WorldWideScience

Sample records for aleutian mink disease

  1. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broll, S.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) was studied in experimental infection of 1-year-old female non-Aleutian mink. The ADV-seronegative female mink were inoculated,vith ADV prior to mating or after the expected implantation of the embryos during pregnancy...

  2. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden...

  3. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  4. Acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits inoculated with defined isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Aasted, B;

    1994-01-01

    The present study addressed the causal role of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits. All the examined isolates of ADV caused interstitial pneumonia in newborn kits, although the severity of disease and the mortality varied. These findings indicate...

  5. Demonstration of Aleutian disease virus-specific lymphocyte response in mink with progressive Aleutian disease: comparison of sapphire and pastel mink infected with different virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, R E; Bloom, M E; Coe, J E

    1983-09-01

    Lymphocyte blastogenesis was used to study the antiviral lymphocyte response of sapphire (Aleutian) and pastel (nonAleutian) mink inoculated with Pullman or Utah 1 Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Both mink genotypes developed a virus-specific response when inoculated with Utah 1 ADV. In contrast, after inoculation of Pullman ADV, sapphire mink had a positive virus-specific response, whereas pastel mink did not. Response occurred late after infection (8 wk) and correlated with the development of progressive Aleutian disease (AD). The response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and concanavalin A (Con A) was also determined. Most mink of either genotype, inoculated with either virus strain, maintained an anti-KLH response during disease. Most mink also responded to Con A, although some exhibited suppressed Con A response late in the disease course. These results indicated that mink develop an anti-ADV lymphocyte response during progressive AD and are not immunosuppressed with regard to other antigens or mitogens.

  6. Passive transfer of antiviral antibodies restricts replication of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Cohn, A.;

    1989-01-01

    When mink kits were infected neonatally with a highly virulent strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV), 100% of both Aleutian and non-Aleutian genotype mink died of interstitial pneumonia characterized by permissive ADV infection of alveolar type II cells. Treatment of infected kits with either mi...

  7. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: Transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus the same cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bloom, M.E.;

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases, Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease, In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic...

  8. High Prevalence of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-ranging Mink on a Remote Danish Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann;

    2012-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes severe disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison) worldwide. In Denmark, AMDV in farmed mink has been confined to the northern part of the mainland since 2002. From 1998 to 2009, samples from 396 free-ranging mink were collected from mainland Denmark......, and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32...... of 49 antibody-positive free-ranging mink on Bornholm, but not in mink collected from other parts of Denmark. Sequence analysis of 370 base pairs of the nonstructural gene of the AMDV of 17 samples revealed two clusters with closest similarity to Swedish AMDV strains....

  9. Diversity and stability of Aleutian mink disease virus during bottleneck transitions resulting from eradication in domestic mink in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Hansen, Lene Gram; Chriél, Mariann;

    2011-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (plasmacytosis) virus (AMDV) in domestic mink (Neovison vison) has been subject to eradication in Denmark since 1976. In 2001, approximately 5% of Danish mink farms were still infected and all were located in the northern part of the peninsula of Jutland. In the present study...

  10. Comparative pathogenicity of four strains of Aleutian disease virus for pastel and sapphire mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1983-09-01

    Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink.

  11. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Persson

    Full Text Available Aleutian mink disease (AMD is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133 had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006, heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen.

  12. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine H; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Appelberg, Mia Tjernström; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen.

  13. Aleutian disease of mink: the antibody response of sapphire and pastel mink to Aleutian disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Hadlow, W J; Chesebro, B

    1975-10-01

    The specific antiviral antibody response of sapphire and pastel mink to Pullman strain of ADV has been examined. Sapphire mink inoculated with from 300,000-3 LD50 developed high levels of specific antibody and AD. Pastel mink inoculated with parallel doses of ADV also produced antibody but did not develop AD. The low incidence of AD in pastel mink inoculated with Pullman strain of ADV is probably related to factors other than antiviral antibody.

  14. Effect of Persistent Infection of Mink with Aleutian Mink Disease Virus on Reproductive Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic infections of mink with Aleutian mink disease virus (AMD on reproductive performance and the morphology of the internal organs. The study drew its subjects from two farms where the disease was endemic and included 450 clinically healthy female mink divided into three equal groups: two AMD positive groups and one AMD negative control group. The mink were subjected to clinical observations throughout the period of reproduction, and then for the first seven weeks after birth. Data collected during this period were evaluated using selected breeding and reproductive indices. All reproductive indices including conception rate, litter size, and litter weight at birth as well as neonatal mortality were substantially poorer. Histopathological examination revealed changes typical for AMD, particularly in the spleen, kidneys, liver, and lymph nodes. The results highlighted and proved the frequently underestimated extent of economic losses on farms where AMD is endemic yet the mink stock is apparently healthy.

  15. Royal pastel mink respond variously to inoculation with Aleutian disease virus of low virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1984-04-01

    Information was sought on the varied responses of royal pastel mink (a non-Aleutian genotype) to Aleutian disease virus of low virulence. Thus, of 20 yearling female pastel mink inoculated subcutaneously with a large amount of the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus, only 3 succumbed to the disease. Of the other 17 mink, 3 had neither viremia nor a rise in level of serum gamma globulin during the 24 weeks after inoculation. The other 14 mink were viremic for variable periods during the first 12 weeks. In only five mink was the viremia accompanied by elevated levels of serum gamma globulin, usually from week 8 on. Of the 16 subclinically infected mink that did not succumb to intercurrent disease and otherwise remained healthy, 9 were examined at 19 to 31 months for persisting virus. In only one mink, small amounts were detected in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen nearly 28 months after inoculation. The other seven mink that survived the infection were not protected when challenged 31 months later with a small amount of the highly virulent Utah-1 strain. Even though still poorly understood, these varied responses of the royal pastel mink to infection with Aleutian disease virus of low virulence have important pathogenetic and epidemiological implications.

  16. Interferon response in normal and Aleutian disease virus-infected mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedbrauk, D L; Hadlow, W J; Ewalt, L C; Lodmell, D L

    1986-08-01

    Studies were done to determine whether differences in interferon production are responsible for the resistance of pastel mink to Aleutian disease. The abilities of normal pastel and sapphire mink to produce interferon when inoculated with either Newcastle disease virus or a synthetic polyribonucleotide, poly (I):poly (C), were identical, even to the production of a novel, acid-labile interferon. The resistance of pastel mink to Aleutian disease did not correlate with interferon production, because neither sapphire nor pastel mink produced detectable amounts of interferon when infected with either the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) or the highly virulent Utah I strain. Sapphire mink infected with the Pullman strain responded normally to poly (I):poly (C) early in the course of the disease, but interferon production was impaired late, when the mink were hypergammaglobulinemic and had renal, vascular, and hepatic lesions. These data suggest that ADV Pullman neither stimulates nor interferes with interferon production in infected mink and may represent a mechanism whereby ADV can more readily establish infection.

  17. Temporal replication of the Pullman strain of Aleutian disease virus in royal pastel mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J; Race, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1985-09-01

    Information was sought on the temporal replication of Aleutian disease virus in 27 royal pastel mink. Groups of three were examined 8 to 126 days after they were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(3) 50% lethal doses of the Pullman strain. Much individual variation was noted in the onset of infection, occurrence of viremia, and extent of virus replication in the tissues. Thus, virus was detected in lymph nodes regional to the site of inoculation in only some mink during the first 14 days after inoculation. During this period, virus was often present as well in the mesenteric lymph node and spleen. First detected on day 10, viremia was present in all mink examined on day 28 but occurred irregularly thereafter, even when virus was widespread in the tissues. Except in five mink succumbing to the disease, the tissue distribution of virus after day 28 tended to be more limited, and the titers were generally lower than they had been earlier. Even though present in the lymph nodes and spleen, virus was often absent from the kidney, liver, and intestine after day 28. Specific antibody was detected on day 28 and was present in all mink thereafter, ostensibly without any adverse effect on virus replication. In most mink, the infection was considered subclinical, for it was usually not accompanied by a rise in serum gamma globulin or by morphologic evidence of the disease. The virologic findings in this study have a bearing on the relationship of subclinical infections to both horizontal and vertical transmission of the virus.

  18. S-phase-dependent cell cycle disturbances caused by Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    We examined replication of the autonomous parovirus Aleutian mink disease parovirus (ADV) in relation to cell cycle progression of permissive Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ADV caused a composite, binary pattern of cell cycle arrest. ADV-induced cell cycle...... with subthreshold levels of ADV products through the late S/G(2) block and, consequently, that the binary pattern of ADV-induced cell cycle arrest may be governed merely by viral replication levels within a single S phase. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide fluorescence and bromodeoxyuridine uptake showed...... that population A cells sustained significantly higher levels of DNA replication than population B cells during the ADV-induced cell cycle arrest. Therefore, the type of ADV-induced cell cycle arrest was not trivial and could have implications for subsequent viral replication in the target cell....

  19. Antibody-forming cells and serum hemolysin responses of pastel and sapphire mink inoculated with Aleutian disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J

    1973-11-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV.

  20. A fast and robust method for whole genome sequencing of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth; Krarup, Anders; Fahnøe, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    have focused on limited regions of the viral genome. This paper describes a robust, reliable, and fast protocol for amplification of the full AMDV genome using long-range PCR. The method was used to generate next generation sequencing data for the non-virulent cell-culture adapted AMDV-G strain as well......Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with commercial mink breeding. AMDV infection leads to increased mortality and compromised animal health and welfare. Currently little is known about the molecular evolution of the virus, and the few existing studies...

  1. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...... proteins formed hollow intranuclear shells around the inclusions. Later, nuclei had irregular outlines and were virtually free of ADV products. In these cells, inclusions of viral DNA with or without associated NS protein were embedded in cytoplasmic VP protein. These findings implied that ADV replication...

  2. Identification of biosecurity measures and spatial variables as potential risk factors for Aleutian disease in Danish mink farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Houe, Hans; Agger, Jens Frederik Gramstrup

    2012-01-01

    for the infection in this region based on logistic regression of spatial (environmental, neighbourhood) variables and biosecurity measures. Information on potential biosecurity (management) risk factors in the region was obtained from interviews in 342 registered farms in the region using a structured questionnaire......Eradication of Aleutian disease was initiated in Denmark in 1976. The prevalence of positive farms has since then been reduced from 100% to only being continuously present in the region of Vendsyssel, Northern Denmark since 2004. In this study, we attempted to identify risk factors....... A total of 279 questionnaires were completed (response rate 82%). Additional spatial variables were included in the analysis. The study shows that farm size (the number of animals in the farm) and proportion of infected neighbouring farms were significant risk factors for infection with Aleutian Mink...

  3. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million...... blood samples. The procedure of the method is, that a known positive serum sample is mixed with the patient serum to be tested. The result from a false positive sample will be one precipitin line towards virus and one nonspecific line. If the serum sample is a true positive one, the antibodies...... originating from the patient serum will be added to the antibodies in the standard positive serum giving only one precipitin line. The system is further extended by testing the serum samples towards an antigen preparation containing all the cellular components but free from virus....

  4. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Fusion VP2332-452 Antigen for Detecting Antibodies against Aleutian Mink Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Song, Cailing; Liu, Yun; Qu, Liandong; Liu, Dafei; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Ming

    2016-02-01

    For detection of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) antibodies, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant VP2332-452 protein as an antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) was used as a reference test to compare the results of the ELISA and Western blotting (WB); the specificity and sensitivity of the VP2332-452 ELISA were 97.9% and 97.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of WB. Therefore, this VP2332-452 ELISA may be a preferable method for detecting antibodies against AMDV.

  5. Implementation and validation of a sensitive PCR detection method in the eradication campaign against Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    of Denmark. However, re-infections and new introductions of virus into farms require a confirmatory virological test to verify the positive test results of single animals and ultimately to investigate disease transmission. A one step PCR amplifying a 374-base fragment of the NS1 gene of AMDV was compared...... to the counter-current immune electrophoresis (CIE) routinely used in the serological screening programme. Mink organs (n = 299) obtained from 55 recently infected farms and 8 non-infected farms from 2008 to 2010 were tested by PCR, and the results were found to have a high correlation with the serological...... status of the mink. The relative diagnostic sensitivity of the PCR was 94.7%, and the relative diagnostic specificity was 97.9% when read in parallel with the CIE. PCR positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis revealed high similarity within the analysed AMDV strains and to AMDV strains...

  6. 阿留申病细小病毒的分离及VP2基因遗传衍生分析%Isolation of Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus and Genetic Variation Analysis of VP2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华育平; 马建

    2005-01-01

    水貂阿留申病(Aleutian disease of mink,AD)是水貂的一种慢性传染病,病原为阿留申病细小病毒(Aleutian mink disease parvovirus,AMDV),属细小病毒科、细小病毒属。AD自1940年发现以来至今60年里,已经普遍存在于世界各地人工养殖的水貂种群中。对水貂养殖业造成了不可估量的经济损失。

  7. 检测动物产品中水貂阿留申病毒和犬细小病毒复合PCR方法的建立和应用%Establishment and Application of Multi-PCR Detective Methods for the Detection of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus and Canine Parvovirus in Animal Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雄伟; 李叶; 胡传伟

    2012-01-01

      水貂阿留申病(AD)和犬细小病毒病(CP)是危害经济动物健康的重要疫病,可造成巨大的经济损失。本研究建立了水貂阿留申病毒(ADV)、犬细小病毒(CPV)复合PCR检测方法,并对临床样品进行了大量检测,结果表明本方法特异、敏感、简便、快速,非常适宜临床样品的大量筛选检测,对经济动物疫情的快速诊断与控制、加强经济动物及其产品进出境的检验检疫工作,御疫情于国门之外有重要的意义。%  Aleutian mink disease and canine parvovirus disease are two important diseases causing great economic loss to fur animal industry. In the study,a multi-PCR assay was developed for detection of Aleutian mink disease and canine parvovirus and the assay was applied in testing a lot of clinical samples. The results showed that the assay was specific,sensitive and rapid,and suitable for screening test.

  8. Persistent spatial clusters of plasmacytosis among Danish mink farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Ostergaard, J.; Ersboll, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Aleutian disease (Plasmacytosis) is caused by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV), an autonomous parvovirus and affects many mustelid species, including the American mink (Neovisonvison). In Denmark, an eradication program reduced the prevalence of test-positive farms from 100% in 1976 to 15...

  9. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, S; Lund, E;

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antib...... parvoviruses is discussed....... important implications for the pathogenesis of MEV-induced disease. The data presented on MEV are correlated with earlier results on the other mink parvovirus, Aleutian mink disease parvovirus, and a possible explanation for the remarkable differences in pathogenesis of disease caused by these two...

  10. Newcastle disease virus from domestic mink, China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Sun, Lingshuang; Sun, Xiao; Li, Siwen; Zhang, Wen; Pulscher, Laura A; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that most often infects poultry species. In investigating a 2014 outbreak of encephalitis and death among farmed mink (Mustela vison), we found pathological and later experimental evidence that NDV can infect and cause severe encephalitic and pneumonic disease in these animals. Our findings confirm the host range of NDV.

  11. Effect of Freund's adjuvant on standard dark and pastel mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabel, H; Ingram, D G

    1971-04-01

    Following a long series of injections of homologous immunoglobulin in complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant into mink, a moderate elevation in the level of gammaglobulin in the serum was observed in a few animals. Relatively mild pathological changes also were seen in liver, spleen, lymph nodes, lungs and kidney. It is concluded that the injection of Freund's adjuvant, under the experimental conditions described, produced lesions which were readily distinguishable from the lesions characteristic of aleutian disease of mink.

  12. Rapid detection of self-biting disease of mink by specific sequence-characterized amplified regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zong-yue; NING Fang-yong; YANG Hong-yan; WEI Lai; BAI Xiu-juan

    2011-01-01

    Self-biting disease occurred in most farmed fur animals in the world. The mechanism and rapid detection method of this disease has not been reported. We applied bulked sergeant analysis (BSA) in combination with RAPD method to analyze a molecular genetic marker linked with self-biting trait in mink group. The molecular marker was converted into sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) marker for rapid detection of this disease. A single RAPD marker A8 amplified a specific band of 263bp in self-biting minks, which was designated as SRA8-250,and non-specific band of 315bp in both self-biting and healthy minks.The sequences of the bands exhibited 75% and 88% similarity to Canis familiarizes major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅱ region and Macaca mulatta MHC class Ⅰ region, respectively. A SCAR marker SCAR-A8 was designed for the specific fragment SRA8-250 and validated in 30 self-biting minks and 30 healthy minks. Positive amplification of SCAR-A8 was detected in 24 self-biting minks and 12 healthy minks. x2 test showed significant difference (p<0.01) in the detection rate between the two groups. This indicated that SRA8-250 can be used as a positive marker to detect self-biting disease in minks. Furthermore, the finding that self-biting disease links with MHC genes has significant implications for the mechanism of the disease.

  13. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    bone loss and tooth loss. There was a high prevalence of destructive periodontal disease among blue mink included in this study. Mild to moderate periodontal disease (defined by less than 50% alveolar bone loss related to 1 or more teeth) affected 73.7% of young mink (age = 7 mo) and 67.9% of older...... animals (age &GE; 19 mo). Severe periodontal disease (defined by more than 50% bone loss related to one or more teeth) was not detected in mink aged 7 mo, but affected 15.3% of mink aged 19 mo and 39.6% of mink aged 31 mo. The positive relationship between age and periodontal disease was statistically...... in the mink was related to and possibly caused by destructive periodontal disease. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of periodontal disease between the 2 genotypes and age was found to be the only statistical predictor of poor production results (P < 0.01) in blue mink....

  14. Comparison of destructive periodontal disease in blue iris mink to PCB 126-induced mandibular and maxillary squamous epithelial proliferation in natural dark mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellick, Rachel M; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Link, Jane E; Bursian, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Mink (Mustela vison) exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-like chemicals have been reported to develop mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation that results in the destruction of alveolar bone and eventual tooth loss. This jaw lesion has been reported in wild mink collected from areas contaminated with TCDD-like compounds and is a potential biomarker for exposure to these chemicals. The blue iris strain of domestic mink is prone to develop severe periodontal disease, which results in destruction of bone and tooth loss that is grossly similar to the lesion induced by exposure to TCDD-like chemicals. A histological assessment of jaws from blue iris mink and natural dark mink exposed to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) was done to determine whether the oral lesions are similar. The jaw tissue from the blue iris mink had lesions indicative of lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis and osteomyelitis, caused by inflammation entering the dental sulcus, while the jaw tissue from the mink exposed to PCB 126 exhibited squamous epithelial proliferation. Therefore, it was determined that the tooth loss and bone destruction seen in these mink are of different origin despite the similarity of the gross clinical signs.

  15. Recombinant proteins as vaccines for protection against disease induced by infection with mink astrovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    and polypeptides of the capsid protein of a novel mink astrovirus strain denoted DK7627. Such polynucleotides and polypeptides may be used for the production of vaccines against mink astrovirus which may induce pre-weaning diarrhoea in minks. The invention furthermore relates to vectors, host cells, compositions...

  16. Characterization of deoxyribonucleic acid from cells infected with Aleutian disease virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, E.C.; Ramos, L.; Kenyon, A.J.

    1983-07-01

    Viral DNA was extracted from Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells infected with Aleutian disease virus (ADV) and labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. The sedimentation coefficient in alkaline sucrose gradients was 16S corresponding to a molecular weight of 1.5 X 10(6). The buoyant densities of DNA from infected and control cells were determined by isopyknic sedimentation in CsCl and NaI gradients. Two additional peaks of (/sup 3/H)DNA were found in infected cells, but not in control cell extracts. Fractionation of this DNA on hydroxylapatite indicated that the new peaks represented a single-stranded component, density 1.728 g/cm3, and a double-stranded component, presumed to be a viral replicative intermediate, density 1.718 g/cm3. The target antigen formation in CRFK cells was measured by gamma-irradiation of ADV and assayed for focus formation. The calculated size of ADV based on these measurements was 1.1 X 10(6). The H-1 parvovirus also was shown to have a size of 1.5 X 10(6) daltons for both antigen and plaque formation. The data indicated similarities existed between ADV and other autonomously replicating parvoviruses in most properties, except that less-than-unit length genome of ADV may be transcribed.

  17. Molecular characterization of a novel astrovirus associated with disease in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittelholzer, C.; Hedlund, K.O.; Englund, L.;

    2003-01-01

    , containing sequence motifs for a serine protease (ORF1a) and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (ORF1b). The structural proteins are encoded by ORF2 and, presumably, are expressed as a polyprotein precursor to be cleaved into the mature capsid proteins. These results indicate that mink astrovirus (MiAstV) has...

  18. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  19. Effect of infectious dose and season on development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine H; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Høiby, Niels; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2013-07-01

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia is an acute and fatal disease of farmed mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been resolved. Mink are the only animals known to be susceptible to acute, contagious, and fatal lung infections caused by P. aeruginosa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between dose-response and season of infection and to clarify whether Danish mink are carriers of P. aeruginosa on their nasal mucosa during the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia. To elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease, an infectious dose-response trial was carried out on adult mink and mink kits, both in the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia (November) as well as out of season (July). It proved difficult to infect mink via the intra-nasal route. Only 4 out of 60 infected mink developed clinical disease and were euthanized, all of them in November, illustrating that predisposing factors in the mink itself and not infectious dose might be crucial for disease development. We were able to culture P. aeruginosa from the nasal cavity of the clinically healthy experimental mink 8 d after inoculation. This indicated that the mink can carry P. aeruginosa on their nasal mucosa without developing the disease. It was not possible, however, to culture P. aeruginosa from the nasal cavity of clinically healthy mink obtained from farms in November, which indicates that the organism is not a normal part of the nasal mucosal flora of mink.

  20. Consequences of outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark in 2009 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 which was caused by influenza A virus H10N4 of avian origin. In 2009 and 2010 outbreaks of respiratory disease were seen in se...

  1. Aleutian Goose Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1995-96 status report includes the most recent observations of Aleutian Canada geese populations wintering in the El Sobrante and East San Francisco Bay areas...

  2. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink is an acute and fatal disease caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mink are typically found dead without prior clinical symptoms. The disease can be highly contagious and varying mortalities on the farm level has been reported. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink...... in hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and E. coli in diagnostic material. The distribution of the two pathogens is visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two histological patterns were observed in the work presented in Article II; one was very hemorrhagic with few bacteria while...... is seasonal with outbreaks almost exclusively occurring from September to November in Denmark. In human medicine, P. aeruginosa is regarded as a pathogen for immune compromised individuals but no underlying disease or immune defect has been identified in mink dying of hemorrhagic pneumonia. In fact, little...

  3. Effect of infectious dose and season on development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia is an acute and fatal disease of farmed mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been resolved. Mink are the only animals known to be susceptible to acute, contagious, and fatal lung infections caused by P. aeruginosa. The purpose...... of this study was to investigate the correlation between dose-response and season of infection and to clarify whether Danish mink are carriers of P. aeruginosa on their nasal mucosa during the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia. To elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease, an infectious dose-response trial...... was carried out on adult mink and mink kits, both in the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia (November) as well as out of season (July). It proved difficult to infect mink via the intra-nasal route. Only 4 out of 60 infected mink developed clinical disease and were euthanized, all of them in November...

  4. [Effect of mutations affecting coat color on the blood lymphocyte structure in the American mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Trapezov, O V; Kizhina, A G; Iliukha, V A; Trapezova, L I; Tiutiunnik, N N

    2011-01-01

    American minks with different genotypes containing the Aleutian coat color allele in the homozygous state, including the single recessive Aleutian (a/a); double recessive sapphire (a/a p/p) and lavender (m/m a/a); triple recessive violet (m/m a/a p/p); and dominant-recessive cross sapphire (S/+ a/a p/p), sapphire leopard (S(K)/+ a/a p/p), and shadow sapphire (S(H)/+ a/a p/p) minks, as well as American minks without the Aleutian allele, including the standard (+/+); single recessive silver-blue (p/p) and hedlund-white (h/h); double recessive pearl (k/k p/p), Finnish topaz (t(S)/t(S) b/b); incompletely dominant royal silver (S(R)/+), standard leopard (S(K)/+), and black crystal (C(R)/+); and dominant-recessive snowy topaz (C(R)/+ t(S)/t(S) b/b) and Kujtezhy-spotted (S(K)/+ b/b) minks have been studied. Homozygosity for the a allele has been found to disturb the subcellular structure of leukocyte, namely the formation of abnormally large granules.

  5. Therapeutic effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage YH30 on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jingmin; Li, Xinwei; Yang, Mei; Du, Chongtao; Cui, Ziyin; Gong, Pengjuan; Xia, Feifei; Song, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Juecheng; Yu, Chuang; Sun, Changjiang; Feng, Xin; Lei, Liancheng; Han, Wenyu

    2016-07-15

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most costly infectious diseases among farmed mink and commonly leads to large economic losses during mink production. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. A broad-host-range phage from the Podoviridae family, YH30, was isolated using the mink-originating P. aeruginosa (serotype G) D7 strain as a host. The genome of YH30 was 72,192bp (54.92% G+C), contained 86 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins or antibiotic resistance determinants. These characteristics make YH30 eligible for use in phage therapy. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that a single intranasal administration of YH30 was sufficient to cure hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink. The mean colony count of P. aeruginosa in the blood and lung of YH30-protected mink was less than 10(3) CFU/mL (g) within 24h of bacterial challenge and ultimately became undetectable, whereas that in unprotected mink reached more than 10(8) CFU/mL (g). Additionally, YH30 dramatically improved the pathological manifestations of lung injury in mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrates the potential of phages to treat P. aeruginosa-caused hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink.

  6. Application of qPCR assays for diagnosing causes of viral mink diarrhea. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders is the main cause for submitting mink (Neovison vison) carcasses for post-mortem examination at the National Veterinary Institute in Denmark and has been described as the predominant cause of disease and mortality in the Danish mink production (Rattenborg et al. 19...

  7. Carcinoma of the anal sac glands in ranch mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlow, W J

    1985-05-01

    During a 14-year period, carcinoma of the anal sac apocrine glands was found in 52 pastel and 8 sapphire mink (Mustela vison) kept for studies on slow viral diseases. The pastel mink varied in age from 72 to 135 months (mean age 108 months), the sapphire mink from 63 to 100 months (mean age 81 months). All but one pastel mink were females. The primary tumor varied in size from masses that caused bulges in the perineum to those that were found only after microscopic examination of the anal sac glands. Although the primary tumor grew mainly by expansion with little local infiltration, 41 of the 60 tumors had metastasized to the regional lymph nodes and sometimes also to more distant sites. The striking propensity of the carcinoma to metastasize while still small, even microscopic, often resulted in massive secondary growths, notably in the iliac lymph nodes. Hypercalcemia did not accompany the carcinoma. Its varied microscopic appearance included solid, glandular, squamous cell, and spindle or round cell components. Combinations of them formed mixed or complex histologic patterns, no doubt largely attributable to neoplastic proliferation of myoepithelial cells and squamous metaplasia of the apocrine gland epithelium. Although its cause remains obscure, the carcinoma appeared to arise from small foci of hyperplastic apocrine glands, sometimes in relation to both anal sacs. The tumor is a common and distinctive expression of neoplasia in older ranch mink.

  8. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis...... and only a few isolates belonged to other Streptococcus species. Typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of a selection of isolates revealed several patterns and several different clones. Attempts to reproduce disease by the injection of cultures of a field isolate into healthy mink failed....

  9. Diagnosis of Canine Distemper Virus from Mink%貂犬瘟热病的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    永措; 刁富花; 汪生贵

    2012-01-01

    貂犬瘟热是危害貂、狐、貉最严重的烈性传染病之一.作者对某貂养殖场的病死貂进行临床症状观察,病理剖检及实验室诊断,通过病毒的分离培养及鉴定,确诊病死貂为貂犬瘟热病毒感染.鉴于养殖场中该病的存在及对养貂业的危害,建议加强对貂犬瘟热病的诊断及监控.%Mink distemper is one of the most serious deadly infectious diseases to mink or fox. The paper introduced a mink farm. The clinical symptoms, pathological lesions and laboratory diagnosis were observed, and mink distemper was detected by virus isolation culture and RT-PCR,the final diagnosis result was mink distemper. Because of the existence of the disease and the harm fulness to the mink industry, the diagnosis and monitoring of mink distemper should be strengthening.

  10. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1983-01-01

    The mink (Mustela vison) is a predatory, semiaquatic mammal that is generally associated with stream and river banks, lake shores, fresh and saltwater marshes, and marine shore habitats (Gerell 1970).  Mink are chiefly nocturnal and remain active throughout the year (Marshall 1936); Gerell 1969; Burgess 1978).  The species is adaptable in its use of habitat, modifying daily habits according to environmental conditions, particularly prey availability (Wise et al. 1981; Linn and Birds 1981; Birks and Linn 1982).  The species is tolerant of human activity and will inhabit suboptimum habitats as long as an adequate food source is available; however, mink will be more mobile and change home ranges more frequently under such conditions (Linn pers. comm.).

  12. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine... have developed mink enteritis following inoculation with virulent mink enteritis virus. Each...

  13. Volcano collapse along the Aleutian Ridge (western Aleutian Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Montanaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Aleutian Ridge, in the western part of the Aleutian Arc, consists of a chain of volcanic islands perched atop the crest of a submarine ridge with most of the active Quaternary stratocones or caldera-like volcanoes being located on the northern margins of the Aleutian Islands. Integrated analysis of marine and terrestrial data resulted in the identification and characterization of 17 extensive submarine debris avalanche deposits from 11 volcanoes. Two morphological types of deposits are recognizable, elongate and lobate, with primary controls on the size and distribution of the volcanic debris being the volume and nature of material involved, proportion of fine grained material, depth of emplacement and the paleo-bathymetry. Volume calculations show the amount of material deposited in debris avalanches is as much as three times larger than the amount of material initially involved in the collapse, suggesting the incorporation of large amounts of submarine material during transport. The orientation of the collapse events is influenced by regional fault systems underling the volcanoes. The western Aleutian Arc has a significant tsunamigenic potential and communities within the Aleutian Islands and surrounding areas of the North Pacific as well as shipping and fishing fleets that cross the North Pacific may be at risk during future eruptions in this area.

  14. Some clinical and hematological features of virus enteritis of mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, H A

    1969-04-01

    Twenty-six, ten-week-old mink were infected by force feeding by pipette 2 ml of a tissue suspension containing a Wisconsin strain of mink enteritis virus. Four days later, diarrhea and partial or complete loss of appetite developed simultaneously in all of the animals. Squinting and occasional vomiting were also observed. By the sixth day after inoculation, all of the mink were anorectic and weak. Anorexia persisted for 48 to 96 hours. Diarrhea and vomiting continued until the eighth to ninth day after exposure. For the first two days after the appearance of diarrhea, the feces contained large quantities of mucus and intestinal casts were seen frequently in the droppings. Thereafter, the feces consisted mostly of yellowish green, watery fluid and contained no casts. Some of the animals died on the eighth day after infection. Those which survived were severely dehydrated and debilitated, but resumed eating and achieved complete clinical recovery within the next five to six days.Leukopenia, i.e., total leukocyte count of less than 5,000 cells per mm(3) of blood, was found in seven of nine mink examined during the height of the disease. Leukopenic animals were deficient in both lymphocytes and neutrophils.

  15. Inbreeding affects fecundity of American mink (Neovison vison) in Danish farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demontis, Ditte; Larsen, P F; Bækgaard, H

    2011-01-01

    Inbreeding is an increasing problem in farmed mink, because of limited exchange of individuals between farms. In this study, genetic relatedness within seven American mink (Neovison vison) colour strains originating from 13 different mink farms in Denmark was analysed using 21 polymorphic microsa...

  16. Mink's adaptation to group housing in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2012-01-01

    marks than mink that did not haev bite wounds. Thus, based upon bite mark results, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that mink populations adapted to group housing have been developed. The number of mink that had died or had been removede during the test period, or that had bite wounds at the time...... of observation was low on farm A, B, and C, and significantly lower than on farm D. This partly supports the hypothesis about having developed mink populations and or management adapted to group housing. The investigation has confirmed that the level of bite marks is a useful, objective measuring parameter......In this project, we test the hypothesis whether mink populations with a higher social tolerance have been developed in practice and thus are better adapted to housing in stacked cages. The hypothesis has been tested by comparing the level of bite damages and bit marks in mink kept in pairs...

  17. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with...

  18. 水貂肠炎病毒双抗体夹心ELISA检测方法的建立%Establishment of double antibody sandwich ELISA for detection of mink enteritis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建科; 程世鹏; 易立; 杨莘; 罗彬; 许红丽; 闫喜军; 武华

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(DAS-ELISA) for detection of mink enteritis virus(MEV),anti-MEV monoclonal antibody and rabbit anti-MEV polyclonal antibody were used as the capture antibody and detecting antibody,respectively. The optimal dilution of the capture antibody and the detecting antibody capable of detecting MEV antigens were 1: 20 and 1: 3 200 in the check-board titration respectively. Positive samples with MEV,Aleutian mink disease virus and canine distemper virus were examined by the established ELISA respectively. In result,the developed DAS-ELISA had good specificity. A total of 158 samples were tested both by the developed DAS-ELISA and by polymerase chain reaction(PCR). 40 of the tested samples were positive by the developed ADS-ELISA and 44 by PCR. The specificity and sensitivity of the developed DAS-ELISA were 95.6 %and 79.5 %, respectively. The coincidental rate between the developed DAS-ELISA and PCR was 91.1%. These results indicated that the developed DAS-ELISA was suitable for rapid detection and epidemiological investigation of MEV infection in mink.%以抗水貂肠炎病毒(mink enteritis virus,MEV)单克隆抗体为捕获抗体、兔抗MEV多克隆抗体为检测抗体,建立了MEV双抗体夹心ELISA检测方法.该方法用于MEV抗原的检测.经过试验,单克隆抗体的最适稀释度为1:20,兔抗MEV多克隆抗体的最适稀释度为1:3200.用该ELISA方法分别检测MEV、水貂阿留中病痛毒、犬瘟热病毒样品.结果表明,ELISA方法具有良好的特异性.用该ELISA和PCR同时检测158份临床样品,其中ELISA检测40份为阳性,PCR检测44份为阳性,该ELISA的特异性和敏感性分别为95.6%和79.5%,这2种方法的符合率为91.1%.该方法的建立为MEV的检测及水貂病毒性肠炎的流行病学调查提供了工具.

  19. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302... Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus... follows: (1) To detect virulent canine distemper virus, each of two distemper susceptible mink or...

  20. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino sinusitis in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S.; Hammer, A. S.; Høiby, N.

    2017-01-01

    The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable...... traditional animal model for this disease. Nasal tissue samples from infected and control mink were fixed in formalin, demineralized, and embedded in paraffin. A histological examination of sections from the infected animals revealed disintegration of the respiratory epithelium lining the nasal turbinates...... and swelling and edema of the submucosa. The expression of mucins and sialylated glycans was examined using immunohistochemistry. MUC1, MUC2 and MUC5AC were upregulated in the inoculated animals as a much stronger staining was present in the respiratory epithelium in the infected animals compared...

  1. Intestinal remodelling in mink fed with reduced protein content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke;

    2009-01-01

    Low protein intake occurs in humans in relation to diseases, starvation and post-operatively. Low-protein diets may affect the gastrointestinal structure and mechanical function. The aim was to study the passive biomechanical properties and tissue remodelling of the intestine in minks on reduced...... protein diets. Twenty-seven male minks were divided into three groups receiving different protein level in the diet for 6 weeks: High protein level (group H, 55% energy from protein), moderate protein level (group M, 30% energy from protein) and low protein level (group L, 15% energy from protein) (n=9...... for each group). Ten centimetre long segments from duodenum, jejunum and ileum were excised at the end of the study period. The mechanical test was performed as a ramp distension experiment. The intestinal diameter and length, wall thickness, wall area and opening angle were obtained from digitized images...

  2. Wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriel, Mariann; Struve, Tina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Gitte; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H) was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% - 99.62%). The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks.

  3. Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Brojer, Caroline; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    2004-01-01

    . Testing was conducted to determine the cause of the disease, including general virological investigations (virus culture, negative-staining electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction for herpesviruses, adenoviruses, pestiviruses, and coronaviruses), tests for specific viral...... diseases (canine distemper, Borna disease, Louping ill, West Nile virus infection, tick-borne encephalitis, Aleutian disease), tests for protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi), bacteria (general culture, listeria, Clamydophila psittaci), and intracerebral inoculation......, it is postulated that the disease is caused by a yet unidentified virus....

  4. Contaminant concentrations in Connecticut and Massachusetts mink

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It appears that PCB levels in Connecticut and Massachusetts mink are high enough to adversely affect reproduction. Although levels of contaminants in Massachusetts...

  5. Måling af stress hos mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2010-01-01

    temadagen præsenteres nye resultater og metoder til at vurdere stress hos mink. I en metode måles koncentrationen af nedbrydningsprodukter af hormonet cortisol i gødning fra mink. Der er en række fordele ved denne metode, frem for blodprøvetagning. Forsøg viste, at hovedparten af cortisol udskilles i fæces...... (83 %) frem for i urin (17 %), samt at omsætningen af radioaktivt mærket cortisol ikke er forskellig mellem mink med hhv. lav og høj forekomst af stereotypi. Denne viden kan bruges til bedre at forstå koblingen f.eks. unormal adfærd og stress hos mink.......Sammendrag Stress indgår som et element ved vurdering af dyrevelfærd. Endvidere kan stress mål anvendes i undersøgelser, hvor forskellige typer af avl, burmiljø og pasning af mink sammenlignes. Men hvad er stress egentlig og hvordan måles det? Er unormal adfærd koblet til stress hos mink? På...

  6. Outbreaks of Influenza A Virus in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: Molecular characterization of the involved viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona;

    or was circulating in Danish pigs. In 2010 and 2011, influenza virus was again diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings......Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 and the second was reported from Canadian mink farms. In 2009, influenza A of the subtype H3N2 was detected in several Danish...... mink farms with respiratory symptoms. Full-genome sequencing showed that the virus was a human/swine reassortant, with the H and N gene most related to human H3N2 viruses circulating in 2005. The remaining 6 genes were most closely related to H1N2 influenza viruses circulating in Danish swine...

  7. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this...

  8. Comparison of the tyrosine aminotransferase cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of normal mink and mink affected with tyrosinemia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, S R; McGuire, T C; Prieur, D J

    2005-01-01

    Type II tyrosinemia, designated Richner-Hanhart syndrome in humans, is a hereditary metabolic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by a deficiency of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Mutations occur in the human tyrosine aminotransferase gene, resulting in high levels of tyrosine and disease. Type II tyrosinemia occurs in mink, and our hypothesis was that it would also be associated with mutation(s) in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Therefore, the transcribed cDNA and the genomic tyrosine aminotransferase gene were sequenced from normal and affected mink. The gene extended over 11.9 kb and had 12 exons coding for a predicted 454-amino-acid protein with 93% homology with human tyrosine aminotransferase. FISH analysis mapped the gene to chromosome 8 using the Mandahl and Fredga (1975) nomenclature and chromosome 5 using the Christensen et al. (1996) nomenclature. The hypothesis was rejected because sequence analysis disclosed no mutations in either cDNA or introns that were associated with affected mink. This suggests that an unlinked gene regulatory mutation may be the cause of tyrosinemia in mink.

  9. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Aleutians Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 2.1 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings extending 1,900 km along the Aleutian Islands from Unimak Island in the east to the...

  10. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  11. Arctic and Aleutian terns, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Baird (1980) has recently reported on the ecology of Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea) and Aleutian terns (Sterna aleutica) from 4 areas of mainland Alaska. However,...

  12. Biology of nesting Aleutian Canada goose, summer 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975 breeding Aleutian Canada geese, Branta canadensis leucopareia, were studied at Buldir Island, western Aleutian Islands. Buldir is the only known...

  13. Molecular characterization of the Himalayan mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Farid, Hossain

    2009-01-01

    A rare color variant of the American mink (Neovison vison), discovered on a ranch in Nova Scotia and referred to as the "marbled" variety, carries a distinctive pigment distribution pattern resembling that found in some other species, e.g., the Siamese cat and the Himalayan mouse. We tested...

  14. Experimental Infection of Mink Enforces the Role of Arcanobacterium phocae as Causative Agent of Fur Animal Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma (FENP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Heli; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Sukura, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Fur Animal Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma (FENP) is a severe, often lethal infectious disease affecting all three fur animal species: mink (Neovision vision), foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Previous studies showed an association between Arcanobacterium phocae and FENP. An experimental infection was conducted to confirm the ability of A. phocae to infect mink either alone or concurrently with a novel Streptococcus sp. found together with A. phocae in many cases of FENP. Different inoculation methods were tested to study possible routes of transmission. Typical signs, and gross- and histopathological findings for FENP were detected when naïve mink were infected with the tissue extract of mink with FENP, using a subcutaneous/ intradermal infection route. Edema, hemorrhage, necrosis and pus formation were detected in the infection site. A pure culture preparation of A. phocae alone or concurrently with the novel Streptococcus sp. caused severe acute signs of lethargy, apathy and anorexia and even mortality. The histopathological findings were similar to those found in naturally occurring cases of FENP. In contrast, the perorally infected mink presented no clinical signs nor any gross- or histopathological lesions. This study showed that A. phocae is able to cause FENP. The study also indicated that predisposing factors such as the environment, the general condition of the animals, temperature and skin trauma contribute to the development of the disease. PMID:27973532

  15. Abortion and mortality in farm mink (Neovison vison) associated with feed-born Clostridium limosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted; Andresen, Lars; Aalbæk, Bent

    2017-01-01

    . Pathological, microbiological and molecular biological methods were applied to investigate the cause of disease. Necropsies of animals found dead revealed fragile and partially dissolved (liquefying) uterine tissue, with the presence of Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria. These slow growing bacteria were......Disease in mink clinically characterized by abortion and increased mortality among pregnant female mink on 28 Danish farms was observed during April and May 2015. Most of these farms suffered extensive disease problems, including a significant increase in the number of mated females without litters...... isolated by anaerobic culturing and identified as Clostridium limosum by both MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All the performed tests for relevant differential diagnoses were negative. Foodborne disease was indicated because all the affected farms were served by the same...

  16. Stress influencing production and welfare in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development and valid...... animals and whether fur-chewing/stereotypic behaviour is associated with hippocampal neurogenesis in mink. Perspectives and suggested future research aiming to improve production and welfare in farmed mink are given....

  17. Aleutian Canada geese banding at Chagulak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project captured and banded twenty Aleutian Canada geese on Chagulak Island to help determine their wintering grounds and capture two additional birds for...

  18. Translocation and banding of Aleutian Canada geese in the western Aleutian Islands in 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In August 1990, 110 Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were captured and banded at Buldir Island. Twenty-five of these geese were translocated to...

  19. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  20. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L.;

    2013-01-01

    -tested (P=0.004). Large numbers of mink are kept in fur industry farms, and our results are important to the understanding of sound communication, which is part of their natural behaviour. Our results also suggest mink as an interesting model for studying the development of mammalian hearing and its...

  1. Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus for which pigs are the primary animal reservoir. To investigate whether HEV occurs in mink in Denmark, we screened feces and tissues from domestic and wild mink. Our finding of a novel HEV variant supports previous findings of HEV variants in a variety...

  2. First report of Filaria martis Gmelin, 1790 in the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André, Adrien; Urra Maya, Fermín; Giralda Carrera, Gloria; Fournier, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The riparian European mink (Mustela lutreola), currently surviving in only three unconnected sites in Europe, is now listed as a critically endangered species according to the IUCN. Habitat loss and degradation, anthropic mortality, interaction with the feral American mink (Neovison vison), and infectious diseases are among the principal causes of its decline. Surveys of helminth parasites of this host that also include focus on subcutaneous potentially pathogenic helminths such as those belonging to the genus Filaria are very scarce. We report here the presence of specimens of Filaria martis in the subcutaneous connective tissues of three M. lutreola individuals from Spain. This is the first finding of a subcutaneous nematode in a representative of the genus Mustela. The report also enlarges the known range of the definitive hosts of this nematode. These worms were mainly located in the dorsal region of mink and more rarely in the knees, elbows, and hips. Skin sloughing was only observed in one M. lutreola with both septicaemia and an associated high burden of F. martis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to potentially pathogenic helminths when designing conservation programs dedicated to M. lutreola.

  3. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent; Pertoldi, Cino; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2015-03-10

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits with CDV DNA vaccines. Virus neutralising (VN) antibody responses were induced in mink kits vaccinated with a plasmid encoding the haemaglutinin protein (H) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-H) or a combination of the H, fusion (F) and nucleoprotein (N) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-HFN). These DNA vaccinated kits were protected against virulent experimental infection with field strains of CDV. The pCDV-H was more efficient in inducing protective immunity in the presence of maternal antibodies compared to the pCDV-HFN. The results show that DNA vaccination with the pCDV-H or pCDV-HFN (n=4) only given once at 5 days of age induces virus specific immune response in neonatal mink and protection against virulent CDV exposure later in life.

  4. The identification, typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jing; Li, Lulu; Du, Yijun; Wang, Shourong; Wang, Jinwen; Luo, Yanbo; Che, Jie; Lu, Jinxing; Liu, Hui; Hu, Guangchun; Li, Jixia; Gong, Yanwen; Wang, Guisheng; Hu, Ming; Shiganyan; Liu, Yuqing

    2014-06-04

    The biological characteristics and molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with mink hemorrhagic pneumonia from Shandong province of eastern China were determined in this study. From 2010 to 2011, 30 mink P. aeruginosa isolates were identified from lung, fecal and feed samples of clinical cases and subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. The P. aeruginosa isolates belonged to four serotypes-21 of type G, four of type I, three of type M, one of type B, and one non-typable strain. The strains were divided into four large groups as determined by PFGE. Isolates from the group 2 were highly homologous and were obtained from the same region as an epidemic. All of the isolates were sensitive to piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin and resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxime and cefuroxime axetil. A high frequency of resistance was found to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, cefotetan, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (96.7%). Resistance to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was less common (13.3%). There was no relationship between antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution of the isolates. The epidemic serotype of P. aeruginosa from the mink hemorrhagic pneumonia in Shandong province was type G, which was a clone of commonly found in this province. These findings reveal the genetic similarities and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of P. aeruginosa from clinical cases of mink hemorrhagic pneumonia and will facilitate the prevention and control of the disease in Shandong province of China.

  5. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...... behaviour) and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured on-farm. The major steps in the development of the WelFur mink protocols are described: (1) Writing leterature reviews and listing potential measures. (2) Identifying valid, reliable and feasable welfare measures. (3) Developing registration protocols......, descriptions, and schemes. (4) Testing preliminary protocols in relevant seasons of the annual production. This paper focus on the evaluation of validity, reliability anf feasibility of the 22 measures that have been selected for the WelFur assessment protocols. These protocols haev been tested in the three...

  6. Evaluation of the Zoonotic Potential of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis for the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques indicate a low cattle-to-primate species barrier. We therefore evaluated the zoonotic potential of cattle-adapted TME. In less than two years, this strain induced in cynomolgus macaques a neurological disease similar to L-BSE but distinct from c-BSE. TME derived from another donor species (raccoon induced a similar disease with even shorter incubation periods. L-BSE and cattle-adapted TME were also transmissible to transgenic mice expressing human prion protein (PrP. Secondary transmissions to transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP maintained the features of the three tested bovine strains (cattle TME, c-BSE and L-BSE regardless of intermediate host. Thus, TME is the third animal prion strain transmissible to both macaques and humanized transgenic mice, suggesting zoonotic potentials that should be considered in the risk analysis of animal prion diseases for human health. Moreover, the similarities between TME and L-BSE are highly suggestive of a link between these strains, and therefore the possible presence of L-BSE for many decades prior to its identification in USA and Europe.

  7. Nature and Significance of the High-Sr Aleutian Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Arndt, S.; Turka, J. R.; Kelemen, P. B.; Vervoort, J. D.; Portnyagin, M.; Hoernle, K.

    2011-12-01

    Results of the Western Aleutian Volcano Expedition and German-Russian KALMAR cruises include the discovery of seafloor volcanism at the Ingenstrem Depression and at unnamed seamounts 300 km west of Buldir, the westernmost emergent volcano in the Aleutian arc. These discoveries indicate that the surface expression of active Aleutian volcanism goes below sea level just west of Buldir, but is otherwise continuous along the full length of the arc. Many lavas dredged from western Aleutian seamounts are basalts, geochemically similar to basalts from elsewhere in Aleutians and other arcs (La/Yb 4-8, Sr/Y700 ppm Sr), which are mostly plagioclase-hornblende andesites and dacites with low Y and middle-heavy rare-earth elements, fractionated trace element patterns (Sr/Y=50-200, La/Yb=9-25) and MORB-like isotopes (87Sr/86Sr 0.65) with 1250-1700 ppm Sr, 4-7 ppm Y, low abundances of all rare-earth elements (Laandesites from some emergent volcanoes in the western Aleutians, and mixing arrays indicate that it may be present in all Aleutian lavas (e.g., 87Sr/86Sr vs. La/Yb or Sr/Y); however, radiogenic Pb and Sr from subducted sediment renders the high-Sr endmember isotopically invisible in most central and eastern Aleutian lavas. The geochemistry of small monogenetic sea-floor volcanoes--especially those in the back-arc--may be the best opportunity to identify the high-Sr endmember in central and eastern Aleutian locations. The existence of primitive, high-silica lavas in the western Aleutians, where the subducting plate is probably unusually hot, may also provide key observations toward an improved understanding of high-Mg# andesites and dacites from other hot-slab locations, especially in the Cascades and Central Mexico. [1] Zimmer et al., 2010, J. Petrology, v. 51, p. 2411

  8. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  9. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, K.J.; Laford, H.D. [URS Consultants, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m{sup 3} of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations.

  10. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  11. 1982 Aleutian Islands salmon stock assessment study: Legislative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a comprehensive research study of the Aleutian Islands salmon resources in 1982. The study encompassed the area west of Unimak Pass to Attu...

  12. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Aleutians Bathymetry Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 2.1 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings extending 1,900 km along the Aleutian Islands from Unimak Island in the east to the...

  13. Fox management plan, Aleutian Islands Unit, AMNWR: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The presence or absence of arctic fox on islands in the Aleutian Islands Units is described as a decision tool for fox eradication. An effective chemical...

  14. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    gene product was characterized after expression in Sf9 insect cells. The MEV VP-2 product had the same size as that reported for the wild-type MEV VP-2 protein and was recognized by convalescent sera from MEV-infected mink and a panel of monoclonal antibodies reactive to MEV. Furthermore, the VP-2...

  15. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Nizki and Alaid Islands, Near Islands group, Aleutian Islands, spring 1983: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Introduced Arctic foxes were eliminated from Nizki and Alaid islands in the late 1970's. Due to the unavailability of a support vessel, mainland reared Aleutian...

  16. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, B; Muir, D C G; Backus, S; Born, E W; Dietz, R; Haug, T; Metcalfe, T; Metcalfe, C; Øien, N

    2008-05-01

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and SigmaCHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170+/-110 and 41+/-39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800+/-4100 and 1100+/-780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters.

  17. Stress and stereotypic behaviour in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Jeppesen, L L; Palme, R

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether female mink with low (LS) and high (HS) occurrence of stereotypic behaviour differ in their adrenocortical activity in baseline conditions or in response to immobilisation (Experiment 1), handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (Experiment 2) and excretion...... 4-20 h after the handling (P = 0.001). In Experiment 3 (n = 16), the excretion of infused (3)H-cortisol did not differ between LS and HS mink. Stereotypic behaviour is concurrent with higher baseline concentrations of FCM, which cannot be explained by a greater adrenocortical reactivity...... of circulating cortisol (Experiment 3). Faeces are the predominating excretory route of cortisol (83%), with peak concentrations after 4.2 h (urine: 3.4 h). Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) reflected changes in relation to handling/ACTH challenge. In Experiment 1 (n = 162), HS mink had approximately 54% higher...

  18. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns and time courses of activity and feed availability were investigated in three generations of farmed mink (2003-2005) subjected to three different feedings routines; normal farm feeding (close to average ad libitum), ad libitum, and restricted feeding. The mink were fed daily at h12...... on different feeding schedules. The diurnal activity rhythm in both the farm fed and the ad libitum fed mink consisted of three activity peaks; one around sunrise, one prior to feeding time, and one around sunset. However, the restrictively fed mink decreased their activity in the morning when feed...... was not available and increased their activity up to expected feeding time at noon and again around sunset. When feeding was postponed, the restrictively fed mink increased their activity up to expected feeding time, whereas the ad libitum or farm fed mink did not. The results indicate that mink fed restrictively...

  19. Analysis of the vp2 gene sequence of a new mutated mink enteritis parvovirus strain in PR China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wenyu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mink enteritis virus (MEV causes a highly contagious viral disease of mink with a worldwide distribution. MEV has a linear, single-stranded, negative-sense DNA with a genome length of approximately 5,000 bp. The VP2 protein is the major structural protein of the parvovirus encoded by the vp2 gene. VP2 is highly antigenic and plays important roles in determining viral host ranges and tissue tropisms. This study describes the bionomics and vp2 gene analysis of a mutated strain, MEV-DL, which was isolated recently in China and outlines its homologous relationships with other selected strains registered in Genbank. Results The MEV-DL strain can infect F81 cells with cytopathic effects. Pig erythrocytes were agglutinated by the MEV-DL strain. The generation of MEV-DL in F81 cells could infect mink within three months and cause a disease that was similar to that caused by wild-type MEV. A comparative analysis of the vp2 gene nucleotide (nt sequence of MEV-DL showed that this was more than 99% homologous with other mink enteritis parvoviruses in Genbank. However, the nucleotide residues at positions 1,065 and 1,238 in the MEV-DL strain of the vp2 gene differed from those of all the other MEV strains described previously. It is noteworthy that the mutation at the nucleotide residues position 1,238 led to Asp/Gly replacement. This may lead to structural changes. A phylogenetic tree and sequence distance table were obtained, which showed that the MEV-DL and ZYL-1 strains had the closest inheritance distance. Conclusions A new variation of the vp2 gene exists in the MEV-DL strain, which may lead to structural changes of the VP2 protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MEV-DL may originate from the ZYL-1 strain in DaLian.

  20. Capturing, banding and transplanting of Aleutian Canada Geese, Buldir and Agattu Islands, Alaska, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes capturing, banding, and transplanting the Aleutian Canada Good on selected nesting islands in the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime...

  1. Stress and stereotypic behaviour in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Palme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether female mink with low (LS) and high (HS) occurrence of stereotypic behaviour differ in their adrenocortical activity in baseline conditions or in response to immobilisation (Experiment 1), handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (Experiment 2) and excretion of ci...... or a different excretion of the circulating cortisol. Instead, we conclude that mink with a high level of stereotypic behaviour have a greater perception of stress, or increased sensitivity to stressors at the pituitary level....... of circulating cortisol (Experiment 3). Faeces are the predominating excretory route of cortisol (83%), with peak concentrations after 4.2 h (urine: 3.4 h). Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) reflected changes in relation to handling/ACTH challenge. In Experiment 1 (n = 162), HS mink had approximately 54% higher...... 4-20 h after the handling (P = 0.001). In Experiment 3 (n = 16), the excretion of infused (3)H-cortisol did not differ between LS and HS mink. Stereotypic behaviour is concurrent with higher baseline concentrations of FCM, which cannot be explained by a greater adrenocortical reactivity...

  2. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against mink leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W.S.; Pedersen, Mikael; Gram-Nielsen, S.;

    1997-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated against mink leukocytes. One antibody reacted with all T lymphocytes, one with all monocytes and one had platelet reactivity. Under reducing conditions, the T lymphocyte reactive antibody immunoprecipitated 18 kDa, 23 kDa, 25 kDa and 32-40 kDa pol...

  3. 水貂品种、性别、年龄及外源褪黑激素与食毛症发病率相关分析%Effect of varieties, sex, age and exogenous melatonin on incidence rate of mink trichophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏来; 王星; 李秋芳; 刘诚刚; 白秀娟

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of trichophagy in five varieties of minks (jinzhou-black mink, coffee mink, silver blue mink, Red-eye white mink and American shorts mink) was counted in Dalian mink nursery. The incidence rate of different varieties, sex, and age implanted of exogenous melatonin or not were calculated and analyzed, respectively to explore the causes and relative factors of mink trichophagy. The results showed that variety difference significantly affected the incidence rate of trichophagy (P< 0.05) in these 5 kinds of minks, with the highest incidence rate of 12.61% occurred in coffee mink; sex also greatly affected the happen of disease, female mink' s incidence was obviously higher than that of the male mink (P<0.05); the age had no significant influence on the incidence (P>0.05); the while, exogenous melatonin implanting could significantly (P<0.05) reduce the incidence rate of trichophagy.%对大连水貂场5个品种水貂食毛症发病情况进行统计,分析不同品种、性别、年龄及埋植外源褪黑激素等因素与水貂食毛症发病率的相关性,以探讨水貂食毛症的病因及其影响因素.结果表明,金州黑、咖啡、银蓝、红眼白、美国短毛黑5个品种种间差异对食毛症的发病率影响显著(P<0.05),其中咖啡水貂发病率最高为12.61%;性别对食毛症发病率影响显著,母貂发病率显著高于公貂(P<0.05);年龄对水貂食毛症发病率影响差异不显著(P>0.05);埋植外源性褪黑激素能够显著降低食毛症发病率(P<0.05).

  4. Cranial suture biology of the Aleutian Island inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-04-01

    Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations.

  5. The effect of handling and training on measures of affective state of farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if handling and training female mink on a learning task, as preparation for a cognitive bias test, had an effect on measures of their affective state. Adult female farm mink were used based on measures of approach/avoidance behaviour, and categorised as explorat......The present study aimed to examine if handling and training female mink on a learning task, as preparation for a cognitive bias test, had an effect on measures of their affective state. Adult female farm mink were used based on measures of approach/avoidance behaviour, and categorised...... handling and training for the cognitive bias test. Furthermore, the handling and training also had an effect on the E mink, but in the opposite direction. This study showed the preparing mink for a cognitive bias test had a marked effect on measures of their affective state, which has to be considered when...... interpreting the results from experiments using training to assess welfare....

  6. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  7. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.;

    2012-01-01

    plasma samples were extracted to analyze the content of free choline and betaine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma choline was only increased in mink kits fed the highest level of choline whereas plasma choline dit not change in full-grown mink irrespectively of choline level in the feed....... Plasma betaine increased when the level of choline in the diet increased. The changes in plasma betaine were most prominent in mink kits. The present study shows that plasma betaine may be a more reliable marker of choline status than plasma choline, especially in mink kits....

  8. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Knud

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison. The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs, representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the

  9. Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hyung-Soon; Cho, Yun Sung; Guang, Xuanmin; Kang, Sung Gyun; Jeong, Jae-Yeon; Cha, Sun-Shin; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Lee, Jae-Hak; Yang, Eun Chan; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Wonduck; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Kim, Sang-Jin; Choi, Dong Han; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Hak-Min; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Hyunmin; Shin, Young-Ah; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Awei; Li, Erli; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Haolong; Kim, Tae Hyung; Yu, Lili; Liu, Sha; Ahn, Kung; Cooper, Jesse; Park, Sin-Gi; Hong, Chang Pyo; Jin, Wook; Kim, Heui-Soo; Park, Chankyu; Lee, Kyooyeol; Chun, Sung; Morin, Phillip A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Lee, Hang; Kimura, Jumpei; Moon, Dae Yeon; Manica, Andrea; Edwards, Jeremy; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Sangsoo; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. Our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to body hair and sensory receptors were contracted. Our analysis also identified whale-specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration. Overall the whale-genome sequences exhibited distinct features that are associated with the physiological and morphological changes needed for life in an aquatic environment, marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and high salt levels.

  10. Testing for bias in a sentinel species: contaminants in free-ranging domestic, wild, and hybrid mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Martin, Pamela A; McDaniel, Tana V; Nituch, Larissa A; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-01-01

    Sentinel species are important tools for studies of biodiversity and environmental health. The American mink (Neovison vison) has long been considered a sentinel of environmental contamination, since the species is known to be sensitive to a number of common contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and mercury. Mink may not always satisfy an important criterion of sentinels however--that they are continuous residents of the environment being sampled. This is because domestic mink commonly escape from farms, and can be confused with wild mink in areas where mink ranching is prevalent, biasing estimates of environmental contamination taken from free-ranging mink samples. We tested for bias in a sample of free-ranging mink from Ontario, Canada, where both genetic ancestry (domestic, wild, and domestic-wild hybrid) and contaminant burdens (PCBs and mercury) were known. Of 133 mink sampled for both contaminants and genetic ancestry, 9% were determined to be domestic and 10.5% hybrid animals. We found that including domestic and hybrid mink in our analysis resulted in overestimating mean PCB burdens in wild mink by 27%, and underestimating mercury by 13%. We also investigated morphological methods to aid in excluding domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples and found that we had the highest classification success using skull size (condylobasal length), which was 15% and 12% greater in male and female domestic than wild mink, respectively. Given the potential use of mink as sentinels, and also the potential for bias, we recommend that researchers take steps to exclude domestic mink from free-ranging mink samples in studies of environmental health.

  11. Contaminants in Otter, Mink and Marten in British Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harding L.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available As a continuation of studies of mustelids on the Columbia and Fraser River systems in north-western North America, chlorinated hydrocarbon and trace metal contamination of mink, marten and river otter were assessed in relation to physiological and reproductive measures of condition. Mink, marten and river otter were collected during the winters 1994/95 and 1995/96 from commercial trappers. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum (in males masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analysed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and dibenzofurans (PCDFs. Contamination levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-92 of these regional populations. Nutritional condition varied slightly amongst collection regions, but showed no relationships with contaminant burdens. Specifically, mink from the upper Fraser River appeared to have less fat stores (evaluated by stomach contents and omentum mass, but also showed some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had unremarkable contamination profiles. Although a few individuals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between Aroclor 1260 concentrations and baculum length in juvenile mink. The influence of baculum length on reproductive success is unknown, but given similar associations found in juvenile otter from Oregon, the incidence of smaller baculum size and its influence on reproduction needs to be further characterized in a larger subset of these

  12. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski

  13. Detection and molecular characterization of cultivable caliciviruses from clinically normal mink and enteric caliciviruses associated with diarrhea in mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M; Evermann, J F; Saif, L J

    2001-01-01

    Enteric caliciviruses are emerging pathogens responsible for diarrhea or gastroenteritis in their respective hosts. In this report, mink enteric caliciviruses (MEC) were detected in feces from diarrheic mink by both immune electron microscopy (IEM) and RT-PCR using a broadly reactive primer pair (p289/290) targeting the highly conserved RNA polymerase regions of the enteric caliciviruses, Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) and Sapporo-like viruses (SLVs). The MEC possess classical caliciviral morphology with typical cup-shaped depressions on the viral surface. Sequence analyses based on nucleotide and predicted amino acid (aa) sequences of the RT-PCR products indicated that MEC is most closely related genetically to SLVs of humans and animals. The MEC shared the highest aa identities (64-71%) in the RNA polymerase region with both human SLVs and the porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) Cowden strain SLV, indicating that MEC may belong to an individual genogroup or subgroup in the SLV genus. The MEC shared only limited aa identities in the RNA polymerase region with vesiviruses (40-51%) and NLVs (29-33%). The RNA polymerase regions of the cultivable, non-enteric mink caliciviruses (MCV) were also amplified by RT-PCR using the primer pair Pol1/Pol3 based on sequences of vesiviruses, and the primer pair p289/290. Sequence analysis indicated that these MCV shared higher aa identities in the RNA polymerase region with vesiviruses (58-81%) than with SLVs (43-51%) including the MEC, lagoviruses (35-37%) and NLVs (27-35%), suggesting that they are most closely related genetically to vesiviruses. The MEC associated with diarrhea in mink are morphologically similar to but are genetically distinct from the cultivable MCV and likely represent a new member of the SLV genus.

  14. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison ) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period

    OpenAIRE

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hammer , Anne S.; Clausen, Tove; Jakobsen, Anabelle; Skov, Søren; Andresen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times ...

  15. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...

  16. Mortality in farmed mink: Systematic collection versus arbitrary submissions for diagnostic investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Andersen, T.H.;

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of diagnoses of mortality in mink submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL) for diagnostic investigation in the calendar year 1997 was compared with the diagnoses of mortality in all dead mink collected at 4 selected farms (project farms) during the same period. A total...

  17. Apparent lack of effect of vaccination against mink enteritis virus (MEV). A challenge study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1988-01-01

    The mink enteritis virus part of a triple vaccine was tested in mink. No raise in antibody response was measured after vaccination. Subsequent challenge of groups of vaccinated or not-vaccinated animals revealed no differences in virus excretion or antibody response in the different animals....

  18. A comparative, BAC end sequence enabled map of the genome of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Smith, Amanda; Christensen, Knud;

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present the results of the analysis of approximately 2.7 Mb of genomic information for the American mink (Neovison vison) derived through BAC end sequencing. Our study, which encompasses approximately 1/1000th of the mink genome, suggests that simple sequence repeats (SSRs...

  19. Mapping of the silver gene in mink and its association with the dilution gene in dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Christensen, Knud

    2007-01-01

    recessive mutations within mink fur farming being part of some of the popular color types which combine more recessive mutations. We report there the mapping of the 'silver' gene on MVI3 by means of the first linkage genetic map in the American mink (Mustela vison). A Canis familiaris BAC clone containing...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Dietz, H. H.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five mink sera randomly selected from 17 Danish mink farms were evaluated for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the latex agglutination test. Six (3%) sera contained T. gondii antibodies in titres of 1:64 or more. The estimated 3% prevalence means that 300 000...

  1. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    tFor many years, bite marks have been used as an indicator for aggression in mink productionsystems. However, the validity of bite marks as indicator of aggression has recently beenquestioned. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: (1) experimentally applied pressure to, or penetration of......, the pelt during the growth phase of the winter coat will producemarks that can be recognized as bite marks at pelting, (2) bite marks applied experimentally by use of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social/aggressive interactions (bites)between mink are only visible if pressure/bite on the mink......: (1) experimentally applied pressure on the skin can be recog-nized as bite marks in brown mink at pelting, (2) bite marks are easier to detect on brownmink than on white coloured mink (P experimentally byuse of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social...

  2. Responses of mink to auditory stimuli: Prerequisites for applying the ‘cognitive bias’ approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Malmkvist, Jens; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and validate prerequisites for applying a cognitive (judgement) bias approach to assessing welfare in farmed mink (Neovison vison). We investigated discrimination ability and associative learning ability using auditory cues. The mink (n = 15 females) were...... mink only showed habituation in experiment 2. Regardless of the frequency used (2 and 18 kHz), cues predicting the danger situation initially elicited slower responses compared to those predicting the safe situation but quickly became faster. Using auditory cues as discrimination stimuli for female...... farmed mink in a judgement bias approach would thus appear to be feasible. However several specific issues are to be considered in order to successfully adapt a cognitive bias approach to mink, and these are discussed....

  3. Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Boila, Gail [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Stern, Gary [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Roach, Patrick [Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Suite 300, 300 Main Street, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 2B5 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1}. All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon.

  4. Establishment of Stably Transfected Cells Constitutively Expressing the Full-Length and Truncated Antigenic Proteins of Two Genetically Distinct Mink Astroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidokhti, Mehdi R. M.; Ullman, Karin; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Astroviruses are becoming a growing concern in veterinary and public health. To date there are no registered vaccines against astrovirus-induced disease, mostly due to the difficulty to cultivate astroviruses to high titer for vaccine development using conventional techniques. As means to circumv......Astroviruses are becoming a growing concern in veterinary and public health. To date there are no registered vaccines against astrovirus-induced disease, mostly due to the difficulty to cultivate astroviruses to high titer for vaccine development using conventional techniques. As means...... to circumvent this drawback, we have developed stably transfected mink fetal cells and BHK21 cells constitutively expressing the full-length and truncated capsid proteins of two distinct genotypes of mink astrovirus. Protein expression in these stably transfected cells was demonstrated by strong signals...... shedding was observed in mink kits born from immunized females. The gene integration and protein expression were sustained through cell passage, showing that the used approach is robust and reliable for expression of functional capsid proteins for vaccine and diagnostic applications....

  5. Minke whales maximise energy storage on their feeding grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Víkingsson, Gísli A; Rasmussen, Marianne H; Lusseau, David

    2013-02-01

    Seasonal trends in energy storage of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), a capital breeder, were investigated in Iceland, a North Atlantic feeding ground. The aim was to better understand the energy acquisition strategies of minke whales and the energetic costs that different reproductive classes face during the breeding season. We modelled total blubber volume, using blubber thickness and morphometric measurements of individual whales. Blubber volume was influenced by body length, and was higher for pregnant females than mature whales. Blubber volume increased linearly through the feeding season at the same rate for mature (mean ± s.e.m.=0.0028 ± 0.00103 m(3) day(-1); N=61 male, 5 female) and pregnant whales (0.0024 ± 0.00100 m(3) day(-1); N=49), suggesting that minke whales aim to maximise energy storage while on the feeding grounds. The total amount of blubber accumulated over the feeding season (0.51 ± 0.119 m(3) for mature and 0.43 ± 0.112 m(3) for pregnant whales), together with energy stored as muscle and intra-abdominal fats, constitutes the total amount of energy available for reproduction (fetus development and lactation) on the breeding grounds, as well as migration, daily field metabolic rates, growth and body maintenance. No seasonal variation was observed for immature whales (N=4 male, 12 female), suggesting that they are investing most of their excess energy into growth rather than reproduction, in order to reach the length of sexual maturity faster and start reproducing earlier. Our novel modelling approach provides insight into large whale bioenergetics and life history strategies, as well as the relationship between single-site measurement of blubber thickness and total blubber volume.

  6. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  7. Litter size, fur quality and genetic analyses of American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia

    Mink is a production animal breed for the fur. Both quality and quantity of the produced skin are important for the producer. In these analyses both fur quality traits, such as structure of guard hair and wool, which determines the quality of the skin, and litter size which determines the quantity...... of the skin, have been analyzed. Both fur quality traits and litter size are complex traits underlying quantitative genetic variation. Methods for estimating genetic variance, spanning from pedigree information to the use of different genetic markers, have been utilized in order to gain knowledge about...

  8. Orienting behaviour during aerial and underwater visual discrimination by the mink (Mustela vison schreber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstone, N; Sinclair, W

    1978-02-01

    Orienting responses by mink during aerial and underwater visual discrimination tests were most frequent when the grating lines subtended angles at the eye near the visual threshold angle. Factorial analysis showed that in air and in water at ranges from 10 to 90 cm most responses occurred at 30 cm discrimination distance and more occurred to marginally supra-threshold than to marginally sub-threshold stimuli. Between media, more responses occurred in air than in water. At longer ranges the mink oriented less readily than at 30 cm but if orienting occurred better discrimination followed than if the mink did not orient.

  9. Behaviour of mink kits and dams (Mustela vison) in the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Anne-Line; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the development of the behaviour of mink kits and dams from the fourth to the eighth respectively seventh week after delivery. The study is based on scan observations of 72 mink dams and their kits at a conventional Danish mink farm. The kits started eating when they were about...... budget in the seventh week and the stereotypy frequency of the dams increased to about 4% of the time budget. It is suggested that some dams are frustrated by the forced cohabitation with their nutritionally independent kits already in the seventh week and that this should be taken into account when...

  10. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: Interspecific and locational differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Donio, Mark [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. - Highlights: • Cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium

  11. A new sea star of the genus Leptasterias (Asteroidea: Asteriidae) from the Aleutian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N; Jewett, Stephen C

    2015-04-02

    A new species of asteriid sea star of the genus Leptasterias (Order Forcipulatida) is described from the nearshore waters of the Aleutian Islands. Leptaterias tatei sp. nov. is distinguished from Leptasterias stolacantha Fisher, 1930, by the characteristics of the spines and pedicellariae. Geographic distribution is discussed and a key to the five-rayed Leptasterias of the Aleutian Islands is provided.

  12. Distance estimation experiment for aerial minke whale surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Witting

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between aerial cue–counting and digital photography surveys for minke whales conducted in Faxaflói Bay in September 2003 is used to check the perpendicular distances estimated by the cue-counting observers. The study involved 2 aircraft with the photo plane at 1,700 feet flying above the cue–counting plane at 750 feet. The observer–based distance estimates were calculated from head angles estimated by angle-boards and declination angles estimated by declinometers. These distances were checked against image–based estimates of the perpendicular distance to the same whale. The 2 independent distance estimates were obtained for 21 sightings of minke whale, and there was a good agreement between the 2 types of estimates. The relative absolute deviations between the 2 estimates were on average 23% (se: 6%, with the errors in the observer–based distance estimates resembling that of a log-normal distribution. The linear regression of the observer–based estimates (obs on the image–based estimates (img was Obs=1.1Img (R2=0.85 with an intercept fixed at zero. There was no evidence of a distance estimation bias that could generate a positive bias in the absolute abundance estimated by cue–counting.

  13. Serum amyloid A gene expression in rabbit, mink and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaug, G; Hackett, B; Dowton, S B

    1997-02-01

    The expression of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein, a major acute-phase reactant in most species, was examined by in situ hybridization in multiple organs of rabbit, mink and mouse. In livers of unstimulated mice and rabbits a heterogeneous pattern of SAA expression in hepatocytes was observed. In all three species, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration resulted in extensive uniform hybridization of SAA probes to hepatocytes and in the rabbit SAA transcripts were detected in cells in the white pulp of the spleen, the adrenal cortex and ovary as well as in the mucosa and lymphatic vessels of the small intestine. Examination of hybridizing SAA signals in the rabbit myocardium showed a speckled distribution in myocytes. The rabbit endocardium was strongly positive, and in the kidney rabbit SAA mRNA was mainly confined to epithelial cells of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. In the unstimulated mouse, SAA mRNA was detected in the liver and epithelial cells of the small and large intestine. After stimulation of an acute-phase response with LPS a strong response was seen in these organs as well as in the convoluted tubules of the kidney. In extrahepatic organs of the mink, no SAA mRNA was detectable in unstimulated animals, while the convoluted tubules of the kidney and uterine endometrium were strongly positive after systemic LPS injection.

  14. Phenotypic similarity of transmissible mink encephalopathy in cattle and L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna; Biacabe, Anne-Gaëlle; Morignat, Eric; Bessen, Richard A

    2007-12-01

    Transmissible mink encepholapathy (TME) is a foodborne transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of ranch-raised mink; infection with a ruminant TSE has been proposed as the cause, but the precise origin of TME is unknown. To compare the phenotypes of each TSE, bovine-passaged TME isolate and 3 distinct natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agents (typical BSE, H-type BSE, and L-type BSE) were inoculated into an ovine transgenic mouse line (TgOvPrP4). Transgenic mice were susceptible to infection with bovine-passaged TME, typical BSE, and L-type BSE but not to H-type BSE. Based on survival periods, brain lesions profiles, disease-associated prion protein brain distribution, and biochemical properties of protease-resistant prion protein, typical BSE had a distint phenotype in ovine transgenic mice compared to L-type BSE and bovine TME. The similar phenotypic properties of L-type BSE and bovine TME in TgOvPrP4 mice suggest that L-type BSE is a much more likely candidate for the origin of TME than is typical BSE.

  15. Environmental pollutants and alterations in the reproductive system in wild male mink (Neovison vison) from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sara; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The wild American mink, a semi-aquatic top predator, is exposed to high levels of environmental pollutants that may affect its reproductive system. In this study, the reproductive organs from 101 wild male mink collected in Sweden were examined during necropsy. Potential associations between various variables of the reproductive system and fat concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and other organochlorine pesticides and liver concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were investigated using multiple regression models. The anogenital distance was negatively associated (penvironmental pollution affects male reproduction in both wildlife and humans. Overall, the study suggests endocrine disrupting effects in wild mink and identifies potentially important pollutants in the complex mixture of contaminants in the environment. In addition, the results suggest that the variables of the reproductive system of male mink used in this study are good candidates for use as indicators of environmental pollution affecting the mammalian reproductive system.

  16. An effort to trap mink in Maine to protect nesting Seabirds 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details and effort to trap minks on the islands of Otter, Roberts, Carvers and Hay during the spring of 1998. This is to benefit and protect the seabirds...

  17. An effort to trap mink in Maine to protect nesting Seabirds 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details and effort to trap mink and survey black guillemots on islands in outer Penobscot Bay (Otter, Roberts, Little Roberts, Carvers, Hay, and...

  18. An effort to trap mink in Maine to protect nesting Seabirds 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mink were trapped off the seabird nesting islands south east of Vinalhaven, Maine (outer Penobscot Bay) during the late 1990's, and the local Black Guillemot...

  19. Heterosis and genetic variation in litter size in purebred and crossbred mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Larsen, Peter Foged; Pertoldi, Cino

    2014-01-01

    were analyzed and the effects of parity and production year were included in the analyses. Genetic trend and the proportions of the total variance explained by the effects of additive genetics (h2) , common environment (due to repeated litters from the same female; c2), and dam of the female (granddame......Crosses between different mink lines from 3 Danish mink farms that use different breeding strategies were studied to estimate heterosis and variance components for litter size. The study was designed to analyze crosses between lines of the same color type, between different color types, and between...... of the born litter; d2) were estimated. The results showed that mink of the Black color type potentially produced smaller litters compared to mink of the other studied color types. We found significant general maternal effect of heterosis for litter size. Analyses of specific heterosis showed a significant...

  20. Development of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of immunoglobulin G in mink blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ronja; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, T.;

    A major concern amongst the Danish mink farmers is the incidence of the syndrome pre-weaning diarrhea. The syndrome causes major management issues and decreases the welfare of the mink and increases mortality in the pre-weaning period. The etiology of the syndrome is considered multifactorial...... as a specific cause is not fully established or understood. Adding to an increased risk of developing pre-weaning diarrhea is the fact that the mink kits are born with very low levels of circulating immunoglobulins. Rapid achievement of high levels of immunoglobulins in the bloodstream is essential for the kits...... early immunity and thus their resistance against pathogenic agents found in the environment. This study describes a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the concentration of total immunoglobulin G in mink blood. The ELISA was validated with serum samples from females (n=8) and their kits (litters of 4...

  1. Protein turnover in lactating mink (Mustela vison) is not affected by dietary protein supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    been used to obtain a more detailed knowledge of the protein utilization of the lactating mink (3-5). These results have shown that lactating mink dams are able to regulate protein oxidation rate and that milk yield, during the first 4 wk post-partum, was improved, and dam weight loss reduced, when...... in humans (7), growing pigs (8), and growing rats (9). In adult cats, both protein synthesis and breakdown were lower when feeding a low- than when feeding a high-protein diet [20 vs. 70% of metabolizable energy (ME)5 from protein] (10). The objectives of this study were therefore to develop a ¹5N......The mink is a strict carnivore and may therefore serve as a model for the cat. Current recommendations for protein supply for lactating mink are based on production experiments with preweaning kit growth as a measure of dietary adequacy (1,2). Recently, nitrogen balance and substrate oxidation have...

  2. Usage of antimicrobials and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria from mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Sørensen, Charlotte Mark

    2009-01-01

    The usage of antimicrobials for treatment of mink and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens in mink was investigated. The aim of the study was to provide data, which may serve as a basis for the formulation of recommendations for prudent Use....... There was a steady increase in the use of antimicrobials during the period 2001-2006, the majority of the prescribed amount being extended spectrum penicillins followed by aminoglycosides, sulphonamides with trimethoprim, and macrolides....... of antimicrobial's for mink. A total of 164 haemolytic staphylococci. 49 haemolytic streptococci. 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 13 Pasteurella multocida. and 1093 Escherichia coli isolates front Danish mink were included in the Study. A high frequency of resistance among S. intermedius was found for tetracyclines (54...

  3. An extended anchored linkage map and virtual mapping for the american mink genome based on homology to human and dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Ansari, S.; Farid, A.;

    2009-01-01

    In this report we present an extended linkage map of the American mink (Neovison vison) consisting of 157 microsatellite markers and comprising at least one linkage group for each of the autosomes. Each linkage group has been assigned to a chromosome and oriented by fluorescence in situ hybridiza......In this report we present an extended linkage map of the American mink (Neovison vison) consisting of 157 microsatellite markers and comprising at least one linkage group for each of the autosomes. Each linkage group has been assigned to a chromosome and oriented by fluorescence in situ...... comparative human/dog/mink data, these assignments represent useful virtual maps for the American mink genome. Comparison of the current human/dog assembled sequential map with the existing Zoo-FISH-based human/dog/mink maps helped to refine the human/dog/mink comparative map. Furthermore, comparison...

  4. The Pattern of Ovarian Development in the Prepubertal Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    OpenAIRE

    TETSUKA, MASAFUMI; ASADA, Masatsugu; MOGOE, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; OHSUMI, Seiji; 手塚, 雅文; 福井, 豊

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the pre...

  5. Selection against stereotypic behaviour may have contradictory consequences for the welfare of farm mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Hansen, Bente Krogh; Malmkvist, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if divergent selection for stereotypic behaviour in mink influences the welfare of the animals. Two breeding lines were used, a high stereotyping line (HSL, N = 139) and a low stereotyping line (LSL, N = 132). Their welfare was assessed on the basis...... the selection against stereotypic behaviour clearly reduced the FCM it may have contradictory consequences for the welfare of the mink...

  6. Mink serum amyloid A protein. Expression and primary structure based on cDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhaug, G; Husby, G; Dowton, S B

    1990-06-15

    The nucleotide sequences of two mink serum amyloid A (SAA) cDNA clones have been analyzed, one (SAA1) 776 base pairs long and the other (SAA2) 552 base pairs long. Significant differences were discovered when derived amino acid sequences were compared with data for apoSAA isolated from high density lipoprotein. Previous studies of mink protein SAA and amyloid protein A (AA) suggest that only one SAA isotype is amyloidogenic. The cDNA clone for SAA2 defines the "amyloid prone" isotype while SAA1 is found only in serum. Mink SAA1 has alanine in position 10, isoleucine in positions 24, 67, and 71, lysine in position 27, and proline in position 105. Residue 10 in mink SAA2 is valine while arginine and asparagine are at positions 24 and 27, respectively, all characteristics of protein AA isolated from mink amyloid fibrils. Mink SAA2 also has valine in position 67, phenylalanine in position 71, and amino acid 105 is serine. It remains unknown why these six amino acid substitutions render SAA2 more amyloidogenic than SAA1. Eighteen hours after lipopolysaccharide stimulation, mink SAA mRNA is abundant in liver with relatively minor accumulations in brain and lung. Genes encoding both SAA isotypes are expressed in all three organs while no SAA mRNA was detectable in amyloid prone organs, including spleen and intestine, indicating that deposition of AA from locally synthesized SAA is unlikely. A third mRNA species (2.2 kilobases) was identified and hybridizes with cDNA probes for mink SAA1 and SAA2. In addition to a major primary translation product (molecular mass 14,400 Da) an additional product with molecular mass 28,000 Da was immunoprecipitable.

  7. The Battle of Attu and the Aleutian Island Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Mostly, I sincerely want to thank my wife Simone for her patience and understanding while I completed this project...wan and old. He gently asked the man of fate Admission to the fold. “What have you done,” Saint Peter asked, “To gain admission here...I’ve been in the Aleutians For nigh unto a year.” Then the gates swung open sharply As Saint Peter tolled the bell. “Come in,” said he, “and

  8. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Markakis, M. N.; Vissenberg, K.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers fo...... of similar phenotypes in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, mice and humans, they do not appear to be responsible for comparable phenotypes found in American mink....

  9. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse;

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... panleukopenia virus, and raccoon parvovirus, suggest that both vaccines could protect mink, cats and raccoons against these respective host range variants. This was tested in mink and turned out to be the case. The two vaccines were fully protective and as effective as a conventional commercial vaccine based...... on inactivated virus. Surprisingly, this protection was obtained after only a single injection. Furthermore, the vaccinal dose of 150 μg of conjugated peptide or 3 μg of recombinant VP2 particles per animal, are sufficiently low to be cost-effective and applicable on a large scale....

  10. Energy metabolism in young mink kits (Neovison vison) affected by protein and carbohydrate level in the diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Hansen, NE; Tauson, A-H

    information about the relative contribution of different nutrients to the total heat production (HE; Tauson et al. 1997). The aim of the study was to examine the effect of different provision of protein and carbohydrate on the energy metabolism and substrate oxidation of mink kits between 6 and 12 weeks......The mink is a strict carnivore and mink diets usually have a high content of protein. The energy metabolism in young minks in the transition period from milk to solid food is not investigated in detail, and the protein requirement is poorly defined. The substrate oxidation can give useful...

  11. Animal Personality and Mate Preference in American Mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl

    are unsustainable. Often, prescribed pairs of animals appear to be incompatible and reproductively unsuccessful. This is also a problem in solitary carnivore species, many of which are threatened with extinction. A suggested solution to this problem is to investigate, which male cues and signals the females use......Conservation-breeding programs in zoos are essential for the management of threatened species. By moving animals amongst institutions for prescribed breeding, these programs aim to promote demographic stability and preserve genetic variation in the captive populations. Yet many breeding programs...... or cues: olfactory (urine and faeces), size, and behaviour. The latter may represent aspects of animal personality. The background for this is explained in the introduction (Chapter I). In Chapter II, a published article, I present a novel study on aspects of animal personality in the American mink...

  12. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Pujolar, José Martin

    2015-01-01

    Feral American mink populations (Neovison vison), derived from mink farms, are widespread in Europe. In this study we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between feral and farm mink using a panel of genetic markers (194 SNP) generated from RAD sequencing data. Sampling incl...

  13. Quarterly refuge narrative report : Cold Bay and Aleutian Islands Area [1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Cold Bay Game Management Area and Aleutian Islands Area outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins...

  14. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Laman: Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data supporting the "Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions" manuscript are distribution and abundance of Pacific ocean perch from RACEBase,...

  15. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  16. Initial arctic fox eradication program on Amukta Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recent discovery of a second wild breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) on Chagulak Island suggested the...

  17. Aleutian Islands Unit : Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Aleutian Islands Unit of Alaska Maritime NWR and Bogoslof NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report...

  18. Progress report on field studies in the Aleutian Islands, Semidi Islands and Bering Sea, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work in the Aleutian Islands, Semidi Islands, and Bering Sea in support of work unit 953.10. Distribution and abundance of birds as seas (work...

  19. Refuge narrative report : May-August, 1955 : Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge & Izembek Bay Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Aleutian Islands NWR and Izembek Bay Area outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing...

  20. Identifying potential habitat for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Wolcott, Daniel M.; Chow, T. Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The Aleutian shield fern Polystichum aleuticum is endemic to the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska and is listed as endangered pursuant to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite numerous efforts to discover new populations of this species, only four known populations are documented to date, and information is needed to prioritize locations for future surveys. Therefore, we incorporated topographical habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, aspect, distance from coastline, and anthropogenic footprint) found at known Aleutian shield fern locations into a Geographical Information System (GIS) model to create a habitat suitability map for the entirety of the Andreaonof Islands. A total of 18 islands contained 489.26 km2 of highly suitable and moderately suitable habitat when weighting each factor equally. This study reports a habitat suitability map for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics, which can be used to assist current and future recovery efforts for the species.

  1. Department of the Interior : Draft Environmental Statement : DES 74-21 : Proposed Aleutian Islands Wilderness

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a draft of an analysis of the environmental impact wilderness designation would pose for the Aleutian Islands Wilderness. Topics covered include...

  2. Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : January to April 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January to April of 1963. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Points in this data set represent locations of haulout and...

  4. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for crabs and bivalves in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  5. Refuge narrative report : May 6, 1959 through September 12, 1959 : Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Aleutian Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  6. Refuge narrative report : September - December, 1962 : Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge and Izembek National Wildlife Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Aleutian Islands and Izembek NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Evaluation of diphacinone as a predacide for introduced arctic fox in the Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic fox were introduced for the purpose of fur farming by the Russians at the turn of the century on the majority of the islands in the Aleutian chain. These...

  8. Capturing, banding, and transplanting of Aleutian Canada geese, Buldir and Agattu Islands, Alaska, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to capture 100 Aleutian Canada geese and transplant to Agattu Island to continue efforts to re-establish a nesting population on...

  9. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seagrasses in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of seagrass...

  10. Observations of emperor geese in the Aleutian Islands, October 1988-April 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers observations of emperor geese in the Aleutian Islands from October 1988 - April 1989. Peak numbers for each study area, age ratios, habitat use,...

  11. Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar years 1976, 1977, 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Aleutian Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments between 1976 and 1978. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  12. Narrative report of Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge and Izembek National Wildlife Range : April - August, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Aleutian Islands and Izembek NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. Observations of Aleutian Canada geese on Little Kiska I. in 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys were conducted in June and August at Little Kiska Island to look for Aleutian Canada geese (Branta Canadensis leucopareia) returning from previous...

  14. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for sea otters and walrus in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  15. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  16. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  17. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: NESTS (Nest Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  18. Aleutian Canada goose surveys in Near Islands (Agattu and Nizki): Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three observers disembarked the 86' charter vessel Western Pacific near the east end of Nizki Island 23 May 1983. The goal of the field camp was to observe Aleutian...

  19. Refuge narrative report : January - April 1963 : Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge and Izembek National Wildlife Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Aleutian Islands and Izembek NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  20. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the Aleutian...

  1. Surface wind characteristics of some Aleutian Islands. [for selection of windpowered machine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentink, T., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The wind power potential of Alaska is assessed in order to determine promising windpower sites for construction of wind machines and for shipment of wind derived energy. Analyses of near surface wind data from promising Aleutian sites accessible by ocean transport indicate probable velocity regimes and also present deficiencies in available data. It is shown that winds for some degree of power generation are available 77 percent of the time in the Aleutians with peak velocities depending on location.

  2. Generalised additive models to investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) spatial density in austral summer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmans, Bas W.P.M.; Forcada, Jaume; Murphy, Eugene J.; Baar, de Hein J.W.; Bathmann, Ulrich V.; Fleming, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to characterise the physical environment associated with Antarctic minke whale density in order to understand long-term changes in minke whale distribution and density in open waters of the Southern Ocean during austral summer months. To investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic

  3. Outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: molecular characterization of the viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but several outbreaks have been described during recent years in Europe and the North America. In 2009, influenza A of the subtype H3N2 was detected in several Danish mink farms with respiratory symptoms. Full-genome sequencing showed that...

  4. Rins de Baleia Minke (Baleanoptera acutorostrata: arquitetura e estrutura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A.P. Sarmento

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre os mamíferos marinhos, a baleia é um dos animais que mais desperta atenção, especialmente no atinente ao seu sistema urinário. Este sistema segue o padrão entre os mamíferos quanto a sua constituição, entretanto, difere na morfologia renal, em número de lobos, que por sua vez, forma renículos completos, aglutinados às centenas. Esta estrutura é sustentada por tecido conjuntivo fibroso, mas altamente capaz de manter o equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico. Foram dissecados 6 pares de rins de baleia Minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata, colhidos em 1982, Cabedelo, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil, na última pesca autorizada. Estes rins estavam conservados em formol 10% e apresentaram uma camada histológica de colágeno muito grande circundando a parede medular. O duto coletor urinário forma cálices papilares, desembocando num único centro coletor que desemboca no ureter. Verificou-se que o rim da baleia Minke apresenta característica lobulada possuindo em média 700 renículos, cada renículo possui características anatômicas e funcionais de um rim unipiramidal, com uma camada interna (medula, e uma camada externa (córtex, e irrigação independente, com formação das artérias arqueadas individualmente, como observadas em mamíferos terrestres unipiramidais. Entretanto, o conjunto destes renículos constitui ao final um rim multilobular e polipiramidal, contrariando a morfologia da maioria dos mamíferos terrestres. Não foi possível distinguir ao nível de microscopia de luz as estruturas do córtex renicular da baleia Minke. Na microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi possível visualizar uma camada cortical que fica localizada entre duas cápsulas fibrosas. Esta junção por sua vez é feita por tecido conjuntivo o qual juntamente com uma camada de colágeno e fibras elásticas, separa o córtex da medula , foram visualizados os glomérulos renais, completamente tomados pelos vasos glomerulares e dispostos em várias camadas

  5. Agonistic and antagonistic roles for TNIK and MINK in non-canonical and canonical Wnt signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikryukov

    Full Text Available Wnt signalling is a key regulatory factor in animal development and homeostasis and plays an important role in the establishment and progression of cancer. Wnt signals are predominantly transduced via the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors to two distinct pathways, the canonical ß-catenin pathway and a non-canonical pathway controlling planar cell polarity and convergent extension. Interference between these pathways is an important determinant of cellular and phenotypic responses, but is poorly understood. Here we show that TNIK (Traf2 and Nck-interacting kinase and MINK (Misshapen/NIKs-related kinase MAP4K signalling kinases are integral components of both canonical and non-canonical pathways in Xenopus. xTNIK and xMINK interact and are proteolytically cleaved in vivo to generate Kinase domain fragments that are active in signal transduction, and Citron-NIK-Homology (CNH Domain fragments that are suppressive. The catalytic activity of the Kinase domain fragments of both xTNIK and xMINK mediate non-canonical signalling. However, while the Kinase domain fragments of xTNIK also mediate canonical signalling, the analogous fragments derived from xMINK strongly antagonize this signalling. Our data suggest that the proteolytic cleavage of xTNIK and xMINK determines their respective activities and is an important factor in controlling the balance between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signalling in vivo.

  6. Blood biochemical parameters in male American mink (Neovison vison before and during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lasota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at selected blood biochemical parameters in the male American mink before (September-November and during the breeding (January-March season. Blood from 143 Black and Sapphire male mink at one year age was collected. The plasma was assayed for the concentration of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, HDL and LDL fractions, triacylglycerides (TG, and the activity of ALT and AST. Concentrations of glucose, protein, total and HDL/LDL cholesterol, and AST activity were generally slightly higher during the breeding season than during the non-breeding season, but remained within the reference range. In the case of ALT activity and TG concentration, the relations were reversed. The parameters studied in the Sapphire mink showed greater variation, both in- and out of the season. In Black and Sapphire males of the American mink, the studied parameters revealed slightly higher values during the breeding season than the non-breeding season. This will vary depending on the color variety. The decrease in TG concentration during the breeding season may indicate an increased energy demand due to ambient temperature falls, and/or may be a sign of increased energy consumption associated with physical exertion during mating. Consideration should be given to the nutrition of male mink during the breeding season.

  7. Origins of linguistic diversity in the Aleutian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Anna

    2010-12-01

    The Aleut language, currently spoken along the Aleutian chain and the Pribilof and Commander islands, is the only language in its branch of the Eskimo-Aleut language family, and traditional methods of linguistic reconstruction have neither satisfactorily explained its relationship with languages on the Asian continent nor its development from Proto-Eskimo-Aleut. Linguistic reconstruction has always been important in understanding the prehistory and history of the Aleuts, and new approaches in comparative linguistics, more comprehensive information on typological features of neighboring languages, and continuing language documentation allow us to propose a rich and continuous history of contact with various groups of people. I evaluate evidence that the Aleut language may have been shaped by contact with neighbors in Asia and Alaska, eventually giving rise to its differentiation from the Eskimo languages. I look at dialect differentiation along the Aleutian chain and what this differentiation reveals about the migration trends of the Aleut along the chain. I look at the colonial expansion of the Aleut-speaking area and resulting additional varieties of Aleut in the historical period. Finally, I review the effects of the Russian and American colonial periods on the Aleut language and the severe endangerment that the language faces today as a result. I conclude that there is evidence of possible Aleut contact with both neighboring peoples; however, much of this evidence has not yet been subjected to systematic comparative reconstructions. Linguistic evidence supports theories of at least two westward expansions of Aleuts along the island chain, but it is not yet clear what motivated the dialect differentiations. Finally, I offer some thoughts on directions for future dialect studies and the continuing documentation of Aleut.

  8. Parasites of the mink frog (rana septentrionalis) from minnesota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotthoefer, A.M.; Bolek, M.G.; Cole, R.A.; Beasley, V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two mink frogs, Rana septentrionalis, collected from two locations in Minnesota, United States, were examined for helminth and protozoan blood parasites in July 1999. A total of 16 parasite taxa were recovered including 5 larval digenean trematodes, 7 adult digenean trematodes, 3 nematodes, and I Trypanosorna species. Infracommunities were dominated by the digeneans in terms of richness and abundance. In particular, echinostomatid metacercariae in the kidneys of frogs were the most common parasites found, infecting 100% of the frogs and consisting of about 90% of all helminth individuals recovered. Gorgodera amplicava, Gorgoderina multilohata, Haernaroloechus pan'iplexus, Haernatoloechus breviplexus, Cosnwcercoides dukae, and Oswaldocruzia pipiens represent new host records. The survey presented here represents the second known helminth survey of mink frogs conducted in North America. A summary of metazoan parasites reported from mink frogs is included.

  9. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Leclerc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata tissue (mainly blubber was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of the minke whale samples from the sharks that had DNA of sufficient quality to perform individual identifications were traceable to the whaling DNA register. During whaling operations, the blubber is stripped from the carcass and thrown overboard. The blubber strips float on the surface and are available for surface-feeding predators. This study revealed that Greenland sharks are scavenging this material; additionally, it demonstrates the capacity of this ‘benthic-feeding’ shark to utilize the whole water column for foraging.

  10. Balancing of protein and lipid intake by a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Mustela vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayntz, David; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Sørensen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    mink and found a pronounced ability to balance and regulate intake of protein and lipid. When faced with one of several different pairings of complementary foods varying in protein to lipid composition, mink apportioned intake between the two foods to defend a near constant ratio and amount (intake...... target) of the two macronutrients. When given only one food of fixed nutrient composition, mink balanced macronutrient intake relative to the intake target, without showing the excessive energy intake on diets with a low percentage of protein and energy deficit on diets with a high percentage of protein......Many herbivores and omnivores can balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable environments. Carnivores, however, are widely believed to optimize their rates of prey capture and energy intake rather than balancing nutrients. We tested nutrient balancing in captive...

  11. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Struve, T.

    2016-01-01

    out with the objective of identifying risk factors for antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was based on register data for 2007-2012. Information on antimicrobial use was obtained from the national database VetStat, monitoring all medicinal products used for animals on prescription level. Data......The American mink (Neovison vison) is used for commercial fur production in Denmark. In recent years, antimicrobial prescription for Danish mink has been increasing. In this study, the patterns and trends in antimicrobial use in mink were described and a multi-variable variance analysis was carried...... a clear significant effect of season on antimicrobial use, with a peak in "treatment proportions", TP (defined daily doses per kg biomass-days) in May, around the time of whelping, and a high level in the following months. In autumn, a minor peak in antimicrobial use occurred throughout the study period...

  12. The MINK methodology: background and baseline. [USA - Midwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Crosson, P.R.; Frederick, K.D.; Easterling, W.E. III; McKenney, M.S.; Bowes, M.D.; Sedjo, R.A.; Darmstadter, J.; Katz, L.A.; Lemon, K.M. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-06-01

    A four step methodology has been developed for study of the regional impacts of climate change and the possible responses thereto. First the region's climate sensitive sectors and total economy are described (Task A, current baseline). Next a scenario of climate change is imposed on the current baseline (Task B, current baseline with climate change). A new baseline describing the climate sensitive sectors and total regional economy is projected for some time in the future (Task C, future baseline, year 2030) in the absence of climate change. Finally, the climate change scenario is reimposed on the future baseline (Task D, future baseline with climate change). Impacts of the climate change scenario on the current and future regional economies are determined by means of simulation models and other appropriate techniques. These techniques are also used to assess the impacts of an elevated CO[sub 2] concentration (450 ppm) and of various forms of adjustments and adaptations. The region chosen for the first test of the methodology is composed of the four U.S. states of Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas. The climate change scenario is the actual weather of the 1930s decade in the MINK region. 'Current' climate is the actual weather of the period 1951-1980. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Optimisation of protocol for Clostridium botulinum detection in mink feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenda Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the test material mink feed with natural microflora was used. The analyses were conducted using Wrzosek and TPGY broth media, and Willis–Hobbs and Zeissler differential agar media. Wrzosek, Willis–Hobbs, and Zeissler media are described in Polish Standards approved by the National Standards Body in Poland and routinely used in detection of anaerobic bacteria in Poland. Detection and identification of C. botulinum was performed with a previously validated real-time PCR method based on ntnh gene detection, which is common in all C. botulinum toxotypes. The use of Wrzosek broth and Zeissler agar in routine analyses for detection and identification of C. botulinum was ineffective and limited. The obtained results showed the highest culturing process effectiveness in TPGY broth with 72 h incubation at 30°C and isolation on Willis–Hobbs agar. The real-time PCR method based on ntnh gene detection used in this study could be utilised as a supplementary tool to the mouse lethality assay.

  14. Gode muligheder for høj velfærd hos mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Mink kan have god velfærd i moderne pelsproduktion. Men gruppeindhusning er problematisk, og der er behov for at overvåge, dokumentere og udvikle velfærden. Det mener forskere ved Aarhus og Københavns universiteter, som arbejder med husdyr og husdyrvelfærd.......Mink kan have god velfærd i moderne pelsproduktion. Men gruppeindhusning er problematisk, og der er behov for at overvåge, dokumentere og udvikle velfærden. Det mener forskere ved Aarhus og Københavns universiteter, som arbejder med husdyr og husdyrvelfærd....

  15. Evaluation of alternative PCB clean-up strategies using an individual-based population model of mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: Chris.salice@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79410 (United States); Sample, Bradley E., E-mail: bsample@ecorisk.com [Ecological Risk Inc., Rancho Murieta, CA 95683 (United States); Miller Neilan, Rachael; Rose, Kenneth A.; Sable, Shaye [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Energy, Coast and Environment Building, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Population models can be used to place observed toxic effects into an assessment of the impacts on population-level endpoints, which are generally considered to provide greater ecological insight and relevance. We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate the population-level effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the impact that different remediation strategies had on mink population endpoints (population size and extinction risk). Our simulations indicated that the initial population size had a strong impact on mink population dynamics. In addition, mink populations were extremely responsive to clean-up scenarios that were initiated soon after the contamination event. In fact, the rate of PCB clean-up did not have as strong a positive effect on mink as did the initiation of clean-up (start time). We show that population-level approaches can be used to understand adverse effects of contamination and to also explore the potential benefits of various remediation strategies. - Highlights: > We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate population-level impacts of PCB contamination. > The model was also used to explore the population responses to different PCB remediation strategies. > Population size had a large impact on whether mink populations persisted or went extinct. > Starting remediation sooner had a stronger positive effect on mink populations than did the rate of PCB clean-up. > Individual-based models are useful in understanding effects of contamination and different remediation strategies. - An individual-based model of mink showed strong population-level effects of PCB contamination and provided insight into optimal PCB remediation strategies.

  16. 77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2012/2013 crab fishing year....

  17. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2011/2012 crab fishing year so...

  18. 75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2010/2011 crab fishing year so...

  19. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2013/2014 crab fishing year so...

  20. 76 FR 17360 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...-specified reserve to the initial total allowable catch of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... CFR part 679. The 2011 initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of octopus in the BSAI was ]...

  1. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been...

  2. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), September...

  3. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), September...

  4. Value of mink vomit model in study of anti-emetic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Zhang; Lei Wang; Zhi-Hong Yang; Zhan-Tao Liu; Wang Yue

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To establish a new, reliable vomit model of minks.METHODS: Adult male minks were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=6): cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg)intraperitoneal injection (ip) group, copper sulfate (40mg/kg) intragastric injection (ig) group, apomorphine (1.6 mg/kg) subcutaneous injection (sc) group, and 18Gy whole-body X-irradiation group, ondansetron injection group (2 mg/kg ip) 30 min later followed by cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg) ip, normal saline (NS) ip injection control group, metoclopramide injection group (4 mg/kg ip) 30min later followed by apomorphine (1.6 mg/kg) sc, NS ig control group. The frequency of retching and vomiting was calculated. After behavioral experiment, distribution of 5-HT in the ileum was detected by immunohistologic method.RESULTS: Cisplatin, apomorphine, copper sulfate and X-irradiation administered to minks evoked a profound emetic response in the animals. However, retching and vomiting were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with ondansetron and metoclopramide in cisplatin and copper sulfate groups (P=0.018). Immunohistologic result showed that 5-HT released from enterochromaffin cells (EC cells) was involved in vomiting mechanism.CONCLUSION: Mink vomit model has a great value in studying the vomiting mechanism and screening new antiemetic drugs.

  5. Host response during acute canine distemper virus infections in naive and DNA immunized mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line

    leukocytter fra inficerede og ikke-inficerede mink ved flowcytometri. Vi fandt et tydeligt cytokinrespons (IFN-g, TNF-a og IL-4) i inficerede mink, selv i mink inficeret med den høj-virulente stamme, der udviklede udtalt immunsuppression med drastisk lymfopeni, forsinket eller udebleven virus neutraliserende...... (VN) antistofproduktion og alvorlig klinisk sygdom.  Den danske DK91 vildtype blev isoleret fra en akut dødelig syg hundehvalp under et hundesygeudbrud blandt den Københavnske hundepopulation i 1991. Både CDV og den nært beslægtede sælpest virus (PDV) har overlappende værtspektrum og har begge...... der registeret endnu et udbrud af sælpest og igen startede epidemien på øen Anholt i Kattegat. Vi udførte fylogenetiske analyser af vildtype virus isoleret direkte fra angrebne landlevende rovdyr (mink, grævling, ilder, husmår og mår) mellem 2000 og 2003 og fra spættede sæler (Phoca vitulina) fra 1988...

  6. Characterization of microsatellite markers isolated from the American Mink (Mustela vison) genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, S.; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Farid, A.;

    2007-01-01

    Two size-selected mink genomic libraries were constructed and recombinant colonies (n=6,144) were screened with a pool of probes, containing (AAAG)8, (AAGG)8, (AGGG)8, (ATAG)8 and (AG)15 oligonucleotides in equal amounts. A total of 44 colonies were hybridized and confirmed upon replating...

  7. Hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 in mink fed Saginaw Bay carp (SBC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, M.J.; LeCaptain, L.; Rattner, B.A.; Heaton, S.; Aulerich, R.; Tillitt, D.; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, B.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from mink fed diets containing 0% (n = 12), 10% (n = 11), 20% (n = 12) and 40% (n = 10) SBC for 6 months contained 0.1, 2.2, 3.6, and 6.3 ug/g total PCBs, respectively. Hepatic microsomes were prepared and assayed for protein, arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), ethoxy-ROD (ER0D), pentoxy-ROD (PROD), and ethoxycoumarin-OD (ECOD). Mink fed SBC had increased AHH, EROD, and ECOD (group means 2.2-3.4 X control means), decreased BROD and unchanged PROD (the latter 2 assays indicators for phenobarbital-type induction in mammals). Three samples from each group were examined by western blot using a polyclonal anti-P450llB antibody and a monoclonal anti-P450lA antibody (MAb 1-12-3). Mink fed SBC showed induction of a protein recognized by anti-P450lA (8 X control), but had little protein recognized by anti-P450IlB. The monooxygenase activities and western blot data give a consistent picture of MC-type but not PB-type induction in mink fed SBC.

  8. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Royle, Andy; Hare, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture–recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture–recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km2 area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture–recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  9. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  10. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  11. Multi-centennial reconstruction of Aleutian climate from coralline algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.; Halfar, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Smith, E.; Steneck, R.; Lebednik, P.; Jacob, D. E.; Fietzke, J.; Moore, K.

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived encrusting coralline algae yield robust reconstructions of mid-to-high latitude environmental change from their annually-banded high-magnesium calcite skeleton. The magnesium to calcium ratio measured in their skeleton reflects ambient seawater temperature at the time of formation. Thus, reconstructions from these algae are important to understanding the role of natural modes of climate variability versus that of external carbon dioxide in controlling climate in data sparse regions such as the northern North Pacific Ocean/southern Bering Sea. Here, we reconstruct regional seawater temperature from the skeletons of nine algae specimens from two islands in the Aleutian Archipelago. We find that seawater temperature increased ~1.4°C degrees over the past 350 years. The detrended seawater reconstruction correlates with storminess because storms moving across the North Pacific Ocean bring warmer water to the archipelago. Comparison of the algal seawater temperature reconstruction with instrumental and terrestrial proxy reconstructions reveals that atmospheric teleconnections to North America via the North Pacific storm tracks are not robust before the 20th century. This indicates that North Pacific climate processes inferred from the instrumental records should be cautiously extrapolated when describing earlier non-analogous climates or future climate change.

  12. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Martin I; Hammer, Anne S; Clausen, Tove; Jakobsen, Anabelle; Skov, Søren; Andresen, Lars

    2017-01-16

    Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short length and fast transit time, as compared to omnivores and herbivores, which is due to the low level of inherent fermentation. Mink represents an example of this, which have a GI tract only four times the length of the body and a transit time of approximately 4-5 hr. In this study, we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the resident gut microbiota of the mink in terms of intra-and interindividual diversity. We report, for the first time, that the mucosa-associated bacterial community within the colon is diverse and dissimilar from the community found in the feed. We found large interindividual differences in bacterial composition between individual animals being dominated generally by the phylum Firmicutes, but in some cases also Proteobacteria or Fusobacteria. The bacterial load and community structure within the mucus was not severely impacted by 3 days of fasting, which implies that a resident and stable microbiota is hosted by these animals.

  13. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, V F; Sommer, H M; Struve, T; Clausen, J; Chriél, M

    2016-04-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is used for commercial fur production in Denmark. In recent years, antimicrobial prescription for Danish mink has been increasing. In this study, the patterns and trends in antimicrobial use in mink were described and a multi-variable variance analysis was carried out with the objective of identifying risk factors for antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was based on register data for 2007-2012. Information on antimicrobial use was obtained from the national database VetStat, monitoring all medicinal products used for animals on prescription level. Data on microbiological feed quality was obtained from the Voluntary Feed Control under the Mink producers Organization, and data on herd size and the relation between farm and feed producer was obtained from the registers at Kopenhagen Fur, based on yearly reporting from the mink producers. Descriptive analysis showed a clear significant effect of season on antimicrobial use, with a peak in "treatment proportions", TP (defined daily doses per kg biomass-days) in May, around the time of whelping, and a high level in the following months. In autumn, a minor peak in antimicrobial use occurred throughout the study period. From 2007 to 2011, a 102% increase in annual antimicrobial TP was noted; on herd level, the increase was associated with an increasing frequency of prescription, and a decrease in the amounts prescribed in months with prescription. A binomial model showed that on herd level, the annual number of months with antimicrobial prescription was significantly (pprescription patterns varied significantly between veterinarians, and some veterinarians were associated with both larger and more frequent prescriptions of antimicrobials at herd level. Herd size is associated with different prescription patterns. Finally, infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, astrovirus, influenza virus and Salmonella spp. was associated with an increase in antimicrobial use.

  14. WelFur-mink: inter-observer reliability of on-farm welfare assessment in the growth season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Rousing, Tine; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    the consequences of operating with several observers. Animal based measures on 9 Danish mink farms were taken in November 2011. Eight observers individually, but in paris on herd level, carried out data collection on the measures involving subjective grading, e.g. mink "activity", "injuries" and "fur......-chewing" on approximately 120 cages with mink per farm. The assessment of the two observers gave similar frequencies of welfare problems and thus similar welfare assessments. The individual problems observed were however, not the same leading to poor or fair, but rarely good inter observer reliability. Despite the skilled...... assessors, the short training was not sufficient to get highly reliable results. No overall difference was found between the inter observer reliability of cages with ≤2 or ≥3 mink in a cage. More training and better training material and, for some measures, observation procedures are needed in order...

  15. Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Data from: "Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 October 2014 to 30 November 2014....

  16. Influence of farm, feed-producer and season on incidence of gastrointestinal disorders in Danish farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Chriél, Mariann; Dietz, Hans H.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of gastrointestinal disorders in mink in Danish farms is presented based on data collected in a longitudinal design. The time at risk was from weaning in June until pelting in November. The occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders after weaning of the mink kits together with the ......The distribution of gastrointestinal disorders in mink in Danish farms is presented based on data collected in a longitudinal design. The time at risk was from weaning in June until pelting in November. The occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders after weaning of the mink kits together...... with the distribution within farms was studied. The period of highest risk was in the months immediately after weaning (July and August). More than 17% of the farms recorded GI disorders among greater than or equal to 10% of pairs of animals. A multilevel statistical analysis showed that besides the effect of time...

  17. Significance of an Active Volcanic Front in the Far Western Aleutian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Hoernle, K.

    2015-12-01

    Discovery of a volcanic front west of Buldir Volcano, the western-most emergent Aleutian volcano, demonstrates that the surface expression of Aleutian volcanism falls below sea level just west of 175.9° E longitude, but is otherwise continuous from mainland Alaska to Kamchatka. The newly discovered sites of western Aleutian seafloor volcanism are the Ingenstrem Depression, a 60 km-long structural depression just west of Buldir, and an unnamed area 300 km further west, referred to as the Western Cones. These locations fall along a volcanic front that stretches from Buldir to Piip Seamount near the Komandorsky Islands. Western Aleutian seafloor volcanic rocks include large quantities of high-silica andesite and dacite, which define a highly calc-alkaline igneous series and carry trace element signatures that are unmistakably subduction-related. This indicates that subducting oceanic lithosphere is present beneath the westernmost Aleutian arc. The rarity of earthquakes below depths of 200 km indicates that the subducting plate is unusually hot. Some seafloor volcanoes are 6-8 km wide at the base, and so are as large as many emergent Aleutian volcanoes. The seafloor volcanoes are submerged in water depths >3000 m because they sit on oceanic lithosphere of the Bering Sea. The volcanic front is thus displaced to the north of the ridge of arc crust that underlies the western Aleutian Islands. This displacement, which developed since approximately 6 Ma when volcanism was last active on the islands, must be a consequence of oblique convergence in a system where the subducting plate and large blocks of arc crust are both moving primarily in an arc-parallel sense. The result is a hot-slab system where low subduction rates probably limit advection of hot mantle to the subarc, and produce a relatively cool and perhaps stagnant mantle wedge. The oceanic setting and highly oblique subduction geometry also severely limit rates of sediment subduction, so the volcanic rocks, which

  18. Subduction Controls of Hf and Nd Isotopes in Lavas of the Aleutian Island Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogodzinski, Gene; Vervoort, Jeffery; Brown, Shaun Tyler; Gerseny, Megan

    2010-08-29

    The Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of 71 Quaternary lavas collected from locations along the full length of the Aleutian island arc are used to constrain the sources of Aleutian magmas and to provide insight into the geochemical behavior of Nd and Hf and related elements in the Aleutian subduction-magmatic system. Isotopic compositions of Aleutian lavas fall approximately at the center of, and form a trend parallel to, the terrestrial Hf-Nd isotopic array with {var_epsilon}{sub Hf} of +12.0 to +15.5 and {var_epsilon}{sub Nd} of +6.5 to +10.5. Basalts, andesites, and dacites within volcanic centers or in nearby volcanoes generally all have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that there is little measurable effect of crustal or other lithospheric assimilation within the volcanic plumbing systems of Aleutian volcanoes. Hafnium isotopic compositions have a clear pattern of along-arc increase that is continuous from the eastern-most locations near Cold Bay to Piip Seamount in the western-most part of the arc. This pattern is interpreted to reflect a westward decrease in the subducted sediment component present in Aleutian lavas, reflecting progressively lower rates of subduction westward as well as decreasing availability of trench sediment. Binary bulk mixing models (sediment + peridotite) demonstrate that 1-2% of the Hf in Aleutian lavas is derived from subducted sediment, indicating that Hf is mobilized out of the subducted sediment with an efficiency that is similar to that of Sr, Pb and Nd. Low published solubility for Hf and Nd in aqueous subduction fluids lead us to conclude that these elements are mobilized out of the subducted component and transferred to the mantle wedge as bulk sediment or as a silicate melt. Neodymium isotopes also generally increase from east to west, but the pattern is absent in the eastern third of the arc, where the sediment flux is high and increases from east to west, due to the presence of abundant terrigenous sediment in the

  19. [Effects of monorecessive and double recessive mutations affecting coat color on the monoamine content of the brain of the American mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapezov, O V; Trapezova, L I; alekhina, T A; Klochkov, D V; Ivanov, Iu N

    2009-12-01

    The effects of mutations affecting the coat color on the dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents of the hypothalamus and brainstem of the American mink have been studied. The sample comprised standard (+/+) and mutant minks, including the monorecessive pastel (b/b), silver-blue (p/p), and white hedlund (h/h) and the combination double recessive sapphire (a/a p/p) and pearl (k/k p/p) ones. The dopamine content of the brainstem of the monorecessive pastel (b/b) and silver-blue (p/p) minks has been found to be higher than in standard (+/+) minks. Conversely, the homozigosity for two coat color loci in double recessive pearl minks (k/k p/p) significantly decreases the noradrenaline and serotonin contents of the hypothalamus. In addition, monorecessive and double recessive minks differ from each other in the serotonin contents of the midbrain and medulla.

  20. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola, Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta, in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazón, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%, fish (30.9% and birds (16.7%. Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals, birds and fruits, whilst otter predated practically only fish (95%. Using Levins’ index, trophic-niche widths in European mink, small-spotted genet and Eurasian otter were 3.76, 3.77 and 1.10, respectively. The trophic niche overlap by Pianka index for autumn-winter was 0.77 for European mink vs. Small-spotted genet, and 0.60 for European mink vs. otter. The average size of brown trout taken by otter was larger than those consumed by European mink.

  1. Phenozan Influence on the Physiological-Biochemical Parameters of the Young Minks Leading to Their Advanced Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai A. Balakirev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant influence on the physiological-biochemical parameters of productive animals is one of the most important directions in modern animal science. Phenozan is a synthetic antioxidant with high biological activities including those for animals. The positive effects of phenozan on the physiological-biochemical parameters of the mink blood were found. These effects are leading to the intensive growth, strong health, enhancement of the mink fur quality, and so forth. The total amount of the erythrocytes in the mink blood increased by about 4-5% due to phenozan inclusion in the mink diet. Even a more significant increase was found in hemoglobin content in the mink blood and erythrocytes (by about 9.5% and 8.8%, resp. due to phenozan inclusion of 100 mg/day, whereas it was found only by about 6.1–5.3% or 5.5–0.3%, owing to phenozan inclusion of 50 or 150 mg/day. For many other parameters the optimal phenozan concentration was about 100 mg/day per head according to the result obtained for all studied animal groups. Thus, phenozan can be successfully used as a biologically active compound for mink nutrition and is recommended for other farm animals.

  2. Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Farmed Minks (Neovison vison) in Northern China by PCR-RFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Li, Fa-Cai; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite, affecting a wide range of mammals and human beings. Little information is available about the distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii infection in minks (Neovison vison). This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from minks in China. A total of 418 minks brain tissue samples were collected from Jilin and Hebei provinces, northern China. Genomic DNA were extracted and assayed for T. gondii infection by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2 (5'+3' SAG2, alter.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. 36 (8.6%) of 418 DNA samples were overall positive for T. gondii. Among them, 5 samples were genotyped at all loci, and 1 sample was genotyped for 9 loci. In total, five samples belong to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype#9, one belong to ToxoDB genotye#3. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii in minks in China. Meanwhile, these results revealed a distribution of T. gondii infection in minks in China. These data provided base-line information for controlling T. gondii infection in minks. PMID:27806069

  3. Aleutian Ancorinidae (Porifera, Astrophorida): Description of three new species from the genera Stelletta and Ancorina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2014-06-30

    Two new species of the genus Stelletta and one new species of Ancorina are described from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska and compared to congeners of the region. This is the first record of the genus Ancorina in the North Pacific Ocean. Stelletta ovalae Tanita 1965 is also reported for the first time from the Bering Sea and Alaska. 

  4. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur project" in 2009 which is aiming at developing an applicable on farm welfare assessment protocol for mink based on the Welfare Quality® principles. Such a welfare assessment system should possess the following qualities: It should be "high......" in validity, reliability as well as feasibility - the latter both as regards time and economy costs. This paper based on empiric data addressed the questions on needed sample size for a robust herd assessment of animal based measures. The animal based part of the full WelFur protocol including 9 animal based...

  5. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzorov, Aleksei G; Matveeva, Natalia M.; Markakis, Marios Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently fibroblasts of many mammalian species have been reprogrammed to pluripotent state using overexpression of several transcription factors. This technology allows production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with properties similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells....... The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. RESULTS: We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 i......PS cell lines. The majority of the analyzed cell lines had normal diploid chromosome number. The only ES cell line with XX chromosome set had both X-chromosomes in active state that is characteristic of pluripotent cells. The pluripotency of ES and iPS cell lines was confirmed by formation of teratomas...

  6. Estimates of the abundance of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata from Faroese and Icelandic NASS shipboard surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Pike

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Sightings Surveys for cetaceans were carried out Northeast and Central Atlantic in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001. Here we provide estimates of density and abundance for minke whales from the Faroese and Icelandic ship surveys. The estimates are not corrected for availability or perception biases. Double platform data collected in 2001 indicates that perception bias is likely considerable for this species. However comparison of corrected estimates of densityfrom aerial surveys with a ship survey estimate from the same area suggests that ship surveys can be nearly unbiased under optimal survey conditions with high searching effort. There were some regional changes in density over the period but no overall changes in density and abundance. Given the recent catch history for minke whales in this area, we would not expect to see changes in abundance due to exploitation that would be detectable with these surveys.

  7. Associations between biosecurity and outbreaks of canine distemper on Danish mink farms in 2012-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers-Jensen, Louise; Agger, Jens Frederik; Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted;

    2015-01-01

    in biosecurity on the mink farms. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and association of specific biosecurity measures with the outbreak. The study was carried out in an epidemiological case-control design. The case group consisted of the 61 farms, which had a confirmed outbreak of canine...... farms, indicating that the control farms had a better biosecurity or were not equally exposed to canine distemper virus. Generally, all farms had very few specific precautions at the gate entrance in respect to human visitors as well as animals. The use of biosecurity measures was very variable in both....... The results of the study indicate that consistent use of correct vaccination strategies, implementation of biosecurity measures and limiting human and animal access to the mink farm can be important factors in reducing the risk for canine distemper outbreaks....

  8. Separating the mink dam from the litter at 7 or 8 weeks after delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation.......014). Likewise, the dam calls increased on the separation day, peaking on the first day after separation (D1). The proportion of dams with calls decreased with litter age at separation (P=0.024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after delivery....... Additionally, the amount of dam calls after separation decreased with the litter size (P=0.022). Thus in addition to litter age, the size of the litter is important for the maternal motivation. These factors should, therefore, be taken into account in studies of the optimal separation age in mink....

  9. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E;

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were...... performed once, hence three dams per litter size each week (n = 9). Individual milk intake of kits was determined, milk samples were collected and kits were killed for determination of amino acid composition. The most abundant amino acids in milk were glutamate, leucine and aspartate making up about 40......% of total amino acids. Branched chained amino acids made up slightly more than 20% and sulphur containing amino acids less than 5% of total milk amino acids. In kit bodies the sum of glutamate, aspartate and leucine made up about 32% of amino acids, branched chain amino acids about 16% and sulphur...

  10. Evidence for natural recombination between mink enteritis virus and canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A virus was isolated from mink showing clinical and pathological signs of enteritis in China. This virus, designated MEV/LN-10, was identified as mink enteritis virus (MEV based on its cytopathic effect in the feline F81 cell line, the hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, electron microscopy (EM and animal infection experiments. The complete viral genome was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses on the complete MEV/LN-10 genome showed evidence of recombination between MEV and canine parvovirus (CPV. The genome was composed of the NS1 gene originating from CPV while the VP1 gene was of MEV origin. This is the first demonstration of recombination between a CPV and MEV in nature. Our findings not only provide valuable evidence indicating that recombination is an important genetic mechanism contributing to the variation and evolution of MEV, but also that heterogeneous recombination can occur in the feline parvovirus subspecies.

  11. Temperament, stereotypies and anticipatory behaviour as measures of welfare in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W.; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2006-01-01

    as a measure of poor welfare. On this basis, it was interesting to see if the sensitivity to a reward as expressed by the level of anticipatory behaviour of high and low stereotyping mink would clarify the discrepancy between the two classical measures of welfare. Twenty-four of the most stereotyping animals...... and 24 of the non-stereotyping animals were selected and exposed to Pavlovian conditioning with both positive and negative rewards. Their behaviour during anticipation of the reward changed, however, they also showed a great variation and dependence on feeding time as well as stereotypy status. So......A farm mink population of 290 1-year-old wild-coloured females was scanned for stereotyped behaviour in October 2003. At the same time the temperament of the individuals was established with a stick test. Some of the females performed no stereotypies in 54 scans and this fraction of the population...

  12. Structure and steroidogenesis of the placenta in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Motoki; Amano, Yoko; Hayakawa, Daisuke; Tsubota, Toshio; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Akio; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale.

  13. Improvement on in vitro maturation, fertilization and development of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, M; Tetsuka, M; Ishikawa, H; Ohsumi, S; Fukui, Y

    2001-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to improve in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent development of minke whale oocytes. We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 10 and 20%) of fetal whale serum (FWS) in maturation medium on nuclear maturation, morphological grade (A or B) of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) obtained from prepubertal and adult minke whales. Grade A (> or = 5 layers of cumulus cells) COC collected from the adult whales and cultured in the medium with 20% FWS had a higher (P whales and COC grades were not significantly affected by M-II oocytes. When in vitro fertilization of matured oocytes was performed in the presence of 20% FWS or 0.6% BSA in the fertilization medium, the proportions of sperm penetration and two-pronuclei formation in matured oocytes were not significantly different. Grade A COC cultured in a culture medium supplemented with 10% FWS cleaved at a higher rate (15.4%, P develop to morula (4.2%) compared with that of the oocytes from Grade B COC (2.5% and 0%). Coculture with granulosa cells during in vitro culture did not significantly affect cleavage and development to the morula stage. These results indicate that FWS addition in the maturation medium improved the rate of in vitro maturation and cleavage after insemination of minke whale oocytes. The BSA supplementation in fertilization medium was as effective as FWS supplementation for in vitro fertilization of matured oocytes. In vitro embryo production beyond the morula stage of minke whale oocytes could be possible, if Grade A COC was selected and cultured in the maturation medium supplemented with 10% or 20% FWS.

  14. Cellular and humoral antibody responses of normal pastel and sapphire mink to goat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J; Munoz, J J

    1971-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether normal sapphire and royal pastel mink differ immunologically at the cellular and humoral levels. Two days after primary intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of goat erythrocytes (GE), essentially no 19 or 7S plaque-forming cells (PFC) per 10(6) cells were detected in spleen or in abdominal and peripheral lymph nodes of either color phase. On the 4th day, more 19S PFC were detected in pastel than in sapphire tissues; pastel tissues also contained 7S PFC, whereas essentially none was present in sapphires until the 6th day. After an ip booster inoculation, the number of PFC was markedly different between the two color phases. These differences were most apparent in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. In parallel with differences observed in PFC responses between the color phases, total hemolysin and 2-mercaptoethanol-resistant hemolysin titers of pastels exceeded those of sapphires in all but one interval after the primary, and at every interval after the booster, inoculation. These data indicate that sapphire mink are not immunological cripples, nor are they immunologically hyperactive, but that differences do exist between sapphire and royal pastel mink, especially in the response to booster injections of GE.

  15. The pattern of ovarian development in the prepubertal antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsuka, Masafumi; Asada, Masatsugu; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-08-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the prepubertal period, ovaries grew slowly and approximately doubled their weight. The morphologies of right and left ovaries were almost identical while the growth of the ovary appears to occur preferentially on the right side. The most striking morphological feature was numerous small antral follicles less than 5 mm in diameter found in ovaries of younger immature whales. The occurrence of these ovaries was highest in whales less than 6 m long and gradually decreased as body length increased. In larger whales, the occurrence of ovaries with a smaller number of follicles up to 10 mm and thick tunica albuginea increased. Thus, the ovary of the Antarctic minke whale experiences bursts of small follicular development during the early prepubertal period before becoming a more developed ovary with fewer but larger follicles, and thick tunica albuginea.

  16. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison ) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hammer, Anne S.; Clausen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    -throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the resident gut microbiota of the mink in terms of intra-and interindividual diversity. We report, for the first time, that the mucosa-associated bacterial community within the colon is diverse and dissimilar from the community found in the feed. We found large......Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short...... interindividual differences in bacterial composition between individual animals being dominated generally by the phylum Firmicutes, but in some cases also Proteobacteria or Fusobacteria. The bacterial load and community structure within the mucus was not severely impacted by 3 days of fasting, which implies...

  17. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Aleutian Islands, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014927)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by...

  18. Aerial survey of sea otters and other marine mammals Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, 19 April to 9 May 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial survey, 19 April to 9 May 1965 yielded information on marine animals and birds in the Aleutian Islands and limited areas along the Alaska Peninsula. In...

  19. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1980-1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The migration and wintering ground study of the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was continued again in California in 1980-81 from October 10...

  20. Refuge narrative report : January 1, 1966 - December 31, 1966 : Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge and Izembek National Wildlife Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Aleutian Islands and Izembek NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1983-84

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 10th annual wintering ground study of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 22 October 1983 to 11 May 1984....

  2. The status of ledge-nesting seabirds at monitoring sites in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska in summer 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seabird monitoring in the Aleutian Islands durin9 summer 1989 focused on a guild of ledge-nesting species including northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), cormorants...

  3. 75 FR 56485 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). The FMP was prepared by the North Pacific... recordkeeping requirements. Dated: September 13, 2010. Eric C. Schwaab, Assistant Administrator for...

  4. 75 FR 48298 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... fisheries under the Fishery Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). The...: August 4, 2010. Eric C. Schwaab, Assistant Administrator for Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries...

  5. Refuge narrative report : January 1, 1968 - December 31, 1968 : Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge and Izembek National Wildlife Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Aleutian Islands (including Simeonof NWR, Bogoslof NWR, and Semidi NWR) and Izembek NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  6. Refuge narrative report : January 1, 1974 - December 31, 1975 : Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge and Bogoslof National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Aleutian Islands and Bogoslof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  7. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N; Jensen, Søren K

    2016-03-14

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose-response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs. The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink.

  8. Decline in endangered species as an indication of anthropic pressures: the case of European mink Mustela lutreola Western population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodé, T; Cormier, J P; Le Jacques, D

    2001-12-01

    Populations of threatened species, especially predators at the top of the food chain, may be affected by anthropic pressures. The endangered western population of European mink Mustela lutreola has shown a large decline over 50% of its natural range. M. lutreola disappeared from northwestern France between 1984 and 1997, and the decline was associated with an increase in mustelid trapping, changes in watercourse quality, and habitat modifications due to agricultural practices. The pattern of decline showed a fragmentation restricting the minks into very small areas. Trapping was the first known cause of mortality. Although feral American mink Mustela vison may compete with autochthonous carnivores, M. lutreola had disappeared from streams before the introduction of the American species, suggesting that competitive interactions were not responsible. Furthermore, American mink has never been found or has remained rare in 62.4% of the area from which M. lutreola has disappeared. During the past 25 years, permanent grassland surfaces were reduced by 40%, whereas fodder culture increased by 470%, causing considerable habitat changes. Furthermore, 55.7% of water courses were classified as being of bad quality or polluted. Therefore, our data suggests that a conjunction of intensive trapping, alterations in water quality and habitat modification was critical for the European mink's decline. Although there are difficulties in ascribing specific cause to distribution changes in a top predator, this decline can be regarded as an indication for anthropic pressures on natural habitats.

  9. Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin information status and research planning meeting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K. E.; Krummel, J. R.; Hayse, J. W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Stull, E. A.; Gorenflo, L.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-26

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant ecological and natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea continental shelf including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals including federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012 and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) were contracted to assist the MMS Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region in identifying and prioritizing information needs related to the North Aleutian Basin and potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities. The overall approach focused on three related but separate tasks: (1) identification and

  10. Testing the WelFur assessment protocol for mink on-farm in three seasons of production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2011-01-01

    Welfare Quality® seems to develop into a standard for farm animal welfare assessment and European Fur Breeders’ Association initiated the “WelFur” project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the WQ standards. The assessment is based on four...... principles and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured at the farm. Based on validity, reliability and feasibility 22 measures have been selected for use in the three seasons of mink production: 1. Breeders during winter, 2. Dams with kits during spring, and 3. Juveniles during growth in the autumn, in order...... to cover the life cycle of the mink. The final welfare assessment is categorised as: ’Excellent’, ’Above average’, ’Acceptable’ or ’Not classified’ according to the welfare score for each of the four principles. The protocols for the three seasons are being tested in several countries and the Danish...

  11. Unusually large tsunamis frequent a currently creeping part of the Aleutian megathrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Carver, G.A.; Briggs, Richard; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Koehler, R.D.; La Selle, SeanPaul M.; Bender, Adrian M.; Engelhart, S.E.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Hill, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Current models used to assess earthquake and tsunami hazards are inadequate where creep dominates a subduction megathrust. Here we report geological evidence for large tsunamis, occurring on average every 300–340 years, near the source areas of the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These areas bookend a postulated seismic gap over 200 km long where modern geodetic measurements indicate that the megathrust is currently creeping. At Sedanka Island, evidence for large tsunamis includes six sand sheets that blanket a lowland facing the Pacific Ocean, rise to 15 m above mean sea level, contain marine diatoms, cap terraces, adjoin evidence for scour, and date from the past 1700 years. The youngest sheet, and modern drift logs found as far as 800 m inland and >18 m elevation, likely record the 1957 tsunami. Modern creep on the megathrust coexists with previously unrecognized tsunami sources along this part of the Aleutian Subduction Zone.

  12. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  13. A new population of Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) on Adak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Talbot, Stephen S.

    2002-01-01

    We report and describe a new population of the endangered Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) discovered on Mount Reed, Adak Island, Alaska. The new population is located at a lower elevation than the other known populations, placing the species' known elevational range between 338 m and 525 m. The discovery of this population is significant because it increases the total number of known populations and individuals for the species.

  14. Four new species of Haplosclerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Haplosclerida are described from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Callyspongia mucosa n.sp., Cladocroce infundibulum n. sp., Cladocroce attu n. sp. and Cladocroce kiska n. sp. The new species are described and compared to congeners of the region. This is the northernmost record of the genus Callyspongia and the first record of the subgenus Callyspongia from the North Pacific Ocean. To accommodate Cladocroce kiska in its genus the definition has to be broadened to allow sigmas.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a "phiKMV-like" bacteriophage and its therapeutic effect on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhui Cao

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the "phiKMV-like Viruses" group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of a “phiKMV-Like” Bacteriophage and Its Therapeutic Effect on Mink Hemorrhagic Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhenhui; Zhang, Jiancheng; Niu, Yan D.; Cui, Naizhong; Ma, Yongsheng; Cao, Fang; Jin, Liji; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL) of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C) containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the “phiKMV-like Viruses” group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization. PMID:25615639

  17. Isolation and characterization of a "phiKMV-like" bacteriophage and its therapeutic effect on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhenhui; Zhang, Jiancheng; Niu, Yan D; Cui, Naizhong; Ma, Yongsheng; Cao, Fang; Jin, Liji; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL) of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C) containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the "phiKMV-like Viruses" group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization.

  18. Nitrogen and energy balance in growing mink (Mustela vison) fed different levels of bacterial protein meal produced with natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein;

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on energy and protein metabolism in growing mink kits. Sixteen male mink kits of the standard brown genotype were randomly fed one of four diets: A control (Diet III) and 60.......7% on Diet I to 26.6% on Diet IV, and oxidation of fat increased from 53.8% on Diet I to 63.5% Diet IV. In conclusion, protein and energy metabolism remained unaffected when up to 40% of DN was derived from BPM....

  19. Black crystal: a novel color mutant in the American mink (Mustela vision Schreber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapezov, O V

    1997-01-01

    Black crystal, a new mutant of coat color pattern occurring in the American mink in the course of selection for domestic behavior, is described. A salient feature of the mutation is the appearance of white guard hairs producing a veil-like covering of the body. In the Black crystal homozygote, coat color is of the Himalayan type. Breeding data demonstrate that the novel color phase is inherited as a monogenic autosomal semidominant trait. The mutant gene is designated as Black crystal and is symbolized by Cr. The Cr gene is not allelic to the multiple-allelic series at the Black cross locus.

  20. Minke whale song, spacing, and acoustic communication on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedamke, Jason

    An inquisitive population of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) that concentrates on the Great Barrier Reef during its suspected breeding season offered a unique opportunity to conduct a multi-faceted study of a little-known Balaenopteran species' acoustic behavior. Chapter one investigates whether the minke whale is the source of an unusual, complex, and stereotyped sound recorded, the "star-wars" vocalization. A hydrophone array was towed from a vessel to record sounds from circling whales for subsequent localization of sound sources. These acoustic locations were matched with shipboard and in-water observations of the minke whale, demonstrating the minke whale was the source of this unusual sound. Spectral and temporal features of this sound and the source levels at which it is produced are described. The repetitive "star-wars" vocalization appears similar to the songs of other whale species and has characteristics consistent with reproductive advertisement displays. Chapter two investigates whether song (i.e. the "star-wars" vocalization) has a spacing function through passive monitoring of singer spatial patterns with a moored five-sonobuoy array. Active song playback experiments to singers were also conducted to further test song function. This study demonstrated that singers naturally maintain spatial separations between them through a nearest-neighbor analysis and animated tracks of singer movements. In response to active song playbacks, singers generally moved away and repeated song more quickly suggesting that song repetition interval may help regulate spatial interaction and singer separation. These results further indicate the Great Barrier Reef may be an important reproductive habitat for this species. Chapter three investigates whether song is part of a potentially graded repertoire of acoustic signals. Utilizing both vessel-based recordings and remote recordings from the sonobuoy array, temporal and spectral features, source levels, and

  1. Can spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics replace minks in digestibility tests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, P.L.; Christensen, B.M.; Munck, L.;

    2000-01-01

    digestibility could be predicted from combining the two reference quality parameters oil and ash with a correlation coefficient of 0.89. The best spectroscopic calibration models on the mink digestibility resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.94 and a prediction error of 0.5 using the near......-infrared spectral ensemble and a correlation coefficient of 0.92 and a prediction error of 0.5 using the fluorescence spectral ensemble. In addition, the seven reference quality parameters could be predicted from the spectroscopic ensembles with good precision. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry....

  2. Flow-cytometric determination of genotoxic effects of exposure to petroleum in mink and sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, J.W.; Mazet, J.A.; Blake, J.; Smolen, M.J.; Lou, Y.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the genotoxic effects of crude oil on mink and sea otters, In the first experiment, the effects on mink of chronic exposure to weathered Prudhoe Bay crude oil were studied, Female mink were fed a diet that included weathered crude oil for a period of 3 weeks prior to mating, during pregnancy and until weaning. Kits were exposed through lactation and by diet after weaning until 4 months of age. Kidney and liver tissues of the kits were examined using flow cytometry (FCM) and it was found that the genome size was increased in kidney samples from the experimental group compared to the control group. This effect was probably due to some type of DNA amplification and it could have been inherited from the exposed mothers or have been a somatic response to oil exposure in the pups, No evidence of clastogenic effects, as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) of the G(1) peak, was found in kidney or liver tissue. In the second experiment, yearling female mink were exposed either by diet or externally to crude oil or bunker C fuel oil. Evidence for clastogenic damage was found in spleen tissue for the exposure groups, but not in kidney tissue. No evidence of increased genome size was observed. In the third experiment, blood was obtained from wild-caught sea otters in Prince William Sound. The sea otters represented two populations: one from western Prince William Sound that was potentially exposed to oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a reference population from eastern Prince William Sound that did not receive oil from the spill. The spill had occurred 1.5 years prior to obtaining the blood samples. Although the mean CVs did not differ between the populations, the exposed population had a significantly higher variance of CV measurements and five out of 15 animals from the exposed population had CVs higher than the 95% confidence limits of the reference population, It is concluded that FCM is a sensitive indicator

  3. [Effect of coat color mutations on behavioral polymorphism in farm populations of american minks (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapezov, O V; Trapezova, L I; Sergeev, E G

    2008-04-01

    Behavioral polymorphism estimated by the expression of the defensive reaction towards humans has been studied in farm-bred American minks and sables with different color types. Most animals (both minks and sables) from farm populations displayed passive defensive behavior towards humans in the standard hand catch test. Coat color genes have been found to have pleiotropic effects; they influence both the penetrance and expressivity of domestication behavior: in animals with aberrant color types (both sapphire minks and white-and-black sables), the proportion of animals with domestication behavior and the expressivity of this behavior are significantly higher (p <0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively).

  4. Regional variation of caesium-137 in minke whales ¤Balaenoptera acutorostrata¤ from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E.W.; Dahlgaard, H.; Riget, F.F.

    2002-01-01

    Levels of radioactive caesium (Cs-137) were determined in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic region and the North Sea. The sample consisted of muscle tissue from 135 minke whales caught in 1998 in 7 different areas: West Greenland, n = 44; East...... caesium concentration in minke whales from the North Sea is in accordance with previous findings that Cs-137 levels in the marine environment of the North Atlantic region decrease with increasing distance from major point sources (i.e. nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants in the UK and France, and outflow...

  5. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt;

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with Ameri......Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally...... correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the average information-restricted maximum-likelihood method. Evidence was found for QTL affecting fur quality traits on nine autosomes. QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 and 13; for guard hair length on chromosomes 2, 3...... and 6; for wool density on chromosomes 6 and 13; for surface on chromosomes 7, 12 and 13; for quality on chromosomes 6, 7, 11 and 13; and for skin length on chromosomes 7 and 9. Proximity of locations of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and for wool density and quality suggests that some...

  6. The effects of feed restriction on physical activity, body weight, physiology, haematology and immunology in female mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Larsen, Torben;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if adult mink females characterised as having a high or low residual feed intake (RFI) differed in their response to feed restriction with regard to activity, body weight loss and physiological parameters. For RFI-High, the activity was higher prior...

  7. Additional foraging elements reduce abnormal behaviour – fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Svendsen, Pernille Maj;

    2013-01-01

    the season of feed restriction, the wear/tear of biting ropes increased. Females on the chunky diet had a higher concentration of faecal cortisol metabolites (P = 0.033), probably due to a more severe slimming resulting in a 6.2% lower body weight (P = 0.006) than the mink on the finely ground diet; still...

  8. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Sirotkin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings and old (3-5 years of age minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml. We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a reduction in basal progesterone release and (b alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I.

  9. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-01-21

    The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml). We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a) reduction in basal progesterone release and (b) alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I.

  10. Assessment of the aerobic faecal microflora in mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) with emphasis on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus intermedius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriél, Mariann

    2003-01-01

    and their offspring on seven mink farms throughout the production season and a semi-quantitative enumeration of total E. coli and haemolytic E. coli, beta-haemolytic streptococci, beta-haemolytic coagulase positive staphylococci, total lactic acid bacteria, and enterococci was carried out in all samples using...

  11. Spring distribution and density of minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata along an offshore bank in the central North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Minke whales were recorded in the central North Sea in an area characterised by frontal features and high productivity northeast of the Dogger Bank (4677 km2). Survey efforts were carried out from 28 March to 2 July 2007, at a finer scale than in earlier studies in the region, using 2 vessels as pla

  12. Severity of Expert-Identified Behavioural Responses of Humpback Whale, Minke Whale, and Northern Bottlenose Whale to Naval Sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Cure, C.; Isojunno, S.; Wensveen, P.J.; Lam, F.P.A.; Visser, F.; Kleivane, L.; Tyack, P.L.; Harris, C.M.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled exposure experiments using 1 to2 kHz sonar signals were conducted with 11 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), one minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and one northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) during three field trials from 2011 to 2013. Ship approaches without

  13. A first estimate of the amino acid requirement for milk production of the high-producing female mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, R; Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    to estimate the amino acid requirement of the lactating mink. Twelve dams were held in an intensive care unit and subjected to balance experiments and the kits were injected with deuterium oxide to determine water kinetics and milk yield. Eighteen dams were kept under normal farm conditions but with feed...

  14. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose–respo...

  15. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library...

  16. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    periods have the same effect of date of assessment. The study also found that mink farmers are generally positive towards the structural way of working in stable schools and that including a discussion of the WelFur results related to the different farms in a stable school will make the feedback...

  17. Mink aging is associated with a reduction in ovarian hormone release and the response to FSH and ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karina; Lauričik, Jozef; Morovič, Martin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-09-15

    The endocrine mechanisms of mink ovarian hormones release and reproductive aging are poorly investigated. The aims of our study were to: (1) identify hormones produced by mink ovaries (the steroids progesterone [P] and estradiol [E], the peptide hormone oxytocin [OT], and the prostaglandin F [PGF] and prostaglandin E [PGE]); (2) examine the effect of FSH and ghrelin on the release of the hormones listed previously; and (3) understand whether these hormones can be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging, i.e., whether aging can be associated with changes (a) in the basal release of P, E, OT, PGF, or PGE and (b) their response to FSH and ghrelin. Fragments of ovaries of young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks were cultured with and without FSH and ghrelin (0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL), and the release of hormones was analyzed by EIA/RIA. We found that isolated ovaries were able to release P, E, OT, PGF, and PGE, and the levels of P produced in the ovaries of old animals were lower than those produced in the ovaries of young animals, whereas the levels of other hormones did not differ. FSH was able to stimulate P and E and suppress OT and PGF and did not affect PGE release. Aging was associated with the inhibition of the effect of FSH on ovarian P and E, the appearance of the inhibitory action of FSH on OT, and the disappearance of this action on ovarian PGF. PGE was not affected by FSH, irrespective of animal age. Ghrelin was able to promote E (but not P) and suppress OT, PGF, and PGE output. Aging was associated with the appearance of an inhibitory influence of ghrelin on ovarian OT and PGE and with the disappearance of this influence on PGF output. Aging did not affect the action of ghrelin on ovarian P and E. Our observations (1) confirm the production of P and E and show that OT, PGF, and PGE are released from mink ovaries, (2) confirm the involvement of FSH and demonstrate the involvement of ghrelin in the control of mink ovarian hormone

  18. Analysis of Factors Influencing Fur Quality in Minks of Standard, Pastel, Platinum and White Hedlunda Colour Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Socha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at the analysis of the factors that influence conformation traits, included animal size and fur quality traits in four colour types of mink: standard, pastel, platinum and white Hedlunda. The data concerns the evaluation of animal conformation traits in the period of three years. The analysis of variance of particular traits indicates statistically significant effect of the year of birth, colour type and animal sex on the majority of analysed traits. Higher means of license evaluation were obtained by males in majority of the traits. Statistic analysis of body weight showed that the highest body weight characterized males of platinum and white Hedlunda colour types. Minks of standard and pastel colour types were characterised by lower body weight. The mean body weight of males was 2581.17g and of females 1401.42g (there is a clear sexual dimorphism in minks. Minks of white Hedlunda colour type were characterised by the highest means of colour purity, both males and females. Other colour types obtained lower means. The best fur quality characterised platinum minks. Variability of traits, measured by variability coefficient, had the highest values in animal weight (in grams and ranged from 6.0 to 32.0%. Variability of total number of scores ranged from 2.00 to 8.20%. Positive phenotypic correlations were the highest between body size (in points and total number of scores (0.676, while the lowest were obtained between body size (in points and fur quality (–0.178.

  19. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Karlsson, Karl Ae; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed American mink (Neovison vison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: 'late E'. Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male, and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites. E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness ('late E' females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm, effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type ('Demis', similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a. and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  1. Pacific Basin tsunami hazards associated with mass flows in the Aleutian arc of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Watts, Philip; Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze mass-flow tsunami generation for selected areas within the Aleutian arc of Alaska using results from numerical simulation of hypothetical but plausible mass-flow sources such as submarine landslides and volcanic debris avalanches. The Aleutian arc consists of a chain of volcanic mountains, volcanic islands, and submarine canyons, surrounded by a low-relief continental shelf above about 1000–2000 m water depth. Parts of the arc are fragmented into a series of fault-bounded blocks, tens to hundreds of kilometers in length, and separated from one another by distinctive fault-controlled canyons that are roughly normal to the arc axis. The canyons are natural regions for the accumulation and conveyance of sediment derived from glacial and volcanic processes. The volcanic islands in the region include a number of historically active volcanoes and some possess geological evidence for large-scale sector collapse into the sea. Large scale mass-flow deposits have not been mapped on the seafloor south of the Aleutian Islands, in part because most of the area has never been examined at the resolution required to identify such features, and in part because of the complex nature of erosional and depositional processes. Extensive submarine landslide deposits and debris flows are known on the north side of the arc and are common in similar settings elsewhere and thus they likely exist on the trench slope south of the Aleutian Islands. Because the Aleutian arc is surrounded by deep, open ocean, mass flows of unconsolidated debris that originate either as submarine landslides or as volcanic debris avalanches entering the sea may be potential tsunami sources. To test this hypothesis we present a series of numerical simulations of submarine mass-flow initiated tsunamis from eight different source areas. We consider four submarine mass flows originating in submarine canyons and four flows that evolve from submarine landslides on the trench slope. The flows have lengths

  2. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2009-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... of time as mink without access to a running wheel performed stereotypies, and the daily rhythms of the two types of activity were identical with a peak around feeding time. No other behavioural differences between stereotyping and non-stereotyping mink were found and neither was there any difference...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...

  3. The Aleutian Tsunami of 1946: the Compound Earthquake-Landslide Source and Near-Field Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, G. J.; Yamazaki, Y.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The tsunami of April 1, 1946, spread death and destruction throughout the Pacific from the Aleutians to Antarctica, and produced exceptional runup, 42 m, at Scotch Cap on Unimak Island in the near field. López & Okal (2006) showed that the triggering earthquake was at least MW = 8.6, large enough to explain the far-field tsunami but still requiring a landslide or other secondary source to achieve the local runup. No convincing landslide was found until von Huene, et al (2014) merged all available multibeam data and reprocessed a old multichannel line to show that a feature on the Aleutian Terrace they call Lone Knoll (LK) is the displaced block of a translational slide. From 210Pb dating of push cores taken near the summit of LK, we find that a disruption in sedimentation occurred in 1946 at one site, but sedimentation was not disrupted at another site nearby. We infer that the slide block moved coherently at a speed close to the threshold for erosion of the hemipelagic clays. From GLORIA sidescan, Fryer, et al (2004) had earlier tentatively identified LK as a landslide deposit, but if the tsunami crossed the shallow Aleutian Shelf at the long-wave speed, that landslide had to extend up to the shelf edge to satisfy the known 48-min travel time to Scotch Cap. The resulting landslide was enormous, and a multibeam survey later in 2004 showed that it could not exist. The slide imaged by von Huene, et al is far smaller, with a headwall 30 km downslope at a depth of 3 km. The greater distance demands that the tsunami travel much faster across the shelf. The huge runup, however, suggests that wave height was a significant fraction of the water depth (only 80 m), so the tsunami probably crossed the Aleutian Shelf as a bore. From modeling the landslide-generated tsunami with a shock-capturing dispersive code we infer that it did indeed cross the shelf as a bore traveling at roughly twice the long-wave speed. We are still exploring the dependence of the tsunami on slide

  4. Distinctly different parental magmas for plutons and lavas in the central Aleutian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y.; Rioux, M. E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Goldstein, S. L.; Bolge, L.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    While it is generally agreed that continental crust is generated by arc magmatism, average arc lavas are basaltic while the bulk continental crust is andesitic, and this has led to many models for secondary reprocessing of the arc crust in order to form continental crust. We report new data on calc-alkaline plutons in the central Aleutians showing that they have distinctly different sources compared to Holocene tholeiitic lavas. Therefore the lavas are not representative of the net magmatic transfer from the mantle into the arc crust. Eocene to Miocene (9-39 Ma) intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks from the central Aleutian arc show higher SiO2 at a given Mg#, higher ɛNd- and ɛHf-values, and lower Pb isotope ratios than Holocene volcanic rocks from the same region. Instead, the plutonic rocks resemble volcanics from the western Aleutians isotopically, and have chemical compositions similar to bulk continental crust. These data could reflect temporal variation of Aleutian magma source compositions, from Eocene-Miocene "isotopically depleted" and predominantly calc-alkaline to Holocene "isotopically enriched" and predominantly tholeiitic. Alternatively, they may reflect different transport and emplacement processes for the magmas that form plutons and lavas: calc-alkaline magmas with higher Si content and high viscosity may preferentially form plutons, perhaps after extensive mid-crustal degassing of initially high water contents. The latter case implies that the upper and middle arc crust is more like the calc-alkaline bulk composition of the continental crust than the lavas alone. Crustal reprocessing mechanisms that preserve upper and middle arc crust, while removing lower arc crust, can account for the genesis and evolution of continental crust. Since gabbroic lower arc crust extends from ca 20-40 km depth, and is density stable over most of this depth range, "delamination" of dense lithologies [1] may not be sufficient to accomplish this. Alternatively

  5. Paleogene geology and chronology of southwestern Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, H.; Hein, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A slightly deformed marine sedimentary sequence reflecting volcanic arc sedimentation from late Eocene to early Oligocene is intruded by hypabyssal quartz diorite sills and small plutons with apparent ages of about 30 Ma, ie, middle Oligocene. Chemical data from igneous rocks exhibit calc-alkaline and tholeiitic volcanic arc differentiation trends. The fossil ages and radiometric dates from SW Umnak Island are similar to those reported from other central and E Aleutian islands, and indicate uniformity in the chronology and tectonic development of the archipelago during the Paleogene. Paleomagnetic data suggest possible northward movement but remain equivocal and more work is indicated. -after Authors

  6. Fuel oil-induced adrenal hypertrophy in ranch mink (Mustela vison): effects of sex, fuel oil weathering, and response to adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, F C; Lasley, B; Bursian, S

    2010-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources can be a cause of stress for free-ranging wildlife. The response of wildlife to chemical contaminants requires that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis be precisely regulated to allow for proper glucocorticoid-mediated adaptive responses. Chronic oral exposure to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil causes the development of adrenal hypertrophy in male ranch mink (Mustela vison) without increasing serum or fecal glucocorticoid concentrations. This hypertrophy is an adaptive response to fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To determine if the same phenomenon occurs in female mink or male mink exposed to artificially weathered fuel oil, female mink were fed 0 ppm (mineral oil) or 420 ppm fuel oil and male mink were exposed to 0 ppm, 420 ppm fuel oil, or 480 ppm artificially weathered fuel oil in the diet for 60-62 days. At the end of the exposure, serum glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed along with body and organ weight measurements. Fecal glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed at time points throughout the exposure. Male mink fed fuel oil or weathered fuel oil and female mink fed fuel oil had adrenal enlargement without any significant increases in the serum or fecal concentration of glucocorticoids, which is consistent with fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To address the physiological consequences of adrenal insufficiency, fuel oil-exposed male mink were administered an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Fuel oil-exposed animals had a smaller incremental increase in serum glucocorticoid concentration after ACTH challenge compared to control animals. Our findings provide further evidence that the HPA axis of fuel oil-exposed animals is compromised and, therefore, not able to respond appropriately to the diverse stressors found in the environment.

  7. Effects of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine supplementation on hair growth and pelt quality in mink (Neovision vision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H H; Jiang, Q K; Sun, W L; Xu, C; Cong, B; Yang, F H; Li, G Y

    2013-12-01

    The effect of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine (Met) supplementation on hair growth and the resulting pelt quality in mink was studied. Four groups of male mink were fed with four isocaloric diets containing 32% (P32), 24% (P24), 16% (P16) or P24+Met (0.8%) crude protein of dry matter (DM) from September to December. Skin biopsies were taken at the pelting. Histological techniques and computer-assisted light microscopy were used to determine the ratio of activity (ROA) of under hairs and guard hairs respectively. The results showed that when the dietary protein level reduced from 32% to 16%, body length, number and diameter of under hairs and guard hairs of minks declined, and pelt length and pelt weight of minks decreased significantly (p  0.05). The hair follicle density of the winter coat was not influenced by the dietary protein levels and Met supplementation (p > 0.05). Low-protein diets content led to a reduction of hair follicle developing to next phase. It was documented that 24% crude protein of DM with Met supplementation during growing-furring period was sufficient for minks to express their genetic capacity to develop hair follicles and achieve the prime fur characteristics. Overall this study demonstrated that hair growth and hair properties in pelts are very dependent on the dietary protein and Met supply in the growing-furring period of minks.

  8. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenavic, Katherine [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Service Canadien de la Faune Environnement Canada, 1141 Route de l' Eglise, c.p. 10100, Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4H5 (Canada)], E-mail: louise.champoux@ec.gc.ca; Mike, O' Brien [Furbearers and Upland Game, Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS B4N 4E5 (Canada)], E-mail: obrienms@gov.ns.ca; Daoust, Pierre-Y. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of P.E.I., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: daoust@upei.ca; Evans, R. Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Hayla E. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: hevans@trentu.ca

    2008-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations.

  9. Genetic variation in litter size and kit survival of mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B K; Su, G; Berg, P

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are to estimate variance components of litter size and kit survival rate and estimate genetic correlations of litter size and kit survival rate with dam's juvenile body weight and pregnancy length. Variance components for litter size and kit survival were analysed using an AI......-REML approach, based on data from 1940 litters of the black colour type mink from 1996 to 2001. The models included (i) additive genetic effect of dam; (ii) dam and sire genetic effects; (iii) additive genetic effect of dam in relation to litter size and dam and sire genetic effects in relation to survival rate......; (iv) additive genetic effect of dam to estimate the correlations of litter size or kit survival with dam juvenile body weight and pregnancy length on yearling dams (1357 litters). The dam heritabilities were of litter size (0.02-0.08) and survival rate (0.05-0.10). The permanent effects of dam were...

  10. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  11. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Díez-León

    Full Text Available Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration' as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential: highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We

  12. 76 FR 35781 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... on their historic participation in one or more of these nine BSAI crab fisheries during a specific... geographic regions based on historic geographic delivery and processing patterns. The Western Aleutian... comment period for Amendment 37 and the proposed rule. One comment letter provided a general criticism...

  13. 78 FR 59908 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 99 AGENCY: National... more efficient vessels that are able to meet modern vessel safety standards. This action is intended to... review and comment. NMFS manages the U.S. groundfish fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)...

  14. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Public Meeting AGENCY: National... crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization program. The CIE, operated by Northern Taiga... products. The BSAI Crab Economic Data Report (EDR) program administered by NMFS began collecting...

  15. 76 FR 17088 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are located at 50 CFR part 680. Regulations implementing the... 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications (75 FR 76352, December 8, 2010), NMFS will publish the final... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  16. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... final rule implementing the Crab Rationalization Program (Program) was published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR... fishery would be caused in the time it would take to follow standard rulemaking procedures (62 FR 44421... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency...

  17. Climate program "stone soup": Assessing climate change vulnerabilities in the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, J. S.; Poe, A.; van Pelt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island region of Alaska. Past and present marine research across a broad spectrum of disciplines is shedding light on what sectors of the ecosystem and the human dimension will be most impacted. In a grassroots approach to extend existing research efforts, leveraging recently completed downscaled climate projections for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region, we convened a team of 30 researchers-- with expertise ranging from anthropology to zooplankton to marine mammals-- to assess climate projections in the context of their expertise. This Aleutian-Bering Climate Vulnerability Assessment (ABCVA) began with researchers working in five teams to evaluate the vulnerabilities of key species and ecosystem services relative to projected changes in climate. Each team identified initial vulnerabilities for their focal species or services, and made recommendations for further research and information needs that would help managers and communities better understand the implications of the changing climate in this region. Those draft recommendations were shared during two focused, public sessions held within two hub communities for the Bering and Aleutian region: Unalaska and St. Paul. Qualitative insights about local concerns and observations relative to climate change were collected during these sessions, to be compared to the recommendations being made by the ABCVA team of researchers. Finally, we used a Structured Decision Making process to prioritize the recommendations of participating scientists, and integrate the insights shared during our community sessions. This work brought together residents, stakeholders, scientists, and natural resource managers to collaboratively identify priorities for addressing current and expected future impacts of climate change. Recommendations from this project will be incorporated into future research efforts of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation

  18. Farmers’ perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Anneberg, Inger; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore farmers' perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare. Stable schools are knowledge exchange between farmers working towards a common goal, being able to give practical advice to each other. The concept is based...... the group. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the farmers to evaluate their perception of stable schools. Based on the results from the study, and results from other studies of stable schools, we can conclude that farmers generally are positive to the structural way of working in stable schools...... therefore established two stable schools with farmers from five Danish mink farms in each group. The meetings were on the respective farms, and every farm was visited once within a year. The host-farmer presented one success story and two challenges he/she wanted to work with and get contributions to from...

  19. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library......BACKGROUND: Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. RESULTS: Here, we...... report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each...

  20. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W;

    2012-01-01

    The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel......Fur protocols after two years of developmental work. Reviews for each of the 12 WQ welfare criteria were written for foxes and mink to identify the welfare measures that have been used in scientific studies. The reviews formed the basis for potential measures to be included in the WelFur protocols. All measures...... which the welfare of animals on European fur farms can be assessed....

  1. Early transfer of mated females into the maternity unit reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Mated mammals on farms are typically transferred to another housing environment prior to delivery. We investigated whether the timing of this transfer – EARLY (Day −36), INTERMEDIATE (Day −18), or LATE (Day −3) relative to the expected day of birth (Day 0) – affects maternal stress, maternal care...... of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) and evaluation of maternal care: nest building, in-nest temperature, plus kit-retrieval behaviour, kit mortality and growth day 0–7 postpartum. We document that mated mink females build and maintain a nest at least 1 month prior to delivery when transferred...... vitality from early moved females. In conclusion, transfer into the maternity unit early after mating, rather than later during the pregnancy period, reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink....

  2. 水貂出血性肺炎的诊断与防治%Diagnosis and Treatment of Hemorrhagic Pneumonia of Mink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵贤; 项方; 王殿永; 李国华

    2012-01-01

    【目的]对水貂出血性肺炎进行诊断和防治。[方法]以秦皇岛市昌黎县荒田庄某养殖户饲养的水貂中发病水貂为试验材料,对其进行剖检,无菌取肝、肾、脾、肺等组织分别接种于普通营养琼脂和血液琼脂,分离、纯化细菌,并对获得的菌株进行动物接种试验和药敏试验。最后,提出相关治疗和预防措施。[结果]分离得到的细菌经革兰染色镜检为阴性;在血液琼脂上形成溶血环;该菌能发酵葡萄糖和木糖;不发酵蔗糖、乳糖、麦芽糖和七叶苷;过氧化氧酶和氧化酶试验阳性;尿素酶试验和硫化氢试验阴性.故确定该菌株为绿脓杆菌。药敏试验结果显示,该菌对环丙沙星等高敏,对头孢噻吩等耐药。[结论]该试验结果为水貂出仇性肺炎的诊治和预防奠定了基础。%[Objective] The paper was to diagnose and treat hemorrhagic pneumonia of mink. [Method] The diseased minks bred by one raiser in Huangtian Village of Changli County in Qinhuangdao City were used as experimental materials. It was necropsied, and its tissues such as liver, kidney, spleen and lung were taken under aseptic condition, then inoculated into general nutrition agar and blood agar. The bacteria were isolated and purified, and the strains obtained were carried out animal inoculation test and drug sensitivity test. Finally, the relevant treatment and preven- tive measures were put forward. [Conclusion] The bacteria isolated were detected to be negative by Gram staining; it formed hemolysis ring in blood agar; the bacteria could ferment glucose and xylose, which could not ferment sucrose, lactose, maltose and esculin; it was positive in catalase and oxidase test, and negative in urease test and hydrogen sulfide test; so the strain was indentified to be Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa. Drug sensitivity test showed that the bacteria were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, which had tolerance to cefoxitin

  3. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater.

  4. Circadian photosensitive phase and photoperiodic control of testis activity in the mink, a short-day mammal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissin-Agasse, L.; Boissin, J.; Ortavant, R.

    1982-02-01

    Evidence of a circadian photosensitive phase in male mink, whose annual reproductive cycle is characterized by the recrudescence of testicular development in autumn, was based on the study of testicular response after interrupting the dark period by light breaks offered at various times. In this mammal, the experimental short days 4L:20D and 8L:16D stimulated testicular growth. Short photoperiods, including a main light period of 3.5 h and an additional 0.5 h light break 7.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, were as effective as 8L:16D in stimulating testicular development. On the other hand, when a 0.5 h light break occurred 11.5 or 15.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, the same inhibiting effect on testicular activity was obtained as for long photoperiods. However, when 0.5 h light breaks were given 19.5 after the beginning of the main light period, some minks recognized, as, the onset of the shorter of the two light periods offered. Thus our results proved the existence of a special phase in the day cycle in which light inhibited testicular development in the mink which appears to be a short-day animal. One explanation of the difference between long-day and short-day animals would be the following: if for long-day animals exposure to light during the photosensitive phase led to gonadostimulation, in short-day mammals, like mink, it exerted an inhibiting influence on testicular growth.

  5. Effect of HMB and 2-Ox administered during pregnancy on bone properties in primiparous and multiparous minks (Neivison vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue density of long bones in primiparous and multiparous dams of minks supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB and/or 2-oxoketoglutarate (2-Ox during gestation. Powdered 2-Ox was given at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg b.w. separately or simultaneously with HMB, which was administered at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg b.w. The study demonstrates for the first time that administration of 2-Ox and/or HMB to dams markedly influences bone tissue density and the mechanical and geometrical properties of mother`s bones in minks. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the supplementation was more effective in the thoracic limb, which was comprehensively used in contrast to the pelvic limb. The mechanical parameters and bone tissue density significantly increased in the humerus in multiparous minks. Only such diet may provide satisfactory production results in the animals. Nutritional deficiencies occurring during pregnancies may trigger body`s own reserves to cover the bone mass increase in developing foetuses and support milk production. This can prevent regeneration of dams’ organisms, which negatively affects their reproductive performance. 2-Ox or HMB may be regarded as a protective metabolite when administered orally to minks, counteracting the negative influences of pregnancy and lactation periods on bones condition. Both simultaneous treatment with 2-Ox and HMB and their separate administration were equally effective.

  6. Severity of Expert-Identified Behavioural Responses of Humpback Whale, Minke Whale, and Northern Bottlenose Whale to Naval Sonar

    OpenAIRE

    Sivle, L D; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Cure, C.; Isojunno, S.; Wensveen, P. J.; Lam, F. P. A.; Visser, F.; Kleivane, L.; Tyack, P. L.; Harris, C M; P. J. O. Miller

    2015-01-01

    Controlled exposure experiments using 1 to2 kHz sonar signals were conducted with 11 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), one minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and one northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) during three field trials from 2011 to 2013. Ship approaches without sonar transmis-sions, playbacks of killer whale vocalizations, and broadband noise were conducted as controls. Behavioural parameters such as horizontal movement, diving, social interactions, and v...

  7. [Morphology and biochemistry of blood of various mustelids. 3. Enzymographic studies of arterial plasma of mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeissler, R; Wenzel, U D; Strauch, W

    1980-01-01

    Twelve different enzyme activities, which are listed and explained in greater detail in Table 2, were determined statistically secured, and discussed, following a three-year study into arterial plasma of 118 female and 124 male minks, aged between six and seven months and kept under anaesthesia. Simply normally distributed or logarithmically distributed plasma enzyme activities were found to differ primarily by sex, with other experimental conditions being identical and regular. The enzyme activities of ICDH, active CPK, and total LDH (the latter only with females) were normally distributed, whereas all the other enzymes activities tested, except for gamma-GT and SDH, were of Gaussian distribution only after logarithmic transformation of the individual values. The plasma enzyme activities of GPT, LAP, ChE, LDH1, MDH, and AP differed from those of GOT, gamma-GT, SDH, total LDH and active CPK, in that they usually exhibited highly significant sex-related differences. All minks were tranquilised and kept under general anaesthesia, using neuroleptanalgesia, but all their enzyme activities were found to vary just as widely as those reported elsewhere in literature, in the context of minks without anaesthesia. The latter result was experimentally confirmed by means of a model experiment in which enzyme activities were recorded from nine male ferrets, prior to, during, and after neuroleptanalgesia.

  8. Metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance and body composition of growing farm-raised male pastel mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R B; Travis, H F; Glinsky, M S

    1978-12-01

    The requirement of metabolizable energy (ME) for maintenance was studied in 31 male pastel farm-raised mink. The procedure used was a body balance regression technique that included an initial baseline group, a group allowed feed ad libitum, and a group allowed feed at the level of 65% of average intake of the ad libitum animals. The requirement for ME was 147.8 +/- 6.06 kcal/wtkg 0.734/day. This value falls within the range of estimates of maintenance requirements noted for younger animals of other species, such as the rat, chicken, and calf. The relationships of the chemical composition of the body to functions of body weight were also examined. The composition of the mink body was closely related to the weight of the animal rather than to age or conformation, as has been noted in other species. However, the fat-free dry body of the mink contained more protein and less ash than any other species studied up to this point. On a percentage basis, protein was 87.29 and ash was 12.72. Protein in the fat-free body of other species range from 80 to 82%.

  9. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations during the summer and winter hair growth cycles of mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J; Kennedy, M; Johnston, B; Foster, W

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) during initiation and development of summer and winter hair growth (anagen) cycles in mink. In the spring, haloperidol (HAL) increased PRL concentrations and induced summer anagen earlier than controls, whereas melatonin (MEL) inhibited PRL secretion and completely blocked summer anagen. In the fall, HAL increased PRL concentrations, inducing anagen at an earlier time than controls, although the resulting fur was abnormal being almost devoid of underhair fibers. Exogenous MEL during the fall reduced PRL concentrations, initiating winter anagen 4 weeks earlier than controls. Adrenalectomy (ADX) induced earlier onset of summer and winter anagen and neutralized the inhibitory effects of HAL in the fall and MEL in the spring. No change in serum DHEA concentrations was observed during the onset of summer or winter anagen in any group although MEL increased DHEA levels from 27 March through 5 June relative to HAL-treated mink. We conclude that changes in serum levels of DHEA and PRL are not requisite to onset of summer or winter anagen in mink. It is possible that metabolites of DHEA and/or PRL may still affect other aspects of the hair growth cycle.

  10. Steller sea lion satellite telemetry data used to determine at-sea distribution in the western-central Aleutian Islands, 2000-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was used for an analysis of the at-sea distribution of Steller sea lions in the western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. This analysis was prepared to...

  11. ALEU_250M_LCC_WGS84.TIF - Aleutian Arc U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar composite mosaic (LCC, 250 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During late July through September 1987 and June and July 1988 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted four cruises to cover the U.S. Aleutian Arc Exclusive...

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska, Prince William Sound-2000, Aleutians-2001, Bristol Bay-2004, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), and Bristol Bay (2004). ESI data...

  13. Quarterly refuge narrative report : Izembek Bay & Cold Bay Area and the Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge : 1 September 1950 through 31 December 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Izembek, Cold Bay, and Aleutian Islands NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1950. The report begins by...

  14. AFSC/NMML: Killer whale surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  15. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Palsson: Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands Biennial Bottom Trawl Survey estimates of catch per unit effort, biomass, population at length, and associated tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GOA/AI Bottom Trawl Estimate database contains abundance estimates for the Alaska Biennial Bottom Trawl Surveys conducted in the Gulf of Alaska and the Aleutian...

  16. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bruce Albert [Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  17. Little late Holocene strain accumulation and release on the Aleutian megathrust below the Shumagin Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Briggs, Richard W.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Koehler, Richard D.; Barnhart, William D.

    2014-04-01

    Can a predominantly creeping segment of a subduction zone generate a great (M > 8) earthquake? Despite Russian accounts of strong shaking and high tsunamis in 1788, geodetic observations above the Aleutian megathrust indicate creeping subduction across the Shumagin Islands segment, a well-known seismic gap. Seeking evidence for prehistoric great earthquakes, we investigated Simeonof Island, the archipelago's easternmost island, and found no evidence for uplifted marine terraces or subsided shorelines. Instead, we found freshwater peat blanketing lowlands, and organic-rich silt and tephra draping higher glacially smoothed bedrock. Basal peat ages place glacier retreat prior to 10.4 ka and imply slowly rising (tsunamis probably deposited thin, discontinuous deposits in coastal sites. If rupture of the megathrust beneath Simeonof Island produced great earthquakes in the late Holocene, then coseismic uplift or subsidence was too small (≤0.3 m) to perturb the onshore geologic record.

  18. Challenges in making a seismic hazard map for Alaska and the Aleutians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, R.L.; Boyd, O.S.; Mueller, C.S.; Frankel, A.D.; Freymueller, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    We present a summary of the data and analyses leading to the revision of the time-independent probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Alaska and the Aleutians. These maps represent a revision of existing maps based on newly obtained data, and reflect best current judgments about methodology and approach. They have been prepared following the procedures and assumptions made in the preparation of the 2002 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the lower 48 States, and will be proposed for adoption in future revisions to the International Building Code. We present example maps for peak ground acceleration, 0.2 s spectral amplitude (SA), and 1.0 s SA at a probability level of 2% in 50 years (annual probability of 0.000404). In this summary, we emphasize issues encountered in preparation of the maps that motivate or require future investigation and research.

  19. Genetic structure of the Common Eider in the western Aleutian Islands prior to fox eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Wilson, Robert E.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Byrd, G. Vernon; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 18th century bird populations residing in the Aleutian Archipelago have been greatly reduced by introduced arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). We analyzed data from microsatellite, nuclear intron, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) loci to examine the spatial genetic structure, demography, and gene flow among four Aleutian Island populations of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) much reduced by introduced foxes. In mtDNA, we found high levels of genetic structure within and between island groups (ΦST = 0.643), but we found no population subdivision in microsatellites or nuclear introns. Differences in genetic structure between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are consistent with the Common Eider's breeding and winter biology, as females are highly philopatric and males disperse. Nevertheless, significant differences between islands in the mtDNA of males and marginal significance (P =0.07) in the Z-linked locus Smo 1 suggest that males may also have some level of fidelity to island groups. Severe reduction of populations by the fox, coupled with females' high philopatry, may have left the genetic signature of a bottleneck effect, resulting in the high levels of genetic differentiation observed in mtDNA (ΦST = 0.460–0.807) between islands only 440 km apart. Reestablishment of the Common Eider following the fox's eradication was likely through recruitment from within the islands and bolstered by dispersal from neighboring islands, as suggested by the lack of genetic structure and asymmetry in gene flow between Attu and the other Near Islands.

  20. Cloning of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and its expression in the uterus during embryonic diapause and implantation in the mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Houde, A; Murphy, B D

    1998-09-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is essential for embryo implantation in mice. Whether LIF plays a role in termination of embryonic diapause and initiation of implantation in carnivores, especially in species with obligate delayed implantation such as the mink, is not known. The objectives of this study were to clone the LIF coding sequence in the mink and determine its mRNA abundance in the uterus through embryonic diapause, implantation, and early postimplantation. We show that the mink LIF cDNA contains 609 nt encoding a deduced protein of 203 amino acids. The homologies are 80.6, 90, 88.2, 87.6, and 86.8% in coding sequence and 79.2, 90.1, 91, 90.1 and 85.4% in amino acid sequence with mouse, human, pig, cow, and sheep respectively. Glycosylation sites and disulfide bonds present in other species are generally conserved in the mink LIF sequence. Quantitation by polymerase chain reaction amplification indicates that LIF mRNA is expressed in mink uterus just prior to implantation and during the first two days after implantation, but not during diapause or later after implantation pregnancy. The abundance of LIF mRNA was significantly higher in the uterus at the embryo expansion stage (P coincidence of LIF expression with implantation in this species suggests that LIF is involved in the implantation process, and may be a maternal signal which terminates obligate embryonic diapause.

  1. Low protein provision during the first year of life, but not during foetal life, affects metabolic traits, organ mass development and growth in male mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdorf, K; Blache, D; Harrison, A; Matthiesen, C F; Tauson, A-H

    2014-04-01

    Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning. Being metabolically programmed by low protein provision in utero did not affect the response to post-weaning diets. Dietary protein content in the LP feed after weaning was below requirements; evidenced by lower nitrogen retention (p provision in utero can be alleviated by an adequate nutrient supply post-partum. However, long-term exposure to low protein provision in mink reduces their growth potential and induces transient hepatic lipidosis and modified body composition.

  2. Kelp Forests versus Urchin Barrens: Alternate Stable States and Their Effect on Sea Otter Prey Quality in the Aleutian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgal and urchin barren communities are alternately stable and persist in the Aleutians due to sea otter presence and absence. In the early 1990s a rapid otter population decline released urchins from predation and caused a shift to the urchin-dominated state. Despite increases in urchin abundance, otter numbers continued to decline. Although debated, prey quality changes have been implicated in current otter population status. This study examined otter prey abundance, size, biomass, and potential energy density in remnant kelp forest and urchin-dominated communities to determine if alternate stable states affect prey quality. Findings suggest that although urchin barrens provide more abundant urchin prey, individual urchins are smaller and provide lower biomass and potential energy density compared to kelp forests. Shifts to urchin barrens do affect prey quality but changes are likely compensated by increased prey densities and are insufficient in explaining current otter population status in the Aleutians.

  3. Areolae of the placenta in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Motoki; Amano, Yoko; Hayakawa, Daisuke; Tsubota, Toshio; Ishikawa, Hajime; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ohsumi, Seiji; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Akio; Fukui, Yutaka; Budipitojo, Teguh; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2014-03-07

    In this study, we examined the existence and structure of areolae and the steroidogenesis of areolar trophoblast cells in the Antarctic minke whale placenta morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. The opening and cavity of fetal areolae formed by taller columnar trophoblast cells (areolar trophoblast cells) with long microvilli and a bright cytoplasm, as compared with the trophoblast cells of the chorionic villi interdigitating with the endometrial crypts, were recognized in observations of serial sections. The opening of the areolar cavity was hidden by chorionic villi with areolar trophoblast cells. Furthermore, a closed pouch-like structure lined by tall columnar cells similar to areolar trophoblast cells within the stroma of chorionic villi was noticed and continued to the areolar cavity, with the opening seen on serial sections. In a surface investigation of the chorion and endometrium by SEM, maternal (endometrial) areolae irregularly surrounded by endometrial folds were obvious. Moreover, we distinguished areolar trophoblast cells with long microvilli attached with many blebs from trophoblast cells. In our immunohistochemical observations, a steroidogenic enzyme, cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), was detected with strong immunoreactivity in trophoblast cells. However, areolar trophoblast cells showed weak or no immunoreactivity for P450scc.

  4. Complex cytokine modulation of a continuous line of mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J; Baldor, L; Absher, M

    1992-01-01

    The continuous mink lung epithelial cell line Mv1Lu has proven to be a sensitive reporter line in the bioassay for purified TGF-beta, exhibiting a sigmoid-shaped concentration-response relationship with an EC50 of 12 pM (0.3 ng/mL). Maximal inhibition of Mv1Lu cells generates a 75-95% decrement in the number of adherent cells. However, this bioassay is not specific for TGF-beta as originally claimed. Mv1Lu cells are sensitive to other cytokines and substances found in complex biological fluids. In this study the effects of other biological response modifiers in this assay were tested and several were found to have important growth modulatory capacities that confound the quantitation of TGF-beta. EGF, TGF-alpha, fibronectin, and IGF-I all induce Mv1Lu cell proliferation. In contrast, neither PDGF (-AA, -AB, -BB) nor endotoxin ( or = 10 ng/mL) are the only cytokines examined that inhibit Mv1Lu proliferation. TGF-beta decreases final cell number both by preventing mitosis and by inhibition of adherence of cells to the uncoated dish. Several strategies are suggested to assure the specificity of this otherwise convenient bioassay for TGF-beta.

  5. Developmental changes in the skull morphology of common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    We investigated growth-related and sex-related morphological changes in the skulls of 144 North Pacific common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Measurement was conducted at 39 points on the skull and mandible to extract individual allometric equations relating the length and zygomatic width of the skull. The results revealed no significant differences in skull morphology by sex except for width of occipital bone. The size relative to the skull of the anatomical parts involved in feeding, such as the rostrum and mandible, increased after birth. In contrast, the sensory organs and the anatomical regions involved in neurological function, such as the orbit, tympanic bullae, and foramen magnum, were fully developed at birth, and their relative size reduced over the course of development. This is the first study to investigate developmental changes in the skull morphology using more than 100 baleen whale specimens, and we believe the results of this study will contribute greatly to multiple areas of baleen whale research, including taxonomy and paleontology.

  6. On the dynamics of strait flows: an ocean model study of the Aleutian passages and the Bering Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Oey, Lie-Yauw

    2013-03-01

    A high-resolution numerical ocean circulation model of the Bering Sea (BS) is used to study the natural variability of the BS straits. Three distinct categories of strait dynamics have been identified: (1) Shallow passages such as the Bering Strait and the Unimak Passage have northward, near barotropic flow with periodic pulses of larger transports; (2) wide passages such as Near Straits, Amukta Pass, and Buldir Pass have complex flow patterns driven by the passage of mesoscale eddies across the strait; and (3) deep passages such as Amchitka Pass and Kamchatka Strait have persistent deep return flows opposite in direction to major surface currents; the deep flows persist independent of the local wind. Empirical orthogonal function analyses reveal the spatial structure and the temporal variability of strait flows and demonstrate how mesoscale variations in the Aleutian passages influence the Bering Strait flow toward the Arctic Ocean. The study suggests a general relation between the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby radii of deformations in each strait, and the level of flow variability through the strait, independent of geographical location. The mesoscale variability in the BS seems to originate from two different sources: a remote origin from variability in the Alaskan Stream that enters the BS through the Aleutian passages and a local origin from the interaction of currents with the Bowers Ridge in the Aleutian Basin. Comparisons between the flow in the Aleutian passages and flow in other straits, such as the Yucatan Channel and the Faroe Bank Channel, suggest some universal topographically induced dynamics in strait flows.

  7. Comprehensive study of the seismotectonics of the Aleutian Arc. Annual progress report, March 1, 1975--February 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.N.; House, L.; Jacob, K.H.; Bilham, R.; Cormier, V.F.; Kienle, J.

    1976-01-01

    Seismological and geodetic research performed during the past contract year has increased our understanding of the seismotectonics of the eastern Aleutian Island Arc. While generally aimed at producing a coherent theory for the evaluation of the entire arc, our research has focused on the Shumagin Islands seismic gap, a region within which a major earthquake is expected in the not too distant future. Basic seismological data were collected to investigate certain earthquake prediction techniques.

  8. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  9. Effect of low-protein diet with supplementing different levels of DL-methionine on production performance of minks in growing-furring period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-hua; LI Guang-yu; XING Xiu-mei; REN Er-jun; YANG Ying; YANG Fu-he

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate production performance of minks in growing-furring period with supplementing DL-Methionine (Met) in low protein diet.Seventy healthy male minks were randomly divided into five groups of 14 minks each.The minks were fed in five kinds of experiment diets (HP,LP,LP+M1,LP+M2 and LP+M3).The dietary protein levels,expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM),were 32% (high protein,HP) and 24% (low protein,LP).LP was supplemented with Met 0.4% (M1),0.8% (M2) and 1.2% (M3) DM.From mid of September to December 10,apparent digestibility of CP (crude protein),N intake and urinary N excretion were decreased with declining dietary protein levels (p < 0.05) and N retained was the highest in treatment LP+M2.No significant difference was found in total serum protein (TP) and serum urea nitrogen (SUN) among all treatment groups (p >0.05).Skin length of treatment HP and LP+M2 was higher than that of other groups (p < 0.05):Body length,skin weight,length of guard hair and under hair were not affected by different dietary protein levels (p>0.05).The best performance could be observed in treatment LP+M2.In diet,24% (DM) protein level with 1.54% Met supplementing was enough for minks during growing-timing period.Dietary protein lowered from 32% to 24% with supplementing Met in diets would result in a 37.9% decrease in urinary N excretion.Furthermore,addition of Met in diets for minks would be beneficial in terms of reducing feed expenses and lessening nitrogen emissions to the environment.

  10. The feasibility of assessing the diets of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea through fatty acid composition in blubber and stable isotopic ratio of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ah-Ra; Ju, Se-Jong; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    To track the diet of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea (Japan Sea), a conjoint analysis of fatty acids and C and N stable isotopes was performed on blubber and skin from the whale and its potential prey. The total lipid content in the blubber of minke whales ranged from 37.9% to 82.7% of wet mass (mean ± SD, 63.1 ± 17.2%), with triacylglycerols being the dominant lipids (96.9%-99.2% of total lipids). The lipid and fatty acid (FA) contents were systematically stratified throughout the depth of the blubber layers; contents of the dominant monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), including 18:1ω9 and 16:1ω7, increased from the innermost layer to the outermost layer, whereas contents of saturated FAs (SFAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) were higher in the innermost layer than in the outermost layer. This stratification is related to the different physiological roles of the blubber layers; e.g., thermoregulation, streaming, and buoyancy. A comparison of the FA compositions of the innermost layer of minke whales with those of potential prey indicates that FA compositions in the whales are similar to those of Pacific herring. In addition, stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) suggest that minke whale and Pacific herring have the same or similar diets. Therefore, the diets of minke whale from the East Sea (Japan Sea) could be inferred from information on the diet of the Pacific herring, although FA compositions and stable isotope ratios for Pacific herring would not exactly reflect the whale's diet. Although the very limited number of samples was used in this study, our preliminary findings are very promising to help understand the feeding ecology of minke whales in the East Sea (Japan Sea).

  11. De novo SNP calling from RAD sequences for a mink (Neovison vison) specific genotyping assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Pujolar, José Martin; Larsen, Peter F;

    population sizes. The aim of this study was to create a mink specific SNP panel well suited for population genetic studies, parental testing and forensic investigations. A SNP panel specific for American mink (Neovison vison) has been generated from Restriction site-Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. Fourteen...... and require a large market to cover the cost. New technologies based on next generation sequencing (NGS) have made it possible to identify thousands of SNPs using a cost effective and fast method. The method can be used for non-model organisms in conservation biology and for production species with small...

  12. Investigation on Virus and Bacteria Infection in a Scale Mink Farm by PCR Assay%规模化水貂场中多种病毒和细菌感染状况的PCR调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易立; 曹智刚; 仝明薇; 程悦宁; 王建科; 赵航; 林鹏; 程世鹏

    2016-01-01

    当前水貂场存在多种病毒、细菌感染的情况,导致众多病原体混合感染、潜伏感染,临床上往往呈现慢性经过,并不表现出典型症状,给水貂养殖产业带来巨大经济损失。为了了解目前规模化水貂养殖场疫病感染情况,研究人员从2015年6月~2015年9月,对内蒙古的某个规模化貂场的所有仔貂进行了随机采样,通过PCR方法,分别对诺如病毒( Norovirus )、轮状病毒(Rotavirus )、腺病毒( Adenovirus )、细小病毒( Parvovirus )、沙门氏菌属( Salmonella )、志贺氏菌属( Shigella )、小肠耶尔森氏菌(Yersinia enterocolitica)、气单胞菌属(Aeromonas )、铜绿假单胞菌( Pseudomonas aeruginosa)和产气荚膜梭菌( Clostridium perfringens )进行检测。结果显示,在192个粪便样品DNA中,气单胞菌属阳性样本16个(8.30%)、产气荚膜梭菌阳性样本11个(5.73%)、沙门氏菌属阳性样本38个(19.79%)、志贺氏菌属阳性样本6个(3.13%)、铜绿假单胞阳性样本1个(0.52%)、轮状病毒阳性样本2个(1.04%)。对疫病防控意义较大的铜绿假单胞菌PCR产物进行了序列测定和系统发育树分析,结果显示,该菌株与GenBank其他铜绿假单胞菌距离较远,显示以水貂为宿主的铜绿假单胞菌有着独特的拓扑分类地位。%Mixed infection of many kinds of virals and bacterials or latent infection of many pathogens that does not show clinical signs of dis-easeusually leads to considerable economic loss for mink breeder .clinical manifestation of chronic disease ,.In order to understand the current situation of mixed infection in farmed mink ,we tested Norovirus ,Rotavirus ,Adenovirus ,Parvovirus ,Salmonella ,Shigella ,Y .ent ,Aeromonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium perfringen random sampling PCR in Inner Mongolia mink farm .The data showed that the pathogen'positive rates are

  13. Differential gene expression induced by exposure of captive mink to fuel oil: A model for the sea otter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L.; Riva, F.; Mohr, C.; Aldridge, B.; Schwartz, J.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Free-ranging sea otters are subject to hydrocarbon exposure from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Effects of direct exposure to unrefined crude oil, such as that associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill, are readily apparent. However, the impact of subtle but pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of crude oil on sea otters is difficult to assess. The present study was directed at developing a model for assessing the impact of low concentrations of fuel oil on sea otters. Quantitative PCR was used to identify differential gene expression in American mink that were exposed to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil. A total of 23 genes, representing 10 different physiological systems, were analyzed for perturbation. Six genes with immunological relevance were differentially expressed in oil-fed mink. Interleukin-18 (IL-18), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and complement cytolysis inhibitor (CLI) were down-regulated while IL-2 was up-regulated. Expression of two additional genes was affected; heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was up-regulated and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) was down-regulated. While the significance of each perturbation is not immediately evident, we identified differential expression of genes that would be consistent with the presence of immune system-modifying and endocrine-disrupting compounds in fuel oil. Application of this approach to identify effects of petroleum contamination on sea otters should be possible following expansion of this mink model to identify a greater number of affected genes in peripheral blood leukocytes. ?? 2007 Ecohealth Journal Consortium.

  14. An outline of the Antarctic minke whale assessment cruise (IWC/IDCR) in 1978/79 to 1980/81

    OpenAIRE

    Hidehiro, Kato

    1982-01-01

    Since the 1978/79 Antarctic whaling season, extensive and systematic whale sightings and marking cruises on the Antarctic minke whales have been carried out under the International Whaling Commission/International Decade of Cetacean Research (IWC/IDCR) programme. The programme was carried out in the Southern Hemisphere Whaling Areas (for baleen whales) IV (70°-130°E), III (0°-70°E) and V (130°E-170°W) during the Antarctic summer season in 1978/79,1979/80 and 1980/81,respectively. The total nu...

  15. Genetic differentiation of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, T.P.; Mackinnon, D.; Piatt, J.F.; Friesen, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the distribution of genetic variation within and among local populations of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is needed for effective conservation of this rare and declining species. We compared variation in a 429 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci among 53 Kittlitz's Murrelets from three sites in the western Aleutian Islands (Attu Island) and Gulf of Alaska (Glacier Bay and Kachemak Bay). We found that birds in these two regions differ genetically in three assessments: (1) global and pairwise indices of genetic differentiation were significantly greater than zero, (2) mitochondrial haplotypes differed by a minimum of nine substitutions, and (3) molecular assignments indicated little gene flow between regions. The data suggest that birds in these regions have been genetically isolated for an extended period. We conclude that Kittlitz's Murrelets from Attu Island and from the Gulf of Alaska represent separate evolutionarily significant units, and should be treated as such for conservation. Genetic data for Kittlitz's Murrelets from the remainder of the breeding range are urgently needed.

  16. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-10-27

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida.

  17. Coronavirus infection in mink (Mustela vison). Serological evidence of infection with a coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, P; Moving, V; Svansson, V;

    1992-01-01

    -reacted with N and M polypeptides of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Thus MCV may occupy an intermediate position between the TGEV group of coronaviruses and PEDV. The possibility that MCV may be associated with syndromes of acute enteritis in preweaning mink is discussed....

  18. Genetic parameters and effect of selection for body weight in lines of mink (Neovion vison) on ad libitum and restricted feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Bente Krog;

    2012-01-01

    .60 in females in the FF-, AL-, and RF-line). The results indicate that selection on AL feeding increased appetite and thereby improved feed conversion ratio while selection on RF improved feed utilization. Furthermore, the results suggest that selection for August weight produces lean mink while selection...

  19. [Phenogenetic analysis of pigmentation of a new coat color mutation of American mink (Mustela vison. Schr. L.) and its combination with some of the known mutations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasolova, L A; Tikhomirov, I B; Vsevolodov, E B; Latypov, I F; Trapezov, O V

    1994-02-01

    A new dominant coat color mutation "talitsa" was revealed in the mink population of "Znamenskii" state fur farm (Tverskaya region', Russia). Qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment of the hair pigment of minks with the standard coat color, Talitsa, Royal-Pastel and American pearl mutations, as well as Talitsa x Royal-Pastel and Talitsa x American Pearl hybrids were conducted. It was shown that hair of all genotypes studied contained only one pigment type, namely, eumelanin. Hair of the standard-colored minks showed the greatest eumelanin content, whereas hair of Talitsa x Royal-Pastel and Talitsa x American Pearl hybrids showed the least content. The morphologic patterns of pigmentation of the mutant minks studied was described, including the shapes, dimensions and color of the pigment granules, as well as their distributions throughout the length and layers of the hair. Talitsa mutation was demonstrated to behave as a strong coloration attenuator in combinations with the Royal-Pastel and American Pearl mutations. It was proposed that the main mechanism determining the phenotypic expression of the Talitsa mutation is the reduction of number of melanocytes in the hair bulbs.

  20. QTL-mapping in mink (Neovison vison) shows evidence for QTL for guard hair thickness, guard hair length and skin length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2011-01-01

    Fur quality in mink (Neovison vison) is a composite trait, consisting of e.g. guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool. A genome wide QTL search was performed to detect QTL for fur quality traits in mink. Here we present the results of QTL analyses for guard hair length, guard...... hair thickness and density of wool. Data from an F2-cross was analysed across fourteen chromosomes using 100 microsatellites as markers with a spacing of approximately 20 cM. The two lines used for the F2-cross were Nordic wild mink and American short nap mink. In total 1,083 animals (21 wild type, 25...... short nap, 103 F1 and 934 F2) were marker typed and recorded for the three presented fur quality traits. For the QTL-analyses a regression analysis implemented in QTL Express software was used. Evidence was found for the existence of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool...

  1. Chromosomal and regional localization of the loci for IGKC, IGGC, ALDB, HOXB, GPT, and PRNP in the American mink (Mustela vison): comparisons with human and mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khlebodarova, TM; Malchenko, Sergey; Matveeva, NM;

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal localization of the genes for gamma- and kappa-immunoglobulins (IGGC and IGKC, respectively), aldolase B (ALDB), prion protein (PRNP), homeo box B (HOXB), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were determined with the use of mink-rodent hybrid cells. Analysis of segregation...

  2. Molecular and morphometric study of metacercariae and adults of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opisthorchiidae) from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and wild American mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per Walter; Jørgensen, Thomas Rohde

    2008-01-01

    Den digene ikte Pseudamphistomum forekommer som metacercarie i skaller fra Furesøen og som adult i mink fra området. Dette er belyst ved morfometriske og molekylære metoder. Fundet er væsentligt, idet parasitten er zoonotisk og kan inficere mennesker, der indtager utilstrækkeligt varmebehandlet f...

  3. Wildlife Reservoirs of Canine Distemper Virus Resulted in a Major Outbreak in Danish Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, Tina

    2014-01-01

    that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal...

  4. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette;

    2014-01-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six exp...

  5. Comparison of histological lesions in acute hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Mette; Høiby, N.;

    2013-01-01

    culture of E. coli were examined. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissue obtained from the mink was examined by histology and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). It was possible to detect a slight histological difference between hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and by E. coli...

  6. Effects of cryodevice type and donors' sexual maturity on vitrification of minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) oocytes at germinal vesicle stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Hiroshi; Hochi, Shinichi; Kato, Megumi; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Kuwayama, Masashige; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji; Fukui, Yutaka

    2004-11-01

    Germinal-vesicle-stage oocytes enclosed with compact cumulus cell layers (COCs) were recovered from adult or prepubertal minke whale ovaries, and were vitrified in a solution containing 15% ethylene glycol, 15% DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose using either a Cryotop or an open-pulled straw (OPS) as the cryodevice. The post-warm COCs with normal morphology were cultured for 40 h in a 390 mosmol in vitro maturation medium, and oocytes extruding the first polar body were considered to be matured. The proportion of morphologically normal COCs after vitrification and warming was higher when the COCs were cryopreserved by Cryotop (adult origin, 88.4%; prepubertal origin, 80.8%) compared with the OPS (adult origin, 67.7%; prepubertal origin, 64.2%). The oocyte maturation rate was higher in the adult/Cryotop group (29.1%) compared with those of the prepubertal/Cryotop group (14.4%), the adult/OPS group (14.3%) and the prepubertal/OPS group (10.6%). These results indicate that the Cryotop is a better device than the OPS for vitrification of immature oocytes from adult minke whales.

  7. Morphology of the tracheobronchial tree and the route of the pulmonary artery in the fetal minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, M Y

    1998-12-01

    Molecular and statistical studies support the close phylogenetic relation between Cetacea and Artiodactyla. The presence of the tracheal bronchus has been pointed out as one of the common traits between only these groups. Nakakuki (1980) has investigated the mammalian tracheobronchial trees in 50 species based on his new nomenclature, and his study has consequently demonstrated the above-mentioned indication. Therefore, comparative anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree based on the nomenclature seems to be useful for investigations of the cetacean phylogeny. Three pairs of fetal lungs of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were supplied from the Institute of Cetacean Research, Tokyo (1991) to observe their tracheobronchial trees and the ramification of the pulmonary artery. The fetal tracheobronchial tree consisted of one tracheal, four lateral, four dorsal and one medial secondary bronchi in the right lung, and five or six lateral and four or five dorsal secondary bronchi in the left, using the new nomenclature. The right pulmonary artery crossed the right axial bronchus from the ventral side to the dorsal over the third lateral bronchus. The tracheal bronchus in the fetal minke whale seems to belong to the type II of Nakakuki's nomenclature, and this type is seen in one species of the river dolphins. The other conspicuous traits of the fetal lungs are the defect of the second lateral broncus and the route of the pulmonary artery in the right side. This route is very different from that of many other mammals.

  8. Identification Method of Commercially Available Imitation Mink Fur%市售仿水貂毛皮的鉴别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 袁玉平; 姜苏杰

    2014-01-01

    As mink fur has high economic value, it is often appeared that commercially available fur is counterfeited with weasel , beaver (Castor) and muskrat (Qing Gendiao) fur, which is very difficult for consumers even professionals to distinguish through the senses. In this paper, by means of modern analysis instruments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe scale characteristics of mink, weasel, beaver, muskrat fur;the fiber fineness instrument (FFI) was used to observe internal ultrastructure of mink, weasel, beaver, muskrat fur. The results showed that: scanning electron microscope analysis could effectively distinguish the mink and beaver fur, mink and muskrat fur;but as the weasel and mink belong to the same carnivores Mustelidae, the downy flake morphology were basically the same, and their furs could not be effectively distinguished. The fiber fineness instrument analysis could effectively distinguish the mink and weasel fur, mink and beaver fur;but the mink and muskrat villous morphology were partly consistent, and their furs could not be effectively distinguished. Therefore, in the actual identification process, the two kinds of methods are corroborated each other, which can be used as the material basis for the identification of mink fur.%水貂毛皮具有很高的经济价值,市售毛皮产品中经常出现以黄狼(黄鼠狼)、河狸(海狸)、麝鼠(青根貂)毛皮来仿冒水貂毛皮的现象,令普通消费者甚至专业人士很难通过感官区分。本文借助现代分析仪器,利用扫描电镜法(SEM)观察水貂、黄狼、河狸、麝鼠毛皮绒毛的鳞片层特征;利用纤维细度仪法(FFI)观察这四种动物毛皮绒毛的内部超微结构。结果表明:通过扫描电镜分析可以有效区分水貂与河狸、水貂与麝鼠的毛皮,但由于黄狼和水貂均属于食肉目鼬科,其绒毛的鳞片形态基本一致,无法被有效区分;通过纤维细度仪分析可

  9. Multi-specimen and multi-site calibration of Aleutian coralline algal Mg/Ca to sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.; Halfar, J.; DeLong, K. L.; Hetzinger, S.; Steneck, R. S.; Jacob, D. E.

    2014-08-01

    Higher latitude oceanic and climatic reconstructions are needed to distinguish natural climate variability from anthropogenic warming in regions projected to experience significant increases in temperature during this century. Clathromorphum nereostratum is a long-lived coralline alga abundant along the Aleutian archipelago that records seasonal to centennial fluctuations in seawater temperatures in its high-Mg calcite skeleton. Thus, C. nereostratum is an important proxy archive to reconstruct past seawater temperature variability in this data-poor subarctic region. Here, we measured magnesium to calcium ratios (Mg/Ca) by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) along the growth axis in six live-collected specimens from three islands in the Aleutian archipelago to assess Mg/Ca reproducibility and to calibrate algal Mg/Ca against modern gridded sea surface temperature (SST) data products. The master Mg/Ca-SST transfer function, determined by averaging the algal Mg/Ca-SST from each island (n = 6), resulted in a reconstruction error of ±0.45 °C, a 31-46% reduction in error compared to the reconstruction error for a single alga. The master algal-SST record interpolated to monthly and annual resolution significantly varied with gridded SST data products (r2 = 0.98, p coralline algal Mg/Ca-derived SST reconstructions record absolute changes in past SST variability in the Aleutian archipelago. The transfer functions developed here can be applied to Mg/Ca records generated from long-lived specimens of C. nereostratum to reconstruct northern North Pacific and Bering Sea SST variability for the past several hundred years.

  10. Locations and focal mechanisms of deep long period events beneath Aleutian Arc volcanoes using back projection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, A. C.; Roman, D. C.; Haney, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep long period (DLP) earthquakes are commonly observed in volcanic settings such as the Aleutian Arc in Alaska. DLPs are poorly understood but are thought to be associated with movements of fluids, such as magma or hydrothermal fluids, deep in the volcanic plumbing system. These events have been recognized for several decades but few studies have gone beyond their identification and location. All long period events are more difficult to identify and locate than volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes because traditional detection schemes focus on high frequency (short period) energy. In addition, DLPs present analytical challenges because they tend to be emergent and so it is difficult to accurately pick the onset of arriving body waves. We now expect to find DLPs at most volcanic centers, the challenge lies in identification and location. We aim to reduce the element of human error in location by applying back projection to better constrain the depth and horizontal position of these events. Power et al. (2004) provided the first compilation of DLP activity in the Aleutian Arc. This study focuses on the reanalysis of 162 cataloged DLPs beneath 11 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc (we expect to ultimately identify and reanalyze more DLPs). We are currently adapting the approach of Haney (2014) for volcanic tremor to use back projection over a 4D grid to determine position and origin time of DLPs. This method holds great potential in that it will allow automated, high-accuracy picking of arrival times and could reduce the number of arrival time picks necessary for traditional location schemes to well constrain event origins. Back projection can also calculate a relative focal mechanism (difficult with traditional methods due to the emergent nature of DLPs) allowing the first in depth analysis of source properties. Our event catalog (spanning over 25 years and volcanoes) is one of the longest and largest and enables us to investigate spatial and temporal variation in DLPs.

  11. Structural evolution of the Kamchatka - Aleutian arc junction area in the Late Mesozoic and Tertiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeiev, D.; Gaedicke, C.; Tsukanov, N. V.; Freitag, R.; Harbert, W.

    2002-05-01

    Structural, sedimentological and paleomagnetic studies have been conducted within the Kamchatka - Aleutian junction area aiming to a reconstruction of the tectonic history of the region from the Late Cretaceous to the Miocene. Pre-Pliocene structures of the area are comprised of 1) Achaivayam -Valaginskiy (Olyutorskiy) arc, 2) Vetlovskiy terrane, 3) Kronotskiy arc, and 4) Tyushevka basin, which goes along the boundary between Vetlovskiy and Kronotskiy units. In the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary deformations within the area of study were controlled by the following processes: 1) Northward subduction of the Pacific and Kula plates underneath the Kronotskiy arc and accretion in the fore-arc wedge south of the arc from the Late Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. 2) Collision of the Achaivayam - Valaginskiy arc against Eurasia during the Early and Middle Eocene. 3) Northwest directed subduction in Proto-Kamchatka subduction zone and development of the accretionary wedge within Vetlovskiy terrane in the Middle and Late Eocene. 4) Collision of the Kronotskiy arc against Kamchatka during the Late Eocene through the Middle Miocene. We reconstruct seven structural complexes with individual structural patterns, which document different episodes of the regional deformation history. Age of the Kronotskiy arc collision is constrained by that 1) the Tyushevka foreland basin developed during the Late Eocene (?), Oligocene, Early and Middle Miocene, and 2) the foreland basin discordantly crosses syn-collisional plunging folds within the Kronotskiy arc. Syn-collisional deformations were controlled by the northwest motion of the Kronotskiy arc as part of the Pacific plate, and by the simultaneous motion of the entire northeast Eurasia margin toward the South. This caused deflection of the western segment of the Kronotskiy arc toward the south; it's rotation up to 90o counterclockwise and the subsequent bent of the arc into a large knee-like structure. The eastern portion of the

  12. New glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from deep waters of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiswig, Henry M; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Hexactinellida from deep-water communities of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, are described. They were mostly collected by the remotely operated vehicle 'Jason II' from 494–2311 m depths during a 2004 RV 'Roger Revelle' expedition, but one shallow-water species collected with a shrimp trawl from 155 m in the same area is included. The excellent condition of the ROV-collected specimens enabled valuable redescription of some species previously known only from badly damaged specimens. New taxa include one new genus and eight new species in five families. Farreidae consist of two new species, Farrea aleutiana and F. aspondyla. Euretidae consists of only Pinulasma fistulosum n. gen., n. sp. Tretodictyidae include only Tretodictyum amchitkensis n. sp. Euplectellidae consists of only the widespread species Regadrella okinoseana Ijima, reported here over 3,700 km from its closest previously known occurrence. The most diverse family, Rossellidae, consists of Aulosaccus ijimai (Schulze), Aulosaccus schulzei Ijima, Bathydorus sp. (young stage not determinable to species), Caulophacus (Caulophacus) adakensis n. sp., Acanthascus koltuni n. sp., Staurocalyptus psilosus n. sp., Staurocalyptus tylotus n. sp. and Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze. We present argument for reinstatement of the abolished rossellid subfamily Acanthascinae and return of the subgenera  Staurocalyptus Ijima and Rhabdocalyptus Schulze to their previous generic status. These fauna provides important complexity to the hard substrate communities that likely serve as nursery areas for the young stages of commercially important fish and crab species, refuge from predation for both young and adult stages, and also as a focal source of prey for juvenile and adult stages of those same species.

  13. Foetal life protein restriction in male mink (Neovison vison) kits lowers post-weaning protein oxidation and the relative abundance of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank; Blache, D.; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl;

    2012-01-01

    protein deficiency affects the response to adequate or deficient protein provision post weaning. Further, we intended to study whether the changes in the gene expression of key enzymes in foetal hepatic tissue caused by maternal protein deficiency were manifested post-weaning. A total of 32 male mink kits...... (P restriction leads to changes in post-weaning protein metabolism through lower protein oxidation of male mink kits....

  14. Report on Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event UMESE0501Sp: Multispecies Mass Stranding of Pilot Whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and Dwarf Sperm Whales (Kogia sima) in North Carolina on 15-16 January 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Aleta A. Hohn; Rotstein, David S.; Harms, Craig A.; Southall, Brandon L.

    2006-01-01

    On 15-16 January 2005, three offshore species of cetaceans (33 short-finned pilot whales, Globicephala macrorhynchus, one minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, and two dwarf sperm whales, Kogia sima) stranded alive on the beaches of North Carolina. The pilot whales stranded near Oregon Inlet, the minke whale in northern North Carolina, and the dwarf sperm whales near Cape Hatteras. Live strandings of three species in one weekend was unique in North Carolina and qualified as an Unusual Mort...

  15. Effects of feeding and short-term fasting on water and electrolyte turnover in female mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamberg, S; Tauson, A H; Elnif, J

    1996-11-01

    Daily (24 h) rates of water and electrolyte turnover were measured in a conventional balance study in ten adult female pastel mink (Mustela vison) given free access to a standard mink feed for a 1-week conditioning period, followed by a 4 d experimental period and a 2 d fasting period. Drinking water was available throughout. In addition, the completeness of urine collection and the fraction of urine collected with the faeces were determined using a new experimental technique based on 24 h recoveries of specific urinary markers such as tritiated p-aminohippuric acid ([3H]PAH) or 14C-labelled inulin ([14C]IN) continuously delivered by small Alzet osmotic pumps implanted intraperitoneally. During feeding the mean individual percentage recovery in urine of [3H]PAH released from the osmotic pumps ranged from 68 to 88% (median 78%). The mean percentage of urinary [3H]PAH recovered from faecal collections was 6% (range 3-12%). In response to fasting the mean individual percentage recovery of [3H]PAH in urine ranged from 62 to 78% (median 68%). For urinary [14C]IN the mean percentage recoveries in fed and fasted animals were 79 and 63% respectively. Furthermore, during fasting, withdrawal of the supplies of dietary water caused a slight but insignificant (P = 0.17) increase in the daily intake of drinking water and, hence, the animals maintained their normal water balance by a dramatic reduction in urine excretion (P < 0.001). At the same time urinary solute excretion declined significantly (P < 0.001), due in part to the cessation of dietary electrolyte intake and in part to reduced formation of urea, whereas urinary osmolality decreased only moderately. The mean 24 h balances of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl and P were close to zero and only minor differences between the feeding and fasting periods were observed. When corrected for the measured inaccuracies in urine collection the balance data obtained in the present study represent useful reference standards for normally fed and

  16. Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison) and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdorf, Kristine Høvelt; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank

    2012-01-01

    be determined. Mink dams were fed an adequate protein (AP; crude protein:fat:carbo- hydrate ratio of 31:55:14% of metabolizable energy, ME) or a low protein diet (LP; 19%:49%: 32% of ME) during the last 21.2 ± 3.3 days of gestation, followed by an adequate diet during lactation. Respiration and balance...... experiments were performed during late gestation and twice during lactation. The dietary treatment only affected energy metabolism traits significantly during the treatment period in late gestation, such that LP dams oxidized less protein (12% vs 23% of heat production, HE, P = 0.001) but more carbohydrate......, P birth, and remained lighter until 21 days of age. The LP diet caused growth restriction and increased kit...

  17. Breath test measurements in combination with indirect calorimetry for estimation of 13C-leucine oxidation in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla; Kanska, Katarzyna

    2000-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements by means of indirect calorimetry can be used to calculate quantitative substrate oxidation. The results represents average net oxidation values (substrate disappearance rate), but they cannot describe the dynamics of the oxidation processes. Breath test measurements...... to feeding and fasting. Twelve 1-year-old male mink (Mustela vison) were measured in each five consecutive periods by means of indirect calorimetry and simultaneous breath test. In Periods 1, 3 and 5, each lasting 3 days, the animals were fed ad libitum and Periods 2 and 4 were fasting periods, each of 48 h....... In Periods 1 and 5 all animals were fed a diet with a high quality fish meal (FISH; n=12), while in Period 3 half of the animals received the FISH diet (n=6) and the other half a diet with soy protein concentrate (SOY; n=6) as main protein source. An intraperitoneal injection of 1-13C-leucine was given...

  18. Formation, Mechanisms, and Predictability of the Aleutian-Icelandic Low Seesaw in Ensemble AGCM Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Meiji; Kushnir, Yochanan; Nakamura, Hisashi; Yamane, Shozo; Zebiak, Stephen E.

    2005-05-01

    The potential predictability associated with the remote influence of midlatitude tropospheric anomalies over the North Pacific or the North Atlantic, via a seesawlike interannual oscillation between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic lows (AL and IL, respectively) is investigated. Data from a 24-member ensemble of 50-yr atmospheric general circulation model simulation forced with observed sea surface temperature (SST) conditions are analyzed by separating the total simulated fluctuations into the external component forced by the prescribed SST and the internal component generated by atmospheric internal dynamics. The AL-IL seesaw can be identified in both the external and internal components of the variability. In the external variability, determined through the ensemble mean, the seesaw is gradually formed from December to March through the development of a Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern-like wave train, remotely forced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The amplitudes of the externally forced North Atlantic anomalies are only about half as large as the North Pacific anomalies. The potential predictability of the Atlantic anomalies, defined as the ratio of the SST-forced variance to the total variance, does not exceed the 20% level. In the internal component of the variability, determined from the deviations of each ensemble member from the ensemble mean, the negative correlation between the AL and IL anomalies is modest but persistent through winter. It is confirmed that, regardless of the polarity of the AL-IL seesaw, the IL anomalies are formed through eastward wave activity propagation of the stationary Rossby wave train emanating from the AL region in the form of what may be called a “PNAA pattern,” the extension of the PNA-like wave train into the Atlantic. Thus, the midwinter development of North Pacific anomalies is found to be a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for the seesaw formation. The persistence of the North Pacific

  19. Growh performance, nitrogen balance and urinary purine derivatives in growing-furring mink (Mustela vison) fed bacterial protein produced from natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Ø.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial protein meal (BPM), containing 70% crude protein and produced on natural gas, was evaluated versus fish meal as protein source for mink in the growing-furring period (June 29-November 26). BPM, rich in nucleic acids, accounted for 0 (control), 20 and 40% of dietary crude protein......, except for males on the 8% BPM diet. Balance experiments carried out with 18 and 28 weeks old males, revealed similar digestibility of main nutrients except for fat that were reduced with BPM inclusion. N-retentions were similar for the dietary groups. Daily excretion of urine was lower with the 8% BPM...... not affected by diet, except for shorter hair length with inclusion of BPM. In conclusion, the experiment showed that BPM can account for 40% of dietary protein in growing-furring mink without negative effects on N metabolism, body weight gain or fur quality....

  20. Cellular microRNA miR-181b inhibits replication of mink enteritis virus by repression of non-structural protein 1 translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-zeng; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Li, Zhili; Yi, Bao; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2013-01-01

    Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18-23 nucleotides (nt) participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81) cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) messenger RNA (mRNA) coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies.

  1. Characteristics and contributions of defective, ecotropic, and mink cell focus-inducing viruses involved in a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome of mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Sengupta, D N; Fredrickson, T N; Morse, H. C.; Hartley, J W

    1991-01-01

    LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus, a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus, contains a mixture of replication-competent B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses and a defective genome that is the proximal cause of a syndrome, murine AIDS (MAIDS), characterized by lymphoproliferation and immunodeficiency. The defective (BM5d) and ecotropic components of this mixture were molecularly cloned, and complete (BM5d) or partial (ecotropic) nucleotide sequences were determined. BM5d clos...

  2. Effects of lactic acid fermentation and gamma irradiation of barley on antinutrient contents and nutrient digestibility in mink (Mustela vison) with and without dietary enzyme supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrede, Anders; Sahlstrøm, Stefan; Ahlstrøm, Oystein; Connor, Kirsti Hjelme; Skrede, Grete

    2007-06-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of fermentation of barley, using two different strains of lactic acid bacteria, a Lactobacillus plantarum/pentosus strain isolated from spontaneously fermented rye sourdough (AD2) and a starch-degrading Lactobacillus plantarum (AM4), on contents of mixed-linked (1 --> 3) (1 --> 4)-beta-glucans, alpha-amylase inhibitor activity, inositol phosphates, and apparent digestibility of macronutrients in mink. Effects of fermentation were compared with effects of gamma irradiation (gamma-irradiation: 60Co gamma-rays at 25 kGy). The diets were fed to mink with and without a supplementary enzyme preparation. Both lactic acid fermentation and gamma-irradiation followed by soaking and incubation, reduced concentrations of soluble beta-glucans, phytate and alpha-amylase inhibitor activity. Dietary enzyme supplementation increased significantly digestibility of crude protein, fat, starch and crude carbohydrate (CHO). Fermentation of the barley increased digestibility of starch and CHO. Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria AD2 resulted in higher starch and CHO digestibility than strain AM4, and had greater effect than gamma-irradiation, soaking and incubation. The highest digestibility of starch and CHO was obtained after AD2 fermentation followed by enzyme supplementation. It is concluded that both lactic acid fermentation of barley and enzyme supplementation have positive nutritional implications in the mink by limiting the effects of antinutrients and improving digestibility and energy utilization.

  3. Tsunami recurrence in the eastern Alaska-Aleutian arc: A Holocene stratigraphic record from Chirikof Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard; Dura, Tina; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Forman, S.L.; Vane, Christopher H.; Kelley, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the role of the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust as the source of some of the largest earthquakes and tsunamis, the history of its pre–twentieth century tsunamis is largely unknown west of the rupture zone of the great (magnitude, M 9.2) 1964 earthquake. Stratigraphy in core transects at two boggy lowland sites on Chirikof Island’s southwest coast preserves tsunami deposits dating from the postglacial to the twentieth century. In a 500-m-long basin 13–15 m above sea level and 400 m from the sea, 4 of 10 sandy to silty beds in a 3–5-m-thick sequence of freshwater peat were probably deposited by tsunamis. The freshwater peat sequence beneath a gently sloping alluvial fan 2 km to the east, 5–15 m above sea level and 550 m from the sea, contains 20 sandy to silty beds deposited since 3.5 ka; at least 13 were probably deposited by tsunamis. Although most of the sandy beds have consistent thicknesses (over distances of 10–265 m), sharp lower contacts, good sorting, and/or upward fining typical of tsunami deposits, the beds contain abundant freshwater diatoms, very few brackish-water diatoms, and no marine diatoms. Apparently, tsunamis traveling inland over low dunes and boggy lowland entrained largely freshwater diatoms. Abundant fragmented diatoms, and lake species in some sandy beds not found in host peat, were probably transported by tsunamis to elevations of >10 m at the eastern site. Single-aliquot regeneration optically stimulated luminescence dating of the third youngest bed is consistent with its having been deposited by the tsunami recorded at Russian hunting outposts in 1788, and with the second youngest bed being deposited by a tsunami during an upper plate earthquake in 1880. We infer from stratigraphy, 14C-dated peat deposition rates, and unpublished analyses of the island’s history that the 1938 tsunami may locally have reached an elevation of >10 m. As this is the first record of Aleutian tsunamis extending throughout the Holocene, we

  4. Killer whale surveys conducted in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2001-07-01 to 2010-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0137766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  5. l580aa.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-5-80-AA in Aleutian Arc, Alaska from 06/23/1980 to 07/05/1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-5-80-AA in Aleutian Arc, Alaska from...

  6. An archaeological site survey and inventory for the Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska 1972: A report submitted to the Wilderness Studies Branch, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a 1972 voyage in the Aleutian archipelago to locate prehistoric and historic archeological sites. The report centers on the problems...

  7. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas (2): Cook Inlet - 2002, Kodiak - 1998, Southeast - 2002, Bristol Bay - 2004, Prince William Sound - 2000, Aleutians - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NCEI Accession 0050372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Kodiak (1998), Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), Cook Inlet (2002),...

  8. l475bs.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-4-75-BS in Bering Sea, Aleutian Basin, Alaska from 09/07/1975 to 09/18/1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-4-75-BS in Bering Sea, Aleutian Basin,...

  9. l981aa.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-9-81-AA in Aleutian Arc, Alaska from 07/19/1981 to 08/13/1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, magnetics, and gravity data along with transit satellite navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-9-81-AA in Aleutian Arc,...

  10. Dome growth at Mount Cleveland, Aleutian Arc, quantified by time-series TerraSAR-X imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Poland, Michael; Lu, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar imagery is widely used to study surface deformation induced by volcanic activity; however, it is rarely applied to quantify the evolution of lava domes, which is important for understanding hazards and magmatic system characteristics. We studied dome formation associated with eruptive activity at Mount Cleveland, Aleutian Volcanic Arc, in 2011–2012 using TerraSAR-X imagery. Interferometry and offset tracking show no consistent deformation and only motion of the crater rim, suggesting that ascending magma may pass through a preexisting conduit system without causing appreciable surface deformation. Amplitude imagery has proven useful for quantifying rates of vertical and areal growth of the lava dome within the crater from formation to removal by explosive activity to rebirth. We expect that this approach can be applied at other volcanoes that host growing lava domes and where hazards are highly dependent on dome geometry and growth rates.

  11. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: Inferences from spatial and trophic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Anthony, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (δ15N) and carbon source (δ13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of Σ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a ‘U’-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of Σ PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high Σ PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of Σ PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′ DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with δ15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of Σ PCBs and p,p′ DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of atmospheric

  12. Long-range Receiver Function Profile of Crustal and Mantle Discontinuities From the Aleutian Arc to Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Kathrin; Rondenay, Stéphane; Sawade, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The Circum-Pacific belt, also called the Pacific Ring of Fire, is the most seismically active region on Earth. Multiple plate boundaries form a zone characterized by frequent volcanic eruptions and seismicity. While convergent plate boundaries such as the Peru-Chile trench dominate the Circum-Pacific belt, divergent and transform boundaries are present as well. The eastern section of the Circum-Pacific belt extends from the Aleutian arc, through the Cascadia subduction zone, San Andreas Fault, middle America trench and the Andean margin down to Tierra del Fuego. Due to the significant hazards posed by this tectonic activity, the region has been densely instrumented by thousands of seismic stations deployed across fifteen countries, over a distance of more than 15000 km. Various seismological studies, including receiver function analyses, have been carried out to investigate the crustal and mantle structure beneath local segments of the eastern Circum-Pacific belt (i.e., at ~100-500 km scale). However, to the best of our knowledge, no study to date has ever attempted to combine all available seismic data from the eastern Circum-Pacific belt to generate a continuous profile of seismic discontinuities extending from the Aleutians to Tierra del Fuego. Here, we use results from the "Global Imaging using Earthquake Records" (GLImER) P-wave receiver function database to create a long-range profile of crustal and upper mantle discontinuities across the entire eastern portion of the Circum-Pacific belt. We image intermittent crustal and mantle discontinuities along the profile, and examine them with regard to their behaviour and properties across transitions between different tectonic regimes.

  13. Fetal life malnutrition was not reflected in the relative abundances of adiponectin and leptin mRNAs in adipose tissue in male mink kits at 9.5 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie F.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    the effect of fetal life malnutrition in male mink on the gene expression of leptin and adiponectin in different adipose tissue sites. Results: Thirty-two male mink, strict carnivore species, exposed to low (FL) or adequate (FA) protein provision the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of fetal life and randomly assigned......Background: Malnutrition in fetal life and during suckling have in some animal studies resulted in adaptive changes related to the fat and glucose metabolism, which in the long term might predispose the offspring for metabolic disorders such as obesity later in life. The objective was to study.......5 weeks of age. Relative abundances of leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were different between adipose tissue sites and were significantly higher in subcutaneous than in perirenal and mesenteric tissues. Conclusion:Fetal life protein malnutrition in male mink, did not result in adaptive changes in the gene...

  14. Yearling mink dams fed restricted in early lactation have less mammary gland tissue six weeks after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Pinkalski, Mariann Nakano

    2015-01-01

    The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation...... around the time of separation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of separating the dam from the litter, using brown first-parity dams (N=374) randomly assigned within each date of delivery to two treatment groups: The dam was taken away from the litter either at day 49 ±1 (7w, N=185) or at day 56 ±1...... (8w, N=189) after birth. The aim was to investigate whether the dams had a different motivation to take care of the litter after 7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Corticsol Metabolites) and dam calls the first week after separation. The two treatment...

  15. The complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from the arctic minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, L D; Dwulet, F E; Bogardt, R A; Jones, B N; Gurd, F R

    1977-02-22

    The complete primary structure of the major component myoglobin from the Arctic minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, was determined by specific cleavage of the protein to obtain large peptides which are readily degraded by the automatic sequencer. Over 80% of the amino acid sequence was established from the three peptides resulting from the cleavage of the apomyoglobin at the two methionine residues with cyanogen bromide along with the four peptides resulting from the cleavage of the methylacetimidated apomyoglobin at the three arginine residues with trypsin. The further digestion of the central cyanogen bromide peptide with trypsin and S. aureus strain V8 protease enabled the determining of the remainder of the covalent structure. This myoglobin differs from that of the dwarf sperm whale, Kogia simus, at 16 positions, and the common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, at 14 positions, from that of the common porpoise, Phocaena phocaena, and the bottlenosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus at 13 positions, from that of the Amazon River dolphin, Inia geoffrensis, at 10 positions, and from that of California gray whale, Eschrichtius gibbosus, at 3 positions- All of the substitutions observed in this sequence fit easily into the three-dimensional structure of the sperm whale myoglobin.

  16. Annotated checklist and fisheries interactions of cetaceans in Togo, with evidence of Antarctic minke whale in the Gulf of Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segniagbeto, Gabriel H; VAN Waerebeek, Koen; Bowessidjaou, Joseph E; Ketoh, Koffivi; Kpatcha, Takouda K; Okoumassou, Kotchikpa; Ahoedo, Kossi

    2014-01-01

    Based on strandings and captures, 9 cetacean species, including 6 odontocetes and 3 mysticetes, are documented (photos and specimens) in Togo's coastal waters (newly-recorded species marked with an asterisk): Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis*), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei or B. edeni), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps*), short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus*), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata*), common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and common dolphin Delphinus sp. An anecdotal sighting record for killer whale (Orcinus orca) is considered reliable. The lack of Sousa teuszii records in Togo is consistent with its apparent contemporaneous absence in Ghana. The B. bonaerensis specimen, entangled in a purse seine set on small pelagics, is a first record for the Gulf of Guinea. The occurrence of this Southern Ocean species north of the equator underscores the severe gaps in our understanding of cetacean distribution off western Africa. The majority of artisanal fishermen operating in Togolese coastal waters are of Ghanaian origin and are thought to promote trade and consumption of cetacean bushmeat. Because captures are illegal, enforced with some success in the main fishing centers, covert landings of cetaceans are exceedingly difficult to monitor, quantify or sample. Concern is expressed about pollution of Togo's coastal waters with heavy metals due to phosphorite mining and export from the coastal basin near Hahotoé and Kpogamé.

  17. The mitochondrial genome and ribosomal operon of Brachycladium goliath (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) recovered from a stranded minke whale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Andrew G; Bray, Rodney A; Brabec, Jan; Littlewood, D T J

    2016-06-01

    Members of the Brachycladiidae are known to cause pathologies implicated in cetacean strandings and it is important to develop accurate diagnostic markers to differentiate these and other helminths found in cetaceans. Brachycladium goliath (van Beneden, 1858) is a large trematode found, as adults, usually in the hepatic (bile) and pancreatic ducts of various cetaceans. Complete sequences were determined for the entire mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetically informative nuclear genes contained within the ribosomal operon, from a small piece of an individual worm taken from a common minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804. Genomic DNA was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. The mtDNA is 15,229 bp in length consisting of 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions of which the larger is comprised of 4 tandemly repeated units (260 bp each). The ribosomal RNA operon is 9297 bp long. These data provide a rich resource of molecular markers for diagnostics, phylogenetics and population genetics in order to better understand the role, and associated pathology of helminth infections in cetaceans.

  18. On the olfactory anatomy in an archaic whale (Protocetidae, Cetacea) and the minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Balaenopteridae, Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Stephen J; Geisler, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the olfactory apparatus is not well known in both archaic and extant whales; the result of poor preservation in most fossils and locational isolation deep within the skulls in both fossil and Recent taxa. Several specimens now shed additional light on the subject. A partial skull of an archaic cetacean is reported from the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA. The specimen probably derives from the upper middle Eocene (Piney Point Formation) and is tentatively assigned to the Protocetidae. Uncrushed cranial cavities associated with the olfactory apparatus were devoid of sediment. CT scans clearly reveal the dorsal nasal meatus, ethmoturbinates within the olfactory recess, the cribriform plate, the area occupied by the olfactory bulbs, and the olfactory nerve tract. Several sectioned skulls of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were also examined, and olfactory structures are remarkably similar to those observed in the fossil skull from the Pamunkey River. One important difference between the two is that the fossil specimen has an elongate olfactory nerve tract. The more forward position of the external nares in extant balaenopterids when compared with those of extant odontocetes is interpreted to be the result of the need to retain a functional olfactory apparatus and the forward position of the supraoccipital/cranial vertex. An increase in the distance between the occipital condyles and the vertex in balaenopterids enhances the mechanical advantage of the epaxial musculature that inserts on the occiput, a specialization that likely stabilizes the head of these enormous mammals during lunge feeding.

  19. Attempt at intracytoplasmic sperm injection of in vitro matured oocytes in common minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) captured during the Kushiro Coast Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yutaka; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Taiki; Nagai, Hiroki; Koma, Noriko; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi; Kato, Hidehiro; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2007-08-01

    The present study was conducted during the Kushiro Coast Survey in an attempt to produce common minke whale embryos. In Experiment 1, we attempted to determine the appropriate culture duration (30 or 40 h) for in vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes using the Well of the Well method. In Experiment 2, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was applied to matured oocytes from prepubertal and adult common minke whales after IVM culture (40 or 48 h), and then their embryonic development was assessed. In Experiment 1, the maturation rate of oocytes cultured for 40 h (30.4%) was significantly higher than that of oocytes cultured for 30 h (6.8%; Pwhales, respectively, were cultured for 40 or 48 h. The maturation rate in the oocytes from the adult whales (34.2%) tended to be higher than that of the oocytes from the prepubertal whales (19.6%), but there was no significant difference. Following ICSI, 3 out of the 10 inseminated and cultured oocytes from the adult whales cleaved (2-, 8-, and 16-cell stages); all of these oocytes had been matured for 40 in culture. However, these oocytes did not develop to further stages. Only one of the 6 oocytes derived from the prepubertal whales, IVM cultured for 40 h and inseminated, developed to the 4-cell stage. The present results indicate that a 40 h IVM culture produces significantly higher rates of in vitro maturation than a 30 h IVM culture for common minke whale oocytes. Following ICSI, some oocytes cleaved to the 16-cell stage, but no further development was observed.

  20. Observations on Hippocampal Mossy Cells in Mink (Neovison vison) with Special Reference to Dendrites Ascending to the Granular and Molecular Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstad, Jan Sigurd; Osen, Kirsten K.; Scharfman, Helen E.; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Blackstad, Theodor W.; Leergaard, Trygve B.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed knowledge about the neural circuitry connecting the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex is necessary to understand how this system contributes to spatial navigation and episodic memory. The two principal cell types of the dentate gyrus, mossy cells and granule cells, are interconnected in a positive feedback loop, by which mossy cells can influence information passing from the entorhinal cortex via granule cells to hippocampal pyramidal cells. Mossy cells, like CA3 pyramidal cells, are characterized by thorny excrescences on their proximal dendrites, postsynaptic to giant terminals of granule cell axons. In addition to disynaptic input from the entorhinal cortex and perforant path via granule cells, mossy cells may also receive monosynaptic input from the perforant path via special dendrites ascending to the molecular layer. We here report qualitative and quantitative descriptions of Golgi-stained hippocampal mossy cells in mink, based on light microscopic observations and three-dimensional reconstructions. The main focus is on the location, branching pattern, and length of dendrites, particularly those ascending to the granular and molecular layers. In mink, the latter dendrites are more numerous than in rat, but fewer than in primates. They form on average 12% (and up to 29%) of the total dendritic length, and appear to cover the terminal fields of both the lateral and medial perforant paths. In further contrast to rat, the main mossy cell dendrites in mink branch more extensively with distal dendrites encroaching upon the CA3 field. The dendritic arbors extend both along and across the septotemporal axis of the dentate gyrus, not conforming to the lamellar pattern of the hippocampus. The findings suggest that the afferent input to the mossy cells becomes more complex in species closer to primates. PMID:26286893

  1. The Mink Model Establishment of Canine Distemper Virus%水貂犬瘟热动物模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜乐; 王铮; 郑学星; 杨松涛; 黄耕; 赵永坤; 高玉伟; 夏咸柱; 王铁成; 冯娜; 李元果; 于志君; 丁洁; 许薇薇; 忻悦; 岳秀芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立水貂犬瘟热动物模型,并利用水貂犬瘟热模型评价不同犬瘟热强毒株的毒力,为水貂犬瘟热病毒疫苗的研究奠定基础.方法 从猴、藏獒、犬的病料中分离犬瘟热病毒,测定犬瘟热病毒的毒力,并进行传代培养.利用犬的犬瘟热动物模型筛选稳定的犬瘟热强毒株,进行水貂犬瘟热动物模型的建立及其毒力评估.结果 筛选出了稳定的犬瘟热强毒株并进行了家犬动物实验,同时表现出了强烈的临床症状,并利用不同的代次毒进行了犬瘟热动物模型的建立.结论 成功建立了犬瘟热动物模型并对不同来源的犬瘟热病毒毒力进行了评估.%Objective To establish a mink model of canine distemper virus , and different canine distemper virulent strain virulence was evaluated by the mink animal model for laying the foundation for the study of the canine distemper virus. Methods Different canine distemper viruses were separated from specimens , cell-cultured, passaged and determined virulence of CDV. And we compared the virulence of different generation virulent strains , stable virulent strains were used for establishing mink canine distemper animal model and evaluated their virulence . Results We screened 3 canine distemper virulent strains and made dog animal experiments , the three viruses infected dogs and they showed a strong clinical symptoms , and mink animal model was established using different generations . Conclusion we successfully established the canine distemper animal model and evaluated virulence of CDV .

  2. Stratigraphy, petrology, and geochemistry of the Spurr Volcanic Complex, eastern Aleutian Arc, Alaska. [(Appendix for geothermal fluid chemistry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, C.J.

    1987-12-01

    The Spurr Volcanic Complex (SVC) is a calcalkaline, medium-K, sequence of andesites erupted over the last quarter of a million years by the easternmost currently active volcanic center in the Aleutian Arc. The ancestral Mt. Spurr was built mostly of andesites of uniform composition (58 to 60% SiO/sub 2/), although andesite production was episodically interrupted by the introduction of new batches of more mafic magma. Near the end of the Pleistocene the ancestral Mt. Spurr underwent Bezyianny-type avalanche caldera formation, resulting in the production of a volcanic debris avalanche with overlying ashflows. Immediately afterward, a large dome (the present Mt. Spurr) was emplaced in the caldera. Both the ashflows and dome are made of acid andesite more silicic than any analyzed lavas from the ancestral Mt. Spurr (60 to 63% SiO/sub 2/), yet contain olivine and amphibole xenocrysts derived from more mafic magma. The mafic magma (53 to 57% SiO/sub 2/) erupted during and after dome emplacement, forming proto-Crater Peak and Crater Peak. Hybrid pyroclastic flows and lavas were also produced. Proto-Crater Peak underwent glacial dissection prior to the formation of Crater Peak in approximately the same location. Appendices II through VIII contain a summary of mineral compositions; Appendix I contains geochemical data. Appendix IX by R.J. Motyka and C.J. Nye describes the chemistry of geothermal fluids. 78 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Final Report: Weatherization and Energy Conservation Education and Home Energy and Safety Review in the Aleutian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Wright

    2011-08-30

    Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. (APIA) hired three part-time local community members that desire to be Energy Technicians. The energy technicians were trained in methods of weatherization assistance, energy conservation and home safety. They developed a listing of homes in the region that required weatherization, and conducted on-site weatherization and energy conservation education and a home energy and safety reviews in the communities of Akutan, False Pass, King Cove and Nelson Lagoon. Priority was given to these smaller communities as they tend to have the residences most in need of weatherization and energy conservation measures. Local residents were trained to provide all three aspects of the project: weatherization, energy conservation education and a home energy and safety review. If the total energy saved by installing these products is a 25% reduction (electrical and heating, both of which are usually produced by combustion of diesel fuel), and the average Alaska home produces 32,000 pounds of CO2 each year, so we have saved about: 66 homes x 16 tons of CO2 each year x .25 = 264 tons of CO2 each year.

  4. Predictive habitat modelling of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) and Antarctic minke (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) whales in the Southern Ocean as a planning tool for seismic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombosch, Annette; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Van Opzeeland, Ilse; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Burkhardt, Elke; Wisz, Mary S.; Boebel, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Seismic surveys are frequently a matter of concern regarding their potentially negative impacts on marine mammals. In the Southern Ocean, which provides a critical habitat for several endangered cetacean species, seismic research activities are undertaken at a circumpolar scale. In order to minimize impacts of these surveys, pre-cruise planning requires detailed, spatio-temporally resolved knowledge on the likelihood of encountering these species in the survey area. In this publication we present predictive habitat modelling as a potential tool to support decisions for survey planning. We associated opportunistic sightings (2005-2011) of humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae, N=93) and Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, N=139) with a range of static and dynamic environmental variables. A maximum entropy algorithm (Maxent) was used to develop habitat models and to calculate daily basinwide/circumpolar prediction maps to evaluate how species-specific habitat conditions evolved throughout the spring and summer months. For both species, prediction maps revealed considerable changes in habitat suitability throughout the season. Suitable humpback whale habitat occurred predominantly in ice-free areas, expanding southwards with the retreating sea ice edge, whereas suitable Antarctic minke whale habitat was consistently predicted within sea ice covered areas. Daily, large-scale prediction maps provide a valuable tool to design layout and timing of seismic surveys as they allow the identification and consideration of potential spatio-temporal hotspots to minimize potential impacts of seismic surveys on Antarctic cetacean species.

  5. MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 diversify Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anthony; McCrossan, Zoe A; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2004-02-27

    High frequency firing in mammalian neurons requires ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents generated by homomeric or heteromeric assemblies of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel alpha subunits. Kv3.1 alpha subunits can also form slower activating channels by coassembling with MinK-related peptide 2 (MiRP2), a single transmembrane domain potassium channel ancillary subunit. Here, using channel subunits cloned from rat and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, we show that modulation by MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 is a general mechanism for slowing of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation and deactivation and acceleration of inactivation, creating a functionally diverse range of channel complexes. MiRP1 also negatively shifts the voltage dependence of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation. Furthermore, MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 each form channels with Kv3.1-Kv3.2 heteromers that are kinetically distinct from one another and from MiRP/homomeric Kv3 channels. The findings illustrate a mechanism for dynamic expansion of the functional repertoire of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium currents and suggest roles for these alpha subunits outside the scope of sustained rapid neuronal firing.

  6. Cellular microRNA miR-181b inhibits replication of mink enteritis virus by repression of non-structural protein 1 translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-zeng Sun

    Full Text Available Mink enteritis virus (MEV is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs, small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18-23 nucleotides (nt participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81 cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 messenger RNA (mRNA coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies.

  7. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  8. Specification of Tectonic Tsunami Sources Along the Eastern Aleutian Island Arc and Alaska Peninsula for Inundation Mapping and Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimani, E.; Nicolsky, D.; Freymueller, J. T.; Koehler, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center conducts tsunami inundation mapping for coastal communities in Alaska along several segments of the Aleutian Megathrust, each having a unique seismic history and tsunami generation potential. Accurate identification and characterization of potential tsunami sources is a critical component of our project. As demonstrated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami, correct estimation of the maximum size event for a given segment of the subduction zone is particularly important. In that event, unexpectedly large slip occurred approximately updip of the epicenter of the main shock, based on seafloor GPS and seafloor pressure gage observations, generating a much larger tsunami than anticipated. This emphasizes the importance of the detailed knowledge of the region-specific subduction processes, and using the most up-to-date geophysical data and research models that define the magnitude range of possible future tsunami events. Our study area extends from the eastern half of the 1957 rupture zone to Kodiak Island, covering the 1946 and 1938 rupture areas, the Shumagin gap, and the western part of the 1964 rupture area. We propose a strategy for generating worst-case credible tsunami scenarios for locations that have a short or nonexistent paleoseismic/paleotsunami record, and in some cases lack modern seismic and GPS data. The potential tsunami scenarios are built based on a discretized plate interface model fit to the Slab 1.0 model geometry. We employ estimates of slip deficit along the Aleutian Megathrust from GPS campaign surveys, the Slab 1.0 interface surface, empirical magnitude-slip relationships, and a numerical code that distributes slip among the subfault elements, calculates coseismic deformations and solves the shallow water equations of tsunami propagation and runup. We define hypothetical asperities along the megathrust and in down-dip direction, and perform a set of sensitivity model runs to identify coseismic deformation

  9. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. CONCLUSION: The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the

  10. Mount Logan ice core record of tropical and solar influences on Aleutian Low variability: 500-1998 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, Erich C.; Mayewski, Paul A.; Fisher, David A.; Kreutz, Karl J.; Maasch, Kirk A.; Sneed, Sharon B.; Kelsey, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Continuous, high-resolution paleoclimate records from the North Pacific region spanning the past 1500 years are rare; and the behavior of the Aleutian Low (ALow) pressure center, the dominant climatological feature in the Gulf of Alaska, remains poorly constrained. Here we present a continuous, 1500 year long, calibrated proxy record for the strength of the wintertime (December-March) ALow from the Mount Logan summit (PR Col; 5200 m asl) ice core soluble sodium time series. We show that ice core sodium concentrations are statistically correlated with North Pacific sea level pressure and zonal wind speed. Our ALow proxy record reveals a weak ALow from circa 900-1300 A.D. and 1575-1675 A.D., and a comparatively stronger ALow from circa 500-900 A.D., 1300-1575 A.D., and 1675 A.D. to present. The Mount Logan ALow proxy record shows strong similarities with tropical paleoclimate proxy records sensitive to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and is consistent with the hypothesis that the Medieval Climate Anomaly was characterized by more persistent La Niña-like conditions while the Little Ice Age was characterized by at least two intervals of more persistent El Niño-like conditions. The Mount Logan ALow proxy record is significantly (p < 0.05) correlated and coherent with solar irradiance proxy records over various time scales, with stronger solar irradiance generally associated with a weaker ALow and La Niña-like tropical conditions. However, a step-like increase in ALow strength during the Dalton solar minimum circa 1820 is associated with enhanced Walker circulation. Furthermore, rising CO2 forcing or internal variability may be masking the twentieth century rise in solar irradiance.

  11. Observation and modelling of turbulent mixing in the Kuril and Aleutian Straits and impact of its 18.6-year period tidal cycle on ocean and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, I.; Tanaka, Y.; Itoh, S.; Hasumi, H.; Komatsu, K.; Osafune, S.; Yagi, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kaneko, H.; Ikeya, T.; Konda, S.; Nishioka, J.; Nakatsuka, T.; Katsumata, K.; Tatebe, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Hiroe, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    2012-12-01

    Direct turbulent observations in the Kuril Straits and Aleutian Straits reveal that tide-induced strong vertical mixing corresponds to strong shear of combined diurnal tidal and/or mean currents and significantly modifies the water-mass and potential vorticity distribution. Bi-decadal variability synchronized with 18.6-year period moon-tidal cycle were found in various parts of the ocean and climate indices: water-mass variability in the subarctic North Pacific, especially near the strong diurnal tide regions as Kuril Straits and Aleutian Islands, and in long-term climate indices as Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El-Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in proxy-reconstructed records. In low-frequency part of the PDO and SOI records, negative (positive)-PDO and positive (negative)-SOI tend to occur in the 4-6-th (10-12-th) year after the maximum diurnal tide, which is consistent with the climate model experiments with locally enhanced vertical mixing around Kuril Straits showing that tidal mixing and its variability could generate bi-decadal variability in ocean and climate. Ocean and climate model experiments with parameterized tidal mixing explain some of the water-mass modifications and bi-decadal variability of water-masses and climate.

  12. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Sullivan, Kelsey [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States); Irons, David [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators.

  13. Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Nathan L.; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands.

  14. l1081na.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-10-81-AA in North Aleutians, Alaska from 08/16/1981 to 08/23/1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-10-81-AA in North Aleutians, Alaska from 08/16/1981 to...

  15. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant, both in wild and in domestic populations. With social interactions, the genes of an individual may affect the trait values of other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models....... Most IGE models assume that individuals interact equally to all group mates irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory, however, predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members versus non-family members. Here, we investigate kin- and sex-specific non-genetic social...... interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family...

  16. Changes in digestive enzyme activity, intestine morphology, mucin characteristics and tocopherol status in mink kits (Mustela neovision) during the weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Clausen, T.N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2011-01-01

    of age. At 34, 47 and 59 days of age, one male mink kit from each litter was euthanized. The activity of amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin and lipase in the pancreatic tissue increased during the experimental period, whereas the activity of carboxyl ester hydrolase remained constant. The vitamin E......, whereas the biologically less active 2S isomers showed a clear increase. The concentration of bile salts did not change during the experimental period. The villous height increased in the proximal part of the small intestine and decreased in the distal part, whereas the crypt depth was doubled in both...... the proximal and distal part of the small intestine. The mucin-staining area on the villi was markedly reduced during the experimental period but no change in the mucin-staining area in the crypts was observed....

  17. A comparative study of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in mink using a modified agglutination test, a Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Wang, Zedong; Cai, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoxing; Wei, Feng; Shang, Limin; Li, Jiping; Liu, Quan

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, and many serological methods have been developed to detect T. gondii infection in a variety of animal species. In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in farmed mink in northeast China was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT), a Western blot (WB), and 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with protein A/G conjugate, using either of 2 recombinant dense granule antigens, GRA1 and GRA7, or Toxoplasma soluble antigens (TSA). There was no significant difference between the detection results of the GRA1-, GRA7-, and TSA-ELISAs and WB (McNemar chi-square, P > 0.05), but a significant difference was observed between MAT and WB (P < 0.05). A near perfect agreement (97.0%) was found between the GRA7-ELISA and WB (κ = 0.83), and a substantial agreement (92.4-93.1%) was observed in the TSA- and GRA1-ELISAs (κ = 0.68-0.73). The GRA7-ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, and the lowest false-positive and negative rates, while the MAT gave both a low sensitivity and frequent false positives in comparison to the WB. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed the largest area under curve of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.96), and the highest relative sensitivity (72.7%) and specificity (99.0%) for a cutoff value of 0.19 in the GRA7-ELISA. These results indicate that the GRA7-ELISA is suitable for detection of T. gondii infection in mink and that MAT should be used with caution.

  18. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Mink Enteritis Virus MEV-ZJ1 Strain%致病性水貂肠炎病毒MEV-ZJ1株的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭斌; 陈微晶; 武华

    2011-01-01

    自临床疑似水貂病毒性肠炎发病貂的粪便中分离出1株病毒,经病毒形态观察、理化特性检测、血清学、聚合酶链式反应(PCR)和动物试验鉴定表明,该分离毒为水貂肠炎病毒(mink enteritis virus,MEV),命名为MEV-ZJ1株.用分离毒接种水貂,试验动物均表现出典型水貂病毒性肠炎临床症状.研究表明,MEV-ZJ1分离株对水貂具有致病性,是1株强毒,为进一步开展该病毒流行病学、致病机理、疫苗免疫与诊断检测的研究奠定了基础.%A virus strain was isolated from feces of a mink suspected MEV infection. It was demonstrated to be MEV by morphology, physical and chemical properties, serum test, PCR and animal test,and it was named MEV-ZJ1. Minks were artificially infected by MEV-ZJ1 developed obvious symptoms of enteritis post-inoculation. The MEV-ZJ1 strain was virulent for minks. The successful isolation of MEV-ZJ1 provided a basis for further search on epidemiology, pathogenesis, vaccination and diagnostic.

  19. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  20. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs; Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  1. Geothermal Potential of the Cascade and Aleutian Arcs, with Ranking of Individual Volcanic Centers for their Potential to Host Electricity-Grade Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, Lisa [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nick [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Stelling, Pete [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States); Melosh, Glenn [GEODE, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Cumming, William [Cumming Geoscience, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    This project brings a global perspective to volcanic arc geothermal play fairway analysis by developing statistics for the occurrence of geothermal reservoirs and their geoscience context worldwide in order to rank U.S. prospects. The focus of the work was to develop play fairways for the Cascade and Aleutian arcs to rank the individual volcanic centers in these arcs by their potential to host electricity grade geothermal systems. The Fairway models were developed by describing key geologic factors expected to be indicative of productive geothermal systems in a global training set, which includes 74 volcanic centers world-wide with current power production. To our knowledge, this is the most robust geothermal benchmark training set for magmatic systems to date that will be made public.

  2. Auklet (Charadriiformes: Alcidae, Aethia spp.) chick meals from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, have a very low incidence of plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Jones, Ian L; Williams, Jeffrey C; Byrd, G Vernon

    2010-08-01

    The ingestion of plastic marine debris is a chronic problem for some of the world's seabird species, contributing to reduced chick survival, population declines, and deposition of contaminants via absorption in birds' gastrointestinal tract. We analysed the frequency of ingested plastic in chick meals delivered by adults in four species of auklet - Crested (Aethia cristatella), Least (A. pusilla), Parakeet (A. psittacula), and Whiskered (A. pygmaea) - from three breeding colonies in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA over a 14-year period from 1993 to 2006. Among 2541 chick meals, we found plastic in only one - from a Whiskered Auklet on Buldir Island in 1993. While adult Parakeet Auklets have a high frequency of plastic ingestion (over 90%), no chick meals contained plastic. Unlike other seabirds, the planktivorous auklets do not appear to offload plastic to their chicks, and we conclude that auklet chicks are probably at a low risk of contamination from plastic debris.

  3. Serpent: Magnetic signatures of serpentinized mantle and mesoscale oceanic variability along the Alaska/Aleutian subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purucker, Michael; Serpent Team

    2010-05-01

    NASA recently solicited suborbital missions as a part of its new Earth Venture program element. These missions are designed as complete PI-led investigations to conduct innovative, integrated, hypothesis or scientific question driven approaches to pressing questions in Earth System science. The missions should require sustained observations (5 years) and significant resources (team led by Raytheon's Photon Research Associates, propose to carry out a suborbital magnetic survey of the Aleutian subduction zone using NASA's Global Hawk to test the magnetic serpentinite hypothesis. This hypothesis states that dewatering of the descending slab within subduction zones produces an observable static magnetic signature through the formation of serpentinite in the overriding mantle. This signature may serve as a predictor of the location of large megathrust earthquakes and their associated tsunamis. Magnetic field measurements from 20 km (sub-orbital) altitude are essential to the testing of this hypothesis; analysis shows orbital and/or near-surface measurements are not likely to provide sufficient sensitivity and uniform calibration to confirm or reject the hypothesis, nor to consistently map its presence around the world. Static and dynamic magnetic signatures from the motion of seawater in the earth's magnetic field have the potential to confound an evaluation of the magnetic serpentinite hypothesis. Through a combination of modeling and exact repeat surveys over the subduction zone, spaced weeks to as much as six months apart, we can study the magnetic signature of the motion that characterizes the mesoscale oceanic circulation in order to develop the best possible corrections for lithospheric imaging, and elucidating the intrinsic and unique oceanic information content in the magnetic fields for the first time ever. The role of water in subduction zones, and in the overlying ocean, can be traced by sustained suborbital observations of the magnetic field. At critical

  4. An overview of animal prion diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Muhammad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC. Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of cervids and spongiform encephalopathy of primates. Although some cases of sporadic atypical scrapie and BSE have also been reported, animal prion diseases have basically occurred via the acquisition of infection from contaminated feed or via the exposure to contaminated environment. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are naturally sustaining epidemics. The transmission of BSE to human has caused more than 200 cases of variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease and has raised serious public health concerns. The present review discusses the epidemiology, clinical neuropathology, transmissibility and genetics of animal prion diseases.

  5. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA: effects on reproduction and offspring growth and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    The effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River (New York, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and mortality were evaluated. Diets contained 2.5 to 20% Hudson River fish, providing 0.72 to 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (4.8-38 pg toxic equivalents [TEQWHO 2005 ]/g feed). The percentage of stillborn kits per litter was significantly increased by dietary concentrations of 4.5 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) and greater. All offspring exposed to dietary concentrations of 4.5 and 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 and 38 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 10 weeks of age, and all offspring exposed to 1.5 and 2.8 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (10 and 18 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 31 weeks of age, leaving juveniles in the control and 0.72 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (0.41- and 4.8 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) groups only. The dietary concentration predicted to result in 20% kit mortality (LC20) at six weeks of age was 0.34 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (2.6 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed). The corresponding maternal hepatic concentration was 0.80 µg ∑PCBs/g liver, wet weight (13 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver, wet wt). Mink residing in the upper Hudson River would be expected to consume species of fish that contain an average of 4.0 µg ∑PCBs/g tissue. Thus, a daily diet composed of less than 10% Hudson River fish could provide a dietary concentration of ∑PCBs that resulted in 20% kit mortality in the present study.

  6. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities: Volume 10, Basin analysis, formation and stability of gas hydrates of the Aleutian Trench and the Bering Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krason, J.; Ciesnik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Four major areas with inferred gas hydrates are the subject of this study. Two of these areas, the Navarin and the Norton Basins, are located within the Bering Sea shelf, whereas the remaining areas of the Atka Basin in the central Aleutian Trench system and the eastern Aleutian Trench represent a huge region of the Aleutian Trench-Arc system. All four areas are geologically diverse and complex. Particularly the structural features of the accretionary wedge north of the Aleutian Trench still remain the subjects of scientific debates. Prior to this study, suggested presence of the gas hydrates in the four areas was based on seismic evidence, i.e., presence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Although the disclosure of the BSRs is often difficult, particularly under the structural conditions of the Navarin and Norton basins, it can be concluded that the identified BSRs are mostly represented by relatively weak and discontinuous reflectors. Under thermal and pressure conditions favorable for gas hydrate formation, the relative scarcity of the BSRs can be attributed to insufficient gas supply to the potential gas hydrate zone. Hydrocarbon gas in sediment may have biogenic, thermogenic or mixed origin. In the four studied areas, basin analysis revealed limited biogenic hydrocarbon generation. The migration of the thermogenically derived gases is probably diminished considerably due to the widespread diagenetic processes in diatomaceous strata. The latter processes resulted in the formation of the diagenetic horizons. The identified gas hydrate-related BSRs seem to be located in the areas of increased biogenic methanogenesis and faults acting as the pathways for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

  7. Characteristics and contributions of defective, ecotropic, and mink cell focus-inducing viruses involved in a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Sengupta, D N; Fredrickson, T N; Morse, H C; Hartley, J W

    1991-08-01

    LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus, a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus, contains a mixture of replication-competent B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses and a defective genome that is the proximal cause of a syndrome, murine AIDS (MAIDS), characterized by lymphoproliferation and immunodeficiency. The defective (BM5d) and ecotropic components of this mixture were molecularly cloned, and complete (BM5d) or partial (ecotropic) nucleotide sequences were determined. BM5d closely resembled the Du5H genome cloned from the Duplan virus, featuring a highly divergent p12 sequence in the gag open reading frame. In MAIDS-sensitive C57BL/6 mice, BM5d was detected in tissues within 2 weeks of infection but was absent from tissues of the MAIDS-resistant strain, A/J, 12 weeks after infection. B-cell-lineage tumors from mice with MAIDS contained and expressed BM5d, and clonal integrations of this genome were variably associated with clonal expansions of B cells in infected mice. Finally, mRNA crosshybridizing with a probe for BM5d was present in spleen but not kidney cells of uninfected B6 mice.

  8. Protein and amino acid bioavailability of extruded dog food with protein meals of different quality using growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Matthiesen, Connie Frank

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model for dietary protein quality assessment of protein meals used in extruded dog foods. Three foods with similar CP content but of different protein quality were produced using different protein meals. The protein meals varied...... with respect to CP digestibility and AA composition and included lamb meal (LBM), poultry meal (PM), and fish meal (FM) with low, intermediate, and high protein quality, respectively. Nitrogen balance, BW gain, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were used as measures.......001) in ATTD of CP and all AA, except for hydroxyproline. Retention of N was 0.66, 1.04, and 1.18 g·kg−0.75·d−1; BW gain was 8.2, 26.8, and 35.3 g/d; PER was 0.38, 1.39, and 1.71; and ATTD of CP was 66.8, 73.8, and 82.1% for the LBM, PM, and FM diets, respectively. In dogs, SID of CP and AA differed (P ≤ 0...

  9. Long QT syndrome-associated mutations in the S4-S5 linker of KvLQT1 potassium channels modify gating and interaction with minK subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franqueza, L; Lin, M; Shen, J; Splawski, I; Keating, M T; Sanguinetti, M C

    1999-07-23

    Long QT syndrome is an inherited disorder of cardiac repolarization caused by mutations in cardiac ion channel genes, including KVLQT1. In this study, the functional consequences of three long QT-associated missense mutations in KvLQT1 (R243C, W248R, E261K) were characterized using the Xenopus oocyte heterologous expression system and two-microelectrode voltage clamp techniques. These mutations are located in or near the intracellular linker between the S4 and S5 transmembrane domains, a region implicated in activation gating of potassium channels. The E261K mutation caused loss of function and did not interact with wild-type KvLQT1 subunits. R243C or W248R KvLQT1 subunits formed functional channels, but compared with wild-type KvLQT1 current, the rate of activation was slower, and the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation was shifted to more positive potentials. Co expression of minK and KvLQT1 channel subunits induces a slow delayed rectifier K(+) current, I(Ks), characterized by slow activation and a markedly increased magnitude compared with current induced by KvLQT1 subunits alone. Coexpression of minK with R243C or W248R KvLQT1 subunits suppressed current, suggesting that coassembly of mutant subunits with minK prevented normal channel gating. The decrease in I(Ks) caused by loss of function or altered gating properties explains the prolonged QT interval and increased risk of arrhythmia and sudden death associated with these mutations in KVLQT1.

  10. Detection of pathogenicity islands of Yersinia enterocolitica HPI from Escherich- ia coli strains in diarrheic minks%腹泻水貂检出携带耶尔森菌HPI毒力岛的大肠杆菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史秋梅; 张艳英; 房海; 陈翠珍; 刘杰

    2012-01-01

    To understand the Escherichia. coli cause diarrhea mechanism of minks diarrheic, the isolated E. coli were detected for HPI pathogenicity island of Yersinia enterocolitica. Pathogenicity islands gene irp2 and fyua were de- tected by PCR amplification, and the virulence of E. coli strains was determined with mice by intraperitoneal injec- tion. E. coli strains were separated from organ and feces of diarrhea minks,which serotypes were 078,029 and 038. Three serotypes of E. coli were detected pathogenicity islands gene irp2 and fyua,which further resulted in the oc- currence of serious illness and death for experimental mice after intraperitoneal injection . The results showed that minks diarrhea were caused by E. coli strains carrying pathogenicity islands gene irp2 and fyua of Yersinia entero colitica HPI,which will bring putative threats to the health of minks.%为了解大肠杆菌引起水貂腹泻的机理,进行了小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌HPI毒力岛基因的检测,并对其菌株做毒力试验。用PCR扩增法检测毒力岛基因irp2和fyua,小鼠腹腔注射检测菌株毒力。结果:从3个貂场腹泻病死水貂脏器以及粪便中分离出血清型分别为078、029和038的大肠杆菌,对3个血清型大肠杆菌进行毒力岛检测,均检出携带小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌HPI毒力岛基因irp2和fyua。3个血清型078、029和038的大肠杆菌均使小鼠发病死亡。结果表明水貂腹泻是由携带小肠结肠炎耶尔森茵HPI毒力岛基因irp2和fyua的大肠杆菌引起,该茵对水貂的健康具有潜在的威胁。

  11. Steroid hormones in blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen polluted minke whalte (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, Robert J.;

    2014-01-01

    conducted in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) as a sentinel species for adverse effects on steroid homeostasis. The control and exposed groups were composed of four sister-bitches all fed pork fat (Suis suis) and organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber......Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are known to disrupt steroidogenesis and subsequent concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones. This is also suspected to occur in Arctic predatory species, such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and a study was therefore...

  12. Foetal life protein restriction in male mink (Neovison vison) kits lowers post-weaning protein oxidation and the relative abundance of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesen, C F; Blache, D; Thomsen, P D; Tauson, A-H

    2012-01-01

    Foetal life malnutrition has been studied intensively in a number of animal models. Results show that especially foetal life protein malnutrition can lead to metabolic changes later in life. This might be of particular importance for strict carnivores, for example, cat and mink (Neovison vison) because of their higher protein requirement than in other domestic mammals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of low protein provision during foetal life to male mink kits on their protein metabolism during the early post-weaning period of rapid growth and to investigate whether foetal life protein deficiency affects the response to adequate or deficient protein provision post weaning. Further, we intended to study whether the changes in the gene expression of key enzymes in foetal hepatic tissue caused by maternal protein deficiency were manifested post-weaning. A total of 32 male mink kits born to mothers fed either a low-protein diet (LP), that is, 14% of metabolizable energy (ME) from protein (foetal low - FL), n = 16, or an adequate-protein (AP) diet, that is, 29% of ME from protein (foetal adequate - FA), n = 16) in the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of pregnancy were used. The FL offspring had lower birth weight and lower relative abundance of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2ase) and pyruvate kinase mRNA in foetal hepatic tissue than FA kits. The mothers were fed a diet containing adequate protein until weaning. At weaning (7 weeks of age), half of the kits from each foetal treatment group were fed an AP diet (32% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) and the other half were fed a LP diet (18% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) until 9.5 weeks of age, yielding four treatment groups (i.e. FA-AP, FA-LP, FL-AP and FL-LP). Low protein provision in foetal life lowered the protein oxidation post-weaning compared with the controls (P = 0.006), indicating metabolic flexibility and a better ability to conserve protein. This could not, however, be supported by

  13. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  14. Experimental transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (scrapie, chronic wasting disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy) to cattle and their differentiation from bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for identification of potential host ranges of known TSEs. This report provides a synopsis of TSE (scrapie, CWD, TME) transmission studies that have been conducted in cattle and compares these findings to those seen ...

  15. 河北省首例水貂养殖者布鲁杆菌病病原学及遗传特征分析%Analysis of pathogens and genetic characteristics of the first case of mink breeder infected with brucellosis in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜霞; 钱振宇; 王茜; 何宝花; 孙印旗; 刘晓丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective A suspected Brucella strain, isolated from the first case of mink breeder in Hebei Province was identified and genetic characteristics were analyzed.Methods Blood sample of the patient with brucellosis was collected at brucellosis laboratory of Hebei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention;anti-Brucella antibody was tested and Brucella was isolated by two phase culture bottles.Conventional methods were used to identify the isolated strain, the genetic characteristics were analyzed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA).Results Anti-Brucella antibody was tested positive.The isolated strain was identified as Brucella melitensis biovar 1 using the conventional methods.Using Pannel 1, the strain was genotype 42 clustering to the "East Mediterranean" Brucella Melitensis group.It was closely clustered with Brucella melitensis biovar 3, and difference of repeated numbers at variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci bruce19 was also displayed.Conclusion The case is the first brucellosis case of mink breeder in Hebei Province, the isolated strain from this patient is identified as Brucella melitensis biovar 1 and the genetic characteristics of the strain are closely related to those of Brucella melitensis biovar 3.%目的 对河北省首例水貂养殖者布鲁杆菌病(简称布病)病例病原菌进行鉴定并对其遗传特征进行分析.方法 2013年8月,在河北省疾病预防控制中心布病实验室,对布病患者血液进行布病血清学抗体检测和血培养.对分离菌株应用传统鉴定方法确定布鲁杆菌属与种型,采用多位点可变数目串联重复序列分析方法(MLVA)分析其遗传特征.结果 血清学检测布病试验阳性.分离菌株鉴定为布鲁杆菌羊种1型.MLVA结果显示该菌Panel1基因型为42,属于东地中海组,与羊种3型聚类最近,但在可变数目串联重复序列位点(VNTR)brucel9存在串联重复数目差异.结论 河北省首例水貂养

  16. Exploring Paleoclimatic and -Oceanographic Consequences for Arctic Beringia by the Eocene Formation and Progressive E-W Lengthening of the Aleutian Ridge (arc) Across the North Pacific Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: During the past ~50 Myr, magmatic growth of the offshore Aleutian Ridge (AR) or arc and its progressive tectonic lengthening to the west cordoned off the NW corner of the Pacific Basin to formed the deep water (3000-4000 m), marginal sea of the Bering Sea Basin (BSB). Cordoning continuously altered the paths, depths, and locations of water-exchange passes controlling the circulation of waters between the north Pacific and the Bering Sea (BS), and, via the fixed Bering Strait, that entering the Pacific sector of the Arctic Basin. PRESENT PATTERN OF PACIFIC-BERING-ARCTIC WATER EXCHANGE: Cool, low salinity water of the Alaska Stream flowing west along the Pacific side of the AR crosses northward into the BS via tectonically controlled, inter-island passes. The largest volume (~9 SV) enters near the western end of the AR via Near Pass. Flow turns back to the east and CCW northward over the BSB. Surface water exits southward around the western end of the AR through the far western, deep-water (~4000 m) pass of Kamchatka Strait. Because water salinity is low, vertical thermohaline circulation (THC) does not occur over the BSB. However, the deposition of the larger Meiji Drift body, which is charged with Bering-sourced, detritus, on the Pacific side of Kamchatka Strait implies THC may have occurred in the past. Deep-water circulation is presently linked to the inflow of Pacific abyssal water via Kamchatka Strait. A small volume (~0.8 SV) of cool, low salinity water entering the BS mainly through eastern, shallow-silled passes continues northward across the broad Beringian shelf to enter the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait. EVOLUTION OF ALEUTIAN RIDGE: At it's inception, the arc massif of the AR likely extended only about 1200 km west of Alaska. Because convergence is increasingly oblique to the west, plate-boundary-driven, right-lateral strike-slip faulting extensionally fragmented the AR and progressively rotated and transported blocks and slivers

  17. Modeling connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska: Are there any linkages to the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Hinckley, Sarah; Horne, John; Mazur, Michael; Hermann, Albert; Curchister, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and linkages to the Bering Sea (BS) and Aleutian Island (AL) regions. We used a spatially-explicit Individual-based model (IBM) coupled to 6 years of a hydrodynamic model that simulates the early life history of walleye pollock in the GOA (eggs to age-0 juveniles). The processes modeled included growth, movement, mortality, feeding and the bioenergetics component for larvae and juveniles. Simulations were set to release particles on the 1st of the month (February to May) in fourteen historical spawning areas in the GOA up to the 1st of September each year. Model results reproduced the link between the Shelikof Strait spawning area and the Shumagin nursery region for March and April spawners, besides other Potential Nursery Areas (PNAs) found in the GOA. A prominent finding of this study was the appearance of the BS as important PNAs for several GOA spawning grounds, which is supported by a consistent flow into the BS through Unimak Pass. The simulations showed the highest density of simulated surviving pollock in the western Bering Sea (WBS) region with the lowest coefficients of variation of the whole domain. Three spawning sectors were defined, which aggregate multiple spawning areas in the eastern (EGOA), central (CGOA) and western Gulf of Alaska (WGOA). A connectivity matrix showed strong retention within the CGOA (25.9%) and EGOA (23.8%), but not in the WGOA (7.2%). Within the GOA, the highest connectivity is observed from EGOA to CGOA (57.8%) followed by the connection from CGOA to WGOA (24.3%). Overall, one of the most prominent connections was from WGOA to WBS (62.8%), followed by a connection from CGOA to WBS (29.2%). In addition, scenarios of shifting spawning locations and nursery sectors of GOA, BS and AL are explored and implications for walleye pollock stock structure hypotheses are discussed.

  18. 植酸酶对水貂氮、磷等营养物质利用及生长发育的影响%Effects of Microbial Phytase Levels on Availability of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Utilized and Performance in Growing Minks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯英; 徐超; 鲍坤; 刘晗璐; 李光玉; 纪银玲

    2013-01-01

    研究鲜料中添加植酸酶水平对生长发育期水貂氮、磷利用及生长发育性能的影响。配制Ⅰ~Ⅳ组日粮,Ⅰ组为对照组(基础日粮),Ⅱ~Ⅳ组在基础日粮中分别添加450IU/kg、900IU/kg、4500IU/kg的植酸酶,进行各组日粮干物质、蛋白质、脂肪、钙、磷消化代谢试验和生长发育期饲养试验。结果表明,水貂鲜料添加植酸酶可显著提高干物质、脂肪、粗蛋白、P消化率及N代谢率( P<0.01),N、P环境排放量降低极显著( P<0.01);可显著提高其体增重和平均日增重( P<0.05),其中添加900IU/kg的Ⅳ组生长发育性能最好。%Effects of microbial phytase levels on the availabitility of nutriments and growth performance in Growing Mink were studied .Sixty black male minks were randomly divided into 4 groups ,15 minks per each .The control was fed conventional fresh diet ,the testing groups were applied phytase ,respectively ,phytase 450IU/kg (Ⅱ) ,900IU/kg (Ⅲ) and 4 500IU/kg (Ⅳ) .The results showed that there were significant dif-ference among groups ,the values of DMD、CPD、EED、PD were significant higher than the control ( P0.05) .There was clearly trend that phytase could significantly reduce the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion of growing minks ( P<0.01) ,and increase dietary nitrogen metablic rates in minks ,the 900IU/kg phytase was the best in all groups .There were a significantly increase in the in-dex of body weight gain and average daily gain the groups of phytase than control group ( P<0.05) .The results showed that it could significant-ly improve the growth performance and availabitility of DM、CP、EE、Ca、P ,applied 900IU/kg of phytase during growing period in mink diets .

  19. Geochemical variability of hydrothermal emissions between three Pacific volcanic arc systems: Alaskan-Aleutian and Cascadian, North America and Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, J. M.; Horton, T. W.; Gravley, D. M.; Deering, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the source, transport, and fate of hydrothermal fluids in the upper crust informs our understanding and interpretation of ore-forming processes, volcanogenic hazards, geothermal resources, and volatile cycling. Co-variation between fluid inclusion CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios is an established tracer of magmatic, meteoric, and crustal fluid end-members. Yet, this tracer has had limited application to macroscopic fluid reservoirs accessible via geothermal wells and hydrothermal features (e.g. pools). In this study, we compared the covariance CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios of gases collected throughout the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (TVZ), the Alaska-Aleutian Volcanic Arc, USA (AAVA), and the Cascadian Volcanic Arc, USA (CVA) with corresponding δ13C and 3He/4He values. Our findings show that there is good agreement between these proxies for different end-member contributions at coarse scales. However, some samples classified as meteoric water according to the CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios also show more positive δ13C values (~ -7.0 per mil) and relatively higher 3He/4He ratios indicative of magmatic input from primarily mantle sources. This unexpected result may be related to magmatic fluids, CO2 in particular, mixing with predominantly meteoric derived waters. The potential to identify magmatic CO2 in groundwater samples overlying geothermal systems in differing volcanic arc settings using simple and cost-effective gas ratios is a promising step forward in the search for ';surface blind' but developable geothermal systems and volcanic monitoring. 3He/4He anomalies also support this inference and underscore the potential decoupling of thermal anomalies and magmatic-derived fluids in the Earth's crust. The general agreement between the co-variation of CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios with other isotope and geochemical proxies for magmatic, meteoric, and crustal end-members is encouraging to employ expanded use of these ratios for both the exploration and monitoring of

  20. 黄粉虫对冬毛期水貂体重变化、营养物质消化率、氮代谢及毛皮质量的影响%Effects of Tenebrio molitor L. on Body Weight Change, Hutrient Digestibility, Hitrogen Metabolism and Fur Quality of Minks during Winter Hair Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁涛; 张海华; 刘志; 郭强; 吴学壮; 杨福合; 李光玉; 王海宏

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究黄粉虫对冬毛期水貂体重变化、营养物质消化率、氮代谢及毛皮质量的影响。采用单因子试验设计,选取125日龄健康雄性水貂60只,随机分成5组。Ⅰ组饲喂基础饲粮(不含黄粉虫);Ⅱ组、Ⅲ组、Ⅳ组、Ⅴ组水貂的饲粮中分别添加2%、4%、8%和16%的黄粉虫。预试期7 d,试验期80 d。结果表明:1)2013-11-17时,Ⅳ组和Ⅴ组水貂的体重显著高于Ⅲ组(P<0.05);各组平均日增重差异不显著(P>0.05)。2)Ⅳ组水貂的采食量极显著高于Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组( P<0.01);Ⅱ组和Ⅴ组水貂粗蛋白质消化率极显著高于Ⅳ组( P<0.01);各组粗脂肪消化率和粗灰分消化率差异不显著( P>0.05)。3)Ⅲ组、Ⅳ组和Ⅴ组水貂的食入氮显著高于Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组(P<0.05);Ⅲ组、Ⅳ组水貂的粪氮极显著高于Ⅰ组和Ⅱ组(P<0.01);Ⅴ组水貂的尿氮极显著高于Ⅱ组和Ⅳ组( P<0.01),Ⅳ组水貂的氮沉积、净蛋白质利用率和蛋白质生物学价值显著高于Ⅰ组(P<0.05)。4)Ⅴ组水貂的皮长显著高于Ⅰ组(P<0.05);Ⅴ组水貂的鲜皮重显著高于Ⅲ组( P<0.05);Ⅲ组水貂的针毛长显著高于Ⅳ组( P<0.05)。由此可见,饲粮中添加黄粉虫能够减少鱼粉、肉骨粉和豆油的添加量,饲粮中添加8%~16%的黄粉虫能够改善毛皮质量。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Tenebrio molitor L. on body weight change, nutrient digestibility,nitrogen metabolism and fur quality of minks during winter hair period. The single factor method was taken in the trial,and sixty minks were randomly assigned into 5 groups. Minks in group Ⅰ were fed a basal diet(without Tenebrio molitor L.),and the others in groupsⅡtoⅤwere fed the experimental di-ets supplemented with 2%,4%,8% and 16% Tenebrio molitor L.,respectively. The pre

  1. 准备配种期雌性水貂适宜日粮蛋白质水平的研究%Evaluation of Different Dietary Protein Levels on Preparative Mating Minks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋清奎; 张志强; 李光玉; 高秀华; 邢秀梅; 杨福合

    2012-01-01

    X The experiment was conducted to evaluate the regularity of digestibility and metabolism of diets with different levels in female minks on preparative mating period. 180 healthy female minks of one year and a half old were randomly assigned into six groups with 30 replicates and each replicate had 1 mink. The treatments were individually fed with 28. 59% (group I),32.31%(group Ⅱ),36. 21%(group Ⅲ),40. 35%(group Ⅳ) protein levels in fresh feed diets and with 32. 66% (group V ) ,40.47% (groupⅥ) protein levels in mixed feed diets. The period of trial lasted for 51 days,including 7 days preset period and 44 days test period. The results showed that the food intake of the fresh feed diets groups was higher than that of the mixed feed diets group,some had significantly difference(P<0. 05), On the item of the digestibility of dry mater, protein and fat,some had significantly difference (P<0. 05). The nitrogen intake, fecal nitrogen, urine nitrogen increased with the protein level in different groups. There was no significantly difference in nitrogen retention, the biology value of protein, net protein usage ratio. However, all of the three indexes tended to decrease when the dietary protein level reached 36. 21%. Of all the indexes, the mixed feed diets group were significantly or extremely lower than the fresh feed diets group(P<0.05 or P< 0.01). In conclusion, the minks had almost equally best nutrient digestibility and availability when the dietary protein level reached 32. 31% and 36. 21% , but in consideration of the feed expense and the particular characteristics of the preparative mating minks, 32. 31% protein level of diet would be the best choice in the preparative mating period, and the mixed feed diets were not recommended for this particular period.%本试验以准备配种期日粮蛋白质水平对水貂营养物质消化率及氮代谢的影响为研究目的.选择经产适龄母貂180只,随机分成6组,每组30个重复,每个重复1只水貂.6

  2. Sequence Analysis of the Hemagglutinin Gene of Canine distemper virus from Vaccinated Dogs,Minks and Foxes%犬瘟热病毒疫苗免疫逃逸株的血凝素基因变异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 隋晓梅; 王怡男; 单虎

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand whether new genotype emerged,we detected Canine distemper virus(CDV)in immunized dogs,breeding foxes and minks in different regions by amplification of nucleocapsid(N)and hemaggluti-nin(H)gene.13 strains from CDV-positive cases(8 minks,2 foxes and 3 dogs)were sequenced.The results showed that the 13 Chinese strains shared 99.1 %-100.0% nucleotide identity.Compared with those of other Chinese CDV strains isolated before 2012,four consistent amino acid changes,P200S,M263I,I542N and Y549H,were observed in the H coding sequence of CDV isolated from vaccinated animals,which contribute to an additional N-glycosylation site and antigenic epitope.All of the strains obtained from 13 samples were characterized as genotype Asia-1 accord-ing to the sequence analysis of the complete H gene,which was the sole genotype in minks in China.These findings provide a comprehensive understanding of current immune failure and the molecular epidemiology of CDV in China.%为了弄清是否有新基因型犬瘟热病毒出现,对山东省不同地区的免疫水貂、狐狸和犬进行了犬瘟热病毒检测,扩增了病毒核衣壳基因和血凝素基因(H),并对13个犬瘟热病毒山东株(8株貂源,2株狐狸源,3株犬源)血凝素基因进行了测序。结果表明,13个犬瘟热病毒山东株之间 H 基因核苷酸同源性为99.1%~100.0%,均为 Asia-1型,这也是我国目前水貂犬瘟热病毒唯一的基因型。与2012年之前的犬瘟热病毒中国分离株及疫苗株相比,13个毒株H 基因有4个氨基酸的一致性变异,即 P200S、M263I、I542N 和 Y549H,N-糖基化位点比 Onderstepoort 株多6或7个,比 CDV3株多3或4个。抗原性分析表明,与疫苗株相比,13株山东株在540-549位氨基酸出现一个新的抗原区域,210-230,327-347位的抗原区域也与疫苗株不同,这些变异可能是我国貂狐犬瘟热免疫失败的原因。

  3. 饲粮粗蛋白质与外源褪黑激素水平对水貂生长性能、血清生化指标及营养物质消化率的影响%Effects of Dietary Protein and Exogenous Melatonin Levels on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Digestibility of Minks (Mustela vison)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋兴超; 薛海龙; 陈秀敏; 杨镒峰; 魏海军; 李光玉; 杨福合

    2013-01-01

    试验各项测定指标可以得出,皮下埋植10 mg/只外源MT时,水貂较适宜的饲粮CP水平为32% ~36%.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) and exogenous melatonin (MT) levels on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility of minks. Ninety healthy fifty-day-old male minks with a similar body weight were randomly divided into 6 groups with 15 replicates per group and 1 mink per replicate. The trial was carried out using three dietary CP levels (32% , 36% and 40% ) and two subcutaneous implant exogenous MT levels (0 and 10 mg per mink) in a 3 x 2 factorial design. The trial lasted for 64 days. The results showed as follows: 1) the final weight of minks fed diets with 40% CP level in 10 mg MT group was significantly higher than that in 0 mg MT group (Ρ0. 05). 2) The serum albumin (ALB) content of minks fed diets with 32% and 40% CP levels in 10 mg MT group was significantly lower than that in 0 mg MT groups (P 0. 05). 3) For 10 mg MT groups, the dry matter (DM) intake of minks fed diets with 32% and 36% CP levels was significantly higher than that of minks fed diets with 40% CP level (P 0. 05). 4) For 10 mg MT groups, the ether extract (EE) digestibility of minks fed diets with 36% CP level was siginificantly higher than that of minks fed diets with 32% and 40% CP levels (P0. 05). Considering all factors, dietary 32% to 36% CP level is considered to be optimal for minks with 10 mg exogenous MT implantation.

  4. 饲粮脂肪源对冬毛期短毛黑水貂营养物质消化代谢的影响%Effects of Dietary Fat Sources on Hutrient Digestion and Metabolism of Short-Haired Black Minks(Mustelidae vison)in Furring Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖; 吴琼; 荣敏; 吴学壮; 邢秀梅

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮脂肪源对冬毛期短毛黑水貂营养物质消化代谢的影响。选择96只120日龄、体重相近、健康的短毛黑水貂,随机分成4组,每组24只。4组水貂分别饲喂油脂为豆油(Ⅰ组)、鸡油(Ⅱ组)、鱼油(Ⅲ组)、猪油(Ⅳ组)的试验饲粮,试验期80 d。结果表明:1)各组公貂的干物质消化率、粗蛋白质消化率、粗脂肪消化率均无显著差异( P>0.05),各组母貂的干物质采食量、干物质消化率、粗蛋白质消化率均无显著差异( P>0.05)。2)各组公貂和母貂的粪氮、氮沉积、蛋白质生物学价值均无显著差异( P>0.05)。Ⅰ组母貂净蛋白质利用率显著高于Ⅳ组( P<0.05)。3)Ⅱ组公貂总能、尿能、消化能、代谢能显著高于Ⅲ组( P<0.05),各组公貂的粪能、总能消化率、总能代谢率和消化能代谢率无显著差异( P>0.05)。各组母貂的总能、消化能、代谢能、总能消化率无显著差异(P>0.05),Ⅳ组母貂的粪能、尿能显著高于Ⅲ组(P<0.05)。由此可知,饲粮脂肪源对冬毛期短毛黑水貂营养物质消化率代谢没有明显影响。%This study was conducted to study the effects of dietary fat sources on nutrient digestion and metabo-lism of short-haired black minks in furring period. Ninety six 120-day-old healthy short-haired black minks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 24 minks in each group. Minks in the four groups were fed the experimental diets with fat sources of soybean oil( group Ⅰ),chicken fat( group Ⅱ),fish oil ( group Ⅲ)and lard( group Ⅳ),respectively. The experiment lasted for 80 days. The results showed as fol-lows:1)there were no significant difference on the digestibility of dry matter,crude protein and ether extract of male minks among all groups( P>0.05). There were no significant difference on dry matter

  5. Amdoparvoviruses in small mammals: expanding our understanding of parvovirus diversity, distribution, and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eCanuti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many new viruses have been discovered recently, thanks in part to the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies. Among the Parvoviridae, three novel members of the genus Amdoparvovirus have been described in the last four years, expanding this genus that had contained a single species since its discovery, Aleutian mink disease virus. The increasing number of molecular and epidemiological studies on these viruses around the world also highlights the growing interest in this genus. Some aspects of amdoparvoviruses have been well characterized, however many other aspects still need to be elucidated and the most recent reviews on this topic are outdated. We provide here an up-to-date overview of what is known and what still needs to be investigated about these scientifically and clinically relevant animal viruses.

  6. The neocortex of cetartiodactyls: I. A comparative Golgi analysis of neuronal morphology in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butti, Camilla; Janeway, Caroline M; Townshend, Courtney; Wicinski, Bridget A; Reidenberg, Joy S; Ridgway, Sam H; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Jacobs, Bob

    2015-11-01

    The present study documents the morphology of neurons in several regions of the neocortex from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Golgi-stained neurons (n = 210) were analyzed in the frontal and temporal neocortex as well as in the primary visual and primary motor areas. Qualitatively, all three species exhibited a diversity of neuronal morphologies, with spiny neurons including typical pyramidal types, similar to those observed in primates and rodents, as well as other spiny neuron types that had more variable morphology and/or orientation. Five neuron types, with a vertical apical dendrite, approximated the general pyramidal neuron morphology (i.e., typical pyramidal, extraverted, magnopyramidal, multiapical, and bitufted neurons), with a predominance of typical and extraverted pyramidal neurons. In what may represent a cetacean morphological apomorphy, both typical pyramidal and magnopyramidal neurons frequently exhibited a tri-tufted variant. In the humpback whale, there were also large, star-like neurons with no discernable apical dendrite. Aspiny bipolar and multipolar interneurons were morphologically consistent with those reported previously in other mammals. Quantitative analyses showed that neuronal size and dendritic extent increased in association with body size and brain mass (bottlenose dolphin neocortex of cetaceans as compared to other mammals and that neuronal dendritic extent covaries with brain and body size.

  7. Isolation, Identification and Biological Characteristics of Lactobacillus from Health Minks%一株水貂源乳杆菌的分离鉴定及生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚松; 刘坤; 温建新; 邹玲

    2013-01-01

    为研究适用于水貂的专用菌制剂,试验采集健康成年母貂的新鲜肠粘膜和粪便,用改良MRS培养基,对肠道与粪便中的微生物进行分离培养,筛选优势菌株,观察其菌落形态,并进行生化试验和16S rRNA分子生物学鉴定,并对其生长情况和安全性等生物特性进行了研究.结果表明,优势菌株(RSJ)为乳酸杆菌;生长6h进入对数期,前18 h菌株繁殖较快,pH急速下降;18~36 h,菌株维持在稳定期;pH 2.0和3.0时菌株不生长,pH 5.0和6.0时生长良好;对青霉素和环丙沙星的耐药性较强,对其余的抗生素则表现为敏感;菌株RSJ对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌均有抑菌作用.安全性试验显示,RSJ对小鼠无毒性.RSJ菌株具备了益生菌的基本条件,为进一步研究与开发微生态制剂奠定了基础.%In order to investigate the mink special beneficial bacteria,fresh intestinal mucosa and feces were taken by sterile from a healthy adult female mink in this test.Its intestinal and fecal microbes were isolated and cultured through improved MRS medium,a predominant strain was screened and named RSJ,Its colony morphology,microscopic characteristics,biochemical test were detected and was identified by 16S rRNA molecular biological experiments.Also the biological characteristics of the growth and security were studied.The results show that:the RSJ strain is Lactobacillus.The growth situation results showed that:the strain growed into logarithmic phase by liquid culture 6h,by 18h strain breeding faster.The value of pH was the rapid decline; 18-36 h,strains grew into a stable period.Acid-resistant test results showed that:the strain didn't grow at pH values of 2.0 and 3.0,strains grew well at the pH values of 5.0 and 6.0.Susceptibility testing and antibacterial test results showed that:the RSJ strain had strong resistance to penicillin and ciprofloxacin,not sensitive to the rest of the antibiotics; RSJ strain had significant inhibitory

  8. 饲粮锌添加水平对繁殖期雄性水貂繁殖性能、营养物质消化率及氮代谢的影响%Effects of Dietary Zinc Supplemental Level on Reproductive Performance,Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Metabolism of Reproducing Male Minks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴学壮; 张铁涛; 杨颖; 刘志; 高秀华; 杨福合; 邢秀梅

    2013-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮锌添加水平对繁殖期雄性水貂繁殖性能、营养物质消化率及氮代谢的影响.选择健康后备种雄性水貂60只,随机分成5组,每组12个重复,每个重复1只貂.各组水貂分别饲喂锌添加水平为0(Ⅰ组)、50(Ⅱ组)、100(Ⅲ组)、200(Ⅳ组)、400 mg/kg(Ⅴ组)的试验饲粮.预试期7d,正试期120 d.结果表明:1)Ⅰ组精子活力极显著低于Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组(P<0.01),显著低于Ⅴ组(P<0.05);Ⅰ组睾丸直径极显著小于Ⅱ组(P<0.01),显著小于Ⅲ组(P<0.05);Ⅰ组公貂成功配种次数极显著小于Ⅲ组(P<0.01),显著小于Ⅱ组和Ⅳ组(P<0.05). 2)各组干物质采食量、脂肪消化率差异不显著(P>0.05);Ⅲ组干物质排出量显著高于Ⅰ组(P<0.05);Ⅱ组干物质消化率极显著高于Ⅴ组(P<0.01),显著高于Ⅳ组(P<0.05);Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组蛋白质消化率显著高于Ⅴ组(P<0.05).3)各组食入氮、尿氮、氮沉积、净蛋白质利用率、蛋白质生物学价值均差异不显著(P>0.05).由此可见,饲粮锌添加水平为50 ~ 100 mg/kg(总锌水平140~190 mg/kg)时,水貂的繁殖性能较为理想.饲粮锌添加水平为100 mg/kg(总锌水平190 mg/kg)时,水貂的干物质采食量较高.饲粮锌添加水平对水貂的干物质采食量、脂肪消化率、氮沉积、净蛋白质利用率及蛋白质生物学价值影响不显著.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary zinc supplemental level on reproductive performance,nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism of reproducing male minks.Sixty healthy male minks were randomly divided into 5 groups with 12 replicates per group and 1 mink per replicate.The minks in the 5 groups were fed experimental diets with zinc supplemental levels of 0 (group Ⅰ),50 (group Ⅱ),100 (group Ⅲ),200 (group Ⅳ) and 400 mg/kg (group Ⅴ),respectively.The pre-test period lasted for 7 days and the trial period lasted for 120 days.The results showed as

  9. Estrutura populacional da Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister (Cetacea, Balaenopteridae nas áreas de reprodução do Oceano Atlântico Sul Minke whale Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister (Cetacea, Balaenopteridae population structure in the breeding grounds off South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alineide Lucena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo da composição dos grupos de baleias minke, Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Burmeister, 1867, capturadas nas águas de Costinha, Paraíba, Brasil, na época da caça comercial, foi realizado com o objetivo de conhecer a dinâmica dos principais parâmetros biológicos, assim como aspectos do comportamento reprodutivo desta espécie. Foram analisados dados da caça coletados pela Superintendência para o Desenvolvimento da Pesca e Companhia de Pesca Norte do Brasil acerca do tamanho e composição dos grupos, proporções sexuais e grau de maturidade das baleias capturadas entre os anos de 1975 a 1985. Os grupos encontrados nas águas de Costinha foram em geral de pequeno tamanho e compostos de animais de ambos os sexos, com predominância de fêmeas e animais maturos sexualmente. Os filhotes, as fêmeas lactantes e prenhes foram raramente encontrados. Esta população de baleias encontrava-se em maior número na costa da Paraíba entre os meses de setembro e outubro, principal período de concepção para a espécie, devendo ocorrer grande número de fecundações nesta área e período. A ausência de fêmeas prenhes ou lactantes e filhotes nesta população demonstra que os nascimentos não ocorrem nesta área. O encalhe e a avistagem de filhotes da baleia minke na costa leste da América do Sul (entre 25ºS e 40ºS sugere o nascimento dos filhotes em médias latitudes desta região, onde a temperatura da água é inferior à encontrada na costa do nordeste brasileiro. Desta forma há indícios de que existam distintas áreas para o nascimento de filhotes e o acasalamento da baleia minke nas águas do Oceano Atlântico Sul Ocidental. A poligamia é um comportamento reprodutivo apresentado pela baleia minke, tendo sido observado através da proporção sexual das capturas e da composição dos grupos formados apenas por animais maturos sexualmente nesta área de acasalamento.A group composition study of the minke whale, Balaenoptera

  10. Diet of the American mink Mustela vison and its potential impact on the native fauna of Navarino Island, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile Dieta del visón norteamericano Mustela vison y su impacto potencial sobre la fauna nativa de Isla Navarino, Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELKE SCHÜTTLER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive exotic species of mammalian predators represent a major cause of vertebrate animal extinctions on islands, particularly those that lack native mammalian carnivores. In 2001, the American mink (Mustela vison was recorded for the first time on Navarino Island, in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (55° S in Chile, representing the southernmost population of mink worldwide. In order to assess its potential impact on native fauna, we studied its diet on Navarino Island, as part of an integrative management program on invasive species. Over a three-year period (2005-2007 we collected 512 scats in semi-aquatic habitats: marine coasts, riparian and lake shores. Overall, the main prey was mammals (37 % biomass, and birds (36 %, followed by fish (24 %. Over the spring and summer, mink consumed significantly more birds, whereas mammals constituted the main prey over the autumn and winter when migratory birds had left the area. Among birds, the mink preyed mainly on adult Passeriformes, followed by Anseriformes and Pelecaniformes, caught as chicks. Among mammals, the exotic muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus was the most important prey, and together with the native rodent Abrothrix xanthorhinus it accounted for 78 % of the biomass intake. For an integrated management of invasive exotic mammal species on Navarino Island and in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve it is important to further research interactions established here among the various introduced mammals, and to initiate immediate control of the mink population in its initial stage of invasion.Las especies exóticas de mamíferos carnívoros invasores constituyen una de las principales causas de extinciones de vertebrados en islas, particularmente en aquellas que carecen de predadores mamíferos nativos. En 2001, el visón norteamericano (Mustela vison fue registrado por primera vez en Isla Navarino en la Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos (55° S en Chile, representando la población de visones m

  11. 日粮锌源与添加水平对冬毛期母貂体重和养分消化代谢的影响%Effects of Zinc Resources and Levels in Ration on Body Weight and Digestibility and Metabolism of Nutrients of Female Mink in Furring Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进军; 刘洁; 任二军; 李亚青; 李晓华

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different sources and levels of zinc on body weight ,nutrient digestibility and nitro-gen balance of female mink in furring period .Eighty four female minks were randomly allocated into 7 groups ,each with 12 replicates .The diets were supplemented with zinc methionine at levels of 0mg/kg(group A) ,15mg/kg(group B) ,30mg/kg(group C) ,45mg/kg(group D) ,60mg/kg (group E) ,75mg/kg(group F) and with Zinc sulfate at the level of 60mg/kg(group G) ,respectively .The results showed that ,there were no significant difference between group E and group G on body weight ,nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of female mink ( P>0.05 ) ,but fat digestibility was significantly higher than that of group G .Body weight(160d) and average daily gain of group E were the highest ,significant-ly higher than that of group D ( P<0.05 ) .Protein digestibility of group D was the highest ,markedly higher than that of group C ( P<0.05 ) .Fat digestibility of group B was evidently higher ( P<0.05 ) than those of other groups having different Zinc levels ( P<0.05 ) .In conclusion ,body weight and digestibility could be improved by using zinc methionine in diet for female minks in furring period .%本试验旨在研究不同锌源与水平对冬毛期母貂体重、养分消化率及氮代谢的影响。选择84只母貂作为试验动物,随机分为7组,每组12只,日粮中分别添加蛋氨酸螯合锌0mg/kg (A组)、15mg/kg (B组)、30mg/kg (C组)、45mg/kg (D组)、60mg/kg (E组)、75mg/kg (F组)和硫酸锌60mg/kg (G组)。结果表明,E组与G组母貂的体重、养分消化率和氮平衡没有显著差异( P>0.05),但B组脂肪消化率显著高于G组;E组母貂的体重(160d)和平均日增重最高,显著高于D组( P<0.05);D组母貂蛋白质消化率最高,与C组差异显著( P<0.05);B组母貂脂肪消化率显著地高于其他各水平组( P<0

  12. Effects of Dietary Protein Levels on Selected Serum Biochemical Indices of Minks during the Winter Hair Period%饲粮蛋白质水平对冬毛期水貂部分血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁涛; 张志强; 刘汇涛; 高秀华; 杨福合; 邢秀梅

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮蛋白质水平对冬毛期水貂血清含氮物质、氮代谢和抗氧化能力的影响.选择90日龄健康雄性水貂60只,随机分成6组(每组10个重复,每个重复1只水貂).分别饲喂蛋白质水平为28%(Ⅰ组)、30%(Ⅱ组)、32%(Ⅲ组)、34%(Ⅳ组)、36%(Ⅴ组)、38%(Ⅵ组)的试验饲粮.预试期7 d,正式期90 d,饲养试验结束后进行屠宰,制备血清并测定相关生化指标.结果表明,Ⅲ组水貂的血清总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白含量显著或极显著高于其他各试验组(P0.05);Ⅳ组水貂血清总氨基酸含量极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ组(P0.05);Ⅳ组水貂的血清谷丙转氨酶活性显著高于Ⅲ组(P0.015);Ⅳ、Ⅴ和Ⅵ组水貂的血清超氧化物歧化酶活性显著或极显著高于Ⅱ和Ⅲ组(P0.05).由此得出,冬毛期水貂饲粮蛋白质水平达到34%时,机体的蛋白质合成效率相对较高,抗氧化能力相对较强.%The experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary protein levels on serum nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant capacity of minks during the winter hair period. Sixty healthy 90-day-old male minks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 10 replicates per group and 1 mink per replicate. The minks were fed the experimental diets with 28% ( group Ⅰ ), 30% ( group Ⅱ ), 32%(group Ⅲ), 34% ( group Ⅳ), 36% (group Ⅴ ) and 38% (group Ⅵ) protein levels, respectively. The trial lasted for 97 d with 7 d of pretrial, and then the minks were slaughtered. The serum was centrifuged and the relative biochemical indices were determined. The results showed as follows: the contents of serum total protein, albumin and globulin in group Ⅲ were significantly higher than those in other groups ( P < 0.05 or P <0.01 ), and no significant difference was found among other groups ( P > 0.05 ); serum total amino acid content in group Ⅳ was significantly higher than that in groups Ⅰ ,

  13. Effects of Dietary Protein Level on Gastrointestinal Digestive Enzyme Activity and Jejunal Morphology in Minks during Winter Hair Period%饲粮蛋白质水平对冬毛期水貂胃肠道消化酶活性以及空肠形态结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁涛; 崔虎; 岳志刚; 杨颖; 高秀华; 杨福合; 邢秀梅

    2012-01-01

    本文旨在研究饲粮蛋白质水平对冬毛期水貂胃肠道消化酶活性以及空肠形态结构的影响.选择90日龄的健康公貂60只,随机分成6组(每组10个重复,每个重复1只),分别饲喂蛋白质水平为28%(Ⅰ组)、30%(Ⅱ组)、32%(Ⅲ组)、34%(Ⅳ组)、36%(Ⅴ组)和38%(Ⅵ组)的试验饲粮.预试期7d,正试期115 d.饲养试验结束后进行屠宰,制备胃肠道内容物上清液,用于测定消化酶活性;制备空肠组织切片,用于观察空肠的形态结构.结果表明:Ⅴ组水貂的胃蛋白酶活性极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ组(P<0.01),与Ⅳ和Ⅵ组差异不显著(P>0.05).Ⅳ组水貂的十二指肠和空肠胰淀粉酶活性极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅴ和Ⅵ组(P<0.01).Ⅳ和Ⅴ组水貂的回肠胰淀粉酶活性显著或极显著高于Ⅰ和Ⅱ组(P<0.05或P<0.01).Ⅳ组水貂的十二指肠胰蛋白酶活性极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅴ和Ⅵ组(P<0.01),空肠胰蛋白酶活性极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅴ和Ⅵ组(P<0.01).Ⅲ组水貂的回肠胰蛋白酶活性显著高于Ⅵ组(P<0.05),与其他各组差异不显著(P>0.05).Ⅵ组水貂的十二指肠胰脂肪酶活性显著或极显著高于Ⅱ、Ⅳ和Ⅴ组(P<0.05或P<0.01),空肠胰脂肪酶活性显著或极显著高于Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ和Ⅴ组(P <0.05或P<0.01).Ⅰ、Ⅲ和Ⅴ组水貂的回肠胰脂肪酶活性极显著高于Ⅱ和Ⅵ组(P<0.01),与Ⅳ组差异不显著(P>0.05).饲粮蛋白质水平为36%时,水貂空肠绒毛高度、隐窝深度、绒毛高度与隐窝深度比值、黏膜厚度以及肠壁厚度均处在较高水平.由此得出,饲粮蛋白质水平可影响冬毛期水貂胃肠道消化酶活性,并可调节其空肠形态结构.%The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of dietary protein level on gastrointestinal digestive enzyme activity and jejunal morphology in minks during winter hair period. Sixty healthy male minks at 90 days of age

  14. Gaucher disease

    OpenAIRE

    POSPÍŠILOVÁ, Iva

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the disease called Gaucher disease, or Morbus Gaucher. There is described the history of the disease, various forms of disease, effect of bones, visceral organs, hematological changes, changes in metabolism etc.; differential diagnosis, diagnosis and therapy.

  15. Lesion of the olfactory epithelium accelerates prion neuroinvasion and disease onset when prion replication is restricted to neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Crowell

    Full Text Available Natural prion diseases of ruminants are moderately contagious and while the gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of prion agent entry, other mucosae may be entry sites in a subset of infections. In the current study we examined prion neuroinvasion and disease induction following disruption of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucosa since this site contains environmentally exposed olfactory sensory neurons that project directly into the central nervous system. Here we provide evidence for accelerated prion neuroinvasion and clinical onset from the olfactory mucosa after disruption and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium and when prion replication is restricted to neurons. In transgenic mice with neuron restricted replication of prions, there was a reduction in survival when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation and there was >25% decrease in the prion incubation period. In a second model, the neurotropic DY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy was not pathogenic in hamsters by the nasal route, but 50% of animals exhibited brain infection and/or disease when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation. A time course analysis of prion deposition in the brain following loss of the olfactory epithelium in models of neuron-restricted prion replication suggests that neuroinvasion from the olfactory mucosa is via the olfactory nerve or brain stem associated cranial nerves. We propose that induction of neurogenesis after damage to the olfactory epithelium can lead to prion infection of immature olfactory sensory neurons and accelerate prion spread to the brain.

  16. Hashimoto's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Hashimoto’s disease? Hashimoto’s disease, also called chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis or autoimmune thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease. An ... Points to Remember • Hashimoto’s disease, also called chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis or autoimmune thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease. • Hashimoto’s ...

  17. Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digestive problems called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or lactose intolerance . And in some cases, a kid won't ... for Kids With Celiac Disease Inflammatory Bowel Disease Lactose Intolerance Are Your Bowels Moving? Indigestion Nut and Peanut ...

  18. Gaucher's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of developing the most common variety of Gaucher's disease. Gaucher's disease may increase the risk of: Growth delays ... illness can be difficult, but having a rare disease like Gaucher's may be even harder. Few people know about ...

  19. Pick disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Memory loss is often the main, and earliest, symptom of Alzheimer disease.) People with Pick disease tend to behave the wrong way in different social settings. The changes in behavior ... symptoms of the disease. Some persons have more difficulty ...

  20. Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Alzheimer Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Alzheimer Disease A A A ... slow it down. When Someone You Love Has Alzheimer Disease You might feel sad or angry — or both — ...

  1. Meniere's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meniere's disease can affect your social life, your productivity and the overall quality of your life. Learn ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/menieres-disease/basics/definition/CON-20028251 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  2. Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of ...

  3. Kawasaki Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood disease. It makes the walls of the blood vessels in the body ... veins, and capillaries. No one knows what causes Kawasaki disease. Symptoms include High fever that lasts longer than ...

  4. Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory ... small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease is unknown. It may be due to an ...

  5. Crohn disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from doing your everyday activities. You have side effects from medicines you are taking for your condition. Alternative Names Crohn's disease; Inflammatory bowel disease - Crohn's disease; Regional enteritis; Ileitis; ...

  6. Ribbing disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukkada Philson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribbing disease is a rare sclerosing dysplasia that involves long tubular bones, especially the tibia and femur. It occurs after puberty and is reported to be more common in women. In this article we describe how Ribbing disease can be differentiated from diseases like Engelmann-Camurati disease, van Buchem disease, Erdheim-Chester disease, osteoid osteoma, chronic osteomyelitis, stress fracture, etc.

  7. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  8. Bladder Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  9. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  10. Glomerular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD ... kidney damage. Endocarditis sometimes produces chronic kidney disease (CKD). HIV, the virus that leads to AIDS, can also cause glomerular disease. Between 5 and 10 percent of ...

  11. Whipple's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common conditions with similar symptoms, including inflammatory rheumatic disease—characterized by inflammation and loss of function in ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la salud en ...

  12. Prominent pancreatic endocrinopathy and altered control of food intake disrupt energy homeostasis in prion diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.D.; Berardinelli, J.G.; Rocke, T.E.; Bessen, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that can induce endocrinopathies. The basis of altered endocrine function in prion diseases is not well understood, and the purpose of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal relationship between energy homeostasis and prion infection in hamsters inoculated with either the 139H strain of scrapie agent, which induces preclinical weight gain, or the HY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), which induces clinical weight loss. Temporal changes in body weight, feed, and water intake were measured as well as both non-fasted and fasted concentrations of serum glucose, insulin, glucagon, ??-ketones, and leptin. In 139H scrapie-infected hamsters, polydipsia, hyperphagia, non-fasted hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia, and fasted hyperleptinemia were found at preclinical stages and are consistent with an anabolic syndrome that has similarities to type II diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome X. In HY TME-infected hamsters, hypodipsia, hypersecretion of glucagon (in both non-fasted and fasted states), increased fasted ??-ketones, fasted hypoglycemia, and suppressed non-fasted leptin concentrations were found while feed intake was normal. These findings suggest a severe catabolic syndrome in HY TME infection mediated by chronic increases in glucagon secretion. In both models, alterations of pancreatic endocrine function were not associated with PrPSc deposition in the pancreas. The results indicate that prominent endocrinopathy underlies alterations in body weight, pancreatic endocrine function, and intake of food. The prion-induced alterations of energy homeostasis in 139H scrapie- or HY TME-infected hamsters could occur within areas of the hypothalamus that control food satiety and/or within autonomic centers that provide neural outflow to the pancreas. ?? 2008 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. Rh Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Rh disease Rh disease E-mail to a friend Please fill ... Rh-negative with a blood test. What is Rh factor? Rh factor is a protein that’s found ...

  14. Fifth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and ...

  15. Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stay still. Liver disease has many causes. Infection Parasites and viruses can infect the liver, causing inflammation ... beyond. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/ ...

  16. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  17. Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  18. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  19. Mitochondrial Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Mitochondrial diseases are a group of metabolic disorders. Mitochondria are ... cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how many mitochondria ...

  20. Canavan Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation, Inc. Canavan Research Foundation Genetic Alliance National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association See all related ... Foundation, Inc. Canavan Research Foundation Genetic Alliance National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association See all related ...

  1. Gaucher Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inc. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association See all related ... Inc. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association See all related ...

  2. Fabry Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association See all related ... Foundation National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association See all related ...

  3. Legionnaires' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Sources Investigation Protocol Outbreak Response What is Legionella? Exposure and Transmission Disease Symptoms Incidence and Risk ... form of pneumonia. More than 43 species of Legionella have been identified and more than 20 linked ...

  4. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Celiac Disease Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) Gas Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease Topics Children and Teens Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Chronic ...

  5. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  6. Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  7. Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart valves, valve insufficiency, valve regurgitation, valve stenosis, valvular heart disease Every time your heart beats, blood flows into, ... removed from the market after being linked to heart valve disease. An infection in the lining of the heart's ...

  8. Gaucher Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It is a type of lipid metabolism disorder. If you have ... affected. It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types 1 ...

  9. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily aspirin to prevent heart attack? Does taking birth control pills increase my risk for heart disease? Does using ... tells you to. Return to top Does taking birth control pills increase my risk for heart disease? Taking birth ...

  10. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You ... extra copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  11. Binswanger's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Craniosynostosis Information Page Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Information Page Cushing's Syndrome Information Page Dandy-Walker Syndrome Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Dementia Information ...

  12. Batten Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Craniosynostosis Information Page Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Information Page Cushing's Syndrome Information Page Dandy-Walker Syndrome Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Dementia Information ...

  13. Behcet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Craniosynostosis Information Page Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Information Page Cushing's Syndrome Information Page Dandy-Walker Syndrome Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Dementia Information ...

  14. Krabbe Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Craniosynostosis Information Page Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Information Page Cushing's Syndrome Information Page Dandy-Walker Syndrome Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Dementia Information ...

  15. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in copper, such as –shellfish –liver –mushrooms –nuts –chocolate • A person cannot prevent Wilson disease; however, people with a family history of Wilson disease, especially those with an affected ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parkinson's disease more than stretching and resistance training. Yoga. In yoga, gentle stretching movements and poses may increase your ... Disease Association. You and your family may also benefit from talking to a mental health professional (psychologist) ...

  17. Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000755.htm Parkinson disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Parkinson disease causes certain brain cells to die. These are ...

  18. Addison disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amounts of some or all of its hormones ( hypopituitarism ) Autoimmune disorder that affects the nerves and the ... disease) Dermatitis herpetiformis Diabetes Graves disease Hyperthyroidism Hypoparathyroidism Hypopituitarism Immune response Myasthenia gravis Ovarian hypofunction Pernicious anemia ...

  19. Legionnaire disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Legionnaire disease is an infection of the lungs and airways. It is caused by Legionella bacteria. Causes The bacteria that cause Legionnaire disease have ...

  20. Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prognosis of Crohn's disease in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 2, 2014. Smoking and ... cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 9, 2014. Inflammatory bowel ...

  1. [Gaucher Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Torayuki

    2015-09-01

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by congenital deficiency of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase. Gaucher disease is classified into three types. In addition to enzyme replacement therapy, substrate reduction therapy, chemical chaperon therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy are considered for the effective treatment of Gaucher disease.

  2. Menetrier's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... producing cells in the stomach, which decreases stomach acid. Ménétrier’s disease is also called Ménétrier disease or hypoproteinemic hypertrophic ... Alternate Versions PDF Version (102 KB) Additional Links Peptic Ulcer Disease Upper GI Endoscopy This content is provided as ...

  3. Distinct transmissibility features of TSE sources derived from ruminant prion diseases by the oral route in a transgenic mouse model (TgOvPrP4 overexpressing the ovine prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noël Arsac

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with a misfolded form of host-encoded prion protein (PrP. Some of them, such as classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle (BSE, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME, kuru and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, are acquired by the oral route exposure to infected tissues. We investigated the possible transmission by the oral route of a panel of strains derived from ruminant prion diseases in a transgenic mouse model (TgOvPrP4 overexpressing the ovine prion protein (A136R154Q171 under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. Sources derived from Nor98, CH1641 or 87V scrapie sources, as well as sources derived from L-type BSE or cattle-passaged TME, failed to transmit by the oral route, whereas those derived from classical BSE and classical scrapie were successfully transmitted. Apart from a possible effect of passage history of the TSE agent in the inocula, this implied the occurrence of subtle molecular changes in the protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres following oral transmission that can raises concerns about our ability to correctly identify sheep that might be orally infected by the BSE agent in the field. Our results provide proof of principle that transgenic mouse models can be used to examine the transmissibility of TSE agents by the oral route, providing novel insights regarding the pathogenesis of prion diseases.

  4. Plant-derived vaccine protects target animals against a viral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Kristian; Uttenthal, Åse; Jones, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    of oligonucleotides coding for a short linear epitope from the VP2 capsid protein of mink enteritis virus (MEV) into an infectious cDNA clone of cowpea mosaic virus and the successful expression of the epitope on the surface of CVPs when propagated in the black-eyed bean, Vigna unguiculata. The efficacy of the CVPs....... The epitope used occurs in three different virus species-MEV, canine parvovirus, and feline panleukopenia virus-and thus the same vaccine could be used in three economically important viral hosts-mink, dogs, and cats, respectively....

  5. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fat Levels on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Metabolism of Female Minks during Growing Period%饲粮蛋白质和脂肪水平对育成期雌性水貂生长性能、营养物质消化率及氮代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海华; 杨雅涵; 南韦肖; 王卓; 李光玉

    2016-01-01

    量和尿氮排出量均以30%脂肪水平组最低,与10%和20%脂肪水平组存在显著( P<0.05)或极显著( P<0.01)差异;随着饲粮脂肪水平的增加,氮沉积呈先升高后降低的趋势,而氮生物学效价呈升高的趋势。综合各项指标,在本试验条件下,当饲粮蛋白质水平为32%、脂肪水平为20%~30%时,育成期雌性水貂生长性能最佳,且能够降低尿氮排出量,提高水貂对饲粮蛋白质的利用率。%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary protein and fat levels on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism of female minks during growing period, in order to determine the optimum dietary protein and fat levels of female minks during growing period. A 2 × 3 factorial design was adopted in this experiment to designed 6 kinds of experimental diets with 2 protein levels [ 32%( L) and 36% ( H) ] and 3 fat levels [ 10% ( L) , 20% ( M) and 30% ( H) ] . In accordance with protein and fat levels, six kinds of experimental diets were named as LL, LM, LH, HL, HM and HH, respectively. A to-tal of 90 healthy female minks at the age of 60 days were randomly assigned into 6 groups with 15 replicates per group and 1 mink per replicate. The adaptation period lasted for 7 days and the formal period lasted for 60 days. The results showed as follows: the highest values of final weight and average daily gain ( ADG) were found in LH group, they were significantly higher than those in LL and HL groups ( P<0.05) , and they had a increasing trend with dietary fat level increasing. Average daily feed intake ( ADFI) and feed/gain ( F/G) were the lowest in LH group; the ADFI in 30% fat level group was extremely significantly lower than that in 20% fat level group ( P<0.01); the F/G was increased with dietary fat level increasing, and that in 30% fat level group was extremely significantly lower than that in 10% and 20% fat level groups ( P<0.01) . Dry matter digestibility and fat digestibility in LL and HL

  6. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtmeier Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1:270 in Finland to 1:5000 in North America. Since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. Furthermore, severe inflammation of the small bowel can be present without any gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis should be made early since celiac disease causes growth retardation in untreated children and atypical symptoms like infertility or neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy with jejunal biopsy. In addition, tissue-transglutaminase antibodies are important to confirm the diagnosis since there are other diseases which can mimic celiac disease. The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown but is thought to be primarily immune mediated (tissue-transglutaminase autoantigen; often the disease is inherited. Management consists in life long withdrawal of dietary gluten, which leads to significant clinical and histological improvement. However, complete normalization of histology can take years.

  7. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a multysystemic autoimmune disease induced by gluten in wheat, barley and rye. It is characterized by polygenic predisposition, high prevalence (1%, widely heterogeneous expression and frequent association with other autoimmune diseases, selective deficit of IgA and Down, Turner and Williams syndrome. The basis of the disease and the key finding in its diagnostics is symptomatic or asymptomatic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa which resolves by gluten-free diet. Therefore, the basis of the treatment involves elimination diet, so that the disorder, if timely recognized and adequately treated, also characterizes excellent prognosis.

  8. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Disease & NASH Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis) Hepatitis ...

  9. Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hero Brokalaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a small intestine disease caused by the immunological response to gluten, a component of wheat, rye and barley. The worldwide prevalence of celiac disease ranges between 0.2% and 2.2 %. The clinical features of celiac disease includes diarrhea, steatorrhea, flatulence, abdominal pain and weight loss. The asymptomatic type of celiac disease is characterized by soft or normally shaped stool, weakness, lassitude and moderate weight loss. In children, celiac disease usually arises between the first and the third year of age, with diarrhea, flatulence and low weight. The malabsorption in small intestine causes many extaintestinal manifestations, such us anemia, bone abnormalities, hemorrhage and neuropathy. Celiac disease is diagnosed by histological examination of tissue samples taken by duodenum due gastroscopy and by the detection of certain antibodies in blood (anti-GL-IgG, anti-GL-IgA, ΕΜΑ-IgA και anti-tTg-IgA. The only therapeutic approach to celiac disease is a gluten-free diet and, if it is necessary, the administration of iron, folic acid, calcium and vitamins (K, B12. The prognosis of celiac disease is excellent, if there is an early diagnosis and the patient keeps for life a gluten free diet.

  10. Aleutian Canada goose population and nest surveys at Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 6 to 26 June, six biologists made 231 observations of geese. Of this number, 43 were banded, 74 unbanded, and 114 undiscernible. From these observations it is...

  11. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Amchitka Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 136 geese were captured on Buldir. Four died in the transplant efforts. One bird died during transport and three died on Amchitka. The birds that died...

  12. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  13. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 26 May and 24 June 1984 two personnel were stationed at the base camp cabin in Aga Cove along the eastern shore of Agattu Island. Working from the base camp,...

  14. Progress report on restoration of Aleutian Canada geese in the Aleutian Islands, 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Additional information gathered on the flora and fauna of Agattu and Buldir islands is presented in the Appendices. Release techniques, care, and dispersal of geese...

  15. Vascular Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Dissection Arteriovenous Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease ...

  16. What Is Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Dissection Arteriovenous Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease ...

  17. Is "Parkinson's disease" one disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Calne, D B

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to how and why categories of ill health are divided into diseases. Aetiology is a fundamental criterion for the delineation of individual diseases. The same clinical and pathological picture may have many different causes; for example meningococcal meningitis and pneumococcal meningitis are distinct diseases that may display the same symptoms and signs. On the other hand, a single aetiology may lead to quite separate clinical and pathological phenomena; for example, neu...

  18. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individuals with WD is liver disease, appearing in late childhood or early adolescence as acute hepatitis, liver failure, or progressive chronic ... individuals with WD is liver disease, appearing in late childhood or early adolescence as acute hepatitis, liver failure, or progressive chronic ...

  19. Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to note that Alzheimer's disease is not a normal part of aging. What Is Alzheimer's Disease? Video length: 2 min 29 sec Click to watch this video The course of Alzheimer’s disease—which symptoms appear and how quickly changes occur—varies from person to person. The time ...

  20. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Kidney Disease What is Kidney Disease? What the Kidneys Do Click for more information You have two ... damaged, wastes can build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced ...