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Sample records for aleutian islands

  1. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  2. Aleutian Canada geese banding at Chagulak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project captured and banded twenty Aleutian Canada geese on Chagulak Island to help determine their wintering grounds and capture two additional birds for...

  3. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m3 of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations

  4. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  5. 1982 Aleutian Islands salmon stock assessment study: Legislative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a comprehensive research study of the Aleutian Islands salmon resources in 1982. The study encompassed the area west of Unimak Pass to Attu...

  6. Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge : Wilderness study report [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an indepth report containing the results of a wilderness study done of the Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge. It covers the objectives of...

  7. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  8. AFSC/REFM: Atka mackerel Tagging Studies, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1999-2015, approximately 130,000 Atka mackerel have been tagged and released in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, specifically at Seguam Pass, Tanaga Pass,...

  9. Annual report, Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands areas, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Commercial fishery and other FWS service activities, 1959, Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, including Stream Guard program, and extensive statistics.

  10. Arctic and Aleutian terns, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Baird 1980 has recently reported on the ecology of Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea and Aleutian terns Sterna aleutica from 4 areas of mainland Alaska. However, prior...

  11. Progress report on field studies in the Aleutian Islands, Semidi Islands and Bering Sea, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work in the Aleutian Islands, Semidi Islands, and Bering Sea in support of work unit 953.10. Distribution and abundance of birds as seas work...

  12. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski

  13. Cranial suture biology of the Aleutian Island inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-04-01

    Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations. PMID:21328563

  14. Initial arctic fox eradication program on Amukta Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recent discovery of a second wild breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) on Chagulak Island suggested the...

  15. Bird and mammal abundance at Nizki Island with notes on observations at Alaid Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To document migratory bird use and response following elimination of introduced Arctic foxes from an island in the western Aleutian Islands. Fox elimination from an...

  16. Emergency towing systems for the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several incidents related to distressed or stricken vessels have occurred in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, where vessel groundings have caused environmental and economic impacts. A disabled vessel workgroup was formed to discuss local emergency response solutions in the region, particularly for larger tramper or cargo vessels carrying fuel in bottom tanks. The Aleutian emergency towing system (ETS) group developed emergency towing capabilities for disabled vessels in the Aleutian Island sub-area using tugboats in conjunction with ETS equipment stationed in the town of Unalaska. Emergency towing systems were also purchased to serve a wider range of vessels. The ETS consisted of a lightweight towline, a messenger line to assist in deploying the towline, a line-launcher, a lighted buoy, and chafing gear. The components can be configured to deploy a disabled ship from the stern of a tugboat, or air-dropped via helicopter to a ship's deck. A procedures manual and training DVD has been published, and mobilization and deployment exercises are conducted annually. 1 ref., 2 figs

  17. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants...

  18. Distribution and abundance of seabirds over marine waters of the eastern Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Like the Pribilof Islands, the eastern Aleutian islands are located rather strategically in an area where seabirds have short flying time access to a variety of...

  19. Observations of emperor geese in the Aleutian Islands, October 1988-April 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers observations of emperor geese in the Aleutian Islands from October 1988 April 1989. Peak numbers for each study area, age ratios, habitat use,...

  20. Capturing, banding, and transplanting of Aleutian Canada geese, Buldir and Agattu Islands, Alaska, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to capture 100 Aleutian Canada geese and transplant to Agattu Island to continue efforts to reestablish a nesting population on...

  1. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Laman: Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data supporting the "Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions" manuscript are distribution and abundance of Pacific ocean perch from RACEBase,...

  2. Proposed plans for the administration of the Aleutian Islands Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the proposed plans for the administration of the Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge. Main topics in the report include the administration,...

  3. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent locations of...

  4. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  5. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  6. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for crabs and bivalves in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  7. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: NESTS (Nest Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  8. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Points in this data set represent locations of haulout and...

  9. Winter observations of emperor geese in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, October 1988-April 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes findings during the three winters of a study on winter observations in emperor geese in the Aleutian Islands, as well as recommendations to...

  10. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for sea otters and walrus in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  11. The distribution and abundance of seabirds along the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula, fall 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the distribution and abundance of sea birds along the Aleutian Islands and Alaska peninsula during fall 1974. Quantitative observations on the...

  12. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  13. Aleutian Canada goose surveys in Near Islands (Agattu and Nizki): Preliminary report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three observers disembarked the 86' charter vessel Western Pacific near the east end of Nizki Island 23 May 1983. The goal of the field camp was to observe Aleutian...

  14. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Wildlife Refuges in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent management...

  15. Results of monitoring studies for puffins in the western Aleutian Islands in summer 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the results of monitoring studies for puffins in the western Aleutian Islands in Summer 1988. Populations and productivity of tufted and horned...

  16. Aerial survey of sea otters, eastern Aleutian Islands 3-5 March 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the methods, procedure of aerial surveys of sea otters on the Aleutian Island during May 35 1960. Results collected from the survey are also...

  17. Evaluation of diphacinone as a predacide for introduced arctic fox in the Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic fox were introduced for the purpose of fur farming by the Russians at the turn of the century on the majority of the islands in the Aleutian chain. These...

  18. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between 26 May and 24 June 1984 two personnel were stationed at the base camp cabin in Aga Cove along the eastern shore of Agattu Island. Working from the base...

  19. Hair methylmercury levels of mummies of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancient human hair specimens can shed light on the extent of pre-historic exposures to methylmercury and provide valuable comparison data with current-day exposures, particularly for Indigenous Peoples who continue to rely upon local traditional food resources. Human hair from ancient Aleutian Island Native remains were tested for total and methylmercury (Hg, MeHg) and were radiocarbon dated. The remains were approximately 500 years old (1450 A.D.). For four adults, the mean and median total hair mercury concentration was 5.8 ppm (SD=0.9). In contrast, MeHg concentrations were lower with a mean of 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and a median of 0.54 ppm (0.12-3.86). For the five infants, the mean and median MeHg level was 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and 0.20 ppm (0.007-4.61), respectively. Segmental analyses showed variations in MeHg concentrations in 1-cm segments, consistent with fluctuations in naturally occurring exposure to mercury through dietary sources. The levels are comparable to or lower than those found in fish and marine mammal-eating populations today who rely far less on subsistence food than pre-historic humans. The findings are, therefore, compatible with increased anthropogenic release of trace metals during the past several centuries

  20. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2013/2014 crab fishing year so...

  1. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2011/2012 crab fishing year so...

  2. 78 FR 15677 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Rationalization Program (CR Program) in 2005 (70 FR 10174, March 2, 2005). Regulations implementing the FMP... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National... Fishery Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP) for review by...

  3. 77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2012/2013 crab fishing year....

  4. 76 FR 13593 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Amendments 18 and 19 were published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are located at 50 CFR part 680... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Amendment 34 AGENCY... Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs to NMFS for review. If approved,...

  5. 75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2010/2011 crab fishing year so...

  6. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  7. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  8. 76 FR 68161 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Aleutian Islands Pollock Fishery Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... signed into law on January 23, 2004. Section 803 of this law allocates the Aleutian Islands (AI) directed... Aleut Corporation to authorize one or more agents for activities necessary for conducting the AI directed pollock fishery. Management provisions for the AI directed pollock fishery include:...

  9. Aerial survey of sea otters and other marine mammals Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, 19 April to 9 May 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial survey, 19 April to 9 May 1965 yielded information on marine animals and birds in the Aleutian Islands and limited areas along the Alaska Peninsula. In...

  10. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Aleutian Islands, Alaska, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014927)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife by...

  11. The status of ledge-nesting seabirds at monitoring sites in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska in summer 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seabird monitoring in the Aleutian Islands durin9 summer 1989 focused on a guild of ledgenesting species including northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, cormorants...

  12. Refuge narrative report : January 1, 1970 - December 31, 1970 : Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge and Izembek National Wildlife Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Aleutian Islands (including Simeonof NWR, Bogoslof NWR, and Semidi NWR) and Izembek NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  13. SURFACE REMEDIATION IN THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: A CASE STUDY OF AMCHITKA ISLAND, ALASKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giblin, M. O.; Stahl, D. C.; Bechtel, J. A.

    2002-02-25

    Amchitka Island, Alaska, was at one time an integral player in the nation's defense program. Located in the North Pacific Ocean in the Aleutian Island archipelago, the island was intermittently inhabited by several key government agencies, including the U.S. Army, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy), and the U.S. Navy. Since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted extensive investigations on Amchitka to determine the nature and extent of contamination resulting from historic nuclear testing. The uninhabited island was the site of three high-yield nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. These test locations are now part of the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's Environmental Management Program. In the summer of 2001, the DOE launched a large-scale remediation effort on Amchitka to perform agreed-upon corrective actions to the surface of the island. Due to the lack of resources available on Amchitka and logistical difficulties with conducting work at such a remote location, the DOE partnered with the Navy and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to share certain specified costs and resources. Attempting to negotiate the partnerships while organizing and implementing the surface remediation on Amchitka proved to be a challenging endeavor. The DOE was faced with unexpected changes in Navy and USACE scope of work, accelerations in schedules, and risks associated with construction costs at such a remote location. Unfavorable weather conditions also proved to be a constant factor, often slowing the progress of work. The Amchitka Island remediation project experience has allowed the DOE to gain valuable insights into how to anticipate and mitigate potential problems associated with future remediation projects. These lessons learned will help the DOE in conducting future work more efficiently, and can also serve as a guide for other agencies performing similar

  14. Subduction Controls of Hf and Nd Isotopes in Lavas of the Aleutian Island Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogodzinski, Gene; Vervoort, Jeffery; Brown, Shaun Tyler; Gerseny, Megan

    2010-08-29

    The Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of 71 Quaternary lavas collected from locations along the full length of the Aleutian island arc are used to constrain the sources of Aleutian magmas and to provide insight into the geochemical behavior of Nd and Hf and related elements in the Aleutian subduction-magmatic system. Isotopic compositions of Aleutian lavas fall approximately at the center of, and form a trend parallel to, the terrestrial Hf-Nd isotopic array with {var_epsilon}{sub Hf} of +12.0 to +15.5 and {var_epsilon}{sub Nd} of +6.5 to +10.5. Basalts, andesites, and dacites within volcanic centers or in nearby volcanoes generally all have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that there is little measurable effect of crustal or other lithospheric assimilation within the volcanic plumbing systems of Aleutian volcanoes. Hafnium isotopic compositions have a clear pattern of along-arc increase that is continuous from the eastern-most locations near Cold Bay to Piip Seamount in the western-most part of the arc. This pattern is interpreted to reflect a westward decrease in the subducted sediment component present in Aleutian lavas, reflecting progressively lower rates of subduction westward as well as decreasing availability of trench sediment. Binary bulk mixing models (sediment + peridotite) demonstrate that 1-2% of the Hf in Aleutian lavas is derived from subducted sediment, indicating that Hf is mobilized out of the subducted sediment with an efficiency that is similar to that of Sr, Pb and Nd. Low published solubility for Hf and Nd in aqueous subduction fluids lead us to conclude that these elements are mobilized out of the subducted component and transferred to the mantle wedge as bulk sediment or as a silicate melt. Neodymium isotopes also generally increase from east to west, but the pattern is absent in the eastern third of the arc, where the sediment flux is high and increases from east to west, due to the presence of abundant terrigenous sediment in the

  15. Progress report on restoration of Aleutian Canada geese in the Aleutian Islands, 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Additional information gathered on the flora and fauna of Agattu and Buldir islands is presented in the Appendices. Release techniques, care, and dispersal of geese...

  16. Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Wade, Paul R.

    2006-11-01

    Large whales were extensively hunted in coastal waters off Alaska, but current distribution, population sizes and trends are poorly known. Line transect surveys were conducted in coastal waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula in the summer of 2001-2003. Abundances of three species were estimated by conventional and multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) methods. Time series of abundance estimates were used to derive rates of increase for fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae). Fin whales occurred primarily from the Kenai Peninsula to the Shumagin Islands, but were abundant only near the Semidi Islands and Kodiak. Humpback whales were found from the Kenai Peninsula to Umnak Island and were more abundant near Kodiak, the Shumagin Islands and north of Unimak Pass. Minke whales ( B. acutorostrata) occurred primarily in the Aleutian Islands, with a few sightings south of the Alaska Peninsula and near Kodiak Island. Humpback whales were observed in large numbers in their former whaling grounds. In contrast, high densities of fin whales were not observed around the eastern Aleutian Islands, where whaling occurred. Average abundance estimates (95% CI) for fin, humpback and minke whales were 1652 (1142-2389), 2644 (1899-3680), and 1233 (656-2315), respectively. Annual rates of increase were estimated at 4.8% (95% CI=4.1-5.4%) for fin and 6.6% (5.2-8.6%) for humpback whales. This study provides the first estimate of the rate of increase of fin whales in the North Pacific Ocean. The estimated trends are consistent with those of other recovering baleen whales. There were no sightings of blue or North Pacific right whales, indicating the continued depleted status of these species.

  17. Four new species of Haplosclerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Haplosclerida are described from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Callyspongia mucosa n.sp., Cladocroce infundibulum n. sp., Cladocroce attu n. sp. and Cladocroce kiska n. sp. The new species are described and compared to congeners of the region. This is the northernmost record of the genus Callyspongia and the first record of the subgenus Callyspongia from the North Pacific Ocean. To accommodate Cladocroce kiska in its genus the definition has to be broadened to allow sigmas. PMID:26106744

  18. Ecotypic variation and predatory behavior among killer whales (Orcinus orca) off the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Matkin, Craig O.; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G.; Yurk, Harald; Ellifrit, David; Andrew W Trites

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2004 in the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, killer whales (Orcinus orca) were encountered 250 times during 421 days of surveys that covered a total of 22,491 miles. Three killer whale groups (resident, transient, and offshore) were identified acoustically and genetically. Resident killer whales were found 12 times more frequently than transient killer whales, and offshore killer whales were encountered only once. A minimum of 901 photographically identified resident wh...

  19. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, C.J. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Juneau, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  20. Expedition to Bogoslof and Amak Islands, with notes on other eastern Aleutian islands, June 24 through July 8, 1973: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One of the programs of the Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge is to locate and census colonial nesting seabirds and marine mammals on the refuge. From June...

  1. Propagation of Aleutian Canada geese on Amchitka Island, Alaska, 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The methods of propagation on Amchitka Island were changed from past years in that artificial incubation and rearing were abandoned in favor of more natural goose...

  2. 77 FR 44172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... tons (mt) by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (77 FR 10669... biological catch in the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY:...

  3. 75 FR 56485 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Register on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48298), with a public comment period that closed August 25, 2010. One... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Recordkeeping... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues regulations to remove the...

  4. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Public Meeting AGENCY: National... crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization program. The CIE, operated by Northern Taiga... products. The BSAI Crab Economic Data Report (EDR) program administered by NMFS began collecting...

  5. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... final rule implementing the Crab Rationalization Program (Program) was published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR... fishery would be caused in the time it would take to follow standard rulemaking procedures (62 FR 44421... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency...

  6. 76 FR 17088 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are located at 50 CFR part 680. Regulations implementing the... 2011 and 2012 harvest specifications (75 FR 76352, December 8, 2010), NMFS will publish the final... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  7. 76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... the arbitration system is found in the preambles to the proposed rule (September 1, 2004; 69 FR 53397) and final rule (March 2, 2005; 70 FR 10174) that implemented the CR Program, as well as in the final... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  8. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bruce Albert [Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  9. AFSC/NMML: Killer whale surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  10. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Palsson: Globe navigation data collected during the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands Biennial Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are haul positions and haul depths collected throughout the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands groundfish trawl surveys. Vessel positions are recorded...

  11. Steller sea lion satellite telemetry data used to determine at-sea distribution in the western-central Aleutian Islands, 2000-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was used for an analysis of the at-sea distribution of Steller sea lions in the western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. This analysis was prepared to...

  12. Climate program "stone soup": Assessing climate change vulnerabilities in the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, J. S.; Poe, A.; van Pelt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island region of Alaska. Past and present marine research across a broad spectrum of disciplines is shedding light on what sectors of the ecosystem and the human dimension will be most impacted. In a grassroots approach to extend existing research efforts, leveraging recently completed downscaled climate projections for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region, we convened a team of 30 researchers-- with expertise ranging from anthropology to zooplankton to marine mammals-- to assess climate projections in the context of their expertise. This Aleutian-Bering Climate Vulnerability Assessment (ABCVA) began with researchers working in five teams to evaluate the vulnerabilities of key species and ecosystem services relative to projected changes in climate. Each team identified initial vulnerabilities for their focal species or services, and made recommendations for further research and information needs that would help managers and communities better understand the implications of the changing climate in this region. Those draft recommendations were shared during two focused, public sessions held within two hub communities for the Bering and Aleutian region: Unalaska and St. Paul. Qualitative insights about local concerns and observations relative to climate change were collected during these sessions, to be compared to the recommendations being made by the ABCVA team of researchers. Finally, we used a Structured Decision Making process to prioritize the recommendations of participating scientists, and integrate the insights shared during our community sessions. This work brought together residents, stakeholders, scientists, and natural resource managers to collaboratively identify priorities for addressing current and expected future impacts of climate change. Recommendations from this project will be incorporated into future research efforts of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation

  13. Genetic differentiation of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, T.P.; Mackinnon, D.; Piatt, J.F.; Friesen, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the distribution of genetic variation within and among local populations of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is needed for effective conservation of this rare and declining species. We compared variation in a 429 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci among 53 Kittlitz's Murrelets from three sites in the western Aleutian Islands (Attu Island) and Gulf of Alaska (Glacier Bay and Kachemak Bay). We found that birds in these two regions differ genetically in three assessments: (1) global and pairwise indices of genetic differentiation were significantly greater than zero, (2) mitochondrial haplotypes differed by a minimum of nine substitutions, and (3) molecular assignments indicated little gene flow between regions. The data suggest that birds in these regions have been genetically isolated for an extended period. We conclude that Kittlitz's Murrelets from Attu Island and from the Gulf of Alaska represent separate evolutionarily significant units, and should be treated as such for conservation. Genetic data for Kittlitz's Murrelets from the remainder of the breeding range are urgently needed.

  14. Gabbroic and Peridotitic Enclaves from the 2008 Kasatochi Eruption, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, A.; Nadin, E. S.; Izbekov, P. E.; Nye, C. J.; Neill, O. K.

    2012-12-01

    Kasatochi volcano of the Andreanof Islands in the western Aleutian Arc violently erupted over a two day period from August 7-8, 2008. The eruption involved multiple explosive events generating pyroclastic flows, which included abundant mafic and ultramafic enclaves that have since weathered out and accumulated in talus along the coast. These and other mafic enclaves sampled by modern island arc lavas provide insight into subduction magmatism because they emerge from a section of the subduction system that is less likely than shallower zones to be modified by magmatic processes such as mixing, assimilation, or fractionation. We present new whole rock, clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, and melt compositions from Kasatochi enclaves of the 2008 eruption. The highly crystalline (~40 vol. % phenocryst content), medium-K basaltic andesite host rock contains ~52-55 wt. % SiO2 and 0.6-0.9 wt. % K2O, and is composed of plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene, amphibole, and Ti-magnetite in a microlite-rich groundmass. Upon eruption, this magma sampled two distinct enclave populations: gabbro and peridotite. The gabbro has abundant amphibole (mostly magnesio-hastingsite) and plagioclase with minor clinopyroxene, olivine, and magnetite, while the peridotite is composed of olivine with minor amounts of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. There is little textural variation amongst the peridotitic samples collected, but the gabbroic samples vary from layered to massive and cover a range in grain size from fine-grained to pegmatitic. The layered gabbros display centimeter-scale bands of alternating plagioclase- and amphibole-rich layers, with a strong preferential alignment of the amphibole grains. The coarser-grained samples are very friable, with ~10% pore space; disaggregation of these upon host-magma ascent likely formed the amphibole and plagioclase xenocrysts in the andesitic host. Based on the textural and compositional differences, we divide the enclaves into four groups

  15. Introduced arctic fox eradication at Rat Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mechanical means similar to those employed on Amata Island during the summer of 1983 were used to attempt eradication of fox on Rat Island. These labor intensive...

  16. High Prevalence of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-ranging Mink on a Remote Danish Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann;

    2012-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes severe disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison) worldwide. In Denmark, AMDV in farmed mink has been confined to the northern part of the mainland since 2002. From 1998 to 2009, samples from 396 free-ranging mink were collected from mainland Denmark......, and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32...... of 49 antibody-positive free-ranging mink on Bornholm, but not in mink collected from other parts of Denmark. Sequence analysis of 370 base pairs of the nonstructural gene of the AMDV of 17 samples revealed two clusters with closest similarity to Swedish AMDV strains....

  17. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida. PMID:26624419

  18. Volcano collapse along the Aleutian Ridge (western Aleutian Arc)

    OpenAIRE

    Montanaro, C.; J. Beget

    2011-01-01

    The Aleutian Ridge, in the western part of the Aleutian Arc, consists of a chain of volcanic islands perched atop the crest of a submarine ridge with most of the active Quaternary stratocones or caldera-like volcanoes being located on the northern margins of the Aleutian Islands. Integrated analysis of marine and terrestrial data resulted in the identification and characterization of 17 extensive submarine debris avalanche deposits from 11 volcanoes. Two morphological types of deposits are re...

  19. Progress report on restoration of Aleutian Canada geese on Agattu Island, 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — 139 Aleutian Canada geese were released on Agattu during the summer of 1978.117 geese were incubator hatched and captivereared while 22 were wild reared geese from...

  20. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the Aleutian...

  1. Geology and 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of Akutan Volcano, Eastern Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, M. L.; Jicha, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating and new whole-rock geochemical analyses are used to establish an eruptive chronology for Akutan volcano, Akutan Island, in the eastern Aleutian island arc. Akutan Island (166° W, 54.1° N) is the site of long-lived volcanism and the entire island comprises volcanic rocks as old as 3.3 Ma (Richter et al., 1998, USGS Open-File 98-135). Our current focus is on the 225 km2 western half of the island, which is home to the Holocene active cone, Holocene to latest Pleistocene satellite vents, and underlying middle Pleistocene volcanic basement rocks. Eruptive products span the tholeiitic-calc-alkaline boundary, are medium-K, and range from basalt to dacite. Furnace incremental heating experiments on groundmass separates of 38 samples resulted in 29 40Ar/39Ar ages. The remainder did not yield radiogenic 40Ar contents and are likely Holocene in age. The oldest ages (1251×10 and 1385×12 ka) are from a wedge of flat-lying dissected lavas north of the Holocene cone; these likely represent the upper part of the volcanic basement that underlies the entire island. Above a major unconformity lie basaltic andesite to dacite lavas that range from 765× 4 to 522×8 ka. The eroded remnants of the source volcano for these flows appears to crop out as a series of variably hydrothermally altered breccias and domes 5 km east-northeast of the current summit. A 625 m-tall eroded basaltic center, Lava Peak, sits 6 km northwest of the summit; its deeply incised western flank exposes lava flows and a plug. Two flows are dated at 598×16 and 602×15 ka. A high ridge 1.5 km south of the summit is made of oxidized, mostly andesitic lavas 284-249 ka old; these are presumably the remnants of an eruptive center located near the current cone. Flat Top Peak, 3.5 km southwest of the summit, produced almost exclusively basalts and six dated lavas range from 155×8 to 98×18 ka. Lavas from Flat Top (1065 m asl) are deeply eroded suggesting extensive ice cover during marine isotope

  2. New glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from deep waters of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiswig, Henry M; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Hexactinellida from deep-water communities of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, are described. They were mostly collected by the remotely operated vehicle 'Jason II' from 494–2311 m depths during a 2004 RV 'Roger Revelle' expedition, but one shallow-water species collected with a shrimp trawl from 155 m in the same area is included. The excellent condition of the ROV-collected specimens enabled valuable redescription of some species previously known only from badly damaged specimens. New taxa include one new genus and eight new species in five families. Farreidae consist of two new species, Farrea aleutiana and F. aspondyla. Euretidae consists of only Pinulasma fistulosum n. gen., n. sp. Tretodictyidae include only Tretodictyum amchitkensis n. sp. Euplectellidae consists of only the widespread species Regadrella okinoseana Ijima, reported here over 3,700 km from its closest previously known occurrence. The most diverse family, Rossellidae, consists of Aulosaccus ijimai (Schulze), Aulosaccus schulzei Ijima, Bathydorus sp. (young stage not determinable to species), Caulophacus (Caulophacus) adakensis n. sp., Acanthascus koltuni n. sp., Staurocalyptus psilosus n. sp., Staurocalyptus tylotus n. sp. and Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze. We present argument for reinstatement of the abolished rossellid subfamily Acanthascinae and return of the subgenera  Staurocalyptus Ijima and Rhabdocalyptus Schulze to their previous generic status. These fauna provides important complexity to the hard substrate communities that likely serve as nursery areas for the young stages of commercially important fish and crab species, refuge from predation for both young and adult stages, and also as a focal source of prey for juvenile and adult stages of those same species. PMID:25325089

  3. Investigation of vessel traffic passing through the Aleutian Islands with discussion of risk factors that could lead to oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil spill risks posed by marine vessels travelling the North Pacific route from North America to Asia were discussed with reference to the grounding and break-up of the bulk grain ship M/V Selendang Ayu at Unalaska Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The challenge of gathering and categorizing vessel traffic data in the Aleutians was also discussed along with a review of methods for developing an accurate traffic study for this large, remote maritime region. The travelling route passes through, or lies in close proximity to large and valuable commercial fishing grounds as well as the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. As most vessels remain in international waters, they do not report their presence to state and national authorities and are exempt from contingency planning requirements. This paper listed the factors affecting risk of damage from oil spills from marine vessels. These include the volume of oil carried; types of oil; proximity to environmentally sensitive areas; fate of spill; location of spill response equipment; number of vessels travelling through the area; time that vessels are in the area; type and age of vessels; environmental factors affecting sailing conditions; factors limiting rescue; and interaction with regulatory agencies. When considered as a whole, these factors can help in deciding the degree and type of contingency planning. In order to estimate traffic through the North Pacific route, the authors compared, combined and extrapolated information from similar datasets. The task involved 3 steps: (1) estimating the number of trans-Pacific voyages through the Aleutians, (2) estimating vessel type, and (3) estimating fuel oil carried by vessel type. It was determined that more than 2,700 ship voyages pass through the Aleutians every year, of which 50 carry a total of 800 million gallons of oil as cargo. It was noted that serious ship accidents occur so infrequently in remote areas that it was impossible to establish an accurate

  4. Investigation of vessel traffic passing through the Aleutian Islands with discussion of risk factors that could lead to oil pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, D. [Cape International Inc., Juneau, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The oil spill risks posed by marine vessels travelling the North Pacific route from North America to Asia were discussed with reference to the grounding and break-up of the bulk grain ship M/V Selendang Ayu at Unalaska Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The challenge of gathering and categorizing vessel traffic data in the Aleutians was also discussed along with a review of methods for developing an accurate traffic study for this large, remote maritime region. The travelling route passes through, or lies in close proximity to large and valuable commercial fishing grounds as well as the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. As most vessels remain in international waters, they do not report their presence to state and national authorities and are exempt from contingency planning requirements. This paper listed the factors affecting risk of damage from oil spills from marine vessels. These include the volume of oil carried; types of oil; proximity to environmentally sensitive areas; fate of spill; location of spill response equipment; number of vessels travelling through the area; time that vessels are in the area; type and age of vessels; environmental factors affecting sailing conditions; factors limiting rescue; and interaction with regulatory agencies. When considered as a whole, these factors can help in deciding the degree and type of contingency planning. In order to estimate traffic through the North Pacific route, the authors compared, combined and extrapolated information from similar datasets. The task involved 3 steps: (1) estimating the number of trans-Pacific voyages through the Aleutians, (2) estimating vessel type, and (3) estimating fuel oil carried by vessel type. It was determined that more than 2,700 ship voyages pass through the Aleutians every year, of which 50 carry a total of 800 million gallons of oil as cargo. It was noted that serious ship accidents occur so infrequently in remote areas that it was impossible to establish an

  5. Biology of nesting Aleutian Canada goose, summer 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1974 and 1975 breeding Aleutian Canada geese, Branta canadensis leucopareia, were studied at Buldir Island, western Aleutian Islands. Buldir is the only known...

  6. Killer whale surveys conducted in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2001-07-01 to 2010-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0137766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  7. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Aleutians Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 2.1 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings extending 1,900 km along the Aleutian Islands from Unimak Island in the east to the...

  8. Final Report: Weatherization and Energy Conservation Education and Home Energy and Safety Review in the Aleutian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Wright

    2011-08-30

    Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. (APIA) hired three part-time local community members that desire to be Energy Technicians. The energy technicians were trained in methods of weatherization assistance, energy conservation and home safety. They developed a listing of homes in the region that required weatherization, and conducted on-site weatherization and energy conservation education and a home energy and safety reviews in the communities of Akutan, False Pass, King Cove and Nelson Lagoon. Priority was given to these smaller communities as they tend to have the residences most in need of weatherization and energy conservation measures. Local residents were trained to provide all three aspects of the project: weatherization, energy conservation education and a home energy and safety review. If the total energy saved by installing these products is a 25% reduction (electrical and heating, both of which are usually produced by combustion of diesel fuel), and the average Alaska home produces 32,000 pounds of CO2 each year, so we have saved about: 66 homes x 16 tons of CO2 each year x .25 = 264 tons of CO2 each year.

  9. Aleutian Islands Unit, Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, 13 July to 22 July 1987: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The majority of the seabirds on the refuge use Puffin Island. Table 2 indicates the species composition and number of seabirds censused on 13 August from 1200 -...

  10. Results of monitoring studies for puffins in three locations in the Aleutian Islands in summer 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of an incidental study of puffins at Buldir and Agattu Islands in 1988 and 1989. To understand the influence of environmental...

  11. Report of findings: Aleutian Islands military contaminants: Fiscal years 1988-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This investigation was conducted in 1988, 1989 and 1990 at abandoned military facilities on Attu, Tanaga, Little Kiska, Great Sitkin, and Semisopochnoi islands -...

  12. Evolution and geochemistry of the Tertiary calc-alkaline plutons in the Adak Island region of the central Aleutian oceanic island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Suzanne; Citron, Gary P.; Kay, Robert W.; Jicha, Brian; Tibbetts, Ashley

    2014-05-01

    Calc-alkaline plutons are major crustal building blocks of continental margin mountain belts like the Mesozoic to Tertiary Andes and the Sierra Nevada, but are rare in oceanic island arcs. Some of the most calc-alkaline I-type island arc plutons are in the Central Aleutians with the most extreme signatures, as indicated by FeO/MgO ratios of mafic volcanic and sedimentary rocks and postdate the small ~38 Ma tholeiitic Finger Bay pluton. The chemistry of these older magmatic rocks is basically similar to that of young Central Aleutian magmatic rocks with boninites and arc tholeiitic magmas seemingly being absent. The formation of the calc-alkaline plutons seems to require a sufficient crustal thickness, fluid concentration and contractional stress such that magma chambers can stabilize significant amounts of pargasitic hornblende. Seismic receiver function analyses (Janiszewski et al., 2013) indicate the modern Adak crust is ~ 37 km thick. Existing and new hornblende, plagioclase and biotite Ar/Ar ages from 16 Hidden Bay pluton and Gannet Lake stock gabbro, porphyritic diorite, diorite, granodiorite, leucogranodiorite and aplite samples range from 34.6 to 30.9 Ma and indicate an ~ 4 Ma intrusion history. Biotite Ar/Ar ages for Kagalaska gabbro and granodiorite samples range from 14.7 to 13.9 Ma. The new ages are consistent with the plutons being related to several eruptive centers and forming during the waning stages of volcanism as the magmatic arc front was displaced to the north, possibly in response to accelerated periods of forearc subduction erosion. The gabbroic to leucogranodioritic units evolved in the lower to mid-crust with more silicic magmas rising buoyantly to higher levels where final crystallization and segregation of aplites occurred. Most gabbro and all mafic diorite units are largely crystal cumulates; one gabbro approaches the melt composition of a high Al basalt. The volumetrically dominant silicic diorites and granodiorites (58-63% SiO2) show

  13. Observations of Seafloor Outcrops in the Oblique Subduction Setting of Adak Canyon: Implications for Understanding the Early History of the Aleutian Island Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogodzinski, G.; Scholl, D.; Jicha, B.; Wyatt, C.; Singer, B.; Kelemen, P.

    2004-12-01

    Submarine canyons in the western Aleutians (west of 177°W) are formed by oblique subduction, which has broken crustal blocks away from the arc massif and rotated them in clockwise sense, resulting in the formation of triangular-shaped summit basins and deep, structurally controlled submarine canyons (Geist et al., Tectonics v7, p327, 1988). A series of dives with the ROV Jason II on July 28-30, 2004 on Adak Canyon has provided the first-ever view of seafloor outcrops in an Aleutian canyon formed by this process. Two dives on the canyon's steep eastern wall revealed extensive exposures of blocky outcrops of volcanic rock at depths of 2900-1500 m. Samples of these units collected by the Jason II are a mixture of dark, pyroxene and plagioclase-phyric lavas and volcaniclastics. Degree of weathering/alteration is highly variable but some samples appear fresh. We anticipate that these rocks are offshore-equivalents of the Finger Bay Volcanics, which represent the earliest phase of Aleutian volcanism exposed on nearby Adak Island (e.g., Coats, 1956, USGS Bull. 1028-C). Exposures of granitic rock in Adak Canyon form low ledges of exfoliating outcrop interspersed with spheroidally weathered, bouldery sub-crop, in the depth range of 1800-1600 meters. Obtaining in-situ samples from these massive and subrounded exposures was not possible with the Jason II, but recovery of large, sub-angular slabs that litter the surface included samples of fresh diorite, fine-grained felsic intrusives and hydrothermally altered volcanic country rock. The stratigraphically highest exposures observed in Adak Canyon are gently dipping, poorly lithified `Middle Series' sedimentary rocks of probable Miocene-Oligocene age. All outcrop surfaces in Adak Canyon are covered with a uniformly dark brown, opaque coating of Mn oxide less than 1mm thick. Well-rounded cobbles and boulders interpreted to be glacial drift are largely free of Mn oxide coatings. Thick pavements of Mn-oxide were not observed

  14. Volcano collapse along the Aleutian Ridge (western Aleutian Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Montanaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Aleutian Ridge, in the western part of the Aleutian Arc, consists of a chain of volcanic islands perched atop the crest of a submarine ridge with most of the active Quaternary stratocones or caldera-like volcanoes being located on the northern margins of the Aleutian Islands. Integrated analysis of marine and terrestrial data resulted in the identification and characterization of 17 extensive submarine debris avalanche deposits from 11 volcanoes. Two morphological types of deposits are recognizable, elongate and lobate, with primary controls on the size and distribution of the volcanic debris being the volume and nature of material involved, proportion of fine grained material, depth of emplacement and the paleo-bathymetry. Volume calculations show the amount of material deposited in debris avalanches is as much as three times larger than the amount of material initially involved in the collapse, suggesting the incorporation of large amounts of submarine material during transport. The orientation of the collapse events is influenced by regional fault systems underling the volcanoes. The western Aleutian Arc has a significant tsunamigenic potential and communities within the Aleutian Islands and surrounding areas of the North Pacific as well as shipping and fishing fleets that cross the North Pacific may be at risk during future eruptions in this area.

  15. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Sullivan, Kelsey [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States); Irons, David [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators.

  16. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators

  17. Kelp Forests versus Urchin Barrens: Alternate Stable States and Their Effect on Sea Otter Prey Quality in the Aleutian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgal and urchin barren communities are alternately stable and persist in the Aleutians due to sea otter presence and absence. In the early 1990s a rapid otter population decline released urchins from predation and caused a shift to the urchin-dominated state. Despite increases in urchin abundance, otter numbers continued to decline. Although debated, prey quality changes have been implicated in current otter population status. This study examined otter prey abundance, size, biomass, and potential energy density in remnant kelp forest and urchin-dominated communities to determine if alternate stable states affect prey quality. Findings suggest that although urchin barrens provide more abundant urchin prey, individual urchins are smaller and provide lower biomass and potential energy density compared to kelp forests. Shifts to urchin barrens do affect prey quality but changes are likely compensated by increased prey densities and are insufficient in explaining current otter population status in the Aleutians.

  18. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  19. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Aleutians Bathymetry Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 2.1 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings extending 1,900 km along the Aleutian Islands from Unimak Island in the east to the...

  20. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Palsson: Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands Biennial Bottom Trawl Survey estimates of catch per unit effort, biomass, population at length, and associated tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GOA/AI Bottom Trawl Estimate database contains abundance estimates for the Alaska Biennial Bottom Trawl Surveys conducted in the Gulf of Alaska and the Aleutian...

  1. Hazard communication by the Alaska Volcano Observatory Concerning the 2008 Eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, J. N.; Cameron, C. E.; Neal, T. A.; Shipman, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska, the number of calls to Ops, emails to the webmaster, and the amount of data served via the AVO website greatly increased during elevated volcanic activity designated by the USGS aviation color code and volcano alert level. Lessons learned include, Ops staffing requirements during periods of high call volume, the need for ash fall hazard information in multiple languages, and the value of real-time observations of remote Aleutian eruptions made by local mariners. An important theme of public inquiries concerned the amount and potential climate impacts of the significant sulfur dioxide gas and ash plumes emitted by Okmok and Kasatochi, including specific questions on the amount of sulfur dioxide discharged during each eruption. The significant plumes produced at the onset of the Okmok and Kasatochi eruptions also had lengthy national and international aviation impacts and yet-to-be resolved hemispherical or possible global, climactic effects.

  2. Post compound 1080 wildlife surveys, Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, 25 March-30 March 1987 (in support of EPA experimental use permit 6704-EUP-28)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To survey the target and nontarget mammal and bird species of Kiska Island and monitor the effect of the Compound 1080 treatment on the respective species. The...

  3. Post compound 1080 wildlife surveys, Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, 25 March-30 March 1987 (in support of EPA experimental use permit 6704-EUP-28)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To survey the target and non-target mammal and bird species of Kiska Island and monitor the effect of the Compound 1080 treatment on the respective species. The...

  4. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the Western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gi Hoon [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, 1270 Sa 2 dong, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Baskaran, Mark, E-mail: Baskaran@wayne.edu [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Molaroni, Shannon Marie [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Lee, Hyun-Mi [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, 1270 Sa 2 dong, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) and natural radionculides ({sup 40} K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of {sup 90}Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg{sup -1} and {sup 137}Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg{sup -1}.{sup 137}Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average {sup 137}Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40} K, and {sup 226}Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total {sup 210}Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported {sup 210}Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess {sup 210}Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, {sup 137}Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, {sup 210}Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 {mu}SV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological

  5. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the Western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic (90Sr and 137Cs) and natural radionculides (40 K, 210Pb and 226Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of 90Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg-1 and 137Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg-1.137Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average 137Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in 210Pb, 40 K, and 226Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total 210Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported 210Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess 210Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, 137Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, 210Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, 40K and 226Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to 90Sr and 137Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 μSV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans. - Highlights: → Quantification of radiation dose to humans from the ingestion of fish, muskox, and caribou Arctic

  6. Observations of Aleutian Canada geese on Little Kiska I. in 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys were conducted in June and August at Little Kiska Island to look for Aleutian Canada geese Branta Canadensis leucopareia returning from previous...

  7. An archaeological site survey and inventory for the Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska 1972: A report submitted to the Wilderness Studies Branch, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a 1972 voyage in the Aleutian archipelago to locate prehistoric and historic archeological sites. The report centers on the problems...

  8. Massive edifice failure at Aleutian arc volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, M.L.; White, S.M.; Scholl, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    Along the 450-km-long stretch of the Aleutian volcanic arc from Great Sitkin to Kiska Islands, edifice failure and submarine debris-avalanche deposition have occurred at seven of ten Quaternary volcanic centers. Reconnaissance geologic studies have identified subaerial evidence for large-scale prehistoric collapse events at five of the centers (Great Sitkin, Kanaga, Tanaga, Gareloi, and Segula). Side-scan sonar data collected in the 1980s by GLORIA surveys reveal a hummocky seafloor fabric north of several islands, notably Great Sitkin, Kanaga, Bobrof, Gareloi, Segula, and Kiska, suggestive of landslide debris. Simrad EM300 multibeam sonar data, acquired in 2005, show that these areas consist of discrete large blocks strewn across the seafloor, supporting the landslide interpretation from the GLORIA data. A debris-avalanche deposit north of Kiska Island (177.6?? E, 52.1?? N) was fully mapped by EM300 multibeam revealing a hummocky surface that extends 40??km from the north flank of the volcano and covers an area of ??? 380??km2. A 24-channel seismic reflection profile across the longitudinal axis of the deposit reveals a several hundred-meter-thick chaotic unit that appears to have incised into well-bedded sediment, with only a few tens of meters of surface relief. Edifice failures include thin-skinned, narrow, Stromboli-style collapse as well as Bezymianny-style collapse accompanied by an explosive eruption, but many of the events appear to have been deep-seated, removing much of an edifice and depositing huge amounts of debris on the sea floor. Based on the absence of large pyroclastic sheets on the islands, this latter type of collapse was not accompanied by large eruptions, and may have been driven by gravity failure instead of magmatic injection. Young volcanoes in the central and western portions of the arc (177?? E to 175?? W) are located atop the northern edge of the ??? 4000-m-high Aleutian ridge. The position of the Quaternary stratocones relative to the

  9. A biomonitoring plan for assessing potential radionuclide exposure using Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US and other nations were faced with a legacy of nuclear wastes. For some sites where hazardous nuclear wastes will remain in place, methods must be developed to protect human health and the environment. Biomonitoring is one method of assessing the status and trends of potential radionuclide exposure from nuclear waste sites, and of providing the public with early warning of any potential harmful exposure. Amchitka Island (51o N lat, 179o E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. Following a substantive study of radionuclide levels in biota from the marine environment around Amchitka and a reference site, we developed a suite of bioindicators (with suggested isotopes) that can serve as a model for other sites contaminated with radionuclides. Although the species selection was site-specific, the methods can provide a framework for other sites. We selected bioindicators using five criteria: (1) occurrence at all three test shots (and reference site), (2) receptor groups (subsistence foods, commercial species, and food chain nodes), (3) species groups (plants, invertebrates, fish, and birds), (4) trophic levels, and (5) an accumulator of one or several radionuclides. Our major objective was to identify bioindicators that could serve for both human health and the ecosystem, and were abundant enough to collect adjacent to the three test sites and at the reference site. Site-specific information on both biota availability and isotope levels was essential in the final selection of bioindicators. Actinides bioaccumulated in algae and invertebrates, while radiocesium accumulated in higher trophic level birds and fish. Thus, unlike biomonitoring schemes developed for heavy metals or other contaminants, top-level predators are not sufficient to evaluate potential radionuclide exposure at Amchitka. The process described in this paper resulted in the selection of Fucus, Alaria fistulosa, blue mussel (Mytilus

  10. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  11. Aleutian Ancorinidae (Porifera, Astrophorida): Description of three new species from the genera Stelletta and Ancorina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Stelletta and one new species of Ancorina are described from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska and compared to congeners of the region. This is the first record of the genus Ancorina in the North Pacific Ocean. Stelletta ovalae Tanita 1965 is also reported for the first time from the Bering Sea and Alaska.  PMID:24990051

  12. Bald eagle nest survey, 1981, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A nesting survey for bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus was conducted from May 29, 1981, on a portion of Amchitka Island, Aleutian Islands Unit, Alaska Maritime...

  13. Significance of an Active Volcanic Front in the Far Western Aleutian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Hoernle, K.

    2015-12-01

    Discovery of a volcanic front west of Buldir Volcano, the western-most emergent Aleutian volcano, demonstrates that the surface expression of Aleutian volcanism falls below sea level just west of 175.9° E longitude, but is otherwise continuous from mainland Alaska to Kamchatka. The newly discovered sites of western Aleutian seafloor volcanism are the Ingenstrem Depression, a 60 km-long structural depression just west of Buldir, and an unnamed area 300 km further west, referred to as the Western Cones. These locations fall along a volcanic front that stretches from Buldir to Piip Seamount near the Komandorsky Islands. Western Aleutian seafloor volcanic rocks include large quantities of high-silica andesite and dacite, which define a highly calc-alkaline igneous series and carry trace element signatures that are unmistakably subduction-related. This indicates that subducting oceanic lithosphere is present beneath the westernmost Aleutian arc. The rarity of earthquakes below depths of 200 km indicates that the subducting plate is unusually hot. Some seafloor volcanoes are 6-8 km wide at the base, and so are as large as many emergent Aleutian volcanoes. The seafloor volcanoes are submerged in water depths >3000 m because they sit on oceanic lithosphere of the Bering Sea. The volcanic front is thus displaced to the north of the ridge of arc crust that underlies the western Aleutian Islands. This displacement, which developed since approximately 6 Ma when volcanism was last active on the islands, must be a consequence of oblique convergence in a system where the subducting plate and large blocks of arc crust are both moving primarily in an arc-parallel sense. The result is a hot-slab system where low subduction rates probably limit advection of hot mantle to the subarc, and produce a relatively cool and perhaps stagnant mantle wedge. The oceanic setting and highly oblique subduction geometry also severely limit rates of sediment subduction, so the volcanic rocks, which

  14. 1981 rock ptarmigan census, Adak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Most of the Aleutian Islands support populations of rock ptarmigan Lagopus mutus, where their abundance is believed to be greatly influenced by the abundance of...

  15. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  16. Notes of blue foxes on Rat Island in 1962: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the study of the blue fox during summer of 1961 on Rat Island. The work completed can be found on the Aleutian Islands NWR Narrative Report....

  17. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... GOA (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and...

  18. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... GOA (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and apportionment of non-specified reserves (76 FR 53840, August 30... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and...

  19. The higher fungi of Amchitka and Adak Islands, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fruiting body collections of higher fungi, basidiomycetes and ascomycetes, were made during a twelve day field study on two of Alaska's Aleutian Islands, Amchitka...

  20. Studies of Aleutian volcanoes based on two decades of SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Dzurisin, D.

    2015-12-01

    With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has become an increasingly important technique for studying magma dynamics at volcanoes in remote regions, such as the Aleutian Islands. The spatial distribution of surface deformation derived from InSAR data enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to aid the investigation of magmatic processes. We processed nearly 12,000 SAR images of Aleutian volcanoes acquired by ERS-1, JERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat-1, Envisat, ALOS, and TerraSAR-X from the early 1990s to 2010. We combined these SAR images to produce about 25,000 interferograms, which we analyzed for evidence of surface deformation at most of the arc's Holocene volcanoes. This talk summarizes deformation processes at Aleutian volcanoes observed with InSAR, including: (1) time-varying volcanic inflation and magmatic intrusion, (2) deformation preceding and accompanying seismic swarms , (3) persistent volcano-wide subsidence at calderas that last erupted tens of years ago, (4) episodic magma intrusion and associated tectonic stress release, (5) subsidence caused by a decrease in pore fluid pressure in active hydrothermal systems, (6) subsidence of surface lava and pyroclastic flows, and (7) a lack of deformation at some volcanoes with recent eruptions, where deformation might be expected. Our work demonstrates that deformation patterns and associated magma supply mechanisms at Aleutian volcanoes are diverse and vary in both space and time. By combining InSAR results with information from the geologic record, accounts of historical eruptions, and data from seismology, petrology, gas geochemistry, and other sources, we have developed conceptual models for the magma plumbing systems and behaviors of many volcanoes in the Aleutian arc. We realize that these models are simplistic, but it is our hope that they will serve as foundations that will be refined as additional information becomes available.

  1. Unusually large tsunamis frequent a currently creeping part of the Aleutian megathrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Carver, G.A.; Briggs, Richard; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Koehler, R.D.; La selle, Seanpaul M.; Bender, Adrian M.; Engelhart, S.E.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Hill, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Current models used to assess earthquake and tsunami hazards are inadequate where creep dominates a subduction megathrust. Here we report geological evidence for large tsunamis, occurring on average every 300–340 years, near the source areas of the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These areas bookend a postulated seismic gap over 200 km long where modern geodetic measurements indicate that the megathrust is currently creeping. At Sedanka Island, evidence for large tsunamis includes six sand sheets that blanket a lowland facing the Pacific Ocean, rise to 15 m above mean sea level, contain marine diatoms, cap terraces, adjoin evidence for scour, and date from the past 1700 years. The youngest sheet, and modern drift logs found as far as 800 m inland and >18 m elevation, likely record the 1957 tsunami. Modern creep on the megathrust coexists with previously unrecognized tsunami sources along this part of the Aleutian Subduction Zone.

  2. Lithium Isotopic Composition of Aleutian Arc Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Park, Y.; Liu, X.; Kay, S. M.; Kay, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    The lithium isotopic compositions of inputs to subduction zones can be highly variable. For example, altered oceanic crust is isotopically heavy (δ7Li = 4 to 22, Chan et al., 1996; Bouman et al., 2004) due to uptake of seawater Li (32). Sea floor sediments can have highly variable compositions, ranging from isotopically heavy pelagic sediments (6 to 14) to isotopically light terrigneous clays (-1.5 to 5), derived from highly weathered continental crust (Chan et al., 2006). Despite this variability in inputs, arc outputs (magmatic rocks) typically have mantle-like δ7Li (e.g., 2 to 6; Tomascak et al., 2002; Walker et al., 2009). To explore the behavior of lithium and its isotopes in arcs, we have analyzed [Li] and δ7Li in 48 lavas and plutons from the Aleutian island arc, which span the temporal (0 to 38 Ma), geographical (165-184oW) and compositional variations (SiO2 = 46-70 wt.%) seen in this arc. Previous studies have indicated a systematic geographic change in lava chemistry related to changing sediment composition along the arc (terrigneous in the east, pelagic in the west, e.g., Kay and Kay, 1994; Yogodinski et al., 2010), as well as temporal changes that may also reflect changes in sedimentary input (Kay and Kay, 1994), and we wished to determine if Li isotopes also reflect such changes. Lithium concentration [Li] shows a generally positive correlation with SiO2, consistent with the expected incompatible behavior of Li during magmatic differentiation. Intrusive rocks (all from the Adak region) show more scatter than lavas on this plot, suggesting the influence of cumulate processes. The δ7Li of the rocks span an immense range from -1 to +29, well outside the values considered typical for the MORB-source mantle (e.g., 2-6). However, the majority of the samples (28 out of 48) have δ7Li falling within the range of typical mantle values. There is a general tendency for the lavas (all but one are adakite (~11 Ma, Kay, 1978) has a δ7Li of 3.7. There is no

  3. Adakites from Solander Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subduction related, island arc Pleistocene volcano of Solander Island in Foveaux Strait is composed of adakite, a new rock type first described from Adak Island in the Aleutian arc. Adakites are formed by the partial fusion of young oceanic crust under eclogitic facies conditions. Comparison with other adakite localities suggests that the oceanic crust presently subducting at the nearby trench may be <25 Ma old. (author). 23 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. THE EXTENT OF SEA FLOOR VOLCANISM AND NATURE OF PRIMITIVE MAGMAS IN THE WESTERN ALEUTIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Turka, J.; Portnyagin, M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Vervoort, J. D.; Sims, K. W.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2009-12-01

    Results of the 2005 Western Aleutian Volcano Expedition (WAVE) and the June 2009 cruise of the German-Russian KALMAR project (Kamchatka-Aleutian Margin) include the discovery of seafloor volcanism at the Ingenstrem Depression and at unnamed seamounts located 300 km west of Buldir Island, the westernmost emergent volcano in the Aleutians. The newly discovered features fall on a volcanic line connecting Buldir and other emergent volcanoes to Piip Seamount, which is located in the far west. These discoveries suggest that the surface expression of Aleutian volcanism slips below sea level at 175°E, but is otherwise continuous from 170°W to 167°E. Geochemical results from the Ingenstrem Depression (60 km west of Buldir) define two compositional groups, which provide insight into the nature of primitive Aleutian magmatism. Low-Sr lavas (700 ppm) are plagioclase and hornblende-phyric andesites and dacites with fractionated trace element patterns (Sr/Y>50) and low Y (120) are also the most isotopically depleted (87/860.7032 (low Sr). The narrow range for Nd isotopes (8.5-9.5 epsNd) suggests that the main source of Sr and Nd may be seawater-altered subducted oceanic crust; however, oxygen isotopes on olivine and hornblende separates are similar to MORB for both groups (delta18O=5.1-5.6 per-mil, olivine-equ). Available data do not identify a high-Sr lava with whole-rock Mg# and olivine phenocryst compositions appropriate for equilibration with mantle peridotite. This may be a sampling issue or it may mean that the high-Sr series is derived by plagioclase-absent fractionation of parental melts with moderate Sr abundances. Primitive andesites from Piip Volcano, an active seamount in the far west Komandorsky area have appropriate isotope ratios and are likely candidates for these parental melts. Alternatively, if high-Sr dacites with Mg#>0.65 have high Fe3+ and pre-eruptive water contents, they could be felsic melts of subducted eclogite or pyroxenite that have interacted

  5. Biological control of Aleutian Island arctic fox: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Empirical and literature data on the resource utilization patterns of arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are evaluated to assess the potential...

  6. Critical habitat recommendations for the Aleutian Canada goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following recommendations concern the designation of critical habitat on Federal lands in Alaska for the Endangered Species, Aleutian Canada goose (Branta...

  7. Pacific Flyway management plan for the Aleutian goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan establishes guidelines for the cooperative management of Aleutian geese Branta hutchinsii leucopareia in the Pacific Flyway. This subspecies recently was...

  8. Distinctly different parental magmas for calc-alkaline plutons and tholeiitic lavas in the central and eastern Aleutian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yue; Rioux, Matthew; Kelemen, Peter B.; Goldstein, Steven L.; Bolge, Louise; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Cenozoic calc-alkaline plutons that comprise the middle crust of the central and eastern Aleutians have distinct isotopic and elemental compositions compared to Holocene tholeiitic lavas in the same region, including those from the same islands. Therefore the Holocene lavas are not representative of the net magmatic transfer from the mantle into the arc crust. Compared to the lavas, the Eocene to Miocene (9-39 Ma) intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks show higher SiO2 at a given Fe/Mg ratio, and have higher εNd-εHf values and lower Pb-Sr isotope ratios. However, the plutonic rocks strongly resemble calc-alkaline Holocene volcanics with more "depleted" isotope ratios in the western Aleutians, whose composition has been attributed to significant contributions from partial melting of subducted basaltic oceanic crust. These data could reflect a temporal variation of central and eastern Aleutian magma source compositions, from predominantly calc-alkaline compositions with more "depleted" isotope ratios in the Paleogene, to tholeiitic compositions with more "enriched" isotopes more recently. Alternatively, the differences between central Aleutian plutonic and volcanic rocks may reflect different transport and emplacement processes for the magmas that form plutons versus lavas. Calc-alkaline parental magmas, with higher SiO2 and high viscosity, are likely to form plutons after extensive mid-crustal degassing of initially high water contents. This conclusion has overarching importance because the plutonic rocks are chemically similar to bulk continental crust. Formation of similar plutonic rocks worldwide may play a key role in the genesis and evolution of continental crust.

  9. Passive transfer of antiviral antibodies restricts replication of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Cohn, A.;

    1989-01-01

    When mink kits were infected neonatally with a highly virulent strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV), 100% of both Aleutian and non-Aleutian genotype mink died of interstitial pneumonia characterized by permissive ADV infection of alveolar type II cells. Treatment of infected kits with either mi...

  10. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: Interspecific and locational differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. - Highlights: • Cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium

  11. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: Interspecific and locational differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Donio, Mark [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. - Highlights: • Cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium

  12. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: inferences from spatial and trophic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Anthony, Robert G

    2008-11-15

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (delta15N) and carbon source (delta13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of Sigma polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of Sigma PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high Sigma PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of Sigma PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with delta15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of Sigma PCBs and p,p' DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of

  13. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: Inferences from spatial and trophic variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status (δ15N) and carbon source (δ13C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of Σ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of Σ PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high Σ PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of Σ PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with δ15N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of Σ PCBs and p,p' DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from distant sources influenced by a combination of atmospheric-oceanic processes

  14. Sources of organochlorine contaminants and mercury in seabirds from the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska: Inferences from spatial and trophic variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, Mark A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center - Davis Field Station, 1 Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: mark_ricca@usgs.gov; Keith Miles, A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center - Davis Field Station, 1 Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Anthony, Robert G. [U.S. Geological Survey, Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Persistent organochlorine compounds and mercury (Hg) have been detected in numerous coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska, yet sources of these contaminants are unclear. We collected glaucous-winged gulls, northern fulmars, and tufted puffins along a natural longitudinal gradient across the western and central Aleutian Islands (Buldir, Kiska, Amchitka, Adak), and an additional 8 seabird species representing different foraging and migratory guilds from Buldir Island to evaluate: 1) point source input from former military installations, 2) westward increases in contaminant concentrations suggestive of distant source input, and 3) effects of trophic status ({delta}{sup 15}N) and carbon source ({delta}{sup 13}C) on contaminant accumulation. Concentrations of {sigma} polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and most chlorinated pesticides in glaucous-winged gulls consistently exhibited a 'U'-shaped pattern of high levels at Buldir and the east side of Adak and low levels at Kiska and Amchitka. In contrast, concentrations of {sigma} PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in northern fulmars and tufted puffins did not differ among islands. Hg concentrations increased westward in glaucous-winged gulls and were highest in northern fulmars from Buldir. Among species collected only at Buldir, Hg was notably elevated in pelagic cormorants, and relatively high {sigma} PCBs were detected in black-legged kittiwakes. Concentrations of {sigma} PCBs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' DDE), and Hg were positively correlated with {delta}{sup 15}N across all seabird species, indicating biomagnification across trophic levels. The east side of Adak Island (a former military installation) was a likely point source of {sigma} PCBs and p,p' DDE, particularly in glaucous-winged gulls. In contrast, elevated levels of these contaminants and Hg, along with PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide compositional patterns detected at Buldir Island indicated exposure from

  15. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  16. Geologic map of Mount Gareloi, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    Gareloi Island (lat 51.7° N., long 178.8° W.) is located in the Delarof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands, approximately 2,000 km west-southwest of Anchorage and 150 km west of Adak, the westernmost town in Alaska. This small (~8- x 10-km diam), uninhabited island is constructed exclusively of eruptive products from Mount Gareloi volcano, a Pleistocene and Holocene, steep-sided, composite stratocone that rises 1,573 m (5,161 ft) above sea level (asl). Mount Gareloi has been one of the most active Aleutian volcanoes since its discovery by the Bering expedition in the 1740s, though, because of its remote location, detailed observations of eruptive activity have been scant.

  17. Introduced arctic fox eradication effort at Kasotochi Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Because of the significant past and present wildlife values, small size, close proximity to Adak and general workability, a high priority was assigned to Kasatochi...

  18. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Estes, J.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Forsman, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  19. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broll, S.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) was studied in experimental infection of 1-year-old female non-Aleutian mink. The ADV-seronegative female mink were inoculated,vith ADV prior to mating or after the expected implantation of the embryos during pregnancy. A...

  20. Passive transfer of antiviral antibodies restricts replication of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Cohn, A.;

    1989-01-01

    anti-ADV gamma globulin or mouse monoclonal antibodies against ADV structural proteins reduced mortality by 50 to 75% and drastically reduced the severity of clinical signs. Interestingly, mink kits that survived the acute pulmonary disease all developed the chronic form of immune complex......When mink kits were infected neonatally with a highly virulent strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV), 100% of both Aleutian and non-Aleutian genotype mink died of interstitial pneumonia characterized by permissive ADV infection of alveolar type II cells. Treatment of infected kits with either mink......-mediated Aleutian disease. Thus, the antibodies directed against ADV structural proteins were capable of modulating the in vivo pathogenicity from an acute fulminant disease to a chronic immune complex-mediated disorder. The mechanism of this modulation was examined by strand-specific in situ hybridization. We...

  1. Diatoms confirm coseismic uplift and subsidence along the eastern Alaska-Aleutian megathrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, T.; Briggs, R. W.; Engelhart, S. E.; Nelson, A. R.; Horton, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone is the source of a series of Mw 8-9.2 20th century ruptures, including the second largest historical earthquake ever recorded in 1964. Paleoseismic studies, employing coastal stratigraphic sequences, have been successfully applied at sites within the 1964 rupture zone, but geologic records are unstudied west of the 1964 rupture. Understanding the behavior of the megathrust is important because a tsunamigenic rupture could damage the west coast of the United States. Investigations in the tidal marshes of Sitkinak Island, off the southwest coast of Kodiak Island, have uncovered stratigraphic evidence of five apparent coseismic land-level changes. Radiocarbon, 210Pb, and 137Cs dating indicate this record may include the 1964 and 1788 earthquakes and some predecessors. Here, we present new paleoecological evidence that independently confirms the inference that at least four of the abrupt lithologic changes in the stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island record coseismic land-level changes. Sudden and lasting changes in fossil diatom assemblages spanning tidal lithologic contacts reveal both coseismic subsidence (mud over peat) and coseismic uplift (peat over mud) during the last 1000 years. Across the contact that may mark the 1964 earthquake, a shift from a brackish, low-marsh diatom assemblage dominated by Diploneis interrupta and Navicula cincta to a tidal flat assemblage containing Actinocyclus normanii and Synedra tabulata indicates a sudden rise in relative sea-level, which we infer to record coseismic subsidence. In contrast, diatoms show evidence of coseismic uplift across the probable 1788 contact. An abrupt transition from a fully marine assemblage containing coastal planktonic and tychoplanktonic taxa to a freshwater marsh assemblage dominated by the salt-intolerant benthic diatom Eunotia fallax is consistent with a sudden and lasting relative sea-level fall. Abrupt changes in lithology across a contact dated about ~575 cal yr

  2. Comprehensive study of the seismotectonics of the easter Aleutian arc and associated volcanic systems. Annual progress report, March 1, 1978--February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, K.H.; Davies, J.N.; Beavan, J.; Johnson, D.; House, L.; Krause, J.; Hickman, S.; Winslow, M.; Hauptman, J.; Mori, J.; Sykes, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the historic seismic record and accurate hypocenter data obtained from the eastern Aleutian seismic network, a relationship between the subduction-zone seismicity, volcano-trench separation, and the occurrence of great thrust earthquakes has been established for the Aleutian arc. On the basis of strong-motion accelerometer data it was found that high stress drops (540 t 650 bars) were associated with two moderate-size earthquakes (m/sub b/ = 6.0 and 5.8) within the Shumagin Islands seismic gap. This indicates that near the down-dip end of the major thrust zone, at depths of about 40 km, high tectonic stresses have accumulated within the gap segment of the arc. That such accumulation of stress is presently an ongoing process is corroborated by results from geodetic precision leveling on Unga Island. The leveling data indicate tilt rates of about 1 microradian/year. The tilting is directed down towards the trench and up towards the volcanic arc. Whether the recent activity of Pavlof, Shishaldin and Westdahl volcanoes indicates transmission of high tectonic stresses from the major thrust zone to the volcanic arc is unresolved. The search for a shallow magma chamber beneath the seismically monitored Pavlof volcano is still inconclusive although large amounts of recently acquired data remain to be analyzed. A geologic reconnaissance of the Shumagin Islands and the Adjacent Alaska Peninsula revealed Quaternary uplifted marine terraces and evidence for Holocene faulting. Both findings have severe implications for long-term tectonic activity and seismic hazards in the region of this seismic gap, portions of which are presently considered for off-shore hydrocarbon exploration and development. A critical analysis of th presently operating seimic data acquisition system reveals that a major change in remote sensing and central recording equipment is urgently needed for the Pavlof, Cold Bay, and Shumagin sections of the seismic array.

  3. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  4. Microscopic analysis of feather and hair fragments associated with human mummified remains from Kagamil Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, C.J.; Peurach, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Human mummified remains of 34 different infant and adult individuals from Kagamil Island, Alaska, are accessioned in the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Kagamil Island is one of the small islands in the Island of Four Mountains group of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska and is well known for the mummy caves located on the southwest coast of the island. The Kagamil mummy holdings at the Smithsonian represent one of the largest, best documented and preserved collections of this type. Although these specimens are stored in ideal conditions, many small feather and hair fragments have become loose or disassociated from the actual mummies over the years. This preliminary investigation of fragmentary fiber material retrieved from these artifacts is the first attempt to identify bird and mammal species associated with the mummified remains of the Kagamil Island, Alaska collection and is part of the ongoing research connected with these artifacts.

  5. AFSC/REFM: Aleutian Islands Cooperative Acoustic Survey Study 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this project was to investigate whether cooperative biomass surveys can be an effective way to manage fisheries at the local scales that are...

  6. H08234: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Aleutian and Andreanof Islands, Alaska, 1955-07-26

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. H08235: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Aleutian and Andreanof Islands, Alaska, 1955-08-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. H08438: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Aleutian Islands, Alaska, 1958-08-25

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: GEO (Geothermal Activity Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of geothermally active areas as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Because of the variety of geothermal activity present at any...

  10. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of active volcanoes as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Eighty-nine volcanoes with eruptive phases in the Quaternary are...

  11. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Rooper: Gulf and Aleutian Islands pH, O2, turbidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Division is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and related ecological and...

  12. 50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to bid, NMFS will publish a notification in the Federal Register listing all persons who at the time... after issuing the notification in paragraph (m) of this section, NMFS will publish the invitation to bid...) Reduction payment tender and disbursement—(1) Fishing continues until tender. Each accepted bidder...

  13. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: FAULTS (Fault Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a compilation of faults mapped by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and published in USGS bulletin series 1028 (1956-1971). These...

  14. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for Coastal Resource Service Area (CRSA) boundaries, mineral sites, airports, boat ramps, marinas, and Coast Guard...

  15. Biological investigations-Aleutian Islands and Southeastern Alaska, September 23-September 19, 1936

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Includes information on the collection of bird species, bird rookeries, invertebrates, fox farming, vegetation, sea otters, mammals, and native cultures. Also...

  16. Southeastern Aleutian Basin (Bogoslof Island) Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1402, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)...

  17. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Orr: Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands groundfish surveys Identification Confidence

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report includes an identification confidence matrix for all fishes and invertebrates identified from the GOA and AI surveys from 1980 through 2011. The matrix...

  18. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of the U.S. Geological Survey 1:63,360 and 1:250,000 topographic maps and other map and digital...

  19. Mink farms predict Aleutian disease exposure in wild American mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa A Nituch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD, a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. METHODS: To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled; however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations.

  20. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie;

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden...

  1. Acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits inoculated with defined isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Aasted, B;

    1994-01-01

    The present study addressed the causal role of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits. All the examined isolates of ADV caused interstitial pneumonia in newborn kits, although the severity of disease and the mortality varied. These findings indicate that...

  2. S-phase-dependent cell cycle disturbances caused by Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    We examined replication of the autonomous parovirus Aleutian mink disease parovirus (ADV) in relation to cell cycle progression of permissive Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ADV caused a composite, binary pattern of cell cycle arrest. ADV-induced cell cyc...

  3. The use of biota sampling for environmental contaminant analysis for characterization of benthic communities in the Aleutians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is increasingly clear that the public, native tribes, and governmental agencies are interested in assessing the well-being of natural resources and ecosystems. This may take the form of understanding species presence, monitoring population status and trends, measuring behavior, or quantifying physiology, biological stresses, or chemical/radiological exposure through biomarkers. Often there is a separation between understanding the biological aspects of species well-being and assessing exposure to contaminants. In this paper we examine the applicability of using scuba sampling aimed primarily at specimen collection for radionuclide analysis to assess species presence/absence and to compare among sampling sites and depths. We were especially interested in whether dive transects could provide information on species presence and potential exposure to environmental contaminants. In June/July 2004 we sampled at 49 depth stations along 19 transects at Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the western Aleutian Islands in the Northern Pacific/Bering Sea region. Amchitka Island, a former World War II U.S. Navy base, was the site of three underground nuclear test shots from 1965 to 1971. Four to six transects were established at three Amchitka sites and two Kiska Sites, and 2 to 4 stations were sampled on each transect. Bottom conditions, weather and currents prevented a complete sampling of all stations. There were interspecific differences in the percent of stations where biota were found and collected, in their occurrence near the three test shots on Amchitka, and in the depth where they were found. There were no significant differences between Amchitka and Kiska Island in the percent of stations where species were found. These data suggest that information gathered incidentally to the collection of specimens for chemical/radiological analysis can prove useful for understanding the presence of benthic organisms along particular transects, at given depths, and at different

  4. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1980-1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The migration and wintering ground study of the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was continued again in California in 1980-81 from October 10...

  5. Population, distribution and ecology of Aleutian Canada geese on their migration and wintering areas, 1983-84

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 10th annual wintering ground study of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 22 October 1983 to 11 May 1984....

  6. Proceedings of the North Aleutian Basin information status and research planning meeting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K. E.; Krummel, J. R.; Hayse, J. W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Stull, E. A.; Gorenflo, L.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-26

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant ecological and natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea continental shelf including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals including federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012 and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) were contracted to assist the MMS Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region in identifying and prioritizing information needs related to the North Aleutian Basin and potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities. The overall approach focused on three related but separate tasks: (1) identification and

  7. The nearshore benthic community of Kasatochi Island, one year after the 2008 volcanic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, S.C.; Bodkin, J.L.; Chenelot, H.; Esslinger, G.G.; Hoberg, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    A description is presented of the nearshore benthic community of Kasatochi Island 1012 months after a catastrophic volcanic eruption in 2008. The eruption extended the coastline of the island approximately 400 m offshore, mainly along the south, southeast, and southwest shores, to roughly the 20 m isobath. Existing canopy kelp of Eualaria (Alaria) fistulosa, as well as limited understory algal species and associated fauna (e.g., urchin barrens) on the hard substratum were apparently buried following the eruption. Samples and observations revealed the substrate around the island in 2009 was comprised almost entirely of medium and coarse sands with a depauperate benthic community, dominated by opportunistic pontogeneiid amphipods. Comparisons of habitat and biological communities with other nearby Aleutian Islands, as well as with the Icelandic volcanic island of Surtsey, confirm dramatic reductions in flora and fauna consistent with an early stage of recovery from a large-scale disturbance event. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  8. 2010 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christina A.; Herrick, Julie; Girina, O.A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at 12 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2010. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash emissions from long-active Cleveland volcano in the Aleutian Islands. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of an ongoing collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  9. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological

  10. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and

  11. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  12. Heavy metals in Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) from the Aleutians: location, age, size, and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Shukla, Tara; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean; Donio, Mark; Shukla, Sheila; Snigaroff, Ronald; Snigaroff, Daniel; Stamm, Timothy; Volz, Conrad

    2007-11-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to the risks from mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) to high-level predators (including humans) who consume freshwater fish. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued advisories because of Hg for four marine fish species, there are few data on lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), or other metals in Bering Sea fish generally, or on the risk these levels pose to the fish themselves or to consumers of marine fish. Levels of arsenic (As), Cd, chromium (Cr), Pb, Hg, and selenium (Se) levels were examined in muscle and liver of 142 Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) collected in 2004 at Nikolski, Adak, Amchitka, and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain (Alaska) in the Bering Sea/North Pacific Ocean, a major source of commercial fishing. One key objective was whether there were location, age, gender, and size effects on tissue concentration that might pose a risk to the fish or their predators (including humans). All fish were measured and weighed, and a subset was aged by examining otolith layers. As was higher in liver than in muscle (geometric mean 2420 versus 1590 ng/g or ppb wet weight), as were Cd (GM 224 versus 1.92) and Se (GM 1380 versus 165). Conversely, Cr was higher in muscle (76.8 versus 45 ppb), as were Pb (23.7 vs 12 ppb) and surprisingly Hg (128 versus 82 ppb). Adak, until recently a large military base, had the highest levels of As, Hg, and Se, while Amchitka had the highest Pb levels, but Nikolski, which generally had the lowest levels, had relatively high Pb in liver. In general, interisland differences were significant for most metals in muscle, but only for Cr in liver. Weight and length were positively related to age, but age tended to explain more of the variance in metal levels. The multiple regression relationships differed by tissue in an unanticipated manner. Location contributed significantly to the models for muscle Cd, Pb, Hg, and Se, but not for liver levels. Conversely the length by

  13. Sustaining Sanak Island, Alaska: A Cultural Land Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert D. G. Maschner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sanak Island is the easternmost of the Aleutian Islands and was inhabited by the Aleut (Unangan peoples for nearly 7000 years. The past few centuries of Sanak Island life for its Aleut residents can be summarized from ethnohistoric documents and extensive interviews with former residents as shifting local-global economic patterns beginning with the sea otter fur trade, followed by cod and salmon fishing, fox farming, and cattle ranching through waves of Russian, American, and Scandinavian authority and/or influence. As the industries changed and the island absorbed new peoples with new goals, Aleut identity and practices also changed as part of these shifting economic and social environments. Sanak Island was abandoned in the 1970s and although uninhabited today, Sanak Island is managed as an important land trust for the island’s descendants that serves local peoples as a marine-scape rich in resources for Aleut subsistence harvesting and as a local heritage site where people draw on the diverse historical influences and legacies. Further, this move from an industrial heritage to contemporary local subsistence economies facilitated by a commercial fishing industry is a unique reversal of development in the region with broad implications for community sustainability among indigenous communities. We find that by being place-focused, rather than place-based, community sustainability can be maintained even in the context of relocation and the loss of traditional villages. This will likely become more common as indigenous peoples adapt to globalization and the forces of global change.

  14. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. Chemical versus temporal controls on the evolution of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas at two volcanoes in the Alaska-Aleutian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.; Bacon, C.R.; Nye, C.; Stelling, P.; Dreher, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska-Aleutian island arc is well known for erupting both tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas. To investigate the relative roles of chemical and temporal controls in generating these contrasting liquid lines of descent we have undertaken a detailed study of tholeiitic lavas from Akutan volcano in the oceanic A1eutian arc and calc-alkaline products from Aniakchak volcano on the continental A1askan Peninsula. The differences do not appear to be linked to parental magma composition. The Akutan lavas can be explained by closed-system magmatic evolution, whereas curvilinear trace element trends and a large range in 87 Sr/86 Sr isotope ratios in the Aniakchak data appear to require the combined effects of fractional crystallization, assimilation and magma mixing. Both magmatic suites preserve a similar range in 226 Ra-230 Th disequilibria, which suggests that the time scale of crustal residence of magmas beneath both these volcanoes was similar, and of the order of several thousand years. This is consistent with numerical estimates of the time scales for crystallization caused by cooling in convecting crustal magma chambers. During that time interval the tholeiitic Akutan magmas underwent restricted, closed-system, compositional evolution. In contrast, the calc-alkaline magmas beneath Aniakchak volcano underwent significant open-system compositional evolution. Combining these results with data from other studies we suggest that differentiation is faster in calc-alkaline and potassic magma series than in tholeiitic series, owing to a combination of greater extents of assimilation, magma mixing and cooling.

  16. Eruption of Alkaline Basalts Prior to the Calc-alkaline Lavas of Mt. Cleveland Volcano, Aleutian Arc, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, D. L.; Nicolaysen, K. P.

    2005-12-01

    Mt. Cleveland is a 1,730 m stratovolcano, located on Chuginadak Island, that has erupted at least 23 times historically, with the latest occurring in August 2005. Major, trace, and REE analyses of 63 samples from Mt. Cleveland, including 8 from proximal cinder cones and 4 from andesitic domes on the lower flanks, identify two distinct lava suites. Modern Cleveland (MC) basalts to dacites (50.5-66.7 wt.% SiO2) exhibit a calc-alkaline differentiation trend. Major element trends suggest crystal fractionation of plagioclase +/- ortho- and clinopyroxene in MC lavas and olivine in cinder cone deposits. Resorption textures on plagioclase and olivine phenocrysts and multiple populations of plagioclase predominate throughout the MC suite suggesting magma mixing is a major process at Cleveland. Frothy white xenoliths of plagioclase + quartz + biotite are encased in glass and erupted as small pumiceous fragments in 2001. The partial resorption of the xenocrysts indicates assimilation is also an active crustal process at Cleveland. MC trace element spider diagrams exhibit a typical arc pattern in which HFS elements including Nb are depleted, and Pb and LIL elements are enriched. Th/La, Sm/La, and Sr, Nd, Pb, and Hf isotopic ratios indicate both a North Pacific MORB and a sediment component in the source of modern Cleveland lavas, consistent with sediment flux estimates of 90 to 95 m3/m/yr and an updip sediment thickness of 1300 to 1400 meters. Average 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, 87Sr/86Sr, and 143Nd/144Nd values for the calc-alkaline suite are 18.93, 15.58, 0.70345, and 0.51303 respectively. The second suite consists of 3 olivine-rich, mildly alkaline basalts (48.5-49.4 wt.% SiO2), of older stratigraphic position than MC lavas representing deposits from an older phase of activity (ancestral Cleveland, AC). La/Yb, Sr/Y, and Th/Nb ratios indicate lower degrees of partial melting, relative to MC lavas, and suggests presence of garnet in the source region. The AC lavas, however, are

  17. Sea water intrusion model of Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1960s and 1970s, Amchitka Island, Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests, referred to as Milrow, Long Shot and Cannikin. Amchitka Island is located in the western part of the Aleutian Island chain, Alaska. The groundwater systems affected by the three underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island are essentially unmonitored because all of the current monitoring wells are too shallow and not appropriately placed to detect migration from the cavities. The dynamics of the island's fresh water-sea water hydrologic system will control contaminant migration from the three event cavities, with migration expected in the direction of the Bering Sea from Long shot and Cannikin and the Pacific Ocean from Milrow. The hydrogeologic setting (actively flowing groundwater system to maintain a freshwater lens) suggests a significant possibility for relatively rapid contaminant migration from these sites, but also presents an opportunity to use projected flowpaths to a monitoring advantage. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model of the Amchitka groundwater system and to produce computer model simulations that reflect the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. The simulations will be used to assess the validity of the proposed conceptual model and highlight the uncertainties in hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The uncertainties will be quantified by sensitivity analyses on various model parameters. Within the limitations of the conceptual model and the computer simulations, conclusions will be drawn regarding potential radionuclide migration from the three underground nuclear tests

  18. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  19. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.;

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...

  20. A fast and robust method for whole genome sequencing of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth; Krarup, Anders; Fahnøe, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with commercial mink breeding. AMDV infection leads to increased mortality and compromised animal health and welfare. Currently little is known about the molecular evolution of the virus, and the few existing studi...

  1. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Gareloi Volcano, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2008-01-01

    Gareloi Volcano (178.794 degrees W and 51.790 degrees N) is located on Gareloi Island in the Delarof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands, about 2,000 kilometers west-southwest of Anchorage and about 150 kilometers west of Adak, the westernmost community in Alaska. This small (about 8x10 kilometer) volcano has been one of the most active in the Aleutians since its discovery by the Bering expedition in the 1740s, though because of its remote location, observations have been scant and many smaller eruptions may have gone unrecorded. Eruptions of Gareloi commonly produce ash clouds and lava flows. Scars on the flanks of the volcano and debris-avalanche deposits on the adjacent seafloor indicate that the volcano has produced large landslides in the past, possibly causing tsunamis. Such events are infrequent, occurring at most every few thousand years. The primary hazard from Gareloi is airborne clouds of ash that could affect aircraft. In this report, we summarize and describe the major volcanic hazards associated with Gareloi.

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska, Prince William Sound-2000, Aleutians-2001, Bristol Bay-2004, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), and Bristol Bay (2004). ESI data...

  3. ALEU_250M_LCC_WGS84.TIF - Aleutian Arc U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar composite mosaic (LCC, 250 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — During late July through September 1987 and June and July 1988 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted four cruises to cover the U.S. Aleutian Arc Exclusive...

  4. 75 FR 48298 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ...-information requirements contained in this proposed rule may be submitted to NMFS Alaska, Sustainable... report includes not only the weight of crab but also the weight of packaging, pallets, and glaze....

  5. 76 FR 35781 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Availability of this amendment in the Federal Register on February 1, 2011 (76 FR 5556), with comments invited through April 4, 2011. NMFS published the proposed rule for this action on February 25, 2011 (76 FR 8700..., 2010, 75 FR 7205). NMFS extended the emergency action on August 17, 2010 (75 FR 50716). The...

  6. 75 FR 50716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... August 17, 2010 (75 FR 7205). NMFS invited public comments until March 22, 2010. NMFS received no public... (75 FR 7205, February 18, 2010) provides additional background information. Section 305(c)(3)(B) of... public interest. In the initial emergency rule published on February 18, 2010 (75 FR 7205),...

  7. 78 FR 36122 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... the FMP. NMFS published a notice of availability (NOA) for Amendment 42 on March 12, 2013 (78 FR 15677... implement Amendment 42 on March 21, 2013 (78 FR 17341). The comment period on the proposed rule ended on... in detail in the proposed rule to implement Amendment 42 (78 FR 17341, March 21, 2013) and...

  8. 78 FR 6279 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... 18 and 19 to the FMP, on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174). Regulations implementing the FMP and all... the final rule (76 FR 35781, June 20, 2011). Because the conditions that have impeded deliveries... use caps, please see the proposed rule for the CR Program (69 FR 63200; October 29, 2004)....

  9. 78 FR 28523 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... published a notice of availability for Amendment 41 on December 13, 2012 (77 FR 74161). The comment period... on January 30, 2013 (78 FR 6279). The comment period on the proposed rule ended on March 1, 2013... provided in the notice of availability for Amendment 41 (December 13, 2012, 77 FR 74161) and the...

  10. 76 FR 8700 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174). Regulations implementing the FMP and all amendments to the Program...-designated IPQ for the WAG fishery from the West regional designation until August 17, 2010 (75 FR 7205... these shares be used in the West region. NMFS extended the emergency action on August 17, 2010 (75...

  11. 76 FR 35772 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... qualifying years and are fully described in the preamble to the proposed rule for this action (76 FR 17088... FR 13593), with a public comment period that closed on May 13, 2011. NMFS published the proposed rule to implement Amendment 34 on March 28, 2011 (76 FR 17088), and the public comment period closed...

  12. 76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... system is found in the preamble to the proposed rule (October 24, 2004; 69 FR 63200) and final rule (March 2, 2005; 70 FR 10174) that implemented the CR Program, as well as in the final EIS prepared for... NMFS published the notice of availability for Amendment 30 on July 25, 2011 (76 FR 44297), with...

  13. 78 FR 17341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... regulations implementing the Crab Rationalization Program (CR Program) in 2005 (70 FR 10174, March 2, 2005... reports under the Sec. 680.6 EDR requirements. Classification Pursuant to section 304(b)(1)(A) of the.../ processor operators to report categories of information: ex vessel revenues; market lease revenues;...

  14. 50 CFR 600.1105 - Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... capacity reduction programs, portions of which are applicable to the Reduction Plan, (50 CFR 600.1000 et... non-interim Federal License Limitation Program groundfish license issued pursuant to 50 CFR 679.4(k... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longline catcher processor subsector...

  15. 50 CFR 600.1106 - Longline catcher processor subsector Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longline catcher processor subsector... Fishery or Program Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1106 Longline catcher processor subsector... longline catcher processor subsector of the BSAI non-pollock groundfish fishery that § 679.2 of...

  16. 76 FR 25295 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... each crab stock. This action is necessary to account for uncertainty in the overfishing limit and prevent overfishing. If approved, Amendment 39 would modify the snow crab rebuilding plan to define the... overfishing, achievement of optimum yield, and establishment of annual catch limits. The following is...

  17. 76 FR 17034 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Register on Tuesday, March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11139). Tables providing information on 2011 and 2012 Directed... incorrect information on Atka mackerel sideboard limits for the following areas and seasons: ``Eastern AI/BS'' for ``Jan 1-Jun 10''; ``Central AI'' for ``Jan 1-Jun 10''; and ``Central AI'' for ``Jan 1-Jun...

  18. Happy Island

    CERN Document Server

    McLerran, Larry

    2011-01-01

    I discuss the phase diagram for QCD in the baryon chemical potential and temperature plane. I argue that there is a new phase of matter different from the deconfined Quark Gluon Plasma: Quarkyonic Matter. Quarkyonic Matter is confined and exists at densities parametrically large compared to the QCD scale, when the number of quark colors, $N_c$ is large. I motivate the possibility that Quarkyonic Matter is in an inhomogeneous phase, and is surrounded by lines of phase transitions, making a Happy Island in the $\\mu_B$-T plane. I conjecture about the geography of Happy Island.

  19. Identification of biosecurity measures and spatial variables as potential risk factors for Aleutian disease in Danish mink farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themudo, G. E.; Houe, H.; Agger, J. F.;

    2012-01-01

    Eradication of Aleutian disease was initiated in Denmark in 1976. The prevalence of positive farms has since then been reduced from 100% to only being continuously present in the region of Vendsyssel, Northern Denmark since 2004. In this study, we attempted to identify risk factors for the infect...... that have eradicated the disease will be at risk of re-infection from test-positive neighbours. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved........ A total of 279 questionnaires were completed (response rate 82%). Additional spatial variables were included in the analysis. The study shows that farm size (the number of animals in the farm) and proportion of infected neighbouring farms were significant risk factors for infection with Aleutian...

  20. Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in the Solomon Islands and to identify gaps where engagement could further develop financial resilience. It also aims to encourage peer exchange of regional knowledge, specifically by encouraging dialogue on past experiences, lessons learned, optimal use of these financial tool...

  1. Kelp-Fed Beef, Swimming Caribou, Feral Reindeer, and Their Hunters: Island Mammals in a Marine Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Reedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula residents have selectively introduced land mammals to their primarily marine based economy over the past two centuries. This paper describes these many introductions, contexts, and the longer term roles of these cattle, sheep, reindeer, and other land mammals in discrete island settings and the regional food economy based upon interviews in ten communities and comprehensive household surveys in eight of these. Caribou are indigenous and traditionally hunted in other parts of the state but are legally “invasive” in island contexts now managed by the federal government. Access to land and natural resources by Alaska Natives and rural peoples is regulated by state and federal agencies, but Aleutian residents have shaped their environment and engineered food sources to support their communities. This paper demonstrates that hardline approaches to removing invasive land mammal species will have human consequences and an integrated management policy emphasizing food security and conservation that includes reducing the density of these introduced species is most appropriate.

  2. Seismic Velocity and Thickness of Sediments Beneath the Aleutian Basin, Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirer, D. S.; Barth, G. A.; Sliter, R. W.; Hart, P. E.; Childs, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The thickness and seismic velocity structure of sediments of the Aleutian Basin were mapped during a 2011 multichannel seismic (MCS) cruise of the R/V Langseth. Combined with legacy MCS, sonobuoy, and scientific drilling data, the Langseth observations allowed us to study the history of sedimentation in this area. Semblance velocity analyses from common-depth-point gathers of the 8-km-long streamer data were conducted at-sea every 6.25 km. Post-cruise, these semblance analyses were refined and supplemented with new analyses where significant basement topography is present. The flat-lying nature of both the seafloor and the within-sediment reflectors allowed determination of interval velocity and thickness values with high precision using the Dix equation. Two prominent bottom-simulating reflections (BSRs) are common within the sediment column: a shallower one inferred to represent the base of gas hydrate stability, and a deeper one inferred to represent the diagenetic transformation from opal-A to opal-CT. This latter transition was reached by the one deep hole (Site 190, DSDP Leg19) drilled into the Aleutian Basin, where the lithologic contrast prevented further penetration. The gas hydrate BSR is associated with subvertical velocity-amplitude anomalies, and the opal A/CT transition is associated with a large decrease in reflector amplitudes beneath it, indicating the decrease in acoustic impedance contrasts associated with diagenetic dewatering. Seismic interval velocities range from 1600 m/sec at the top of the sediment column to 2800-3500 m/sec at its base. The largest step in interval velocity occurs at the opal A/CT transition. Interval velocities are laterally continuous over many tens of kilometers, and this continuity allows the generation of seismic travel-time vs. sediment thickness relationships across the basin. A second-degree polynomial relationship between time and thickness, developed by regression of all of the semblance velocity analyses from the

  3. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover. PMID:25647590

  4. NS1 gene based molecular characteristics of Aleutian mink disease virus circulating in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Michał

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the genetic variability of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV circulating among mink farmed in Poland and to compare Polish isolates with AMDV variants available in the GenBank database. For this purpose PCR amplification and analysis of the 429 bp DNA fragment of the AMDV NS1 gene from 13 randomly selected AMDV infected mink was performed. A comparison showed that all tested amplicons were closely related to the sequence of the NS1 gene of AMDV and showed high (94%-97% homology to virus variants from American mink (Neovison vison isolated in Canada in 2007-2008. Eleven samples showing a high percentage (95%-97% of sequence similarity together with three similar isolates originating from Canada formed one clade (monophyletic group. Two variants showing a lower percentage (about 94%- 95% of sequence similarity to isolates from Canada formed a separate clade. Polish viruses can be subdivided into two main groups with a putative ancestor common to both Polish and three Canadian isolates. This result confirms the literature data indicating the occurrence of American mink in Eastern Europe (including Poland from the 1950s when the animals were imported for breeding purposes. In conclusion, we provide for the first time a report on the genetic characteristics of the AMDV variants circulating in the Polish population of farmed mink and their relationship with previously known AMDV variants isolated and described abroad.

  5. Effect of Persistent Infection of Mink with Aleutian Mink Disease Virus on Reproductive Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Michał

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of asymptomatic infections of mink with Aleutian mink disease virus (AMD on reproductive performance and the morphology of the internal organs. The study drew its subjects from two farms where the disease was endemic and included 450 clinically healthy female mink divided into three equal groups: two AMD positive groups and one AMD negative control group. The mink were subjected to clinical observations throughout the period of reproduction, and then for the first seven weeks after birth. Data collected during this period were evaluated using selected breeding and reproductive indices. All reproductive indices including conception rate, litter size, and litter weight at birth as well as neonatal mortality were substantially poorer. Histopathological examination revealed changes typical for AMD, particularly in the spleen, kidneys, liver, and lymph nodes. The results highlighted and proved the frequently underestimated extent of economic losses on farms where AMD is endemic yet the mink stock is apparently healthy.

  6. Characterization of deoxyribonucleic acid from cells infected with Aleutian disease virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, E.C.; Ramos, L.; Kenyon, A.J.

    1983-07-01

    Viral DNA was extracted from Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells infected with Aleutian disease virus (ADV) and labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. The sedimentation coefficient in alkaline sucrose gradients was 16S corresponding to a molecular weight of 1.5 X 10(6). The buoyant densities of DNA from infected and control cells were determined by isopyknic sedimentation in CsCl and NaI gradients. Two additional peaks of (/sup 3/H)DNA were found in infected cells, but not in control cell extracts. Fractionation of this DNA on hydroxylapatite indicated that the new peaks represented a single-stranded component, density 1.728 g/cm3, and a double-stranded component, presumed to be a viral replicative intermediate, density 1.718 g/cm3. The target antigen formation in CRFK cells was measured by gamma-irradiation of ADV and assayed for focus formation. The calculated size of ADV based on these measurements was 1.1 X 10(6). The H-1 parvovirus also was shown to have a size of 1.5 X 10(6) daltons for both antigen and plaque formation. The data indicated similarities existed between ADV and other autonomously replicating parvoviruses in most properties, except that less-than-unit length genome of ADV may be transcribed.

  7. Genetic characterization of the complete genome of an Aleutian mink disease virus isolated in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Ji; Wang, Jigui; Yu, Yongle; Zhang, Xiaomei; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-01

    The genome of a highly pathogenic strain of Aleutian disease mink virus (AMDV-BJ) isolated from a domestic farm in North China has been determined and compared with other strains. Alignment analysis of the major structural protein VP2 revealed that AMDV-BJ is unique among 17 other AMDV strains. Compared with the nonpathogenic strain ADV-G, the 3' end Y-shaped hairpin was highly conserved, while a 4-base deletion in the 5' U-shaped terminal palindrome resulted in a different unpaired "bubble" group near the NS1-binding region of the 5' end hairpin which may affect replication efficiency in vivo. We also performed a protein analysis of the NS1, NS2, and new-confirmed NS3 of AMDV-BJ with some related AMDV DNA sequence published, providing information on evolution of AMDV genes. This study shows a useful method to obtain the full-length genome of AMDV and some other parvoviruses. PMID:27007772

  8. Islands for SAT

    OpenAIRE

    H Fang; Kilani, Y.; Lee, J.H.M.; Stuckey, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    In this note we introduce the notion of islands for restricting local search. We show how we can construct islands for CNF SAT problems, and how much search space can be eliminated by restricting search to the island.

  9. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伦

    2002-01-01

    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  10. Validation of an automated ELISA system for detection of antibodies to Aleutian mink disease virus using blood samples collected in filter paper strips

    OpenAIRE

    Knuuttila, Anna; Aronen, Pirjo; Eerola, Majvor; Gardner, Ian A; Virtala, Anna-Maija K; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    Background Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the cause of a chronic immune complex disease, Aleutian disease (AD), which is common in mink-producing countries. In 2005, implementation of an AMDV eradication programme in Finland created a need for an automated high-throughput assay. The aim of this study was to validate an AMDV-VP2 -recombinant antigen ELISA, which we developed earlier, in an automated assay format for the detection of anti-AMDV antibodies in mink blood and to determine th...

  11. Locations and focal mechanisms of deep long period events beneath Aleutian Arc volcanoes using back projection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, A. C.; Roman, D. C.; Haney, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep long period (DLP) earthquakes are commonly observed in volcanic settings such as the Aleutian Arc in Alaska. DLPs are poorly understood but are thought to be associated with movements of fluids, such as magma or hydrothermal fluids, deep in the volcanic plumbing system. These events have been recognized for several decades but few studies have gone beyond their identification and location. All long period events are more difficult to identify and locate than volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes because traditional detection schemes focus on high frequency (short period) energy. In addition, DLPs present analytical challenges because they tend to be emergent and so it is difficult to accurately pick the onset of arriving body waves. We now expect to find DLPs at most volcanic centers, the challenge lies in identification and location. We aim to reduce the element of human error in location by applying back projection to better constrain the depth and horizontal position of these events. Power et al. (2004) provided the first compilation of DLP activity in the Aleutian Arc. This study focuses on the reanalysis of 162 cataloged DLPs beneath 11 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc (we expect to ultimately identify and reanalyze more DLPs). We are currently adapting the approach of Haney (2014) for volcanic tremor to use back projection over a 4D grid to determine position and origin time of DLPs. This method holds great potential in that it will allow automated, high-accuracy picking of arrival times and could reduce the number of arrival time picks necessary for traditional location schemes to well constrain event origins. Back projection can also calculate a relative focal mechanism (difficult with traditional methods due to the emergent nature of DLPs) allowing the first in depth analysis of source properties. Our event catalog (spanning over 25 years and volcanoes) is one of the longest and largest and enables us to investigate spatial and temporal variation in DLPs.

  12. Implementation and validation of a sensitive PCR detection method in the eradication campaign against Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann;

    2011-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a severe progressive disease causing multiple different clinical syndromes in mink. In Denmark, the disease is notifiable and under official control. The control programme, based on serological screening, has confined successfully AMDV to the northern part of...... serological status of the mink. The relative diagnostic sensitivity of the PCR was 94.7%, and the relative diagnostic specificity was 97.9% when read in parallel with the CIE. PCR positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis revealed high similarity within the analysed AMDV strains and to AMDV...

  13. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  14. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Persson

    Full Text Available Aleutian mink disease (AMD is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133 had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006, heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen.

  15. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: Transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus the same cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bloom, M.E.;

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases, Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease, In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic...

  16. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on...... contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies...

  17. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas (2): Cook Inlet - 2002, Kodiak - 1998, Southeast - 2002, Bristol Bay - 2004, Prince William Sound - 2000, Aleutians - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0050372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Kodiak (1998), Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), Cook Inlet (2002),...

  18. l981aa.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-9-81-AA in Aleutian Arc, Alaska from 07/19/1981 to 08/13/1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, magnetics, and gravity data along with transit satellite navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-9-81-AA in Aleutian Arc,...

  19. l580aa.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-5-80-AA in Aleutian Arc, Alaska from 06/23/1980 to 07/05/1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-5-80-AA in Aleutian Arc, Alaska from...

  20. l475bs.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-4-75-BS in Bering Sea, Aleutian Basin, Alaska from 09/07/1975 to 09/18/1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-4-75-BS in Bering Sea, Aleutian Basin,...

  1. Shemya Island prehistory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  2. Island political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Geoffrey; Poirine, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    International audience In this chapter we build on the observation that island economies, and especially small ones (population below one million), exhibit a remarkably wide range of economic structures built on a correspondingly wide range of development strategies. Common elements of "islandness" may serve to define island economies as a general class, but there clearly exist several distinct "species" within that class, and a corresponding menu of strategic options open to islander comm...

  3. Diversity and stability of Aleutian mink disease virus during bottleneck transitions resulting from eradication in domestic mink in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Hansen, Lene Gram; Chriél, Mariann;

    2011-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (plasmacytosis) virus (AMDV) in domestic mink (Neovison vison) has been subject to eradication in Denmark since 1976. In 2001, approximately 5% of Danish mink farms were still infected and all were located in the northern part of the peninsula of Jutland. In the present study...... cluster compared with Swedish, Finnish and Dutch isolates and seem to represent a minor fraction of the genetic diversity previously found in Denmark. Stability of nucleoide deviations reveals that the purifying selection of bottlenecks imposed on the AMDV population in Denmark by the stamping out policy...... was a predisposing risk parameter for disease outbreak at a farm, and strain identity substantiates the suggestion that inadequate disinfection is involved in the recurrence of outbreaks. In cases of new introductions to farms it is indicated that contact including transport between farms played a...

  4. Long-range Receiver Function Profile of Crustal and Mantle Discontinuities From the Aleutian Arc to Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Kathrin; Rondenay, Stéphane; Sawade, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The Circum-Pacific belt, also called the Pacific Ring of Fire, is the most seismically active region on Earth. Multiple plate boundaries form a zone characterized by frequent volcanic eruptions and seismicity. While convergent plate boundaries such as the Peru-Chile trench dominate the Circum-Pacific belt, divergent and transform boundaries are present as well. The eastern section of the Circum-Pacific belt extends from the Aleutian arc, through the Cascadia subduction zone, San Andreas Fault, middle America trench and the Andean margin down to Tierra del Fuego. Due to the significant hazards posed by this tectonic activity, the region has been densely instrumented by thousands of seismic stations deployed across fifteen countries, over a distance of more than 15000 km. Various seismological studies, including receiver function analyses, have been carried out to investigate the crustal and mantle structure beneath local segments of the eastern Circum-Pacific belt (i.e., at ~100-500 km scale). However, to the best of our knowledge, no study to date has ever attempted to combine all available seismic data from the eastern Circum-Pacific belt to generate a continuous profile of seismic discontinuities extending from the Aleutians to Tierra del Fuego. Here, we use results from the "Global Imaging using Earthquake Records" (GLImER) P-wave receiver function database to create a long-range profile of crustal and upper mantle discontinuities across the entire eastern portion of the Circum-Pacific belt. We image intermittent crustal and mantle discontinuities along the profile, and examine them with regard to their behaviour and properties across transitions between different tectonic regimes.

  5. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  6. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  7. "Arc-continent collision" of the Aleutian-Komandorsky arc into Kamchatka: Insight into Quaternary tectonic segmentation through Pleistocene marine terraces and morphometric analysis of fluvial drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, K.; Authemayou, C.; Pinegina, T.; Bourgeois, J.; Nexer, M.; Delcaillau, B.; Regard, V.

    2013-07-01

    At the NW corner of the Pacific region, just south of the Kamchatsky Peninsula, the northern tip of the Pacific plate subduction and associated volcanic arc interacts with the western end of the Aleutian-Komandorsky dextral transform plate boundary and associated arc. Study of both Holocene and Pleistocene sequences of uplifted marine terraces and also of fluvial drainage patterns on the Kamchatsky Peninsula allows us to highlight active tectonics produced by complex plate interaction. Our results show that the central eastern coast of the peninsula is currently divided into four different zones consisting in uplifted blocks associated with various uplift rates in front of a fold-and-thrust zone to the west. Our main tectonic benchmark—the altitude of the shoreline correlated to the Last Interglacial Maximum (Marine Isotopic Stage 5e)—yields late Pleistocene uplift rates ranging from 0.2 to 2.74 mm/yr. One of the main active faults bounding the coastal blocks is dextral and is interpreted as a prolongation of an offshore fault of the Aleutian-Komandorsky dextral transform plate boundary. We suggest that structures on the Kamchatsky Peninsula accommodate a part of the transform motion, but that mainly, the arc-continent collision of the Aleutian arc against Kamchatka produces a "bulldozer" effect on the Kamchatsky Peninsula.

  8. Darwin and the island

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Justin Daniel.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis examines the fictional island and assesses the impact of Darwinism on the genre. I show how islands have been a recurring feature in European literature, fictional spaces where authors create a microcosm in which they satirise, criticise or hold up a mirror to their own society. I argue that traditonal Utopian islands are static realms and that through the introduction of evolution (Darwin and Wallace made their most important discoveries regarding the mechanism of...

  9. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  10. Diverse lavas from closely spaced volcanoes drawing from a common parent: Emmons Lake Volcanic Center, Eastern Aleutian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Miller, T.; Waythomas, C.; Trusdell, F.; Calvert, A.; Layer, P.

    2009-01-01

    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaskan Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~ 350 km3 of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30 km, arc front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming eruptions, the most recent, at ~ 27 ka, produced ~ 50 km3 of rhyolitic ignimbrite and ash fall. These violent silicic events were interspersed with less energetic, but prodigious, outpourings of basalt through dacite. Holocene eruptions are mostly basaltic andesite to andesite and historically recorded activity includes over 40 eruptions within the last 200 yr, all from Pavlof volcano, the most active site in the Aleutian Arc. Geochemical and geophysical observations suggest that although all ELVC eruptions derive from a common clinopyroxene + spinel + plagioclase fractionating high-aluminum basalt parent in the lower crust, magma follows one of two closely spaced, but distinct paths to the surface. Under the eastern end of the chain, magma moves rapidly and cleanly through a relatively young (~ 28 ka), hydraulically connected dike plexus. Steady supply, short magma residence times, and limited interaction with crustal rocks preserve the geochemistry of deep crustal processes. Below the western part of the chain, magma moves haltingly through a long-lived (~ 500 ka) and complex intrusive column in which many generations of basaltic to andesitic melts have mingled and fractionated. Buoyant, silicic melts periodically separate from the lower parts of the column to feed voluminous eruptions of dacite and rhyolite. Mafic lavas record a complicated passage through cumulate zones and hydrous silicic residues as manifested by disequilibrium phenocryst textures, incompatible element enrichments, and decoupling of REEs and HFSEs ratios. Such features are absent in mafic lavas from the younger part of the chain

  11. Tsunami risk assessment in the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) through numerical modeling of generic far-field events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Heinrich, P.

    Earthquakes occurring at the Pacific Rim can trigger tsunamis that propagate across the ocean and can produce significant damages far away from the source. In French Polynesia, the Marquesas Islands are the most exposed to the far-field tsunami hazards, since they are not protected by any outer coral reef and since submarine slopes are less steep than in other islands. Between 1994 and 1996, four tsunamis have reached the bays of the archipelago, among them, the tsunami initiated by the Chilean Mw 8.1 earthquake, produced up to 3 m high waves in Tahauku Bay. Numerical modeling of these recent events has already allowed us to validate our method of resolution of hydrodynamics laws through a finite-difference scheme that simulates the propagation of the tsunamis across the ocean and computes the inundation heights (run-up) in remote bays. We present in this paper the simulations carried out to study potentially threatening areas located at the Pacific Rim, on the seismogenic Aleutian and Tonga subduction zones. We use a constant seismic moment source (that of the Mw 8.1 Chile 1995 earthquake, M0 = 1.2 1021 N.m) located at several potential epicenters, with the fault strike adapted from the regional seismotectonics pattern. Our results show that the sources chosen in the Aleutian trench do not produce large inundations in the Marquesas bays, except for the easternmost source (longitude 194° E). Sources located in the Tonga trench do not produce high amplifications either, except for the northernmost one (latitude 16° S). We also discuss the behaviour of the tsunami waves within the archipelago, and evidence contrasting responses depending on the arrival azimuths. These results show that, for a given initial seismic energy, the tsunami amplification in remote bays is highly dependent on the source location and fault strike.

  12. The Cook Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This country note is produced is part of The Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment andFinancing Initiative (PCRAFI). The geographic spread of the Cook Islands poses logistical problems for any necessary post-disaster relief and response efforts. The events of 2005 demonstrated that the Cook Islands is extremely vulnerable to the threat of tropical cyclones (TCs): in the two months of Februar...

  13. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  14. St. Vincent Island Tour

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  15. Back to Treasure Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  16. Stratigraphy, petrology, and geochemistry of the Spurr Volcanic Complex, eastern Aleutian Arc, Alaska. [(Appendix for geothermal fluid chemistry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, C.J.

    1987-12-01

    The Spurr Volcanic Complex (SVC) is a calcalkaline, medium-K, sequence of andesites erupted over the last quarter of a million years by the easternmost currently active volcanic center in the Aleutian Arc. The ancestral Mt. Spurr was built mostly of andesites of uniform composition (58 to 60% SiO/sub 2/), although andesite production was episodically interrupted by the introduction of new batches of more mafic magma. Near the end of the Pleistocene the ancestral Mt. Spurr underwent Bezyianny-type avalanche caldera formation, resulting in the production of a volcanic debris avalanche with overlying ashflows. Immediately afterward, a large dome (the present Mt. Spurr) was emplaced in the caldera. Both the ashflows and dome are made of acid andesite more silicic than any analyzed lavas from the ancestral Mt. Spurr (60 to 63% SiO/sub 2/), yet contain olivine and amphibole xenocrysts derived from more mafic magma. The mafic magma (53 to 57% SiO/sub 2/) erupted during and after dome emplacement, forming proto-Crater Peak and Crater Peak. Hybrid pyroclastic flows and lavas were also produced. Proto-Crater Peak underwent glacial dissection prior to the formation of Crater Peak in approximately the same location. Appendices II through VIII contain a summary of mineral compositions; Appendix I contains geochemical data. Appendix IX by R.J. Motyka and C.J. Nye describes the chemistry of geothermal fluids. 78 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Effect of lipid extraction on analyses of stable carbon and stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal organisms of the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Anthony, R.G.; Deng, X.; Hung, S.S.O.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether extracting lipids reduced confounding variation in ??13C and ??15N values by analyzing paired lipid-extracted (LE) and non-lipid-extracted (NLE) samples of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) whole eggs, muscle tissue from nine seabird and one terrestrial bird species, muscle tissue from four marine fish species, and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L., 1758) collected from the Aleutian archipelago, Alaska. Lipid extraction significantly increased ??13C by an average of 2.0??? in whole eggs, 0.8??? in avian muscle, 0.2??? in fish muscle, and 0.6??? in blue mussels. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples covaried positively with lipid content across all sample types. Lower ??13C values in NLE samples were not correlated with lipid content within bald eagle eggs and blue mussels, but covaried positively with percent lipid in avian and fish muscles. Neither lipid extraction nor percent lipid significantly changed ??15N values for any sample type. Lower ??13C values in most NLE avian and fish muscle tissues should not confound interpretation of pelagic versus nearshore sources of primary production, but lipid extraction may be necessary when highly precise estimates of ??13C are needed. Lipid extraction may not be necessary when only ??15N is of interest. ?? 2007 NRC.

  18. A fast and robust method for whole genome sequencing of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Emma E; Krarup, Anders; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Larsen, Lars E; Dam-Tuxen, Rebekka; Pedersen, Anders G

    2016-08-01

    Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with commercial mink breeding. AMDV infection leads to increased mortality and compromised animal health and welfare. Currently little is known about the molecular evolution of the virus, and the few existing studies have focused on limited regions of the viral genome. This paper describes a robust, reliable, and fast protocol for amplification of the full AMDV genome using long-range PCR. The method was used to generate next generation sequencing data for the non-virulent cell-culture adapted AMDV-G strain as well as for the virulent AMDV-Utah strain. Comparisons at nucleotide- and amino acid level showed that, in agreement with existing literature, the highest variability between the two virus strains was found in the left open reading frame, which encodes the non-structural (NS1-3) genes. This paper also reports a number of differences that potentially can be linked to virulence and host range. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to apply next generation sequencing on the entire AMDV genome. The results from the study will facilitate the development of new diagnostic tools and can form the basis for more detailed molecular epidemiological analyses of the virus. PMID:27060623

  19. AFSC/RACE/GAP/vonSzalay: The Eastern Bering Sea Shelf, Gulf of Alaska, and Aleutian Islands Simrad ES 60 Acoustic Data Collected on Bottom Trawl Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calibrated midwater and bottom backscatter data collected continuously with ES-60 echosounders throughout the bottom trawlsurvey period, continuing a time series of...

  20. AK-Contaminant exposure and habitat use by declining species of sea ducks wintering near industrial developments on the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Declines of Steller’s eiders (Polysticta stelleri) (STEIs) have resulted in listing the North American breeding population as Threatened under the Endangered...

  1. Diets of nestling tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) in the Gulf of Alaska and eastern Aleutian Islands in 1986, with special reference to forage fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In late summer 1986, diets of nestling tufted puffins were studied at 18 breeding colonies between Prince William Sound and Unimak Pass as part of a continuing...

  2. AFSC/NMML: Killer Whale encounter data in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and the western and central Gulf of Alaska from 2000 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Comprises data from surveys focused on killer whales with opportunistic data from other cetacean species; includes data describing encounters for...

  3. Collaboration versus communication: The Department of Energy's Amchitka Island and the Aleut Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly managers and scientists are recognizing that solving environmental problems requires the inclusion of a wide range of disciplines, governmental agencies, Native American tribes, and other stakeholders. Usually such inclusion involves communication at the problem-formulation phase, and at the end to report findings. This paper examines participatory research, the differences between the traditional stakeholder involvement method of communication (often one-way, at the beginning and the end), compared to full collaboration, where parties are actively involved in the scientific process. Using the Department of Energy's (DOE) Amchitka Island in the Aleutians as a case study, we demonstrate that the inclusion of Aleut people throughout the process resulted in science that was relevant not only to the agency's needs and to the interested and affected parties, but that led to a solution. Amchitka Island was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971, and virtually no testing of radionuclide levels in biota, subsistence foods, or commercial fish was conducted after the 1970s. When DOE announced plans to close Amchitka, terminating its managerial responsibility, without any further testing of radionuclide levels in biota, there was considerable controversy, which resulted in the development of a Science Plan to assess the potential risks to the marine environment from the tests. The Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) was the principle entity that developed and executed the science plan. Unlike traditional science, CRESP embarked on a process to include the Alaskan Natives of the Aleutian Islands (Aleuts), relevant state and federal agencies, and other stakeholders at every phase. Aleuts were included in the problem-formulation, research design refinement, the research, analysis of data, dissemination of research findings, and public communication. This led to agreement with the results, and to developing a

  4. Census Snapshot: Rhode Island

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Baumle, Amanda; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in Rhode Island. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in Rhode Island. In many ways, the over 2,400 same-sex couples living in Rhode Island are similar to married coupl...

  5. Post-eruption legacy effects and their implications for long-term recovery of the vegetation on Kasatochi Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Walker, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the vegetation of Kasatochi Island, central Aleutian Islands, to provide a general field assessment regarding the survival of plants, lichens, and fungi following a destructive volcanic eruption that occurred in 2008. Plant community data were analyzed using multivariate methods to explore the relationship between pre- and post-eruption plant cover; 5 major vegetation types were identified: Honckenya peploides beach, Festuca rubra cliff shelf, Lupinus nootkatensisFestuca rubra meadow, Leymus mollis bluff ridge (and beach), and Aleuria aurantia lower slope barrens. Our study provided a very unusual glimpse into the early stages of plant primary succession on a remote island where most of the vegetation was destroyed. Plants that apparently survived the eruption dominated early plant communities. Not surprisingly, the most diverse post-eruption community most closely resembled a widespread pre-eruption type. Microhabitats where early plant communities were found were distinct and apparently crucial in determining plant survival. Comparison with volcanic events in related boreal regions indicated some post-eruption pattern similarities. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  6. Nunivak Island muskox studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  7. Solomon Islands; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes Solomon Islands’ ongoing reforms concerning of the mineral taxation regime and the fiscal impact of mineral resources. The analysis shows that mineral revenue could be substantial, provided that mineral prices remain strong in the medium term. Enforcing the tax agreement with, a Gold Ridge company, and implementing the new resource taxation regime are critical to ensure that the forthcoming mineral wealth spills over to the rest of the economy. Solomon Islands should ado...

  8. Quantifying fluid flow, solute mixing, and biogeochemical turnover at cold vents of the eastern Aleutian subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, Klaus; Linke, Peter; Suess, Erwin; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Sahling, Heiko; Schlüter, Michael; Dählmann, Anke; Lammers, Stephan; Greinert, Jens; von Mirbach, Nikolaus

    1997-12-01

    In situ oxygen fluxes were measured at vent sites in the Aleutian trench at a water depth of almost 5000 m using a TV-guided benthic flux chamber. The flux was 2 orders of magnitude greater than benthic oxygen fluxes in areas unaffected by venting on the continental margin off Alaska. Porewater profiles taken from the surface sediment below a vent site showed high concentrations of sulfide, methane, and ammonia. The reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds are transported to the vent site by fluids expelled from deeper anoxic sediment layers by the forces of plate convergence. The tectonically driven fluid flow was determined from the biochemical turnover in vent communities and was found to be 3.4 ± 0.5 m yr -1. A model was used to quantify the transport of silica, Ca 2+, and sulfate via diffusion, advection, and bioirrigation through the surface sediments of a vent site. A nonlocal mixing coefficient of 20-30 yr -1 was determined by fitting the model curves to the measured porewater profiles showing that the transport of solutes within the near-surface sediments and across the sediment-water interface is dominated by the activity of the vent fauna. Sulfate-containing oceanic bottom water and methane-rich vent fluids were mixed below the clam colony to produce sulfide and a CaCO 3 precipitate. The vent biota shape their immediate environment and control the sediment-water exchange and the benthic fluxes at vent sites. The oxygen consumption at vent sites is a major sink for oxygen at the study area.

  9. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mustelids in Finland - a cross-sectional epidemiological and phylogenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, A; Aaltonen, K; Virtala, A-M K; Henttonen, H; Isomursu, M; Leimann, A; Maran, T; Saarma, U; Timonen, P; Vapalahti, O; Sironen, T

    2015-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) can cause severe immune-complex-mediated disease in American mink. AMDV has also been detected in several other mustelid species with potential negative impact on their health and population. A molecular and cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to obtain data on the prevalence, distribution, transmission and diversity of AMDV strains in Finnish free-ranging mustelids and risk factors associated with infection. The presence of anti-AMDV antibodies and/or AMDV DNA was tested from 308 samples representing eight mustelid species and 17 administrative regions. Positive samples were detected across Finland, and in 54 % (31/57) of feral American mink, 27 % (7/26) of European badgers and 7 % (1/14) of European polecats. Samples from Eurasian otters, European pine martens, least weasels, stoat and wolverine were negative. Major risk factors for infection were the species American mink with 335 and badger with 74 times higher odds than other species, and the years 2006-2009 with five times higher odds than the years 2010-2014. No clustering according to species, geographical origin or year was evident in phylogeny, except for four divergent sequences from Estonian badgers that formed a separate phylogroup distinct from other AMDV strains. This study showed that AMDV was prevalent in certain species of Finnish free-ranging mustelids and widely distributed across Finland. Furthermore, the free-ranging mustelids carried both strains similar to those found in farmed mink, but also distinct strains that may represent novel amdoparvoviruses. PMID:25667324

  10. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  11. l1081na.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-10-81-AA in North Aleutians, Alaska from 08/16/1981 to 08/23/1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-10-81-AA in North Aleutians, Alaska from 08/16/1981 to...

  12. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  13. Islands of Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A global review of islands and their connections with astronomy throughout history up to the contemporary times suggests eight compelling, distinct yet interlocking reasons why islands have been and remain so important to astronomy and astronomers. Islands constitute favourable locations for various types of astronomy-related activities: from tracking satellites and monitoring significant celestial events, to providing exceptional locations to jurisdictions with mandated dark and unpolluted skies. They appeal for their favourable longitude and (especially southern latitude, as well as for their disposition towards the conditions that the scientific community may expect in an ideal world: relatively clear viewing conditions from a secure, self-contained platform that is, however, endowed with connectivity. This article is written as a contribution to the International Year of Astronomy (2009.

  14. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, PSEG Long Island LLC (PSEG LI), Long Island...

  15. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  16. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  17. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  18. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  19. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  20. Marketing plan for Kuuskajaskari Island

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, JUANJUAN

    2009-01-01

    Marketing palan for Kuuskajaskari Island. ‡b Kuuskajaskari Island owned by the town of Rauma. Marketing plan should help the entrepreneurs of the islands to create services that target groups want and promote them by using the efficient marketing mix. The theoretical part consists of nature of tourism industry, travel consumers in general, then focus on Rauma areas and its island as targeted destination. Data was gathered from different official Finnish websites, books and from Sanni-Mari Aal...

  1. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  2. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  3. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  4. Solomon Islands : Workforce Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Solomon Islands has undertaken a comprehensive assessment of the strength of its workforce development (WfD) policies and institutions to support these initiatives and enhance evidence based dialogue on their implementation. This assessment has been based on the World Bank s Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) systems benchmarking initiative, under which a suite of analyt...

  5. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  6. Christmas Island birds returning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  7. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...

  8. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  9. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is...

  10. Introduced arctic fox compound 1080 baiting and wildlife surveys, Kiska Island, Aleutian Island, Alaska, 24 March-04 April 1986 (in support of EPA experimental use permit 6704-EUP-28)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To accomplish eradication of introduced arctic fox on Kiska, the FWS is testing and evaluating the toxicant sodium monofluoroacetate (Compound 1080). Incumbent upon...

  11. Geologic Map and Eruptive History of Veniaminof Volcano Record Aleutian Arc Processing of Mantle-Derived Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C. R.; Sisson, T. W.; Calvert, A. T.; Nye, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Mount Veniaminof, one of the largest volcanoes in the Aleutian arc, has a basal diameter of ~40 km, a volume of ~350 km3, an 8-km-diameter ice-filled caldera, and an active intracaldera cone. The geology of this tholeiitic basalt-to-dacite volcano has been mapped at 1:50,000 scale. Over 100 Quaternary volcanic map units are characterized by 600 chemical analyses of rocks and nearly 100 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar ages. Throughout its history, lava flows from Veniaminof recorded alternately ice/melt-water chilling or ice-free conditions that are consistent with independent paleoclimatic records. Exposures from deep glacial valleys to the caldera rim reveal a long history dominated by basalt and basaltic andesite from ≥260 ka to 150 ka that includes compositions as primitive as 9.4% MgO and 130 ppm Ni at 50% SiO2. Basaltic andesite, common throughout Veniaminof's history, has low compatible-element contents that indicate an origin by fractionation of basaltic magma. Repeated eruption of more differentiated melts from a shallow intrusive complex, represented by granodiorite (crystallized dacitic magma) and cumulate gabbro and diorite xenoliths in pyroclastic deposits, has featured virtually aphyric andesite since 150 ka and dacite (to 69.5% SiO2) beginning ~110 ka. These variably differentiated liquids segregated from crystal mush, possibly by gas-driven filter pressing, and commonly vented but also solidified at depth. A large composite cone was present at least as early as 200 ka. Although asymmetric edifice morphology hints at early sector collapse to the southeast, coeval vents on northwest and southeast flanks and the distribution of extensive lava units indicate that a large cone (again) was present by 120 ka. Flank eruption of a wide variety of Veniaminof magmas was common from plate-convergence-parallel northwest-trending fissures from at least as early as ca. 80 ka. At 56 ka and at 46 ka, voluminous dacite lava erupted on both northwest and southeast flanks. A

  12. Shoreline and surveillance surveys on the M/V Selendang Ayu spill response, Unalaska Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 2004, the marine vessel Selendang Ayu ran aground on Unalaska Island in the Aleutian Chain, Alaska, causing a spill of fuel oil that affected about 300 km of coastline in this remote Arctic area. Three days following the spill, tracking by aircraft was initiated. The surveillance continued as weather and sea conditions permitted. A map of the distribution of visible surface oil on the shoreline was produced 9 days after the spill to provide a basis for a limited winter cleanup program. A selective ground Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) survey was conducted in January and February in key areas to support response operations and to assess the distribution, amount and character of the stranded oil. The following spring, a systematic, complete ground SCAT survey was conducted, covering nearly 800 km of coast. The spring SCAT survey was unique in the sense of spill response because of the 2 distinct time periods and the 2 month lead time to plan and organize spring field operations. During that time, a physical shoreline character and oiling database was created from data collected in the winter and was then linked to a Geographic Information System (GIS), a digital photograph library, and aerial videotape imagery. The SCAT survey is scheduled to continue through the 2005 spring and summer months to support shoreline cleanup operations. A cultural resources program was also integrated into both the winter and spring surveys. 1 tab., 8 figs

  13. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  14. The conventional island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the conventional island, GEC Alsthom designs, manufactures and supplies: Mechanical equipment for the conventional island, Electrical equipment for the entire PWR unit, Safety-class mechanical equipment. Its experience and its own R and D resources, as well as close collaboration with EDF and experience feedback from equipment manufacturing, plant unit construction, and operation, enabled GEC Aslthom to meet the challenge of making a success of the massive nuclear power program launched in France. The latest step in the French nuclear power program is the 'N4' generation of 1450 MWe class units, for which GEC Alsthom has developed a second generation of impulse turbines, more compact and efficient moisture separator/reheaters and seawater-tight condensers

  15. Magnetic islands' dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonlinear evolution of the tearing mode is studied within the framework of single fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for different cases. First, the most simple instance of magnetic islands is studied, that is, the reduced MHD model within the cylindrical approximation for a given or constant resistivity profile. The nonlinear saturation of the tearing instability is then treated using two different methods: the first one, called the flux coordinate method, takes into account the fact that the current density is a flux function, whereas the second, simply called the perturbative method, does not. The generalized Rutherford equation is then provided by the asymptotic matching condition. It is shown not to depend on the choice of normalizations, as it should, and, in addition to new terms calculated for the first time, gives back all the results derived in previous work on the subject. It is also shown that the magnetic island gives rise to an order w3 modification of the poloidal magnetic flux, where w is the saturated island width, which is due to the flattening of the current density profile inside the separatrix. The perturbative method is then used to tackle two other issues, the first one being that of island rotation and the presence of an outer perturbation to the system. The corrections to the Rutherford equation due to these new effects are derived, and the importance of regularizing the vorticity profile in a new viscous-resistive boundary layer centered on the separatrix is emphasized, although not done explicitly. The second issue deals with the saturation of the tearing mode in full MHD, assuming single helicity and zero pressure. The equations are rewritten in a way that resembles the reduced MHD equations, so that the saturation equation can be derived using the perturbative method. Finally, the interest of such a study concerning the Reversed Field Pinch is discussed, and, in particular, the possibility that the tearing mode saturation may provide

  16. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  17. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  18. 阿留申病细小病毒的分离及VP2基因遗传衍生分析%Isolation of Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus and Genetic Variation Analysis of VP2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华育平; 马建

    2005-01-01

    水貂阿留申病(Aleutian disease of mink,AD)是水貂的一种慢性传染病,病原为阿留申病细小病毒(Aleutian mink disease parvovirus,AMDV),属细小病毒科、细小病毒属。AD自1940年发现以来至今60年里,已经普遍存在于世界各地人工养殖的水貂种群中。对水貂养殖业造成了不可估量的经济损失。

  19. Solomon Islands : Operational Procurement Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Solomon Islands is a remote, scattered archipelago about 1,900 km northeast of Australia in the South Pacific, with terrain ranging from about 1,000 mountainous islands to low-lying coral atolls stretching in a 1,450 km chain east of Papua New Guinea across the Coral Sea to Vanuatu. The archipelago covers a total area of 725,197 sq km (approx 280,000 sq miles) with the main islands being C...

  20. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities: Volume 10, Basin analysis, formation and stability of gas hydrates of the Aleutian Trench and the Bering Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krason, J.; Ciesnik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Four major areas with inferred gas hydrates are the subject of this study. Two of these areas, the Navarin and the Norton Basins, are located within the Bering Sea shelf, whereas the remaining areas of the Atka Basin in the central Aleutian Trench system and the eastern Aleutian Trench represent a huge region of the Aleutian Trench-Arc system. All four areas are geologically diverse and complex. Particularly the structural features of the accretionary wedge north of the Aleutian Trench still remain the subjects of scientific debates. Prior to this study, suggested presence of the gas hydrates in the four areas was based on seismic evidence, i.e., presence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Although the disclosure of the BSRs is often difficult, particularly under the structural conditions of the Navarin and Norton basins, it can be concluded that the identified BSRs are mostly represented by relatively weak and discontinuous reflectors. Under thermal and pressure conditions favorable for gas hydrate formation, the relative scarcity of the BSRs can be attributed to insufficient gas supply to the potential gas hydrate zone. Hydrocarbon gas in sediment may have biogenic, thermogenic or mixed origin. In the four studied areas, basin analysis revealed limited biogenic hydrocarbon generation. The migration of the thermogenically derived gases is probably diminished considerably due to the widespread diagenetic processes in diatomaceous strata. The latter processes resulted in the formation of the diagenetic horizons. The identified gas hydrate-related BSRs seem to be located in the areas of increased biogenic methanogenesis and faults acting as the pathways for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

  1. Role of alveolar type II cells and of surfactant-associated protein C mRNA levels in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress in mink kits infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Viuff, B; Aasted, B; Alexandersen, S.

    1994-01-01

    Neonatal mink kits infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) develop an acute interstitial pneumonia with clinical symptoms and pathological lesions that resemble those seen in preterm human infants with respiratory distress syndrome and in human adults with adult respiratory distress syndrome. We have previously suggested that ADV replicates in the alveolar type II epithelial cells of the lung. By using double in situ hybridization, with the simultaneous use of a probe to detect A...

  2. Adaptation and diversification on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losos, Jonathan B; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2009-02-12

    Charles Darwin's travels on HMS Beagle taught him that islands are an important source of evidence for evolution. Because many islands are young and have relatively few species, evolutionary adaptation and species proliferation are obvious and easy to study. In addition, the geographical isolation of many islands has allowed evolution to take its own course, free of influence from other areas, resulting in unusual faunas and floras, often unlike those found anywhere else. For these reasons, island research provides valuable insights into speciation and adaptive radiation, and into the relative importance of contingency and determinism in evolutionary diversification. PMID:19212401

  3. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  4. Islanders' Perspectives on Sustainable Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Cambers

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An internet forum, supported by the Small Islands Voice initiative, has since 2002 provided a place where islanders from around the world could discuss issues and problems and also learn from the experiences of others. This paper provides a reflective overview of the discussions over the past four years and attempts to identify some specific characteristics that identify islanders in their approaches to everyday living. An analysis of the forum respondents shows that approximately two thirds are male; one half come from the Pacific islands; and more than a half are employed in island-based occupations. Discussions have covered infrastructural development; resource management; environmental, social and economic issues. The overview indicates islanders are very willing to speak out and take ownership of their issues and problems and their discussions show a significant level of understanding about the need to balance limited resources and economic development. Proposals for action are practical and feasible and there is a strong vein of common sense running through the responses. Most significantly, islanders show a deep love for their island homes, an attitude of caring about the future development of their islands, and a willingness to try to solve their problems themselves.

  5. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  6. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  8. Urban heat island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  9. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  10. Mediterranean Islands: A Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Lopašić, A.

    2001-01-01

    This article represents some of the results of my fieldwork and research on the islands of Sardinia, Corsica, Malta, Sicily, Crete and Susak between the years 1962–1986. My main filed-work in Sardinia was supported by the Social Science Research Council, London and the University of Reading/Berks, and the ones in Corsica, Malta and Sardinia by the Department of Ethnology, University of Cologne (Institut für Völkerkunde, Universität Köln) forming a part of a project on the Medit...

  11. Hf-Nd-Sr isotopes and incompatible element abundances in island arcs: Implications for magma origins and crust-mantle evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Hf, Nd and Sr isotopic data and abundances of K, Rb, Cs, Ba, Sr, Hf and REE for 32 samples from seven intra-oceanic island arcs. Samples from the Marianas, Izu, Aleutian and New Britain arcs have tightly grouped 176Hf/177Hfproportional0.28320, 143Nd/144Ndproportional0.51303 and 87Sr/86Srproportional0.7035 close to, but distinct from, mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) for 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr. In contrast, samples from the Sunda, Banda and Lesser Antilles arcs are much more variable towards lower 176Hf/177Hf and 143Nd/144Nd, and higher 87Sr/86Sr. Isotopically, island arcs on the whole are closely similar to ocean islands. Some commonly-occurring features of the trace element geochemistry of island arcs are apparent in our data: alkali and alkaline-earth elements, particularly Cs, have high abundance relative to LREE compared to oceanic basalts; negative Ce anomalies occur in six out of seven arcs. However, Hf does not appear underabundant relative to REE. The isotopic data require a continental component in all island arcs, in addition to probable mantle and oceanic crust contributions, even for the arcs with isotope ratios close to MORB. In the absence of continental crust, we can best explain this component by subducted pelagic sediment in the arc magma source region. The involvement of sediments in all arcs implies that there is an inherent recycling of older continent to island arcs, and potentially to new continent, of at least 1%. Conservative calculations show that the upper subducted slab (basalt + sediment) passes beyond the arc magma genesis zone and enters the deep mantle with a minimum of 500-1000 ppm K, and corresponding amounts of other incompatible elements. If this material is not completely homogenized with the mantle and later becomes part of the source of ocean island magmas, then the ocean island-island arc isotopic similarity is a result of their similar mix of source materials-mantle peridotite with trace element signatures from

  12. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  13. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  14. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  15. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  16. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. The Museum of Piano Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    GULANGYU, the island of pianos in southeast Xiamen, has more than 500 pianos. In the island's Shuzhuang Garden is the Gulangyu Piano Museum.Spread out over 2,000 square meters of land, the museum has on exhibit more than 70 pianos from the UK, France, Germany and Austria.

  18. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  19. Solomon Islands : Health Financing Options

    OpenAIRE

    Somanathan, Aparnaa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this Policy Note is to provide an assessment of available options for financing health care in the Solomon Islands. In doing so, the analysis will factor in the country-specific economic, social and political factors, which will ultimately influence the performance of the health financing mechanisms. The Note was motivated by the Solomon Islands Government s (SIG) interest...

  20. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  1. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  2. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Register on August 14, 2007 (72 FR 45444), announcing our intent to complete a CCP/EA and inviting public... natural processes to occur with minimal human intervention; monitoring wildlife species; and working with... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges,...

  3. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  4. Marte Valles Crater 'Island'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  5. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary

  6. Man made floating island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinak, B.

    1987-08-04

    An artificial island is described for use in energy production from ocean waves, comprising: a platform disposed atop the ocean surface; vertically disposed rigid posts extending beneath the platform short of the ocean floor; a stationary wave amplifier affixed to the posts, the wave amplifier of a conical shape with inclined sides for directing water upwardly from substantially any lateral direction when submerged to amplify wave action; a movable inverted conical float slidably mounted for translation movement along the posts and disposed between the platform and the wave amplifier for movement with the waves; an apex of the conical float directed substantially toward an apex of the conical wave amplifier; and an energy-drive device disposed on the platform. A means is provided for converting the motion of the float to transmittable energy for operating the energy-driven device.

  7. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour;

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over the...... where the botanical survey was exhaustive. As no animals and humans are found on the nunataks, this change in diversity over a period of just 42 years must relate to environmental changes probably being climate-driven. This suggests that even the flora of fairly small and isolated ice-free areas reacts...

  8. PIPS: pathogenicity island prediction software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1 deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2 insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS. In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands.

  9. Metal levels in flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) and great sculpin (Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus) from Adak Island, Alaska: Potential risk to predators and fishermen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly there is a need to assess the contaminant levels in fish as indicators of the health and well-being of both the fish and their consumers, including humans. This paper examines the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the kidney, liver, and muscle of great sculpin and flathead sole from Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Both species are consumed by the local Aleuts and others. There were significant differences in the levels of heavy metals as a function of tissue for both fish species; the liver of sculpin and sole generally had the highest levels of most metals, except for arsenic, lead, and selenium. Sole had significantly higher mean levels of arsenic in kidney (32,384 vs. 531 ppb, wet weight), liver (18,954 vs. 2532 ppb), and muscle (19,452 vs. 1343 ppb) than did sculpin. Sole also had higher mean levels of cadmium (230 vs. 63 ppb), lead (1236 vs. 48 ppb), mercury (150 vs. 107 ppb), and selenium (5215 vs. 1861 ppb) in kidney than did sculpin. There were significant correlations among weight and length measurements for both species. However, except for mercury, there were few significant correlations among tissue types for most metals. Only mercury and manganese levels were significantly correlated with size for sculpin (but not for sole). Levels of arsenic, lead, and mercury may pose a risk to predators that consume them, and arsenic and mercury may pose a risk to human consumers

  10. Island Bay Wilderness study area : Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  11. IslandViewer update: improved genomic island discovery and visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Chiu, Terry A.; Laird, Matthew R.; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.

    2013-01-01

    IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate met...

  12. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  13. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  14. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  15. Guest editorial introduction: Understanding island cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehoj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Island studies research has traditionally focused on relatively rural, peripheral, and isolated communities, yet island cities (strongly urbanized small islands or archipelagos or major population centres of large islands or archipelagos also represent an important research area. Island spatiality has a host of historical and continuing effects on urban development, influencing urban densification and agglomeration, zonal differentiation, and neighbourhood formation in cities both big and small. This special section of Island Studies Journal includes papers on the island cities and urban archipelagos of Peel (Isle of Man, British Isles, Nuuk (Greenland, Palma de Majorca (Spain, Belize City (Belize, and Mumbai (India. The Island Cities and Urban Archipelagos research network seeks to help enrich wider island studies scholarship and contribute to introducing the island dimension to urban studies.

  16. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  17. ROE Long Island Hypoxia Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This raster map uses five color-coded categories to show concentrations of dissolved oxygen in bottom waters of Long Island Sound during the summer of 2014. Data...

  18. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  19. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  20. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  1. Popham Buys St. Vincent Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An announcement has recently been made that William Lee Popham has purchased an option on Saint Vincent Island including all of the water bottoms legally belonging...

  2. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal : Synopsis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a synopsis of the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal. It covers information such as the location of the proposed area, management the wilderness...

  3. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  4. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  5. Solomon Islands national situation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Govan, H.; Schwarz, A.M.; Harohau, D.; Oeta, J.

    2013-01-01

    The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (CRP AAS) was approved by the CGIAR Fund Council in July, 2011. Solomon Islands, one of five countries targeted by the program, began its rollout with a five month planning phase between August and December of 2011. Subsequent steps of the Program rollout include scoping, diagnosis and design. This report is the first to be produced during the scoping phase in Solomon Islands; it addresses the national setting and provides basic infor...

  6. Invasive rodent eradication on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howald, Gregg; Donlan, C Josh; Galván, Juan Pablo; Russell, James C; Parkes, John; Samaniego, Araceli; Wang, Yiwei; Veitch, Dick; Genovesi, Piero; Pascal, Michel; Saunders, Alan; Tershy, Bernie

    2007-10-01

    Invasive mammals are the greatest threat to island biodiversity and invasive rodents are likely responsible for the greatest number of extinctions and ecosystem changes. Techniques for eradicating rodents from islands were developed over 2 decades ago. Since that time there has been a significant development and application of this conservation tool. We reviewed the literature on invasive rodent eradications to assess its current state and identify actions to make it more effective. Worldwide, 332 successful rodent eradications have been undertaken; we identified 35 failed eradications and 20 campaigns of unknown result. Invasive rodents have been eradicated from 284 islands (47,628 ha). With the exception of two small islands, rodenticides were used in all eradication campaigns. Brodifacoum was used in 71% of campaigns and 91% of the total area treated. The most frequent rodenticide distribution methods (from most to least) are bait stations, hand broadcasting, and aerial broadcasting. Nevertheless, campaigns using aerial broadcast made up 76% of the total area treated. Mortality of native vertebrates due to nontarget poisoning has been documented, but affected species quickly recover to pre-eradication population levels or higher. A variety of methods have been developed to mitigate nontarget impacts, and applied research can further aid in minimizing impacts. Land managers should routinely remove invasive rodents from islands <100 ha that lack vertebrates susceptible to nontarget poisoning. For larger islands and those that require nontarget mitigation, expert consultation and greater planning effort are needed. With the exception of house mice (Mus musculus), island size may no longer be the limiting factor for rodent eradications; rather, social acceptance and funding may be the main challenges. To be successful, large-scale rodent campaigns should be integrated with programs to improve the livelihoods of residents, island biosecurity, and reinvasion response

  7. Strategy for Long-Term Stewardship and Monitoring of Amchitka Island - 12190

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark; Nguyen, Jason [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (United States); Darr, Paul S. [S.M. Stoller Corporation (United States); Picel, Mary [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for Amchitka details how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to fulfill its mission to maintain protection of human health and the environment at and around the sites on Amchitka Island. The LTSMP calls for monitoring to be performed every 5 years, at least in the initial phase of the project. The purpose of the monitoring is to develop a baseline of activity concentrations for selected radionuclides in biota, water, and soil, both on Amchitka and at the reference location on Adak Island, approximately 322 km (200 miles) northeast of Amchitka. Data compiled by the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP, 2006) are being included as part of the baseline data set. The specific biological, water, and sediment samples collected during the 2011 sampling event were developed through close coordination with the primary stakeholders, including the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Amchitka is managed by the USFWS as part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. Two plans were developed to address specific needs of the biological- and the terrestrial-monitoring programs. Results from these monitoring programs will help determine whether the environment is being impacted by radionuclide migration and uptake, and if subsistence and commercial-catch seafood is safe for human consumption. The RESRAD-BIOTA code is being used to evaluate ecological health relative to the radionuclide levels determined from this sampling event. The samples were sent to three laboratories for analysis. With the exception of the seawater samples, most of the samples were sent to the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A smaller subset of rock-weed samples, Star reindeer lichen samples, and soil samples collected from beneath the lichen were sent

  8. Strategy for Long-Term Stewardship and Monitoring of Amchitka Island - 12190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for Amchitka details how the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to fulfill its mission to maintain protection of human health and the environment at and around the sites on Amchitka Island. The LTSMP calls for monitoring to be performed every 5 years, at least in the initial phase of the project. The purpose of the monitoring is to develop a baseline of activity concentrations for selected radionuclides in biota, water, and soil, both on Amchitka and at the reference location on Adak Island, approximately 322 km (200 miles) northeast of Amchitka. Data compiled by the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP, 2006) are being included as part of the baseline data set. The specific biological, water, and sediment samples collected during the 2011 sampling event were developed through close coordination with the primary stakeholders, including the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Amchitka is managed by the USFWS as part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. Two plans were developed to address specific needs of the biological- and the terrestrial-monitoring programs. Results from these monitoring programs will help determine whether the environment is being impacted by radionuclide migration and uptake, and if subsistence and commercial-catch seafood is safe for human consumption. The RESRAD-BIOTA code is being used to evaluate ecological health relative to the radionuclide levels determined from this sampling event. The samples were sent to three laboratories for analysis. With the exception of the seawater samples, most of the samples were sent to the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A smaller subset of rock-weed samples, Star reindeer lichen samples, and soil samples collected from beneath the lichen were sent

  9. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Three Mile Island accident taught a lesson to the industry. Packaged units, ancillary units, off-plots and so on need as much detailed attention as the main stream, especially when their failure can cause a shut-down of the main stream. To try to clear the choke, the operators used instrument air. Its pressure was lower than that of the water so water got back into the instrument air lines. There was a non-return valve in the line but it was faulty. How often have the authors connected process equipment to service lines at a lower pressure and ended up with flammable gas in the nitrogen lines or oil in the compressed air lines? The actual pressures in services lines are often lower than the nominal pressures. Instrument air should never be used for line blowing. The water in the instrument air lines caused several instrument failures and the turbine tripped. This stopped heat removal from the radioactive core. The production of heat by fission stopped automatically within a few minutes. (Silver rods drop down into the core. They absorb neutrons and stop radioactive fission.) However the heat produced by radioactive decay (about 6 percent of the normal load) had to be removed. This caused the primary water to boil. The pilot-operated relief valve (PORV) on the primary circuit lifted and pumps started up automatically to replace the water evaporated from the primary circuit. (Unfortunately the PORV stuck open)

  10. Radiometric evidence for involvement of floating islands in the formation of Florida Everglades tree islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Patrick J.; Piepgras, Donald; Stone, Peter A.; Stipp, Jerry

    1980-04-01

    Inversions of radiocarbon dates were determined on samples from the peat profiles of two small extant tree islands in the northeastern Everglades, Florida. These reversals were predicted from the theory that such tree islands developed on laterally displaced floating islands.

  11. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  12. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  13. Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and San Juan Islands Wilderness Stewardship Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Protection Island and San Juan Islands NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines...

  14. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics. PMID:27027291

  15. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O.Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  16. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  17. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit

  18. Anthropic pressures on Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egadi Islands, like most Mediterranean islets, have radically changed the traditional lifestyle and the economic development model, based for centuries on the almost self-sufficient resources and production activities, mostly related to the sea (fishing and fish processing) and to the land. During the second half of the 1900., the development of transport radically transformed this model to make smaller islands, at least those closest to the coast, more tightly interconnected and dependent on the mainland. In particular, in Favignana, which is the most populous island and very close to the coast, the traditional activities tourism have led to a strong anthropic pressure concentrated in a few months of the year (summer) on the one hand, and a reduction of the resident population during the winter months on the other, with a serious impact on the care of the land

  19. The Kattegat Island of Anholt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels

    2015-01-01

    relatively simple models can describe the processes that take place. New data are presented which provide a detailed description of the last 16,000 years of climate and sea level change influence on the forces that have formed the island. This geological history can be used to provide information on the...... history of groundwater recharge and drainage, and the development of the salt-fresh groundwater interface under a sand island. The fact that the center of Anholt was covered by the sea 6,000 years ago, and consequently the freshwater lens, over 100 m below sea level, did not exist means that the present...

  20. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  1. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  2. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W....

  3. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  4. Submarine physiography off Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S; Chaubey, A

    Analysis of echosoundings, side scan sonar and shallow seismic data, supplementEd. by 152 sediment samples, collected along 150 km around Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea, revealed that the islands have a very narrow shelf, and an abrupt, shelf...

  5. STM imaging of electrically floating islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realpe, H.; Shamir, N.; Mintz, M. H.; Manassen, Y.

    2006-07-01

    Appearances and disappearances of Gd islands grown on top of a W(1 1 0) substrate were observed in time scales of hours after exposing the surface to a few Langmuirs of hydrogen. The phenomenon is presented and explained in terms of (temporary) creation of electrically floating islands, due to electrical decoupling of the island and substrate by the hydrogen that diffuses into the island/substrate interface. The disappearance of such an island is explained by forming a double barrier junction consisting of two tunneling barriers in series, causing, by charging, the potential of the island to become equal to that of the tip. The island then becomes "invisible" and the tip follows the corrugation of the surface under the substrate. The reappearance follows hydrogen mobility that retains the electrical conductivity of the island-substrate interface.

  6. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  7. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano;

    2016-01-01

    sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7......Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary...

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  9. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank...

  10. Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

    1992-01-01

    The Southern California Channel Islands Bibliography, through 1992, comprises 4035 references to the scientific literature on Southern California's Channel Islands. The Bibliography was compiled by the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary and is presented here in a February 1993 version. The Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History presents a California Channel Islands Bibliography on its website. It has more recent references and overlaps considerably with this bibliography. How...

  11. Hydro climatic ranking of small Mediterranean islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubenkov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Islands are specific environments whose natural features form the basis of social and economic development. It is particularly distinct on small islands. In hydrological terms, these are islands with surface areas between 100 and 1000 km2. There are 40 small islands in the Mediterranean Basin. Most of these have very limited water resources, due to their geological structure and precipitation regime. This paper outlines the basic geographical and climatic features of small Mediterranean islan...

  12. Food and nutrition security in Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, A B; Thilsted, S. H.; Schwarz, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report is a literature review on Food and Nutrition Security in Solomon Islands, based on data from surveys conducted by Solomon Islands National Statistical Office, as well as from national and international organizations working in Solomon Islands. The purpose of the report is to present information outlining the current food and nutrition situation in Solomon Islands before implementation of the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS), led by WorldFish. The aim of...

  13. The geology of the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Aldiss, D. T.; Edwards, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is complementary to the 1:250 000 scale geological map of the Falkland Islands compiled in 1998. The report and map are products of the Falkland Islands Geological Mapping Project (1996-1998). Geological observation and research in the Islands date from 1764. The Islands were visited during two pioneering scientific cruises in the 19th century. Subsequently, many scientists visited en route to the Antarctic or Patagonia. Geological affinities to other parts of the sout...

  14. 32 CFR 935.61 - Wake Island Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wake Island Court. 935.61 Section 935.61... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.61 Wake Island Court. (a) The trial judicial authority for Wake Island is vested in the Wake Island Court. (b) The Wake Island Court consists of one or more...

  15. Rotation and Locking of Magnetic Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarization drifts arising from the acceleration of plasma flowing alongside a magnetic island are shown to be destabilizing. A critical island width is found above which the polarization drifts (inertial forces) defeat the stabilizing effect of the viscous forces and prevent islands from being unlocked by increasing the plasma rotation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  17. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt...

  18. 50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rhode Island. 32.59 Section 32.59 Wildlife... § 32.59 Rhode Island. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are listed in alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Block Island National...

  19. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme but are designed to help…

  20. Stepping-stones to the Edge: Artistic Expressions of Islandness in an Ocean of Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest of times, islands have captured the artistic imagination—and, often, for the artist who finds his or her muse in being ‘islanded’, the smaller the island the better. Archipelagos offer an ideal setting for artists who take their inspiration from place: on small islands off islands they can experience an intensity of island living they might not otherwise have on a main island: boundedness and connection, isolation and community. This paper examines expressions of islandness by artists who live on islands off islands that are poles apart—‘archipelagos’ of the Canadian North Atlantic and the Great Southern Ocean. It draws upon interviews with those artists and writers to consider the nature of humans’ attachment and attraction to islands, exploring through the lens of phenomenology what Stratford et al. call the “entanglement between and among islands”.

  1. Island formation and tectonic processes

    OpenAIRE

    Draper, G

    2011-01-01

    Tectonic processes can form an island in one of two ways. 1. Those processes that cause a rise in water levels and flooding a pre-existing topography, known as tectonic flooding. 2. Those processes that cause uplift of the basin floor to form a topography that emerges above water level, called tectonic emergence.

  2. 1946 Unimak Island, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 1, 1946, at 12:29 [local time] a rather strong magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred with source to the south of Unimak Island, causing one of the most...

  3. Date with the Green Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Qingdao,also spelled Tsingtao,iS one of the most beautiful and clean cities in China and with a population of around 2.5 million(7 million regional)is the largest city after Jinan(the capital)in Shandong Province.The name"Qingdao"means "The Green Island".

  4. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, K.A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, R.J.;

    2010-01-01

    magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  5. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted...

  6. Modeling the distribution of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus on offshore islands in the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tabak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native rats (Rattus spp. threaten native island species worldwide. Efforts to eradicate them from islands have increased in frequency and become more ambitious in recent years. However, the long-term success of some eradication efforts has been compromised by the ability of rats, particularly Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus which are good swimmers, to recolonize islands following eradications. In the Falkland Islands, an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, the distance of 250 m between islands (once suggested as the minimum separation distance for an effective barrier to recolonization has shown to be insufficient. Norway rats are present on about half of the 503 islands in the Falklands. Bird diversity is lower on islands with rats and two vulnerable passerine species, Troglodytes cobbi (the only endemic Falkland Islands passerine and Cinclodes antarcticus, have greatly reduced abundances and/or are absent on islands with rats. We used logistic regression models to investigate the potential factors that may determine the presence of Norway rats on 158 islands in the Falkland Islands. Our models included island area, distance to the nearest rat-infested island, island location, and the history of island use by humans as driving variables. Models best supported by data included only distance to the nearest potential source of rats and island area, but the relative magnitude of the effect of distance and area on the presence of rats varied depending on whether islands were in the eastern or western sector of the archipelago. The human use of an island was not a significant parameter in any models. A very large fraction (72% of islands within 500 m of the nearest potential rat source had rats, but 97% of islands farther than 1,000 m away from potential rat sources were free of rats.

  7. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  8. Geochemical variability of hydrothermal emissions between three Pacific volcanic arc systems: Alaskan-Aleutian and Cascadian, North America and Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, J. M.; Horton, T. W.; Gravley, D. M.; Deering, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the source, transport, and fate of hydrothermal fluids in the upper crust informs our understanding and interpretation of ore-forming processes, volcanogenic hazards, geothermal resources, and volatile cycling. Co-variation between fluid inclusion CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios is an established tracer of magmatic, meteoric, and crustal fluid end-members. Yet, this tracer has had limited application to macroscopic fluid reservoirs accessible via geothermal wells and hydrothermal features (e.g. pools). In this study, we compared the covariance CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios of gases collected throughout the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (TVZ), the Alaska-Aleutian Volcanic Arc, USA (AAVA), and the Cascadian Volcanic Arc, USA (CVA) with corresponding δ13C and 3He/4He values. Our findings show that there is good agreement between these proxies for different end-member contributions at coarse scales. However, some samples classified as meteoric water according to the CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios also show more positive δ13C values (~ -7.0 per mil) and relatively higher 3He/4He ratios indicative of magmatic input from primarily mantle sources. This unexpected result may be related to magmatic fluids, CO2 in particular, mixing with predominantly meteoric derived waters. The potential to identify magmatic CO2 in groundwater samples overlying geothermal systems in differing volcanic arc settings using simple and cost-effective gas ratios is a promising step forward in the search for ';surface blind' but developable geothermal systems and volcanic monitoring. 3He/4He anomalies also support this inference and underscore the potential decoupling of thermal anomalies and magmatic-derived fluids in the Earth's crust. The general agreement between the co-variation of CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios with other isotope and geochemical proxies for magmatic, meteoric, and crustal end-members is encouraging to employ expanded use of these ratios for both the exploration and monitoring of

  9. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy

    2016-08-16

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  10. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion adult and juvenile (non-pup) conducted on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and others from 1904-01-01 to 2015-07-18 (NCEI Accession 0128190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  11. Gulf of Alaska Holocene paleoceanography and paleoclimatology from diatom proxies in core EW0408-22JC, Crawfish Inlet, Baranof Island, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loofbourrow, C.; Addison, J. A.; Hemphill-Haley, E.

    2014-12-01

    Diatom ecology is used in this study as a paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic proxy for the Eastern Gulf of Alaska. Core EW0408-22JC, an 11.84 m long piston core, was retrieved in 2004 from 188 m water depth in Crawfish Inlet, a deglaciated fjord of Baranof Island, Southeast Alaska, which opens to the eastern Gulf of Alaska (GOA). The core contains a nearly complete Holocene record constrained by 14C and tephrochronology with relatively high sedimentation rates of ~100-200 cm/ky, favorable to high-resolution climate investigations. High-resolution geochemical measurements indicate increasing opal and total organic concentrations and decreasing lithic and CaCO3 concentrations from early to late Holocene. Diatom ecology is quantified by counting of diatom taxa at approximately 170-year stratigraphic intervals, and evaluated for climatic and oceanographic significance using the modern analog technique (MAT) and factor analysis. Diatom proxy variability from this site is inferred to result from changes within the GOA climatic and oceanographic regime. Within this region, the strength and positioning of the Aleutian Low and the Alaska Current influence oceanographic parameters including sea surface temperature, downwelling, and nutrient availability, all of which are reflected in diatom ecology fluctuations. The adjacent North American terrestrial hydroclimate is largely controlled by these factors, and its past conditions are inferred by this reconstruction of GOA paleoceanography and paleoclimatology.

  12. Morphotectonics of the Mascarene Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Scheidegger

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the orientations (strikes/trends of joints, valleys, ridges and lineaments, i.e. of the (potentially morphotectonic features, of the Mascarene Islands (Reunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues in the Indian Ocean. It turns out that a connection exists between these features on all islands. For the joints alone, the results for Mauritius as a whole agree closely with those for Rodrigues as a whole, and also partially with those of Reunion. Inasmuch as the trends of the valleys, ridges and lineaments are related to the trends (strikes of the joints, a common morphotectonic predesign seems to be present for all features studied. The morphotectonic orientations on the island also agree closely with the trends of fracture zones, ridges and trenches in the nearby ocean bottom; which has had a bearing on the theories of the origin of the Mascarene Islands. Generally, a hot-spot origin is preferred for Reunion, and may be for Mauritius as well, although differing opinions have also been voiced. The dynamics of a hot-spot is hard to reconcile with the close fit of the joint strikes in Réunion with the trends of the Madagascar and Rodrigues fracture zones. The closely agreeing joint maxima in Mauritius and Rodrigues í across the deep Mauritius trench í also agree with the trend of that trench and with the trend of the Rodrigues fracture zone. Thus, it would appear as most likely that the trends of joints and of fracture zones are all part of the same pattern and are due to the same cause: viz. to action of the neotectonic stress field.

  13. The Falkland Islands Morbidity Survey

    OpenAIRE

    King, H. O. M.; Bleaney, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    A 12-month retrospective morbidity survey of the Falkland Islands in 1979 is described. A larger proportion of the population appear to have sought medical attention in this time than would be expected on the basis of comparable British figures. In general, cause-specific morbidity was similar in the two countries, although there were several discrepancies identified which may have been of environmental origin. The low prevalence of essential hypertension in males was particularly notable.

  14. Island development: Local governance under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Min Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.

  15. Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

  16. Pathogenicity island mobility and gene content.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Kelly Porter

    2013-10-01

    Key goals towards national biosecurity include methods for analyzing pathogens, predicting their emergence, and developing countermeasures. These goals are served by studying bacterial genes that promote pathogenicity and the pathogenicity islands that mobilize them. Cyberinfrastructure promoting an island database advances this field and enables deeper bioinformatic analysis that may identify novel pathogenicity genes. New automated methods and rich visualizations were developed for identifying pathogenicity islands, based on the principle that islands occur sporadically among closely related strains. The chromosomally-ordered pan-genome organizes all genes from a clade of strains; gaps in this visualization indicate islands, and decorations of the gene matrix facilitate exploration of island gene functions. A %E2%80%9Clearned phyloblocks%E2%80%9D method was developed for automated island identification, that trains on the phylogenetic patterns of islands identified by other methods. Learned phyloblocks better defined termini of previously identified islands in multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, and found its only antibiotic resistance island.

  17. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  18. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  19. Floating Cities, Islands and States

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Many small countries are in need of additional territory. They build landfills and expensive artificial islands. The ocean covers 71 per cent of the Earth surface. Those countries (or persons of wealth) starting the early colonization of the ocean may obtain advantages through additional territory or creating their own independent state. An old idea is building a big ship. The best solution to this problem, however, is the provision of floating cities, islands, and states. The author idea is to use for floating cities, islands, and states a cheap floating platform created from a natural ice field taken from the Arctic or Antarctic oceans. These cheap platforms protected by air-film (bottom and sides) and a conventional insulating cover (top) and having a cooling system can exist for an unlimited time. They can be increased in number or size at any time, float in warm oceans, travel to different continents and countries, serve as artificial airports, harbors and other marine improvements, as well as floating c...

  20. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  1. Control and Operation of Islanded Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar

    operational challenges. But, on the other hand, it has also opened up some opportunities. One opportunity/challenge is an islanded operation of a distribution system with DG unit(s). Islanding is a situation in which a distribution system becomes electrically isolated from the remainder of the power system...... grid and if they are operated with isochronous control and voltage control when the distribution system is islanded. It is proposed that the DG units are controlled differently when the distribution system changes state from grid connected condition to islanded condition. However, isochronous...... is based on frequency deviation and real power shift. When a distribution system, with all its generators operating at maximum power, is islanded, the frequency will go down if the total load is more than the total generation. An under-frequency load shedding procedure for islanded distribution...

  2. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  3. Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs for the next 15 years....

  4. Narrative report Mackay Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mackay Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1971....

  5. Narrative Report Mackay Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge: Calendar year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mackay Island National Wildlife Refuge and Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities for calendar year 1970....

  6. CRED 20m Gridded bathymetry of Necker Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This netCDF includes multibeam bathymetry from...

  7. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  8. Solomon Islands: Malaita Hub scoping report

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, A.M.; Andrew, N.; Govan, H.; Harohau, D.; Oeta, J.

    2013-01-01

    The CGIAR Research Program (CRP) Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) will target five countries, including Solomon Islands. The proposed hubs for Solomon Islands were to cover most provinces, referencing the Western, Central and Eastern regions. Scoping of the initial ‘Central’ hub was undertaken in Guadalcanal, Malaita and Central Islands provinces and this report details findings from all three. As scoping progressed however, it was agreed that, based on the AAS context and priority need...

  9. The evolution of birdsong on islands

    OpenAIRE

    Morinay, Jennifer; Cardoso, Gonçalo C.; Doutrelant, Claire; Covas, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Islands are simplified, isolated ecosystems, providing an ideal set-up to study evolution. Among several traits that are expected to change on islands, an interesting but poorly understood example concerns signals used in animal communication. Islands are typified by reduced species diversity, increased population density, and reduced mate competition, all of which could affect communication signals. We used birdsong to investigate whether there are systematic changes in communication signals...

  10. Water resources of the Palau Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    The Palau Islands are a group of 350 islands, ranging in size from a few hundred square feet to the 153-square-mile island of Babelthuap. Babelthuap is the second largest island in the Western Pacific and comprises more than 80 percent of the total land area of the Palau Islands. Most of the islands are uninhabited limestone ridges covered with dense vegetation. These islands have no freshwater resources and are not included in this report. The island of Koror with an area of 3.6 square miles is the administrative, commercial, and population center of Palau and has an annual average rainfall of 148 inches. Short-term rainfall records at other locations in the islands indicate little variation in annual rainfall throughout the Palau Islands. Runoff-to-rainfall ratios for streams on Babelthuap show that about 70 percent of the rain falling on the island runs off to the ocean. The uniformity of rainfall and basin characteristics is shown by the excellent correlation between mean annual rainfall on Koror and streamflow on Babelthuap and by the close correlations between discharge at gaging stations and partial-record sites. Surface water quality is generally very good as shown by 55 chemical analyses of water from 18 sources. The dissolved solids concentration of water samples did not exceed 66 milligrams per liter. This report summarizes in one volume hydrologic data collection in a 14-year period of study and provides interpretations of the data than can be used by planners and public works officials as a basis for making decisions on the development and management of the islands ' water resources.

  11. Seabird modulations of isotopic nitrogen on islands

    OpenAIRE

    Caut, Stéphane; Angulo, Elena; Pisanu, Beinot; Ruffino, Lise; Faulquier, Lucie; Lorvelec, Olivier; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Pascal, Michel; Vidal, Éric; Courchamp, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The transport of nutrients by migratory animals across ecosystem boundaries can significantly enrich recipient food webs, thereby shaping the ecosystems' structure and function. To illustrate the potential role of islands in enabling the transfer of matter across ecosystem boundaries to be gauged, we investigated the influence of seabirds on nitrogen input on islands. Basing our study on four widely differing islands in terms of their biogeography and ecological characteristics, sampled at di...

  12. Solomon Islands; Tax Summary and Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This Tax Summary and Statistical Appendix for the Solomon Islands outlines the summary of various taxes. Residents are taxed on their worldwide income. Nonresidents are taxed on income sourced from the Solomon Islands. Both resident and nonresident investors undertaking commercial, economic, industrial or professional activity in the Solomon Islands may apply to the Commissioner of Inland Revenue for an exemption from income tax. An excise duty is levied on plugs, twist, fig, stick, cake, and...

  13. Summary Report: Asian Pacific Islander Workers Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance; AFL-CIO; UCLA Labor Center

    2002-01-01

    The first ever California State Assembly Hearing on Asian Pacific Islander Workers was convened by the Labor Employment Committee and the Asian Pacific Islander Legislative Caucus, at the request of Assembly member Judy Chu. The Hearing brought together Asian Pacific Islander workers and advocates from all over California. Their stories are a snapshot of millions of workers. The testimonies gave a glimpse of the detrimental impact that worker exploitation has on families and communities. Most...

  14. Geology and petrology of Raiatea Island (Society islands, French Polynesia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiatea Island is made up of an alkali basaltic shield volcano, the upper 1000 m of which were emplaced between 2.75 and 2.52 Ma with an average construction rate of ca. 4 mm/year. Trachytic lavas were then emplaced between 2.54 and 2.44 Ma, both as flows and plugs along N-S trending fractures. Their geochemical characteristics point to a fractionation-controlled derivation from the basaltic magmas. Our new age set is consistent with a Pacific plate motion of 11 cm/year with respect to a fixed Society plume. (authors)

  15. Modeling the distribution of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) on offshore islands in the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Tabak,Michael; Poncet, Sally; Passfield,Ken; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Non-native rats (Rattus spp.) threaten native island species worldwide. Efforts to eradicate them from islands have increased in frequency and become more ambitious in recent years. However, the long-term success of some eradication efforts has been compromised by the ability of rats, particularly Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) which are good swimmers, to recolonize islands following eradications. In the Falkland Islands, an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean, the distance of 250 m betw...

  16. Molecular Evolutionary Consequences of Island Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jennifer E.; Lanfear, Robert; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Island endemics are expected to have low effective population sizes (Ne), first because some may experience population bottlenecks when they are founded, and second because they have restricted ranges. Therefore, we expect island species to have reduced genetic diversity, inefficient selection, and reduced adaptive potential compared with their mainland counterparts. We used both polymorphism and substitution data to address these predictions, improving on the approach of recent studies that only used substitution data. This allowed us to directly test the assumption that island species have small values of Ne. We found that island species had significantly less genetic diversity than mainland species; however, this pattern could be attributed to a subset of island species that appeared to have undergone a recent population bottleneck. When these species were excluded from the analysis, island and mainland species had similar levels of genetic diversity, despite island species occupying considerably smaller areas than their mainland counterparts. We also found no overall difference between island and mainland species in terms of the effectiveness of selection or the mutation rate. Our evidence suggests that island colonization has no lasting impact on molecular evolution. This surprising result highlights gaps in our knowledge of the relationship between census and effective population size. PMID:27358424

  17. Escape from the island. Grammaticality and (reduced) acceptability of wh-island violations in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Kizach, Johannes; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    -islands. We report results from two acceptability judgment experiments on long and short wh-movement and wh-extraction from wh-islands in Danish. The results revealed four main findings: (1) No adjunct/argument asymmetry in extraction from wh-islands. (2) Long adjunct wh-movement is less acceptable than long...

  18. Solid waste management on small islands: the case of Green Island, Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, M.C.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Municipalities of small islands have limited capacities for waste disposal. In the case of Green Island, Taiwan, continuing with business as usual would only allow the disposal of waste on the island for another 8 years. Three alternatives for solid waste management (SWM) are compared. The cost-effe

  19. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  20. In or On? Island Words, Island Worlds: II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronstrom Owe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines uses and meanings of the orientational metaphors ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘out’ and ‘off’. In the discussed languages in North Western Europe there are general principles of metaphoric entailment and underlying image schemas that guide the choice of positional metaphor: islands you are normally ‘on’, and mainlands ‘in’. The second part of the paper examines cases where this use is debated or contested. The author finds that these contestations seem to be fuelled by the different relations between subject and object that positional metaphors entail. Expressions with ‘in’ highlight belonging and collective identity, enlarge objects by conceptualizing them as encompassing containers, and reduce subjects to a part of the object. Expressions with ‘on’ highlight individuality and agency, reduce the object, and enlarge the subject by placing it above the object. Such differing entailments of positional metaphors may influence how islands are positioned and understood.

  1. Radioactivity of Rye Island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sources are discussed of radioactive contamination of water and processes are indicated affecting the occurrence of radionuclides in ground water, mainly sorption and desorption of radionuclides in the soil and soil properties in radionuclide migration. An analysis is made of the current radioactivity of surface and ground waters of the Rye Island, a fertile agricultural area in southern Slovakia. The gross alpha and beta activities and the concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, Ra and U were determined in water samples. The values found are lower than the maximum permissible concentrations. The gross beta activity of samples has increased in the past ten years. (H.S.)

  2. Island Falls 'A' dam repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repairs to the Island Falls 'A' Dam located on the Churchill River in northern Saskatchewan is described. The dam was built in 1928-1930. It had suffered extensive freeze thaw damage and some portions of the structure did not meet minimum safety standards. The paper emphasizes concrete repair methodology, the design and installation of high strength steel anchors for stability enhancement, increasing structural capacity, re-establishment of drainage and re-design of spillway operations. The extensive involvement with the local First Nations community, which was critical to the successful completion of the job is also discussed

  3. The Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, W. C.

    1997-11-01

    A radio spectrometer has been built on Bruny Island, south of Hobart, for the study of solar bursts in the rarely observed frequency range from 3 to 20 MHz. This spectrometer is an adaptive device that employs digital techniques to avoid most of the strong terrestrial interference prevalent in this frequency range. The residual interference that cannot be avoided is excised during off-line processing. As a result, successful observations are made down to the minimum frequency that can propagate through the ionosphere to the antenna. This minimum frequency depends upon the zenith distance of the Sun and it is usually between 4 and 8 MHz.

  4. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  5. Monitoring Supports Establishment of Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Pacific Remote Islands consist of Howland, Baker, and Jarvis Islands, Johnston, Wake, and Palmyra Atolls, and Kingman Reef. Except for Wake, these islands...

  6. Reindeer and seabird survey of Hagemeister Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the survey effort on Hagemeister Island in the Alaska Maritime NWR. Hagemeister Island is the second largest Bering Sea Island. Reindeer, red...

  7. St. Vincent Island White-Tailed Deer Monitoring Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The white tailed deer herd on St. Vincent Island represents an important part of the island's biotic community. To maintain the integrity of the island's deer...

  8. A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON PERMAFROST OCCURRENCE IN SEYMOUR ISLAND (MARAMBIO ISLAND), ANTARCTIC PENINSULA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    フクダ, マサミ; Masami, FUKUDA; Arturo E., CORTE

    1989-01-01

    Seymour Island (Marambio Island, 64°S 56°W) in the Weddel Sea is located near James Ross Island. As there was no ice-sheet over the island during and after the last glaciation period, the ground has remained frozen and permafrost of considerable depth has developed in the ground. The authors conducted the field survey related to the genesis and occurrence of permafrost in the island. The Japan-Argentina joint expedition was established by the support of Grant-in-Aid for Overseas Scientific Re...

  9. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  10. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  11. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2009-01-01

    From February 19 to 28, 2009, a World Bank team undertook a debt management performance assessment (DeMPA) mission to Honiara, Solomon Islands. The objective was to undertake a comprehensive assessment of debt management functions applying the DeMPA tool. The assessment reveals that the Solomon Islands meets the minimum requirements for effective debt management performance as specified by...

  12. The water landscapes of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Gini; Braae, Ellen Marie; Diedrich, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Island environments, particularly small archipelagos such as the Canary Islands, are more visible subject to the vagaries of change wrought by ecological and climate dynamics, shifting social conditions and economic impacts subject to global markets, than is witnessed on continental worlds....

  13. Protection of Marine Structures by Artificial Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Ottesen Hansen, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical background for the ship protection islands for the Great Belt suspension bridge in Denmark is presented. The islands protect two anchor blocks and five approach bridge piers of the Great Belt Suspension Bridge in Denmark. The design is a complex multi-discipline task. Besides prot...

  14. Early hominin biogeography in Island Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larick, Roy; Ciochon, Russell L

    2015-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia covers Eurasia's tropical expanse of continental shelf and active subduction zones. Cutting between island landmasses, Wallace's Line separates Sunda and the Eastern Island Arc (the Arc) into distinct tectonic and faunal provinces. West of the line, on Sunda, Java Island yields many fossils of Homo erectus. East of the line, on the Arc, Flores Island provides one skeleton and isolated remains of Homo floresiensis. Luzon Island in the Philippines has another fossil hominin. Sulawesi preserves early hominin archeology. This insular divergence sets up a unique regional context for early hominin dispersal, isolation, and extinction. The evidence is reviewed across three Pleistocene climate periods. Patterns are discussed in relation to the pulse of global sea-level shifts, as well as regional geo-tectonics, catastrophes, stegodon dispersal, and paleogenomics. Several patterns imply evolutionary processes typical of oceanic islands. Early hominins apparently responded to changing island conditions for a million-and-a-half years, likely becoming extinct during the period in which Homo sapiens colonized the region. PMID:26478140

  15. Teaching island studies: on whose terms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Stuart

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Island studies can be deceptively difficult for inexperienced undergraduates due to the field’s trans-disciplinary and international scope, advanced academic content and engagement with a wide range of cognitive processes and methodologies. At the same time, island studies can potentially transform and motivate students on a personal level by tapping into their experiential knowledge when they adopt an island-centred standpoint. Such a stance is challenging to measure and not automatically or readily achieved. A teacher of island studies must therefore be sensitive to presenting and studying islands ‘on their own terms’, but realistic as to what progress can be made at an introductory level by general students. This paper draws upon the author’s experience in teaching the core introductory survey course in island studies to undergraduates at the University of Prince Edward Island from 2007 to 2009. That experience is examined in light of the dilemmas which relate to indigenous island geographies.

  16. Long Island Sound Curricular Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Diana, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Long Island Sound is an estuary of national significance and provides important economic, recreational, and aesthetic value to the citizens of Connecticut and New York. Investigations have been conducted regarding living marine resources and nutrient loading. However, Long Island Sound is often overlooked as an educational resource. This guide is…

  17. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Michael W. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  18. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary...

  19. Distribution of Grimmia Hedw. on Mediterranean islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    On the six largest Mediterranean islands: Corsica, Crete, Cyprus, Mallorca, Sardinia and Sicily, the moss genus Grimmia (Grimmiaceae, Musci) is represented by 29 species. Many of these are newly recorded. The importance of the islands for bryophyte conservation is stressed. -Author

  20. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A disc

  1. Barrier island vulnerability to breaching: a case study on Dauphin Island, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mark; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2007-01-01

    Breaching of barrier islands can adversely impact society by severing infrastructure, destroying private properties, and altering water quality in back bays and estuaries. This study provides a scheme that assesses the relative vulnerability of a barrier island to breach during storms. Dauphin Island, Alabama was selected for this study because it has a well documented history of island breaches and extensive geological and geomorphic data. To assess the vulnerability of the island, we defined several variables contributing to the risk of breaching: island geology, breaching history, and island topography and geomorphology. These variables were combined to form a breaching index (BI) value for cross island computational bins, each bin every 50 m in the alongshore direction. Results suggest the eastern section of Dauphin Island has the lowest risk of breaching with the remaining portion of the island having a moderate to high risk of breaching. Two reaches in the western section of the island were found to be particularly vulnerable due primarily to their minimal cross-sectional dimensions.

  2. Effects of magnetic islands on drift wave instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic islands have been implemented in the gyrokinetic toroidal code to study the effects of the islands on microturbulence. The pressure profile flattening is verified in the simulation with the islands. Simulations of ion temperature gradient instability find that different toroidal modes are linearly coupled together and that toroidal spectra become broader when the island width increases. The real frequencies and growth rates of different toroidal modes approach each other with the averaged value independent of the island width. The linear mode structures are enhanced at the island separatrices and weakened at the island centers, consistent with the flattening of the pressure profile inside the islands

  3. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  4. Quantifying and interpreting nestedness in habitat islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Whittaker, Robert James

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The concept of nestedness is important in determining the relative contribution to overall system diversity of different habitat patches within a fragmented system. Much of the previous work on nestedness has focused on islands within oceans (islands sensu stricto). The largest analysis...... of habitat island systems to date found significant nestedness to be a near universal feature, but the methods used have since been criticized as inappropriate. Thus, there is a need for an updated, critical examination of the prevalence, underlying drivers and implications of nestedness in multiple habitat...... island systems. Location: Global. Methods: Here, we collate 97 datasets from published habitat island studies, comprising multiple taxa. We use the NODF metric (nestedness metric based on overlap and decreasing fill) to estimate nestedness and determine significance using the four-step proportional...

  5. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  6. Radar Image of Galapagos Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image showing part of Isla Isabella in the western Galapagos Islands. It was taken by the L-band radar in HH polarization from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar on the 40th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour. The image is centered at about 0.5 degree south latitude and 91 degrees west longitude and covers an area of 75 by 60 kilometers (47 by 37 miles). The radar incidence angle at the center of the image is about 20 degrees.The western Galapagos Islands, which lie about 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) west of Ecuador in the eastern Pacific, have six active volcanoes similar to the volcanoes found in Hawaii. Since the time of Charles Darwin's visit to the area in 1835, there have been over 60 recorded eruptions of these volcanoes. This SIR-C/X-SAR image of Alcedo and Sierra Negra volcanoes shows the rougher lava flows as bright features, while ash deposits and smooth pahoehoe lava flows appear dark. A small portion of Isla Fernandina is visible in the extreme upper left corner of the image.The Galapagos Islands are one of the SIR-C/X-SAR supersites and data of this area will be taken several times during the flight to allow scientists to conduct topographic change studies and to search for different lava flow types, ash deposits and fault lines.Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by

  7. Patterns of island treeline elevation – a global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irl, Severin David Howard; Anthelme, Fabian; Harter, David E. V.;

    2016-01-01

    hypothesize that, similar to the mainland, latitude-driven temperature variation is the most important determinant of island treeline elevation on a global scale. To test this hypothesis, we compared mainland with island treeline elevations. Then we focused 1) on the global effects of latitude, 2) on the...... regional effects of island type (continental vs oceanic islands) and 3) the local effects of several specific island characteristics (age, area, maximum island elevation, isolation and plant species richness). We collected a global dataset of islands (n = 86) by applying a stratified design using Google......Earth and the Global Island Database. For each island we extracted data on latitude and local characteristics. Treeline elevation decreased from the mainland through continental to oceanic islands. Island treeline elevation followed a hump-shaped latitudinal distribution, which is fundamentally different...

  8. SRTM Stereo Pair: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This stereoscopic view was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Also, colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to pink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters (4300 feet) of total relief. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shading and colors back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. The 3-D perception is achieved by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the

  9. Crystalline islands of semiconductor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmievskaya, G. I.; Bondareva, A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nucleation in the form of powder in a discharge plasma and the formation of thin film islands on a Si(100) substrate in the course of gas-phase epitaxy are simulated numerically. Models of plasma-like media and nonequilibrium processes accompanying phase transitions of the first kind (such as condensation and crystallization) in the initial fast (fluctuation) stage are described. The nonstationary evolution of nuclei size distribution functions is modeled by solving kinetic equations in partial derivatives and stochastic Ito-Stratonovich analog equations. This makes it possible to refine the formation mechanisms of microcrystalline state polytypes and calculate the nucleation rate and the initial roughness of a SiC coating.

  10. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11854 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative Boundaries, Feb 2013 update.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This dataset depicts the terrestrial boundaries of the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCC) within Alaska. Those LCCs are: Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands,...

  12. Fuelwood production in Prince Edward Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent Prince Edward Island Fuelwood Survey occurred in 1990-91. Consumption of fuelwood rose again to 49% of Prince Edward Island's 43,170 households. Total residential fuelwood consumption was estimated to be 242,000 m3. The fuelwood industry makes an important contribution to the economy of Prince Edward Island. In the 1990-91 heating season, fuelwood valued at USD 9 million displaced approximately 43 million litres of domestic heating oil valued at USD 16.4 million. In addition, it is estimated that 70 cents of every dollar spent on fuelwood remains in the province and contributes spin-off benefits, whereas 90 cents of every dollar spent on heating oil is lost to the economy of Prince Edward Island. The percentage of people cutting their own fuelwood decreased from 52 in 1984-85 to only 23.4 in 1990-91. The governments of Canada and Prince Edward Island have implemented a series of Forest Resource Development Agreements (FRDAs) starting in 1983. The current 1988-1993 FRDA provides USD 24 million for research and incentives for reforestation and management of Prince Edward Island woodlots. It is expected that 3,800 Prince Edward Island woodlot owners will be participating in a woodlot management program by 1993. Silviculture treatments of hardwood stands include thinning, stand conversion (removal of lowgrade softwoods such as balsam fir in mainly hardwood stands), and shelterwood (strip) cutting, particularly in marginal stands. (9 refs.)

  13. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  14. In Brief: Tsunami hits the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    A magnitude 8.1 earthquake shook the Solomon Islands on 1 April at approximately 7:40 A.M. local time. The earthquake generated a tsunami several meters high that struck many of the islands. The earthquake occurred along the boundary of the Pacific plate where the Australia, Woodlark, and Solomon Sea plates subduct beneath it, according to the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Hazards Program. At least 34 people were killed by the tsunami and several dozen more are still missing, according to the National Disaster Council in the Solomon Islands. The NDC estimates that 900-2500 homes were destroyed by the tsunami, displacing about 5500 people.

  15. Isotopic investigation of an Australian island environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collagen has been extracted from fossil bones of mega-fauna herbivores from Kangaroo Island, South Australia (Australia). Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of collagen have provided an insight into the palaeo-ecology of these late Pleistocene herbivores. In comparison with continental fossil localities in South Australia, the island herbivores have elevated nitrogen isotopic abundances. Carbon isotopic abundances suggest that browsing species had a mixed diet of grasses and leaves on the island, in contrast to the specimens from mainland Australia. Possible causes regarding elevated nitrogen isotope abundances and dietary shifts in this palaeo-ecology are discussed. (authors). 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. [Biodemographical study in the Island of Pascua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, B; Campusano, C; Figueroa, H

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this study was to know the degree of miscegenation in the Easter Island population. One hundred two weddings carried out between 1987 and 1991 were recorded and the proportion of marriages between islanders and immigrants was analyzed. Also, ABO and Rh blood groups of all deliveries occurred between 1988 and 1991 were compiled. There was a particular tendency of islanders to marry with immigrants and the proportion of miscegenation was 75.5%. Additionally a decline in the frequency of A blood group is observed, comparing results from studies performed since 1932 up to date. PMID:8278694

  17. The Maltese Islands : climate, vegetation and landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Patrick J.

    1997-01-01

    The Maltese Islands, situated in the central Mediterranean, occupy an area of only some 316 km. The climate is typically Mediterranean: the average annual rainfall is c.530mm of which some 85% falls during the period October to March; the mean monthly temperature range is 12-26°C, and the islands are very windy and sunny. Although small, the Maltese Islands have a considerable diversity of landscapes and ecosystems which are representative of the range and variety of those of the Mediterranea...

  18. FBSAB RECRUIT Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 1 to ~ 5 m depths at a total two (2) sites on the leeward coast (South Kohala district) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  19. FBSAD Recruit Reef Fish Belt Transect Survey at Hawaii Island (Big Island), Main Hawaiian Islands, 2005 (NODC Accession 0046935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shore-based belt transects were conducted at 8-13 m depths at 3 longshore sites on the leeward coast (North and South Kohala districts) of the Big Island (Hawaii...

  20. Studying Islands: On Whose Terms? Some Epistemological and Methodological Challenges to the Pursuit of Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of nissology, or island studies, calls for a re-centering of focus from mainland to island, away from the discourse of conquest of mainlanders, giving voice and platform for the expression of island narratives. Yet, studying islands ‘on their own terms’, in spite of its predilection for “authenticity”, is fraught with epistemological and methodological difficulties. The insider/outsider distinction does not work all that well when it comes to islands, where hybridity is the norm. This paper seeks to extend this debate, grappling especially with the contributions of Grant McCall and Peter Hay to the sparse literature. Five dilemmas related to indigenous island geographies are presented and discussed, in a semi-autobiographical style.

  1. Habitat islands and the equilibrium theory of island biogeography: testing some predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.; Dinsmore, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Species-area data from a study of marsh birds are used to test five predictions generated by the equilibrium theory of island biogeography. Three predictions are supported: we found a significant species-area relationship, a non-zero level of turnover, and a variance-mean ratio of 0.5. One prediction is rejected: the extinction rates were not greater on small islands. The results of one test are equivocal: the number of species on each island was not always the same. As Gilbert (1980) suggests, a strong species-area relationship alone does not validate the theory. The avian communities we studied were on habitat islands, not true islands, and underwent complete extinction annually. Thus caution must be used before applying the theory to these and other habitat islands.

  2. 50 CFR 216.85 - Walrus and Otter Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Walrus and Otter Islands. 216.85 Section... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.85 Walrus and Otter Islands. By Executive Order 1044, dated February 27, 1909, Walrus and Otter Islands were set aside as bird reservations. All persons are...

  3. Local stakeholders perception on development possibilities of Croatian islands - example of the island of Cres

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Đogić; MARIJA Cerjak

    2015-01-01

    Croatian islands are characterized by a specific relief, climate, tradition, customs and history, which influenced their economic development. Agriculture, along with fisheries and maritime affairs, has always been the main economic activity in the islands. However, the economic situation changed in recent decades and today the islands’ economy relies heavily on tourism. Still, preserved nature and social relations present the biggest competitive advantage of the islands. High-quality agricul...

  4. IslandViewer 3: more flexible, interactive genomic island discovery, visualization and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Laird, Matthew R.; Shay, Julie A.; Winsor, Geoffrey L; Lo, Raymond; Nizam, Fazmin; Pereira, Sheldon K.; Waglechner, Nicholas; McArthur, Andrew G.; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.

    2015-01-01

    IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a widely used web-based resource for the prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin, and are of high interest since they disproportionately encode genes involved in medically and environmentally important adaptations, including antimicrobial resistance and virulence. We now report a major new release of IslandViewer, since the last release...

  5. "Sex and the Island": Lives of Single Women in Prince Edward Island

    OpenAIRE

    COLLINS, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the significance attributed to Prince Edward Island in managing a marginalized single female identity, as presented by accounts of thirty never-married and previously-married Island women, aged twenty-seven through sixty-five. As popular media and social narratives overwhelmingly position contemporary single women against an urban backdrop, the question arises as to whether unmarried Island women feel "marooned" in ways their urban counterparts may not. In accordance wi...

  6. Anomalous scaling of Cu-island dynamics on Ag(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaum, Christopher; Morgenstern, Karina [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet, Appelstr. 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We deposited Cu-islands containing 10 to 500 atoms on a clean Ag(100) surface at room temperature and investigated diffusion and decay of these islands with a fast scanning tunneling microscope. Islands at sizes above 80 atoms per island are adsorbed in hollow-sites. Islands at sizes below 80 atoms per island are adsorbed in bridge-sites. Diffusion and decay behavior of the hollow-site islands is similar to the behavior of both Ag-islands on Ag(100) and Cu-islands on Cu(100). In contrast, the diffusivity and the decay time of the bridge-site islands are significantly higher than any previously measured values. This indicates a novel mechanism of diffusion.

  7. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mui, Ming [Long Island Power Authority, Uniondale, NY (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  8. Local stakeholders perception on development possibilities of Croatian islands - example of the island of Cres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Đogić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Croatian islands are characterized by a specific relief, climate, tradition, customs and history, which influenced their economic development. Agriculture, along with fisheries and maritime affairs, has always been the main economic activity in the islands. However, the economic situation changed in recent decades and today the islands’ economy relies heavily on tourism. Still, preserved nature and social relations present the biggest competitive advantage of the islands. High-quality agricultural products together with agricultural tradition and lifestyle of the islanders can be used for tourism purposes. High quality and uniqueness of agricultural products, specific traditions and technologies of cultivation and production together with the existing tourism demand are basic preconditions for strengthening the ties of agriculture and tourism. Development of agriculture and tourism in the islands should be based on local initiative and involvement of islanders in defining strategic development guidelines, as tourism development of the islands seeks coexistence with local, traditional culture. The aim of this paper is to show the possibilities for the development of agriculture and tourism on the island of Cres, based on the opinions and attitudes of local stakeholders. For this purpose we performed 3-round Delphi study with 17 local experts who agreed on the major issues of agriculture and tourism on the island and identified steps that should be taken in the future for further development of these activities.

  9. Adaptive radiation of island plants: Evidence from Aeonium (Crassulaceae) of the Canary Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    discussion of the mechanisms governing radiations on islands. Most examples are from the Hawaiian and Canarian floras, and in particular from studies on the morphological, ecological and molecular diversification of the genus Aeonium, the largest plant radiation of the Canarian Islands.......The presence of diverse and species-rich plant lineages on oceanic islands is most often associated with adaptive radiation. Here we discuss the possible adaptive significance of some of the most prominent traits in island plants, including woodiness, monocarpy and sexual dimorphisms. Indirect...

  10. Channel Islands, Kelp Forest Monitoring, Sea Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset from the Channel Islands National Park's Kelp Forest Monitoring Program has subtidal temperature data taken at permanent monitoring sites. Since 1993,...

  11. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  12. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case...

  13. Natural History of St. Vincent Island, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study proposal aiming to ascertain, list and describe the woody flora and vertebrate fauna of St. Vincent Island, and to describe the terrestrial and fresh water...

  14. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Howland Island, Baker Island, Jarvis Island National Wildlife Refuges; Units of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monuments

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan documents and prioritizes inventory and monitoring surveys and research currently conducted, and proposed to be conducted, at the Howland Island, Baker...

  15. Anaho Island: Mammalian species richness report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study assessed the mammalian species richness on Anaho Island using live trapping between July 18th and July 23rd 2005. The last mammalian species richness...

  16. Mackay Island NWR Annual Narrative Report 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mackay Island NWR outlines activities and accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  17. Marine mammal observations, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three marine mammals were regularly observed at Amchitka Island: sea otters (Enhydra lutris), Steller's sea lions (Eumetopias jubata), and harbor seals (Phoca...

  18. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Howland Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at Howland Island in the...

  19. 1- HARPs of the Pacific Islands Region

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information on acoustic recordings of cetaceans collected from areas within the Pacific Islands Region since 2006. In collaboration with...

  20. Butterfly Survey on Pinckney Island NWR (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Butterfly (adult Lepidoptera) survey conducted monthly (May-Nov 2001) at nine locations within Pinckney Island NWR. These nine locations include Ibis Pond,...

  1. EAARL Topography-Padre Island National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Padre Island National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  2. St. Vincent Island : Then and Now

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report captures the memories and observations of Charles F. Marks, Jr. who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child. He recalls what it was like growing up on...

  3. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project Nekton Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project (PIERP) is a large scale 1,800 acres restoration project located in mid Chesapeake Bay. Fishery collections are...

  4. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  5. Urban Heat Island Effect Actions - Neighborhood Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisville Metro Government — The urban heat island effect — defined as the difference in temperature between the core of Louisville and its suburbs — contributes to heat-related illnesses and...

  6. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  7. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  8. Hillshades for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These hillshade datasets were derived from USGS 7.5' DEM Quads for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands. Individual DEM quads were first converted to a common datum, and...

  9. 2007 Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake measuring 8.1 struck 345 kilometers northwest of the Solomon Islands' capital Honiara at 0740 local time on 2 April. (2040 GMT 1 April). The...

  10. Breeding peregrine falcon survey, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A breeding peregrine falcon (Falco peregrines) survey was conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge from May 2-9, 1981 in conjunction...

  11. Marine investigations in the Lakshadweep Islands, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    to navigators through the ages. Recent discoveries made during marine archaeological exploration and excavations in the Lakshadweep have revealed evidences of early settlement and shipwrecks. The findings suggest that the islands had been inhabited much before...

  12. Cross Island Evaluation and Management Plan 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study is to provide Hurricane Island Outward Bound School with a document that to be used for internal planning purposes. In addition, it could...

  13. Vegetation of Long Island, Adams County, Illinois

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the spring and early summer of 1994 most of Long Island, part of the Mark Twain NWR, was walked, and six east/west transects established. During July each...

  14. CNMI Northern Island Bottomfish System (NIBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) conducted a market sampling program that existed for a few years back...

  15. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  16. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Baker Island 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Baker Island in the US...

  17. Sea otter survey, Kodiak Island, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The even pages of this report are missing, making this document of low quality. This report summarizes the results of a sea otter survey conducted on Kodiak Island...

  18. Gridded bathymetry of Niihau Island, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Ni'ihau Island. This 5 m grid contains data between 0 and 100 meters. The netCDF and Arc ASCII grids...

  19. Muskox survey, Nunivak Island, summer 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A muskox survey was conducted on Nunivak Island Aug. 2122 by Lee Hotchkiss and Mike Smith. This year we digressed from the usual method of attempting to make a...

  20. EAARL Topography-Fire Island National Seaashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first return elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of Fire Island National Seashore was produced from remotely-sensed,...

  1. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  2. Accidental and ideal island cities: islanding processes and urban design in Belize City and the urban archipelagos of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pigou-Dennis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores processes of islanding, de-islanding, and re-islanding in the context of island cities. Although today popularly associated with rural, peripheral, and isolated landscapes, concepts of the ideal city coincided in Medieval and Renaissance Europe with emergent notions of the ideal island. Major European cities such as Amsterdam, Paris, and Copenhagen were established on densely urbanized small islands. In accordance with dominant political and military philosophies, they were subsequently developed through comprehensive urban design into vast yet coherent urban archipelagos. In contrast, the contemporary development of Belize City as an island city took place through piecemeal land reclamation, absent comprehensive urban design, resulting in a very different kind of urban archipelago. Neither the coherent European island cities nor Belize City are generally regarded as islands today, yet their histories of urban development evidence the impact of spatial attributes of islandness on urban form. Comprehensive urban design efforts are currently directed at land reclamation and waterfront revitalization in Belize City, aiming to restore Belize City’s island city status. We argue that cities can be islanded, de-islanded, and re-islanded in the minds of their inhabitants and that it is necessary to recognize the connection between ideal islands and ideal cities in order to understand the islanding process in full.

  3. Climate, ecological release and bill dimorphism in an island songbird

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Russell; Danner, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is expected to be more pronounced in vertebrates on islands, particularly in trophic characters, as a response to decreased interspecific competition for food. We found (based on measurements of 1423 museum specimens) that bill size dimorphism was greater in island than mainland populations of song sparrows. However, dimorphism varied among islands and was positively correlated with high summer temperature and island size. Island song sparrow bills follow the overall po...

  4. The islands of Kagoshima : culture, society, industry and nature

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAI, Kei; Terada, Ryuta; KUWAHARA, Sueo; TAKARABE, Megumi; NISHIMURA, Akira; HATTA, Akio; HAYWARD, Philip; YAMAMOTO, Sota; Takezaki, Toshiro; Niimura, Hideshi; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; NODA, Shinichi; NAKATANI, Sumie; OZAKI, Takahiro; NISHIMURA, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    edited by Kei Kawai, Ryuta Terada and Sueo Kuwahara Title page, colophon Preface Editors Contributors Contents Various Island Views in Kagoshima Prefecture (frontispiece) Map of the Islands in Kagoshima Culture and Society [Chapter 1] Culture and Society in the Islands of Kagoshima / Sueo Kuwahara [Chapter 2] Research Issues in the Culture and Society of the Amami Islands / Sueo Kuwahara [Chapter 3] Amami Island Religion : Historical Dynamics of the Islanders’...

  5. ASSESING GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION OF THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana, D.; Smith, F.

    2016-01-01

    The Galapagos Archipelago is one of the most important ecological spots in the planet due its unique biodiversity, active geology, and relatively well-preserved ecosystems. These characteristics are strongly based on the geographical isolation of the islands. On the one hand this isolation allowed the evolution processes that gave the islands their international fame and on the other hand it kept them from major human impacts that affected the vast majority of the Earth’s surface. Ga...

  6. Legends, Megaliths And Astronomy In Corsica Island

    OpenAIRE

    Santucci, Jean-François; Thury-Bouvet, Ghjasippina; Hadi Khoumeri, El; Ottavi, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a study performed in the framework of an interdisciplinary project developed at the University of Corsica involving information technology researchers and engineers, anthropologists and people from the field of astronomy. The goal of the project is to reveal the Mythology of the Corsica Island, which has been buried under thousand years of invasions. More than 6000 years ago, Corsica, an island of the west Mediterranean basin saw the emergence of megaliths all over the isl...

  7. Floating island for extracting or processing gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppel, F.O.

    1979-09-25

    The described floating island for the extraction of gas from the sea a plurality of buoyancy units positioned on a base plate with columns extending upward therefrom at a height approximately the wave height expected. A platform containing gas liquefaction apparatus is positioned on the top of the columns. The buoyancy units are selected so that when the island is free floating, the columns project more than half way from the water.

  8. Marine Pollution at Northeast of Penang Island

    OpenAIRE

    H.A. Gasim; A.M. Hashim; P.Z.M. Bakri; M.Z. Samsuri; N.L.A. Rais; N.D.M. Noor

    2013-01-01

    Oceans cover large area of earth surface and it is important for humans to protect from pollution. Malaysia has large marine areas which consist of islands, coastal and sea areas which are facing pollution problem due to the rapid urbanization and industrialization. This study investigated sources of marine pollution occurred at area near a reclamation project at the northeast of Penang Island. Three locations were chosen for water sampling which included Sg. Fetes, North Tanjung Tokong and G...

  9. Cancer incidence in the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Swerdlow, A J; Elsby, B; Qiao, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Cancer incidence in the Falkland Islands, 1989–2000, was compared with rates in England and Wales, from which most Islanders originate. Colon and rectum cancer incidence was significantly raised 1989–93 but greatly reduced after 1994, when colonoscopic screening in high-risk families and sigmoidoscopic screening in the general population were introduced. http://www.bjcancer.com © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign

  10. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands. PMID:12269067

  11. The hydrology of Hatteras Island, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William Paul, Jr.

    This is a study of the groundwater hydrology and groundwater-surface-water interactions of barrier islands. Shallow groundwater is typically the sole source of freshwater on barrier islands. It is threatened by increasing coastal populations (both permanent and seasonal residents). Higher demand for groundwater may induce saltwater intrusion through overpumping. Water quality also is often threatened by inadequate waste-management practices and overwash. These factors combine to make understanding of barrier-island hydrology essential for continued development and ecological health of island communities. The hydraulic response of barrier islands is closely tied to island morphology and stratigraphy. The heterogeneity of barrier islands suggests that the underlying geologic framework is critical to barrier-island morphology. Other processes, such as spit growth, are usually imposed on an inherited geologic framework. Barrier islands typically support a freshwater aquifer that "floats" on an underlying saltwater aquifer. The height to which the water table rises depends on the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer and the island geometry. In addition, tidal fluctuations, interdunal wetland drainage, and variable recharge rates affect island hydrology. The relative importance of each of these factors was tested with a series of numerical simulations, sensitivity analyses, and field measurements. Field data were collected from Hatteras Island in order to provide calibration data, constrain the shallow stratigraphy, and estimate aquifer parameters. Geophysical studies include borehole geophysics and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). The Buxton Woods surficial aquifer is approximately 24.5 meters in thickness and contains upper and lower permeable zones separated by a semi-confining layer. Geophysical methods were used to constrain the shallow stratigraphy and the vertical geometry of the system. Borehole geophysics indicate the large-scale variations in stratigraphy. GPR

  12. Sandy Point, Green Cay and Buck Island National Wildlife Refuges: United States Virgin Islands, Caribbean Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on United States Virgin Islands, Caribbean Islands NWR Complex for the next 15 years. This...

  13. Terrestrial radiation measurements in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the prospect of habitation in the near future, radiological surveys were undertaken of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls to provide a basis for determining whether or not the atolls can be safely reinhabited. The surveys included all of the forty islands within Enewetak Atoll, but only the two principal islands, Bikini and Eneu Islands, of Bikini Atoll. These atolls were former U.S. nuclear weapons test sites in the Pacific. Integral parts of the surveys were the measurements of the distributions of radioactivity in the soil and the resulting gamma ray exposure rates for external dose estimation. Numerous soil samples were collected from both atolls for analysis by Ge (Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry techniques. At Enewetak Atoll the gamma exposure rates were measured by TLDs and a helicopter-borne array of Nal detectors, while at Bikini Atoll portable Nal detectors, pressurized ion-chambers, and TLDs were utilized. The predominant species measured in the soil samples collected from both atolls were 90Sr, 239,240Pu, 137Cs and 60Co with the latter two nuclides being the primary contributors to the gamma-ray exposure rates. The geographical distribution of the exposure rates measured on both atolls, was highly variable ranging from less than 1 μR/h on islands that had not been impacted radiologically by the testing program, to over 100 μR/h near weapon detonation sites. Thus, within Enewetak Atoll, the highest soil activities and gamma-ray exposure rates were measured on the northern islands, where the weapons testing had been most intense. Bikini Island exhibited contamination levels that were considerably higher than those on Eneu Island. Generally, the highest activity levels were observed within the island interiors or in proximity to ground zero sites, and could usually be related to the surrounding vegetation density. The island of Yvonne, within Enewetak Atoll, is the most severely contaminated land area. Particles containing as much as several

  14. Oloketa Tingting Fo Apem Education Long Solomon Islands: Issues in Solomon Islands Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, Noeline

    2010-01-01

    This book makes available to a wider audience for the first time material based on fieldwork carried out by the Solomon Island researchers in their own country. The findings will have vital relevance to policy makers, teachers and students. Over the past four years the School of Education, Solomon Islands College of Higher Education and the…

  15. Origins and antiquity of the island fox ( Urocyon littoralis) on California's Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Torben C.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Vellanoweth, René L.; Braje, Todd J.; Collins, Paul W.; Guthrie, Daniel A.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.

    2009-03-01

    The island fox ( Urocyon littoralis) is one of few reportedly endemic terrestrial mammals on California's Channel Islands. Questions remain about how and when foxes first colonized the islands, with researchers speculating on a natural, human-assisted, or combined dispersal during the late Pleistocene and/or Holocene. A natural dispersal of foxes to the northern Channel Islands has been supported by reports of a few fox bones from late Pleistocene paleontological localities. Direct AMS 14C dating of these "fossil" fox bones produced dates ranging from ˜ 6400 to 200 cal yr BP, however, postdating human colonization of the islands by several millennia. Although one of these specimens is the earliest securely dated fox from the islands, these new data support the hypothesis that Native Americans introduced foxes to all the Channel Islands in the early to middle Holocene. However, a natural dispersal for the original island colonization cannot be ruled out until further paleontological, archaeological, and genetic studies (especially aDNA [ancient DNA]) are conducted.

  16. Vegetation and checklist of Inaccessible Island, central South Atlantic Ocean, with notes on Nightingale Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography and climate of Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands are briefly discussed. The vegetation and the major plant associations are described. Notes are given on the ecology and distribution of each taxon. Taxa newly recorded for Inaccessible Island include Agrostis goughensis, A.holgateana, A. wacei, Calamagrostis deschampsiiformis, Carex thouarsii var.  recurvata, Conyza albida, Elaphoglossum campylolepium and  Uncinia meridensis. One species, C.  albida, is alien to the Tristan group. Two native ferns Asplenium platybasis var.  subnudum and Blechnum australe were found on Nightingale Island for the first time, and the presence of introduced Malus domestica orchards was recorded. Two unidentified taxa were found that may represent new species:  Elaphoglossum sp. at Inaccessible Island and Apium sp. at both Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands. The total number of vascular plant species recorded at Inaccessible and Nightingale Islands now stands at 98 and 43, respectively, of which 26 (28% and seven (16% are introduced species. Only Airiplex plebeja and two species of Cotula occur at Nightingale Island but are absent from Inaccessible Island.

  17. Tuppiap Qeqertaa (Tobias Island): a newly discovered island off northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, O.; Mikkelsen, N.; Forsberg, René; Hedenas, L.

    2006-01-01

    sea level, as determined by airborne laser scanning. High-quality geodetic GPS measurements determine the position of a small cairn erected on the island to 79 degrees 20'34.48" N, 15 degrees 46'31.23" W. Minor parts of the island are ice free, with small hills of gravel. Late Holocene shells of...

  18. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP..., NY in the Federal Register (77 FR 34894). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  19. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 80.717 Section 80.717 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.717 Tybee...

  20. 75 FR 28643 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, Lee and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Register on June 27, 2007 (72 FR 35254), and extended the comment period in a notice in the Federal Register on April 2, 2008 (73 FR 17991). For more about the refuges, their purposes, and our CCP process... Fish and Wildlife Service Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National...