration. The decrease of boron was highest in the treatment of 30 ppm of boron with M. sativa and the lowest was recorded in the treatment of 20 ppm of boron with J. mimosifolia and 30 ppm of boron with T. stans and S. oleracea. It is concluded that N. glauca, M. sativa and J. mimosifolia could be considered as promising remediation. (author) [es

  10. Biochemical and Molecular Phylogenetic Study of Agriculturally Useful Association of a Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium and Nodule Sinorhizobium with Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Karaushu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed inoculation with bacterial consortium was found to increase legume yield, providing a higher growth than the standard nitrogen treatment methods. Alfalfa plants were inoculated by mono- and binary compositions of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Their physiological and biochemical properties were estimated. Inoculation by microbial consortium of Sinorhizobium meliloti T17 together with a new cyanobacterial isolate Nostoc PTV was more efficient than the single-rhizobium strain inoculation. This treatment provides an intensification of the processes of biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria in the root nodules and an intensification of plant photosynthesis. Inoculation by bacterial consortium stimulates growth of plant mass and rhizogenesis and leads to increased productivity of alfalfa and to improving the amino acid composition of plant leaves. The full nucleotide sequence of the rRNA gene cluster and partial sequence of the dinitrogenase reductase (nifH gene of Nostoc PTV were deposited to GenBank (JQ259185.1, JQ259186.1. Comparison of these gene sequences of Nostoc PTV with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that this cyanobacterial strain does not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this cyanobacterium clustered with high credibility values with Nostoc muscorum.

  11. Biochemical and Molecular Phylogenetic Study of Agriculturally Useful Association of a Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium and Nodule Sinorhizobium with Medicago sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaushu, E V; Lazebnaya, I V; Kravzova, T R; Vorobey, N A; Lazebny, O E; Kiriziy, D A; Olkhovich, O P; Taran, N Yu; Kots, S Ya; Popova, A A; Omarova, E; Koksharova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Seed inoculation with bacterial consortium was found to increase legume yield, providing a higher growth than the standard nitrogen treatment methods. Alfalfa plants were inoculated by mono- and binary compositions of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Their physiological and biochemical properties were estimated. Inoculation by microbial consortium of Sinorhizobium meliloti T17 together with a new cyanobacterial isolate Nostoc PTV was more efficient than the single-rhizobium strain inoculation. This treatment provides an intensification of the processes of biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria in the root nodules and an intensification of plant photosynthesis. Inoculation by bacterial consortium stimulates growth of plant mass and rhizogenesis and leads to increased productivity of alfalfa and to improving the amino acid composition of plant leaves. The full nucleotide sequence of the rRNA gene cluster and partial sequence of the dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) gene of Nostoc PTV were deposited to GenBank (JQ259185.1, JQ259186.1). Comparison of these gene sequences of Nostoc PTV with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that this cyanobacterial strain does not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this cyanobacterium clustered with high credibility values with Nostoc muscorum.

  12. Protein accumulation and rumen stability of wheat γ-gliadin fusion proteins in tobacco and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaodong; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Cohen-Davidyan, Tamar; DeBen, Christopher; Getachew, Girma; DePeters, Edward; Putnam, Daniel; Bennett, Alan

    2015-09-01

    The nutritional value of various crops can be improved by engineering plants to produce high levels of proteins. For example, because methionine deficiency limits the protein quality of Medicago Sativa (alfalfa) forage, producing alfalfa plants that accumulate high levels of a methionine-rich protein could increase the nutritional value of that crop. We used three strategies in designing methionine-rich recombinant proteins that could accumulate to high levels in plants and thereby serve as candidates for improving the protein quality of alfalfa forage. In tobacco, two fusion proteins, γ-gliadin-δ-zein and γ-δ-zein, as well as δ-zein co-expressed with β-zein, all formed protein bodies. However, the γ-gliadin-δ-zein fusion protein accumulated to the highest level, representing up to 1.5% of total soluble protein (TSP) in one transformant. In alfalfa, γ-gliadin-δ-zein accumulated to 0.2% of TSP, and in an in vitro rumen digestion assay, γ-gliadin-δ-zein was more resistant to microbial degradation than Rubisco. Additionally, although it did not form protein bodies, a γ-gliadin-GFP fusion protein accumulated to much higher levels, 7% of TSP, than a recombinant protein comprised of an ER localization signal fused to GFP in tobacco. Based on our results, we conclude that γ-gliadin-δ-zein is a potential candidate protein to use for enhancing methionine levels in plants and for improving rumen stability of forage protein. γ-gliadin fusion proteins may provide a general platform for increasing the accumulation of recombinant proteins in transgenic plants. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. PHOSPHOGYPSUM AND VINASSE APPLICATION: SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ALFALFA PRODUCTIVITY AND NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

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    RONALDO DO NASCIMENTO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the application of phosphogypsum and vinasse on soil chemical properties and productivity and nutritional characteristics of alfalfa (Medicago sativa. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, using a 3×5 factorial arrangement, with three vinasse rates (0, 150 and 300 m3 ha-1 and five phosphogypsum rates (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 Mg ha-1. The alfalfa chemical composition and shoot dry matter (SDW and soil chemical properties (in the layers 0.0-0.2 and 0.21-0.4 m were evaluated. The vinasse rates increased the soil potassium contents, while the phosphogypsum rates promoted linear increases in soil calcium and sulfur contents. The base saturation was increased and the magnesium content showed a quadratic response on the layer 0.21-0.4 m with the increase in phosphogypsum rates. The calcium, magnesium and phosphorus contents in the alfalfa leaves were lower with vinasse application. The phosphogypsum rates promoted linear increases in alfalfa SDW. Vinasse rated 150 m3 ha-1 was been enough to SDW increase. Calcium and magnesium contents in the leaves fitted a quadratic model, with maximum calcium content in the phosphogypsum rate of 9.5 Mg ha-1 and the minimum magnesium content in the phosphogypsum rate of 8.7 Mg ha-1. The leaf sulfur contents in all vinasse rates and leaf potassium contents in the highest vinasse rate showed maximum accumulation at near 9 Mg ha-1 of phosphogypsum.

  14. Response of cotton, alfalfa, and cantaloupe to foliar-deposited salt in an arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.C.; Karpiscak, M.M.; Bartels, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The cooling towers at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS), located 80 km west of Phoenix, AZ, will release as estimated 2.1 Mg/d of particulates (primarily salts) into the atmosphere when the station is in full operation. The saline drift will disperse and settle onto agricultural fields surrounding the station. Field studies were conducted in 1983 to investigate the influence of foliar-applied saline aerosol on crop growth, foliar injury, and tissue elemental concentration on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), alfalfa (medicago sativa L.), and cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) in an arid environment. The treatment aerosol solutions simulated treated wastewater effluent and included all essential plant nutrients and other elements, including trace concentrations of heavy metals. The treatments included unsprayed plots, and plots sprayed with salt solutions at 0 (distilled water), 8, 83, and 415 kg/(ha yr). The alfalfa received an additional 829 kg/(ha yr) treatment. The species were evaluated in separate experiments on Mohave clay loam and Sonoita sandy loam soils (Typic Haplargid) near Marana, AZ. Cotton treated with 415 kg/(ha yr) had significantly less chlorosis and tended to be slightly taller than the cotton in the unsprayed plots. The alfalfa treated at a rate of 829 kg/(ha yr) showed significantly more leaf margin necrosis than did the unsprayed alfalfa. In the cantaloupe, there were no visually apparent differences among salt treatments. Hand-harvested cotton plots had a significant reduction is seed cotton yield at the 415 kg/(ha yr) treatment. A similar though nonsignificant, trend towards reduced yield with increased salt treatment was observed in machine-harvested cotton plots

  15. Variation for yield, water-use efficiency, and canopy morphology among nine alfalfa germplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, I.M.; Townsend, M.S.; Henning, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production under irrigated and rainfed conditions may benefit from improvements in water-use efficiency (WUE), the amount of forage and root biomass produced per unit of water transpired. If benefits from improved WUE are to be realized, correlations between important agronomic traits and key physiological traits associated with WUE must be determined. This study characterized variation for dry matter yield, forage maturity, leaf-to-stem ratio (LSR), carbon isotope discrimination (delta), canopy temperature, ash content, and specific leaf mass (SLM) in alfalfa. Associations between traits were also determined. Nine alfalfa germplasms representing eight of the nine historical genetic diversity groups, and a very fall-dormant (VFD) population, were established in seeded, irrigated plots for 2 yr near Las Cruces, NM. Significant variation (P less than or equal to 0.10) was detected for all traits and was greatest for delta and maturity, intermediate for yield, canopy temperature, ash content, and LSR, and least for SLM. The African, Peruvian, and Indian germplasms exhibited a higher delta than either the Turkistan, VFD, M. varia Martyn., or Ladak germplasms. Carbon isotope discrimination was positively correlated with forage yield (r = 0.64; P less than or equal to 0.10; n = 9) and forage maturity (r = 0.66; P less than or equal to 0.05; n = 9). No association was detected between delta and either canopy temperature, ash content, SLM, or LSR. The results indicate that differences in stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity exist among the nine populations, and that germplasms with low delta tended to have slower growth and development rates under irrigated conditions. Neither canopy temperature, ash content, nor SLM provided suitable alternate measurements of delta among the nine alfalfa germplasms

  16. Effects of sodium diacetate on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XianJun Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium diacetate (SDA on fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. silage. Methods Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with various concentrations of SDA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g/kg of fresh forage. After 60 days of the ensiling, the samples were collected to examine the fermentative quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability. Results The application of SDA significantly (p<0.05 decreased silage pH with the lowest value in silage with 7 g/kg of SDA. The proliferations of enterobacteria, yeasts, molds and clostridia were inhibited by SDA, resulted in lower ethanol, propionic and butyric acid concentrations and dry matter loss in SDA treated silages than control. The increasing SDA linearly decreased free amino acid N (p<0.001, ammonia N (p = 0.018 and non-protein N (p<0.001, while linearly increased water soluble carbohydrate (p<0.001 and peptide N (p<0.001. It is speculated that SDA accelerated the shift from homofermentative to heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during the silage fermentation, indicated by lower lactic acid production in SDA-9 than SDA-7 silages after 60 days of ensiling. Alfalfa silages treated with SDA at 7 g/kg had highest Flieg’s point and remained stable more than 9 d during aerobic exposure under humid and hot conditions in southern China. Conclusion SDA may be used as an additive for alfalfa silages at a level of 7 g/kg.

  17. Scaling and Predicting the Geotechnical Resistance Provided by Alfalfa in Experimental Studies of Alluvial-Channel Morphology and Planform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankhead, N.; Simon, A.

    2008-12-01

    Several complex interactions occur between riparian vegetation and bank stability processes. Although there are both positive and negative effects of riparian vegetation on streambank stability, a link between increased vegetation density and decreased bank erosion and lateral migration rates of channels has generally been recorded. The ability of vegetation to promote increased bank stability leads to a positive feedback, in which bank stability then allows the growth and establishment of more vegetation. To study interactions between vegetation density and channel planform, past flume studies have used alfalfa sprouts (Medicago sativa), seeded over the entire floodplain in varying densities. Such studies have observed reductions in braiding intensity with increased alfalfa density. It has been assumed in these studies that the alfalfa sprouts increase the resistance of the bank material to lateral erosion. When alfalfa sprouts are scaled up they simulate mature riparian trees well. However, the geotechnical properties of alfalfa roots, and quantification of the increase in resistance provided to the banks under different densities of alfalfa have thus far been ignored. It is therefore unknown if the resistance provided by the alfalfa roots also scales well to real-world root-reinforcement values. To quantify additional bank strength, alfalfa sprouts were grown in sand and the roots tested at regular intervals to measure tensile strength. Results of tensile-strength measurements for alfalfa sprouts displayed the typical non-linear decrease of tensile strength (in MPa) with increasing root diameter. Values for the additional cohesion provided by alfalfa roots were calculated by inputting alfalfa tensile-strength and root density data to the root-reinforcement model, RipRoot, resulting in root-reinforcement values of 0 to 11.8 kPa. These values are similar to those that would be expected under field conditions. The root-cohesion values calculated for alfalfa sprouts

  18. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide enhances salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox homeostasis and preventing salt-induced K⁺ loss in seedlings of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Diwen; Mao, Yu; Zhou, Heng; Li, Feng; Wu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jing; He, Ziyi; Cui, Weiti; Xie, Yanjie

    2014-08-01

    Despite the external application of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conferring plant tolerance against various environmental cues, the physiological significance of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES)-associated endogenous H2S production involved in salt-stress signaling was poorly understood. To address this gap, the participation of in planta changes of H2S homeostasis involved in alfalfa salt tolerance was investigated. The increasing concentration of NaCl (from 50 to 300 mM) progressively caused the induction of total l-DES activity and the increase of endogenous H2S production. NaCl-triggered toxicity symptoms (175 mM), including seedling growth inhibition and lipid peroxidation, were alleviated by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; 100 μM), a H2S donor, whereas aggravated by an inhibitor of l-DES or a H2S scavenger. A weaker or negative response was observed in lower or higher dose of NaHS. Further results showed that endogenous l-DES-related H2S modulated several genes/activities of antioxidant defence enzymes, and also regulated the contents of antioxidant compounds, thus counterbalancing the NaCl-induced lipid peroxidation. Moreover, H2S maintained K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis by preventing the NaCl-triggered K(+) efflux, which might be result form the impairment of SKOR expression. Together, our findings indicated that endogenous H2S homeostasis enhance salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox balance and restraining K(+) efflux in alfalfa seedlings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Age of Alfalfa Root on Penetration by Pratylenchus penetrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, T H

    1982-01-01

    Penetration by all migratory life stages of Pratylenchus penetrans into roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Du Puits) was inversely proportional to tissue age. Two-day-old tissue in the root hair zone was penetrated twice as much as 10- or 20-day-old sections of the tap root. Age-related differences were also observed in branch roots; these differences were not affected by increasing the number of nematodes from 1 to 10 per inoculation site, nor by increasing the length of the incubation period from 6 to 96 h. Age-related differences were only significant with 3-wk-old plants, not with 2- and 1-wk-old seedlings. Nematodes entered roots at temperatures from 5 to 30 C with maximum entry at 20 C and minimum at 5 C. At all temperatures, except 5 C, penetration into young tissue (2 days) was significantly greater than into medium (10 days) and old (20 days) tissue. Females and third-stage larvae entered the different-aged root sections 122% and 83%, respectively, more than did males. Two-day-old seedlings of the alfalfa cultivars Vernal, Saranac, and Du Puits were penetrated equally by P. penetrans. Perhaps the inverse relationship between penetration and age of root is, in part, responsible for the increasing resistance or tolerance of plants to nematode damage as they grow older.

  20. Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved by chemical and biological additives during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Michálková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved with chemical or biological additives were studied in fresh and wilted silage. The chemical additive was formic acid and the biological additive consisted of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Second cut alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. was harvested at the bloom stage, ensiled in mini silos (15 dm3 and fermented at 20–23 °C for 12 weeks. The dry matter of the fresh silage was 228 g . kg−1 and 281.6 g . kg−1 for the wilted before ensiling. The amino acid content was estimated by using an automatic amino acid analyzer AAA (INGOS Prague. The results of the experiments indicated that amino acid breakdown was inhibited by increased dry matter and the use of chemical and biological additive. Additionally, the content of amino acids was found to change in relation to the degree of wilting and formic acid treatment yielded the lowest amino acid breakdown. The amino acid breakdown was also reduced by biological preservative especially in the silage with a higher level of dry matter content.

  1. Content of heavy metals in gleyic chernozem of Srem loess terrace under alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high-quality forage from alfalfa is influenced not only by the presence of nutrients, but also by the absence of harmful elements, such as heavy metals. The examination of the total heavy metals content (Ni, Cr, Pb and As in gleyic chernozem soil of Srem loess terrace in Hrtkovci, under alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. were carried out in 2011 in order to determine suitability for the production of safe forage. It total content of Pb, As and Crwas below the maximum permitted concentrations. The content of As, Cr and Ni was higher in the surface layer, unlike Pb, whose content was higher in the deeper layers of soil. A significant positive correlation was found between the total content of Ni, Cr and As. An increased concentration of Ni was found, which was above the maximum permitted concentration. It is necessary to further control its content and accessibility examination and extraction from plants, to prevent its entry into the food chain and provide safe food.

  2. Molecular improvement of alfalfa for enhanced productivity and adaptability in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Stacy D; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Acharya, Surya

    2017-10-18

    Due to an expanding world population and increased buying power, the demand for ruminant products such as meat and milk is expected to grow substantially in coming years, and high levels of forage crop production will therefore be a necessity. Unfortunately, urbanization of agricultural land, intensive agricultural practices, and climate change are all predicted to limit crop production in the future, which means that the development of forage cultivars with improved productivity and adaptability will be essential. Because alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated perennial forage crops, it has been the target of much research in this field. In this review, we discuss progress that has been made towards the improvement of productivity, abiotic stress tolerance, and nutrient-use efficiency, as well as disease and pest resistance, in alfalfa using biotechnological techniques. Furthermore, we consider possible future priorities and avenues for attaining further enhancements in this crop as a means of contributing to the realization of food security in a changing environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparative Physiological and Transcriptional Analyses of Two Contrasting Drought Tolerant Alfalfa Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wenli; Liu, Xun; Wang, Haiqing; Chan, Zhulong

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological, and transcriptional levels. Under control condition, the drought-tolerant Longdong with smaller leaf size and lower stomata density showed less water loss than the drought-sensitive Algonquin. After exposing to drought stress, Longdong showed less severe cell membrane damage, more proline, and ascorbate (ASC) contents and less accumulation of H2O2 than Algonquin. Moreover, significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities after drought treatment were found in Longdong when compared with Algonquin. In addition, transcriptional expression analysis showed that Longdong exhibited significantly higher transcripts of drought-responsive genes in leaf and root under drought stress condition. Taken together, these results indicated that Longdong variety was more drought-tolerant than Algonquin variety as evidenced by less leaf firing, more lateral root number, higher relative aboveground/underground biomass per plant and survival rate. PMID:26793226

  4. Comparative Physiological and Transcriptional Analyses of Two Contrasting Drought Tolerant Alfalfa Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wenli; Liu, Xun; Wang, Haiqing; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological, and transcriptional levels. Under control condition, the drought-tolerant Longdong with smaller leaf size and lower stomata density showed less water loss than the drought-sensitive Algonquin. After exposing to drought stress, Longdong showed less severe cell membrane damage, more proline, and ascorbate (ASC) contents and less accumulation of H2O2 than Algonquin. Moreover, significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities after drought treatment were found in Longdong when compared with Algonquin. In addition, transcriptional expression analysis showed that Longdong exhibited significantly higher transcripts of drought-responsive genes in leaf and root under drought stress condition. Taken together, these results indicated that Longdong variety was more drought-tolerant than Algonquin variety as evidenced by less leaf firing, more lateral root number, higher relative aboveground/underground biomass per plant and survival rate.

  5. Identification of three highly expressed replacement histone H3 genes of alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A J; Kapros, T; Dudits, D; Waterborg, J H

    1996-01-01

    One genomic and six cDNA clones for the replacement histone H3.2 protein of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were isolated and sequenced. By gene organization they represent 3 distinct genes. PCR methods were used to confirm that only three intron-bearing histone H3.2 genes of this type exist per haploid genome. They co-exist with approximately 56 copies of the previously characterized replication-dependent, intronless histone H3.1 variant gene. Comparison of the relative expression of few constitutive H3.2 genes with the high S phase expression of the abundant cell cycle-dependent H3.1 genes by mRNA levels and protein synthesis measurements revealed that the replacement histone H3.2 genes are very highly expressed. Structural analysis of the genomic replacement H3.2 gene revealed a unique feature. A repeated polypyrimidine sequence motif in the 5' untranslated region of this gene replaces the ubiquitous intron present in all known replacement H3 genes. A hypothesis is presented that this motif and other, non-randomly distributed polypyrimidine sequences in the introns of replacement histone H3 genes of alfalfa and Arabidopsis, may affect nucleosome assembly. Chromatin repression of these replacement genes would be avoided, consistent with the high, constitutive expression of replacement H3 histone genes in plants.

  6. Comparative physiological and transcriptional analyses of two contrasting drought tolerant alfalfa varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli eQuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of major environmental determinants of plant growth and productivity. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa is a legume perennial forage crop native to the arid and semi-arid environment, which is an ideal candidate to study the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring drought resistance in plants. In this study, drought stress responses of two alfalfa varieties, Longdong and Algonquin, were comparatively assayed at the physiological, morphological and transcriptional levels. Under control condition, the drought-tolerant Longdong with smaller leaf size and lower stomata density showed less water loss than the drought-sensitive Algonquin. After exposing to drought stress, Longdong showed less severe cell membrane damage, more proline and ascorbate (ASC contents and less accumulation of H2O2 than Algonquin. Moreover, significantly higher antioxidant enzymes activities after drought treatment were found in Longdong when compared with Algonquin. In addition, transcriptional expression analysis showed that Longdong exhibited significantly higher transcripts of drought-responsive genes in leaf and root under drought stress condition. Taken together, these results indicated that Longdong variety was more drought-tolerant than Algonquin variety as evidenced by less leaf firing, more lateral root number, higher relative aboveground/underground biomass per plant and survival rate.

  7. Early somatic embryo induction events in alfalfa callus cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bakry, A.A.; Hildebrand, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    High and low regenerating alfalfa Medicago sativa L. cv Regen S full sibs were isolated from a callus culture screen on modified Blaydes medium. The average number of embryos per ovary were thirty and zero for the high and low genotypes respectively after six weeks in culture. Proembryonic cell masses (4-8 celled) were observed after 4-5 days in culture and maximum meristematic activity was at 6-7 days in culture, for the high regenerating genotypes. Well formed globular embryos, both epidermal and subepidermal in origin, were observed after 2 weeks is culture. Samples in culture for 3, 6 and 14 days from the high and low regenerating genotypes were radiolabeled in vivo with 35 S-methionine and run both on one and two dimension gels. The results will be discussed in relation to differences in proteins between the high and low regenerating genotypes at the stage of maximum meristematic activity (day 6) and differences occurring relative to the appearance of globular stage embryos (day 14) will be presented

  8. Alfalfa root role in osmotic adjustment under salt stress (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibriz, M.; Ghorri, M.; Alami, T.; El Guilli, M.; El- Moidaoui, M.; Benbella, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the sodium chloride on the morpho physiological characteristics of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The characteristics taken into consideration dry matter production of shoot and root (DMS, DMR), root volume (RV), proline content (PS, PR), included total soluble sugar (SSS; SSR) and chlorophyll a, band (a+b). Salt tolerance of the six genotypes was characterised by capacity to growth in salt environment, buildup of osmoregulating compounds (proline and solubles sugar) and a less inhibition of photosynthesis process (decrease of chlorophyll pigment content). Important genotypes differences were observed for each parameter, which make possible a better understanding of the Alfalfa adaptation mechanisms. The results show that the salt stress has a significant influence on the growth of this plants by decreasing the production of dry matter and :)f the root volume. The most important decreases were clear at the 12 g/l concentration mainly upon the Australian variety (Siriver).Thus the most tolerant to salt stress was the Demnate genotype (Dem04) which presented the lowest decrease percentage. The salt effect upon the plant physiological characteristics causes a decrease of the relative water content and chlorophyll a, b and (a+b) content. It also causes an increase of the relative loss of water, the total soluble sugars (SSS; SSR) and the proline contents (PS, PR). Thus, we found a high correlation between the proline and sugar contents of shoot and root and also between these substances and shoot and root dry matter production. (author)

  9. Cadmium-induced heme oxygenase-1 gene expression is associated with the depletion of glutathione in the roots of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiti; Fu, Guangqing; Wu, Honghong; Shen, Wenbiao

    2011-02-01

    Following previous findings that cadmium (Cd) induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) gene expression in alfalfa seedling roots, we now show that the decreased glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents, induction of HO-1 gene expression and its protein level by Cd was mimicked by a GSH depletor diethylmaleate (DEM). Meanwhile, above Cd- or DEM-induced decreased GSH content followed by HO-1 up-regulation could be strengthened or reversed differentially by the application of a selective inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis L: -buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), or exogenous GSH and AsA, respectively. The antioxidative behavior of HO-1 induction was further confirmed by histochemical staining for the detection of loss of membrane integrity in a short period of treatment time. Additionally, the induction of HO-1 transcript was inhibited by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D (ActD) or protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CX, especially). In contrast, the level of HO-2 transcript did not change upon various treatments. Together, above r