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Sample records for alexandria city egypt

  1. Transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols across Alexandria, Egypt

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    H. El-Askary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The flow of pollutants from Europe and desert dust to Europe from the Sahara desert both affects the air quality of the coastal regions of Egypt. As such, measurements from both ground and satellite observations assume great importance to ascertain the conditions and flow affecting the Nile Delta and the large city of Alexandria. We note that special weather conditions prevailing in the Mediterranean Sea result in a westerly wind flow pattern during spring and from North to South during the summer. Such flow patterns transport dust-loaded and polluted air masses from the Sahara desert and Europe, respectively, through Alexandria, and the Nile Delta in Egypt. We have carried out measurements acquired with a ground- based portable sun photometer (Microtops II and the satellite-borne TERRA/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor during the periods of October 1999–August 2001 and July 2002–September 2003. These measurements show a seasonal variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD following these flow patterns. Maximum aerosol loadings accompanied by total precipitable water vapor (W enhancements are observed during the spring and summer seasons. Pronounced changes have been observed in the Ångström exponent (α derived from ground-based measurements over Alexandria (31.14° N, 29.59° E during both dust and pollution periods. We have followed up the observations with a 3-day back-trajectories model to trace the probable sources and pathways of the air masses causing the observed aerosol loadings. We have also used other NASA model outputs to estimate the sea salt, dust, sulfates and black carbon AOD spatial distributions during different seasons. Our results reveal the probable source regions of these aerosol types, showing agreement with the trajectory and Ångström exponent analysis results. It is confirmed that Alexandria is subjected to different atmospheric conditions involving dust, pollution, mixed aerosols and

  2. Schistosomiasis and the risk of bladder cancer in Alexandria, Egypt.

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    Bedwani, R.; Renganathan, E.; El Kwhsky, F.; Braga, C.; Abu Seif, H. H.; Abul Azm, T.; Zaki, A.; De Franceschi, S.; Boffetta, P; La Vecchia, C.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between history of schistosomiasis and bladder cancer risk was investigated using data from a case-control study conducted between January 1994 and July 1996 in Alexandria, Egypt. Cases were 190 subjects with incident, histologically confirmed invasive cancer of the bladder, and controls were 187 subjects admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-urinary tract conditions. Eighty-six cases (45%) vs 69 controls (37%) reported a history of urinary schistosomiasis. The ...

  3. The journey of discovering skull base anatomy in ancient Egypt and the special influence of Alexandria.

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    Elhadi, Ali M; Kalb, Samuel; Perez-Orribo, Luis; Little, Andrew S; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2012-08-01

    The field of anatomy, one of the most ancient sciences, first evolved in Egypt. From the Early Dynastic Period (3100 BC) until the time of Galen at the end of the 2nd century ad, Egypt was the center of anatomical knowledge, including neuroanatomy. Knowledge of neuroanatomy first became important so that sacred rituals could be performed by ancient Egyptian embalmers during mummification procedures. Later, neuroanatomy became a science to be studied by wise men at the ancient temple of Memphis. As religious conflicts developed, the study of the human body became restricted. Myths started to replace scientific research, squelching further exploration of the human body until Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria. This period witnessed a revolution in the study of anatomy and functional anatomy. Herophilus of Chalcedon, Erasistratus of Chios, Rufus of Ephesus, and Galen of Pergamon were prominent physicians who studied at the medical school of Alexandria and contributed greatly to knowledge about the anatomy of the skull base. After the Royal Library of Alexandria was burned and laws were passed prohibiting human dissections based on religious and cultural factors, knowledge of human skull base anatomy plateaued for almost 1500 years. In this article the authors consider the beginning of this journey, from the earliest descriptions of skull base anatomy to the establishment of basic skull base anatomy in ancient Egypt.

  4. Schistosomiasis and the risk of bladder cancer in Alexandria, Egypt.

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    Bedwani, R; Renganathan, E; El Kwhsky, F; Braga, C; Abu Seif, H H; Abul Azm, T; Zaki, A; Franceschi, S; Boffetta, P; La Vecchia, C

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between history of schistosomiasis and bladder cancer risk was investigated using data from a case-control study conducted between January 1994 and July 1996 in Alexandria, Egypt. Cases were 190 subjects with incident, histologically confirmed invasive cancer of the bladder, and controls were 187 subjects admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-urinary tract conditions. Eighty-six cases (45%) vs 69 controls (37%) reported a history of urinary schistosomiasis. The corresponding multivariate odds ratio (OR) of bladder cancer -- after allowance for age, sex, education, smoking, other urinary infections and high-risk occupations -- was 1.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-2.9). The ORs were 0.22 (95% CI 0.1-0.4) for intestinal schistosomiasis and 0.32 (95% CI 0.1-1.9) for schistosomiasis of other types. The OR for urinary schistosomiasis was higher in subjects who were younger at first diagnosis (OR of 3.3 for or = 35 years). The ORs were 15.8 for male ever-smokers with a history of urinary schistosomiasis, compared with never-smokers without such a history, and 3.2 for men ever-infected with urinary Schistosoma haematobium and ever-employed in high-risk occupations, compared with those never-infected and with no high-risk occupational history. This study confirms that clinical history of urinary schistosomiasis is significantly, but modestly, associated with increased bladder cancer risk, explaining some 16% of bladder cancer cases in this Egyptian population.

  5. Coastal engineering and Harmful Algal Blooms along Alexandria coast, Egypt

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    Amany A. Ismael

    2014-01-01

    The phytoplankton composition and its standing crop became totally different during the two periods. The most important bloom was caused by Micromonas pusilla forming a heavy green tide accompanied by a bloom of Peridinium quinquecorne. Although there were no fish or invertebrate mortality, this bloom caused economic losses to internal tourism. In the absence of any Environmental Assessment, the coastal engineering works increased the harmful algal blooms in Alexandria coastal waters, even after corrective steps were taken to mitigate the harmful effects.

  6. Scenario-based assessment of buildings damage and population exposure due to tsunamis for the town of Alexandria, Egypt

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    G. Pagnoni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria is the second biggest city in Egypt as regards population, is a key economic area in northern Africa and has a very important tourist activity. Historical catalogues indicate that it was severely affected by a number of tsunami events. In this work we assess the tsunami hazard by running numerical simulations of tsunami impact in Alexandria through the Worst-case Credible Tsunami Scenario Analysis (WCTSA. We identify three main seismic sources: the Western Hellenic Arc (WHA – reference event AD 365, Mw = 8.5, the Eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA – reference event 1303, Mw = 8.0 and the Cyprus Arc (CA – hypothetical scenario earthquake with Mw = 8.0, inferred from the tectonic setting and from historical tsunami catalogues. All numerical simulations are carried out by means of the code UBO-TSUFD, developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. Relevant tsunami metrics are computed for each scenario and then used to build aggregated fields such as the maximum flood depth and the maximum inundation area. We find that the case that produces the most relevant flooding in Alexandria is the EHA scenario, with wave heights up to 4 m. The aggregate fields are used for a building vulnerability assessment according to a methodology developed in the frame of the EU-FP6 project SCHEMA and further refined in this study, based on the adoption of a suitable building damage matrix and on water inundation depth. It is found that in the districts of El Dekhila and Al Amriyah, to the south-west of the port of Dekhila over 12 000 buildings could be affected and hundreds of them could incur in consequences ranging from important damage to total collapse. It is also found that in the same districts tsunami inundation covers an area of about 15 km2 resulting in more than 150 000 residents being exposed.

  7. Cervical intraepithelial lesions in females attending Women′s Health Clinics in Alexandria, Egypt

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    Mona Abdel-Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of preinvasive cervical lesions. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN   in Egyptian women living in Alexandria to clarify the need for implementing a national organized screening program and a vaccination program in our community. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a 6 years period and covered the different socioeconomic levels to have a representative sample for women living in Alexandria. All women included did not have any cervical disorder related complaints. Conventional Pap smears were obtained and diagnosed using the Bethesda system. Women with abnormal Pap smears were managed according to the 2006 consensus guidelines within the available facilities. Persistent abnormal cytological results were referred for colposcopic biopsy. Histological results were grouped into: Reactive changes, CIN 1, CIN 2/CIN 3 and adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS. Results: Out of the 6173 smears included in the study 6072 (98.36% were normal and only 101 (1.63% were abnormal. After colposcopic biopsies, 0.08% had CIN 1, 0.03% had CIN 2, 3 and 0.01% had AIS. Conclusion: We concluded that cervical cancer screening programs, although life-saving for a number of women, are not a sufficiently high priority in our community. Money for national health screening programs should preferably be directed more towards recruiting women for breast cancer screening, since breast cancer accounts for about 33% of all female cancers in Egypt ranking number one, while cervical cancer ranks number 13.

  8. Quality of documentation of electronic medical information systems at primary health care units in Alexandria, Egypt.

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    Noureldin, M; Mosallam, R; Hassan, S Z

    2014-03-13

    Limited data are available about the implementation of electronic records systems in primary care in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the quality of documentation in the electronic medical records at primary health care units in Alexandria, Egypt and to elicit physician's feedback on barriers and facilitators to the system. Data were collected at 7 units selected randomly from each administrative region and in each unit 50 paper-based records and their corresponding e-records were randomly selected for patients who visited the unit in the first 3 months of 2011. Administrative data were almost complete in both paper and e-records, but the completeness of clinical data varied between 60.0% and 100.0% across different units and types of record. The accuracy rate of the main diagnosis in e-records compared with paper-based records ranged between 44.0% and 82.0%. High workload and system complexity were the most frequently mentioned barriers to implementation of the e-records system.

  9. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among chronic hemodialysis patients in Alexandria, Egypt.

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    Helaly, Ghada F; El Ghazzawi, Ebtisam F; Shawky, Sherine M; Farag, Farag M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of end-stage renal disease has increased dramatically in developing countries. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem that represents a significant co-morbidity event that has led to outbreaks of hepatitis B. There are inadequate data concerning occult HBV infection among Egyptian chronic hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to detect occult HBV infection among chronic hemodialysis patients in Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional study was performed on 100 patients with end-stage renal disease that received maintenance hemodialysis and had tested negative for HBV surface antigen. Blood samples were collected before the initiation of hemodialysis. Sera were tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B core (HBc) antibodies using ELISA, and HBV DNA was detected by SYBR Green real-time PCR using specific primers for the s and c genes and by nested PCR using pol gene-specific primers. The serum activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST) were also measured. Anti-HCV and anti-HBc antibodies were detected in 34% and 48% of patients, respectively, and 70.6% of anti-HCV positive patients were also positive for anti-HBc antibodies. This association was statistically significant (p=0.001). HBV DNA was detected in 32% of the hemodialysis patients. A significant association was determined between the presence of HBV DNA and anti-HCV positivity (p=0.021). Aminotransferases were elevated in 21% of the studied patients, more often in patients with positive anti-HCV profiles than in patients negative for anti-HCV (poccult infections, especially among anti-HBc-positive hemodialysis patients, to improve our understanding of their clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological characteristics.

  10. 77 FR 26537 - City of Alexandria, LA, Louisiana Energy and Power Authority, Lafayette Utilities System v. Cleco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Alexandria, LA, Louisiana Energy and Power Authority, Lafayette Utilities System v. Cleco Power, LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on April 25, 2012, pursuant to..., City of Alexandria, Louisiana, Louisiana Energy and Power Authority, and Lafayette Utilities...

  11. Scale insects and mealy bugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea) attacking deciduous fruit trees in the western north coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

    2008-01-01

    This investigation covered a survey of scale insects and mealy bugs infesting ten growing species of deciduous fruit trees in three localities in Alexandria govemorate. These localities were Merghem, Burg El-Arab, and El-Nahda about 50 Km. West of Alexandria under both rain-fed and irrigation system conditions. The common inspected fruit trees were fig, white mulberry, pomegranate, apple, pear, apricot, European plum, peach, almond, and persimmon. It was shown that a group of twenty scale insects and meaty bug species pertaining to fifteen genera belonging to six families of the super family: Coccoidea were collected and identified during the elapsing period from January to December, 2004. Among these species, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) was recorded for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, many insect and non-insect parasitoids and predators were also found associated with these scale insects and mealy bugs on deciduous fruit trees in the three concerned localities throughout this investigation. These natural enemies were identified and recorded.

  12. Alexandria's Eastern Harbor, Egypt: Pollen, microscopic charcoal, and the transition from natural to human-modified basin

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    Stanley, J.-D.; Bernhardt, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen and microscopic charcoal examined in Holocene sediment core samples record major environmental modifications affecting Alexandria's Eastern Harbor through time. We assess whether such changes on Egypt's coastal margin were influenced primarily by natural, or natural plus human, or primarily human factors. We focus on (1) the times when pollen assemblages and microscopic charcoal content changed in the core, (2) how they changed, and (3) why this occurred. The analysis takes into account the core's stratigraphy, regional climate variability, human history, and local archaeological record. Four pollenmicroscopic charcoal zones are identified. The earliest change occurred at ca. 6000 YBP, during Egypt's earlier Predynastic (Neolithic) period, coinciding with a lithologic break from sand to muddy sand. Pollen during this time indicates a transition to a much drier climate rather than effects of human activity. The second change in pollen occurred 3600-2900 YBP, during a period of continued aridity with no lithologic variation in this core interval. Pollen (cereal taxa, agricultural weeds, grape) and a sharp increase in microscopic charcoal indicate that human activity became prevalent at least 700 y before Alexander the Great's arrival in this region, and these results highlight the transition from a largely natural climatecontrolled environment to one influenced by both climate and anthropogenic activity. The third shift up-core in pollen assemblages is dated at ca. 2300 YBP, at the boundary between a sand and mud unit. It coincides with construction by the Ptolemies of the Heptastadion between Alexandria and Pharos Island. From this time onward, harbor sediment in the nearly enclosed catchment basin indicates a near-continuous record of dominant proximal human activity. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  13. Ecological distribution of harmful epiphytic Oscillatoriales in Alexandria coast, Egypt, with special reference to DNA identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amany Abdel Hamid Ismael; Eman Abdel Razak Mohamed; Mostafa Mohamed El-Sheikh; Wafaa Hassan Hegazy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the potentially harmful epiphytic Oscillatoriales species and follow up their distribution along Alexandria coast. Methods: Samples were collected bimonthly from April 2009 to February 2010 at three sites along Alexandria coast. Both morphological and molecular analyses were used for identifying the dominant species.Results:Five species belonging to two families were identified; Oscillatoria acutissima, Oscillatoria nigroviridis, Oscillatoria sp., Lyngbya majuscule and Phormidium formosum. Their cell density ranged from 103 to 126X103 filament g-1 fresh weight macroalgae. The morphological study of the dominant species, Oscillatoria sp. (Oscillatoria sp. W1) showed much similarity withPlanktothrix agardhii with no heterocysts and akinetes, while molecular ananlysis (16S rDNA) clustered the species in the same group with Anabaena sp.Conclusions:The 16S rDNA genes are not suitable for identifying Oscillatoriales during the present study and another molecular method should be used instead.

  14. Fluoride distibution and the effect of some ions along Alexandria coastal Mediterranean seawater of Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. M. El-Sarraf; M. S. Masoud; A. A. Harfoush; GH. F. El-Said

    2003-01-01

    The coastal seawater of Mediterranean of Alexandria receives large amount of discharged waters containing industrial wastes, sewage, and agricultural and domestic drainage. Fluoride and some parameters were(chemical and physical) determined. The data gave indication that the content and the amount of the discharged water largely affect the chemical composition of the coastal water. Stepwise regression analysis was highly significant and the model was very fruitful, where the observed and calculated values were mostly concordant. This may indicated that there was a relation between fluoride content in coastal seawater and its content in the discharged water.

  15. Hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions at health insurance organization hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallam, Rasha A; Guirguis, Wafaa W; Hassan, Mona Ha

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at estimating the percentage of hospital discharges and days of care accounted for by Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs) at Health Insurance Organization (HIO) hospitals in Alexandria, calculating hospitalization rates for ACSCs among HIO population and identifying determinants of hospitalization for those conditions. A sample of 8300 medical records of patients discharged from three hospitals affiliated to HIO at Alexandria was reviewed. The rate of monthly discharges for ACSCs was estimated on the basis of counting number of combined ACSCs detected in the three hospitals and the hospitals' average monthly discharges. ACSCs accounted for about one-fifth of hospitalizations and days of care at HIO hospitals (21.8% and 20.8%, respectively). Annual hospitalization rates for ACSCs were 152.5 per 10,000 insured population. The highest rates were attributed to cellulitis/abscess (47.3 per 10,000 population), followed by diabetes complications and asthma (42.8 and 20.8 per 10,00 population). Logistic regression indicated that age, number of previous admissions, and admission department are significant predictors for hospitalization for an ACSC.

  16. Willingness and professional motivations of medical students to work in rural areas: a study in Alexandria, Egypt

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    Aida M. Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, e.g. personal preferences, difficult work conditions and low remuneration. Our aim was to determine the effect of motivational factors on willingness to accept postings to rural underserved areas in Alexandria, Egypt and to identify perceived attributes of rural service.,A cross-sectional survey involving 302 4th-year medical students was conducted in March-July 2012. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between students’ willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES. Perceived attributes to rural service were also assessed. Over 85% students were born in urban areas and 41.4% came from affluent backgrounds. More than half students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors significantly influenced willingness to practice in rural areas. High-family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. A sizable portion of medical students are motivated to study and practice medicine in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on motivation during medical training and designing rural postings, as well as favor lower PPES students for admission and improving organizational and contextual issues of rural service.

  17. Seasonal variation of radon level and radon effective doses in the Catacomb of Kom EI-Shuqafa, Alexandria, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Abdelzaher

    2011-10-01

    Inhalation of radon has been recognized as a health hazard. In the present work radon concentration was measured, in the atmosphere of the archaeological place, namely Catacomb of Kom El-Shuqafa, in Alexandria, Egypt, which is open to the public, using time-integrated passiveradon dosimeters containing LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detector. The measurements were performed throughout winter and summer. Seasonal variation of radon concentration, with the maximum in summer ranging from 243 to 574 Bq m-3 and minimum in winter ranging from 64 to 255 Bq m-3 was observed. Because of the variations of the catacomb ventilation system, the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny ranges from 0.14 to 0.48. The tour guides are exposed to an average estimated annual effective dose ranging from 0.21 to 0.52 mSv y-1 and the visitors from 0.88 to 2.28 Sv y-1. The effective doses the catacomb workers are exposed to ranged from 0.20 mSv y-1 in winter to 4.65 mSv y-1 in summer which exceeds the lower bound of the recommended level (3–10 mSv y-1) (ICRP, 1993).

  18. Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida along the Alexandria coast, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean

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    M. M. DORGHAM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Shallow hard bottom and intertidal soft bottom polychaete assemblages of the Alexandria coast, southeastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea, were studied during a complete annual cycle in order to analyze spatial temporal patterns of variation in assemblages, and relevant factors related to polychaete distribution. The present study recorded a total of 73 species, belonging to Syllidae (22 species, Nereididae (9 species, Serpulidae (6 species, Eunicidae (5 species and other 19 families. The assemblages experienced pronounced spatial and temporal variation throughout the study area, but spatial variation appeared more important in determining the observed patterns. Polychaete distribution related to variation of grain size and sessile macrobenthos cover suggesting that these structural variables accounted more than the physical-chemical ones (namely BOD, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH in influencing the patterns of assemblages’ distribution. The present study is the southeastern-most one dealing with ecology and distribution patterns of hard bottom polychaetes from the Mediterranean Sea, as well as one of the few studies dealing with intertidal soft bottom polychaetes in the Levant Basin.

  19. Microbial contamination of mobile phones in a health care setting in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Heba Sayed; Abaza, Amani Farouk

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Es sollte die mikrobielle Kontamination von Mobiltelefonen in einer universitären Gesundheitseinrichtung untersucht werden.Methode: Abstrichproben wurden von 40 Mobiltelefonen von Patienten und Mitarbeitern im Universitätskrankenhaus in Alexandria entnommen. Die mikrobiologische Analyse wurde im mikrobiologischen Labor des Instituts für Public Health durchgeführt. Die Quantifizierung erfolgte sowohl durch direkte Ausbringung auf die Platte als auch durch Anlage von Subkulturen zur Differenzierung. Methicillin-resistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) wurden mittels Plättchendiffusionsmethode nach Bauer und Kirby identifiziert. Isolierte Gram-negative Organismen wurden auf Vorkommen von ESBL-Bildung mittels der Doppeldiffusionsmethode gemäß Empfehlung des Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute untersucht.Ergebnisse: Alle untersuchten Mobiltelefone waren entweder mit einer oder mehreren bakteriellen Arten kontaminiert. Am häufigsten wurden MRSA (53%) und Koagulase-negative Staphylokokken (50%) nachgewiesen. Als mittlere Anzahl von KbE ergaben sich 357 KbE mit einem Median von130 KbE/ml pro Mobiltelefon im Plattengussverfahren. Die korrespondierenden Werte betrugen 2.192 bzw. 1.720 KbE/Mobiltelefon im Direktausstrich.Schlussfolgerung: Mobiltelefone stellen ein Risiko in Gesundheitseinrichtungen zur Weiterverbreitung nosokomialer Pathogen einschließlich MRSA dar. Auf der Oberfläche von Mobiltelefonen kann die mikrobielle Kontamination methodisch einfach nachgewiesen werden.

  20. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate fallout of Alexandria, Egypt: Sources and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboul-Kassim, T.A.T.; Simoneit, B.R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Particulate fallout samples (PFS) were collected in Alexandria, and their aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compositions were determined both quantitatively and qualitatively to characterize the homologous and biomarker compounds in terms of their original sources. The results show that all samples contain aliphatic hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, UCM, isoprenoids, tri- and tetracyclic terpanes, hopanes, and steranes/diasteranes. The main source of these compounds is from petrochemical contamination with trace input of terrestrial higher plant wax. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are considered to be combustion products from fossil fuels such as petroleum, are also widely distributed in all samples. Multivariate statistical analysis, including extended Q-mode factor analysis and linear programming technique, was performed in order to reduce the hydrocarbon data set into a meaningful number of end members (sources). This analysis indicates that there are two significant end members explaining 90% of the total variation among the samples and confirming petrochemical (79.6%), and thermogenic/pyrolytic (10.4%) sources in the PFS model. 65 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Potentially harmful Ostreopsis spp. in the coastal waters of Alexandria - Egypt

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    A. ISMAEL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ostreopsis spp. has been reported for the first time from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. Macroalgal samples were collected monthly between June 2005 and December 2007, from the rocks at Abu Qir, from less than 1.5 m depth, and their associated microalgae examined. Populations of two Ostreopsis morphotypes were found to occur in this location, east of Alexandria, viz., O. cf ovata Fukuyo and Ostreopsis morph1. The Ostreopsis spp. was abundant and dominant during the summer. They were more abundant as epiphytes of the brown algae Padina sp. and Sargassum sp., less abundant on the red algae Corallina sp., Jania sp., Laurencia sp. and even less so on the green algae Ulva spp. Ostreopsis cf. ovata was also identified during the summer months on the same macroalgal species, although in a much lower abundance. Ostreopsis spp. alternated in dominance with the benthic cyanobacteria Oscillatoria spp. and the diatom Licmophora sp. Other benthic dinoflagellates recorded at low abundance included Amphidinium carterae, Gymnodinium sp. and Prorocentrum lima.

  2. Microbial contamination of mobile phones in a health care setting in Alexandria, Egypt

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    Selim, Heba Sayed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed at investigating the microbial contamination of mobile phones in a hospital setting. Methods: Swab samples were collected from 40 mobile phones of patients and health care workers at the Alexandria University Students’ Hospital. They were tested for their bacterial contamination at the microbiology laboratory of the High Institute of Public Health. Quantification of bacteria was performed using both surface spread and pour plate methods. Isolated bacterial agents were identified using standard microbiological methods. Methicillin-resistant was identified by disk diffusion method described by Bauer and Kirby. Isolated Gram-negative bacilli were tested for being extended spectrum beta lactamase producers using the double disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations.Results: All of the tested mobile phones (100% were contaminated with either single or mixed bacterial agents. The most prevalent bacterial contaminants were methicillin-resistant and coagulase-negative staphylococci representing 53% and 50%, respectively. The mean bacterial count was 357 CFU/ml, while the median was 13 CFU/ml using the pour plate method. The corresponding figures were 2,192 and 1,720 organisms/phone using the surface spread method. Conclusions: Mobile phones usage in hospital settings poses a risk of transmission of a variety of bacterial agents including multidrug-resistant pathogens as methicillin-resistant . The surface spread method is an easy and useful tool for detection and estimation of bacterial contamination of mobile phones.

  3. Source apportionment and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    In this study, three receptor models [factor analysis/multiple linear regression (FA/MLR), positive matrix factorization (PMF) and UNMIX] were applied seasonally to investigate the source apportionment of PAHs in the atmospheric environment of Alexandria, and a lifetime cancer risk was assessed. ∑44 (gas+particle) PAH concentrations varied from 330 to 1770ngm(-3) and 170-1290ngm(-3) in the summer and winter seasons respectively. PAH concentrations at the industrial sites were significantly higher than at the traffic and residential sites during the winter season (p<0.001). Summer PAH concentrations were significantly higher than the winter season at the traffic sites (p=0.027). Results obtained from the three receptor models were comparable. Vehicle emissions, both diesel and gasoline contributed on average 36.0-49.0% and 19.0-34.0% respectively, natural gas combustion 11.0-27.0% and, during the summer only, also evaporative/uncombusted petroleum sources 8.00-18.0%. Seasonal trends were found for the gasoline emission source. Overall, PMF and UNMIX models afforded better source identification than did FA/MLR. The lifetime cancer risk assessment showed that incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILTCRs) were greater than the acceptable level of 10(-6) through dermal and ingestion routes at all the investigated sites and through the inhalation route at the industrial and traffic sites only. Total ILTCRs (6.64×10(-3)-4.42×10(-2)) indicated high potential risks to the local residents.

  4. In vitro activity of tigecycline and comparators against gram-negative bacteria isolated from a tertiary hospital in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nelly M; Youssef, Alaa A F

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, has necessitated the search for alternative therapy by either introducing new agents or renewing interest in old agents. This study compares the in vitro activity of tigecycline (TIG), recently introduced to Egyptian market, to other potentially active antimicrobials as Colistin (COL), imipenem (IPM), levofloxacin (LEV), and piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZ) against 67 Gram-negative clinical isolates obtained from El- Meery Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt. El-Meery Hospital is a 1,500-bed tertiary teaching hospital where TIG has not been previously used. Based on MIC(90)s, TIG was found to be a comparator to IPM and COL (MIC(90)= 8 μg/ml). LEV and PIP/TAZ were less active than TIG exhibiting high MIC(90)s. TIG inhibited 100% of Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae and 60% of Ps. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates. In time-kill studies against IPM-resistant isolates, TIG showed bactericidal activity after 6 hours of contact against the Enterobacteriaceae isolates and after 3 hours for the tested Ps. aeruginosa isolates at 4× and 8× MIC. Against A. baumannii, TIG exerted a bacteriostatic effect. TIG demonstrated variable ability to suppress biofilm formation affecting mainly E. coli and A. baumannii isolates. These results point TIG to be a promising agent in treatment of infections caused by strains for which adequate therapy has been limited. As far as we know, this is the first report evaluating the in vitro activity of TIG against Egyptian clinical isolates.

  5. Corporal punishment: mother's disciplinary behavior and child's psychological profile in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; El-Bourgy, Mohamed D; Seif El Din, Amira G; Mehanna, Azza A

    2009-01-01

    Although all professionals oppose abusive physical punishment, nonabusive physical punishment is still controversial. The aim of the present study was (i) to determine parents' behavior regarding the discipline of their children using corporal punishment or other alternative disciplinary methods, (ii) to identify the different associated factors for corporal punishment, and (iii) to determine the association between exposure of the child to corporal punishment and his or her psychosocial well-being. A representative sample of 400 fifth-grade primary school children and their mothers were subjected to a cross-sectional survey. Mothers were subjected to a questionnaire to assess their behavior on corporal punishment and other disciplinary methods. The children were subjected to Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory to assess their self-esteem, and a questionnaire to assess their relationship with others. About three-quarter of children (76.3%) were corporally punished, and about half of them (46.2%) were punished on sites other than the extremities or buttocks. In 59.3% of them the frequency of the punishment ranged from once or twice/week to more than once/day, and it left marks in about 20%. Other disciplinary methods used by mothers were yelling/insulting (43.5%), taking away a toy or privilege (39.3%), discussing/explaining (9.5%), and time out (2.8%). The significant predictors of mothers' use of corporal punishment were male gender of the child (p punishment of children and their self-esteem was not statistically significant; however, corporally punished children scored lower on their relationship with others than noncorporally punished ones (Z= 2.60, p punishment is a widespread disciplinary method in Alexandria. The use of corporal punishment could have adverse effects on the child especially on his or her relationship with others. Planning an awareness-raising educational program for current and expectant parents is recommended, to promote positive nonviolent

  6. Prevalence of zoonotic and other gastrointestinal parasites in police and house dogs in Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work estimates the gastrointestinal parasites of police and house dogs in Egypt with reference to its zoonotic risk. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples of 180 from police and house dogs were collected and then examined by different flotation and sedimentation techniques. Results: Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in police dogs was 7.5% and, in house dogs was 40%. Fecal examination of 120 police dogs revealed Toxocara canis eggs in 0.8%, Ancylsotoma caninum 1.7%, Trichuris vulpis 0.8 %, Cystoisospora canis 4.2% and Giardia species1.7%. Examination of 60 house dogs revealed Toxocaracanis eggs in 5% and Toxoascaris leonina 1.7 %, Cystoisospora canis 3.3%, Giardia species 31.7%, Entamoeba histolytica 18.3% and Cryptosporidium spp. 1.7%. Furthermore, age, sex, uncooked feed and communal housing revealed significant enteric parasite (P <0.05. Moreover, the zoonotic risks of police and house dogs were T. canis, A. caninum, T. vulpis, Giardia species, E. Histolytica and Cryptosporidium species. The puppies are representing the most zoonotic risk. Conclusion: In spite of, hygienic measures, regular deworming and high quality feeding of police and house dogs, a range of different parasites were recorded in this work. Parasitic zoonosis from police and house dogs has to be considered, especially for dog trainers and owners.

  7. Correlation between risk factors during the neonatal period and appearance of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hadi AM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Mahmoud Abdel Hadi, Islam Shereen HamdyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: This study aimed to identify the main risk factors for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt, from January 2010 to January 2012.Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken in infants weighing < 1250 g and maternal postmenstrual age < 32 weeks if there was concern about prolonged exposure to oxygen. The main clinical outcomes were occurrence of any stage of ROP and in particular severe ROP. Perinatal variables considered were: birth weight, gestational age, gender, method of ventilation (nasal continuous airway pressure or intermittent mechanical ventilation, packed red blood cell and/or plasma transfusion, occurrence of sepsis, neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus. After obtaining informed consent from the parents, infants at risk were examined for ROP using indirect ophthalmoscopy, ie, RetCam II fundus photography.Results: The study included 152 infants of mean gestational age 31.02 weeks and mean birth weight 1.229 kg. Seventy-two cases (47.5% were male and 80 cases (52.5% were female. Of the cases screened, 100 (65.6% had no ROP, 52 had ROP of any stage (34.4%, and 27 (18% had stage 1, five (3.3% had stage 2, 17 (11.5% had stage 3, and three (1.6% had stage 4 disease. No infants had stage 5 ROP. Of all our cases with ROP, 15 (28.6% had prethreshold disease type 1 that required treatment, comprising 9.8% of all cases screened for ROP. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, all risk factors studied were found to be significantly associated with the development of ROP, except for neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Severity of ROP was inversely proportional to birth weight and gestational age.Conclusion: ROP occurred in 34.4% of all infants screened in the neonatal intensive

  8. Association of some virulence genes with antibiotic resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection patients in Alexandria, Egypt: A hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabsi, Mogeeb S; Ghazal, Abeer; Sabry, Soraya A; Alasaly, Monasr M

    2014-06-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the infecting agent most frequently involved in urinary tract infections (UTIs) worldwide. UPEC resistance to commonly used antibiotics represents a major health problem all over the world. Several factors have been associated with UPEC resistance to antibiotics. The present study deployed a molecular approach to explore the association between some UPEC virulence genes and antibiotic resistance among patients with UTI in Alexandria, Egypt. The study revealed a significant association between presence of the pap gene and resistance to gentamicin; however, it was not significantly associated with resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, quinolones, aminoglycosides, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The genes sfa, aer and cnf1 were not significantly associated with UPEC resistance to any of the tested antibiotics. In conclusion, resistance of UPEC isolates in the present study could be attributed to other virulence factors.

  9. Teaching surgery in late Byzantine Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, John

    2010-01-01

    When one examines Alexandrian commentaries on works of Galen and Hippocrates, disclosed are essential guides to the Art of Medicine as practiced in the late fifth, sixth, and early seventh centuries. These are outlines and contents of a 'medical curriculum' in late Byzantine Alexandria, as well as Ravenna, and thanks to the patient and skilled labors of Dickson,' Duffy,2 Irmer, Palmieri, Pritchet, Westerink, and others, following and building on the pioneering studies of Bräutigam, Meyerhoff, and Temkin, medical historians can now peruse carefully edited Greek and Latin texts and generally reliable translations of some commentaries by Agnellus of Ravenna, John of Alexandria, Palladius, and Stephanus of Athens. Deeply experienced medical practitioners became teachers of would-be medical students in Alexandria and Ravenna. Alexandria had long functioned as a city reputed to be the home of medical instruction, and by ca. 550 or slightly later, teachers began to produce commentaries on the classic texts of Greek and Roman medicine, with Galen and Hippocrates as major authorities. Underpinning what the medical professors set down in their commentaries were extended lives spent in the actual practice of medicine, sometimes as military physicians (as may have been the case of Paul of Aegina in the early seventh century), sometimes as doctors who had gained lengthy experience in Alexandria itself, and sometimes as medical professionals who had emigrated to Egypt after successful careers in another part of the Greek-speaking eastern Roman Empire. Reflecting time as a medical student and later career in Constantinople, Aetius of Amida's Tetrabiblon foreshadows editorial mechanics and techniques of textual exegesis as they emerge more clearly with the medical commentators after 550. It may well be that Stephanus, 'the Philosopher and Physician', was originally from Athens, but whether he was or not, the attribution of an Athenian background suggests that non

  10. Egypt emerges : with help from some Canadian companies, Alexandria is striving to grab a spot on the global LNG stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2006-12-15

    Two new liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants recently built in Egypt are a testimony to the country's renewed natural gas industry. This article presented details of Canadian companies who are now operating in Egypt as a result of the Egyptian government's decision to include gas as a commodity from which foreign companies could earn a profit in the late 1980s. Apache negotiated a lease on a 2.2 million acre block southwest of Giza called the Qarun Block along with a partner called Phoenix Resources Companies Inc. in 1992, and has since made significant gas discoveries. In March 2006, the company posted record gross oil and gas production of 119,500 barrels per day and 501 million cubic feet per day. Egypt currently produces 3.5 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day. Approximately half is consumed locally and the balance is liquefied for export to Europe and Asian markets. The 2 LNG plants in Egypt currently process 700 million cubic feet and 1 billion cubic feet per day respectively. Egypt's Nile Delta is emerging as a world-class hydrocarbon basin, where companies such as BP have been exploring and producing since 1992. BP is confident that Egypt's potential reserves exceed 100 trillion cubic feet and that its aggressive exploration strategy is expected to form the foundation of a significant LNG business. Calgary-based company Centurion has established a presence in Egypt and has formed a partnership with Royal Dutch/Shell Group. The company has granted Shell 2 concessions in exchange for the construction of a gas train worth $1.5 billion capable of handling 500 million cubic feet per day of gas. It was concluded that while current global prices for natural gas are still too low to make it economical to ship Egyptian LNG to North America, higher prices may mean that LNG currently being transported to Europe may eventually end up in North American LNG terminals. 9 figs.

  11. Climate induced changes on the hydrology of the southern coast of Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria - Matrouh Governorates, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Ludwig, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    The Nile Delta is one of the most complex, fragile and densely populated landscapes. It has suffered from abrupt environmental changes including sea level rise, sea water intrusion, and dramatic drawdown in groundwater levels due to severe pumping. The western part of Nile Delta's coast, from Alexandria to Marsa Matruh Governorates, is considered as one of the most vulnerable regions in Nile Delta. Environmentally complicated risks on water and soil coincide with suffering from strategic management problems. The general lack of studies linking sea level rise with socioeconomic impact cause large uncertainties. Such impacts became very critical recently, as subsidence and successive step sliding in the northern coast cause catastrophic disasters in areas with high population and socio-economic importance. Western Coast of Nile Delta is characterized by a succession of limestone and oolitic limestone which is extremely fragile and vulnerable to degradation in addition to dissolution by saline water. This study deals with studying the effect of global warming, sea level rise and severe pumping on the studied area. Examples will be given for soil degradation, subsidence, surface sliding, creeps successive step sliding, and sinkholes due to dissolving and fracturing of the limestone plateau.

  12. The Catechetical School in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem H. Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During her Golden Era, Alexandria, the Delta City of Egypt, was the pride of Africa in that she was larger than the two other world cities of the Roman Empire � Rome and Antioch � and also the unrivalled intellectual centre of the (Greco-Roman world. Her schools, including the Didaskaleion � the Catechetical School � outshone the schools of her rivals by far. During the first half of the 1st century CE and specifically after the destruction of the temple and the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE, many Jews fled their home country for different parts of the Roman Empire, like Transjordan, Syria and Africa. A number of these Jews � later called Christians � believed in Jesus of Nazareth. In Alexandria, these believers were confronted with different religions, cults and philosophies. The Didaskaleion was founded to rival these religions and cults and to provide the students with the necessary basis for their newly found religion. The lack of literature, on the one hand, and the credibility of the extant literature, on the other, caused great difficulty in reasoning with authority on the Didaskaleion. This is part one of two articles, the second one being constructed around the heads of the School.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Research about Africa done by Africans (inhabitants of Africa need to increase because, in many ways Africa, is silent or silenced about her past. The fundamental question is: �Can anything good come out of Africa?� My answer is, �Yes! Come and see.� Therefore these two articles attempt to indicate the significance of Africa, which was actually the place where Christian Theology was founded. This has intra- as well as interdisciplinary implications. In this case the investigation is done from a theological perspective.

  13. Detection of shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at local retail markets in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Rowaida K S; Gomaa, Mohamed A E; Khalil, Mahmoud I M

    2015-03-16

    Leafy green vegetables, a popular and an indispensable ingredient of the daily menus of Egyptians' diets, currently presents a great concern in terms of microbiological hazards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that provides scientific evidence for prevalence of shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in leafy greens sold at open air local retail markets and superstores in the Egyptian environment. A total of 486 conventional and organic leafy green samples that are eaten raw were collected from different areas in Alexandria, evaluated for total E. coli counts (ECCs), and screened for E. coli O157:H7 using conventional and molecular methods. Recovery of E. coli (≥10(2)CFU/g) from all studied types of leafy greens was indicative of fecal contamination. Total ECCs in conventional samples ranged from 5.47 to 2.56 log CFU/g. Based on their inability to ferment sorbitol on CT-SMAC media, 26 presumptive E. coli O157 isolates were detected in 71.4% (270/378) of the studied conventional samples. From all studied organic samples, only 2 types (organic cabbage and parsley, 16.7%) were contaminated with presumptive E. coli O157. All 28 isolates were further serotyped as E. coli O157 by latex agglutination test, and biochemically confirmed as E. coli. Multiplex PCR assays confirmed the ability of 21.4% (6/28) of the E. coli O157 strains to produce shiga-toxins (Stxs), and their virulence markers were as follows: stx1, 66.6% (4/6); stx2, 50% (3/6); stx1/stx2, 16.7% (1/6); eaeA, 83.3% (5/6); and hlyA, 16.7% (1/6). Only 2 strains recovered from conventional and organic parsley could possibly be classified as E. coli O157:H7 based on the presence of stx-genes (either stx1 or stx2 or both). Results of the present research highlight that high E. coli loads, together with recovery of STEC O157 isolates could pose serious health risks to the produce consumers. This emphasizes the urgent need for health authorities to value and utilize the existing knowledge to

  14. The influence of social networks in visiting, planning and living in cities. Alexplore: A pilot project in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Sameh Taha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work aims at identifying the potentials of mobile social networking and geo-coding to promote cities, as well as to test their usefulness as decision support systems for planners. Alexplore is an application that was developed by planners rather than IT specialists using emerging web 2.0 technologies. Penetration rates of mobile internet access, as well as smartphone usage ensure a solid base for such applications worldwide as well as in Egypt. This paper traces the influence of social networks on tourism and city planning through the past decade and pinpoints its contributions and constraints. It highlights the potentials of social networks for tourists, planners, and citizens. Through the paper, the concept, technology, functionality, and limitations of Alexplore are thoroughly explained. In spite of current shortcomings, Alexplore provides solid benefits for its different stakeholders. Few concerns occur due to the proper application of ethical rules to social networking as well as due to fear of over dependency on such techniques. It is believed that with the development of the technology, many currently functional issues will be alleviated. Last, Alexplore should not be regarded as a replacement for traditional planning methods, but rather a useful augmentation to it.

  15. Jews and Greeks in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Klun

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of contacts and cultural exchange between the Jews and the Greeks in early and late antiquity, especially relevant not only for historians and philologists, but also for those interested in Hellenistic philosophy and the origins of Christianity, having its roots into a very complex fusion of Jewish and Greek tradition. Metropolitan city of Alexandria in Ptolemaic Egypt provided a very fruitfull milieu for this kind of cultural contact just from the time the group of seventy-two translators arrived to the city to translate the Hebrew Scripture for the famous library in the time of Ptolemy II (285-247 BCE and his librarian Demetrius of Phalerum. For the genealogy of contacts between two nations that both contributed so much to the Western thought, we may, of course, go back to the history and relevant sources. The City of Jerusalem, for instance, is mentioned for the first time in the old Egyptian Tell el-Amarna correspondence (XIV. century BCE, while the Jews (though often named as the Syrians of Palestine are referred to by many Greek authors (poet Alcaius from Lesbos, Herodotus, Theophrastus, Hecataeus of Abdera, an Egyptian priest in Heliopolis Manetho, Polybius, Menander, and many others. The Hebrew Bible (Tanakh on the other hand, provides an interesting source of records of contacts between the old Israelites and the Greek speaking tribes (from the Ionian isles, Crete, Cyprus etc, back to the reign of king David and king Solomon (X. century BCE, which both allegedly enrolled Greek soldiers and officials in their armies (cf. 2 Samuel 20, 23; 1 Kings 1, 38. The Bible also reports about trade contacts between Palestine and Greek lsles (cf. Ezekiel 27, 7; Joel 4.6, and also about Greek settlers in the 'Holly land' (cf. Deuteronomy 2, 23; Jeremiah 47, 4; Zephaniah 2, 5. The period after Alexander the Great is also very important for relations between Greeks and Jews. When his diadochoi came to Palestine, they

  16. Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  17. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  18. Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often...... in archaeological studies, such as materiality, performativity, corporeality, embodiment, identity, and popular culture studies. Egyptian material is explored via these themes, to create nuanced and contextual interpretations of particular sites, events, artefacts and practices. Egypt: Ancient Histories, Modern...... to a discipline whose historical materials seem to be so rich and varied. The reason for this study is to challenge such insularity and to demonstrate the utility of integrating theoretical ideas with specific studies of ancient Egyptian material. The chapters in this volume explore a variety of ancient...

  19. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.; El-Hadidy, M.; Deif, A.; Abou Elenean, K.

    2012-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5°) within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA) values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  20. The implementation of multi-task geophysical survey to locate Cleopatra Tomb at Tap-Osiris Magna, Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt “Phase II”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Abbas M.; Khalil, Mohamed A.; Massoud, Usama; Santos, Fernando M.; Mesbah, Hany A.; Lethy, Ahmed; Soliman, Mamdouh; Ragab, El Said A.

    2012-06-01

    According to some new discoveries at Tap-Osiris Magna temple (West of Alexandria), there is potentiality to uncover a remarkable archeological finding at this site. Three years ago many significant archeological evidences have been discovered sustaining the idea that the tomb of Cleopatra and Anthony may be found in the Osiris temple inside Tap-Osiris Magna temple at a depth from 20 to 30 m. To confirm this idea, PHASE I was conducted in by joint application of Ground Penetrating Radar “GPR”, Electrical Resistivity Tomography “ERT” and Magnetometry. The results obtained from PHASE I could not confirm the existence of major tombs at this site. However, small possible cavities were strongly indicated which encouraged us to proceed in investigation of this site by using another geophysical approach including Very Low Frequency Electro Magnetic (VLF-EM) technique. VLF-EM data were collected along parallel lines covering the investigated site with a line-to-line spacing of 1 m. The point-to-point distance of 1 m along the same line was employed. The data were qualitatively interpreted by Fraser filtering process and quantitatively by 2-D VLF inversion of tipper data and forward modeling. Results obtained from VLF-EM interpretation are correlated with 2-D resistivity imaging and drilling information. Findings showed a highly resistive zone at a depth extended from about 25-45 m buried beneath Osiris temple, which could be indicated as the tomb of Cleopatra and Anthony. This result is supported by Fraser filtering and forward modeling results. The depth of archeological findings as indicated from the geophysical survey is correlated well with the depth expected by archeologists, as well as, the depth of discovered tombs outside Tap-Osiris Magna temple. This depth level has not been reached by drilling in this site. We hope that the site can be excavated in the future based on these geophysical results.

  1. Engineering seismological studies in and around Zagazig city, Sharkia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Eraki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the ground vibrations using Nakamura technique to evaluate the relation between the ground conditions and the earthquake characteristics. Microtremor measurements were carried out at 55 sites in and around Zagazig city. The signals were processed using horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR technique to estimate the fundamental frequencies of the soil deposits and its corresponding H/V amplitude. Seismic measurements were acquired at nine sites for recording the surface waves. The recorded waveforms were processed using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW method to infer the shear wave velocity profile. The obtained fundamental frequencies were found to be ranging from 0.7 to 1.7 Hz and the maximum H/V amplitude reached 6.4. These results together with the average shear wave velocity in the surface layers were used for the estimation of the thickness of the upper most soft cover layers (depth to bedrock. The sediment thickness generally increases at the northeastern and southwestern parts of the area which is in good agreement with the local geological structure. The results of this work showed the zones of higher potential damage in the event of an earthquake in the study area.

  2. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuo El-Ela A. Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba–Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  3. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part One: What Is the Optimum City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to select the optimum city from five touristic Egyptian cities (Luxor, Giza, Alexandria, Qena and Aswan to establish an environmentally-friendly tourist village. The selection of the city, according to the economic cost (cost of energy (COE, net present cost (NPC and the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG emitted, is carried out with respect to four cases, based on the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties. According to the simulation results, using the well-known Homer software, Alexandria is the economic city for hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery and wind/diesel/battery systems, while Aswan is the most economic city for a hybrid PV/diesel/battery system. However, for a diesel/battery system there is no significant economic difference between the cities in the study. On the other hand, according to the amount of GHG emitted from a hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system, Qena is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered. However, if the GHG emission penalties are applied, Aswan will be the optimum city. Furthermore, Alexandria is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered and the GHG emission penalties are applied. Additionally, the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties are studied on hybrid PV/diesel/battery, wind/diesel/battery and diesel/battery systems in this study.

  4. Prevalence of dementia in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Tallawy HN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El Tallawy,1 Wafaa M Farghly,1 Reda Badry,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 N Abdel Hakeem M,2 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 Mohamed AM Sayd,3 Yasser Hamed,2 Mahmoud R Kandil11Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neurology Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, EgyptAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important public health problems as a result of the rapid increase in the number of elderly persons worldwide. Improvement of prevention strategies and caring for people with dementia should be undertaken. We performed a door-to-door study to screen all subjects aged 50 years and older (n=4,329 of 33,285 inhabitants in Al-Quseir city. The screening was performed by 3 neuropsychiatrists, using a modified form of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Suspected cases were subjected to case ascertainment according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, diagnostic criteria for dementia; full clinical assessment; psychometric assessment using Cognitive Abilities Screening Instruments, Hachinski Ischaemic Score, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale; neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging; and laboratory investigations for selected patients when indicated. The prevalence of dementia was 2.01% for participants aged 50 years or older and 3.83% for those aged 60 years or older. It increased steeply with increasing age to a maximum of 13.5% for those aged 80 years or older. Alzheimer's dementia (48.3% was the most common subtype, followed by vascular dementia (36.8%, dementia resulting from general medical conditions (11.5%, and last, dementia resulting from multiple etiologies (3.4%.Keywords: Alzheimer's dementia, epidemiology, vascular dementia, EgyptCorrigendum for this paper has been published

  5. Epidemiology and risk factors of brucellosis in Alexandria governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meky, F A; Hassan, E A; Abd Elhafez, A M; Aboul Fetouhl, A M; El-Ghazali, S M S

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the trend and to identify possible risk factors for brucellosis in Alexandria in northern Egypt. We enrolled 72 confirmed cases of brucellosis and 144 age-matched controls in this study. Participants were interviewed at home using a structured questionnaire. Working with animals, breeding goats and eating ice cream bought from street vendors were significantly associated (P brucellosis by univariate and multivariate analysis. Contact with infected animals and their products was the most important method of transmission.

  6. Renewable Energy Supply and Demand for the City of El Gouna, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Wellmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a supply and demand scenario using renewable energy sources for the city El Gouna in Egypt as an example for a self-supplying community. All calculations are based on measured meteorological data and real power demand during the year 2013. The modeled energy system consists of a concentrating solar tower plant with thermal storage and low-temperature seawater desalination unit as well as an integrated photovoltaic plant and a wind turbine. The low-temperature desalination unit has been newly developed in order to enable the utilization of waste heat from power conversion processes by improved thermal efficiency. In the study, special attention is given to the surplus power handling generated by the photovoltaic and wind power plant. Surplus power is converted into heat and stored in the thermal storage system of the solar power plant in order to increase the capacity factor. A brief estimation of investment costs have been conducted as well in order to outline the economic performance of the modeled energy and water supply system.

  7. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Salmonella serovars in milk and cheese in Mansoura city, Egypt

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    Amira Hussein El-Baz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study confirms the presence of Salmonella in milk and cheese samples in Mansoura, Egypt, indicating that the dairy products can act as potential sources of Salmonella infection. Thus, appropriate hygienic measures are suggestive for combating Salmonellosis in Egypt. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 45-51

  8. Cross-species surveillance of Leptospira in domestic and peri-domestic animals in Mahalla City, Gharbeya Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Stephen A; Wasfy, Momtaz O; El-Tras, Wael F; Samir, Ahmed; Rahaman, Bassem Abdel; Boshra, Marie; Parker, Tina M; Hatem, Mahmoud Essam; El-Bassiouny, Ahmed Ahmed; Murray, Clinton K; Pimentel, Guillermo

    2011-03-01

    A survey of 179 animals (black rats, dogs, sheep, buffaloes, cattle, donkeys, weasels, and cats) for Leptospira infection was conducted in Mahalla City (Lower Egypt). Blood, urine, and kidney were collected and tested by culture, microscopic agglutination test (MAT), and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among rats, 26% were positive by PCR, including 7% that were also positive by culture for L. interrogans serovars Grippotyphosa, Pyrogenes, and Icterohaemorrhagiae. L. borpetersenii serovar Polonica was isolated for the first time in Egypt in three rats. MAT titers ≥ 1:800 were observed in 11% of rats and 12% of dogs. L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa was detected in one cat. Sheep and donkeys were negative for leptospirosis by all methods. Buffaloes and cattle were seropositive in 20% and 44% of animals, respectively. Data indicate that several pathogenic serovars are circulating in the animals, which may pose exposure risks and account for high rates of acute febrile illness.

  9. The formation of Christian theology in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem H. Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jesus was born in Palestine. He was the main determinant for the foundation of a religious movement or sect later called Christianity. This movement, founded in Palestine after the ascension of Jesus, with Jerusalem as its main centre of worship, was merely a Judaeo-Christian sect. In Jerusalem, the adherents to this movement were not really distinctive from the Jewish religion, as they worshipped the same God, Yahweh, went to the same Temple and/or synagogues and kept the same Jewish Laws. After the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE, many Jews, including the �believers in Christ�s teachings� (the earliest Christians fled Jerusalem for different parts of the Roman Empire such as Transjordan, Syria and Africa. Different �Christianities� developed in the main cities of the Roman Empire � Rome, Antioch and Alexandria. In each of these cities, the believers in Christ�s teachings developed their own religion alongside Judaism. This article argued that it was in Alexandria, a world famous city during the time of the Roman Empire, especially renowned for its academic excellence, that the new religion best found and made its own stand. The Catechetical School, with scholarly heads and writers, such as Clement and Origen, started to develop a theology that set the standard for Christian theology in the Empire.Intradisciplinary�and/or�interdisciplinary implications: The general assumption is that Jerusalem, as the origin of Christianity, was the place where it had its formation. This article proposed that it was actually Alexandria where Christianity was best found and became distinctive from Judaism. However, a lack of original sources on this subject area limited the research.

  10. Alexandria Underwater Museum For Sunken Monuments

    OpenAIRE

    Hafiz, Dalia O

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a journey in the deep mystery of the eastern harbor on the Mediterranean sea in the city of Alexandria. For Herodotus, the four major elements for civilizationâ s development overtime are water, air, land, and fire. In this project, the effort is made to connect three of the four elements within an architectural context: â Underwater museumâ . The building orientation, shape and location allow a discovery of the building elements and shape consequently while...

  11. Door-to-door survey of major neurological disorders (project in Al Quseir City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Tallawy HN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy NA El Tallawy,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Nabil A Metwally,2 Esam A El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed A Sayed,3 Ahmed A Waris,1 Yaser Hamed,2 Islam Shaaban,2 Mohamed A Hamed,1 Mahmoud Raafat Kandil11Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, EgyptAbstract: A door-to-door survey, including every household, was conducted for all inhabitants of Al Quseir City (33,283, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt by three specialists of neurology as well as nine senior staff members of neurology and 15 female social workers to assess the epidemiology of major neurological disorders. Over six phases, from July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, screening of all eligible people in the population was carried out, by which case ascertainment of all major neurological disorders included in the study was done according to the accepted definitions and diagnostic criteria of the World Health Organization. The order of frequency of prevalence of the studied neurological disorders was dementia (3.83% for those aged > 60 years, migraine (2.8% for those aged > 8 years, stroke (6.2/1000 for those aged > 20 years, epilepsy (5.5/1000, Parkinson’s disease (452.1/100,000 for those aged > 40 years, cerebral palsy (3.6/1000 among children 37 years, chorea (21.03/100,000, athetosis (15/100,000, and multiple sclerosis (13.74/100,000. The incidence rates of stroke, epilepsy, and Bell’s palsy were 181/100,000, 48/100,000, and 98.9/100,000 per year, respectively.Keywords: prevalence, incidence, neurological disorders

  12. Distribution and abundance of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides spp., in different ecological localities in Esna City, Kena Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, M K; Rifaat, M M

    1997-08-01

    The distribution and abundance of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides spp. were studied in July, September and November, 1995 in three different localities in Esna City, Kena Governorate, Upper Egypt. During these months, 15 houses were sampled in each locality. 87% of riverside houses were infested with mites where D. pteronyssinus dominated (80%) over D. farinae. Sixty percent of the valley houses sampled were infested, where D. farinae was dominant (66%). Densities of both Dermatophagoides spp., were considerably higher in riverside than in valley houses. Live mites were not found in the lightly infested houses sampled in the desert area (54% positive). Relative humidity, which varied in houses located in different climatic localities in Esna City, was noted to be the principal limiting factor influencing the distribution and abundance of both species. Temperature did not appear to be an important factor influencing the distribution and abundance.

  13. Evaluation of medical waste incinerators in Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Ossama A; Hussein, Ahmed H; El-Shall, Waffaa I; Zakaria, Adel; Mohamed, Mona G

    2005-01-01

    Medical establishments play important roles in different activities by using of modern technology to serve the humans and the environment through different departments in the establishment and its firms. Medical wastes are considered as a hazardous waste because they contain toxic materials, infectious, or non-infectious wastes and they are considered as a hazard to millions of patients, health care workers, and visitors. Treatment processes for medical wastes comprise autoclaving, microwaving, chemical disinfection, irradiation, plasma system, and incineration. Incineration is a thermal process, which destroys most of the waste including microorganisms. Combustion process must be under controlled conditions to convert wastes containing hazardous materials into mineral residues and gases. Hospital waste incinerators may emit a number of pollutants depending on the waste being incinerated. These pollutants include particulate matter, acid gases, toxic metals, and toxic organic compounds products of incomplete combustion, e.g., dioxins, furans, and carbon monoxide, as well as sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. So, there should be a reduction of emissions of most of these pollutants by air pollution control devices. This study was conducted in 51 medical establishments (ME) in Alexandria. To evaluate its incinerators. It was found that only 31.4% of total ME have their own incinerators to treat their medical waste. Also, the incinerators conditions were poor with incomplete combustion. So, the study recommend handling of all medical wastes of ME in Alexandria by the company which is responsible now for management of domestic solid wastes of the city.

  14. The Ionian Renaissance and Alexandria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    kulturelle epoke - nu ofte kaldet Den Ioniske Renaissance - ikke kun omfattede arkitekturen, men også filosofi, digtning og kunst, samt at den ioniske Renaissance var en af hovedkilderne for det hellenistiske Alexandrias kunst og kultur. Udforskningen af Den Ioniske Renaissance er således af central...

  15. Estimation of Lead and Cadmium residual levels in chicken giblets at retail markets in Ismailia city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad A. Ismail

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb and Cadmium (Cd are environmental contaminants of food which have deleterious cumulative effect on human health. Using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS, the concentrations of Pb and Cd were estimated in 60 samples of chicken giblets comprising of broiler livers, gizzards and hearts collected randomly from retail markets in Ismailia city, Egypt. The greatest Pb concentrations were found in liver samples (0.8762 ± 0.2089 ppm, whereas gizzard samples contain 0.3186 ± 0.1462 ppm and lowest levels of Pb were detected in heart samples 0.1733 ± 0.06777 ppm. Cd deposited in liver samples reached 0.040714 ± 0.0290 ppm; however gizzard and heart samples contain negligible Cd concentrations (0.0041 ± 0.0028 and 0.0036 ± 0.008 ppm, respectively. These data interpreted that Pb residual concentration, particularly in chicken liver sold in Ismailia city, is more than the permissible limit (0.5 ppm in the Codex Alimentarius international food standards and thus may be hazardous to human consumption and more serious inspection procedures should be applied by the veterinary authorities therein.

  16. Fouling Bryozoa from some Alexandria harbours, EGYPT. (I Erect species

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    KH.M. ABDEL-SALAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The fouling erect Bryozoa settled on polystyrene test panels immersed half a meter deep in the water of Abu Qir Harbour, the Eastern Harbour and El-Dekheila Harbour were studied. The present study yields 5 species of erect bryozoa. These areAmathia pruvoti, Zoobotryon verticillatum, Bowerbankia gracilis,Bugula neritina and Bugula stolonifera. The first three ones pertain to 3 genera of the family Vesiculariidae belonging to suborder the Stolonifera; while the other two species affiliate to the genus Bugula belonging to the family Bugulidae of suborder Anasca. The present record of Amathia pruvoti is the first from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. A re-description, supplied with full structural illustrations of the recorded species is given. Moreover, the temporal and spatial distributions of the species recorded are encountered.

  17. Moving Histories. The Jews and Modernity in Alexandria 1881-1919

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    Dario Miccoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay will investigate the history of Alexandria from 1881 to 1919, proposing a re-definition of modernity vis-à-vis the city’s Jews. In the first part I will introduce a case of blood libel that occurred in 1881, the Fornaraki affair, and the consequences it had for the making of an urban (Jewish bourgeoisie and the spreading of a modern social imaginary in-between Egypt and Europe. I will then consider the École des filles founded in Alexandria in 1900 by the Alliance Israélite Universelle, exploring how French secularism, bourgeois femininity, and Jewish religiosity coalesced in this school – as exemplified by the history surrounding the 1901 initiation des jeunes filles. Lastly, I will look at World War One and the philanthropic activities and public commemorations this event engendered in Alexandria, especially following the arrival of Jewish refugees from Palestine in 1914. Focusing upon these historical narrations, I will attempt to interpret modernity as a dynamic blending of tensions and exchanges in-between Jews and non-Jews, Egypt and Europe, local knowledge and foreign ideas.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt

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    Hala M. Abou Shady

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureusand MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureusisolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecAand PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL+ isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80 were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shady, Hala M; Bakr, Alaa Eldin A; Hashad, Mahmoud E; Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL(+) isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80) were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence.

  20. Paleopathology of the commoners at Tell Amarna, Egypt, Akhenaten's capital city

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    Jerome C Rose

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten initiated worship of a single god and established a new capital city (Tell Amarna that was built and occupied only once from 1350-1330 BCE. This single short occupation offers a unique opportunity to study a short time period. The royal tombs have long been known and studied, but the location of graves for the common inhabitants has been an archaeological puzzle for more than 50 years. Recently four cemeteries have been located and the analysis of commingled bones from the South Tombs cemetery is presented here. The remains yield the following demographic profile: 53 adults with 19 females and 18 males; 14 juveniles between the ages of 5 and 17; and 3 infants. Arthritis and degenerative joint disease of the spine and joints indicates that DJD was not excessive. Only 2 to 8% of the adult population exhibits arthritis. There are 3 healed fractures of the arm (2 to 8% of the adult sample. There is 1 healed compressed fracture of the skull suggesting violence. The adult infection rate is between 2 and 8% with 3 healed and 1 active case of periostitis and no severe infections. Anemia is implicated by 23% of adult frontals exhibiting cribra orbitalia. Life for the common residents of Amarna appears to not have been as good as initially postulated.

  1. Prevalence of dementia in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tallawy, Hamdy N; Farghly, Wafaa M; Badry, Reda; Rageh, Tarek A; Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Hakeem M, N Abdel; Abd El Hamed, Mohamed; Sayd, Mohamed A M; Hamed, Yasser; Kandil, Mahmoud R

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is one of the most important public health problems as a result of the rapid increase in the number of elderly persons worldwide. Improvement of prevention strategies and caring for people with dementia should be undertaken. We performed a door-to-door study to screen all subjects aged 50 years and older (n=4,329 of 33,285 inhabitants) in Al-Quseir city. The screening was performed by 3 neuropsychiatrists, using a modified form of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Suspected cases were subjected to case ascertainment according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, diagnostic criteria for dementia; full clinical assessment; psychometric assessment using Cognitive Abilities Screening Instruments, Hachinski Ischaemic Score, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale; neuroimaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging); and laboratory investigations for selected patients when indicated. The prevalence of dementia was 2.01% for participants aged 50 years or older and 3.83% for those aged 60 years or older. It increased steeply with increasing age to a maximum of 13.5% for those aged 80 years or older. Alzheimer's dementia (48.3%) was the most common subtype, followed by vascular dementia (36.8%), dementia resulting from general medical conditions (11.5%), and last, dementia resulting from multiple etiologies (3.4%).

  2. Nurse stress at two different organizational settings in Alexandria

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    Ashraf AZ Zaghloul

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ashraf AZ Zaghloul, Nagwa Y Abou El EneinDepartment of Health Administration and Behavioural Sciences, High Institute of Public Health, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, EgyptObjective: The objective of the study was to explore the difference in stress levels among nurses working at two different health care organizations and the determinants of nurse stress within each organization. Job stress is defined as the harmful emotional and physical reactions resulting from the interactions between the worker and her/his work environment where the demands of the job exceed the worker’s capabilities and resources.Methodology: A convenient sample of nurses in two hospitals in Alexandria; Shark Al Madina (n = 120 and Karmouz (n = 170 hospitals. All nurses present at the time of the study were approached to be included in the study. The response rate for Shark Al Madina hospital was 94% and for Karmouz hospital, 71%. Data collection took place using a nurse stress questionnaire previously developed and tested for validity and reliability to measure stress in clinical nursing practice. The 5% level of significance was used throughout the statistical analysis for all relevant tests.Results: The highest mean stress scores were the same for both hospitals. The dimension of coping with new situations was 2.7 ± 0.6 at Shark Al Madina hospital and was 2.5 ± 0.7 at Karmouz hospital while the dimension of job security was 2.7 ± 0.6 and 2.5 ± 0.7 at Shark Al Madina and Karmouz hospitals, respectively. Stepwise multiple regression for Shark Al Madina hospital model revealed workload (β = 1.38, security (β = 5.04, and shortage of support staff (β = 3.39. For the Karmouz hospital model, stepwise multiple regression revealed security (β = 4.78 and shortage of resources (β = 3.66.Conclusion: Stressors among nurses appear to be the same despite the differences in organizational or hierarchical structure where they work or the type of consumer they serve. It

  3. Strategic Planning of Water System Projects in Alexandria

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    Hesham A. Abdel Khalek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria is one of the major cities on the Mediterranean Sea. Over the past 40 years, Alexandria‟s population has doubled. Therefore Water requirements are continuously increasing due to population increase. This paper develops a framework to support decision-makers in water sector for planning major projects in Alexandria till 2037. Firstly, data gathering has been conducted and population forecasting is calculated by arithmetic and geometric methods then the future water demands are calculated, after that major projects outline is proposed. Finally the projects priorities will be determined by applying two methods of solving Multiple Criteria Decision Making MCDM problems. The first method is The Weighted Scoring Method; WSM is a powerful and flexible method of comparing similar items against a standard, prioritized list of requirements or criteria. The second method is Analytical Hierarchy Process. AHP is based on comparative evaluation method. Then Results will be analyzed. First, it was focused on the difference of the criteria weight of alternatives between the two methods. Second, it was compared the preference orders of alternatives between them, there were not much of differences in the final results. The results offered some evidence that AHP makes the selection process very transparent.

  4. Library of Alexandria's New Web Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A review for the new version of Library of Alexandria web site which lunched on May 2004, the review deals with general introduction to the new version , then the main 6 section of the site , and show some features of the new site, and finally talk in concentration about the library catalog on the internet and its search capabilities.

  5. Assessment of agricultural drainage water quality for safe reuse in irrigation applications-a case study in Borg El-Arab, Alexandria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud Nasr; Hoda Farouk Zahran

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation. Methods: The agricultural drainage water near Banjar El-Sokar, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt was collected. The measured heavy metals in the drainage water were compared with the permissible levels stated in environmental regulations, Law No. 48 of 1982 concerning the protection of the Nile River and waterways from pollution. Results: Heavy metals and trace elements were detected in this agricultural drainage water as following: Al (1.64 mg/L), Ca (175.00 mg/L), Cd (1.87 mg/L), Co (2.23 mg/L), Cu (1.71 mg/L), Fe (1.64 mg/L), K (20.50 mg/L), and Pb (2.81 mg/L). According to allowable limits, item such as Fe is lower than permissible level of 3.00 mg/L, while Pb and Cu are higher than 0.10 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Vegetables irrigated with such drainage water are not safe for human and animal consumption. Accordingly, the study suggests and recommeds remediation of drainage water using physical, chemical and/or biological methods.

  6. Assessment of agricultural drainage water quality for safe reuse in irrigation applications-a case study in Borg El-Arab, Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nasr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation. Methods: The agricultural drainage water near Banjar El-Sokar, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt was collected. The measured heavy metals in the drainage water were compared with the permissible levels stated in environmental regulations, Law No. 48 of 1982 concerning the protection of the Nile River and waterways from pollution. Results: Heavy metals and trace elements were detected in this agricultural drainage water as following: Al (1.64 mg/L, Ca (175.00 mg/L, Cd (1.87 mg/L, Co (2.23 mg/L, Cu (1.71 mg/L, Fe (1.64 mg/L, K (20.50 mg/L, and Pb (2.81 mg/L. According to allowable limits, item such as Fe is lower than permissible level of 3.00 mg/L, while Pb and Cu are higher than 0.10 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Vegetables irrigated with such drainage water are not safe for human and animal consumption. Accordingly, the study suggests and recommeds remediation of drainage water using physical, chemical and/or biological methods.

  7. Risky exposures and national estimate of HCV seroprevalence among school children in urban Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W; Abdel Maksoud, Ahmed; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world, particularly in Egypt. Limited data are available concerning the national seroprevalence and the possible modes of transmission of HCV in the pediatric age group. The aim of this study was to obtain a better estimate of the national hepatitis C seroprevalence and the possible risky exposures among healthy school children in Alexandria; the second biggest city in Egypt. HCV knowledge and counseling for school children were also investigated. A total of 500 school children, age between 6 and 15 years were evaluated for HCV seropositivity and interviewed for potential disease risk factors. The seropositivity for Anti-HCV Ab was 2.8 %. About 71.4 % of seropositive children were 10-15 years old. Urban residence, chronic disease, male circumcision and invasive procedures were detected as significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection among the studied children. The level of awareness of hepatitis C among school children was very low (3.6 %) and was correlated with the age and educational level. HCV infection continues to occur in children and is frequently unrecognized. This mandates immediate intervention and robust control strategies in the settings of exposure combined with health education programs to limit further HCV spread.

  8. Evaluation of seismic hazard at the northwestern part of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelarab, M.; Shokry, M. M. F.; Mohamed, A. M. E.; Helal, A. M. A.; Mohamed, Abuoelela A.; El-Hadidy, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic hazard at the northwestern Egypt using the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment approach. The Probabilistic approach was carried out based on a recent data set to take into account the historic seismicity and updated instrumental seismicity. A homogenous earthquake catalogue was compiled and a proposed seismic sources model was presented. The doubly-truncated exponential model was adopted for calculations of the recurrence parameters. Ground-motion prediction equations that recently recommended by experts and developed based upon earthquake data obtained from tectonic environments similar to those in and around the studied area were weighted and used for assessment of seismic hazard in the frame of logic tree approach. Considering a grid of 0.2° × 0.2° covering the study area, seismic hazard curves for every node were calculated. Hazard maps at bedrock conditions were produced for peak ground acceleration, in addition to six spectral periods (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 s) for return periods of 72, 475 and 2475 years. The unified hazard spectra of two selected rock sites at Alexandria and Mersa Matruh Cities were provided. Finally, the hazard curves were de-aggregated to determine the sources that contribute most of hazard level of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for the mentioned selected sites.

  9. Ostrich (Struthio camelus) production in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R G; Mahrose, K M A; El-Shafei, M; Marai, I F M

    2008-06-01

    This review discusses the historical, developmental and practices of ostrich farming in Egypt. In the early 20th century, ostrich farming was very important for production of ostrich feathers and documents were produced to perfect the art of procuring the plumes from the birds and subsequently processing them. Pharaohs used ostrich feathers for adornment. Of 43 provinces, 12 were featured in 2003-2004 as farming ostriches: Alexandria, Al-Behera, Al-Dakahlia, Al-Wadi Al-Gadid, Aswan, Cairo, El-Sharkia, Geiza, Ismailia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Matrouh and Nubaria. Abattoirs and tanneries specialising in ostrich handling are limited to two. Egypt has numerous strengths and opportunities to develop its ostrich sector. Rising meat prices suggest that fresh ostrich meat is unaffordable to many locals. Funds may be allocated to local advertising campaigns to promote ostrich meat; provision of incentives to farmers; and improving the capacity of abattoirs.

  10. Review of parasitic zoonoses in egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed I; Uga, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance.

  11. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  12. Occurrence of Listeria species in meat, chicken products and human stools in Assiut city, Egypt with PCR use for rapid identification of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohamed Abd El-Malek

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to check the presence of Listeria spp. in some meat and chicken products purchased from retail supermarkets in Assiut (Egypt. A total of 100 samples including 25 samples each of minced frozen beef, luncheon, frozen chicken legs and frozen chicken breast fillets were collected over a 7-month period between January and July 2009 and analyzed for the presence of Listeria spp. In addition, 28 stool cultures examined for Listeria spp. from hospitalized children resident in Assiut Pediatric University Hospital with diarrhea or fever. Out of the total 100 meat samples examined, Listeria spp. were detected in 8 (32% of minced frozen beef, 8 (32% of luncheon, 13 (52% of frozen chicken leg and 14 (56% of frozen chicken fillet samples analyzed, respectively. Regarding the examined 28 stool cultures from hospitalized children with underlying disease in Assiut Univ. hospital, 2 (7.14% were found positive for Listeria spp. For identification of L. monocytogenes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, two primers were selected to detect 217-pb fragment ofthe prfA (transcriptional activator of the virulence factor gene for L. monocytogenes. 13 selected Listeria isolates displayed beta-haemolysis on sheep blood agar and positive CAMP test were further identified using PCR. PCR results showed that L. monocytogenes were confirmed in one of minced imported frozen meat examined, two of luncheon samples and two of frozen chicken legs with the total incidence of 5 isolates (5% from the total 100 examined food samples. This suggests the presence of a significant public health hazard linked to the consumption of these meat and chicken products sold in Assiut city contaminated with L. monocytogenes. The public health significance of these pathogens as well as recommended sanitary measures was discussed. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 353-359

  13. The effect of lifestyle modification on severity of constipation and quality of life of elders in nursing homes at Ismailia city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebatallah Nour-Eldein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constipation has a significant impact on the quality of life (QOL. Lifestyle modification is widely accepted and recommended by experts as first-line therapy. Aim: This study aimed at using education on lifestyle modification to improve the QOL of the elderly in nursing homes suffering from functional constipation (FC. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in nursing homes in Ismailia city, Egypt. It involved 23 elderly patients suffering from FC, who were randomly selected according to the sample equation. They fulfilled the inclusion criteria of being ≥60 years age and according to Rome II criteria. Participants completed personal characteristics and lifestyle questionnaire, the Patient Assessment of Constipation Symptom questionnaire (PAC-SYM to assess the severity of symptoms, and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAC-QOL to assess pre- and post-intervention. The intervention was conducted in three sessions, of 30 min each, 2 weeks apart using group discussions to educate the sample about dietary pattern, fluid intake, regular physical activity, and the use of laxatives. Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed using a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 20. Results: The lifestyle modification education on constipation significantly reduced the severity of symptoms as measured by PAC-SYM, including its total score and subscores (P < 0.001. It also improved the QOL of elderly suffering from constipation as measured by PAC-QOL and reduced total scores of dissatisfaction (P = 0.001 with the exception of the psychosocial subscale. It also significantly increased the satisfaction subscale of PAC-SYM (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Education on lifestyle modification leads to an improvement in the severity of the symptoms of constipation and the QOL of the elderly in nursing homes.

  14. Lead concentrations in Hymenolepis diminuta adults and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae compared to their rat hosts (Rattus norvegicus) sampled from the city of Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sures, B; Scheible, T; Bashtar, A R; Taraschewski, H

    2003-11-01

    Concentrations of lead, determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, were compared between the cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and its host rat (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were sampled at 2 sites, which differed in respect to lead pollution as quantified from road dust, adjacent to the city of Cairo, Egypt. Comparing lead levels among host tissues and the parasites the significantly highest accumulation was found in H. diminuta, followed by rat kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Calculation of bioconcentration factors showed that H. diminuta contained 36-, 29-, 6- and 6-fold higher lead levels than intestinal wall, liver, kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis, at the more polluted site. At the less contaminated site lead bioconcentration factors for H. diminuta were found to be 87, 87 and 11 referred to intestine, liver and kidney of the host. Due to a high variability of the lead concentrations in H. diminuta it was not possible to indicate differences in metal pollution between both sampling sites. This variability may be influenced by different age structures of cestode infrapopulations. It is likely that younger worms contain lower metal levels than older worms due to a shorter exposure period. Thus, it is necessary to standardize the sampling of worms which should be used for indication purposes. Due to a lack of adequate sentinel species in terrestrial habitats more studies are required to validate and standardize the use of helminths as accumulation bioindicators in order to obtain mean values with low standard deviations. The host-parasite system rat-H. diminuta appears to be a useful and promising bioindication system at least for lead in urban ecosystems as rats as well as the tapeworm are globally distributed and easily accessible.

  15. A study on the prevalence of house dust mites in Al-Arish city, North Sinai Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, Gihad T; El-Sherbini, Eman T; Saled, Nagla Mostafa K; Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2010-04-01

    Free living mites comprise a huge and various groups of tiny arthropods in the class Arachida, mainly of the Pyroglyphidae family. Exposure to allergens derived from house dust mite (HDM) feces is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development and asthma morbidity. However, practical and effective method to mitigate these allergens in low-income, urban home environments remains elusive. It well known that (HDM) physiology is greatly affected by hydrothermal microclimatic condition. El Arish has subtropical climate and warm humid summer, such situation are favourable to proliferate house dust mites. As no valid data are available for house dust mites fauna of El Arish, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and contamination rates of homes in El Arish city. Samples of house dust collected in 2008 from 50 houses in El Arish city were subjected to acarological examination. Acri were found in (34.6 %) of the samples collected from these homes. Results indicated that dust mites were present in all humid environments. Also, hypersensitivity to dust mites was common among patients with asthma.

  16. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M.E. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV. The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV and scaled distance (SD relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD−1.225 in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD−0.071 in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  17. EVALUATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND NEAR THE CITY OF ALEXANDRIA, TELEORMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Parvan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for preservation and enhancement of agricultural soil fertility requires a thorough analysis of the agricultural production limiting and restrictive factors. This analysis takes into account the investigation of these gradients and limitations within the studied area, determining their severity, their areas of manifestation, the areas on which the prevention measures as well as the improvement works can be applied.

  18. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically.

  19. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  20. Urban immigration and outmigration in Egypt: an analytical study of birthplace in the 1976 census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-nasr, A S; Attiya, M

    1985-06-01

    The 1976 census was used as the basic data source to study 4 principal migratory trends in Egypt: urban-urban inmigration; rural-urban inmigration; urban-urban outmigration; and urban-rural outmigration. First, a general comparison was made of the 4 principal trends and of overall migration to and from urban areas. Next, the 2 principal trends -- rural-urban inmigration and urban-urban outmigration -- and their respective influences on net migration to urban areas were compared. Finally, net migration to each of the 3 principal areas of attraction (Cairo, Giza, and Alexandria) was studied and the manner in which it is influenced by the 2 principal trends. Rural to urban migrants make up about 6.4% of the urban population whereas migrants from other urban areas constitute about 19% of the urban population. Rural to urban inmigration rates are characterized by the fact that they are more dispersed, varied, and uneven than urban outmigration rates. Cairo and Giza are approximately equal in regard to their volume of inmigration from rural and other urban areas. Overall net migration to urban areas is more closely related to urban inmigration from rural areas than to urban to urban outmigration (0.83 as against 0.63). Positive net migration results more from a high volume of urban inmigration from rural areas than from a low volume of urban to urban outmigration, while negative net migration is attributable primarily to a low volume of urban inmigration from rural areas as compared with the volume of urban to urban outmigration. The correlation between rural to urban inmigrations rates and the overall net migration rates was much stronger than the correlation between them and the urban to urban outmigration rates. The data confirmed the important role of urban areas as both recipients and as sources of migrants. Areas which "acquire" migrants at the expense of other areas, i.e., areas with positive net migration, and areas which "lose" migrants do not differ greatly in

  1. Metadata in Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : An Applied Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain A.Hady

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.

  2. Using QUAL2K Model and river pollution index for water quality management in Mahmoudia Canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab A. Elsayed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mahmoudia Canal is the main source of municipal and industrial water supply for Alexandria (the second largest city in Egypt and many other towns and villages. In recent years, considerable water quality degradation has been observed in the Mahmoudia Canal. This problem has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Egyptian government. As a result, this study aims at assessing the current seasonal variations in water quality in the Mahmoudia Canal and simulating various water quality management scenarios for the canal. The present research involves the application of the water quality model, QUAL2K, to predict water quality along the Mahmoudia Canal on a seasonal basis for the considered scenarios. Based on the QUAL2K simulations, the River Pollution Index (RPI was used to appraise the conditions of water pollution at the intakes of the twelve water treatment plants (WTPs located along Mahmoudia Canal. The results showed that the QUAL2K model is successfully applied to simulate the water quantity and quality parameters of the Mahmoudia Canal in different seasons. For the current status of the canal, it was found that the highest pollution level occurred in autumn in which effluent water quality at all WTPs along the Mahmoudia Canal was classified as moderately polluted. In the other seasons, effluent water quality was categorized as moderately polluted at most WTPs in the Beheira governorate and negligibly polluted at all WTPs in the Alexandria governorate. Moreover, it was concluded that controlling the Rahawy drain discharge or treating its pollution loads before mixing with the Rosetta Branch may solve water quality problems of the Mahmoudia Canal and allow re-running of the Edko re-use pump station in summer, winter, and spring. However in autumn, additional measures will be required to mitigate pollution levels in the canal.

  3. Cadmium status in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is inferred from these studies that releases of Cd are still increasing and it is recommended that measures must be taken to reduce emissions of cadmium. Any cadmium discharged into the Egyptian environment may move from one compartment to another at varying rates,resulting in an accumulation in compartments such as soils and biota. Such accumulation can be expected to increase with continued emissions,and attention should be given to all sources of cadmium, natural as well as anthropogenic especially in the industrial cities in Egypt. Cadmium present in sewage, as well as industrial effluent (also, other liquid and solid wastes) and sewage sludge will increase levels in soils and is xpected to contribute to dietary levels and body burdens. The current information indicates that such effects may have to be evaluated over long periods of time, possibly as long as 50 - 100 years.

  4. Energy Analysis for New Hotel Buildings in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. George B. Hanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of energy simulation analysis to determine the effectiveness of building characteristics in reducing electrical energy consumption for hotel buildings in Egypt. Specifically, the impact on building envelope performance is investigated for different strategies such as window size, glazing type and building construction for two geographical locations in Egypt (Cairo and Alexandria. This paper also studies the energy savings in hotel buildings with 200 rooms for different Lighting Power Densities (LPD, Energy Input Ratios (EIR, Set point Temperatures (SPT and HVAC systems. The study shows certain findings of practical significance, e.g. that a Window-to-Wall Ratio of 0.20 and reasonably shaded windows lower the total annual electricity use for hotel buildings by more than 20% in the two Egyptian locations.

  5. Alexandria Digital Library: User Evaluation Studies and System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda L.; Carver, Larry; Larsgaard, Mary; Dolin, Ron; Smith, Terence R.; Frew, James; Rae, Mary-Anna

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Alexandria Digital Library, a geolibrary that focuses on geographical locations. Topics include the evolution of the system and interface design; design goals; user communities, including earth scientists, information specialists, and educators; user evaluation methodologies and findings; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  6. Trading Virtual Legacies (Management of Tradition from Alexandria to Internet)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWill the reconstructed library of Alexandria prevent a forthcoming clash of civilizations? Inventing and re-inventing traditions requires total quality management and multiple networking in shifting alliances in the information space. Stock exchange of cultural forms has long abandoned

  7. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  8. Geomorphological & Geoarchaeological Indicators of the Holocene Sea-Level Changes on Ras El Hekma Area, NW Coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torab, Magdy

    2016-02-01

    Ras El Hekma area is a part of the NW coast of Egypt. It is located on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast, approximately 220 km West of Alexandria City. It is shaped as a triangle with its headland extending into the Mediterranean sea for about 15 km, and is occupied by sedimentary rocks belonging to the Tertiary and Quaternary Eras. Its western coastline consists of Pleistocene Oolitic limestone ridges with separated steep scarps, while the eastern coastline consists of sandy beaches, coastal spits, coastal bars, tombolos and bays. The objective of this paper is to define some geomorphological and geoarchaelological indicators of The Holocene sea-level changes in the study area, especially the geomorphic landforms such as: marine notches, cliffs, sea caves and benches. This is to add to some archaeological remains that have been discovered by the paper's author under the current sea level. These remains include: submerged ruins of Greek and Roman harbors, wells and fish tanks near the coastline (Leuke Akte, Hermaea, Phoinikous and Zygris), in addition to an ancient Roman harbor used during the World War II in Tell El Zaytun area (Site #6). Evaluations of the discovered archaeological remains help our understanding of the evolution of the sea level during the Holocene. This study is based on observation of the relative sea-level curves drawn of the Holocene, detailed geomorphological and Geoarchaelogical surveying, sampling, dating and mapping as well as satellite image interpretation and GIS techniques.

  9. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: Past, present and future

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Iman F Abou-El-Naga

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the

  10. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2013-09-01

    The African species of Biomphalaria appeared as a result of the relatively recent west-to-east trans-Atlantic dispersal of the Biomphalaria glabrata-like taxon. In Egypt, Biomphalaria alexandrina is the intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria alexandrina originated in the area between Alexandria and Rosetta and has historically been confined to the Nile Delta. Schistosoma mansoni reached Egypt via infected slaves and baboons from the Land of Punt through migrations that occurred as early as the Vth Dynasty. The suggestion of the presence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Lower Egypt during Pharaonic times is discussed despite the fact that that there is no evidence of such infection in Egyptian mummies. It is only recently that Biomphalaria alexandrina colonized the Egyptian Nile from the Delta to Lake Nasser. This change was likely due to the construction of huge water projects, the development of new water resources essential for land reclamation projects and the movement of refugees from the Suez Canal zone to the Delta and vice versa. The situation with respect to Biomphalaria in Egypt has become complicated in recent years by the detection of Biomphalaria glabrata and a hybrid between both species; however, follow-up studies have demonstrated the disappearance of such species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the eradication of schistosoma; however, there has unfortunately been a reemergence of Schistosoma mansoni resistant to praziquantel. There are numerous factors that may influence the prevalence of snails in Egypt, including the construction of water projects, the increase in reclaimed areas, global climate change and pollution. Thus, continued field studies in addition to the cooperation of several scientists are needed to obtain an accurate representation of the status of this species. In addition, the determination of the genome sequence for Biomphalaria alexandrina and the

  11. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function, Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Ibrahim Hanafi Mahmoud

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: FGM was a risk factor for dysmenorrhea, obstructed labor and postpartum hemorrhage. Cases had lower mean sexual function; moreover, half of them convinced with FGM practice and with its continuation.

  12. Using Persistent Scatterers Interferometry to create a subsidence map of the Nile Delta in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, E. Y.; Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Cherif, O.

    2013-12-01

    Inhabitants of the Nile Delta in Egypt, especially those who live around the coast, are threatened by two perpetual hazards: (1) sea level rise and encroachment from the Mediterranean Sea and (2) land subsidence that is inherent in deltaic environments. With cities like Alexandria and Port Said currently only one meter above sea level, it is important to understand the nature of the sea level rise and land subsidence, both spatially and temporally, and to be able to quantify these hazards. The magnitude of sea level rise has been actively monitored in stations across the Mediterranean Sea; the subsidence of the Nile Delta, as a whole system however, has not been adequately quantified. We have employed the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) technique known as Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) across the entire northern parts of the Nile Delta. A dataset of 106 ENVISAT single look complex (SLC) scenes (four descending tracks: 164, 207, 436, and 479) acquired throughout the time period 2003 to 2010 were obtained from the European Space Agency and utilized for radar interferometric purposes. Multiple combinations of these scenes - used for output optimization and validation - were processed. Due to the nature of the PSI technique, subsidence rates calculated using this technique are values measured from cities and urban areas - where PSI works well. The methodology of choice is to calculate the subsidence rates on a city-by-city basis by: (1) choosing an urban area and cutting the SLC scene stack down to a small area (25 - 200 km2); (2) processing this area multiple times using difference scene and parameter combinations in order to best optimize persistent scatterer (PS) abundance and ground displacement measurements; (3) calibrating the relative ground motion measured by PSI to known locations of minimal subsidence rates. The final result is a spatial representation of the subsidence rates across the Nile Delta in Egypt. Measured

  13. Evaluation and management of a solar heated application in Alexandria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorour, M.M.; Sedra, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    Using hourly incident solar intensities, ambient temperature data and the efficiency relationship, a stochastic technique was employed to predict the performance of solar systems. The Markovian model evaluates the useful solar energy at different temperature levels every month of the year in Alexandria. In addition, an economic study was made on solar heating of poultry farms after calculating the necessary heating load. The results reveal the limit of economic benefit in using solar systems as a function of fuel price and collector area.

  14. Napoleon in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  15. 南阳汉画像石与古埃及壁画的对比分析%Difference Analysis on Han Stone Relief in Nanyang City and Ancient Egypt Mural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔芳; 易忠

    2011-01-01

    南阳汉画像石与古埃及壁画之间的巨大差异表现在构图、风格、线条及表现手法等各个方面。不同的文化信仰和审美需求是造成该差异的根本原因,这说明任何一种艺术的生存和发展都要依托于其独有的社会文化。%As artistic accomplishments with unique ethnic features, there was a great deal of differences between Han stone relief inNanyang city and ancient Egypt mural because of their presence in different time and place, and the influences mainly reflect in composition features, artistic styles, line of images and expression techniques etc. This paper analyzes the differences of two art forms, and points out that different cultural beliefs and aesthetic demands are the basic reasons resulting in these consequences, thus revealing that the producing and development of any kind of art forms depended on their unique social culture.

  16. The astronomical orientation of the urban plan of Alexandria

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Alexander the Great founded Alexandria in 331 BC. The newly founded town was conceived as an orthogonal grid based on a main longitudinal axis, later called Canopic Road. We analyse here the astronomical orientation of the project and propose that the main axis was deliberately oriented towards the rising sun on the day of birth of Alexander the Great. The argument is admittedly speculative as any Archaeoastronomy argument not backed up by written sources. However, it is nested accurately into the archaeological records and into what is known on the foundation of the town. Further, a topographical analysis is given to sustain the thesis.

  17. 77 FR 6587 - Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA..., applicable to workers of StarTek USA, Inc., Alexandria, Louisiana. The workers are engaged in the supply of..., Virginia location of StarTek USA, Inc. supplied call center services such as sales and technical...

  18. Regional distribution of lead in human milk from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M A; Ragab, A A; Kamel, A; Jones, J; el-Sebae, A K

    1996-05-01

    Bioaccumulation of lead during chronic exposure and its mobilization and secretion with mother's milk constitute a serious health hazard to the newly born children. Lead levels in human breast milk of 120 Egyptian women representing 20 different governorates throughout Egypt were determined using a graphite furnace Atomic Absorption spectrometer. According to the daily permissible intake (DPI) value established by the WHO of 5.0 micrograms/kg/d in mother's milk, the mean values of lead were around the permissible level in most of the Egyptian governorates. However, lead levels in mother's milk from Alexandria, Assiut and Cairo were significantly higher than the permissible value. Higher lead levels in mother's milk from these governorates may be attributed to heavy automobile traffic using leaded gasoline in addition to the use of lead water pipelines in these areas.

  19. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Magdy G

    2014-03-01

    Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  20. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy G. Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

  1. Detection of Salmonella species in chicken carcasses using genus specific primer belong to invA gene in Sohag city, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Nahed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to detect Salmonella species found as contaminants in chicken carcass (thigh, breast, wings, liver, and gizzard). Materials and Methods: A total of 75 chicken samples including thigh, breast, wings, liver, and gizzard (15 of each) were collected from different markets in Sohag city for detection of Salmonella species by culture methods, biochemical tests, serology, and polymerase chain reaction. Results: The overall incidence of Salmonella contamination of 75 examined samples was found to be 6.6% with the higher percentage of Salmonella being isolated from liver samples (13.3%) followed by thigh, wings, gizzard (6.6%) while breast show negative result. Conclusion: Results in this study indicate that contamination of chicken carcass with Salmonella needs strict hygienic measures to prevent their transmission to human. PMID:27847423

  2. Detection of Salmonella species in chicken carcasses using genus specific primer belong to invA gene in Sohag city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Mahmoud Abdel-Aziz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to detect Salmonella species found as contaminants in chicken carcass (thigh, breast, wings, liver, and gizzard. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 chicken samples including thigh, breast, wings, liver, and gizzard (15 of each were collected from different markets in Sohag city for detection of Salmonella species by culture methods, biochemical tests, serology, and polymerase chain reaction. Results: The overall incidence of Salmonella contamination of 75 examined samples was found to be 6.6% with the higher percentage of Salmonella being isolated from liver samples (13.3% followed by thigh, wings, gizzard (6.6% while breast show negative result. Conclusion: Results in this study indicate that contamination of chicken carcass with Salmonella needs strict hygienic measures to prevent their transmission to human.

  3. Accuser, Judge and Paraclete - On conscience in Philo of Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-J Klauck

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Of all known ancient authors writing in Greek, Philo of Alexandria is the one and related terms and concepts (the apostle Paul comes next, more or less. Something similar may only be found in Latin authors speaking of conscientia, like Cicero. This needs an explanation. After discussing some relevant passages from Philo's writings, with special stress on the texts from scriptures exposed by him, analogies in wisdom literature and in Graeco-Roman rhetoric and mythology are indicated. The following solution is proposed: Philo combines the punishing Furies (cf Cicero and the benevolent guardian spirit (c. Seneca of Graeco-Roman mythology and philosophy with the personified reproof from Jewish Wisdom literature, and so he creates a concept that helps him to give a visual description of the strict but nevertheless kind guidance God practices on man.

  4. Animal brucellosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Hikal, Ahmed; Refai, Mohamed; Melzer, Falk; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2014-11-13

    Brucellosis is a highly contagious zoonosis that affects the public health and economic performance of endemic as well as non-endemic countries. In developing nations, brucellosis is often a very common but neglected disease. The purpose of this review is to provide insight about brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt and help to understand the situation from 1986 to 2013. A total of 67 national and international scientific publications on serological investigations, isolation, and biotyping studies from 1986 to 2013 were reviewed to verify the current status of brucellosis in animal populations in Egypt. Serological investigations within the national surveillance program give indirect proof for the presence of brucellosis in cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels in Egypt. Serologic testing for brucellosis is a well-established procedure in Egypt, but most of the corresponding studies do not follow the scientific standards. B. melitensis biovar (bv) 3, B. abortus bv 1, and B. suis bv 1 have been isolated from farm animals and Nile catfish. Brucellosis is prevalent nationwide in many farm animal species. There is an obvious discrepancy between official seroprevalence data and data from scientific publications. The need for a nationwide survey to genotype circulating Brucellae is obvious. The epidemiologic situation of brucellosis in Egypt is unresolved and needs clarification.

  5. Impact of Some Ecological Factors on Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig City, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohar, Maha Kamal; Atta, Amal Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Fecal contamination of drinking water is a major health problem which accounts for many cases of diarrhea mainly in infants and foreigners. This contamination is a complex interaction of many parameters. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates complicates the problem. The study was done to identify fecal contamination of drinking water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig city and to trace reasons for such contamination, three hundred potable water samples were investigated for E. coli existence. Locations of E. coli positive samples were investigated in relation to population density, water source, and type of water pipe. Sixteen E. coli strains were isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was done and enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and enterohaemorrhagic virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Probability of fecal contamination correlated with higher population density, with increased distance from Zagazig water plant, and with asbestos cement water pipes. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug was found in all isolates. Virulence genes were detected in a rate of 26.27%, 13.13%, 20%, 6.67%, and 33.33% for LT, ST, stx1, stx2, and eae genes, respectively. This relatively high frequency of fecal contamination points towards the high risk of developing diarrhea by antibiotic resistant DEC in low socioeconomic communities particularly with old fashion distribution systems. PMID:27725834

  6. Estimating the near-surface site response to mitigate earthquake disasters at the October 6th city, Egypt, using HVSR and seismic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M.E. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by earthquake occurrences in different localities necessitates the evaluation of the subsurface structure. A priori estimation of the site effects became a major challenge for an efficient mitigation of the seismic risk. In the case of moderate to large earthquakes, at some distances from large events, severe damage often occurred at zones of unfavorable geotechnical conditions that give rise to significant site effects. The damage distribution in the near-source area is also significantly affected by fault geometry and rupture history. The microtremor (background noises and shallow seismic surveys (through both the seismic refraction and Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW were carried out in a specific area (The club of October 6 city and its adjacent space area. The natural periods derived from the HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio analysis vary from 0.37 to 0.56 s. The shallow seismic refraction data, which were conducted at the area, are used to determine the attenuation of P-waves (Qp in different layers, using the pulse-width technique. The evaluation of the site response at the studied area yields amplification factor of the ground motion, ranging between 2.4 and 4.4.

  7. Impact of Some Ecological Factors on Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig City, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsadek Fakhr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecal contamination of drinking water is a major health problem which accounts for many cases of diarrhea mainly in infants and foreigners. This contamination is a complex interaction of many parameters. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates complicates the problem. The study was done to identify fecal contamination of drinking water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig city and to trace reasons for such contamination, three hundred potable water samples were investigated for E. coli existence. Locations of E. coli positive samples were investigated in relation to population density, water source, and type of water pipe. Sixteen E. coli strains were isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was done and enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and enterohaemorrhagic virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Probability of fecal contamination correlated with higher population density, with increased distance from Zagazig water plant, and with asbestos cement water pipes. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug was found in all isolates. Virulence genes were detected in a rate of 26.27%, 13.13%, 20%, 6.67%, and 33.33% for LT, ST, stx1, stx2, and eae genes, respectively. This relatively high frequency of fecal contamination points towards the high risk of developing diarrhea by antibiotic resistant DEC in low socioeconomic communities particularly with old fashion distribution systems.

  8. Evidence for bovine besnoitiosis in Egypt-first serosurvey of Besnoitia besnoiti in cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmawy, Karam Imam; Abu-Akkada, Somaia Saif

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the presence of specific antibodies against Besnoitia besnoiti in cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt. Sera from cattle (n = 216) and water buffaloes (n = 133) collected from five different provinces of Egypt (Behera, Alexandria, Assuit, Gharbia, and Matrouh) were analyzed. Testing for B. besnoiti antibodies by PrioCHECK® Besnoitia Ab 2.0 ELISA initially identified 13.75 % (48 out of 349) of individual sera as positive at the manufacturer's suggested cutoff threshold, 15 percent positivity (PP). Statistically significant associations between B. besnoiti prevalence, species, sex, age, and geographical distribution were observed. Seropositive animals were distributed in all of the provinces from which animals were sampled except Gharbia province. Assuit province showed the highest percentage of infection (30.76 %) followed by Matrouh, Alexandria, and Behera provinces (25, 16.29, and 9.6 %, respectively). The highest infection rate of B. besnoiti was significantly higher in cattle (17.13 %) than in water buffaloes (9.02 %). Positive cases were observed in all age categories. While the highest infection rate (17.13 %) was recorded in the age group 5-10 years followed by the age group 1-5 years (15.38 %), and only one positive case (1.58 %) was recorded in the age group less than 1 year. The highest infection rate of B. besnoiti infection was recorded in the female animals (14.95 %) followed by the male animals (8.33). This is the first report on the detection of B. besnoiti in cattle and water buffaloes in Egypt.

  9. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  10. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution. This pa......For decades, Egypt has tried to increase its agricultural area through reclamation of desert land. The significance of land reclamation goes beyond the size of the reclaimed area and number of new settlers and has been important to Egyptian agricultural policies since the 1952-revolution...

  11. Surgery in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Zawahry, M D; Ramzy, A F; el-Sahwi, E; Bahnasy, A F; Khafaga, M; Rizk-Allah, M A; Abou el-Hoda, M F

    1997-07-01

    The history of medicine can never be complete without referral to ancient Egyptian medicine. Imhotep has been identified as the god of medicine. There are 13 faculties of medicine in Egypt; the oldest is the Kasr El Aini Faculty, which started in 1925. We review undergraduate and postgraduate education in Egypt. The Egyptian Society of Surgeons organizes the scientific surgical activities. Schistosomiasis is a national health problem. Health care is provided by many types of hospitals, including university, teaching, Ministry of Public Health, military, and private hospitals.

  12. CSEM IMAGING OF THE NEAR SURFACE DYNAMICS AND ITS IMPACT FOR FOUNDATION STABILITY AT QUARTER 27, 15th OF MAY CITY, HELWAN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hemali Ibrahim A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we involve the Control Source Electromagnetic (CSEM Technique to image the dynamic migration center of the near surface fractures, fissures, and cracks in a new dwelling area at 15th of May city close to Cairo. This area forms the center of the zonal weakness of the subsoil, which in turn, interact with the weight center of the construction leading to catastrophiccollapses.The control source electromagnetic technique has been developed recently to monitor the migration of the weakness center represented as the accumulative fissures and cracks in thenear surface. Three composite profiles of wide and planshet mesh data have been collected in 2008. This survey has been followed by performing two profiles in 2010; one of these profiles has been repeated to observe the situation changes, and the second profile has been measured between the other two profiles of2008. The last profile had been performed to study the mutual relation between the measurements of the two cycles. The objectives of the whole process are to validate the capability of the technique to pick the minor changes of the weakness center, consequently, study its relation to the weight center of the adjacent construction to produce a recommended procedure to minimizethe destruction resources at the site of investigation.The measured data has been interpreted and represented in graphs showing the distribution of the heterogeneity of the geoelectric parameters in the subsoil, furthermore, in a series of geoelectric cross section representing the applied frequencies used during the survey. The study concludes that (1 the center of the cracked zone is moving upward closer to the surface of the ground and heaver, (2 the water content is moving downward producing soil dryness at the shallow depths, and (3 the site became more stable in 2010 than 2008, however, the destruction resources remain warning with collapse events. Furthermore, the situation reflects

  13. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  14. Description and SEM Observations of a New Species of Cyst Nematode Heterodera goldeni (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) Attacking Panicum coloratum in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Handoo, Zafar A.; Ibrahim, I. K. A.

    2002-01-01

    A cyst nematode, Heterodera goldeni n. sp., is photographed and described from Qasabagrass roots (Panicum coloratum L.) in Alexandria, Egypt. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles with body length of 546 µm (450-612), stylet length of 22.6 µm (22-23.5) with anchor-shaped knobs, lateral field with 3 lines, tail 60-75 µm, hyaline tail terminus 38.4 µm (33-43); cysts are lemon-shaped, dark to light brown with an extensive sub-crystalline layer covering the entire cyst, cuticular m...

  15. An anti-hedonist Torah in Philo of Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Motta Rios

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hebrew Bible does not present the pleasure as a problem. Nevertheless, the relationship with Greek philosophical tradition made it possible (or even necessary to Jewish interpreters to relate their Sacred Book to the question of the pleasure. In Philo of Alexandria the Torah is directly involved in a radical opposition to hedonism. In this article, I observe the way this opposition takes place in Philo’s writing, and I suggest that it is an opposition of discourses motivated not only by the resistance to the pleasure itself or by the commitment to philosophical tradition, but also by the necessity of preservation of the pertinence of the Book itself. Before approaching the Alexandrian’s works, I refer briefly to what is found on the pleasure in the Hebrew/Greek Bible, in the Letter to Aristeas and in 4 Maccabees. These readings will proportionate the observation of a process of change in Jewish writers’ relationship to the theme of pleasure. Moreover, it will make evident the specificity and complexity present in Philo’s treatment of this subject.

  16. Political history of modern Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Islam Islami

    2016-07-01

    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

  17. More sustainable energy in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2007-01-01

    Last autumn, Risø completed eight years of work mapping out Egypt’s wind climate and wind resources. The result was a 260-page Wind Atlas for Egypt. Thanks to this, Egypt will be able to increase the share of renewable energy.......Last autumn, Risø completed eight years of work mapping out Egypt’s wind climate and wind resources. The result was a 260-page Wind Atlas for Egypt. Thanks to this, Egypt will be able to increase the share of renewable energy....

  18. Vegetable-transmitted parasites among inhabitants of El-Prince, Alexandria and its relation to housewives' knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzi, Mohamed; El-Sahn, Amel A; Ibrahim, Hanan F; Shehata, Amany I

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, stool samples were obtained from 575 individuals from El-Prince, a suburban village of Alexandria, Egypt to detect helminthic eggs and protozoan cysts. The results showed that, 35.7% of the sample had at least one vegetable-transmitted parasite, the highest percentage (46.4%) was in the age group of 6 to less than 15 years. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent in 18.4%, followed by the protozoan Giardia lamblia in 10.4%. Fasciola eggs were found in 2.4% of samples. Knowledge and practices of housewives concerning Fasciola and its source of transmission and methods of washing leafy vegetables was obtained through house-to-house interviews with 303 housewives. Knowledge that leafy vegetables were a source of Fasciola infection was indirectly proportional with better in younger housewives and those of secondary or higher education. More than half of the interviewed housewives (57.7%) washed leafy vegetables under running tap water and 32.7% soaked them in tap water. Only 9.6% soaked them in water mixed with a substance as vinegar, lemon juice or common salt. Only 5% of those who were infected with vegetable transmitted parasites washed vegetables by soaking in water with an added substance compared to 19.6% of parasite free housewives. Most of those adding a substance to soaking water (89.7%) used vinegar. Results of the study revealed that a serious and consistent effort through public health activities is essential to educate housewives about vegetable-transmitted parasites, their transmission and ways of prevention.

  19. Essential Oils from Wood, Bark, and Needles of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. from Alexandria, Egypt: Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Zidan Mohamed Salem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils extracted by hydro-distillation of Pinus roxburghii wood, bark, and needles were analyzed by GC/MS, and their antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Twenty-two, thirty-one, and twenty-eight compounds were identified in the essential oils of wood, bark, and needles, respectively. The major chemical constituents of wood’s essential oil were caryophyllene (16.75%, thunbergol (16.29%, 3-carene (14.95%, cembrene (12.08%, α-thujene (10.81%, and terpinolen (7.17%. In bark, they were α-pinene (31.29% and 3-carene (28.05%, and in needles, they were α-pinene (39% and 3-carene (33.37%. Almost all of the essential oils were active against human pathogen bacteria, and the essential oils from bark and needles were active against the plant pathogen bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and Pectobacterium carotovorum. Alternatively, Erwinia amylovora was resistant to all tested oils. The total antioxidant activities (TAA% of the essential oils from wood (82 ± 2.12%, and bark (85 ± 1.24% were higher than that of tannic acid (81 ± 1.02%, and the TAA% from the essential oil of needles (50 ± 2.24% was lower than that of tannic acid.

  20. Description and SEM Observations of a New Species of Cyst Nematode Heterodera goldeni (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) Attacking Panicum coloratum in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoo, Zafar A; Ibrahim, I K A

    2002-12-01

    A cyst nematode, Heterodera goldeni n. sp., is photographed and described from Qasabagrass roots (Panicum coloratum L.) in Alexandria, Egypt. It is characterized in having second-stage juveniles with body length of 546 microm (450-612), stylet length of 22.6 microm (22-23.5) with anchor-shaped knobs, lateral field with 3 lines, tail 60-75 microm, hyaline tail terminus 38.4 microm (33-43); cysts are lemon-shaped, dark to light brown with an extensive sub-crystalline layer covering the entire cyst, cuticular midbody pattern zig-zag, cysts ambifenestrate, well-developed underbridge with finger-like projections, bullae present, vulva slit measuring 44-48 microm long. Males are absent, and females have heavy punctations on the cuticle. Its relationship to H. graminophila described from Florida and Louisiana and H. leuceilyma described from Florida are discussed. The present known distribution is restricted to Alexandria, Egypt. Its economic importance in rangeland grasses and cultivated crops such as rice is not known.

  1. Egypt Highlighted at International Tourism Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    During the Beijing International Travel and Tourism Market 2006 (BITTM) fair, the Egypt Tourism Authority launched a tourism-promotional campaign, entitled "Egypt Shines for You." To mark the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Egypt, the Egypt Tourism Authority plans to implement a year-long promotional initiative in China to popularize Egypt's tourist destinations and culture. Dr. Nasser Abdel-Aal, Tourism Counselor at the Egyptian

  2. Monitoring the urbanization of the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultan, M.; Fiske, M.; Stein, T.; Gamal, M.; El Araby, H.; Madani, A.; Mehanee, S.; Becker, R.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Cairo Univ. Center for Environmental Hazard Mitigation

    1999-11-01

    Comparisons of satellite images of the Nile Delta, acquired in 1972, 1984 and 1990, indicate that urban growth is endangering Egypt's agricultural productivity. Urban areas occupied a minimum of 3.6%, 4.7% and 5.7% of the Delta in 1972, 1984 and 1990, respectively, an increase of 58% in 18 years. Approximately half of this increase occurred between 1984 and 1990. If this trend continues, Egypt could lose 12% of its total agricultural area to urbanization by 2010. Despite the fact that growth is pronounced around the cities, it is the growth around the thousands of small villages that poses the largest threat to the agricultural productivity of the Nile Delta. The cumulative growth rate for the cities and large villages between 1972 and 1990 is 37%, and that for the small villages is 77% for the same time period.

  3. Egypt & Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Financial crisis that occurred in August 2008 was unforeseen, sudden, sharp, and had a great impact on the global financial market. Egypt is one of the countries was affected by this financial crisis as a market economy country, and WTO member. in this paper I will try to study the implication of such crisis on the Egyptian economy in the fields of tourism, Suez canal, oil field, and GDP, not only the economy factor were effected, but also the Egyptian market represented in its compon...

  4. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  5. The schistosomiasis problem in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, A B

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of past and current efforts to control schistosomiasis in Egypt, describes recent trends, and analyzes factors responsible for changes in transmission. For the purpose of long-term planning and developing control strategies, the country has been divided into eight geographic zones: Suez Canal Zone, Sainai, Nile Delta, Guiza, Fayoum, Middle Egypt, Upper Egypt, and the High Dam Lake Zone. Overall control priorities are examined and the strategy for each zone is described. The most recent information on changes in epidemiologic patterns of schistosomiasis in Egypt is mentioned, as well as the introduction of newer therapeutic agents. Lastly, the role of outside funding agencies in supporting schistosomiasis control is examined.

  6. Case control study to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis C virus infection in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandeel Amr M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Egypt is crucial to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Methods We conducted a case–control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two infectious disease hospitals in Cairo and Alexandria. Case-patients were defined as: any patient with symptoms of acute hepatitis; lab tested positive for HCV antibodies and negative for HBsAg, HBc IgM, HAV IgM; and 7-fold increase in the upper limit of transaminase levels. Controls were selected from patients’ visitors with negative viral hepatitis markers. Subjects were interviewed about previous exposures within six months, including community-acquired and health-care associated practices. Results Case-patients were more likely than controls to have received injection with a reused syringe (OR=23.1, CI 4.7-153, to have been in prison (OR=21.5, CI 2.5-479.6, to have received IV fluids in a hospital (OR=13.8, CI 5.3-37.2, to have been an IV drug user (OR=12.1, CI 4.6-33.1, to have had minimal surgical procedures (OR=9.7, CI 4.2-22.4, to have received IV fluid as an outpatient (OR=8, CI 4–16.2, or to have been admitted to hospital (OR=7.9, CI 4.2-15 within the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that unsafe health facility practices are the main risk factors associated with transmission of HCV infection in Egypt. Conclusion In Egypt, focusing acute HCV prevention measures on health-care settings would have a beneficial impact.

  7. Assessment of the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria: I. Nutrient intake and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabayek, Magda M

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional status of children with special needs in Alexandria city, on the basis of nutrient intake and food consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics and dietary data were determined in a sample of 231 disabled children chosen randomly from five specialized day care centers. Results showed that the age of the sample ranged from less than 7 to 24 years with a mean age of 12.6 +/- 4.7 years. Mental retardation represents the highest proportion of subjects followed by Down's syndrome and then Autism Male subjects were found to consume higher nutrients than females at all ages except age under seven years. The intake of both gender was less than the recommended for energy, calcium, vitamin A, niacin and zinc. While the intake of protein and vitamin C was more than the RDA Iron intake was below the recommended for females at all ages and within the acceptable level for male. The results also showed that there is a relationship between nutrient intake and disability type. Down syndrome children were found to consume more nutrients than mentally retarded and autistic subjects.

  8. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, CITY OF ALEXANDRIA, VA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  9. Egypt/FOF reorganize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In Egypt, both the national family planning program and the privately operated social marketing program, Family of the Future (FOF), are currently being reorganized. The Population and Family Planning Board, orginally charged with the responsibility of overseeing the national family planning program, was replaced by the newly created National Council. The reasons for the change and the type of program changes which will ensue from this organizational change are unclear. The FOF recently adopted a new management organizational structure, implemented a computerized management and information system, and initiated a staff training program. The management of the program's product line is now divided into 3 sections. There are separate sections for IUDs, barrier methods, and hormonal methods. Each section is responsible for developing a marketing plan for its products and overseeing the distribution of its products. The management staff is now provided with management skills training. To date, 9 managers have received training in management techniques in the US at George Washington University. Personal computers are being installed at the FOF office in Cairo. The system will be used to keep tract of inventory, volunteer activities, and product distribution and to handle accounting procedures. These innovations are expected to facilitate the handling of planned changes in FOF's product line. FOF will begin selling surgical gloves, as a supplemental item for its currently marketed IUD kit, and pregnancy testing kits for use by physicians and hospitals. Other anticipated introductions include Depo Provera, an injectable contraceptive, the new Ortho vaginal tablet which will replace the currently marketed Annan vaginal tablet, and possibly, the implant contraceptive, Norplant. Triton is currently under contract with the US Agency for International Development to provide technical assistance for the FOF program. This contract is due to expire in December, 1984, and a

  10. Implementation of quality control performance criteria and approved guidelines for upgrading of clinical chemistry laboratory procedures in Alexandria University hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Mohamed Moustafa M; el-Badawi, Nashwa A; Moez, Pacint E; Khattab, Azza A

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the quality of work in Clinical Pathology Department, Alexandria Main University Hospital, Egypt; as regards the pre-analytical and analytical phases of testing; for later accreditation. This evaluation was performed using inspection sheets that were designed according to the CAP 2006 recommendations. All checklist questions that could not be answered "yes" were considered deficiencies and had to be corrected before being accredited. The questions were classified into ten groups; each group contained a number of questions concerning one of the pre-analytical and analytical assessment activities. We ranked our results into 4 categories according to the degree of fulfillment. The total number of questions that were answered "no" at the start and the end of the study accounted for 64/101 (63.4%) and 34/101 (33.7%) questions respectively. Most of the deficiencies were detected in the pre-analytical phase of the testing process; the first two checklists were used for the evaluation of this phase. At the start of the study, the degree of requirements fulfillment in checklist I and II were 0% and 21.1% respectively. By the end of the study the degree of fulfillment became, 85.7% and 63.2% respectively. Average number of sample rejection due to different causes was evaluated before and after implementing CAP recommendations; these causes include haemolysis, clotted serum, quantity not sufficient, and lost samples; the percentage of rejected samples before implementing CAP recommendations was 15.8%, 1.81%, 0.70%, and 0.51% respectively, while after implementing CAP recommendations it was 7%, 0.77%, 0.08%, and 0.05%, respectively. We concluded that the presence of standardized protocol for the pre-analytical activities had improved the quality of samples received by the lab, and we also concluded that accreditation allows laboratories to evaluate their performance, their compliance with the requirements of the accrediting association

  11. The Mediterranean Coastal Dunes in Egypt: An Endangered Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanouny, K. H.

    1999-08-01

    The Mediterranean coast in Egypt extends almost 900 km, the major part of which is bordered by sand dunes of different natures and types. Along the coastline between Alexandria and El-Alamein, a distance of some 100 km, the sand dunes represent a particular landscape with special characteristics and features, and consequently plants with particular attributes. In this area, the belt of sand dunes has developed immediately south of the shore and these dunes may rise up to 10 m in height and extend about 0·5-1·5 km inland from the shore. These dunes are famous as a habitat for the fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivation depending on the irregular rainfall. They also represent a landing station and a cross-road for birds such as quail migrating from Europe in the north. In the past, summer resort areas were confined to limited areas with few people, these same areas support the growth of some important plant species, for example, sand binders, medicinal and range plants. For more than two decades, there has been considerable socio-economic change and an open-door policy in the economy of the country has been adopted. One of the consequences of this change is that a great part of the coastal dune belt west of Alexandria till El-Alamein, has been subjected to destruction, due to the continuous construction of summer resort villages. These were built at a distance of about 100 m of the shoreline, extending 400-600 m inland and a breadth of 400 m or more along the shoreline. The area already covered by the dunes is now almost occupied by new buildings, gardens and other infrastructure. The consequences of these human activities are numerous and include impacts on the soil, water resources, the flora and the fauna, migrating birds, trends of the indigenous people, and the cultural environment. The present paper gives a concise environmental setting of the dune belt before the advent of the new activities, and the socio-economic and political attitudes which threaten the dunes

  12. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  13. Een koninklijke baksteen uit Egypte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haarlem, W.

    2007-01-01

    A ‘royal’ brick from Egypt A mudbrick with the name of Menkheperre, High Priest of Amun and Sovereign of Thebes in the 21st Dynasty, was recently given to the Museum. The historical context, building techniques and possible provenance are discussed.

  14. Production and analysis of a biosimilar erythropoietin in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebied WM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wael M Ebied,1 Hytham M Ahmed,2 Fawzy A Elbarbry31SEDICO Pharmaceuticals, Merck & Co External Partner, 6th of October City, Cairo, 2Pharmaceutical Analysis Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt; 3Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Pacific University Oregon, Hillsboro, OR, USAAbstract: Although management of chronic diseases has been a major challenge for health care systems in developed and developing countries, biopharmaceuticals have been successful in treating many life-threatening conditions. However, the high cost of these agents restricts their availability to countries where patients and/or health care systems are able to afford them. Licensing these biopharmaceuticals as biosimilars after expiration of their patents might increase access to such medicines at an affordable price in developing countries. South Egypt Drug Industries Company (SEDICO is an Egyptian pharmaceutical company that has had the opportunity to manufacture some of these drugs. SEDICO biotechnology products, such as insulin, erythropoietin, streptokinase, angiokinase, follicle-stimulating hormone, aprotinin, filgrastim, and somatropin, have been available on the Egyptian market for more than 6 years. For this paper, erythropoietin, which has been investigated over a number of years, was chosen as a representative example of SEDICO biotechnology products. Our findings confirm that SEDICO erythropoietin can compete with the originator epoetins on the Egyptian market with high quality and at a lower cost.Keywords: biosimilars, developing countries, insulin, human growth hormone, erythropoietin, epoetin, Egypt

  15. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  16. A comparative study on the medical waste disposal in some hospitals in Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Gihan; El-Zarka, Eman M A

    2005-01-01

    Though healthcare services aim to reduce the health problems and prevent the potential risks to the health of the community. These services create wastes which are considered as hazardous materials due to the higher potential of infection and injury possessed by these wastes than any other type of waste. Healthcare waste management is an integral part of healthcare services, and can create harm through inadequate waste management; thus reducing the overall benefits provided by healthcare centers. In the current study, a survey for medical waste disposal was performed in order to examine the current status of medical waste disposal in some hospitals in Alexandria and to properly assess management of this type of hazardous waste. A questionnaire was designed for hospitals to assess the quantity of medical waste, collection, sorting, storage, transportation and way of final disposal. From the total waste generated by healthcare activities, almost 80% are waste similar to domestic waste. The remaining approximate of 20% is considered as hazardous waste. As Alexandria has about 3911 healthcare facilities providing medical services for people, a huge amount of medical waste are generated daily with about 208 tons generated per month. The results revealed that the most common problems associated with healthcare wastes are the absence of waste management, lack of awareness about their health hazards, insufficient financial and human resources for proper management, and poor control of waste disposal. The current situation of medical waste disposal in Alexandria is depending on incinerators. Some of these incinerators are not working anymore. Incinerations as a system is not accepted at the time being in most developed countries due to the risks associated with it and suitable substitution management system for medical waste disposal is now taking its place.

  17. 'Discourse on the Go': Thematic Analysis of Vehicle Graffiti on the Roads of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Nashar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates graffiti drawn on vehicles in Egypt as an expression of their authors' social values, religious ideologies and political affiliations.  Little research has been done in Egypt on these meaning-loaded messages. This paper gives further evidence that graffiti are a very powerful mode of expression for groups that feel disenfranchised by the wider society.  The data comprise (614 written graffiti taken from both highway and in-city vehicles from different parts of Egypt. This paper employs Fairclough's (1995 post-structuralist model of discourse analysis which extends the concept of discourse from the traditional and natural 'language in use' to be a social practice per se. One of the aims of this study is to explore the various discourse domains of vehicle graffiti in Egypt through thematically analyzing their patterns of usage. For this aim, the authors have devised a four-pronged thematic classification of such graffiti. The paper also tackles some of the lexical features of graffiti and addresses the language and language variations used. Results show that religious expressions constitute more than half the data.  It is also shown that graffiti about the self or car are positive whereas statements about 'the other' are negative. The analysis reveals a strong positive inclination in the social and philosophical expressions with almost nonexistent political graffiti. Keywords: Graffiti, post-structuralist model, Discourse Analysis, discourse domains, Egypt

  18. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  19. CHIEFS & CHIEFDOMS IN PROTODYNASTIC EGYPT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AntonioPérezLargacha

    1995-01-01

    Ever smce they were discovered, the standards depicted on the decorated pottery and protodynastic objects have been interpreted in different ways, all related to the traditional theory that Egypt was unified by Narmer who conquered Lower Egypt and founded the first dynasty. However, recent excavations in centers like Hierakonpolis or regions like the Nile Delta (van der Brink 1992), have modified the traditional view of Egyptian unification and old interpretations have had to be rejected. The idea that Upper Egypt’s northward expansion reached the Nile Delta at the end of Naqada Ⅱ is now generally accepted; during Naqada Ⅲ there was a single material culture in Egypt and, perhaps, a single ruler. The questions become: was there only one king at that time, and if not, how many kings were there? Did cultural unification occur after political unification or was the culture unified before the political unification, and if so, how long before? To know the answers to these questions, we must study the early

  20. Estimating Aggregate Demand in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha EMARA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This econometric study seeks to determine the most important factors of aggregate demand in Egypt so as to provide insight into how this developing nation can grow economically in the coming years. The Ordinary Least Squares estimation method was used in order to estimate nominal GDP for the time period 1975 to 2009. Based on the results the real interest rate, the inflation rate, the growth rate of government expenditure, and the growth rate of the money supply are the most statistically and economically significant factors of the growth rate of nominal GDP for the coming year. A one percent change in the growth rate of the previous year government expenditure is predicted to cause the growth rate of the current year nominal GDP to increase by 54%.The role of government expenditures on public sector wage expansion is discussed in this study as to shed light on this factor’s significant influence on income inequality post-1975 in Egypt, which will continue to impact nominal GDP and social conditions for the developing nation in the coming years.Keywords. GDP, Aggregate Demand, Egypt.JEL. E25, O40, Q11.

  1. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  2. Single Finds. The case of Roman Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins......Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins...

  3. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  4. Inclusiveness in Higher Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupito, Emily; Langsten, Ray

    2011-01-01

    In Egypt, before 1952, education, especially higher education, was the province of a privileged few. After the 1952 Revolution, in pursuit of social justice and economic development, Egypt's leaders eliminated fees, instituted a universal admission examination, promised government employment to all graduates of higher education, and expanded the…

  5. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-12

    smuggling of illegal workers, prostitutes, and even Palestinian brides for grooms inside Gaza. It is not uncommon for Palestinian smugglers to bribe security...Egypt in a difficult diplomatic position. On the one hand, Egypt has attempted to symbolically support international efforts to alleviate the

  6. Egypt Aiming at Attracting Investment from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Jointly with China Economic & Trade Counselor Office in Egypt,the General Authority for Investment (GAFI) and the General Authority for Special Economic Zone North-West Gulf of Suez (SEZone) held China-Africa Development Fund Conference in Cairo,Egypt on March 16,2009.The Minister of Investment Egypt Dr.Mahmoud Mohieldin,Chinese Ambassador to Egypt Mr.Wu Chunhua,Chairman of GAFI and SEZone Mr.Assem Ragab,Vice President of China-Africa Development Fund Mr.Lu Qingchen,Economic and Trade Minister Counselor of the Chinese Embassy in Egypt Mr.Cao Jiachang,as well as over 100 Chinese/Egyptian businessmen attended the conference.

  7. Washington Alexandria Architecture Center students merge creative concepts of dance and space to design dance studio in Arlington

    OpenAIRE

    Micale, Barbara L.

    2009-01-01

    Elements of dance and dance-theatre -- including movement and exercise, flowing costumes, and expressive lighting --inspired students in the Architecture Master's design studio at the Washington Alexandria Architecture Center to imagine innovative ways of merging public and private space for a dance studio in nearby Arlington.

  8. Seminar on Egypt population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, J F

    1984-01-01

    The information and viewpoints presented at the Seminar on Egypt Population Policy held in Cairo on October 16-18 were summariezed and critically assessed. The seminar was organized by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population's Committee on the Utilization ofDemographic Knowlege in Policy Formulation and Planning for the purpose of assessing the policy making the utility of social science and demographc knowledge with specific reference to Egypt's family planning program. The seminar was attended by demographers, social scientists, and experienced policy makers, and the discussion was highly focused. Seminar papers and discussions sought to clarify Egypt's current demographic situation, attempted to use sample survey data to identifyfertility determinants, analyzed Egypt's policyresponses to the population problem, assessed the national family planning program, identified the type of knowledge available for policy making, and noted areas where policy relevant information is lacking. Evidence presented at the seminar indicated that Egyptian fertility is still high and that corrected the total fertility rate for 1980 was close to 6. Since, 1960, fertility declined in all regions of the country, but between 1976-80 the decline decelerated. This deceleration appears to be a temporary phenonemon. There is evidence that the age at marriage is increasing, that the population is motivated to use contraception when desired family size is reached, that contraceptive use is cost sensitive, and that the overall decline in fertility since the 1960s occurred in all parts of the country. Papers which presented analyses of fertility determinants, based on sample survey data, provided little useful insight for policy formulation. The studies indicate that the impact of family planning services on different segments of the population varies, and that these impacts may be increased if social and economic development persists. The preception of the population

  9. Management of three-dimensional and anthropometric databases: Alexandria and Cleopatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Eric; Robinette, Kathleen; Rioux, Marc

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes two systems for managing 3D and anthropometric databases, namely Alexandria and Cleopatra. Each system is made out of three parts: the crawler, the analyzer, and the search engine. The crawler retrieves the content from the network while the analyzer describes automatically the shape, scale, and color of each retrieved object and writes down a compact descriptor. The search engine applies the query by example paradigm to find and retrieve similar or related objects from the database based on different aspects of 3D shape, scale, and color distribution. The descriptors are defined and the implementation of the system is detailed. The application of the system to the CAESAR anthropometric survey is discussed. Experimental results from the CAESAR database and from generic databases are presented.

  10. Pilot-scale studies of soil vapor extraction and bioventing for remediation of a gasoline spill at Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Joss, C.J.; Martino, L.E. [and others

    1994-07-01

    Approximately 10,000 gal of spilled gasoline and unknown amounts Of trichloroethylene and benzene were discovered at the US Army`s Cameron Station facility. Because the base is to be closed and turned over to the city of Alexandria in 1995, the Army sought the most rapid and cost-effective means of spill remediation. At the request of the Baltimore District of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Argonne conducted a pilot-scale study to determine the feasibility of vapor extraction and bioventing for resolving remediation problems and to critique a private firm`s vapor-extraction design. Argonne staff, working with academic and private-sector participants, designed and implemented a new systems approach to sampling, analysis and risk assessment. The US Geological Survey`s AIRFLOW model was adapted for the study to simulate the performance of possible remediation designs. A commercial vapor-extraction machine was used to remove nearly 500 gal of gasoline from Argonne-installed horizontal wells. By incorporating numerous design comments from the Argonne project team, field personnel improved the system`s performance. Argonne staff also determined that bioventing stimulated indigenous bacteria to bioremediate the gasoline spin. The Corps of Engineers will use Argonne`s pilot-study approach to evaluate remediation systems at field operation sites in several states.

  11. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  12. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoono...

  13. Diphtheria immunity status in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwan, El-Rashdy M; El-Awady, Mostafa K

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine immune status to corynebacterium diphtheria by screening for protective antibodies in a sample of Egyptian population. The study population consisted of 709 healthy subjects aged from 2 months to 105 years, inhabitants of 6 regions of Egypt. The study utilized Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure serum levels IgG antibodies reactive with diphtheria toxoid. Levels of diphtheria toxoid antibody > or = 0.1 IU/ ml were defined as immune/protected, 23.9 % of the population were found to be susceptible to diphtheria (IgG level antibodies decreased in old ages (< 60 y) with the females being more susceptible then males. These results recommend a booster immunization for the susceptible age groups.

  14. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  15. The implementation of multi-task geophysical survey to locate Cleopatra Tomb at Tap-Osiris Magna, Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt “Phase II”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas

    2012-06-01

    VLF-EM data were collected along parallel lines covering the investigated site with a line-to-line spacing of 1 m. The point-to-point distance of 1 m along the same line was employed. The data were qualitatively interpreted by Fraser filtering process and quantitatively by 2-D VLF inversion of tipper data and forward modeling. Results obtained from VLF-EM interpretation are correlated with 2-D resistivity imaging and drilling information. Findings showed a highly resistive zone at a depth extended from about 25–45 m buried beneath Osiris temple, which could be indicated as the tomb of Cleopatra and Anthony. This result is supported by Fraser filtering and forward modeling results. The depth of archeological findings as indicated from the geophysical survey is correlated well with the depth expected by archeologists, as well as, the depth of discovered tombs outside Tap-Osiris Magna temple. This depth level has not been reached by drilling in this site. We hope that the site can be excavated in the future based on these geophysical results.

  16. Control of occupational exposure to phenol in industrial wastewater treatment plant of a petroleum refinery in Alexandria, Egypt: An intervention application case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; Ramadan, Alaa El-Din K; Issa, Ahmed I; Nofal, Faten H

    2016-11-01

    Phenol exposure is one of the hazards in the industrial wastewater treatment basin of any refinery. It additively interacts with hydrogen sulfide emitted from the wastewater basin. Consequently, its concentration should be greatly lower than its threshold limit value. The present study aimed at controlling occupational exposure to phenol in the work environment of wastewater treatment plant in a refinery by reducing phenolic compounds in the industrial wastewater basin. This study was conducted on both laboratory and refinery scales. The first was completed by dividing each wastewater sample from the outlets of different refinery units into three portions; the first was analyzed for phenolic compounds. The second and third were for laboratory scale charcoal and bacterial treatments. The two methods were compared regarding their simplicities, design, and removal efficiencies. Accordingly, bacterial treatment by continuous flow of sewage water containing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa was used for refinery scale treatment. Laboratory scale treatment of phenolic compounds revealed higher removal efficiency of charcoal [100.0(0.0) %] than of bacteria [99.9(0.013) %]. The refinery scale bacterial treatment was [99.8(0.013) %] efficient. Consequently, level of phenol in the work environment after refinery-scale treatment [0.069(0.802) mg/m(3)] was much lower than that before [5.700(26.050) mg/m(3)], with removal efficiency of [99.125(2.335) %]. From the present study, we can conclude that bacterial treatment of phenolic compounds in industrial wastewater of the wastewater treatment plant using continuous flow of sewage water containing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa reduces the workers' exposure to phenol.

  17. Zibibbo nero characterization, a red-wine grape revertant of muscat of Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Squadrito, Margherita; Brancadoro, Lucio; Scienza, Attilio

    2015-03-01

    Muscat of Alexandria is known in Italy as Zibibbo. Zibibbo nero, red-wine grapes, is a sport mutation of Zibibbo variety. A biochemical and molecular characterization of berry colour (VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes, Vitis vinifera MYeloBlastosis) and aroma Muscat (VvDXS gene, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase) traits in both Zibibbo cultivars was performed, as well as ampelographic and genetic identification analyses. Molecular investigations were performed also for two putative Zibibbo parents (Moscato Bianco and Triboto), in order to prove the white-to-red shift of the red-skinned mutant. Ampelographic and genetic analysis demonstrated the high similarity between Zibibbo and Zibibbo nero, as well as a comparable aroma profile, characterized mainly by high content of linalool, geranic acid and geraniol (about 70 %). The Zibibbo nero anthocyanin profile was characterized by a high proportion in cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (about 69.23 %). The molecular characterization of VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 locus detected non-functional alleles for white-skinned samples, while also the functional alleles were observed for red-skinned samples. About the VvDXS locus, the aromatic varieties showed the typical pattern of Muscat variety, while Triboto (Zibibbo parent) showed the non-Muscat-like flavour pattern. The colour locus structure of Zibibbo and its putative parents suggested that Zibibbo nero is a berry colour revertant of Zibibbo.

  18. Physicians′ therapeutic practice and compliance of diabetic patients attending rural primary health care units in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Khamis R Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of the study were to investigate physician′s therapeutic practice and the compliance of diabetic patients attending rural primary health units in Alexandria. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted and a multistage stratified random sample method was used for the selection of 600 diabetic patients. Data were collected by means of an interviewing questionnaire, an observation checklist, review of prescriptions and laboratory investigations. A scoring system was made for a diabetic patient′s knowledge and skills, patient′s compliance, doctor-patient relationship, and glycemic control. Results: About 57% always took their medication as prescribed by doctor and on time, only 2.2% always complied with dietary regimen while no one reported regular compliance with exercise regimen. Complications of the regimen was the commonest cause (63.3% of noncompliance. A highly statistically significant difference was found between compliance with all regimens and patient′s knowledge of diabetes. The scores for doctor-patient relationship were all unsatisfactory. Results of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c revealed that metabolic control of four-fifth of the patients was satisfactory, 12% had fair and 8% had poor metabolic control. Conclusions: Patient′s compliance with most of the diabetes regimen was low. Doctor-patient relationship and patient′s compliance should be improved by conducting educational and training programs.

  19. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  20. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to...

  1. Quality assessment of imported powder milk at Mansoura city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdelkhalek

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Based on the Egyptian Standards, the samples were satisfactory in terms of the association of Salmonella spp., E. coli, and fungi. Contamination with Staph. aureus warrans the public health. Thus, appropriate care and preventive measures are suggested. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 75-78

  2. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  3. An attempt to achieve efficient energy design for High-Income Houses in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Mohamed Aldali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the economic status in Egypt in recent years, especially the investment sector will demonstrate the enormous increase in the residential buildings sector, which created massive energy consumption that never was in proportion with the growth in generated power in Egypt. As the residential sector consumes around 42.3% of the total energy used in Egypt, one of the main factors that waste that energy is artificial lighting and electric ventilation. Meanwhile, the architects who design those building never pay the enough attention to the energy in the design process. This paper tackles many strategies for the environmental control of building designs besides showing that now, it is essential to take into consideration energy performance efficiency and the compatibility of the building with the environment by optimizing the design of the building envelope elements such as a window to wall ratio (WWR, the glazing type. This paper will not cover the details of construction and structure, but it sheds light on many guidelines to help to raise the thermal and environmental quality of the envelope of the building. A computer-based simulation tool (Autodesk Ecotect was used to measure current building energy and lighting performance in one of the modern cities like Madenaty city. By the end of this study, some of the characteristics of the building envelope will be concluded like the window wall ratio in the aim to reduce the energy waste in the case study, as well as the different criteria of designing process for residential buildings in Egypt in the near future.

  4. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  5. Women's position and family planning in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy, P; Malhotra, A

    1996-01-01

    In this report, data from the 1988 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey are used to address some of the most frequently raised questions about the relationship between gender inequality and reproductive behavior. The findings from binomial and multinomial logit models show that while the relationship between women's position and fertility control in Egypt is complex, some clear, broad patterns exist that have important theoretical and policy implications. First, although women's status in Egypt is clearly multidimensional, the reproductive aspect of women's position has a strong connection with the nonreproductive dimensions. Second, the case of the continued use of education and employment as proxies of women's position, especially in relationship to fertility control, is considerably discredited by the results. Finally, the findings indicate that Egyptian culture supports gender equality in the form of interaction and negotiation rather than women's autonomy.

  6. Ghetto poverty and pollution in Egypt: a deadly threat for western countries caused by new and infectious mutants. A cultural, social and microbiological synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassili, J H; Baradaeus, Cyril

    2012-10-01

    Egypt, whose soil germinated the first civilization, monotheism, refined ethics and culture of sharing the abundance of extracted natural resources among its populace became the crucible proliferating de-novo genotypes of organic and moral maladies. The enigma is these mutations are synchronized by several factors, namely; failing medical health, if there is any, abundant filth, cultural bankruptcy, over population, dogmatic militarism, societal deprivation and characterization, etc. These domineering ingredients fossilized Egypt as of 1952 coup in an irrevocable national apoptosis, together with the crippled social justice and imbalanced distribution of wealth among Egyptians, rates of bacterial and viral evolution to second generation resistant to known medical interventions are expected to exponentially accelerate. Therefore, it deemed essential to elaborate on pollution and psychosis-induced inflammations and grievous crimes evoked by dogmatic cults at the breeding source, e.g., ghettos and sporadic locations of the homeless in Cairo, Alexandria and Upper Egyptian villages. While this second generation of viral and bacterial diseases could labor plagues threatening the precariously maintained so-called social fabric of Middle Eastern countries, that are uniquely segregating its populace according to their dogmatic affiliations and soaked into intolerance, it would definitely compromise the integrity of the expensively managed medical care system of developed countries.

  7. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment......’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed...

  8. Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mousa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

  9. Place and Ethics in Lawrence Durrell' s The Alexandria Quartet%劳伦斯·达雷尔《亚历山大四重奏》中的场所与伦理释读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彬

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary British novelist Lawrence Durrell is highly commented by Western critics because of his depiction of exotic cultures, political crisis and historical responsibilities in The Alexandria Quartet. The sociological discussions on the relationships between man and place, and place and ethics provide perfect critical place and ethics in Durrell' s novel. Th paradigms for the interpretation of the relationship between e city of Alexandria is not a simple, inorganic physical ex- istence. It contains historical, cultural, literary and political elements and it has acquired a life within a grand historical narrative. Through the diachronic and synchronic description of Alexan- dria as a humanized place, Durrell reveals the influences of the ethical situation in the city on the ethical orientations of characters. Alexandria in a post-colonial context displays in the novel its unique ethical situation, in which Durrell presents both a fictional and a real reading about the ethical tag posted upon the ethical situation of the city and reveals the double attributes of the city' s ethical situation as an "ethical vacuum" and the place in which the subaltern speak.%英国现当代小说家劳伦斯·达雷尔以其代表作《亚历山大四重奏》的文化异质感、政治危机感和历史责任感而备受西方评论界的广泛关注。社会学中人与场所、场所与伦理之间关系的探讨为达雷尔小说中场所与伦理之间关系的释读提供了一个绝佳的批评范式。作为故事发生的场所,达雷尔笔下的亚历山大城不是一种简单、无机的物理存在,它集历史、文化、文学和政治等多重元素于一身,在宏大的历史叙事中获得了生命力。达雷尔通过对亚历山大被人化了的场所的共时性和历时性描述,揭示了城市伦理环境对人物伦理价值取向的影响。后殖民语境下的亚历山大为小说提供了一个独特的伦理环境,达雷尔不仅对加

  10. Biosystematic studies on Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Khalik, K.N.E.

    2002-01-01

    The present work deals with a systematic investigation of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of the tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae and Sisymbrieae of the family Brassicaceae from Egypt. This work is largely based on herbarium material received on loan fr

  11. Censorship and Security Agents Pervade Egypt's Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a glimpse into one of the many ways in which the Egyptian government and the campus administrators it appoints are slowly and persistently squeezing the life out of universities in Cairo, Egypt. Classroom discussions are monitored, faculty appointments and academic research are scrutinized, and faculty participation in outside…

  12. Toward replacement fertility in Egypt and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltigani, Eltigani E

    2009-09-01

    Egypt and Tunisia began their fertility transition at almost identical fertility levels and at roughly the same time period, yet the difference in the pace of decline has been such that the total fertility rate (TFR) in Tunisia reached replacement level by the year 2001, whereas the TFR in Egypt remains above three live births per woman. This article draws on the secondary literature and on several nationally representative surveys from the two countries between 1978 and 2005 to provide empirical evidence of the difference in the pace of fertility decline and to analyze the determinants of the differential. Findings include (a) variation across the two countries in the consistency of fertility decline among the segments of the population leading the transition; (b) that the success of each country's family planning program was influenced by the role of political leaders and the extent of the program's integration within socioeconomic development objectives; (c) that the impact of contraception on TFR decline became an important factor in the mid-1980s; and (d) that the greatest determinant of the discrepancy in the pace of fertility decline is the disparity in age at marriage, which rose more significantly in Tunisia than in Egypt. The latter finding indicates that reaching replacement fertility in Egypt hinges primarily on further declines in marital fertility, resulting from reduction of wanted fertility and from an expansion of family planning program coverage and improved efficiency of service delivery and use.

  13. The role of fenestration in promoting daylight performance. The mosques of Alexandria since the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingy I. El-Darwish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosques have always been sacred places with distinctive sustainable environments. Fenestration in the prayers’ zone whether clerestories, screened windows, dome lighting and other light features have managed to produce significant spiritual human comfort areas. This paper focuses on fenestration of divine mosques and relates them to promoting daylight performance. The research process emphasizes the importance of daylight performance by promoting simulation tools on historical mosques of Alexandria since the 19th century that has witnessed change over time. The paper is a step toward sustainable lighting schemes in prayers’ zones that help to achieve human comfort as well as minimize use of energy. This study aimed at investigating the daylight performance by the use of climate based daylighting metrics which is “Daylight Autonomy” (DA. Daylight Autonomy is evaluated in the year round for the day lighted prayer periods to evaluate the behavior of fenestration of the different selected sample of mosques since the 19th century in Alexandria on a simulation tool in order to check whether it complies with the required illuminate and glare levels. The research findings are an attempt to lead to performative design guidelines introducing a contemporary interpretation for use in enhancing new designs of these holistic buildings.

  14. Morphodynamic implications for shoreline management of the western-Mediterranean sector of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frihy, Omran E.

    2009-09-01

    Although the western-Mediterranean coast of Egypt between Sallum and Alexandria, ~550 km long, has maintained a considerable equilibrium throughout history, developers have built traditional protective structures in an effort to form sheltered recreational beaches without taking into consideration its geomorphologic characteristics, coastal processes and their harmful impact on the coastal environment and human safety. The improper practices in this environmentally valuable region have induced us to undertake an initiative to carry out a morphodynamic analysis to provide a framework for understanding the relationship between coastal morphology and the prevailing dynamic forces. Based on the degree of natural protection or wave sheltering, the study shoreline can be categorized into four distinct morphotypical stretches: (1) high-energy wave-exposed shores and the outer margins of the rocky headlands, (2) moderate to high wave-energy beaches along semi-exposed embayments and bays mostly downdrift of the rocky headlands, (3) low-wave energy at semi-exposed headland lee-sided and pocket beaches, and (4) calm wave-sheltered enclosing water basins for safe anchorages, moorings and recreation beaches. The results deducted will have practical applications for shoreline management initiatives regarding sustained sites suitable for future beachfront development such as safe swimming conditions, sport facilities, water intakes and sheltered areas for vessels. In addition, benefits realized by the understanding of the morphodynamic processes would enhance our awareness of the significance of the role of western coast morphodynamics in supporting sustainable development via shoreline management. As far as sustainability is concerned, the selection of appropriate sites would help avoiding or minimizing the formation of the hard structures needed for creating safe recreation beaches. On a national scale, results reached could provide reliable database for information that can be

  15. Oriental Fantasy : A postcolonial discourse analysis of Western belly dancers’ imaginations of Egypt and dance festivals in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hooi, Mavis

    2015-01-01

    Belly dance is popularly practised in the West, and every year, thousands of enthusiasts and professionals from around the world travel to attend belly dance festivals in Egypt, which is considered the cultural centre of the dance. This bachelor’s thesis examines the discourses produced by Western or ʽwhiteʼ belly dancers from Sweden and Finland, on the topics of tourism in Egypt and belly dance festivals in Egypt. The texts are analysed using James Paul Gee's discourse analytical framework, ...

  16. China Knitting Delegation Visiting Turkey and Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Mr.Zhao Hong,V.President of China National Knitting Industry Association,also the chief editor of this magazine,will visit Turkey and Egypt,taking with him a delegation from Zhutang Town,one of the most important knitting industry clusters in China.The purpose of the visit is to strengthen the business relationship with lzmir area,one of the textile clustering areas in Turkey,to encourage bilateral investment and cooperation between the two industries despite Turkish trade remedy cases against textile imports from China.Observers view the regular visits between the two industries as a positive and optimistic signal for"burying the hatchet"to shake hands for more successful investment promotion and business cooperation.Egypt is famous for its long-staple cotton,and the yarn made of it is always an interest to Chinese knitters.

  17. Tick paralysis: first zoonosis record in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosabah, Amira A Abd El-rahman; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-04-01

    Tick paralysis caused by the secretion of toxin with saliva while taking a blood meal is an important veterinary disease, but is rare in humans. Although it has certain geographical proclivities, it exists worldwide. Tick paralysis was demonstrated for the first time in Egypt among four children living in rural area at Giza Governorate. The clinical pictures were confused with rabies; myasthensia gravis; botulism; diphtheritic polyneuropathy encountered in rural areas. The recovery of tick infesting the four little children and negative clinical and laboratory data of all diseases denoted tick paralysis. The encountered ticks infesting their animals were Rhipicephalus sanguineus on dogs, Hyalomma dromedarii on camels and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Haemaphysalis sp. on goats. The case was recognized as first record of tick paralysis in Egypt.

  18. LETTING GO: DE-RADICALIZATION IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the causes of how terrorist organizations are formed and how counter terrorism measures can be more effective is immense. What is novel in terrorism literature is de-radicalization in terrorist organizations. This paper hopes to shed light on the de-radicalization process in terrorist organizations based in Egypt. In order to achieve that goal, the first part of the paper will deal with the de-radicalization process. The second part will briefly describe the major radical terrorist organizations that are effective in Egypt. The last part will combine the two parts and bring in suggestions on the de-radicalization process itself. Terrorism and de-radicalization are complicated threats to nearly all societies. Therefore, it is important to go beyond security and intelligence approaches and take proactive measures. It is best to view what is de-radicalization and how it can be achieved.

  19. The elegant velvet glove: A textual and visual reading of the gothicised female form in Lawrence Durrell’s 'The Alexandria quartet'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Kreuiter

    2014-01-01

    My thesis analyses the gothicisation of the female form in ‘The Alexandria quartet’ written by the English novelist Lawrence Durrell. In this study I show how Durrell's concern with the themes of space-time-memory, ambiguity, multiple perspectives, metaphoric imagery, buried or not-so-buried acts of

  20. Proceedings of Fuel Safety Workshop Held at Alexandria, Virginia on 29 October-1 November 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    Misfuel ing. 12. Bacteria protection. 13. Crew action. 14. Maintenance = low cost. D. Can AMK do the Job safely and reliably? 1. Need answers on long...California’s 13th Congressional District, which includes portions of San Jose, the cities of Campbell, Los Gatos and Santa Clara, as well as unincorporated

  1. China-Egypt, Closer in Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ Rashid Mohamed Rashid, Egyp-tian minister of Ministry of Trade and Industry, with his commercial delegation visited China in the late February, seeking for more cooperation channels and projects for two countries' development in the current international financial crisis.On February 25, the China-Egypt Busi-ness Seminar was held in Beijing, to usher over 200 entrepreneurs from both sides sit together to have the matching-making.

  2. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    Egypt from sliding into a dark tunnel of conflict, internal fighting, criminality, accusations of treason, sectarian discord and the collapse of state...order to assist exports18 and tourism , the Central Bank has tried to manage the gradual devaluation of the currency (Egyptian Pound), which has slid...have the travel ban on the Americans who remained at the U.S. Embassy in Cairo lifted. Reportedly, U.S. officials and lawmakers threatened not only

  3. First evidence of enterobiasis in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, P D

    2002-10-01

    The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vernicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC-AD 395) Egypt.

  4. Political Stability and Military Intervention in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Casey; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2013-01-01

    Policy choices in the wake of recent mass protests in Egypt will determine the likelihood of civil war in the short run and the prospects for democracy in the long run. Economic conditions can be improved by international action to reduce grain-based biofuel production and finance employment generation. Creating the conditions for stable democracy requires accepting power-sharing mechanisms in which the military will have an important role.

  5. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Egypt and Uganda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Egyptian-Chinese Friendship Association(ECFA) and the Uganda-China Friendship Association(UCFA),a goodwill delegation led by Wang Mingyi,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Henan Provincial People’s Congress and honorary president of the Henan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries,paid a friendly visit to Egypt and Uganda from November 3 to 14,2006.

  6. MERS Coronaviruses in Dromedary Camels, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Daniel K. W.; Poon, Leo L.M.; Gomaa, Mokhtar M.; Shehata, Mahmoud M.; Perera, Ranawaka A. P. M.; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S.; Siu, Lewis Y.; Guan, Yi; Webby, Richard J; Mohamed A Ali; Peiris, Malik; Kayali, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    We identified the near-full-genome sequence (29,908 nt, >99%) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a nasal swab specimen from a dromedary camel in Egypt. We found that viruses genetically very similar to human MERS-CoV are infecting dromedaries beyond the Arabian Peninsula, where human MERS-CoV infections have not yet been detected.

  7. The October 12, 1992, Dahshur, Egypt, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenhaus, P.C.; Celebi, M.; Sharp, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    Cairo and northeastern Egypt experienced a rare, damaging earthquake on October 12, 1992. The earthquake, which measured 5.9 on the Richter magnitude scale, was centered near the village of Dahshur, about 18 km south of Cairo. The computed hypocentral depth of the earthquake, about 25 km, is consistent with the fact that fault rupture associated with the earthquake did not reach the surface. 

  8. Seismicity and kinematic evolution of middle Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, A.; Abdel-Monem, S. M.; Sakr, K.; Ali, Sh. M.

    2006-08-01

    Based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as recent GPS measurements, the seismicity and kinematic evaluation of middle Egypt is presented. Middle Egypt suffered in historical times by six major earthquakes and the Ramses II temple on the west bank of the Nile in Luxor, was almost destroyed by an ancient event. The temporal distribution of recent earthquakes (1900-1997) is highly scattered with only nine events recorded. Only after the installation of the modern Egyptian national seismograph network (ENSN) the seismic record of middle Egypt increased with a total of 280 earthquakes from 1998 to 2004. Focal mechanism solutions of the largest five events during the ENSN's operation period reveal reverse faulting mechanism with minor strike-slip component on the west bank of the Nile, while a normal faulting mechanism dominate in the eastern side. The orientations of both P- and T-axes are consistent with the Red Sea-Gulf of Suez stress field. Dynamic source parameters of these five events were derived from P-wave spectra as well. Three campaigns of GPS measurements were carried out for the middle Egypt network that established after the first instrumental earthquake on 14 December 1998 in this area. The velocity vectors for each epoch of observations were calculated and deformation analysis was performed. The horizontal velocity varies between 1 and 4 mm/year across the network. The deformation pattern suggests significant contraction across the southeastern sector of the study area while, the northwestern part is characterized by an extension strain rates. High shear strain is observed along the epicenteral area of the Mw = 4.0 June 2003 earthquake possibly reflecting the stress accumulation stage of a seismic cycle.

  9. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Ptolemaic pharaohs and endured until the suicide of Cleopatra in 30 B.C., at which time direct Roman control was instituted. The early Ptolemies were...Idfu) and Den- ,Ata (present-day Dandarah). The last of the Ptolemies was Cleopatra , the wife of Julius Cae- sar and later Mark Antony. During her...reign, Egypt again became a factor in Mediterranean politics. Cleopatra was a woman of genius and a worthy opponent of Rome. Her main preoccupations were

  10. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  11. GPS-GRAVIMETRIC GEOID DETERMINATION IN EGYPT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to improve the geoid byGPS/leveling data in Egypt.Comparisons of the gravimetric geoid with GPS/leveling data have been performed.On the basis of a gravimetric geoid fitted to GPS/leveling by the least square method,a smoothed geoid was obtained.A high-resolution geoid in Egypt was computed with a 2.5′×2.5′ grid by combining the data set of 2 600 original point gravity values,30″×30″ resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) grid and the spherical harmonic model EGM96.The method of computation involved the strict evaluation of the Stokes integral with 1D-FFT.The standard deviation of the difference between the gravimetric and the GPS/leveling geoid heights is ±0.47 m.The standard deviation after fitting of the gravimetric geoid to the GPS/leveling points is better than ±13 cm.In the future we will try to improve our geoid results in Egypt by increasing the density of gravimetric coverage.

  12. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

  13. Integrate the Arts. The Art of Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    Presents three art projects that can bring to life the study of ancient Egypt for elementary students. After researching Egypt's history and culture, students can create King Tut masks, make Cleopatra headdresses, and craft cartouche pendants. The article describes the materials needed and steps required to complete each project. (SM)

  14. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  15. Student Academic Freedom in Egypt: Perceptions of University Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain-Al-Dien, Muhammad M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate student academic freedom from the university education students' point of view in Egypt. This study adopted a survey research design in which the questionnaire was the main data collection instrument. The study participants comprised 800 university education students in Egypt. The result of the…

  16. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  17. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  18. Eco and Green cities as new approaches for planning and developing cities in Egy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam K. El Ghorab

    2016-03-01

    This paper will introduce the first practice in planning and developing Green and Eco new city in Egypt (located at Eastern Desert, Sohaj governorate, on the corridor of Upper Egypt⧹Red Sea, including elaboration of its urban structure, land use and its green systems which produce most of its needed infrastructure (specially electricity power network, integrated sewage and solid waste management systems without making any pressures on the national and local existing infrastructure systems. Finally, the paper will conclude lessons learned from the introduced practice, and present recommendations to improve Egyptian cities and make it more sustainable.

  19. Framing Egypt : Roman literary perceptions of Egypt from Cicero to Juvenal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemreize, M.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of Roman literary references to Egypt without preference for one particular period, author or subject, in contrast to most previous scholarship. In doing so, it shows that these references vary greatly, are context-dependent, and cannot be rightly understood when interp

  20. Professor Hassan K. Awwad; The Father of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology in Egypt and the Arab World, His Good Deeds Last Forever and Inspire us for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Mohamed S; El-Badawi, Samy A; Abd Elbaky, Hoda

    2007-03-01

    Our most respected professor Hassan K. Awwad passed away on January 5th, 2007, at the age of 81. He was considered as the father of radiotherapy in Egypt. He was always named "The Professor", as he was the founder of the radiotherapy departments at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University&Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University. He also shared in developing NEMROCK (Kasr El Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine), the place where he graduated and worked during his early years of experience. He, together with professor Reda Hamza, dean of NCI, Cairo at that time, had initiated 7 oncology centers all over Egypt, from Aswan in the South to Dammietta and Damanhour in the North. These 7 centers were developed by the Ministry of Health. Prof. Awwad and Prof. Hamza were responsible for facility providing and plans. They chose all the necessary equipment, tools and personnel. These centers were in action since 1988 and are currently taking care of the oncology patients in a wide area of the country. Prof. Awwad graduated from the Faculty of medicine, Cairo University, in 1949. He had his Medical Doctorate (MD) in Radiotherapy from Alexandria University in 1956. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) awarded him fellowships in France (Institute Gustave Rossy) to gain experience in brachytherapy in 1956 and 1971, England 1956, 1959. Another fellowship was awarded to Prof Awwad in Harvard University (Peter Bent Brigham Hospital) in radiobiology and radiotherapy during the years 1964-1965. He personally and with other members of the National Cancer Institute gave much of their efforts and time to teach, train and guide young radiotherapists, biologists, physicists and radiation therapists through direct on-hand teaching and training as well as holding training courses for radiation oncologists, physicists and technologists. He insisted to ensure its regularity 4 times yearly. These courses trained a lot of personnel from all over Egypt, Sudan

  1. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  2. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  3. Astronomy at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim Malville, J.

    Nabta Playa may contain the oldest human-made features with astronomical alignments in Egypt. In the Late and Terminal Neolithic (7,500-5,400 BP), nomadic pastoralists built a ceremonial center on the western shore of Nabta Playa, consisting of some 30 complex megalithic structures, stone circles, and lines of megaliths crossing the playa. The megaliths may once have aligned with Arcturus, the Belt of Orion, Sirius, and α Cen. Reorientations of the northern set of megaliths suggest a response to precession. Elaborate burials at the nearby cemetery at Gebel Ramlah indicate the nomads consisted of Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations with little social stratification.

  4. Oedematous skin disease of buffalo in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, S A

    2001-05-01

    This review covers a historical view and etiology of oedematous skin disease which affects buffalo in Egypt, the microbiology of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causing the disease: its virulence; clinical signs; mechanism of pathogenesis; histopathology; mode of transmission; immunological aspects; treatment and control. It is concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis serotype II is the main cause of OSD and exotoxin phospholipase D and its lipid contents of the cell wall are the major causes of pathogenesis. After declaring the role of Hippobosca equina in transmission of the causative agent among buffaloes, control of OSD is now available.

  5. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...... images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping....

  6. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    agricultural output, large domestic market , and strategic location between the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Most importantly, the British saw Egypt as vital to...the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE), March 6, 2008. 17 Steven A. Cook, "Adrift on the Nile: The Limits of...widespread due to Israel’s total blockade of Gaza, Hamas’s demand for weapons, and the lack of viable economic alternatives to black market activity on

  7. Morphological and histomorphological structure of testes of the catfish "Clarias gariepinus" from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yasser A; Samei, Nada A Abdel; Zayed, Ahmed Z

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the normal reproductive biology of catfish is of a great importance not only for better understanding of the theory of fish development, but also to be used as a baseline for understanding the pathological changes results form exposure to harmful toxicants. Thus, the aim of the current study was to elucidate the gross anatomical and light microscopic features of the testes of the catfish "Clarias gariepinus" from Egypt. The present study was carried out on 36 mature male catfish (Clarias gariepinus) collected monthly during the spawning period (April-September) throughout the Nile River, crossing Sohag city in Egypt, in the year 2011. Samples were processed for light and electron microscopy. Each testis consisted of two regions, a fringed outer lateral region and a smooth sagittal-medial region. Histological examination revealed that the testis was covered with a highly vascular connective tissue capsule sending septa dividing the testis into seminiferous lobules separated by interstitial connective tissue containing steroid secreting Leydig cells. Seminiferous lobules were made up of spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells; the spermatogenic cells located within cysts formed by the cytoplasmic projections of the Sertoli cells. According to the maturation stages, the seminiferous lobules were classified into three types. Spermatogenic seminiferous lobules were lined with different spermatogenic cells but had few or no spermatozoa. Pubertal seminiferous lobules were packed with spermatozoa with few spermatogenic cells. Spent seminiferous lobules contained remnants of spermatozoa and spermatogenic cells. In conclusion, the testis of catfish Clarias gariepinus from Egypt was similar in structure to other catfish and teleost species.

  8. Framework for Bridges Maintenance in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Abd Elkhalek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approaches for bridges maintenance is proven to be inefficient as they lead to random way of spending maintenance budget and deteriorating bridge conditions. In many cases, maintenance activities are performed due to user complaints. The objective of this paper is to develop a practical and reliable framework to manage the maintenance and repair activities of Bridges network in Egypt considering performance and budget limits. The model solves an optimization problem that maximizes the average condition of the network given the limited budget using Genetic Algorithm (GA. The main tasks of the system are bridge inventory, condition assessment, deterioration using markov model, and maintenance optimization. The developed model takes into account multiple parameters including serviceability requirements, budget allocation, element importance on structural safety and serviceability, bridge impact on network, and traffic. A questionnaire is conducted to complete the research scope. The proposed model is implemented in software, which provides a friendly user interface. The results of the framework are multi – year maintenance plan for the entire network for up to five years. A case study is presented for validating and testing the model with Data collected from “General Authority for Roads, Bridges and Land Transport” in Egypt.

  9. Proceedings of the 1985 Annual DTIC (Defense Technical Information Center) Users Conference Held in Alexandria, Virginia on 23-25 October 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    Sierra Research Corporation 1401 Wilson Boulevard Suite 1100 Arlington, VA 22209 Janice A. Beattie U.S. Army Concepts Analysis Agency 8220...Library AFWL/SUL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 Margaret L. Nicol BMO/AWD Norton AFB, CA 92409 Teresa J. Passanisi AVCO Everett Research Laboratory Revere...Materials Technology Laboratory AMXMR-PL Watertown, MA 02172 Maria A. Samuda HQDA DAIM-RMS-M Room 138, Hoffman Building I Alexandria, VA 22331

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) environmental Workshop (4th) Held in Alexandria, Virginia on 26-28 April 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Copy 0of 37 Copts$ | AD-A285 779 SIDA DOCUMENT D- 1537 I PROCEEDLNGS OF THE FOURTH ANNUAL MAJOR RANGE AND TEST FACILITY BASE (MRTFB...DEFENSE ANALYSES 񓜩 N. Beauregard Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1772 SIDA Log No. HU 94-45640 * III i DEFINITIONS IDA publishes the follewing...woodpecker. The RCW is a good indicator of ecosystem health in VIH -36 I I the longleaf pine ecosystem. This survey identified Eglin as having the fourth

  11. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part Two: A Net Zero Energy Tourist Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to discuss the economical and the environmental analysis of a net zero energy (NZE tourist village in Alexandria, Egypt, by maximizing the renewable energy fraction and minimizing the greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. The hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery system is found to be the optimum hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for the proposed tourist village under the study. The optimum HRES consists of 1600 kW of PV panels (58.09% solar energy penetration, 1000 kW of wind turbines (41.34% wind energy penetration, 1000 kW of power converters, 200 kW diesel generator (only 0.57% diesel generator penetration in addition to 2000 batteries with the capacity of 589 Ah each. The levelized cost of energy (COE from the optimum HRES is $0.17/kWh and the total net present cost (NPC of this system is $15,383,360. Additionally, the maximum renewable energy fraction is 99.1% and the amount of GHG emitted from the optimum HRES is only 31,289 kg/year, which is negligible in comparison with the other system configurations, therefore the optimum HRES can be considered as a green system. In addition to this, the achieved percentage of the capacity shortage and the unmet load in the optimal HRES is only 0% for both.

  12. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  13. Schistosomiasis and cancer in egypt: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Hussein

    2013-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory of pathogenesis. Furthermore, the disease presents with a distinct clinicopathologic profile that is quite different from bladder cancer elsewhere with younger age at presentation, more male predominance, more invasive stages, and occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma pathologic subtype. However, recent data suggest that this profile has been dramatically changed over the past 25 years leading to minimization of the differences between its features in Egypt and that in Western countries. Management of muscle-invasive localized disease is mainly surgery with 5-year survival rates of 30-50%. Although still a debatable issue, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved treatment outcomes including survival and bladder preservation rates in most studies. This controversy emphasizes the need of individualized treatment options based on a prognostic index or other factors that can define the higher risk groups where more aggressive therapy is needed. The treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease has passed through a series of clinical trials since 1970s. These phase II and III trials have included the use of single agent and combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The current standard of systemic chemotherapy of generally fit patients is now the gemcitabine-cisplatin combination. In conclusion, a changing pattern of bladder cancer in Egypt is clearly observed. This is mainly due to the success in the control of Schistosomiasis

  14. Development And Climate Change In Egypt: Focus On Coastal Resources

    OpenAIRE

    M. El Raey; Hagenstad, M.; Smith, J.; Agrawala, S.; M. van Aalst; Conway, D.; Moehner, A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the integrated case study for Egypt carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Egypt are assessed and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios are analyzed to examine the proportion of development assistance activities af...

  15. Perceived stress among tomorrow’s attorneys in Mansoura, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Amr; Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Few data are available on the level and sources of stress among law students in the Middle East generally and in Egypt specifically. We conducted this study to identify the prevalence and predictors of perceived stress among law students in Mansoura University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study covered 426 law students selected through a stratified cluster sampling method. The questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items on sources of...

  16. Present Situation of GPS Observations and Seismicity in and around Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Salah

    2016-07-01

    Egypt has suffered from a numerous of destructive earthquakes such as Aswan earthquake (1981, Mag 5.4) near the High dam, Dahshour earthquake (1992, Mag 5.9) near Cairo city and Aqaba earthquake (1995, Mag 7.2). As the category of earthquake damage includes all the phenomena related to the direct and indirect damages, the Egyptian authorities do a great effort to mitigate the earthquake disasters. The seismicity especially at the zones of high activity is investigated in details in order to obtain the active source zones not only by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) but also by the local seismic networks. Studies of crustal movements in Egypt started as early as 1983 following the occurrence of Aswan earthquake in 1981. The first program for monitoring the crustal deformation has been started in Aswan area during the winter of 1983. Since the year of 1994 till now (currently 24 CORS stations), the geodetic observations by means of Space Technique (GPS) were applied instead of the terrestrial ones to cover some other regions of the country. These regions include Sinai, Gulf of Suez, Greater Cairo, Aswan and the Middle part on the River Nile. Data adjustment and analysis of the repeated GPS campaigns from the different networks prevailed significant movements which may help in more understanding the geodynamics of these regions. In the meantime, GPS measurements of crustal motions for 189 sites extending east-west from the Caucasus Mountains to the Adriatic Sea and north-south from the southern edge of the Eurasian plate to the northern edge of the African plate were carried out to Estimate the plate motions at stations located at different plates. From the previous results, we could find there are some correlations between the computed surface deformation and the earthquake occurrences in Local and regional scales. In the regional scales, the Hellenic arc is the region which shows very well this correlation. While in the Local scales, there are some

  17. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  18. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The emerging evidence of the potentially clinicalimportance of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection(OBI) increases the interest in this topic. OBI mayimpact in several clinical contexts, which include thepossible transmission of the infection, the contributionto liver disease progression, the development ofhepatocellular carcinoma, and the risk of reactivation.There are several articles that have published on OBI inEgyptian populations. A review of MEDLINE databasewas undertaken for relevant articles to clarify theepidemiology of OBI in Egypt. HBV genotype D is theonly detectable genotype among Egyptian OBI patients.Higher rates of OBI reported among Egyptian chronicHCV, hemodialysis, children with malignant disorders, andcryptogenic liver disease patients. There is an evidenceof OBI reactivation after treatment with chemotherapy.The available data suggested that screening for OBI mustbe a routine practice in these groups of patients. Furtherstudies needed for better understand of the epidemiologyof OBI among Egyptian young generations after the eraof hepatitis B vaccination.

  19. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The city is going green. From New York to Copenhagen vegetables are enthusiastically planted on city squares, and buildings are turning green everywhere . The word “plant” is on everyone’s lips, reflecting a growing desire to solve ecological, technical and social challenges in the city. Hovever,...... and urbanism, who reflect upon the multiple roles of plants in the future city through their most recent projects. The theme for the 2012 World in Denmark conference is City PLANTastic, which will also be explored by researchers through their works....

  20. Dewatering using groundwater modelling in Al-Fustat area, Old Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy A.A. Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find a solution for the groundwater uprising in Al-Fustat area – Old Cairo, Egypt. A 3-D finite Difference Model (Visual MODFLOW-Ver. 3.1 has been used to simulate the impact of different alternative solutions in order to select the best suitable one. The result of geophysical survey, twenty bore holes data, hydro-geological data and satellite images were used to construct and calibrate the numerical model of Al-Fustat city. Finally, the recommended solution is a combination of pumping wells and tile drains. The results of this solution indicate that using pumping rate of 200 m3/day achieves 2–3 m drawdown which meets the target.

  1. Epidemiology of non-fatal cerebrovascular stroke and transient ischemic attacks in Al Quseir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tallawy HN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El-Tallawy,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Nabil M Abdel-Hakeem,2 Tarek A Rageh,1 Reda Badry,1 Mahmoud R Kandil1 1Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assiut branch, Assuit, Egypt Background and purpose: Stroke is a medical emergency that can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and disability. We aim to determine the epidemiology of non-fatal cerebrovascular stroke (CVS and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs in Al Quseir City, Red Sea, Egypt. Methods: The total population (n=33,285 was screened through a door to door study by three specialists of neurology and 15 female social workers (for demographic data collection. All suspected stroke patients were subjected to a full clinical examination, computerized tomography (CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of their brain, blood sugar, lipogram, serum uric acid, complete blood cells, blood urea, and serum creatinine, as well as evaluated by Barthel Index and Scandinavian Stroke Scale. Carotid doppler, echocardiography, and thyroid functions were done for selected cases. Results: CVS was recorded among 130 patients out of 19,848 subjects aged 20 years and more, yielding a total prevalence of 6.55/1,000 population. From June 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011, 36 patients were recorded to have stroke within 1-year, yielding an incidence rate of 1.81/1,000. Prevalence and incidence rates were higher among males than females, and both indices increased steadily with advancing age to reach the highest prevalence (37.02/1,000 and incidence rate (9.5/1,000 among aged persons 60 years and more. Conclusion: The prevalence of non-fatal stroke in Al Quseir city (6.55/1,000 was at the lower range of that recorded in developing countries (5–10/1,000 and slightly higher than that recorded in industrialized countries (5/1,000 population. Ischemic stroke is the most

  2. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  3. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    s moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city......, the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  4. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated by the st......This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  5. Experimental Investigation Related To Some Predicted Results Of Reliable High Frequency Radio Communication Links Between Benghazi-Libya And Cairo-Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousef Ahmed Abou-Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the central radio propagation laboratory (CRPL method of ionospheric prediction of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS in U.S.A was used in practical calculations of the optimal working frequencies for reliable high frequency (HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Cairo-Egypt. The results were drawn in the form of curves by using the computer. The computer was used to measure the received signal level variation of frequencies 11.980 MHz, 11.785 MHz which were transmitted with a power of 250 KW, 100 KW respectively from the Egypt Arabic Republic Broadcasting station in Cairo city, directed to the North Africa and South Europe regions. The measurements were taken during daytime's for winter (December, January& February and summer (June, July & August seasons.

  6. New Media and Political Dissent in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschkind, Charles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways that the Internet, and particularly the practice of blogging, has opened up new political possibilities in Egypt. As I examine, political bloggers in this country (Islamist as well as secularist have pioneered new language forms and video styles in order to articulate an arena of political life they refer to as “the street.” Egyptian bloggers render visible and publicly speakable practices of state violence that other media outlets cannot easily disclose. In discussing the sensory epistemology informing these blogging practices, I give particular attention to the way traditions concerning the sonority of the Arabic language and the relation of written to spoken forms are exploited and reworked by some of Egypt’s most prominent political bloggers. I also examine how these language practices find a visual and aural analogy in the grainy cellphone video recordings found on many of Egypt’s political blogs. This paper analyzes such practices in relation to emergent forms of political agency and contestation in contemporary Egypt.

    El autor explora algunos de los modos como Internet, en particular el escribir y publicar en un blog, ha abierto nuevas posibilidades políticas en Egipto. El estudio revela que los blogueros políticos en este país (que incluye tanto a islamistas como a laicistas han creado nuevas formas de lenguaje y nuevos estilos de vídeo con los que vertebrar un espacio de vida política al que se refieren como “la calle”. Los blogueros egipcios hacen visibles y motivo de debate público acciones violentas del Estado que otros medios informativos no pueden divulgar con la misma facilidad. El autor se detiene especialmente en el modo como los blogueros políticos más sobresalientes del país recurren y adaptan las tradiciones relativas a la sonoridad de la lengua árabe y a la conexión que existe en ella entre las formas habladas y las escritas. Asimismo, examina el modo como

  7. "Breaking the bureaucracy": drug registration and neocolonial relations in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, R A

    1998-06-01

    According to the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the per capita use of prescription drugs in Egypt is amongst the highest in the world. Multinational pharmaceutical companies license their proprietary products for manufacture and sale in Egypt through their Egyptian subsidiaries. A Ministry of Health Committee reviews and approves for sale all drugs marketed in the country. Aside from being an extremely lucrative market itself, approval of a drug for sale and manufacture in Egypt also opens to the pharmaceutical companies other markets in the Arab world. The Egyptian drug approval process is thus both important for assuring the health of Egyptian nationals and a high-stakes activity for the pharmaceutical companies. This paper examines the social relations and interactions of multinational pharmaceutical representatives in Egypt with Egyptian researchers in relation to the Ministry of Health's drug approval process. From time-to-time events focus attention on the huge financial rewards reaped by multinational pharmaceutical companies from their activities in lesser developed countries. This attention not infrequently has revealed the "drugging of the Third World" as a result of actions by expatriate multinational pharmaceutical officials. Indigenous review procedures such as those established by the Egyptian Ministry of Health might guard against such external exploitation. This paper shows how in place of external exploitation, indigenous pharmaceutical company officials have manipulated local patterns of social interaction to construct a system of reciprocal obligations which may frustrate intended safeguards, and by reconstructing colonial institutional structures, creates a pattern of neocolonialism in Egypt.

  8. Identifying the Practice of Tattooing in Ancient Egypt and Nubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey J. Tassie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for tattooing for a period spanning at least 4000 years – the longest known history of tattooing in the world. The second oldest physical evidence for tattooing worldwide was recovered from Middle Kingdom contexts in Egypt and C-Group contexts in Nubia (the Hanslabjoch ice man being the oldest. It has been suggested that tattooing was also practised in the Predynastic period as evidenced by figurines with geometric designs, however, no physical evidence for tattooing has yet been found for this early period. Strangely there is almost no mention of tattooing in ancient Egyptian written records. Historical and ethnographic records indicate that tattooing was also practised much more recently in the Coptic, Islamic and modern eras. Unlike many past societies, tattooing in Egypt appears to have been a custom practised almost exclusively on women. Tattooing tools have not yet been positively identified from ancient Egypt. Ethnographic sources suggest that bundles of metal rods were used in Egypt’s more recent history. This paper discusses physical and iconographic evidence for tattooing in ancient Egypt and investigates whether five copper rods found at Kafr Hassan Dawood, a Predynastic to Early Dynastic site in the East Delta, could be physical evidence for tattooing during this early period.

  9. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  10. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity.

  11. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  12. Atypical Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  13. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  14. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    experiments are taking place in ‘the instant city’, and how can it be characterized? It also emphasizes the relation between city life, urban design, and the aesthetics of architecture and urban spaces. The question here is, in what way architecture and urban scenography are used as tools to support the goal...... of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography.......This article analyses Roskilde Festival as an Instant City. For more than 40 years, Roskilde Festival has had many thousands participants for a weeklong festival on music, performances and cultural experiences in a layout designed as an urban environment. During the last ten years, in- creasing...

  15. The Antiquities Trade in Egypt 1880-1930

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Frederik Norland; Ryholt, Kim

    The vast collections of Egyptian objects on display in Western museums attract millions of visitors every year, and they reinforce a cultural fascination for this ancient civilisation that has been a feature of European intellectual history since Roman times. This book tells the story of how...... these objects came to be here. The book presents the first in-depth analysis of this market during its “golden age” in Egypt in the late 19th and early 20th Century. It is primarily based on the archival material of the Danish Egyptologist H. O. Lange (1863-1943) who, during two prolonged stays in Egypt (1899...... of transmission of objects, as well as the different types of dealers operating in Egypt. The geographical distribution of dealers is mapped, and the role of the Egyptian state as dealer is investigated, both through official sale rooms, and as a seller and exporter of more or less complete tomb...

  16. A dynamic simulation model of desertification in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasmy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a system dynamic model to simulate and analyze potential future state of desertification in Egypt. The presented model enhances the MEDALUS methodology developed by European Commission. It illustrates the concept of desertification through different equations and simulation output graphs. It is supplemented with a causal loop diagram showing the feedback between different variables. For the purpose of testing and measuring the effect of different policy scenarios on desertification in Egypt, a simulation model using stock and flow diagram was designed. Multi-temporal data were used to figure out the dynamic changes in desertification sensitivity related to the dynamic nature of desert environment. The model was applied to Al Bihira governorate in western Nile Delta, Egypt, as the study area, and the results showed that the urban expansion, salinization, and not applying the policy enforcement are considered the most variables provoking the desertification.

  17. THE FIRST TURKISH GOVERNOR OF EGYPT IN EARLY MIDDLE AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik ISMAYILOV

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to Egypt in the early medieval period, the governor was given information about Abu Salih al-Haresi. Abbasid rule during the administration of the state’s role in the Turks spoke of Turkey’s first governor of Egypt from the previous situation was briefly explained. Abu-l-Abbas es-Seffah of the first Abbasid caliph in time, the Turks took place in the army while during the second Caliph Abu Jafar Al-Mensur was brought up to the task state. The third caliph al-Mahdi gave the Egyptian governor to Abu Salih al-Haresi, having Turkish origin. Abu Salih’s personality, his beeing governor to Egypt and the information about his activities were analysed basing on international resources.

  18. Television minidramas: social marketing and evaluation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S D

    1997-06-01

    Television has been extensively used to communicate health messages for over a decade in Egypt. Viewers of the evening soap operas have been seeing six commercials for family planning, oral rehydration solution (ORS), and immunizations. People of all social classes can sing the jingles of the most popular ads. The producers of these health spots use increasingly sophisticated story lines, settings, and characters representing rural peasants, played by popular and well-liked actors. Evaluation of the content and impact of these messages has lagged behind the creative sophistication of their production. This article reviews the context and content of televised health messages in Egypt during the 1980s, critically assesses the evaluation of mass media health education, and suggests strategies for more effective evaluation. The author worked for some years with a private donor agency that funded the production of a number of televised health commercials in Egypt.

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  20. Exporting a Scandinavian Learning Model to Egypt and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Youssef, Sandra Safwat; Bygholm, Ann; Jæger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    many challenges. In this paper, we will present findings from an ethnographic study of the learning systems in higher education in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The sample includes undergraduate level classes taught in Denmark, Egypt and Vietnam. The selected learning setting include an 'Academic......The recent advances in technology have made the process of exporting Western education more easy, and Blended Learning techniques is often the method of choice for exported educational programs. Although, in theory, this make perfect sense, yet in practice, the export of education has encountered...

  1. Women's Status, Autonomy, and Fertility in Transitional Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Samari, Goleen

    2015-01-01

    Among the 22 Arab countries, Egypt ranks amongst the worst for the treatment of women. Additionally, in the last 6 years, fertility surged to a 20-year high of 3.5 births per woman. Poorer women’s status and autonomy is often linked to high fertility; however, little is known about the factors that shape women’s autonomy and fertility in Egypt. This study evaluates determinants of women’s autonomy and the relationship between autonomy and fertility over time in a representative, longitudinal ...

  2. An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Khaled M.; Abdel-Aziz, M.; Nazmy, Taymour T.; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M.

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and patterns of agents' i...

  3. Food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SHEHATA, Gaber Ahmed Bassyouni

    2015-01-01

    The research aims mainly to study food gap and food security of sugar in Egypt through studying of several sub-goals represented in: estimating models of general trends function for some economic indicators of sugar in Egypt during the period (1995- 2012), studying of the most important indicators of food security of sugar, estimating the size of the food gap of sugar and knowledge of the most important factors responsible for, and studying the policies and means to achieve food security of s...

  4. Impact of human interventions and coastal processes along the Nile Delta coast, Egypt during the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham M. Ali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone of the Nile Delta lodges highly populated cities (e.g. Alexandria, Port Said together with small towns and villages. It represents the major industrial, agricultural, and economic resource of the country. The area has been subjected to extensive and excessive unplanned developmental projects to foster the economic status of the local communities that, however, negatively impacted both land use and land cover characteristics. Satellite images were processed to identify the dominant land use/cover classes (from 1990 to 2014 and GIS techniques spatially analyzed and quantified the rate of changes. Five dominant classes were identified and their changes monitored against the unprecedented human activities. Results demonstrated a significant rate of land forms transformation within the last 25 years, in favor of developing of fish farming (+13% and urban (+22%. Such development of these land use classes was unfortunately at the expense of the agricultural land (−15%, coastal dune and barren land (−13% and water bodies (−7%. In addition, the coastal processes have made significant changes in the shoreline creating areas of erosion (maximum of 24–36 m/year and others of accretion (a total accreted area of 3.14 km2 with an overall retreat of 2.7 km2 along the shoreline. The expected changes in climate and sea level rise will worsen the erosion rate and the general status of the coastal zone. Based on the IPCC scenarios (i.e. the 59 cm sea level rise by the end of this century and the proposed land subsidence (2.5 mm/year, one fifth of the Nile Delta will be seriously vulnerable to inundation.

  5. Seismic hazard assessment in Aswan, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deif, A.; Hamed, H.; Ibrahim, H. A.; Abou Elenean, K.; El-Amin, E.

    2011-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment around Aswan is very important due to the proximity of the Aswan High Dam. The Aswan High Dam is based on hard Precambrian bedrock and is considered to be the most important project in Egypt from the social, agricultural and electrical energy production points of view. The seismotectonic settings around Aswan strongly suggest that medium to large earthquakes are possible, particularly along the Kalabsha, Seiyal and Khor El-Ramla faults. The seismic hazard for Aswan is calculated utilizing the probabilistic approach within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for eight ground motion spectral periods and for a return period of 475 years, which is deemed appropriate for structural design standards in the Egyptian building codes. The results were also displayed in terms of uniform hazard spectra for rock sites at the Aswan High Dam for return periods of 475 and 2475 years. In addition, the ground-motion levels are also deaggregated at the dam site, in order to provide insight into which events are the most important for hazard estimation. The peak ground acceleration ranges between 36 and 152 cm s-2 for return periods of 475 years (equivalent to 90% probability of non-exceedance in 50 years). Spectral hazard values clearly indicate that compared with countries of high seismic risk, the seismicity in the Aswan region can be described as low at most sites to moderate in the area between the Kalabsha and Seyial faults.

  6. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Wahid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  7. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  8. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  9. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  10. Model cities

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, M.

    2007-01-01

    The term ?model? is now central to our thinking about how weunderstand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways inwhich we use ?models?, linking these ideas to Abercrombie?sexposition of Town and Country Planning which represented thestate of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models asphysical representations of the city, tracing the development ofsymbolic models where the focus is on simulating how functiongenerates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representi...

  11. [Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11…

  12. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  13. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  14. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Nasser’s Egypt, Austin: Univ. of Texas Press, 1971. Meisel, J.H., The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano Mosca and the Elite, Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan... Mosca called the "second strata of the ruling class" - the strata without which the leadership could not 27 rule (Meisel 1962, p. 217]. The clientage

  15. Political Exclusion and Violence: The Islamist movement in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Islamist Social Movements. Edited by Quintan Wiktorowicz, Islamic Activism, a Social Movement Theory Approach, (Bloomington; Indiana University Press...East International, 16 April 2004, 25. Singerman, Diane. The Networked World of Islamist Social Movements. Edited by Quintan Wiktorowicz, Islamic...Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism, and Political Change in Egypt. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. 104 Wiktorowicz, Quintan

  16. Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur F.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

  17. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I…

  18. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  19. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  20. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  1. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  2. The Politics of Educational Transfer and Policymaking in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ali S.

    2010-01-01

    For the past two centuries, western modern education has informed education policies and practices in Egypt. However, few researchers have analyzed the historical or current politics of educational transfer in this country. This article investigates the ways in which foreign transfer has influenced Egyptian education, both historically and…

  3. Archaeocidaris M’Coy (Echinoidea) from the Carboniferous of Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, D.N.; Donovan, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Collections in museums usually have boxes of specimens which remain ‘undiscovered’ and yet which may be of importance or interest. The recent rediscovery of specimens of Archaeocidaris in the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden, from the Carboniferous of Egypt illustrates this point. These spe

  4. 77 FR 33439 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Arab country with a population of 90 million, Egypt is the fourth largest export market for U.S...-revolution), airports and seaports will need upgraded security systems. Police and customs authorities will... fencing and intruder sensing, industrial access controls, maritime surveillance and protection,...

  5. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.; Badger, J.

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricity-producing wind turbine installations. The regional w...

  6. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  7. Attenuation of seismic waves in Central Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas Morsy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of seismic waves in central Egypt had never been studied before. The results of the research on the seismic attenuation are based upon the information collected by the seismological network from 1998 to 2011. 855 earthquakes were selected from the Egyptian seismological catalog, with their epicenter distances between 15 and 150 km, their magnitudes ranging from 2 and 4.1 and focal depths reaching up to 30 km. The first systematic study of attenuation derived from the P-, S- and coda wave in the frequency range 1–24 Hz is presented. In the interpretation of the results both single and multiple scattering in a half space are considered. The single scattering model proposed by Sato (1977 was used. Two methods, the coda (Qc and the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW method are used. The aim of this study is to validate these interpretations in the region and to try to identify the effects of attenuation due to intrinsic (Qi and scattering attenuation (Qsc. The mean Qc value calculated was Qc = (39 ± 1f1.0±0.009. The average Qc at 1.5 Hz is (53 ± 6 and Qc = (900 ± 195 at 24 Hz with Qo ranging between 23 and 107, where η ranging between 0.9 and 1.3. The quality factor (Q was estimated from spectra of P- and S-waves by applying a spectral ratio technique. The results show variations in Qp and QS as a function of frequency, according to the power law Q = 56η1.1. The seismic albedo is 0.7 at all stations and it mean that the earthquake activity is due to tectonic origin. The attenuation and frequency dependency for different paths and the correlation of the results with the geotectonic of the region are presented. The Qc values were calculated and correlated with the geology and tectonics of the area. The relatively low Qo and the high frequency dependency agree with the values of a region characterized by a low tectonic activity and vise versa.

  8. プトレマイオス1世による都市アレクサンドリアの文化政策―<図書館>とセラピス神をめぐって―

    OpenAIRE

    森, 貴史; Mori, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    After Alexander the Great died, his successor Ptolemy I, known as Ptolemy Soter, became the ruler of Egypt and set about making the Mediterranean city, Alexandria, not only the center of politics, but also the center of learning and culture. Soter also founded the Great Library of Alexandria (hereinafter referred to as the Great Library), and the Great Library became most famous for its collection of cultural and intellectual works in the ancient world. All the remains and sites, however, wer...

  9. Soft Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders; Yoneda, Akira; Nakamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a project exploring sustainable ways of urban living. The project renders a scenario comprised of an array of simple conversions of existing urban spaces and buildings, in the attempt to tie strategies ranging from urban planning to interior design into a coherent vision...... of a sustainable future. The project is the result of a joint research study between Denmark and Japan. Taking as its example the city of Kyoto, the project investigates some possible strategies on how cities more generally may be transformed into liveable, healthy and ecologically sensible environments....

  10. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin...... down the consquences of these developments, to elocidate the interplay between funscapes and fear culture, and to account for the meaning of new concepts and new phenomena such as "event culture", "urban scenography", "experience economy","city branding" and "cultural planning"....

  11. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services......, problems seem to multiply in what has becom known as city branding. This analysis of the communicational aspects of two Danish provincial towns´ branding efforts examines both their internally and externally directed communication. It demonstrates that an insufficient understanding of - or willingness...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  12. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  13. Obstacles Facing Promoting Tourism for Islamic Landmarks from the Perspective of Tour Operators in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The UNESCO launched a campaign #unite4heritage in Egypt to defeat extremism and intolerance. The message of such campaigne is peace, dialogue and unity embedded in cultural heritage. As culture and tourism are linked together, such message could be delivered through improving culture heritage tourism in Egypt. Islamic landmarks  are considered as a part of human heritage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify how much tour operators in Egypt include Islamic landmarks in their pr...

  14. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    /assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  15. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  16. Vacant city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzot, N.

    2013-01-01

    Abandoned places that the crisis has multiplied, unaware wrecks of a project of civilization that has consumed its thrust and life-giving function, are waiting for new desirable interpretations, they are an expression of a possible city in opposition to the existing, even if not recognized by any in

  17. Sin City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, Pieter A.; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen N.

    2007-01-01

    Is moving to the countryside a credible commitment device for couples? We investigate whether lowering the arrival rate of potential alternative partners by moving to a less populated area lowers the dissolution risk for a sample of Danish couples. We find that of the couples who married in the city

  18. The practice and politics of archaeology in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskell, L

    2000-01-01

    Archaeologists working in Egypt have rarely considered the local/global ramifications and responsibilities of their field practices: many continue to operate under what might be termed the residual effects of colonialism. Taking an explicitly postcolonial stance I argue that there is much more at stake than the intellectual enterprise. This paper outlines the ways in which scholars could undertake a more engaged archaeology and how we might more closely be involved with the people and pasts of modern Egypt. The connected tensions of tourism and terrorism are foregrounded, demonstrating that heritage issues are salient to both spheres. Finally, I explore the nation's relationship to its pharaonic past over the past few centuries and include some contemporary articulations and representations.

  19. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  20. Climate change and predicted trend of fungal keratitis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Hussein, A; El-Mofty, H M; Hassanien, M A

    2011-06-01

    Rising rates of invasive fungal infections may be linked to global climate change. A study was made of the trend of ophthalmic fungal corneal keratitis in the greater Cairo area of Egypt and its association with climate records during the same period. Data on diagnosed cases of fungal keratitis were collected from records of ophthalmic departments of Cairo University hospital and atmospheric temperature and humidity for the greater Cairo area were obtained from online records. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase in the relative frequency of keratomycosis during 1997-2007. The rise correlated significantly with rises n min,mum temperature and the maximum atmospheric humidity in the greater Cairo area over the same period (after exclusion of the effect of the maximum atmos pheric temperature). The predicted increase in keratomycosis up to the year 2030 corresponds to predicted increases in CO2 emissions and surface temperature from climate change models for Egypt.

  1. Resistance to Mobile Banking Adoption in Egypt: A Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehaballah Elbadrawy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile banking (m-banking faces various types of resistance that may hinder customers’ adoption inEgypt. This study identifies three groups of m-banking non-adopters, namely postponers, opponents andrejectors. The objective of the study is to explore the reasons for resisting m-banking services in Egypt andwhether it differs with regards to these customer groups. Accordingly, a questionnaire was distributed, Chisquare tests, Kruskal-Wallis H tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test. Frequencies andcross tabulations were used. The results indicate that the three non-adopter groups differ significantly withrespect to usage, value, and image barriers. On the other hand, risk and tradition barriers did not showany statistical significance; however, risk barrier received the highest overall mean. Significant relationsbetween usage, risk and image barriers with the gender and level of education were noted. Finally, findingsenabled a clear mapping between Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the study’s results.

  2. An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and patterns of agents' interactions. Analysis of modeling results leads to understanding the characteristics of the modeled pandemic, transmission patterns, and the conditions under which an outbreak might occur. In addition, the proposed model is used to measure the effectiveness of different control strategies to intervene the pandemic spread.

  3. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus among women older than 18 years in Egypt: a multicenter, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fadel Shaltout

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The overall prevalence of HPV in Egypt was 10.4% and was highest (9.2% amongst women aged 45–54 years. These data provide important reference information for public health authorities considering HPV prevention in Egypt.

  4. Inflation and Inflation Uncertainty Revisited: Evidence from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbah Fathy Sharaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The welfare costs of inflation and inflation uncertainty are well documented in the literature and empirical evidence on the link between the two is sparse in the case of Egypt. This paper investigates the causal relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty in Egypt using monthly time series data during the period January 1974–April 2015. To endogenously control for any potential structural breaks in the inflation time series, Zivot and Andrews (2002 and Clemente–Montanes–Reyes (1998 unit root tests are used. The inflation–inflation uncertainty relation is modeled by the standard two-step approach as well as simultaneously using various versions of the GARCH-M model to control for any potential feedback effects. The analyses explicitly control for the effect of the Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program (ERSAP undertaken by the Egyptian government in the early 1990s, which affected inflation rate and its associated volatility. Results show a high degree of inflation–volatility persistence in the response to inflationary shocks. Granger-causality test along with symmetric and asymmetric GARCH-M models indicate a statistically significant bi-directional positive relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty, supporting both the Friedman–Ball and the Cukierman–Meltzer hypotheses. The findings are robust to the various estimation methods and model specifications. The findings of this paper support the view of adopting inflation-targeting policy in Egypt, after fulfilling its preconditions, to reduce the welfare cost of inflation and its related uncertainties. Monetary authorities in Egypt should enhance the credibility of monetary policy and attempt to reduce inflation uncertainty, which will help lower inflation rates.

  5. The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Jordan and Syria: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    20, 2007, 25. 90 Helena Cobban, “The Political Ideas Completing for Support in the Arab World,” The Christian Science Monitor, March 20, 2007, 9...must control her.”116 113 Curtis R. Ryan, “Political Strategies and regime Survival in Egypt...history of the modern Middle East. Colorado: Westview Press, 2004. Cobban, Helena . “The political ideas competing for support in the Arab World” The

  6. Restoration and Conservation of Islamic Monuments in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-15

    ENGINEERING CENTER for ARCHAEOLOGY and ENVIRONMENT, BACKGROUND THE PRESENT STRUCTURE of the EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES ORGANIZATION ABSTRACTS (AVAILABLE AS OF 8...serve as an outpost in Egypt for American institutions with archaeological programs. ARCE established a perma- nent office in Cairo to assist expedition...catalog of the Luxor Museum. The last decade saw ARCE grow tremendously, with the introduction of lectures, tours and symposia for the Egyptian and American

  7. Adjustment of wheat production to market reform in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Kherallah, Mylène; Minot,Nicholas; Gruhn, Peter

    1999-01-01

    In response to slow growth in the agricultural sector and as part of a general shift towards a more market-oriented economy, the Government of Egypt started liberalizing the agricultural sector in 1987. Controls over wheat production and marketing were eliminated and wheat producer prices were brought closer to international levels. As a result, there has been remarkable increases in wheat crop area and yields, causing wheat production to triple from 1986 to 1998. This study analyzes the resu...

  8. On the Formation of the Early Territorial Statein Ancient Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at a reinterpretation of the formation of the earlyterritorial state in ancient Egypt from a multi-perspective. In the light ofthe recent studies on the available written material and new excavations,the author seeks to prove that the emergence of the early territorial statewas the result of the interaction of various elements. In the author'sopinion, the strong political ambition of the Upper Egyptian ruling elitesplayed a decisive role in the process of unification.

  9. Maternal mortality: a tertiary care hospital experience in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abbas

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Preeclampsia and PPH, as well as their complications are the leading causes of death in one of the biggest tertiary care university hospitals in Egypt. However, there are other important avoidable predisposing factors that should be dealt with including lack of patient education, delayed transfer from other hospitals, and substandard practice. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1466-1471

  10. JPRS Report Near East and South Asia: Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    their property , or shed-Tokyo from 18 to 19 May includes counselor Hajir al- Iding their blood. The history of Islam in this regard is the Islambuli...of misunderstanding and alleged Alleged Fear fears about Islam and its threat to Western culture. Islamic intelectual Dr. Muhammad ’Amarah stresses...honorable members of the Misr Salih was dismissed and Major General ’Abdallah Rushdi al-Fatah Party, for one purpose-the good of Egypt-and on ,was unanimously

  11. Hotline in Egypt marks change in government attitude to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The first 24-hour AIDS hotline in the Arab world will open in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1995. The opening of the new service marks a change in attitude on the part of the Egyptian government, which has maintained a discreet AIDS control program in the past. Approval from religious leaders was necessary for the new program to begin; the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) played a prominent role in negotiations. The "Counsel and Hot Line Centre," which will be based in Imbala district, will employ 19 people, including two doctors and two psychologists. The Centre was funded with US$300,000 from the Ford Foundation. Currently, 478 persons with HIV infections and 110 people with AIDS have been reported. The ministry estimates that there are 5000-7000 persons with HIV infections in Egypt. Although these figures were greeted with suspicion by organizations outside of Egypt, subsequent testing has indicated low prevalence rates for this country, despite high tourism and a large population of migrant workers.

  12. RECURRENT/PERSISTENT PNEUMONIA AMONG CHILDREN IN UPPER EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Saad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: Recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children continues to be a major challenge for the paediatricians. We aimed to determine the prevalence and underlying causes of recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children in Upper Egypt. Settings: Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.   Methods: Patients with pneumonia admitted to the hospital during 2 years were investigated (microbiological, biochemical, immunological and radiological tests for recurrent/persistent pneumonia to determine its prevalence and to find out the underlying causes.   Results: 113 out of 1228 patients (9.2% met the diagnosis of recurrent/persistent pneumonia. Identified causes were;  aspiration syndromes (17.7%, pulmonary TB (14%, congenital heart disease (11.5%, bronchial asthma (9.7%, immune deficiency disorders (8.8% and vitamin D deficiency rickets (7%. Other causes included; congenital anomalies of the respiratory tract, interstitial lung diseases, bronchiectasis, and sickle cell anemia. No predisposing factors could be identified in 15% of cases. Conclusion: Approximately 1 in 10 children with pneumonia in our locality had recurrent/persistent pneumonia. The most frequent underlying cause for recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children in Upper Egypt is aspiration syndromes, followed by pulmonary TB.

  13. A background to the feminist movement in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodfar, H

    1992-01-01

    The origins of the feminist movement in Egypt can be traced back to the social restructuring that occurred during the reign of Mohammed Ali (1805-48). At that time, a debate raged over whether female education was essential to national development. Reformers such as Kassim Amin argued in favor of education for all women and condemned polygamy, supporting their arguments with references to the Koran. Women from the upper classes used their wealth, over which Muslim law gives them full control, to found hospitals, schools, and training centers. By 1914, there were 14 magazines devoted to women's issues. Women participated in anticolonial movements and nationalist party activities while continuing to advocate improvements in women's status. In 1924, Egypt became the 1st Islamic country to deveil women without state intervention. The Egyptian Feminist Party was founded in 1923, and the Women's Political Party was established in 1942 to coordinate the fight for women's equality and the revision of family law. Women's full political rights gained recognition when Egypt won independence in 1956, and the 1st female Minister, Hekmat Abu-Zaid, was appointed in 1962. Ironically, the feminist movement stagnated in the 1st few decades after independence as women's organizations became coopted into the state. The movement has been revitalized, however, by Islamic attacks on women's rights.

  14. Active surveillance for avian influenza virus, Egypt, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Gomaa, Mokhtar M; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Moatasim, Yassmin; Bagato, Ola; Cai, Zhipeng; Rubrum, Adam; Kutkat, Mohamed A; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webster, Robert G; Webby, Richard J; Ali, Mohamed A

    2014-04-01

    Continuous circulation of influenza A(H5N1) virus among poultry in Egypt has created an epicenter in which the viruses evolve into newer subclades and continue to cause disease in humans. To detect influenza viruses in Egypt, since 2009 we have actively surveyed various regions and poultry production sectors. From August 2010 through January 2013, >11,000 swab samples were collected; 10% were positive by matrix gene reverse transcription PCR. During this period, subtype H9N2 viruses emerged, cocirculated with subtype H5N1 viruses, and frequently co-infected the same avian host. Genetic and antigenic analyses of viruses revealed that influenza A(H5N1) clade 2.2.1 viruses are dominant and that all subtype H9N2 viruses are G1-like. Cocirculation of different subtypes poses concern for potential reassortment. Avian influenza continues to threaten public and animal health in Egypt, and continuous surveillance for avian influenza virus is needed.

  15. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad A Shalaby

    2011-01-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future.

  16. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities ...... of being mobile, as well as profoundly altering the process and perspective of data collection and feedback to governments, businesses and citizens.......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid...

  17. Holocene evolution of Dahab coastline - Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdy, Torab

    2016-04-01

    Dahab was a little Bedouin-village in Sinai Peninsula at the mid-western coast of Gulf of Aqaba approx. 90 km north of Sharm-el-Sheikh City and it means "gold" in Arabic language. But in the past 20 years ago it becomes one of the most tourist sites in Egypt. The basement complex is composed mostly of biotiteaplite-granite, mica-aplitegranite, granodiorite, quartzdiorite, alaskite, and diorite. Based on correlation with similar igneous in the most southern part of Sinai and the Red Sea area. Wadi Dahab composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks and the coastline is formed of the fragments of its rocks, mixed with fragments of coral reef and fluvial deposits of Wadi Dahab. The morphology of Dahab coastline is characterized by hooked marine spit, which composed of fluvial sediments carried by marine current from wadi Dahab mouth, this spit encloses shallow lagoon, but the active deposition on the lagoon bottom will evaluate it into saline marsh. This paper dealing with the evolution of Dahab spit and lagoon during the Holocene in addition to the recent time for last 100 years, and it impacts of the future management of the coast area. The coastline mapping during the period of study depends upon GIS technique for data were collected during field measuring by using total station, aerial photo and satellite image interpretation as well as soil sample dating. Suggested geomorphological evolution of Dahab area during the Holocene depending upon geomorphic investigation of the sedimentological process into 6 stages.

  18. Environmental Lead Exposure among Primary School Children in Shebin El-Kom District, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HM Gabr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead still remains an important problem for poor, inner-city, ethnic minority children, with a particular emphasis on lead paint and dust. In Egypt, there is no national survey about the prevalence of elevated blood lead level among children.Objective: To assess the environmental lead level as well as to determine blood lead level among primary school children and find out its relationship with their intelligent quotient (IQ, hemoglobin level, hearing impairment and school performance.Methods: 190 primary school children from rural and urban areas were selected and their blood lead levels (BLL, hemoglobin concentrations, IQ, hearing threshold and school performance were measured. Also, environmental lead level was measured in the school and home.Results: The mean value of environmental lead (μg/m3 in urban schools air was significantly higher than that in rural areas. BLL had a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin level and IQ; it was positively correlated with the hearing threshold. With increasing BLL, the school performance of children decreased significantly.Conclusion: Exposure to lead would deteriorate IQ, school performance and hearing level of school children. Even in the absence of overt clinical manifestations of lead toxicity, lead intoxication should be among differential diagnosis in children presenting anemia, intellectual impairment, poor academic performance and hearing impairment.

  19. Education in Ancient and the Present Egypt: From 4000 B.C. to A.D. 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Nour Eldin

    The discovery and deciphering of the Rosetta stone led to a rediscovery of Egypt's contribution to world culture and civilization. This document outlines the growth of knowledge and education in ancient Egypt and emphasizes the disciplines of science, medicine, art, philosophy, agriculture, and engineering. Ancient Egypt's decline and the…

  20. 78 FR 13304 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. Based... weeds via the importation of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. DATES: Effective Date: February 27,...

  1. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal H El-Gazzaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up were included in the study. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data after coming back from China were reviewed.Results: For 22 patients of median age 48 years (30–62 and with BMI 27.5 ± 6.2, the median follow-up was 23.5 months (range 1–48; 18 patients were males. Hepatitis C (HCV-cirrhosis alone or with schistosomiasis was the main indication for CLT (n = 12; Hepatitis B (HBV-cirrhosis was the indication for transplantation in two patients, HCV-cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in six, HBV-cirrhosis with HCC in one, and both HBV- and HCV-related cirrhosis with HCC in another. There were eight deaths, one as a result of primary nonfunction, one because of postoperative bleeding, two because of recurrent HCV, and four because of recurrent HCC. Overall survival at one and three years was 68.5% and 64%, respectively, and 50% and 37.5% for HCC patients, respectively, while three-year survival was 80% for hepatitis patients. Twelve patients (54% developed complications. Biliary complications occurred in 45% of cases.Conclusion: CLT tourism to China raises serious concerns regarding selection criteria and ethical issues. Furthermore, the negative impact of this practice on the successful setting up of LT programs in Egypt must be addressed carefully. In Egypt efforts should be directed to get legalization for CLT.Keywords: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, end-stage liver disease, transplantation, Egypt, China

  2. Responding to the challenges of breast cancer in egypt and other arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Saghir, Nagi S

    2008-12-01

    Physicians in Egypt and other Arab and developing countries still have to deal on a daily basis with large numbers of patients with advanced stages of breast cancer at presentation. Efforts at measuring the magnitude of the breast cancer issues, epidemiology, and awareness, are now moving further in the right direction. We are now starting to face the challenges of early detection of breast cancer as well as the implementation of proper modern management. Dorria S. Salem et al. publish in this issue of the Journal of Egyptian NCI an outline and initial results of a very ambitious Women Health Outreach Program (WHOP) designed to be completed in 5 phases 1. She and her co-authors state that those 5 phases include a prior training and demonstration phase that was completed in the Imaging Unit of Kasr El Aini Hospital in Cairo, as well as a one-year pilot phase completed between October 2007 and October 2008. Authors present us with results of screening of 20.098 women over the age of 45 years, between October 30, 2007 and February 9, 2009 in Cairo, Alexandria and Suez Governorates in Egypt. In addition to breast cancer, WHOP included screening for diabetes, hypertension and obesity. WHOP investigators are to be congratulated for this extraordinary ambitious project and all the efforts put into it. They were well prepared in regards to having a multi-disciplinary working team and they included in their project programs for training of clerks, data managers, radiographers, nurses, radiologists and other physicians who deal with diagnosis and management of breast cancer. They also included engineers and arranged for mobile units to reach women who could not otherwise reach them. WHOP investigators are to be commended also for performing a field plan demonstration project and testing it and for measuring citizens' response before finalizing their plans and starting the project1. They set a great example for other people working in the field. Breast cancer is the most

  3. FAMILY SUPPORT FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOR: A QUALITATIVE STUDY IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHASHI, AYUMI; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; ADLY LABEEB, SHOKRIA; GHAREDS MOHAMED, ASMAA; CHIANG, CHIFA; AOYAMA, ATSUKO

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study investigated the influence of family support on women’s health-seeking behavior in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). We carried out separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with 3 groups (6 women with children under 5 years old, 6 men, and 4 elderly women, respectively) in a village in Assiut Governorate, an underprivileged region in Upper Egypt. The FGDs aimed to identify how different types of family support affected women’s health-seeking behavior in areas including maternal health and common illnesses of women and children. Our results showed that maternal health issues were often discussed by husbands and wives, while mothers-in-law had little apparent influence. We also found that women could access support resources more easily than expected through their extended families. Our study showed that husbands had an important role in encouraging women’s health in the family, while the effect of mothers-in-law on women’s health-seeking behavior was not substantial. The study indicated that women received considerable support from co-resident family members, their natal family, and their neighbors, which helped women in seeking health services. PMID:25129988

  4. BOCI-Egypt : Brucellosis and Tuberculosis control 21- 25 March 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, A.J.; Vugt, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This is the report of the first mission to Egypt for the project: Impact of brucellosis and tuberculosis on animal production and public health (BO-10-009-118). The objective of this mission was: to make an assessment of the current needs and problems in Egypt related to brucellosis and tuberculosis

  5. Influence of Safety Problems on the Development of International Tourism in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina G. Dzhilavyan

    Full Text Available The article deals with the description of the ancient lands – Egypt. Issued linked to repeated terrorism threads affecting the tourism industry in Egypt are considered. The drawbacks in the tourism industry the holiday makers might encounter are shown.

  6. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. Learning from Exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the exhibition "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum" that explores the four major periods of Egyptian history. Provides background information on ancient Egypt and describes the art that was present in each of the four kingdoms. (CMK)

  7. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book... custodians. I also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Walters Art...

  8. NPC Vice Chairman Ismail Amat Leads Chinese Friendship Delegation to Turkey and Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>A9-member Chinese friendship delegation led by Ismail Amat, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC) and president of the China-Turkey Friendship Association (CTFA) and the China-Egypt Friendship Association (CEFA), visited Turkey and Egypt from November 29 to December 9, 2003 at

  9. NPC Vice Chairman Ismail Amat Leads Chinese Friendship Delegation to Turkey and Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoXuesong

    2004-01-01

    A9-member Chinese friendship delegation led by Ismail Amat, vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) and president of the China-Turkey Friendship Association (CTFA) and the China-Egypt Friendship Association (CEFA), visited Turkey and Egypt from November 29 to December 9, 2003 at

  10. E-Learning as an Alternative Strategy for Tourism Higher Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Galal M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to be one of the earliest studies to investigate tourism e-learning in Egypt, thus, it will initially shed light on the current standing of e-learning in Egypt before proceeding to: identify the present status of e-learning in Egyptian tourism higher education; explore the potential advantages and drawbacks of using…

  11. School Psychology in Egypt: Results of the 2008 International School Psychology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Alghorani, Mohammad Adnan; Darweish, Abdel-Hameed; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    The International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) was used to gather information about the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and the challenges experienced by school psychology specialists in Egypt. To the degree that the data are representative of the school psychology specialists Egypt, it appears that…

  12. 75 FR 3953 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Egypt Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Egypt, and I hereby waive such...

  13. 76 FR 31673 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Arab Republic of Egypt Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the... Act with respect to the Arab Republic of Egypt and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

  14. 77 FR 24555 - Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination on Foreign Military Financing Assistance for Egypt Pursuant to section 7041(a)(1)(C) of the... Foreign Military Financing for Egypt, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination shall...

  15. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies.

  16. Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, Ghazi; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Cai, Zhipeng; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; El Refaey, Samir; Kandeel, Amr; Ali, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt to prevent infections in poultry focused mainly on vaccination and ultimately failed. Recently, widespread H5N1 infections in poultry and a substantial increase in the number of human cases of H5N1 infection were observed. We summarize surveillance data from 2009 through 2014 and show that avian influenza viruses are established in poultry in Egypt and are continuously evolving genetically and antigenically. We also discuss the epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza in Egypt and describe how the true burden of disease is underestimated. We discuss the failures of relying on vaccinating poultry as the sole intervention tool. We conclude by highlighting the key components that need to be included in a new strategy to control avian influenza infections in poultry and humans in Egypt.

  17. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  18. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 1 of 5 Vols. Executive summary, main report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The International Energy Assessment Program between Egypt and the U.S. was formulated from mid-March to mid-July, 1978. The assessment identified energy demand and supply options for Egypt that are consistent with its indigenous energy resources; assessed Egypt's ability to effectively use those options; and identified measures by which Egypt's energy-planning activities could be improved. The assessment addressed all known and potential energy supply options (oil, gas, coal, oil shale, hydroelectric, nuclear power, geothermal, solar, wind, and biomass). Using the Reference Energy System, two future energy supply/demand balances are constructed (for 1985 and the year 2000) and these are compared with a historical (1975) supply/demand balance. The feasibility of each of the options is established in terms of the availability of the required resources and of the processing, conversion, transport, and utilization technology.

  19. Epidemiology and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in the El-Sharkia Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A Ghonemy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease (ESRD is increasing worldwide. Renal replacement therapy and kidney transplantation are increasing the burden on health systems. Various risk factors can lead to this disease. In this work, we tried to study the epidemiology and risk factors of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs in one of the Egyptian areas (El-Sharkia Governorate, and from this study we can get some data about the distribution and most common causes of this disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 15 dialysis centers in governmental hospitals in ElSharkia, Egypt. We used a questionnaire and direct interviewing with ESRD patients in addition to using medical records for our data collections. One thousand and four patients were selected randomly from 2136 patients who were known CKD patients on regular hemodialysis. Each week, two to three visits were performed in each center and during each visit, direct interviews were performed for ten to 15 patients, which took about 30 min for each patient. The study sample (n = 1004 patients consisted of 62.2% males and 37.8% females. The mean age of patients was 52.03 + 14.67 years. The highest percentage of patients (31.9% was found to be between 50 and 60 years in both males and females. More than half (61.3% of the ESRD patients were living in villages, while about one-third (38.7% of the ESRD patients were living in cities. Hypertension and diabetes were the main causes of ESRD. 15.5% of ESRD patients had diabetes mellitus, 31.8% had hypertension, 8.4% had kidney stone, 8.8% had urinary tract infection, 4.6% had congenital abnormality and 3.7% had primary glomerulonephritis. The main risk factors of renal diseases are hypertension and diabetes, while unknown causes represent a high percentage of all causes by 17.7%. Primary glomerulonephritis is the lowest cause of CKD in the El-Sharkia governorate, Egypt.

  20. Update earthquake risk assessment in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-12-01

    The Cairo earthquake (12 October 1992; m b = 5.8) is still and after 25 years one of the most painful events and is dug into the Egyptians memory. This is not due to the strength of the earthquake but due to the accompanied losses and damages (561 dead; 10,000 injured and 3000 families lost their homes). Nowadays, the most frequent and important question that should rise is "what if this earthquake is repeated today." In this study, we simulate the same size earthquake (12 October 1992) ground motion shaking and the consequent social-economic impacts in terms of losses and damages. Seismic hazard, earthquake catalogs, soil types, demographics, and building inventories were integrated into HAZUS-MH to produce a sound earthquake risk assessment for Cairo including economic and social losses. Generally, the earthquake risk assessment clearly indicates that "the losses and damages may be increased twice or three times" in Cairo compared to the 1992 earthquake. The earthquake risk profile reveals that five districts (Al-Sahel, El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr sharq) lie in high seismic risks, and three districts (Manshiyat Naser, El-Waily, and Wassat (center)) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Gharb is the highest vulnerable district. The analysis shows that the Cairo urban area faces high risk. Deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated buildings damages are concentrated within the most densely populated (El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr Gharb) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts. Actually, an earthquake risk assessment for Cairo represents a crucial application of the HAZUS earthquake loss estimation model for risk management. Finally, for mitigation, risk reduction, and to improve the seismic performance of structures and assure life safety

  1. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhussein A. Basheer

    2014-12-01

    The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES’es and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  2. Prevalence of dementia in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Tallawy HN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El Tallawy HN, Farghly WM, Badry R, et al. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2014;9:9–14.On page 13, before the Disclosure statement the following section was omitted.AcknowledgmentWe acknowledge LundBeck Pharmaceutical company, Middle East for their support in conducting this research.Read the original article

  3. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  4. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 5 of 5 Vols. Annexes 11--13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The principal features of the existing environment of Egypt are characterized and the main problem areas identified in Annex 11. The environmental, health, and associated social issues that must be considered in choosing from among the options available to Egypt for meeting projected future energy needs are identified. The environmental impacts associated with these options are discussed and observations are made of alternte ways to minimize environmental insults. Annex 12, Manpower, analyzes the energy-related manpower situation of Egypt. Manpower education and training resources of Egypt; the existing manpower base of Egypt; manpower needs of the energy strategies; a comparison of manpower needs and existing manpower base; and the underlying economic and social factors that will make Egypt energy facility development very difficult to plan and execute are discussed. Annex 13 summarizes a preliminary analysis of the capital, labor, materials, and equipment resources required to implement alternative Egyptian energy futures and documents the assessment of several Egyptian energy development programs selected by the DOE. It egins with brief overviews of the ESPM model and data base. It then describes the method by which the system was adapted to Egyptian conditions and the results of this modification. The comparison Case energy development program is described, followed by a summary of ESPM-derived facility and resource requirements. Finally, the sensitivity of these results to several alternative energy strategies is illustrated.

  5. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  6. Origen of Alexandria and the paradigm of desert spirituality - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v35i1.19327

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ciner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shall call ‘spirituality of the desert’ the experience that urges the human being to leave the safety and comfort of the known world in order to follow the inner voice that leads them to the encounter with the divine. This decision involves very great risks and uncertainties, because in the desert there is only silence and solitude and nothing guarantees success in the search of God. However, going through the desert offers, to those who take the risk, the most precious gifts that a human being can aspire: freedom and peace. In this regard and as a provisional essay of a ‘mystic phenomenology of the desert’, the main objective will be aimed at deepening the theological and mystical reflections on the desert done by an author such as Origen of Alexandria. The choice has been based on the immense influence this great theologian has had in the history of Western mysticism. The analysis of the significance of the desert in the theology of Origen, was held in his beautiful homilies on Exodus. This article will show how this theological line has full validity for the contemporary world.  

  7. Familial epilepsy in the pharaohs of ancient Egypt's eighteenth dynasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2012-09-01

    The pharaohs of Egypt's famous eighteenth dynasty all died early of unknown causes. This paper comprehensively reviews and analyses the medical literature and current evidence available for the New Kingdom rulers - Tuthmosis IV, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, Smenkhkare and Tutankhamun. The integration of these sources reveals that the eighteenth dynasty rulers may have suffered from an inherited condition that may explain their untimely deaths. The description of recurring strong religious visions, likely neurological disease and gynecomastia, supports the theory that these pharaohs may have suffered from a familial temporal epilepsy syndrome that ultimately led to their early downfall.

  8. Max Herz Pasha on Arab-Islamic Art in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ormos, István

    2016-01-01

    Having spent ten years in subordinate posts at the Technical Bureau of the Waqf Ministry, Max Herz (1856–1919; fig. 1) became chief architect to the Egyptian Comité de Conservation des Monuments de l’Art Arabe in 1890. He occupied this position, which had been created for him personally, until the end of 1914. As chief architect, he played a key role in the conservation of Arab-Islamic architectural monuments in Egypt, in Cairo primarily. The importance of the job was indicated by the fact th...

  9. The First Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt International Scientific Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Mohamed S

    2009-10-01

    A wide gathering of scientists, clinicians, pharmacists and nurses specialized in pediatric oncology practice met to celebrate the second anniversary of Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt (CCHE). The celebration was in the form of high-brow teaching lectures and reports presented by international experts in the fields of pediatric CNS tumors, solid tumors (neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma, soft tissue and bone tumors, lymphoma, leukemia and pediatric oncology nursing. The conference extends its activities to hospital management, clinical pharmacy and telemedicine. Furthermore, CCHE experts presented the efforts performed to establish a state-of-the-art pediatric oncology hospital equipped with all needed facilities to raise the standard of care to the highest levels.

  10. Management of Egypt's Surface and Groundwater Resources: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Yan, E.; Milewski, A.; Mohamed, L.; Farag, A. Z. A.

    2014-12-01

    The River Nile is the main source of fresh water in Egypt. Most of Egypt's River Nile water (>85%) originates as precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and is channeled by the Blue Nile. The construction (years: 2011 to 2017) of the Renaissance Dam (reservoir capacity: 70 x 109m3) on the Blue Nile poses an extreme threat to Egypt's population. If the reservoir was to be filled in 7 years, Egypt will lose (during each of 7 years following dam completion) a minimum of 15 x 109m3 of its annual allocation (55 x 109m3) to reservoir filling (10 x 109m3), evaporation (3.5 x 109m3), and infiltration (1.5 x 109m3). Three solutions are proposed: Solution I takes advantage of the cyclicity of Nile floods and is based on findings from a calibrated (against temporal head data) unconfined 2-dimensional transient groundwater flow model for Lake Nasser and surroundings and a calibrated (against lake levels) surface water model. Models show with time: (1) losses to infiltration will decrease (1975-193: 58.4 109m3; 1993-2001: 43.6 x 109m3) due to silting of Lake bottom and encroachment of excess Lake Nasser water will increase (e.g., 1975-1993: none; 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3). We propose to develop sustainable agricultural in the Western Desert: (1) In high flood years, excess Lake Nasser water (e.g., 1993-2001: 17 x 109m3) is channeled across the plateau bounding (from west) the River Nile valley to artificially recharge the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) that crops out west of the plateau and, (2) in low flood years, we extract the recharged groundwater. Solution II calls on mining the NSAS at reasonable rates. Using temporal (January 2003 - September 2012) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data we estimate the annual depletion rates at 2 x 109m3 due to artificial extraction (1.5 x 109m3) and natural discharge (0.5 x 109m3). Assuming current GRACE depletion rates, the recoverable groundwater (5,180 x 109m3) will last for 2500 years; if we were to quadruple

  11. The occurrence of keratinophilic fungi in sewage sludge from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M

    1990-01-01

    The keratinophilic fungi of 40 sewage sludge samples from Upper Egypt were studied using a goat hair-baiting technique. 43 species representing 22 genera were isolated, 17 species of which were dermatophytes and closely related fungi: Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum, C. asperatum, C. georgii, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. pseudomerdarium, C. queenslandicum, Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium, C. tropicum, Microsporum cookei, M. gypseum, Myceliophthora anamorph of Corynascus novoguineensis, M. vellerea and Trichophyton terrestre. 26 species of cycloheximide resistant fungi were collected and these included members of Acremonium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Emericella, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Penicillium and others.

  12. Abu Simbel Radio Telescope Project in the upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M.

    1999-03-01

    This paper shows the importance of building a radio telescope at Abu Simbel in the south of Egypt as part of the European VLBI Network (EVN) to cover the gap between the radio telescopes in Western Europe and the radio telescope at Hartebeesthoek in South Africa. The telescope can be used for solar and stellar observations at wavelengths ranging between centimetres and millimetres, and for geodetic VLBI studies. The suggested diameter is 32 meters for the telescope and it is expected to work in the frequency range from 1.4 to 43 GHz. Abu Simbel is characterised by excellent atmospheric transparency, dry climate, and low population without any artificial interference.

  13. Cytotoxic acetogenins from Annona glabra cultivated in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-lateff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-assay guided fraction of the methanolic extract of Annona glabra seeds (Annonaceae, cultivated in Egypt, revealed to the isolation of three bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins; squamocin-C (1 , squamocin-D (2 , and annonin I (3 . Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained as stereoisomeric mixture. All isolates were assayed for their cytotoxicity twards brine shrimp and five in vitro cancer cell lines (A549, HT29, MCF 7, RPMI, and U251, and showed significant activity The structures of all compounds were determined by interpretation of their NMR and MS analyses.

  14. Megaselia scalaris causing human intestinal myiasis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazayad, Said A M; Rifaat, Manal M A

    2005-04-01

    Megaselia scalaris is a worldwide distributed insect of medical importance. In a laboratory-based study, stool samples with undefined maggot infestation were examined and the presence of M. scalaris maggots was confirmed. Binocular stereo-microscopy was used for identification of the maggots. Larvae were allowed to develop into adults onto a human stool culture. The larvae and the emerged flies were identified using standard keys. This may be the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of human myiasis in Egypt. Details of the third instar larva, pupa and adults were given.

  15. Characterization of virulent Listeria monocytogenes isolates recovered from ready-to-eat meat products and consumers in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa A. I. Awadallah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of some virulence genes distributed in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE meat products and consumers in Cairo province, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 beef luncheon, chicken luncheon and frankfurter beef (40 samples, each were collected from 10 different local shops situated in Al-salam city, Cairo province, Egypt. Stool samples were collected from 40 people who had the habit of consuming RTE meat. The suspected L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for rapid speciation and virulence determination using primers specific for inIA, inIC, and inIJ genes. Results: Culture examination of all samples on Oxford media revealed presence of colonies characteristic to L. monocytogenes in 6 beef luncheon (15%, 4 chicken luncheon (10%, 1 frankfurter beef (2.5% and 1 human stool (2.5% samples. Species identity of L. monocytogenes was verified through the amplification of a 800 bp fragment with inIA primers in 2 out of 6 culture isolates from beef luncheon (5%, and 1 out 4 culture isolates from chicken luncheon (2.5% samples. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in different food samples examined (p>0.05. The virulence of these strains was ascertained by the presence of 517 bp and 238 bp fragments of inIC and inIJ genes, respectively in the isolates that contained the 800 bp fragment. The culture isolates obtained from one frankfurter beef sample, and one human stool sample were found negative by multiplex PCR for the presence of L. monocytogenes and its virulence specific genes. Conclusion: It could be concluded that L. monocytogenes are circulating in beef and chicken luncheon sold in Cairo, Egypt. Multiplex PCR is reliable for confirmation of L. monocytogenes. This study suggests the implementation of hygienic measures at all levels from production to consumption

  16. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers,...

  17. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  18. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  19. Performance assessment of different day-of-the-year-based models for estimating global solar radiation - Case study: Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Gasser E.; Youssef, M. Elsayed; Ali, Mohamed A.; Mohamed, Zahraa E.; Shehata, Ali I.

    2016-11-01

    Different models are introduced to predict the daily global solar radiation in different locations but there is no specific model based on the day of the year is proposed for many locations around the world. In this study, more than 20 years of measured data for daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface are used to develop and validate seven models to estimate the daily global solar radiation by day of the year for ten cities around Egypt as a case study. Moreover, the generalization capability for the best models is examined all over the country. The regression analysis is employed to calculate the coefficients of different suggested models. The statistical indicators namely, RMSE, MABE, MAPE, r and R2 are calculated to evaluate the performance of the developed models. Based on the validation with the available data, the results show that the hybrid sine and cosine wave model and 4th order polynomial model have the best performance among other suggested models. Consequently, these two models coupled with suitable coefficients can be used for estimating the daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface for each city, and also for all the locations around the studied region. It is believed that the established models in this work are applicable and significant for quick estimation for the average daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface with higher accuracy. The values of global solar radiation generated by this approach can be utilized in the design and estimation of the performance of different solar applications.

  20. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  1. Obstacles Facing Promoting Tourism for Islamic Landmarks from the Perspective of Tour Operators in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Bakri Hassan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The UNESCO launched a campaign #unite4heritage in Egypt to defeat extremism and intolerance. The message of such campaigne is peace, dialogue and unity embedded in cultural heritage. As culture and tourism are linked together, such message could be delivered through improving culture heritage tourism in Egypt. Islamic landmarks  are considered as a part of human heritage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify how much tour operators in Egypt include Islamic landmarks in their programs to determine the obstacles facing promoting cultural tourism in Islamic landmarks' areas. Additionally, the study would identify positive results in the case of developing heritage tourism in Egypt. To achieve a high result, a survey approach was employed to collect data from 100 tour operators, using a completed questionnaire technique as well as a Likert Scale and statistical models in order to test and interpret the research outcomes. The research findings indicated that although tour operators in Egypt are convinced of the significance of the Islamic landmarks, there is no contradiction between creating global understanding and at the same time achieving benefit to the local community. However, there is a range of obstacles facing promoting such type of tourism in Egypt. Keywords: Culture heritage tourism, community, Egypt, Islamic civilization.

  2. Rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis in the general population of Denmark and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2013-09-01

    In the current research we report data from two studies that examined rates and characteristics of sleep paralysis (SP) in the general population of Denmark and Egypt. In Study I, individuals from Denmark and Egypt did not differ in age whereas there were more males in the Egyptian sample (47 vs. 64 %); in Study II, individuals from Denmark and Egypt were comparable in terms of age and gender distribution. In Study I we found that significantly fewer individuals had experienced SP in Denmark [25 % (56/223)] than in Egypt [44 % (207/470)] p < .001. In Study II we found that individuals who had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP from Denmark (n = 58) as compared to those from Egypt (n = 143) reported significantly fewer SP episodes in a lifetime relative to SP experiencers from Egypt (M = 6.0 vs. M = 19.4, p < .001). SP in the Egyptian sample was characterized by high rates of SP (as compared to in Denmark), frequent occurrences (three times that in the Denmark sample), prolonged immobility during SP, and great fear of dying from the experience. In addition, in Egypt, believing SP to be precipitated by the supernatural was associated with fear of the experience and longer SP immobility. Findings are discussed in the context of cultural elaboration and salience theories of SP.

  3. An early warning system for flash floods in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, J.; Abdelkhalek, A.; El Sammany, M.; Fahmi, A. H.; Bauwens, W.; Huygens, M.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the development of the Flash Flood Manager, abbreviated as FlaFloM. The Flash Flood Manager is an early warning system for flash floods which is developed under the EU LIFE project FlaFloM. It is applied to Wadi Watier located in the Sinai peninsula (Egypt) and discharges in the Red Sea at the local economic and tourist hub of Nuweiba city. FlaFloM consists of a chain of four modules: 1) Data gathering module, 2) Forecasting module, 3) Decision support module or DSS and 4) Warning module. Each module processes input data and consequently send the output to the following module. In case of a flash flood emergency, the final outcome of FlaFloM is a flood warning which is sent out to decision-makers. The ‘data gathering module’ collects input data from different sources, validates the input, visualise data and exports it to other modules. Input data is provided ideally as water stage (h), discharge (Q) and rainfall (R) through real-time field measurements and external forecasts. This project, however, as occurs in many arid flash flood prone areas, was confronted with a scarcity of data, and insufficient insight in the characteristics that release a flash flood. Hence, discharge and water stage data were not available. Although rainfall measurements are available through classical off line rain gauges, the sparse rain gauges network couldn’t catch the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall events. To overcome this bottleneck, we developed rainfall intensity raster maps (mm/hr) with an hourly time step and raster cell of 1*1km. These maps are derived through downscaling from two sources of global instruments: the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) and satellite estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The ‘forecast module’ comprises three numerical models that, using data from the gathering module performs simulations on command: a rainfall-runoff model, a river flow model, and a flood model. A

  4. City positioning theories and city core competencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinquan; Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Gity positioning The Chinese city in a decision develops the topic of the destiny. Since the 90's of 20 centuries, the economic integral and globalization developed rapidly. The development make national boundary become not so important, the function of the city is increasingly outstanding. In other words, national competition ability is morally now on the city competition ability. At the same time, this development result that the industry is divided internationally and is divided in cities. Therefore, under the condition of globalization, if the city wants the superior development, it must take advantages and avoid shortage, to position the city accurately, establish the competition and development the strategy. The city positioning is clearly defined the city competition ability, more important it indicated the direction of the city development. Trough the analysis of the resource and environment of the city, decide an accurate position of the best function of the city, well configure the inner and outside resource, catch the opportunities,face the challenges, maximized the market share in order to maximized the wealth and city competition ability.

  5. Beleaguered Egypt project running out of funds and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Started in 1979 as part of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), the Family of the Future (FOF) social marketing project accounts for 35% of all contraceptives used in Egypt. FOF left the IPPF in 1981 to work as a nonprofit, semiprivate organization under the supervision of Egypt's Ministry of Health and has become the third largest social marketing project in the world. FOF has, however, gone through 5 executive directors in the last 6 years, prompting critics to think that the Board of Directors is hand-picked by the Egyptian Ministry of Health. additional allegations of financial mismanagement have caused the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to cancel over $1.5 million in annual funding and product support for the program. Until recently, FOF has benefited from products and operations and technical assistance totalling near $20 million as part of a USAID 10-year, $118-million Egyptian effort. FOF has responded to the funding cut by downsizing its staff and preparing to raise contraceptive prices. Even though USAID has solicited proposals for competitive replacement programs, the new executive director is optimistic that funding cuts leading to organizational change and price increases will ultimately help FOF become self-sufficient. Once USAID-provided supplies have been depleted, FOF will most likely turn to IPPF for assistance.

  6. Covert Diplomacy Between Israel and Egypt During Nasser Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Yahel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of Egypt and Israel consists of four wars and hundreds of border incidents that have taken the lives of tens of thousands of people. It seems that only the rise to power of a leader in the stature of Anwar Sadat could put an end to this bloody circle, because the previous president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, was not willing to hold any kind of political contact with Israel. But Nasser’s reign involved constant political contact between Egypt and Israel, most of whom remain confidential. This article attempts to examine whether any of these contacts were likely to succeed and yield a peace treaty between the two countries, an agreement that could have prevented three wars and saved the lives of so many people on both sides. It will do so by examining these contacts, their characteristics, and the reasons for their failure, while dividing them into three periods: the 1948 war to the 1956 war, the 1956 war to the 1967 war, and the 1967 war to the death of Nasser in 1970.

  7. Acanthamoeba species in Swimming Pools of Cairo, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Herrawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp. have been recognized as etiologic agents of amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, otitis, lung lesions and other skin infections mainly in immuno-compromised individuals. The purpose of this study is to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba in swimming pools in Egypt using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR method.Water samples were collected from 10 different swimming pools in Cairo, Egypt. Samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar for the detection of Acanthamoeba isolates that were confirmed by PCR amplification using genus specific primers. The molecularly confirmed Acanthamoeba isolates were morphologically identified to the species level.Members of genus Acanthamoeba were detected in 49.2% of the examined swimming-pool water samples. Morphologically, six Acanthamoeba species were isolated from the examined swimming pool water namely A. polyphaga, A.castellanii, A. rhysodes, A. mauritaniensis, A. royreba and A. triangularis. All the identified species of Acanthamoeba were molecularly confirmed to be related to the genus Acanthamoeba.The isolated species of Acanthamoeba could provoke variable degrees of infections to the swimmers. The culture method is cheaper and easier than PCR techniques that are faster for the detection of free-living amoebae.

  8. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  9. Seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmat, Gamal; Raziky, Maissa El; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Maher, Rabab; Zakaria, Zeinab

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in Egypt. This work aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students. The present study included 3,000 students from Cairo University, Egypt. Blood sample was obtained from each participant to be tested for HCV seromarker. HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for those with positive anti-HCV. Overall prevalence rate of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was 4.6%. It showed that the prevalence was relatively higher among females (86/1660; 5.2%) while males (51/1340; 3.8%) with no significant difference. PCR for HCV RNA was detected in 31.4% of the HCV antibody positive subjects (43/137). Which showed statistical significant difference between males (29/51) and females (14/86) at P = 0.001. Despite the prevalence rate reported in the present study was similar to anti-HCV prevalence among persons in the same age group, confirmed that HCV infection is detected among Cairo University students. J. Med. Virol. 88:1384-1387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nicotine dependance among adult male smokers in rural Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Rita R; El-Setouhy, Maged; Haroun, Amany; Gadalla, Shahinaz; Abdel-Aziz, Fatma; Aboul-Fotouh, Aisha; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Mikhail, Nabiel; Israel, Ebenezer

    2003-12-01

    Nicotine dependence is a significant public health problem. This study describes the nicotine dependence status among male adults in rural communities in Egypt. A survey was carried out in five rural villages in Egypt to study the smoking prevalence. A total of 938 current smokers were identified and their nicotine dependence status was studied. About 9% of all smokers in the studied villages were found to have heavy dependence to nicotine. Heavy dependence was associated with younger age of smoking initiation (p<0.05) and more smoking in the first hours of the day (p<0.001). Heavy dependent smokers are less likely to quit smoking (p<0.001), lack the confidence to quit by themselves (p<0.001) and less likely to have tried to quit earlier (p<0.001). Dependent smokers are more likely to smoke in the presence of their children (p<0.001). Reasons for smoking included the habit of smoking helping them to keep them going when tired, to make them alert and not knowing what to do with their hands without a cigarette. The main reasons they identified for restarting smoking after quitting were the signs of withdrawal namely headaches, irritability and difficulty in concentration. Nicotine dependence status and attributes were comparable to studies reported in other countries around the world. Enhanced behavioral and medical intervention strategies are needed to motivate helping both low and heavy nicotine dependent smokers to increase the number and effectiveness of quit attempts.

  11. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation already in Egypt 5,000 years ago?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklitz, A

    1997-06-06

    In light of the medically relevant features of the ancient Egyptian mouth-opening ceremony, the question of the effectiveness of medical practices in Egypt thousands of years ago is examined, whereby the religious and cultural framework also plays a significant role. In the Land on the Nile myth and reality clearly generated special conditions which favoured the systematic treatment of questions of resuscitation. Numerous examples show that this had practical consequences in the area of everyday medicine. In addition, rebirth and resurrection were central elements of the cult of the dead which had exact medical equivalents. These equivalents may demonstrate the advanced state of resuscitation practices in Egypt at that time. In this context, a reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian mouth-opening instrument is presented. In the cult of the dead, this instrument played a role which can be compared to the function of a modern laryngoscope. It appears possible that at the time of the pyramids the Egyptians already had an understanding of the technology required to perform instrument-aided artificial respiration. Whether or not they actually possessed a fundamental knowledge of the principles of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation remains unclear. Nevertheless, the astonishingly functional characteristics of the reconstructed mouth-opening instrument suggest that it was developed for more than purely symbolic purposes.

  12. On the Development and Evolution of Astronomy in ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, S. E.

    In the present paper the development and evolution of astronomy in = Ancient Egypt are briefly examined. Emphasis is given to the = applications of astronomy on: (i) the orientation of temples and = pyramids, and the subsequent determination of the year; (ii) the = reorientation of temples --after the lapse of several centuries-- (due = to the fact that the priesthood was empirically aware of the precession = of equinoxes, and the subsequent use of this very fact in order to = estimate the archaeological age of temples, tombs and pyramids; (iii) = the heliacal rising of Sirius, which was used by ancient = priests-astronomers in order to fix the New Year's Day and determine the = seasons of the civil year, although the discre pancy of the Sothic cycle = in their calendrical system was not seriously taken into account. = Finally the conclusion put forward is that astronomy in Ancient Egypt = never reached the grounds of pure science (as in Ancient Greece), at = least before the Ptolemaic era, but always remained under the influence = of traditionalism and mythology pertaining more to the sphere of = religion and dogma.

  13. Perceived stress among tomorrow’s attorneys in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Amr

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Few data are available on the level and sources of stress among law students in the Middle East generally and in Egypt specifically. We conducted this study to identify the prevalence and predictors of perceived stress among law students in Mansoura University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study covered 426 law students selected through a stratified cluster sampling method. The questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items on sources of stress (stressors. Perceived stress scale and Hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.Results: A high level of perceived stress, anxiety and depression were reported by 42.2%, 59.2% and 18.2%, respectively. On the scale for sources of stress, 80% experienced personal troubles and two thirds of the sample had relationship, academic and environmental problems. Conclusions: It appears that the law students have a high level of perceived stress and majority of it is generated from personal factors and less from the academic or environmental factors. Additional studies are needed to improve our understanding of the causes and consequences of law students' stress.

  14. Mucormycosis in Cairo, Egypt: review of 10 reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Sherif M; Elkholy, Iman M; Elkady, Nadia A; Abdel-Ghany, Khayria

    2014-01-01

    We report on 10 cases of mucormycosis, as defined by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) standards of invasive fungal diseases, among patients with a recent history of neutropenia, prolonged use of corticosteroids and treatment with immunosuppressants. They were all observed at the Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, during the year 2010. These cases were categorized as 50% proven and 50% probable, with none considered to be possible mucormycosis. The median age of the patients discussed in this report was 50 years (range 22-68 years), of which 80% were male and 20% were female. Uncontrolled diabetes with ketoacidosis was noted in 60% of cases, while 40% of the patients had undergone liver transplantations. Pulmonary mucormycosis was the predominant presentation as it was noted in 80% of cases, but there was only 20% sinus involvement. Members of the genus Lichtheimia were the most common etiologic agents (40% of all cases), whereas Rhizopus ssp. were recovered from 30% of cases, Syncephalastrum spp. in 20%, and 10% of patients were infected with Rhizomucor. Liposomal formulation of amphotericin B (LAMB) was successfully used to treat all the cases described in this report. We concluded that the incidence of mucormycosis was relatively high during the study period in this one-center study and that additional studies looking into the diagnosis and the control of mucormycosis in Egypt are required.

  15. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Arnold

    Full Text Available Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE. Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

  16. Myrrh and trematodoses in Egypt: an overview of safety, efficacy and effectiveness profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad A; Loutfy, Naguiba; Hassan, Azza

    2009-09-01

    Myrrh is an herbal product that has been used since ancient ages for traditional medication and other purposes. The revolution of myrrh as an antiparasitic agent in Egypt began in the 1990s through scientific evidence-based research. The human trematode infections in Egypt were the main focus of research with stories of success and disagreement, at times. The present paper reviewed the antiparasitary activity of myrrh with stress on its possible mode of action, its safety, efficacy and effectiveness on trematode infections in experimental studies and clinical trials in Egypt as well as its molluscicidal effects on the intermediate hosts of trematodes.

  17. Pathline-calibrated groundwater flow models of Nile Valley aquifers, Esna, upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brikowski, Tom H.; Faid, Abdallah

    2006-06-01

    Strongly concentrated agriculture along the River Nile in Egypt, combined with hydrologic changes related to the construction of the Aswan High Dam in the 1970's, has led to increasing salinization and waterlogging of agricultural areas. Successful control and remediation of these problems requires accurate understanding of the shallow Quaternary aquifers within the Nile Valley. While extensive conceptual models have been developed by the Egyptian RIGW, published numerical models have yet to incorporate all features of the conceptual model. In particular, marine affinity of some shallow groundwaters within the valley (Cl -as the predominant anion) indicates significant leakage from deeper Cretaceous aquifers into the shallow Quaternary aquifers, a feature that is not present in current models. In this study, groundwater profile modeling incorporating the bedrock leakage demonstrates that its shallow appearance requires hydraulic separation of surficial from deep-recharged zones of the Quaternary aquifer. This separation occurs near the boundary between reclaimed and traditional agricultural lands, which is also the primary site of waterlogging. Apparently, excessive recharge presumed to occur beneath the reclaimed lands does not penetrate deeply, and therefore might be easily remediated with shallow drains. Profound similarities exist between the Nile Valley salinization cases and the occurrence of shallow 'nuisance water' in desert southwestern U.S. cities (e.g. Las Vegas). The U.S. experience with this problem may provide useful guidance in addressing Nile Valley salinization and waterlogging issues in the future. In general, irrigation-related recharge from the reclaimed lands in the Nile Valley may have a much more localized impact on traditional lands than previously thought.

  18. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasabelnaby, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soil samples from Assiut city, Egypt, was studied. The activity concentrations of 28 samples were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K showed large variations, so the results were classified into two groups (A and B) to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Group A represents samples collected from different locations in Assiut and characterized by low activity concentrations with average values of 46.15 ± 9.69, 30.57 ± 4.90, and 553.14 ± 23.19 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. Group B represents samples mainly collected from the area around Assiut Thermal Power Plant and characterized by very high activity concentrations with average values of 3,803 ± 145, 1,782 ± 98, and 1,377 ± 78 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (E), the external hazard index (H ex), and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. For group A, the calculated averages of these parameters are in good agreement with the international recommended values except for the absorbed dose rate and the AGDE values which are slightly higher than the international recommended values. However, for group B, all obtained averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values. The present work provides a background of radioactivity concentrations in the soil of Assiut.

  19. Red Sea rift-related Quseir basalts, central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrogenesis and tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Esam S.; Ali, Shehata; Hauzenberger, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Mineral and whole-rock chemistry of Red Sea rift-related Tertiary basalts from south Quseir city, central Eastern Desert of Egypt is presented to investigate their petrogenesis and relationship to tectonic processes. The south Quseir basalts (SQB) are classified as high-Ti (TiO2 >2 wt.%) subalkaline transitional lava emplaced in an anorogenic tectonic setting. Their Mg# varies from 48 to 53 indicating the evolved nature of the SQB. Pearce element ratios suggest that the SQB magmas evolved via fractional crystallization of olivine + clinopyroxene ± plagioclase, but the absence of Eu anomalies argues against significant plagioclase fractionation. Clinopyroxene compositions provide evidence for polybaric fractionation of the parental mafic magmas. Estimated temperatures of crystallization are 1015 to 1207 °C for clinopyroxene and 1076 to 1155 °C for plagioclase. These values are interpreted to result from early stage crystallization of clinopyroxene followed by concurrent crystallization of clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The incompatible trace element signatures of the SQB (La/Ba = 0.08-0.10 and La/Nb = 0.89-1.04) are comparable to those of ocean island basalts (OIB) generated from an asthenospheric mantle source unaffected by subduction components. Modeling calculations indicate that the SQB primary magmas were derived from 4-5% partial melting of a garnet-bearing lherzolite mantle source. The NE Egyptian basaltic volcanism is spatially and temporally related to Red Sea rifting and to the local E-W striking faults, confirming a relationship to tectonic activity. Our results suggest that the extensional regime associated with Red Sea rifting controlled the generation of the Egyptian basalts, likely as a result of passive upwelling of asthenospheric mantle.

  20. Wind energy as a potential generation source at Ras Benas, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Shata [Physics Department, Faculty of Science in Port Said, Suez Canal University (Egypt)

    2010-10-15

    Analysis of the wind characteristics in Ras Benas city located on the east coast of Red Sea in Egypt using measured data (wind, pressure and temperature) and Weibull function were made. Statistical analysis model to evaluate the wind energy potential was introduced. According to the power calculations done for the site, the annual mean wind density is 315 kW/m{sup 2} at a height of 70 m above ground level. This station has a huge wind energy potential for electricity generation, especially during spring and summer seasons, comparing with some European countries. In addition, the monthly wind turbine efficiency parameter ({eta}{sub monthly}) has been calculated by using a commercial wind turbine 1 MW with 70 m hub height to help designers and users in evaluating the potentialities and choosing the suitable wind turbine for the considered site. The use of wind turbine with capacity greater than 1000 kW at this station was recommended. Ras Benas station was selected to install 30 MW-wind farm consists of 20 commercial wind turbines (Nordex S 77) with hub heights and Rotor diameter were 100 and 77 m, respectively. This site has annual wind speed more than 9.8 m/s at 100 m height and enough area to locate these turbines. The estimated energy production using WASP Program of these wind farm was 130 GWh/year. Furthermore, the production costs was found 1.3EUR cent/kWh, which is a competition price at the wind energy world market. (author)

  1. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  2. High-precision radiocarbon chronometry of ancient Egypt, and comparisons with Nubia, Palestine and Mesopotamia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, F.A.; Robinson, S.W.

    1987-03-01

    The use of radiocarbon age measurements in historical chronology is examined for ancient Egypt and neighbouring regions. A methodology is presented aimed at improving the reliability and precision of radiocarbon age determinations.

  3. Sedimentological and petrophysical characteristics of Raha Formation at Wadi Tubia, Northern Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Mousa

    2011-06-01

    Statistical analysis of the measured petrophysical data shows that, the dolomitic lithic arenite and fossiliferous bioclastic grainstone microfacies have a good storage capacity in the Raha Formation of Wadi Tubia, Northern Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai, Egypt.

  4. Entrepreneurial intention benefitting from education, training and competence: Egypt and Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Nasiri, Niloofar; Schøtt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The question is, for adults in Egypt and Iran, are education, training and competencies positively interrelated and is this human capital benefitting intention to start a business?– Data on people’s human capital and intentions have been collected by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor in 2008....... The sample is 2,068 adults in Egypt and 2,610 adults in Iran who were not owning-managing a starting or operating business. Multivariate analyses reveal considerable effects of human capital in Egypt and Iran. Education benefits training, training during schooling benefits training after schooling, education...... and training largely benefit competencies such as self-efficacy and opportunity-alertness and education, training and competencies all benefit intention to start a business, but effects differ between Egypt and Iran. The study is valuable and original by demonstrating considerable effects of higher education...

  5. All Eyes on Egypt: Islam and the Medical Use of Dead Bodies Amidst Cairo's Political Unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    Using dead bodies for medical purposes has long been considered taboo in Egypt. Public health campaigns, physicians' pleas, and the urgings of religious scholars all failed to alter public opinion regarding the donation of dead bodies either for instructional material or for therapeutic treatments. Yet in 2011, amid revolutionary turmoil in Egypt, a campaign was launched for people to donate their eyes upon death; this time, people readily signed up to be donors. Focusing on mass eye trauma that occurred in Egypt amid the political uprisings of 2011, I raise questions about when and why Islam can explain people's attitudes and behaviors, particularly toward death and medicine. The case of mass eye trauma in Egypt and citizens' reformulations of questions once jealously controlled by state-aligned doctors, politicians, and religious scholars unsettles the boundaries between 'religion' and 'secularism' in medical practice. [Formula: see text].

  6. Carotenoids in certain higher plants from various ecological niches of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Czeczuga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The carotenoids content in Posidonia oceanica, Nelumbium nuciferum, Opuntia ficus-indica and Zygophyllum album from different ecological niches in Egypt was studied. Considerable differences, both qualitative and quantitative among four investigated plant species were found.

  7. [Migrations and economic and social change in Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ged, A

    1985-01-01

    The inexistence in the Arab world of institutions to facilitate development led Egypt to adopt the infitah, a policy of economic opening which is not a voluntarist economic strategy but rather is intended to create a climate favorable to a more capitalistic orientation for individuals with access to petroleum income. Egypt's gross national product grew by 4.6%/year in the dozen years through 1965, but thereafter growth was sluggish or even negative. After 1967 the choices of the dominant economic classes were oriented toward liberalism, and the arrival of Sadat allowed this orientation to prevail even before the infitah. The various measures of the infitah were designed to promote investment, reactivate the private sector, and reorganize the public sector. Most of the specific projects approved through 1978 were in the tertiary sector, they did little to stimulate further development, and the total number of jobs created was relatively insignificant. The transformation of the Egyptian economy is due not so much to the infitah as to 4 other elements: oil, income from the Suez canal, tourism, and emigration. At present petroleum represents 30% of Egypt's exports, the Suez canal will probably bring in $1.5 billion annually in coming years, and tourism brought in $1 billion in 1984, but in terms of economic and social impact on the total population emigration is much more important. The number of emigrants increased from 100,000 in 1973 to over 3 million in 1984 and the extent of their remittances increased from $184 million in 1973 to nearly $4 billion at present. Serious shortages of skilled and unskilled labor have been created by the departure of 10-15% of the overall labor force and a higher proportion for some skilled professions. The number of workers in construction more than doubled from 1971-79, while 10% of the agricultural labor force departed. Agricultural wages increased by an average of 7.1% in these years as agricultural workers were attracted to the

  8. How Do Tourists React to Political Violence?: An Empirical Analysis of Tourism in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a detailed database of political violence in Egypt to study European and US tourists' attitudes towards travelling to a conflict region. We use time series analysis to study the heterogeneous impacts of different dimensions of political violence and counter-violence on tourist flows to Egypt in the 1990s. We find that both US and EU tourists respond negatively to attacks on tourists, but do not appear to be influenced by casualties arising in confrontations between domestic gr...

  9. Book review: The politics of art in modern Egypt: aesthetics, ideology and nation building

    OpenAIRE

    Gokarakonda, Susheel

    2013-01-01

    "The Politics of Art in Modern Egypt: Aesthetics, Ideology and Nation Building." Patrick Kane. I.B. Tauris. February 2013. --- Art and cultural production in Egypt during much of the last hundred years has operated against a backdrop of political crisis and confrontation. In this book Patrick Kane focuses on the turbulent changes of the 1920s to 1960s, when polemical discourse and artistic practice developed against the entrenched and co-opted conservatism of elite and state culture. Susheel ...

  10. Neurosurgery in Egypt: past, present, and future-from pyramids to radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gindi, Sayed

    2002-09-01

    THE CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT of neurosurgery in Egypt is described, with reference to the ancient past and recent American and European influences. This article traces the steps taken by several leading Egyptian pioneers. Egypt, one of the key countries in the Middle East, has led the development of the specialty in the region and has maintained close ties with the international body of neurological surgeons and surgical societies.

  11. Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarne Jansson; Stephen Lawoko; Koustuv Dalal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: To examine women's attitude towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) in association with their access to information, knowledge of health effects and cultural beliefs concerning FGM in Egypt. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 9159 women, using data from the household survey in Egypt by Demographic and Health survey 2003. A comprehensive questionnaire covering attitudes towards FGM, demographics, and access to information was used. Chi-square analysis ...

  12. Isolation of biologically active constituents from Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (family: Moringaceae) growing in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Alfy, Taha S.; Shahira M. Ezzat; Hegazy, Ahmed K.; Amer, Aziza M. M.; Kamel, Gehan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Moringa peregrina is a wild plant that grown in the eastern desert mountains in Egypt. Although, this plant is native to Egypt, no details studies were traced on its chemical composition and biological activity. Materials and Methods: The different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the dried aerial parts of the plants were subjected to fractionation and purification on various silica and sephadex columns for the isolation of the major compounds which were tested for there anti...

  13. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3 of 5 Vols. Annexes 2--5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The principal objectives of the energy assessment project for Egypt are to develop understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future; and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. The areas studied in the industrial sector are the iron and steel, aluminum, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, textile, and automotive manufacturing industries. Those studied in the agricultural sector concern drainage and irrigation, mechanization, and food processing. Additional information in 4 annexes include industrial/agricultural sector options; residential/commercial, transportation, and fossil fuels supply options.

  14. Human fascioliasis and anaemia in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shazly, Atef M; El-Nahas, Hala A; Abdel-Mageed, A A; El Beshbishi, S N; Azab, M S; Abou El Hasan, M; Arafa, Wafaa A S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2005-08-01

    Fasciola infection (fascioliasis) appeared to be endemic in Egypt. Stool samples of fourty eight patients were coprologically diagnosed. According to Fasciola egg counting per gram stool, the severity of infection was divided into light infection in 60.5%, moderate in 27.1% and severe infection in 12.5%. No significant correlation was detected between severity of infection and patients' sex. Complete blood picture, reticylocytic count, serum iron, immunological assays as anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle antibody, anti-mitochondrial anti-body, anti-DNA tests and rheumatoid factor and occult blood in stool were investigated. Normocytic normochromic anaemia was detected in 62.5% of the fascioliasis patients, microcytic hypochromic anaemia in 31.3% and macrocytic one in 6.3%. Highly significant negative correlation (R = -0.68) was detected between haemoglobin concentration and egg count per gram faeces. Human fascioliasis was associated with normocytic normochromic anaemia and to a lesser extent microcytic hypochromic anemia.

  15. Road map for renewable energy research and development in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel K. Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt possesses excellent potential for renewable energy (RE including solar, wind and biomass energy. Renewable energy technologies (RETs and systems have different needs for support in terms of research and development, demonstration and market development. For this purpose, the Energy Research Center (ERC at Cairo University has carried out a study with the ultimate goal of formulating a national development strategy and action plan for the local manufacture of renewable energy systems (RESs and components. The present study positions the different RETs and RESs and identifies the research and development needs for each technology. The study also suggests how to establish a competitive market for RET. For this purpose it builds and analyses a set of likely scenarios, and proposes a practical development strategy and a detailed action plan for achieving it.

  16. Keratinophilic and saprophytic fungi isolated from students' nails in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the presence of dermatophytes and saprophytes in healthy toe and finger nails, 120 students (60 male and 60 female) from preparatory schools at Sohag Governorate (Upper Egypt) were studied. 54 species in addition to 3 varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated. Six species of true dermatophytes were collected: Microsporum audouinii var. rivalieri, M. cookei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. terrestre and T. verrucosum. Chrysosporium, a well-known keratinophilic genus, was prevalent and represented by 7 species (C. asperatum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. luteum, C. pannorum, C. tropicum and Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium). The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium.

  17. Egypt's Popular Uprising and the Stakes of Medical Neutrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Sherine F; Bayoumi, Soha

    2016-06-01

    Amidst the recent political uprisings in the Arab region, physicians and other healthcare workers have found themselves in the crossfire. This paper focuses on Egypt's doctors, paying special attention to how many have both appealed to and practiced medical neutrality as its own potent and contested political stance, particularly since the period of military rule following Mubarak's removal from power. Our paper draws on interviews with physicians who served as volunteers in the field hospitals in the days of unrest and violence, and with others who played a major role in documenting protesters' injuries, police brutality, and other forms of state violence against unarmed citizens. Based on interviews with doctors who belong to organizations such as "Tahrir Doctors" and "Doctors Without Rights," our paper reveals how these doctors' commitment to professional ethics put them at odds with the orders of military personnel, rendering their appeal to "medical neutrality" a weighty political act in and of itself.

  18. Highlighting the medical applications of 3D printing in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Mahmoud A; Abdelghany, Khaled; Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2015-12-01

    Computer-assisted designing/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has enabled medical practitioners to tailor physical models in a patient and purpose-specific fashion. It allows the designing and manufacturing of templates, appliances and devices with a high range of accuracy using biocompatible materials. The technique, nevertheless, relies on digital scanning (e.g., using intraoral scanners) and/or digital imaging (e.g., CT and MRI). In developing countries, there are some technical and financial limitations of implementing such advanced tools as an essential portion of medical applications. This paper focuses on the surgical and dental use of 3D printing technology in Egypt as a developing country.

  19. Molecular detection of Capillaria philippinensis: An emerging zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dib, Nadia A; El-Badry, Ayman A; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; Rubio, Jose M

    2015-07-01

    Human infection with Capillaria philippinensis is accidental; however, it may end fatally if not diagnosed and treated in the proper time. The first case was detected in the Philippines in 1963, but later reported in other countries around the world, including Egypt. In this report, molecular diagnosis using a specific nested PCR for detection of C. philippinensis in faeces is described based on the amplification of small ribosomal subunit. The test showed sensitivity and specificity, as it detected all the positive cases and gave no cross-reaction with human DNA and DNA of other tested parasites. This method can be very useful not only for improvement of diagnosis, but also to understand the different environmental routes of transmission by detection of C. philippinensis DNA-stages in the possible fish intermediate hosts and reservoir animal host, helping to improve strategies for surveillance and prevention of human disease.

  20. Sexual life in Pharaonic Egypt: towards a urological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeir, A A; Hussein, M I

    2004-10-01

    Sex is a basic human need, common to all people at all times. It is evident that the ancient Egyptians were real human beings, not only a people who built massive pyramids and made mummies of their dead. The ancient Egyptians had a rich and varied sexual life, which they found an opportunity to describe in words and pictures. As in the other early primitive civilizations, erotic matters were of prime importance and became an integral part of life. In Pharaonic times, the Egyptians described impotence and recorded several methods to increase the sexual power. In the present paper, we will shed light on some aspects of the sexual life in ancient Egypt that may be interesting to the urologists, including ancient Egyptian concepts of sex and erotic matters, their own way of treatment of impotence and Min, the Egyptian fertility God.

  1. A new species of Propliopithecus from the Fayum, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, E L; Rasmussen, D T; Gebo, D L

    1987-06-01

    Propliopithecus ankeli is described as a new species of hominoid from the early Oligocene of Egypt. The new species occurs at a stratigraphic level 80 m below quarries yielding P. chirobates and Aegyptopithecus zeuxis. P. ankeli differs from other species of the genus in its large size, relatively robust canines, larger and proportionally broader premolars, and M1 that has as great or greater mesiodistal length than M2. Thus, P. ankeli is characterized by increased relative size and robustness of the antemolar dentition, which contrasts with the pattern observed in the Fayum's other large hominoid, A. zeuxis. P. ankeli probably represents a lineage not ancestral to other Fayum hominoids. Discovery of this new species emphasizes the diversity of anthropoid primates that had already evolved by the early Oligocene.

  2. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810...... undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index......). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent...

  3. Spectroscopic analyses of soil samples outside Nile Delta of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Ahmed; Osman, Osama; Ezzat, Hend; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2016-11-01

    Soil in Egypt, especially around Delta is exposed to various pollutants which are affecting adversely soil fertility and stability. Humic Acids (HA) as a main part of soil organic matter (SOM) represent the heart of the interaction process of inorganic pollutants with soil. Consequently, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Nuclear magnetic resonances (NMR) were used to characterize soil, sediment and extracted HA. Resulting data confirmed that the HA was responsible for transporting inorganic pollutants from surface to subsurface reaching the ground water, which may represent a high risk on public health. The transport process is coming as carboxyl in surface soil changed into metal carboxylate then transferred into the carboxyl in bottom soil.

  4. Post-Revolution Constitutionalism: The Impact of Drafting Processes on the Constitutional Documents in Tunisia and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangement...... at identifying the factors have impacted both the constitutional drafting process and the popular perception of the produced constitutions in each of Tunisia and Egypt....

  5. Borate in mummification salts and bones from Pharaonic Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Yoka; Schmid, Mirjam; Middleton, Andrew; Weser, Ulrich

    2003-03-01

    Mummification processes in Pharaonic Egypt were successful using sodium salts. Quite frequently sodium concentrations in mummified bones ranged from 300 to 4000 micromol/g. In the search for an effective inorganic conservation compound our choice fell on boric acid. The possible presence of borate in mummification salts used in Pharaonic Egypt was of special interest both historically and biochemically. In two salt samples, one from the embalming material of Tutankhamen (18th dynasty, 1336-1327 BC) and the second from Deir el-Bahari (25th dynasty, 700-600 BC) borate was found, amounting to 2.1+/-0.2 and 3.9+/-0.1 micromol/g, respectively. In five of the examined bone fragments from the Junker excavation at Giza (Old Kingdom) similar borate concentrations i.e., 1.2 micromol borate/g bone were seen. It must be emphasized that the usual borate content of contemporary autopsy is far below the detection limit. The elevated borate content in both mummification salt and ancient bone samples support the suggestion that borate-containing salt had been used. There is a striking correlation of both borate concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. When both sodium salts and borate were essentially absent no activity at all was detectable. With increasing borate concentrations the enzyme activity rises significantly. Attributable to the distinct biochemistry of the tetrahydroxyborate anion it was of interest whether or not borate may stabilize alkaline phosphatase, an important and richly abundant bone enzyme. This enzyme was chosen, as it is known to survive more than 4000 years of mummification. In the presence of borate oligomeric species of this zinc-magnesium-glycoprotein at 400,000 Da became detectable. Attributable to this borate-dependent stabilization of the enzyme molecule a significant temperature resistant increase of the enzymic activity was measured in the presence of up to 2.5 mM borate.

  6. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Enas A; Badawy, Ahmed I; Refaat, Refaat A

    2011-01-01

    A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100%) revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%), followed by the right hemisphere (40%) and the cerebellum (12%). There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  7. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

    2008-03-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application.

  8. City health development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Geoff; Acres, John; Price, Charles; Tsouros, Agis

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this evaluation was to review the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the Healthy Cities Network organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 56 cities which participated in Phase III (1998-2002) of the Network. Evidence was gathered from documents either held in WHO archives or made available from Network cities and from interviews with city representatives. CHDPs were the centrepiece of Phase III, evolving from city health plans developed in Phase II. They are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed three types of CHDP, reflecting the realpolitik of each city. For many cities, the process of CHDP was as important as the plan itself.

  9. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  10. Sources Of Legal Regulation Of The International Commercial Arbitration In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V. Yakovlev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Egypt evolution is researched, legal documents governing operation of international commercial arbitration, general characteristics is given, features of legal norms and legal regulation are pointed out, also legal practice of application is analyzed. Author points out that at first legislation of Egypt was under the strong influence of Islamic law, later the legal system in Egypt was subjected to extensive influence of European law. It is believed that it is the Sharia law that largely caused formation of goals and objectives of modern international commercial arbitration. The main source of the international commercial arbitration activities regulating is the adopted in 1994 Law of Egypt on Arbitration No. 27/1994 (the Arbitration Act. This law was adopted on the basis of the UNCITRAL Model Law on the International Commercial Arbitration (of the year 1985. Prior to the adoption of the Arbitration Act in the year 1994 the international commercial arbitration in Egypt was governed by the Civil Procedure Code, adopted in the year 1968. The Law of Egypt on arbitration contains several differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. 1 The Model Law has a bit another internal structural division. Articles of the Egyptian Arbitration Act do not have name. The law includes 58 articles, united in 7 parts; 2 Ability of extraterritorial application. Arbitration Act applies to arbitrations conducted in Egypt or when the international commercial arbitration is conducted abroad and agreed to subordinate to this arbitration Act; 3 The Arbitration Act provides additional criteria for the establishment of the international character of arbitration.

  11. A Crowded City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Over 4 million vehicles on road challenge Beijing’s city management Beijing, the city once known as the kingdom of bicycles, has become clogged with automobiles, the Beijing Municipal Government Publicity Office said on December 18.

  12. Build a Green City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUYING; HAOXUE

    2005-01-01

    MA'ANSHAN,dubbed ""City of Iron and Steel,""is on the south bank of the Yangtze River in eastern Anhui Province, bordering Jiangsu Province. One of the city's most impressive features is its clean environment.

  13. China and Egypt:More Cooperation Brings Prosperous Future--Interview with H.E.Ali El-Hefny,Ambassador of Egypt to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yun

    2004-01-01

    @@ Q:With long history and outstanding cultural achievements, China and Egypt have good cooperation in politics,economy, tourism, and education. Focusing on economy, what complementarities do you think our two countries have? What kind of potentials could be discovered and in which aspects could we enhance economic and trade cooperation?

  14. A preliminary identification of insect successive wave in Egypt on control and zinc phosphide-intoxicated animals in different seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marah Mohammad Abd El-Bar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented study aimed primarily to document a baseline data of the decay process of rabbits and guinea pigs and their associated arthropod fauna, which are placed in an urban city: El Abbassyia, Cairo Governorate, Egypt, during winter and summer seasons, and to compare these data with the corresponding figure for zinc phosphide-intoxicated carrions. Generally, control rabbits and control guinea pigs were faster in their decay comparing the corresponding figure of the zinc phosphide–intoxicated group. A delay in colonization of insects was noticed either in the winter season for both groups, or additionally for the zinc phosphide groups. The associated insect fauna was represented in 6 orders, 20 families, and 36 genera and species. Necrophagous arthropods that supported decomposition of carcasses were mainly of orders Diptera and Coleoptera. Calliphoridae was the first insect family that colonized the different carcasses. The mean numbers of control immature dipterous maggots and similarly, the control coleopteran larvae significantly exceeded the corresponding mean numbers for the zinc phosphide-intoxicated groups in both winter and summer seasons in either rabbits or guinea pig groups. Moreover, the mean numbers of dipterous maggots or coleopteran larvae of rabbits significantly surpassed the corresponding figures for guinea pigs in both seasons. This study may add as a reference for the succession wave arthropod fauna in Cairo Governorate in winter and summer seasons. Moreover, it is the first record of the arthropod successive wave on zinc phosphide–intoxicated remains.

  15. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the recent bottom sediments of Mabahiss Bay, North Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Osama E A; Ghrefat, Habes

    2013-12-01

    Thirty-nine samples of recent bottom sediments were collected from Mabahiss Bay, north of Hurghada City, Red Sea, Egypt. The collected samples were subjected to a total digestion technique and analyzed by absorption spectrometer for metals including Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Co, Cu, and Mn. Concentration data were processed using correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis classified heavy metals in the study area into different groups. The pollution level attributed to these metals was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and contamination factor in order to determine anthropogenically derived sediment contamination. The results of both geoaccumulation index and contamination factor results reveal that the study area is not contaminated with respect to Zn, Ni, Cu, and Mn; uncontaminated to moderately contaminate with Pb; and moderately to strongly contaminate with Cd. The high contents of Pb, Cd, and Co in the study area result from various anthropogenic activities including dredging, land filling, localized oil pollution, using of antifouling and anticorrosive paints from fishing and tourist boats, and sewage discharging from various sources within the study area.

  16. The Creative Cities Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Creative Cities Network, started by UNESCO in 2004, is one of the world’s highest-level non-governmental organizations in creative industry. The network focuses on the excellence of its member cities as its main product, and finds ways to maintain relevance in city life, local economy

  17. Revisiting city connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a new perspective on city connectivity in order to analyze non-hub cities and their position in the world economy. The author revisits the different approaches discussed in the Global Commodity Chains (GCC), Global Production Networks (GPN) and World City Network (WCN) discou

  18. The Egyptian Military’s Role in the 25 January Revolution, and the Post-Revolution Impacts on Egypt’s Foreign Relations and Middle East Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    Islamic educational university in Cairo, Egypt. Founded by Jawhar the Sicilian , commander of the Fatimid troops sent by the Fatimid Caliph Almuiz to...part of their modernization program. Egypt imports large quantities of corn and wheat from the U.S. to meet its people’s needs. The USAID to Egypt helps

  19. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  20. Black cloud and transport of anthropogenic pollution across the Mediterranean Sea over Nile Delta region in Egypt during Fall season

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Prasad, A. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Nile River Delta is the most populous region of Egypt with major agricultural and industrial activities. The region suffers from intense episodes of natural and anthropogenic pollution especially during Spring (March-April-May), Summer (June-July-August), Fall (September-October-November), and Winter (December-January-February) seasons. Previous studies found that the summer season shows long range transport of pollutants from Europe which is widely accepted. Recent studies attribute the local biomass burning in open fields to be the major culprit behind increased levels of pollution over major cities of the Delta region (such as Cairo) especially during the Fall season. Such episodes result in dense fog and haze which is locally known as "Black Cloud". We have analyzed multiple satellite datasets such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) higher resolution aerosol parameters, vertical profiles from AIRS (meteorological and other parameters), Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) Model, and ground collected data (AOD, PM10, SO2 and NO2) to study the cause of Fall-time pollution over the Delta region. We show that the major episodes of pollution, even during Fall season, is attributed to the inter-continental transport of pollution especially across the Mediterranean. The back-trajectories from HYSPLIT model and satellite data clearly show the source of the plume visible in the MODIS data. We have computed month-to-month mean of the back-trajectories during Fall season (2004-2009) and classified the back trajectories using available ground data to identify major sources of pollution during Fall. The vertical profile of the atmosphere from AIRS shows arrival of plume from northern regions affecting the air quality over all the major cities of the Delta region. Similar analysis can be applied to major population centers in the Indo-Gangetic region in

  1. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 5 Vols. Annexes 6--10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, Edward E.; Teagan, Peter; Little, Arthur D.; Kaplan, George; Kunze, Jay; Warchol, Edward J.

    1979-04-01

    Annex 6, which investigates the possible hydroelectric resources of Egypt, reveals that presently the only existing sites are on the upper Nile at the High and Aswan Dams. There are 8 sites on the Nile where it is practical to add hydroelectric generation and, of these, only 4 are feasible for immediate construction. There are also pumped-storage sites on the Nile and the Red Sea. There is also the Qattara Depression in the Western Desert which can be utilized for conventional, as well as pumped-storage generation, by bringing water from the Mediterranean Sea to the depression by canal or tunnel. The options were considered for construction of hydro plants to met the electric load growth of Egypt when other forms of energy supply would be integrated into a comprehensive supply pattern. In Annex 7, the prospective use of nuclear energy to meet Egypt's resources (uranium and thorium) to implement a nuclear energy program, and potential effects of the expanded use of nuclear energy are discussed. Annex 8 discusses solar energy (technology descriptions and impacts, solar thermal power, photovoltaics). Also wind power generation, biomass utilization, desalination, solar air conditioning and refrigeration, and cost of power from diesel engines are discussed. Annex 9 covers geothermal potentials in Egypt, discussing resources with temperatures above 180/sup 0/C; from 150 to 180/sup 0/C; from 100 to 150/sup 0/C; and with temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. Annex 10 discusses the electric power systems in Egypt. The following subjects are covered: existing electric power systems; electrical power facilities under construction or planned for construction by 1985; past and projected growth of electrical energy; distribution; and electrical power system projected from 1985 to 2000. (MCW)

  2. Population and development in Egypt. Part 2. New hopes for old problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F

    1981-01-01

    Egypt is faced with many economic difficultires, e.g., acutely limited land and water resources already stretched to their limits, an increasing dependence on imported food and raw materials, and a large and rapidly growing population which makes ever greater demands on all available resources. For many years, Egypt focussed, understandably but obsessively, on political matters. Only in 1978, with a peace initiative with Israel ongoing, could Egypt concentrate on economic possibilities. The positive economic element that entered the scene at that time was the 1st balance of payments surplus in recent Egyptian history, due to growing tourism, increased oil earnings, resumed revenues from Suez Canal traffic, and high remittances from Egyptians working abroad. There is no guarantee that any or all of these favorable factors will continue. Agriculture in Egypt is inefficient. There are steady pressures of population on the land, sluggishness in land reclamation programs, and a continual loss of cultivated land to industry and urbanization. Water creation projects have not achieved their goals. The increase in agricultural production in 1980 was estimated at 2.7%, but the increase in population in the same year was 2.9%. It is with population growth that Egypt must meet the challenge.

  3. 76 FR 73759 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Egypt-Art and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures From the Foundation Gandur pour L'Art, Geneva, Switzerland'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of... included in the exhibition ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures from the Foundation Gandur pour...

  4. Clay minerals of Pliocene deposits and their potential use for the purification of polluted wastewater in the Sohag area, Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Refaey; B. Jansen; A.H. El-Shater; A.A. El-Haddad; K. Kalbitz

    2015-01-01

    In our study we investigated the clay fraction composition of Pliocene clay deposits in the Sohag area, Egypt. Our goal was to obtain insights into the origin of the deposits, and to assess their potential for use in inexpensive wastewater purification. The rationale for the latter was that in Egypt

  5. Implementation of Web-Based Education in Egypt through Cloud Computing Technologies and Its Effect on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seoud, M. Samir Abou; El-Sofany, Hosam F.; Taj-Eddin, Islam A. T. F.; Nosseir, Ann; El-Khouly, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    The information technology educational programs at most universities in Egypt face many obstacles that can be overcome using technology enhanced learning. An open source Moodle eLearning platform has been implemented at many public and private universities in Egypt, as an aid to deliver e-content and to provide the institution with various…

  6. Education Finance in Egypt: Problems and a Possible Solution. Occasional Paper. RTI Press Publication OP-0017-1401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, F. Henry; Crouch, Luis; Hanna, Rafik

    2014-01-01

    Egypt, currently in the throes of major political change, will likely undergo reforms of various sorts in the next few years. Some of these reforms are likely to give local entities, including schools, greater control over education finances. In 2007, the Government of Egypt began to decentralize some non-personnel recurrent finances from the…

  7. Sun Cities: Thebes, Hattusha, and Petra: A Landscape Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, J. A.; González-García, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The sky is a very important component of the landscape that has been lost in our modern, overcrowded, and excessively illuminated cities. However, this was not the case in the past. Astronomy played a highly relevant role in urban planning, especially in the organization of sacred spaces which were later surrounded by extensive civil urban areas. Today, archaeoastronomy approaches the minds of our ancestors studying the starry landscape and how it is printed in the terrain by the visualization and the orientation of sacred buildings. The sun was indeed the most important component of that celestial landscape and was the primary focus within a large set of unique cultures of great historical significance. In particular, we will study and compare the case of three sun cities: Thebes (Belmonte et al. 2009, Belmonte 2012), Hattusha (Gonzalez-Garcia & Belmonte 2011), and Petra (Belmonte et al. 2013), capitals of Egypt in the Middle and New Kingdoms, the Hittite Empire, and the Nabataean Kingdom, respectively. We will briefly discuss each of these cultures and will scrutinize their capital cities, showing how their strategic geographical position and orography were of key importance, but also how solar observation, and related hierophanies, played a relevant role in the orientation and location of some of their most significant monuments. In particular, we will focus on the great temple of Amun-Re in Karnak, Temple 1 in Hattusha (presumably devoted to the Solar Goddess of Arinna), and the “Monastery” at Petra.

  8. New geophysical electromagnetic method of archeological object research in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachay, O. A.; Khachay, O. Yu.; Attia, Magdi.

    2009-04-01

    its center. Thus we change over layered model to a block-layered model. Then, gathering the values of thicknesses and resistances for all points of observation, located on one and the same profile we obtain the file of an average cross-section along the profile.The next step is combining the neighboring blocks with close-range values of resistance to one block. That operation is made according to the fixed scale of resistance. The second stage of interpretation is used to define the geometrical characteristics of conductive inclusions and their equivalent moments, which are proportional to the ratio of the conductivity difference in the host rock and in the inclusion to the conductivity in the host rock. Here the approximation principle is used for alternating electromagnetic fields. The initial model of the inclusion is a current line of fixed length. That approximation construction is used for fitting of the average parameter of geoelectrical heterogeneity, which is calculated and located to each point of the profile (Hachay O.A. et all. 2002).The first problem: to found the tomb of Ptolemey in Alexandria. That work is provided by NRIAG together with the Aphine University. The historical and archeological work was provided during a long time. In that moment when we had been asked to do our research on that object it must be needed to show more precisely the place of that tomb on the territory of the ancient royal garden in Alexandria. NRIAG had developed electro prospecting works using radar and vertical electric soundings. With use of our results on the archeological object it had been choose a more precise place for the borehole and for next excavation. The results of drilling showed, as it was forecasted, that from the depth 7m on the showed picket of the observed profile it had been revealed stone objects which differ from the limestones sandstones. The drilling was achieved on 20-th of april 2008.

  9. Me, the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for identity of cities looks rather urgent and attracts attention of many researchers. Addressing this issue, the article draws an analogy between a human person and a city. Like a city, a human being needs to comprehend his self-identity in order to resist depressive tendencies. It is shown that a person’s depressive symptoms are similar to those of cities. The city identity necessary to resist depression can be searched for both historically and geographically. The historical aspect consists of local myths and legends about the city and the citizens. The geographical aspect of identity comprises features of the terrain, climate, flora and fauna of the region where the city is located.

  10. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study.

  11. SEASONAL DROUGHT DYNAMICS IN EL-BEHEIRA GOVERNORATE, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Mossad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most damaging climate-related hazards due to the prolonged absence of precipitation. Therefore, understanding the drought dynamics is important for irrigation water management to mitigate the negative impacts on agriculture. In this study, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI were used as effective tools for tracking the changes of water status occurred at five agro-meteorological stations (Etay Al Baroud, Wadi El-Natrun, Al Boseli, Badr and Nubariyah within El-Beheira governorate, Egypt. In addition, the overall water risk for agro-meteorological stations was estimated using the Aqueduct-GIS tool. The results clarified that Badr agro-meteorological station is representing the highest of water deficit by 96.6%, whereas, Al Boseli agro-meteorological station is representing the lowest water deficit by 86.9%. However, The SPI over El-Beheira region often confined in the near normal class, while the SPEI showed a notable increase of drought (SPEI = 0 to -4 in last 10 years of the analyses. The results suggested that El-Beheira governorate is moving toward the drought in general and Wadi El-Natrun and Nubariyah are the most drought affected areas in the future.

  12. Origin and development of forensic medicine in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Moulana, Ashraf Abdel Reheem; Elsebaay, Elsebaay Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Egyptians are one of the first civilisations to practice the removal and examination of internal organs of humans. Their practices ranged from embalming to faith healing to surgery and autopsy. Modern radiological studies, together with various forensic techniques, allowed scientists unique glimpses of the state of health in Egypt 4000 years ago and discovered one of the earliest applications of autopsy, the main element of forensic medicine practice today. The Egyptian Forensic Medicine Authority handles a relatively large number of cases annually and depends on different assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology unit, DNA laboratory, forensic chemistry laboratory) as well as the Counterfeiting and Forgery unit. Crime scene investigations are performed mainly through the criminal laboratory related to the Ministry of Interior. Forensic Medicine is studied thoroughly in the faculty of medicine (undergraduates), as well as by forensic medical examiners at postgraduate level (diploma, master's and doctorate). This review recommends more scientific cooperation with universities in the field of forensic medicine and related sciences to solve various crimes with meticulous detail.

  13. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-11-06

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating.

  14. Risk Factors for Chronic Mastitis in Morocco and Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna N. Oltean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis. Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62–1.90 and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07–3.61. Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47–0.67 and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39–5.72. Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60–0.84 and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36–1.97. This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions.

  15. Fertility change in Egypt: From second to third birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vignoli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on Egypt, a country that notwithstanding its advanced stage of socio-demographic transition has shown near stagnation in the reduction of fertility levels in the last decade. The progression from second to third birth is a crucial component in fertility change, since the reduction especially of third and higher-order births maintains the fertility decline. For this reason, the study aims at analyzing the main determinants of the third-birth intensities of Egyptian two-child mothers, applying an event-history analysis to the 2000 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey. The study's results show that fertility differentials among the country's social groups continue to persist. Moreover, the difficult change in the fertility of women with high educational standards seems to be responsible for the stalling fertility decline during recent years. The analysis, however, has demonstrated that within the framework of the ongoing process of modernization in the country, even the most laggard groups of women showed a decrease in third-birth intensity during the 1990s. The study also reveals that the preference for at least one son in the family on the progression to the third child is weakening among women who have completed secondary education.

  16. Geomorphology and Quaternary geology of the Dakhla Oasis Region, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Ian A.

    Dakhla Oasis (25.5°N, 29°E) occupies a structurally localized depression at 90-140 m above sea level, ˜1200 km 2 in area, below a 300 m escarpment bordering the Libyan Plateau, Western Desert of Egypt. Semi-arid intervals of the Quaternary period generated eight sedimentary formations, separated by erosion during hyper-arid intervals. Sediments comprise three generations of colluvial/fluvial fanglomerates, two generations of tabular spring-laid clastic and chemical sediments, two generations of mound springs and basinal sediments. of fluvio-lacustrine, evaporitic, pluvio-aeolian and aeolian origins. Discussion of these sediments is organized according to geomorphic region, from north to south, plateau, scarp and piedmont, lowland and cuesta plain. Chronological evidence is restricted to many radiocarbon dates of Holocene cultural material associated with playa sediments (9-4.5 ka), a {Th}/{U} isochron age of ˜62.0 ±7.6 ka for basinal evaporites, and two {Th}/{U} ages of ˜176 and ˜170 ka for a boulder of derived travertine. The regional Quaternary sequence is reconstructed from stratigraphic and geomorphic relationships of the sediments and erosion surfaces. It is broadly similar to sequences earlier reconstructed in the topographically similar Kharga Oasis region 150 km to the east, and Kurkur Oasis, 400 km to the south-southeast. Speculations on chronology and driving mechanism are offered in conclusion.

  17. Phytoplankton assemblage of a solar saltern in Port Fouad, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedekar Fadel Madkour

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the first investigation of the phytoplankton community inone of Egypt's saltworks. The phytoplankton composition and distribution infive ponds of increasing salinity were investigated in the solar saltern of Port Fouad.The phytoplankton community consisted of 42 species belonging to cyanobacteria(16, diatoms (12, dinoflagellates (11, Euglenophyceae (2 and Chlorophyceae (1.The number of species decreased significantly and rapidly with increasing salinity,varying between 33 species in the first pond (P1 and one species in the crystallizerpond (P5. Conversely, the total phytoplankton density, except that recordedin P1, increased significantly with rising salinity, fluctuating between 8.7 and56 × 105 individuals l-1 in P2 and P5 respectively. In spiteof the local variations in climate and nutrient availability, the phytoplankton composition, density and spatialvariations along the salinity gradient were, in many respects, very similar towhat has been observed in other solar saltworks. The pond with the lowest salinity(P1 - -1 was characterized by a significant diversity andblooming of diatoms and dinoflagellates. Intermediate salinity ponds (P2 andP3 with salinity ∼ 112-180 g l-1 exhibited a decline in bothspecies richness and density, but the stenohaline blue green algae (Synechocystis salina did flourish. The highly saline concentrating ponds andcrystallizers (P4 and P5 with salinity ∼ 223-340 g l-1 werecharacterized by few species, the disappearance of blue green algae and thethriving of the halotolerant green alga Dunaliella salina.

  18. Radon exhalation rate of some building materials used in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, A F; Ashraf, F A

    2005-09-01

    Indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards for mankind. Common building materials used for construction of houses, which are considered as one of the major sources of this gas in indoor environment, have been studied for exhalation rate of radon. Non-nuclear industries, such as coal fired power plants or fertilizer production facilities, generate large amounts of waste gypsum as by-products. Compared to other building materials waste gypsum from fertilizer production facilities (phosphogypsum) shows increased rates of radon exhalation. In the present, investigation solid state alpha track detectors, CR-39 plastic detectors, were used to measure the indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rates from some building materials used in Egypt. The indoor radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate ranges were found to be 24-55 Bq m(-3 )and 11-223 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The effective dose equivalent range for the indoor was found 0.6-1.4 mSv y(-1). The equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters increased with the increase of relative humidity.

  19. Benthic dinoflagellates from Red Sea, Egypt: Early records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin El Semary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates from Red Sea are hardly studied, in particular the benthic forms. Samples collected from shallow intertidal zone, Ain Sokhna, Egypt were microscopically examined. Three genera with seven species were recorded. The most frequently-encountered was Katodinium sp., a small mushroom-like with epitheca being consistently larger than hypotheca. Light micrographs revealed the presence of a nucleus in the hyposome and descending cingulum. Scanning electromicrographs (SEM confirmed this orientation and revealed the presence of apical pore system. Another species showed similarity to the mushroom-like morphology but with large conical episome and small hyposome. Heterotrophic, naked Gyrodinium cf dominans and Gyrodinium sp. were also observed where in the former, there were conspicuous longitudinal striations. A frequently-observed species had naked Gyrodinium-like morphology but with much smaller size. One photosynthetic species had a characteristic stigma similar to type B eyespot in “dinotoms” and episome being slightly larger than hyposome. Gymnodinium sp. with sulcus extending slightly in the episome but deeply to the end of hyposome was also recorded. This genus is reported to be mostly toxic and its presence should be monitored. Finally, this study presents some early records for benthic dinophytes from rather underexplored locality and raises alerts about genus with reported toxicity.

  20. Molecular identification of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar Y.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 134 Egyptian liver flukes were collected from different definitive hosts (cattle, sheep, and buffaloes to identify them via the use of PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of the first nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1. Specimens of F. hepatica from France, as well as F. gigantica from Cameroon were included in the study for comparison. PCR products of ITS1 were subjected for digestion by RsaI restriction enzyme and visualized on agarose gel. According to RFLP pattern, Egyptian flukes were allocated into two categories. The first was identical to that of French hepatica flukes to have a pattern of 360, 100, and 60 (bp band size, whereas the second resembled to that of Cameroonian gigantica worms to have a profile of 360, 170, and 60 bp in size. Results of RFLP analysis were confirmed by sequence analysis of representative ITS1 amplicons. No hybrid forms were detected in the present study. Taken together, this study concluded that both species of Fasciola are present in Egypt, whereas the hybrid form may be not very common.

  1. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent schoolgirls in Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Badawi, Karima; El-Fedawy, Sanaa

    2005-11-01

    Learning about menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. This study among 664 schoolgirls aged 14-18 in Mansoura, Egypt, asked about type of sanitary protection used, frequency of changing pads or cloths, means of disposal and bathing during menstruation. Girls were selected by cluster sampling technique in public secondary schools in urban and rural areas. Data were collected through an anonymous, self-administered, open-ended questionnaire during class time. The significant predictors of use of sanitary pads were availability of mass media at home, high and middle social class and urban residence. Use of sanitary pads may be increasing, but not among girls from rural and poor families, and other aspects of personal hygiene were generally found to be poor, such as not changing pads regularly or at night, and not bathing during menstruation. Lack of privacy was an important problem. Mass media were the main source of information about menstrual hygiene, followed by mothers, but a large majority of girls said they needed more information. Instruction in menstrual hygiene should be linked to an expanded programme of health education in schools. A supportive environment for menstrual hygiene has to be provided both at home and in school and sanitary pads made more affordable.

  2. POTENTIALS OF EGYPT AGRICULTURAL BILATERAL TRADE WITH THE ARAB COUNTRIES: GRAVITY MODEL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Said

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at evaluating the determinants of agricultural bilateral trade flows of Egypt with the Arab countries. A gravity model has been used in addition to some other indicators such as relative importance of intra-trade, tendency to export and import, and degree of openness. Two models have been estimated; one is for the Egyptian agricultural exports and the other is for the imports. The biggest Arab partners who represent the majority of the Egyptian bilateral trade are; KSA, Syria, Libya, Sudan, Jordan, UAE, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Iraq. The main features of the gravity model have been introduced well. The gross domestic product has a positive impact on both agricultural exports and imports, and the distance between Egypt and the target countries has a negative impact. Both factors are statistically significant. It's recommended that Egypt encourage foreign investment within the agriculture sector and maintain the road transportation with Arab countries.

  3. Evolution of informal settlements upgrading strategies in Egypt: From negligence to participatory development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa A. Khalifa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of informal settlements represents a key challenge not only in Egypt, but also worldwide. A review of informal settlements upgrading policies shows that governments have moved away from eradication policies to provision, enabling and participatory policies. This shift was motivated by the recognition that informal settlements were not a problem but a solution stimulated by the society when the formal housing markets cannot fulfill its demand. In Egypt, despite all efforts to contain the growth of informal settlements, they are steadily growing. This paper aims at mapping the change of informal settlements upgrading strategies in Egypt starting from negligence to contemporary participatory development approaches and housing policies aimed at providing affordable shelter to the urban poor. Additionally, it examines some best practices of informal settlements upgrading projects to find out the influential driving forces affecting the success of these projects that are suitable for scaling up and replication.

  4. Democratization of the Middle East from a Theoretical Perspective: The Case of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Eraslan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the democratization efforts of Egypt from a theoretical perspective. In this study it is argued that the liberal policies supported by US since 1980s have failed to democratize Egypt. The reforms and privatization attempts triggered the revolution but at the same time these reforms made the society vulnerable and democracy unsustainable. Liberal policies have opened up the system and expanded the rights to some extent but they have also widened the gap between the rich and the poor. As a result the middle class which is crucial for the survival of democracy has also been harmed through this process which have given rise to democratic instability in Egypt and resulted with a coup d'état.

  5. Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darzi, W; Al-Mudares, F; Farah, A; Ali, A; Marzouk, D

    2014-10-12

    Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period is known to lower the risk of such defects. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the level of knowledge about periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women attending for antenatal care at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt in 2012. Questionnaires were filled through personal interviews with 660 pregnant women. Of the respondents, 62.4% had heard of folic acid and 39.2% knew about the role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge about using folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was highest among university-educated women and those working in professional occupations. Only 18.8% of women reported taking folic acid, and 8.8% had used it before conception. Awareness campaigns are suggested to improve knowledge about folic acid among women in the childbearing period in Egypt.

  6. The building stones of ancient Egypt a gift of its geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Dietrich D.; Klemm, Rosemarie

    2001-08-01

    Building stones and clay-rich Nile mud were ancient Egypt's main raw construction materials. While the mud was easily accessible along the Nile river valley, the immense quantities of the different stone materials used for construction of the famous pyramids, precious temples and tombs needed a systematic quarrying organization, well arranged transport logistics over extreme distances and a high standard of stone masonry. The petrography, occurrence, and main applications of the 11 most popular stone types used in ancient Egypt are described in this contribution. Rough estimates of the scale of this mining activity, based on the volume of many different ancient quarry sites, all over Egypt, reveal that the monuments known today represent only a small fraction of the amount of building stones mined during the long, ancient Egyptian history.

  7. Analytical Characterization of Rococo Paintings in Egypt: Preliminary Results from El-Gawhara Palace at Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma REFAAT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El-Gawhara palace (1813–1814 AD is situated south of the Mosque of Muhammad Ali in the Cairo Citadel. This palace is an important example of the best early 19th century rococo decorations in Egypt. The present study reports some of the results obtained from the application of different analytical techniques to characterize some rococo paintings at El-Gawhara palace at Cairo, Egypt. The characterization of the studied paintings was carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT−IR. The obtained results allowed the identification of the chemical composition, structure and the painting technique employed in these paintings. This methodology reveals some useful information on some rococo paintings dating back to the 19th century in Egypt.

  8. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  9. The road to liberating citizens While governing the urban areas. The tale of two cities: Cairo and buenos aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Sirry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the political agenda, the social and economic policies, and urban planning and fabric of cities as a product cannot be missed. And as cities are centres of national economic growth and given that the future of the world will be urban it is thus ironic that the majority of the population of almost all cities in almost all developing countries lives in houses that are below standards, in areas that lack services and basic infrastructure. Furthermore, the people who live in these areas suffer from high present of socio-economic problems such as unemployment and literacy. The poorest of the population have to pay more for their houses, service and infrastructure provision. And they lack access to formal credit and thus to opportunities (Sirry 2004. The cities have become places of frustration instead of places of hope and opportunities. It is not thus surprising that the world is witnessing a wave of upheavals all over its’ cities. In the two case studies the article will try to discuss the background of the country and the political, social, and economic conditions and the physical outcome that is manifested in the image of its cities specially the capital city and how can the change towards democracy help the country, its cities and the urban population. The period covered is called by many the contemporary period, it starts in 50’s in Egypt and 70’s in Argentine.

  10. The crustal structure of Egypt and the northern Red Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Ahmed; Nyblade, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    P-wave receiver functions from 26 stations in the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) have been modeled using the H-k stacking method and in a joint inversion method with Rayleigh wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure across Egypt and the northern Red Sea region. The new estimates of crustal structure, when combined with previous results, show that along the rifted margins of the Red Sea, Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba crustal thickness ranges from 25 to 30 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.77, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.6 km/s. Beneath northern and central Egypt, including the Sinai Peninsula, crustal thickness ranges from 32 to 38 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.79, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.5 km/s. Beneath southern Egypt, crustal thickness ranges from 35 to 40 km, the average crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.76, and the average crustal shear-wave velocity is 3.7 km/s. In southern Egypt, the crust is also characterized by a 10-20 km thick mafic lower crust. These findings indicate that crust along the rifted margins of the northern Red Sea, and Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba have been thinned by about 5 to 10 km. The thick mafic lower crust in southern Egypt can be attributed to suturing during the Neoproterozoic collision of east Gondwana against the Sahara metacraton. Overall, the structure of the crust in Egypt away from the northern Red Sea region is similar to the structure of Precambrian crust in many other parts of Africa.

  11. Husband's control and sexual coercion within marriage: findings from a population-based survey in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel L; Khawaja, Marwan; Linos, Natalia

    2011-11-01

    This article examined sexual coercion within marriage in Egypt. Using cross-sectional survey data from a representative sample of married Egyptian women (N = 5,240), associations between forced intercourse and husband's control, as well as other relevant sociodemographic factors, were assessed through binary logistic regression models. The lifetime prevalence of forced intercourse was 6.2% and 4.6% during the past year, and husband's control was significantly associated with forced intercourse during a woman's lifetime (odds ratio = 3.5) and past year (odds ratio = 2.8). Interventions addressing gender patriarchy and men's control may decrease incidence of sexual coercion in Egypt and similar contexts.

  12. Analytical Characterization of Rococo Paintings in Egypt: Preliminary Results from El-Gawhara Palace at Cairo

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma REFAAT; Hussein MAREY MAHMOUD; Atef A. BRANIA

    2012-01-01

    El-Gawhara palace (1813–1814 AD) is situated south of the Mosque of Muhammad Ali in the Cairo Citadel. This palace is an important example of the best early 19th century rococo decorations in Egypt. The present study reports some of the results obtained from the application of different analytical techniques to characterize some rococo paintings at El-Gawhara palace at Cairo, Egypt. The characterization of the studied paintings was carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning ele...

  13. Palynology of Albian-Cenomanian strata in Mersa Matruh well, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ismail Z.

    Plant microfossils have been recovered from the Albian and lower Cenomanian strata encountered in Mersa Matruh well No. 1, drilled in the northern part of the Western Desert of Egypt. The microflora includes 56 miospore species belonging to 35 genera; most of them are derived from pteridophyte, gymnosperm and angiosperm vegetations. Differences in miospore assemblages of the Albian and Lower Cenomanian are described. Correlation with coeval palynofloral assemblages in West Africa and South and North America reveals that the Mersa Matruh area, Egypt belongs to the mid-Cretaceous African-South American phytogeoprovince.

  14. Plague in Egypt: Disease biology, history and contemporary analysis: A minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Lotfy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. Unfortunately, it is still endemic in some parts of the world. Also, natural foci of the disease are still found in some countries. Thus, there may be a risk of global plague re-emergence. This work reviews plague biology, history of major outbreaks, and threats of disease re-emergence in Egypt. Based on the suspected presence of potential natural foci in the country, the global climate change, and the threat posed by some neighbouring countries disease re-emergence in Egypt should not be excluded. The country is in need for implementation of some preventive measures.

  15. Free-living amoebae in Egypt. 1. Naegleria gruberi and Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashed, N N; Youssef, F G; Mansour, N S

    1991-04-01

    Two Naegleria species were isolated and identified from various water sources in Lower and Upper Egypt. Identification was based on the morphology, nuclear division and the excystation and flagellation tests. The trophic, cystic and flagellate forms of N. gruberi are larger than those of N. fowleri and the cyst of the former species has one or more pores while that of the latter species has no pores and has an outer gelatinous layer. The size and the morphological characteristics of these two free-living amoebae from Egypt were in complete agreement with those previously described for amoebae of this same genus and species endemic to other geographical areas.

  16. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden....... It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems......There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...

  17. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  18. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...

  19. Suburbs and Cities

    OpenAIRE

    William N. Goetzmann; Matthew I. Spiegel; Susan M. Wachter

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how closely the fortunes of suburbs are tied to the fortunes of the central city. We use similarities in residential housing price dynamics as a measure of how closely the economies of cities and suburbs are related. We develop housing price indices for most of the zip codes in California, and use these in a clustering procedure to see whether cities and suburbs naturally aggregate together, or whether they move separately. We find that central cities tend to...

  20. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nahla A Morad; M H Masoud; S M Abdel Moghith

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

  1. Modeling of Groundwater Quantity and Quality Management, Nile Valley, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owlia, R.; Fogg, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater levels have been rising in the Luxor area of Egypt due to increased agricultural irrigation following the construction of the Aswan High Dam (AHD) in 1970. This has led to soil and groundwater salinity problems caused by increasing evapotranspiration from shallower water table, as well as the degradation of historical monuments whose foundations are weakening by capillary rise of water into the columns and stonework. While similar salinity problems exist elsewhere in the world (e.g., San Joaquin Valley of California), we hypothesize that as long as groundwater discharge to the Nile River continues and serves as a sink for the salt, the regional salt balance will be manageable and will not lead to irreversible salinization of soils. Further, we hypothesize that if a groundwater system such as this one becomes overdrafted, thereby cutting off groundwater discharge to the River, the system salt balance will be less manageable and possibly non-sustainable. With groundwater flow modeling we are investigating approaches for managing the irrigation and groundwater levels so as to eliminate water stresses on Egyptian monuments and antiquities. Consequences of possible actions for managing the water table through groundwater pumping and alternative irrigation practices will be presented. Moreover, through the use of high resolution modeling of system heterogeneity, we will simulate the long term salt balance of the system under various scenarios, including the overdraft case. The salt source will be a function of groundwater discharge to the surface via bare-soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The built-in heterogeneity will account for dispersion, fast transport in connected media and slow mass transfer between aquifer and aquitard materials. Key Words: Groundwater, modeling, water quality, sustainability, salinity, irrigated agriculture, Nile aquifer.

  2. Hydrogeophysical Investigation at Luxor Archaeological Site, Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A. M.; Anderson, N. L.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2003-12-01

    Accelerated deterioration of the fabled monuments on the banks of the Luxor, southern Egypt, due to the elevated groundwater and increased salinity has caused global concern for preservation of these monuments. Groundwater delivering salts into the monuments' foundations evaporates leaving salts behind. Pressure developed during crystallization and hydration of residual salts within the foundations is suggested as the most likely cause for deterioration. The viable and safe mitigation of the deterioration problem requires an understanding of the hydrostratigraphy of the Luxor area. An integrated geophysical and hydrological investigations including resistivity soundings, seismic refraction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and chemical analysis of ground and surface water were conducted. The objective was to characterize the subsurface geologic/hydrologic units and identify sources responsible for rise in groundwater and increase in salinity. Integrated interpretations of the geophysical and hydrological data successfully characterized the shallow subsurface (Luxor Temples, which we interpret as a paleo-meander of the River Nile. Depth to the top of water-saturated zone was determined to be about 9m at the area of the temples. Based on the GPR results, the upper limit of capillary water at the Karnak Temples complex was determined to be 0.0- 2m, which indicates that the capillary rise within the silty clay can reach up to 9m. The groundwater flow direction was determined to be from the central cultivated areas towards the River Nile. The regional increase in groundwater salinity was towards the River Nile (or area of temples) in the same direction of the groundwater flow with maximum concentration beneath the temples. Based on these results, we suggest that, the salt accumulation on the monument's foundations is mainly due to salt transport by capillary water from the higher salinity groundwater or paleo-water in the thick silty clay unit.

  3. Naturally occurring Trichogramma species in olive farms in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ESMATMOHAMEDHEGAZI; ANNETTEHERZ; SHERIFHASSAN; ESSAMAGAMY; WEDADKHAFAGI; SANIASHWEIL; AHMEDZAITUN; SAFAAMOSTAFA; MOHAMEDHAFEZ; AHMEDEL-SHAZLY; SOMAIAEL-SAID; LAMIAABO-ABDALA; NOHAKHAMIS; SAMIAEL-KEMNY

    2005-01-01

    A survey of two-year studies (2001-2003) was carried out in two olive groves sited at two representative olive growing areas, namely Paradise Park (arid area) and Burg E1-Arab farm (semi-arid area) to monitor the frequency of endemic Trichogramma species on olive moth (Prays oleae) and jasmine moth (Palpita unionalis). The suspended host bait traps were found to be a more practical and effective tool for collecting Trichogramma wasps than the attached ones. Four naturally occurring Trichogramma species were collected for the first time in Egypt from the olive groves, where releases have never been conducted. T.bourarachae was collected exclusively from Burg El-Arab farm. It seems that this wasp species adapts well to the semi-arid area. Three species, namely T. cordubensis, T. nr.pretiosum and T. cacociae were isolated from Paradise Park farm. All of these wasps were also bred from naturally parasitized host eggs during favorable and even at unfavorable temperature conditions of June-August. However, these endemic species did not occur naturally in sufficient numbers to keep the pest populations from reaching damaging levels.The excessive usage of insecticides and the oophagous predators (e.g., ants and lacewing larvae) are some factors that affect the performance of Trichogramma wasps in olive farms.The presence of warm weather wasp strains suggests the existence of well-adapted wasp species or swains which may be appropriate candidates for the control of target pests in olive groves. Additional study is required to determine the best “habitat-specific” species/strains of Trichogramma for augmentative release of naturally occurring wasps and to incorporate them into integrated pest management programs. Efforts should be made to conserve these endemic species from oophagous predators, hot weather and insecticides.The olive and jasmine moth-larvae and pupae found under tree canopies were bred and emerged parasitoids were listed.

  4. Using GNSS for Tropospheric Wet Delay Estimation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Ashraf; Aboualy, D. Nadia; Sharaf, Mohamed; Zahra, Hassan; Darag, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    The tropospheric delay is a serious error source for positioning using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Since the scientific applications of GNSS positioning such as crustal deformation studies and earthquakes prediction require high accuracy in positioning, analysis of tropospheric delay is necessary to improve GNSS positioning accuracy In this study data of ground based GNSS receivers are used to evaluate effect of the tropospheric delay in position determination accuracy. These data are also used to study the tropospheric delay characteristics. The GNSS data are for the year 2013, taken from 8 station from Egypt Permanent GNSS Network (EPGN) and 13 IGS stations. The GNSS data were processed using advanced GNSS software called Bernese V 5.0 (Dach et al., 2007). The data processing was performed by three different ways; using a tropospheric model, making estimation for the tropospheric zenith wet delay (ZWD) and ignoring the Troposphere totally. Different processing methods are used to illustrate how troposphere affect the coordinates accuracy. The ZWD daily, temporal and spatial variations are also studied here. The results show that the RMS of the coordinates is better in case of making estimation for the troposphere ZWD and bad in case of ignoring the troposphere. Also there is a correlation between the troposphere and the height component. The troposphere ZWD values have daily, temporal and spatial variation. Depending on time in the day, day in the year, geographic location of the station and how near it to water. The ZWD values also go upward from the start to the end of the year, also it shows good correlation with the water vapor content in the troposphere.

  5. CALABI, Francesca. Fílon de Alexandria (Filone di Alessandria. Tradução: José Bortolini. São Paulo: Paulus, 2014. 223 pp. ISBN: 978-85-349-3854-9. R$ 38,00.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinto de Brito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Calabi é professora do Dipartamento di Studi Umanistici – Filosofia na Università degli Studi di Pavia, na Itália, onde leciona desde 2004 disciplinas de História da Filosofia Tardo-antiga. Seus cursos versam sobre temas como “O daimon de Sócrates” e “O asno de ouro” (ambas obras de Apuleio. Também lê, revisa e finaliza traduções suas em sala de aula, como a da “Carta de Aristeas a Filócrates”, um texto do séc. III a.C que descreve a tradução da Torá para o grego pelos 72 sábios e tradutores enviados a Alexandria a convite do então bibliotecário alexandrino, o peripatético Demétrio de Falero.

  6. Egypt`s potential for geothermal energy use and underground storage of thermal energy; Moeglichkeiten zur Nutzung geothermischer Energie und zur unterirdischen thermischen Energiespeicherung in Aegypten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A.M.; Sanner, B.; Knoblich, K. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Egypt belongs to the arid to extremely arid zone. Hot springs or wells are chiefly distributed over the areas of the Golf of Suez shoreline, along the Red Sea coast and in the Bahariya, Dakhla and Kharga oasis in the Western Desert. The Red Sea with it`s branches into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba/Jordan valley is the northern end of the East African Rift, which is tectonically active and yields further south known geothermal resources (e.g. in Kenya). Thus, a relatively high het flow zone exists on the eastern border of the Gulf of Suez, on Sinai peninsula. The hot springs of Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon and El Sokhna are located there. Hammam Faroun is the hottest spring in Egypt with water temperature of approx. 70 C. This paper compiles previous studies from Egypt to elucidate the geothermal potential of Egypt and opportunities to make use of it. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aegypten gehoert zur ariden bis extrem ariden Zone. Heisse Quellen oder erbohrte heisse Waesser finden sich hauptsaechlich entlang der Kueste des Golfs von Suez und des Roten Meeres, sowie in den Oasen Bahariya, Dakhla und Kharga in der westlichen Wueste. Das Rote Meer mit seinen Verzweigungen in den Golf von Suez und in den Golf von Akaba/Jordangraben bildet den noerdlichen Abschluss des Ostafrikanischen Grabensystems, das tektonisch sehr aktiv ist und weiter suedlich (z.B. in Kenia) bekannte geothermische Ressourcen bietet. Eine Zone mit hohem geothermischen Waermefluss befindet sich dementsprechend auch am oestlichen Rand des Golfs von Suez, der zur Halbinsel Sinai gehoehrt. Hier werden die heissen Quellen von Ayun Musa, Hammam Faraon und El Sokhna angetroffen. Hammam Faraon ist die heisseste Quelle Aegyptens mit Wassertemperaturen von etwa 70 C. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, einige fruehere Studien aus Aegypten zusammenzufassen und das geothermische Potential Aegyptens mit den Moeglichkeiten seiner Nutzung aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

  7. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  8. CHONGQING, the Hot City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chongqing is a well-known city with a history of more than 3,000 years. It is a famous historical and cultural city in China. Chongqing is the birthplace of the Bayu Culture. At present, Chongqing is a municipality directly under the Central Government with the largest area, the most administrative districts and the largest population.

  9. City Improves State Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EnjoyceZhu

    2003-01-01

    As China's new leadership drafts measures to help ailing Stateowned enterprises(SOEs),Changchun,a strategic city in the Rust Belt,is reaping benefits unseen in more than a decade of SOE reform.Home to a large number of SOEs,Changchun has had its share of bureaucracy and stagnation.The city initiated a program called,“Saving SOEs

  10. City profile: Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrest, H.J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Paramaribo, the largest and only significant urban area in Suriname, is a typical primate city. The majority of the countries’ population resides here and the majority of political, social and economic functions is clustered in the urban zone. In the course of the 20th century, the city changed dram

  11. Responsive City Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper presents and discusses perspectives extracted from two interviews conducted during the experiments Urban Responsive Lighting. The two experts embody two different fields related to city lighting: architecture & public lighting industry. The representatives were invited to the test...... on applied technologies and responsive light design in the contemporary cities....

  12. Making the Experience City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the latest research into cultural planning and architectural branding in Denmark based on the ‘Experience City' research project located at Aalborg University. The paper explores the implication of the turn towards culture and experience in the contemporary Danish city. It thus...

  13. Reflective cool cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Our globe is heating, and cities are heating up much more. At the same time, cities are growing and green spaces are substituted by buildings and streets. These man-made surfaces are dark and tend to heat up

  14. Deer City Legend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHUANZHI; LILIKUN

    2003-01-01

    MORE and more commodities,such as clothes,shoes,millinery,lighters and shavers,now bear the “Made in Wenzhou”mark.It woule appear that Wenzhou grooms the whole nation.Lucheng(deer city)District in central Wenzhou is the nucleus of the city's thriving light industry sector.

  15. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets Arkitekt...

  16. Citizenship Education in Post-Revolutionary Egypt: Examining the Curriculum of a Civic Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Salma G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how civic organizations in Egypt after the revolution prepare students to be active citizens with a solid understanding of what their roles and duties are in an emergent democratic system. Through examining the curriculum of the summer school of one of the civic organizations in Cairo, I first look at the…

  17. Uptake~of U-and Th-series radionuclides by cerral crops in Upper Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHABAN Harb; ROLF Michel

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine the activity concentrations of uranium series and thorium series radionuclide in crops cultivated in Upper Egypt. Fifteen types of cereal crops were collected from local markets and analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 238U, 226Ra and 232Thdifferent age groups.

  18. Efficacy of Commercial Mosquito Traps in Capturing Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    baited trap, carbondioxide ,BG-Sentinel trap,MosquitoMagnetPro trap,Phlebotomus papatasi Disease-carrying phlebotomine sand ßies cause an es- timated... strip supplied with the trap was not used because octenol has not been shown to be attractive to P. papatasi in Egypt (Beavers et al. 2004). The MCU trap

  19. Entrepreneurial Orientation in Business Schools. A Comparative Study of Higher Education Systems in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou- Warda, Sherein H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between the four main kinds of business schools in Egypt (private; internationally affiliated; public with local programs; and public with international programs) in terms of perceptions of entrepreneurial orientation (EO). Design/Methodology/Approach: Data were gathered 212 with a…

  20. Printing in the Arab World with emphasis on the Bulaq press in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Tadrus, Fawzi M.

    1982-01-01

    This article is a survey of the printing art in the Arab world in general, and Egypt in particular. The first, and still the most important Egyptian printing house, is the BiiUiq Press, which was founded in Cairo by the Wali (Viceroy of the Sultan of Turkey), Muhammad 'Ali (1805-1849).

  1. Introduction of the ART approach in Egypt: Intentions, clinical effects and perceived barriers. A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farag, A.S.E.D.; Sanden, W.J. van der; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim. To evaluate the effect of the introduction of ART in Upper-Egypt and assess the participating General Dental Practitioners' (GDPs) opinions, intentions, expectations and experiences regarding barriers related to using ART. Methods. Thirty-five GDPs were selected and trained on ART for

  2. Discovery of Diurnal Resting Sites of Phlebotomine Sand Flies in a Village in Southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    e.g., Leishmania spp., Bartonella bacilliformis, and several arboviruses. Management of phleboto- mine populations has been difficult because little is...Hanafi HA, Beavers GM, Dykstra EA. 2001. New record of Phlebotomus sergenti, the vector of Leish- mania tropica , in the southern Nile valley of Egypt. J

  3. ANALYSIS OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES’ ACTIVITIES THAT ARE DIRECTED TO PHYSICIANS IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bahlol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Pharmaceutical market is one of the largest world markets with its own conditions. In Middle East, Egypt is a major pharmaceutical emerging market and has geographical, historical and political effective leading role among Arab countries. This research aims to investigate pharmaceutical companies’ activities in Egypt directed to physicians.Methodology. Urveying through simple random probability sampling is the approach appropriate for broad and representative overview of situation in research. Therefore, a survey of 1068 physicians was conducted through interviews and establishing structured data collection questionnaire.Originality. This is the first empirical paper to investigate pharmaceutical companies’ activities directed to physicians in pharmaceutical market of Egypt. These activities include identifying pharmaceutical companies through visits of medical representatives, analysis of those visits, frequency of medical representatives’ visits, characteristics of information introduced by medical representatives to physicians, physicians’ trust in provided information, spending of pharmaceutical companies on physicians, promotional techniques applied by medical representatives. These findings are useful for managers in pharmaceutical industry. They can be also useful in other industries such as medical equipment.Findings. Pharmaceutical companies are employing medical representatives widely, as the most effective and widely-applied promotion tool in Egypt.Practical Implications. Coordinate marketing management vision with pharmaceutical market real context will lead to synergism effect in utilizing medical representatives’ activities.

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities and hormonal disorders of primary amenorrhea patients in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeza El-Dahtory

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that karyotype and FISH are necessary to detect the causes of primary amenorrhea. This study also revealed the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in women with primary amenorrhea in Egypt is similar to that reported in previous literatures.

  5. 78 FR 23208 - Importation of Fresh Oranges and Tangerines From Egypt Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... fly (Ceratitis capitata); however, imports of oranges from Egypt were suspended in July 2002 due to... with 7 CFR part 305 for C. capitata and B. zonata; and The oranges and tangerines must be accompanied... has undergone treatment for C. capitata and B. zonata in accordance with 7 CFR part 305, with...

  6. Morbidity, Mortality, and Seasonality of Influenza Hospitalizations in Egypt, November 2007-November 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeel, Amr; Labib, Manal; Said, Mayar; El-Refai, Samir; El-Gohari, Amani; Talaat, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza typically comprises a substantial portion of acute respiratory infections, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, influenza epidemiology data are lacking in Egypt. We describe seven years of Egypt’s influenza hospitalizations from a multi-site influenza surveillance system. Methods Syndromic case definitions identified individuals with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) admitted to eight hospitals in Egypt. Standardized demographic and clinical data were collected. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and typed as influenza A or B, and influenza A specimens subtyped. Results From November 2007–November 2014, 2,936/17,441 (17%) SARI cases were influenza-positive. Influenza-positive patients were more likely to be older, female, pregnant, and have chronic condition(s) (all p<0.05). Among them, 53 (2%) died, and death was associated with older age, five or more days from symptom onset to hospitalization, chronic condition(s), and influenza A (all p<0.05). An annual seasonal influenza pattern occurred from July–June. Each season, the proportion of the season’s influenza-positive cases peaked during November–May (19–41%). Conclusions In Egypt, influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality and influenza SARI hospitalization patterns mirror those of the Northern Hemisphere. Additional assessment of influenza epidemiology in Egypt may better guide disease control activities and vaccine policy. PMID:27607330

  7. Genetic characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates from stray dogs from Giza, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stray dogs are considered as sentinels in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are carnivores and eat variety of foods, including garbage. In the present study, tissues and sera of 51 stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from Giza, Egypt were examined for T. gondii infection. Sera were examin...

  8. Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activities in cyanobacterial mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teske, A.; Ramsing, NB; Habicht, K.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 10(6) and 10(7) cultivable sulfat...

  9. Modeling growth, carbon allocation and nutrient budgets of Phragmites australis in Lake Burullus, Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eid, E.M.; Shaltout, K.H.; Al-Sodany, Y.M.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Jensen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Phragmites australis is the major component of reed stands covering some 8200 ha along the shores of Lake Burullus (Egypt). We applied a published temperate zone reed model to assess growth and cycling of C and nutrients among the various organs of P. australis in this sub-tropical lake. We aim to q

  10. Remittances and their Effect on Emigration Intentions in Egypt, Morocco and Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik); G. Groenewold; T. Fokkema (Tineke)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWhat determines remittances – altruism or enlightened self-interest - and do remittances trigger additional migration? These two questions are examined empirically in Egypt, Turkey and Morocco for households with family members living abroad. Results show, first, that one cannot clearly

  11. Evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses in Egypt indicating progressive adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was first diagnosed in poultry in Egypt in 2006, and since then the disease became enzootic in poultry throughout the country affecting the poultry industry and village poultry as well as infecting humans. Vaccination has been used ...

  12. Assessing the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in Egypt : A Ricardian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Helmy M.; El-Marsafawy, Samia M.; Ouda, Samiha A.

    2007-01-01

    This study employed the Ricardian approach to measure the economic impacts of climate change on farm net revenue in Egypt. Farm net revenue were regressed against climate, soil, socioeconomic and hydrological variables to determine which factors influence the variability of farm net revenues. 900 households from 20 governorates were interviewed. The standard Ricardian model was applied, in...

  13. Benchmarking the Higher Education Institutions in Egypt using Composite Index Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rashad M El-Hefnawy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has the largest and most significant higher education system in the Middle East and North Africa but it had been continuously facing serious and accumulated challenges. The Higher Education Institutions in Egypt are undergoing important changes involving the development of performance, they are implementing strategies to enhance the overall performance of their universities using ICT, but still the gap between what is existing and what is supposed to be for the self-regulation and improvement processes is not entirely clear to face these challenges. The using of strategic comparative analysis model and tools to evaluate the current and future states will affect the overall performance of universities and shape new paradigms in development of Higher Education System (HES, several studies have investigated the evaluation of universities through the development and use of ranking and benchmark systems In this paper, we provide a model to construct unified Composite Index (CI based on a set of SMART indictors emulate the nature of higher education systems in Egypt. The outcomes of the proposed model aim to measure overall performance of universities and provide unified benchmarking method in this context. The model was discussed from theoretical and technical perspectives. Meanwhile, the research study was conducted with 40 professors from 19 renowned universities in Egypt as education domain experts.

  14. Overview of knowledge transfer in MENA countries - The case of Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of knowledge transfer and explains the factors that enable or impede absorption capacity and knowledge transfer in the MENA countries, with particular reference to the case of Egypt. We employ the conceptual framework used in the international literature on absorption

  15. China and Egypt Work Together to Ensure Bilateral Trade and Investment Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan; Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Egypt's Minister of Trade and industry, Rachid Mohamed paid a week-long visit to China from September 4 to September 11, 2006. During the visit, he met Chinese government officials and business representatives about engaging China in the development of Egyptian industry and attracting Chinese investment, technology and know-how into key industrial projects.

  16. First report of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 on citrus in northern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a nematode survey in 2012-2013 in EL-Nobarria, EL-Behera governorate, northern Egypt, specimens of dagger nematode (Xiphinema sp.) were collected from soil around the rhizosphere of citrus trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) exhibiting poor growth and low yield. The morphology of females esta...

  17. Thirty-Five Years of Care of Child Language in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotby, M. Nasser; El-Sady, Safaa; Hegazi, Mona

    2010-01-01

    The team of the Unit of Phoniatrics and Logopedics of the Ain Shams University Clinic in Cairo, Egypt, has worked for three and half decades to spread awareness of child language disorders. This involved publications to inform the public, as well as health care professionals, about the needs of children with delayed language, through description…

  18. Adequacy, Efficiency and Equity of Higher Education Financing: The Case of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Yasmine; Sami, Noha

    2011-01-01

    To meet its future challenges in financing higher education, Egypt has no option but to search for alternative funding arrangements. This article considers the question of how to do so, keeping in mind the need to ensure equitable access to good quality education for those who cannot afford it. To this end, the article begins by assessing public…

  19. Egypt in Transition: Responding to Social and Political Changes in Executive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Egypt witnessed an unexpected uprising on 25 January 2011. People took to the streets demanding their rights to freedom, equity and a better economy, and in only 18 days managed to oust President Mubarak, who had held power for 30 years. The transition period is still ongoing with an unfolding of events creating turbulence in the political, social…

  20. Molecular investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in domestic bovids from Gharbia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaig, Mahmoud Mohey; Elsheery, Mohamed Nagi

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) affecting cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) occurred in Egypt during 2012/2013. The present study was undertaken to determine the current strains of the FMD virus (FMDV) and the prevalence of FMD among cattle and buffalo in Gharbia, Egypt. The diagnostic sensitivity of two RT-PCR assays for the detection of FMDV was evaluated. The results revealed that SAT2 was the causative agent. The percentage of infected of animals varied with the detection method, ranging from 62.5 % by the untranslated region (UTR) RT-PCR to 75.6 % by SAT2 RT-PCR. The overall prevalence and mortality rates were 100 and 21 %, respectively. The mortality was higher in buffalo (23.3 %) than it was in cattle (17 %). A partial sequence of SAT2 was identical (90-100 %) to Egyptian isolates and was close in similarity to sequences from Sudan and Libya. In conclusion, FMD in Egypt is caused by SAT2. No other serotypes were detected. The results of this study provided the valuable data regarding the epidemiology of SAT2 in cattle and water buffalo from Egypt, which strengthens the need to change the strategies of both control and prevention that help to prevent the spread of the disease.

  1. Ecology and genomic features of infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Adel S; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Darwish, Samah F; Ghosh, Pallab; AbdEl-Fatah, Eman M; Behour, Tahani S; Talaat, Adel M

    2015-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, in cattle, with potential involvement in cases of Crohn's disease in humans. Johne's disease is found worldwide and is economically important for both beef and dairy industries. In an effort to characterize this important infection in Egypt, we analysed the ecological and genomic features of recent isolates of M. paratuberculosis. In this report, we examined 26 Holstein dairy herds distributed throughout Egypt, from 2010 to 2013. Using PCR analysis of faecal samples, we estimated a mean herd-level prevalence of 65.4 %, with animal-level infection that reached a mean of 13.6 % among animals suffering from diarrhoea. Whole genome sequencing of field isolates identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms among field isolates relative to the standard M. paratuberculosis K10 genome. Interestingly, the virulence of M. paratuberculosis isolates from Egypt revealed diverse virulence phenotypes in the murine model of paratuberculosis, with significant differences in tissue colonization, particularly during the chronic stage of infection. Overall, our analysis confirmed that Johne's disease is a newly identified problem in Egypt and indicated that M. paratuberculosis has potentially diverse genotypes that impact its virulence. Further ecological mapping and genomic analysis of M. paratuberculosis will enhance our understanding of the transmission and evolutionary dynamics of this pathogen under natural field conditions.

  2. Egypt's NGO Sector. A Briefing Paper. Education for Development Occasional Papers Series 1, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaTowsky, Robert J.

    Of the nearly 14,500 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) now registered with Egypt's Ministry of Social Affairs, 25% are inactive, 3% are less than 3 years old, and 7% are private member associations. The Egyptian government's promotion of specific social programs and service models in the NGO sector began after the October War of 1973. Egyptian…

  3. Molecular Characterization of Chicken Anemia Virus Circulating in Chicken Flocks in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed AboElkhair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although many previous studies reported detection of chicken anemia virus (CAV in Egypt since 1990, genomic characterization of this circulating CAV has not been published. In the present study, four nucleotide sequences of detected CAV were genetically characterized. Methods. These nucleotide sequences were obtained from commercial chicken flocks in two different locations of Egypt during 2010. The target region for sequencing was 675 bp nucleotide of partial coding region of VP1 protein. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the detected CAV were aligned and compared to worldwide CAV isolates including commonly used vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences was also carried out. Results. Our results showed that all the Egyptian CAV sequences were grouped in one group with viruses from diverse geographic regions. This group is characterized by amino acids profile 75I, 97L, 139Q, and 144Q in VP1. The phylogenetic and amino acid analyses of deduced amino acid indicated that the detected CAV sequences differ from CAV vaccine strains. Conclusion. This is the first report that describes molecular characterization of circulating CAV in Egypt. The study showed that the detected CAV, in Egypt are field viruses and unrelated to vaccine strains.

  4. Psychometric properties of the extended Care Dependency Scale for older persons in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the modified Arabic Care Dependency Scale for self-assessment of older persons in Egypt and to compare these self-assessments to proxy assessments by care givers and family members. Background. The Care Dependency Scale is a

  5. Mind the Gap: The Human Rights of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobrial, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have the same human value as other children and are entitled to their basic human rights. And yet, in developing countries they face many barriers to accessing these rights. This study focuses on children with IDs in Egypt. Method: A new measure, the Human Rights of children with…

  6. Colorectal cancer in Egypt is commoner in young people: Is this cause for alarm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gado

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: CRC is not uncommon among Egyptian patients subjected to colonoscopy. There are relatively higher CRC rates in patients under 40 years of age than reported in the West. This has implications relating to future epidemiological trends in Egypt. Physicians must have a greater awareness of the potential for CRC in young people in the Middle East.

  7. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  8. Great cities look small

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, Aaron; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social-ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximising the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly-available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterise the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of GDP and HIV infection rates ac...

  9. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...... is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing...... on experience. We will argue for a human turn in the research on liveabil- ity and urbanisation, and debates the concept of liveability. We will take Copenhagen as our main case and compare with other cities from around the world....

  10. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...... the reverse movement. A second prediction of the model is that attractive singles benefit most from a dense market (i.e. from being choosy). Those predictions are tested with a unique Danish dataset....

  11. Universities Scale Like Cities

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the gross university income in terms of total number of citations over size in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its ...

  12. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage...... cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  13. Marshak Lectureship Talk: Women in Physics in Egypt and the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Karimat

    2009-03-01

    Until the end of the 19th Century Science was not classified into different disciplines. The first woman named in the history of science was Merit Ptah (2700 BC) in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. In the new Egypt the first girl's school started in Cairo in 1873 and the first University in 1908. Only a few girls attended the University at that time, mainly studying the humanities. The first Egyptian woman physicist graduated in 1940 and received her PhD in nuclear physics in the USA. Nowadays the number of women in physics is increasing in all branches of physics, some of them are senior managers and others have been decorated with various prizes. In this talk some statistics will be given to show the percentage of women in physics in relation to other fields of science in Egypt. In Saudi Arabia the first girls' school started in 1964 and the first college for women, which was a section of King Abdul-Aziz University (where education is not mixed), started in 1975. I was the founder of the Physics Department of this women's section. Egyptians have played significant roles in teaching schoolchildren and university students of both sexes in all the Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Kuwait, Yemen, the Gulf States, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. But with respect to Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, our role was limited, since classes are taught in French. Arab women living in the countries located east of Egypt still have many difficulties facing them, needing to overcome many technical, academic, and social problems, while women in the countries located west of Egypt have fewer problems. There were many problems in the early days of education in Egypt but the women of Egypt worked hard to gain the same rights as men and were able to pave the way for all Arab women. I myself met many difficulties in my early days. This talk will also describe the impact of the regional conference on Women in Physics in Africa and Middle East, which was held in Cairo in 2007.

  14. Cities, Towns and Villages, City Limits of City of Dubuque, IA, Published in 2007, City of Dubuque.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as 'City Limits of City of...

  15. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  16. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt.

  17. Seismicity and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Egypt from 2004 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelazim, Mona; Samir, Ahmed; El-Nader, Iman Abu; Badawy, Ahmed; Hussein, Hesham

    2016-12-01

    The earthquake activity and the state of stress in and around Egypt will provide an opportunity to evaluate the seismic hazard. The seismicity data were compiled from the Egyptian National Seismological Network database during the period from 2004 to 2011 in an attempt to identify the different seismic source regions. Thirteen seismic source regions have been identified in this study. The focal mechanisms for 36 earthquakes in and around Egypt are constructed for the same period using the waveform data recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) and the International Data Center (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). These solutions are computed by joining P, SH, SV polarities and SV/P, SH/P and SV/SH amplitude ratios where the quality of each solution is evaluated. This set of solutions is considered as a completion of the Egyptian focal mechanism catalogue. It will be helpful in understanding the spatial variation in the stress field within Egypt. At northern Egypt, the dominated mechanisms reflect a normal dip-slip, sometimes with strike component except in Dahshour region where strike-slip mechanism dominates. Toward the south, in Aswan source region, the strike-slip mechanism is dominated reflecting that the local tectonics is important characterized by a major strike slip component. The orientations of the T axes appear to be changed from NE-SW in the Gulf of Suez to ENE-WSW in the Gulf of Aqaba and NNE-SSW in the remains of the Egyptian territory. It is clear that Egypt is mainly controlled by extensional stress field.

  18. Nutritional Status of Mentally Disabled Children in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa M AbdAllah, **Shawkia S. A. El-Sherbeny and ***Sahar Khairy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mental disability can interfere with education and scholastic achievement. It can lead to school dropout and minimize opportunities to participate in the labor force. Moreover, disabilities affect the overall health and psychological state of the individuals. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of mentally disabled children in Egypt on the basis of anthropometric indicators and laboratory data. Subjects and Methods: Across sectional study was conducted on 639 mentally disable children aged 6-<14 years (422males and 217females, from urban areas. They were classified into two age groups (6-<11& 11-<14 years. The following variables were determined using Z score indicator of weight for age, height for age and weight for height. Also, body mass index, mid arm circumference and triceps skin fold thickness percentiles were determined. Laboratory investigation including blood hemoglobin concentration and plasma levels of vitamin A and -tocopherol as well as plasma zinc, copper and magnesium concentration were estimated. Results: Prevalence of underweight was 14.1% by Wt/age Z score. Stunting was estimated among 33.5% with significantly higher prevalence in older children. Muscle &fat depletion was detected in 30.2%, with significantly higher prevalence among males than females. Depleted fat store was detected in 14.7% of children. Wasting was documented in 14.1% of children by BMI percentile, and was significantly higher among males than females. No significant difference was detected between male and female handicapped children regarding mean blood hemoglobin values as well as mean plasma levels of the measured vitamins and minerals, except for mean plasma zinc level. The overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was higher in males (41.5% than females (37.1%. Deficiency of - tocopherol was more prevalent than that of vitamin A. The overall prevalence of deficiency of zinc, magnesium and copper

  19. Indirect determination of broadband turbidity coefficients over Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Metwally, Mossad

    2013-01-01

    Long-term data from diffuse and global irradiances were used to calculate direct beam irradiance which was used to determine three atmospheric turbidity coefficients (Linke T L , Ångström β and Unsworth-Monteith δ a ) at seven sites in Egypt in the period from 1981 to 2000. Seven study sites (Barrani, Matruh, Arish, Cairo, Asyut, Aswan and Kharga) have been divided into three categories: Mediterranean climate (MC), desert Nile climate (DNC) and urban climate (UC, Cairo). The indirect method (i.e., global irradiance minus diffuse irradiance) used here allows to estimate the turbidity coefficients with an RMSE% ≤20 % (for β, δ a and T L ) and ~30 % (for β) if compared with those estimated by direct beam irradiance and sunphotometeric data, respectively. Monthly averages of T L , β and δ a show seasonal variations with mainly maxima in spring at all stations, due to Khamsin depressions coming from Sahara. Secondary maxima is observed in summer and autumn at DNC and MC (Barrani and Arish) stations in summer due to dust haze which prevails during that season and at UC (Cairo) in autumn, due to the northern extension of the Sudan monsoon trough, which is accompanied by small-scale depressions with dust particles. The mean annual values of β, δ a , and T L (0.216, 0.314, and 4.6, respectively) are larger in Cairo than at MC stations (0.146, 0.216, and 3.8, respectively) and DNC stations (0.153, 0.227, and 3.8, respectively). Both El-Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo eruptions were examined for all records data at MC, UC and DNC stations. The overburden caused by Mt. Pinatubo's eruption was larger than El-Chichon's eruption and overburden for β, and T L at DNC stations (0.06, and 0.58 units, respectively) was more pronounced than that at MC (0.02, and 0.26, respectively) and UC (0.05 and 0.52 units, respectively) stations. The annual variations in wind speed and turbidity parameters show high values for both low and high wind speed at all stations. The wind directions

  20. ISCC Kuraymat Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakmann, G.

    2006-07-01

    The New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) of Egypt intends to implement an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant, ISCC Kuraymat, to be located about 95 km south of Cairo, on the eastern side of the river Nile, at a northern latitude of 29{sup o} 16' and an eastern longitude of 31{sup o} 15'. The complete ISCC Project shall be implemented in three (3) contract lots: One (1) Contract Lot for Solar Island as EPC cum OandM contract for engineering, procurement, construction, testing, commissioning and five (5) years operation and maintenance; (Two contracts will be used for this Lot (Solar Island), one for EPC and one for the OandM part of the Lot.) The Solar Island shall consist of a parabolic trough solar field capable to generate about 110 MW (thermal) of solar heat at a temperature of 393{sup o}C, the related IandC and control room and the heat transfer fluid (HTF) system up to the HTF inlet and outlet flanges of the Solar Heat Exchanger(s). The Contractor for Solar Island shall guarantee the supply of solar heat to the Solar Heat Exchanger(s) as a function of normal direct solar irradiation (DNI) and of solar position. One (1) Contract for Combined Cycle Island as EPC contract for engineering, procurement, construction, testing and commissioning and extended two (2) year warranty period. The Combined Cycle Island shall consist of one (1) or two (2) gas turbine(s) with ISO rating of about 80 MWe (total), one (1) or two (2) heat recovery steam generator(s) (HRSG), one (1) steam turbine of about 70 MWe, solar heat exchanger(s) capable to absorb about 110 MW (thermal) of solar heat plus all associated balance of plant equipment. The Contractor(s) for Combined Cycle Island shall guarantee the supply of electricity and the heat rate as a function of ambient temperature and as a function of solar heat supply from the Solar Island. One (1) Contract for Combined Cycle Island as OandM contract for five (5) year operation and maintenance. (Author)