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Sample records for aleutian basin information

  1. Literature and information related to the natural resources of the North Aleutian Basin of Alaska.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, E.A.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-01-31

    The North Aleutian Basin Planning Area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) is a large geographic area with significant natural resources. The Basin includes most of the southeastern part of the Bering Sea Outer Continental Shelf, including all of Bristol Bay. The area supports important habitat for a wide variety of species and globally significant habitat for birds and marine mammals, including several federally listed species. Villages and communities of the Alaska Peninsula and other areas bordering or near the Basin rely on its natural resources (especially commercial and subsistence fishing) for much of their sustenance and livelihood. The offshore area of the North Aleutian Basin is considered to have important hydrocarbon reserves, especially natural gas. In 2006, the MMS released a draft proposed program, 'Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Leasing Program, 2007-2012' and an accompanying draft programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS). The draft proposed program identified two lease sales proposed in the North Aleutian Basin in 2010 and 2012, subject to restrictions. The area proposed for leasing in the Basin was restricted to the Sale 92 Area in the southwestern portion. Additional EISs will be needed to evaluate the potential effects of specific lease actions, exploration activities, and development and production plans in the Basin. A full range of updated multidisciplinary scientific information will be needed to address oceanography, fate and effects of oil spills, marine ecosystems, fish, fisheries, birds, marine mammals, socioeconomics, and subsistence in the Basin. Scientific staff at Argonne National Laboratory were contracted to assist MMS with identifying and prioritizing information needs related to potential future oil and gas leasing and development activities in the North Aleutian Basin. Argonne focused on three related tasks: (1) identify and gather relevant literature published since 1996, (2) synthesize and

  2. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities: Volume 10, Basin analysis, formation and stability of gas hydrates of the Aleutian Trench and the Bering Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krason, J.; Ciesnik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Four major areas with inferred gas hydrates are the subject of this study. Two of these areas, the Navarin and the Norton Basins, are located within the Bering Sea shelf, whereas the remaining areas of the Atka Basin in the central Aleutian Trench system and the eastern Aleutian Trench represent a huge region of the Aleutian Trench-Arc system. All four areas are geologically diverse and complex. Particularly the structural features of the accretionary wedge north of the Aleutian Trench still remain the subjects of scientific debates. Prior to this study, suggested presence of the gas hydrates in the four areas was based on seismic evidence, i.e., presence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Although the disclosure of the BSRs is often difficult, particularly under the structural conditions of the Navarin and Norton basins, it can be concluded that the identified BSRs are mostly represented by relatively weak and discontinuous reflectors. Under thermal and pressure conditions favorable for gas hydrate formation, the relative scarcity of the BSRs can be attributed to insufficient gas supply to the potential gas hydrate zone. Hydrocarbon gas in sediment may have biogenic, thermogenic or mixed origin. In the four studied areas, basin analysis revealed limited biogenic hydrocarbon generation. The migration of the thermogenically derived gases is probably diminished considerably due to the widespread diagenetic processes in diatomaceous strata. The latter processes resulted in the formation of the diagenetic horizons. The identified gas hydrate-related BSRs seem to be located in the areas of increased biogenic methanogenesis and faults acting as the pathways for thermogenic hydrocarbons.

  3. Geologic framework of the Aleutian arc, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, Tracy L.; Scholl, David W.; Fisher, Michael A.; Bruns, Terry R.; Wilson, Frederic H.; von Huene, Roland E.; Stevenson, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    The Aleutian arc is the arcuate arrangement of mountain ranges and flanking submerged margins that forms the northern rim of the Pacific Basin from the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) eastward more than 3,000 km to Cooke Inlet (Fig. 1). It consists of two very different segments that meet near Unimak Pass: the Aleutian Ridge segment to the west and the Alaska Peninsula-the Kodiak Island segment to the east. The Aleutian Ridge segment is a massive, mostly submerged cordillera that includes both the islands and the submerged pedestal from which they protrude. The Alaska Peninsula-Kodiak Island segment is composed of the Alaska Peninsula, its adjacent islands, and their continental and insular margins. The Bering Sea margin north of the Alaska Peninsula consists mostly of a wide continental shelf, some of which is underlain by rocks correlative with those on the Alaska Peninsula.There is no pre-Eocene record in rocks of the Aleutian Ridge segment, whereas rare fragments of Paleozoic rocks and extensive outcrops of Mesozoic rocks occur on the Alaska Peninsula. Since the late Eocene, and possibly since the early Eocene, the two segments have evolved somewhat similarly. Major plutonic and volcanic episodes, however, are not synchronous. Furthermore, uplift of the Alaska Peninsula-Kodiak Island segment in late Cenozoic time was more extensive than uplift of the Aleutian Ridge segment. It is probable that tectonic regimes along the Aleutian arc varied during the Tertiary in response to such factors as the directions and rates of convergence, to bathymetry and age of the subducting Pacific Plate, and to the volume of sediment in the Aleutian Trench.The Pacific and North American lithospheric plates converge along the inner wall of the Aleutian trench at about 85 to 90 mm/yr. Convergence is nearly at right angles along the Alaska Peninsula, but because of the arcuate shape of the Aleutian Ridge relative to the location of the plates' poles of rotation, the angle of convergence

  4. Environmental characterization of the north Aleutian shelf nearshore region: characterization, processes, and vulnerability to development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, S.

    1984-03-01

    The specific objectives of the study are as follows: Describe the present status of knowledge concerning the biotic communities and organic productivity of the nearshore zone along the entire North Aleutian Basin lease area, (Unimak Pass to Cape Newenham), with particular reference to the area adjacent to Izembek Lagoon; Describe the ecological processes which might be causing the observed distributions, densities, and interrelationships; Discuss potential vulnerability of this region to impacts from offshore oil and gas development; Identify significant data and information needs.

  5. 75 FR 59687 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... information collection. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) manages the crab fisheries in the waters...; 12 hours, 30 minutes for annual catcher/processor EDR; 10 hours for annual stationary floating crab...

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska, Prince William Sound-2000, Aleutians-2001, Bristol Bay-2004, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), and Bristol Bay (2004). ESI data...

  7. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  8. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  9. Old TNX Seepage Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaway, J.K.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Old TNX Seepage Basin at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  10. Volcano collapse along the Aleutian Ridge (western Aleutian Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Montanaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Aleutian Ridge, in the western part of the Aleutian Arc, consists of a chain of volcanic islands perched atop the crest of a submarine ridge with most of the active Quaternary stratocones or caldera-like volcanoes being located on the northern margins of the Aleutian Islands. Integrated analysis of marine and terrestrial data resulted in the identification and characterization of 17 extensive submarine debris avalanche deposits from 11 volcanoes. Two morphological types of deposits are recognizable, elongate and lobate, with primary controls on the size and distribution of the volcanic debris being the volume and nature of material involved, proportion of fine grained material, depth of emplacement and the paleo-bathymetry. Volume calculations show the amount of material deposited in debris avalanches is as much as three times larger than the amount of material initially involved in the collapse, suggesting the incorporation of large amounts of submarine material during transport. The orientation of the collapse events is influenced by regional fault systems underling the volcanoes. The western Aleutian Arc has a significant tsunamigenic potential and communities within the Aleutian Islands and surrounding areas of the North Pacific as well as shipping and fishing fleets that cross the North Pacific may be at risk during future eruptions in this area.

  11. New TNX Seepage Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    The New TNX Seepage Basin has been in operation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) since 1980 and is located in the southeastern section of the TNX facility. The basin receives waste from pilot scale tests conducted at TNX in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the plant Separations area. The basin is scheduled for closure after the TNX Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) begins operation. The basin will be closed pursuant to all applicable state and federal regulations. A statistical analysis of monitoring data indicates elevated levels of sodium and zinc in the groundwater at this site. Closure options considered for the New TNX Seepage Basin include waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The two predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical contaminants are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options for the New TNX Seepage Basin. Cost estimates for each closure option at the basin have also been prepared. An evaluation of the environmental impacts from the New TNX Seepage Basin indicate that the relative risks to human health and ecosystems for the postulated closure options are low. The transport of six chemical and one radionuclide constituents through the environmental pathways from the basin were modeled. The maximum chemical carcinogenic risk and the noncarcinogenic risk for the groundwater pathways were from exposure to trichloromethane and nitrate

  12. Acid/Caustic Basins: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Marine, I.W.

    1986-12-01

    There are six Acid/Caustic Basins at SRP, all of which are located in the reactor and separations areas. These basins are unlined earthen depressions with nominal dimensions of 15.2 m in length x 15.2 m in width x 2.1 m in depth. They were used to provide mixing and partial neutralization of dilute sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions from water treatment facilities before these solutions were discharged to tributaries of local streams. Closure options considered for the Acid/Caustic Basins are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical contaminants are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via general pathways for the three postulated closure options. A cost estimate for each closure was also made

  13. 78 FR 6279 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... 110207108-2709-01] RIN 0648-BA82 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and... INFORMATION: The king and Tanner crab fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... sufficiently address timeliness, safety, economic efficiency, and other factors. Western Aleutian Islands...

  14. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program... program for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization... Center Web site at http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/ . For further information on the Crab Rationalization...

  15. Identifying potential habitat for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Wolcott, Daniel M.; Chow, T. Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The Aleutian shield fern Polystichum aleuticum is endemic to the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska and is listed as endangered pursuant to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Despite numerous efforts to discover new populations of this species, only four known populations are documented to date, and information is needed to prioritize locations for future surveys. Therefore, we incorporated topographical habitat characteristics (elevation, slope, aspect, distance from coastline, and anthropogenic footprint) found at known Aleutian shield fern locations into a Geographical Information System (GIS) model to create a habitat suitability map for the entirety of the Andreaonof Islands. A total of 18 islands contained 489.26 km2 of highly suitable and moderately suitable habitat when weighting each factor equally. This study reports a habitat suitability map for the endangered Aleutian shield fern using topographical characteristics, which can be used to assist current and future recovery efforts for the species.

  16. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas (2): Cook Inlet - 2002, Kodiak - 1998, Southeast - 2002, Bristol Bay - 2004, Prince William Sound - 2000, Aleutians - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0050372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Kodiak (1998), Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), Cook Inlet (2002),...

  17. Road A Chemical Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Muska, C.F.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    The Road A Chemical Basin at the Savannah River Plant was closed and backfilled in 1973. It received miscellaneous radioactive and chemical aqueous waste. Four groundwater monitoring wells indicate no elevated levels of analytes in the groundwater. The closure options considered for this waste site are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated. Maximum health risk due to radioactive materials ( 238 U) is about 8.0E-06 excess health effects per year, for the no action option. The no waste removal and closure and waste removal and closure options reduce the calculated risk to about 1.2E-06 and 1.2E-08 HE/yr, respectively. The maximum calculated impact due to noncarcinogenic materials (lead) is 0.54 ADI fraction. The maximum calculated ADI fraction for lead after the period of institutional control is 4.1 E-04 for the reclaimed-farmland pathway for the no action option. Public risk attributable to atmospheric releases of chemical and radioactive constituents is minimal. For all years and options modeled, the noncarcinogenic risks calculated were zero except for the year of excavation, which had an ADI fraction of 1.41E-09. The maximum individual radiological health risk for the waste removal and closure option is small (6.97E-12 HE/yr). The radiological health effects for the no waste removal and closure and no action options are zero. The ecological assessment shows that the effects of any closure activities on river water quality and wildlife would be insignificant. The cost estimates show that the waste removal and closure option is the most expensive ($4,000,000). 41 refs., 13 figs., 41 tabs

  18. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Aleutians Sediments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 2.1 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings extending 1,900 km along the Aleutian Islands from Unimak Island in the east to the...

  19. March 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  20. Eruption reported in Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 29, an airplane pilot reported the start of an eruption on Mount Westdahl on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Islands (54.52°N, 164.65°W), according to the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Network. The pilot sighted an ash plume rising to more than 7 km altitude at 1705 local time ( = UT-11 hours). The main portion of the plume, at about 5 km altitude, extended 80-95 km east-northeast by 0930 the next morning.About noon, U.S. Coast Guard pilots observed a NE-SW fissure vent 5-8 km long, with at least one active lava flow traveling down the east flank. The area surrounding the vent was ash-covered, and increased runoff and possible mudflows were observed. Vigorous steam and ash emission was visible throughout the day from False Pass (90 km NE), which experienced a very fine dusting of ash. A strong sulfur odor at False Pass lasted into the night, and similar odors were reported by pilots up to several hundred kilometers inland. No ashfall has been reported in Cold Bay (145 km NE).

  1. Presumed drowning of Aleutian Canada geese on the Pacific coast of California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul F.; Lowe, Roy W.; Stroud, Richard K.; Gullett, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    Carcasses of 42 and 17 Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia), a federally listed endangered species, were found on ocean beaches near Crescent City, California, and near Pacific City, Oregon, respectively, following severe storms. Necropsies and other information suggest that the birds were flushed during the storms and somehow entered the water where they were washed into the surf and drowned.

  2. L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkala, R.O.; Price, V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  3. M-Area Settling Basin and vicinity: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Colven, W.P.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the M-Area Settling Basin and vicinity at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  4. Spawning phenology and geography of Aleutian Islands and eastern Bering Sea Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidetcher, Sandra K.; Hurst, Thomas P.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Logerwell, Elizabeth A.

    2014-11-01

    Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) is an economically and ecologically important species in the southeastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, yet little is known about the spawning dynamics of Pacific cod in these regions. To address this knowledge gap, we applied a gross anatomical maturity key for Pacific cod to describe temporal and spatial patterns of reproductive status over three winter spawning seasons: 2005, 2006, and 2007. Maturity status of female Pacific cod was assessed by fishery observers during sampling of commercial catches and used to construct maps showing spawning activity in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. Most spawning activity was observed on the Bering Sea shelf and Aleutian Island plateaus between 100 and 200 m depth. Data for those days when a high percentage of spawning stage fish were observed were used to identify areas with concentrations of spawning fish. Spawning concentrations were identified north of Unimak Island, in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands, at the shelf break near Zhemchug Canyon, and adjacent to islands in the central and western Aleutian Islands along the continental shelf. The spawning season was found to begin in the last days of February or early March and extend through early to mid-April. Variation in spawning time (averaging ~10 days between years) may have been associated with a change from warm (2005) to cold (2007) climate conditions during the study period. Our information on Pacific cod spawning patterns will help inform fishery management decisions, models of spawning and larval dispersal and the spatial structure of the stock.

  5. Information needs of fish-feed entrepreneurs in Kainji Lake Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information needs of fish-feed entrepreneurs in Kainji Lake Basin Nigeria. ... Linkage with credit sources and training skill on fish-feed formulation should be incorporated into fisheries training to ensure effective extension delivery system. Keywords: Extension needs, fish-feed information need, Kainji lake basin ...

  6. Geographic Information System and Geoportal «River basins of the European Russia»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, O. P.; Mukharamova, S. S.; Maltsev, K. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Ermolaeva, P. O.; Gayazov, A. I.; Mozzherin, V. V.; Kharchenko, S. V.; Marinina, O. A.; Lisetskii, F. N.

    2018-01-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geoportal with open access «River basins of the European Russia» were implemented. GIS and Geoportal are based on the map of basins of small rivers of the European Russia with information about natural and anthropogenic characteristics, namely geomorphometry of basins relief; climatic parameters, representing averages, variation, seasonal variation, extreme values of temperature and precipitation; land cover types; soil characteristics; type and subtype of landscape; population density. The GIS includes results of spatial analysis and modelling, in particular, assessment of anthropogenic impact on river basins; evaluation of water runoff and sediment runoff; climatic, geomorphological and landscape zoning for the European part of Russia.

  7. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  8. F-Area Seepage Basins: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbo, P.; Killian, T.H.; Kolb, N.L.; Marine, I.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the F-Area Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1502.22). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to represent or be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory sufficient document. Technical assistance in the environmental analyses of waste site closures was provided by Clemson University; GeoTrans, Inc.; JBF Associates, Inc.; S.S. Papadopulos and Associates Inc.; Radiological Assessments Corporation; Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation; Science Applications International Corporation; C.B. Shedrow Environmental Consultants, Inc.; Exploration Software; and Verbatim Typing and Editing

  9. Seismicity, topography, and free-air gravity of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R. E.; Blakely, R. J.; Scholl, D. W.; Ryan, H. F.

    2011-12-01

    The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone, extending 3400 km from the Queen Charlotte Fault to Kamchatka, has been the source of six great megathrust earthquakes in the 20th Century. Four earthquakes have ruptured the 2000-km-long Aleutian segment, where the Cenozoic Aleutian arc overlies the subducting Pacific plate. These include the 1946 M 8.6 earthquake off Unimak Is., the 1957 M 8.6 and 1986 M 8.0 earthquakes off the Andreanoff Is., and the 1965 M 8.7 Rat Is. earthquake. The source regions of these earthquakes inferred from waveform inversions underlie the well-defined Aleutian deep-sea terrace. The deep-sea terrace is about 4 km deep and is underlain by Eocene arc framework rocks, which extend nearly to the trench. It is bounded on its seaward and landward margins by strong topographic and fee-air gravity gradients. The main asperities (areas of largest slip) for the great earthquakes and nearly all of the Aleutian thrust CMT solutions lie beneath the Aleutian terrace, between the maximum gradients. Similar deep-sea terraces are characteristic of non-accretionary convergent margins globally (75% of subduction zones), and, where sampled by drilling (e.g., Japan, Peru, Tonga, Central America), are undergoing sustained subsidence. Sustained subsidence requires removal of arc crust beneath the terrace by basal subduction erosion (BSE). BSE is in part linked to the seismic cycle, as it occurs in the same location as the megathrust earthquakes. Along the eastern 1400 km of the Alaskan subduction zone, the Pacific plate subducts beneath the North American continent. The boundary between the Aleutian segment and the continent is well defined in free-air gravity, and the distinctive deep-sea terrace observed along the Aleutian segment is absent. Instead, the Alaskan margin consists of exhumed, underplated accretionary complexes forming outer arc gravity highs. Superimposed on them are broad topographic highs and lows forming forearc basins (Shumagin, Stevenson) and islands

  10. Did the Bering Sea Form as a Cenozoic Backarc Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, R. J.; Barth, G. A.; Scheirer, D. S.; Scholl, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the origins of Bering Sea marginal basins (Aleutian, Bowers, and Komandorsky basins; AB, BB, KB) is key for reconstructing N. Pacific tectonic and magmatic evolution. New acquisitions and recompilations of MCS, OBS, and potential field data (Barth et al. poster. this session) for USGS Extended Continental Shelf project and selection of Aleutians as GeoPrisms Subduction Cycles and Deformation focus site stimulate reconsideration of BB, KB, and especially AB origins. AB has long been regarded as N. Pacific crust trapped when the Aleutian subduction began ~45-50 Ma. BB and KB probably formed together as Miocene backarc basins. Presence of Oligo-Miocene arc volcanics on Bowers and Shirshov ridges suggests that these are remnant arcs, orphaned by AB and KB opening. Seven lines of evidence suggest that AB formed as a Paleogene backarc basin: 1) AB heatflow suggests an age of about 44 Ma (Langseth et al 1980 JGR). 2) Formation of NNW-trending rift basins on Bering shelf (Navarin, Pribilof, and St. George basins) in Paleogene time indicate extension at this time. 3) The early Paleogene "red unconformity" of the Beringian margin could indicate uplift, erosion, and subsidence associated with AB opening. 4) ~N-S magnetic anomalies in AB contrasts with E-W Kula anomalies on N. Pacific, indicating that the two tracts of oceanic crust formed at different spreading ridges. 5) Thicker sediment in AB (2-4 km) vs. BB and KB (< 2km) indicates AB is older and is consistent with episodic and short-lived (~20 m.y. duration) opening expected for backarc basins. 6) Aleutian arc magmatic activity began ~50 Ma, about the same time that the Beringian arc shut down. This could also be reconciled by rifting of the Beringian arc to form the AB as backarc basin, accompanied by the displacement of arc magmatic activity to near the present Aleutian arc. 7) Formation of the Aleutian arc as ~3900 km long, nearly perfect small circle is easiest to reconcile with an easily deformed

  11. Potential geologic hazards of North Aleutian shelf, Bristol Bay, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnia, B.F.; Schwab, W.C.

    1985-02-01

    Federal OSC lease sale 92, North Aleutian shelf, Alaska, is scheduled for April 1985. The area, located in the southeastern Bering Sea, has 3 basins with sedimentary thicknesses in excess of 4 km. Six geologic conditions that could cause problems during petroleum development are: (1) seismicity, (2) recent faulting, (3) gas-charged sediment, (4) bed forms and active sediment transport, (5) scours, and (6) volcanism. Since 1953, the region has a history of at least 10 shallow earthquakes, including a 1971 back-arc event with a Richter magnitude of 5.2. The largest event impacting the entire region, a Richter magnitude 8.7 earthquake, occurred in 1938. Normal faults are located along the southern edge of the St. George basin, and on the northeastern edge of the Amak basin. Many exhibit increased offset with depth, surficial sags, and small surficial cracks. Surprising was the absence of any evidence of sea-floor sediment instability. Sonar bright spots, and possible, near-surface gas-charged sediment occur west of Amak Island and north of Unimak Island. An area of megaripples and dunes covers more than 1500 km/sup 2/. Bed forms have spacings of 20-50 m and heights of 1-3 m. Observations suggest that coarse sand may be actively transported. Thousands of scours, many linear and parallel, some greater than 800 m long, 250 m wide, and incised up to 5 m, were identified. Pavlof, an Alaskan Peninsula active volcano, located 45 km northeast of Cold Bay, has a continuous history of steam release and occasional eruption. Lahars, nuee ardentes are unknown. None of the geologic conditions identified precludes petroleum development or production. The potential impact of these factors must, however, be included in planning for future petroleum activities.

  12. Great Basin Factsheet Series 2016 - Information and tools to restore and conserve Great Basin ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2016-01-01

    Land managers are responsible for developing effective strategies for conserving and restoring Great Basin ecosystems in the face of invasive species, conifer expansion, and altered fire regimes. A warming climate is magnifying the effects of these threats and adding urgency to implementation of management practices that will maintain or improve ecosystem...

  13. Case study: Bioremediation in the Aleutian Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, K.J.; Laford, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    This case study describes the design, construction, and operation of a bioremediation pile on Adak Island, which is located in the Aleutian Island chain. Approximately 1,900 m 3 of petroleum-contaminated soil were placed in the bioremediation pile. The natural bioremediation process was enhanced by an oxygen and nutrient addition system to stimulate microbial activity. Despite the harsh weather on the island, after the first 6 months of operation, laboratory analyses of soil samples indicated a significant (80%) reduction in diesel concentrations

  14. 78 FR 53369 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    .... 121018563-3148-02] RIN 0648-XC832 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the...-7269. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS manages the groundfish fishery in the BSAI exclusive economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  15. Source Components and Mass Transfer in the Aleutian Arc from Hf, Nd and Pb Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. T.; Yogodzinski, G. M.; Vervoort, J. D.; Kelemen, P. B.

    2008-12-01

    incomplete mixtures of the subducted component and a MORB-like depleted mantle. Crustal magma plumbing systems that feed the much larger emergent, arc-front volcanoes are more likely to pool and homogenize isotopically diverse mantle derived melts, obscuring information about processes beneath the Moho. These observations demonstrate that magma sources beneath the Moho in the Aleutians are isotopically diverse, and that melting and melt-transport processes are capable of preserving this diversity during their ascent to crustal depths. This may imply that 'cold plumes' or diapiric assent are more likely melt transport mechanisms than porous flow.

  16. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Zimmermann: Aleutians Bathymetry Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We assembled 2.1 million National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetric soundings extending 1,900 km along the Aleutian Islands from Unimak Island in the east to the...

  17. New Field Surveys of The Great 1946 Aleutian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, E. A.; Synolakis, C. E.; Plafker, G.

    We seek to reopen the case of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami, which was the most destruc- tive transpacific event in the past century, despite the relatively moderate size of its parent earthquake. As a result, the exact nature of its source, and in particular whether it requires a submarine landslide, remains controversial. In 1999, we started a system- atic effort to build a modern database of runup and inundation values for the 1946 event throughout the Pacific Basin. At teleseismic distances, we rely on interviews from elderly witnesses whose testimony is then quantified using standard surveying techniques. As of early 2002, we were able to gather about 60 such measurements in the Marquesas, Society and Austral Islands, French Polynesia; and at Easter and Juan Fernandez Islands. They point out to the concentration of high runup values (8 m or more) in a narrow band of epicentral azimuths including Hawaii, the Marque- sas and Easter, but excluding Juan Fernandez. In the near field, we surveyed in 2001 the islands of Unimak and Sanak, based on available Coast Guard reports at Scotch Cap, and on subsisting watermarks such as large logs of driftwood deposited on these unforrested islands. We obtain a maximum runup height of 42 m on the Southern coast of Unimak and of 22 m at Sanak. These preliminary results suggest the combi- nation of a slow earthquake dislocation responsible for the strong far-field directivity of the tsunami, and of a co-seismic underwater landslide necessary to account for the exceptional near-field amplitudes, which are many times larger than the seismic dis- placement at the source for any acceptable seismological model of the dislocation. The existence of a large landslide is also suggested by anectodal reports of post-quake changes in local bathymetry and diminished fisheries productivity, and a preliminary confirmation is found on post-1946 bathymetric charts of the continental slope around 53.75 deg.N and 163.75 deg.W.

  18. On the dynamics of strait flows: an ocean model study of the Aleutian passages and the Bering Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tal; Oey, Lie-Yauw

    2013-03-01

    A high-resolution numerical ocean circulation model of the Bering Sea (BS) is used to study the natural variability of the BS straits. Three distinct categories of strait dynamics have been identified: (1) Shallow passages such as the Bering Strait and the Unimak Passage have northward, near barotropic flow with periodic pulses of larger transports; (2) wide passages such as Near Straits, Amukta Pass, and Buldir Pass have complex flow patterns driven by the passage of mesoscale eddies across the strait; and (3) deep passages such as Amchitka Pass and Kamchatka Strait have persistent deep return flows opposite in direction to major surface currents; the deep flows persist independent of the local wind. Empirical orthogonal function analyses reveal the spatial structure and the temporal variability of strait flows and demonstrate how mesoscale variations in the Aleutian passages influence the Bering Strait flow toward the Arctic Ocean. The study suggests a general relation between the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby radii of deformations in each strait, and the level of flow variability through the strait, independent of geographical location. The mesoscale variability in the BS seems to originate from two different sources: a remote origin from variability in the Alaskan Stream that enters the BS through the Aleutian passages and a local origin from the interaction of currents with the Bowers Ridge in the Aleutian Basin. Comparisons between the flow in the Aleutian passages and flow in other straits, such as the Yucatan Channel and the Faroe Bank Channel, suggest some universal topographically induced dynamics in strait flows.

  19. Geographical Information Systems for International River Basin Management in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerud, Terje Andre

    1997-12-31

    This thesis discusses implementation and application of Geographical Information systems (GIS) in international River Basin Organizations (RBOs) in the Third World. Third World countries sharing the same river basin are increasingly experiencing conflicts because they exploit the same water resource. Empirical knowledge is derived from two case studies. (1) The Mekong River Commission Secretariat`s experiences in applying GIS are investigated. The conditions assessed are related to institutional, funding, expertise, training and technology issues for successful application of GIS. (2) The prospects for the implementation of GIS at a future WATERNET Centre in Amman are investigated. Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority have decided to establish a regional GIS Centre in the lower Jordan River Basin. The study assesses political, legal and institutional conditions for the successful implementation of GIS. It is concluded that implementing and applying GIS successfully in RBOs in the Third World is challenging, although not for technological reasons. 265 refs., 28 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Design of water quality monitoring networks with two information scenarios in tropical Andean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Juan Carlos; Vélez, Jorge Julián; Zambrano, Jeannette; Londoño, Adela

    2017-09-01

    Design and redesign of water quality monitoring networks were evaluated for two similarly sized watersheds in the tropical Andes via optimization techniques using geographic information system technology (GIS) and a matter-element analysis of 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and total suspended solids (TSS). This resulted in a flexible, objectively based design for a 1128-km 2 watershed without prior water quality data (La Miel River), and a network redesign of a 1052-km 2 watershed with historical water quality monitoring (Chinchiná River). Monitoring design for the undocumented basin incorporated mathematical expressions for physical, anthropological, and historical factors-and was based on clear objectives for diagnosis and intervention of water pollution. Network redesign identified network redundancy, which resulted in a 64% reduction in the number of water quality monitoring stations along the channel, and a 78% reduction of stations throughout the basin. Most tropical drainage basins throughout the world have little to no prior water quality data. But even in well-studied drainage basins like the Chinchiná River, which is among the most thoroughly studied basins in Colombia, redesign of historical and existing monitoring networks will become a standard tool to advance the restoration of polluted surface waters, not only in Colombia, but also throughout the world.

  1. The economic value of drought information for water management under climate change: a case study in the Ebro basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Quiroga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought events in the Mediterranean are likely to increase in frequency, duration and intensity due to climate change, thereby affecting crop production. Information about drought is valuable for river basin authorities and the farmers affected by their decisions. The economic value of this information and the resulting decisions are of interest to these two stakeholder groups and to the information providers. Understanding the dynamics of extreme events, including droughts, in future climate scenarios for the Mediterranean is being improved continuously. This paper analyses the economic value of information on drought events taking into account the risk aversion of water managers. We consider the effects of drought management plans on rice production in the Ebro river basin. This enables us to compute the willingness to compensate the river basin authority for more accurate information allowing for better decision-making. If runoff is reduced, river basin planners can consider the reduction of water allocation for irrigation in order to eliminate the risk of water scarcity. Alternately, river basin planners may decide to maintain water allocation and accept a reduction of water supply reliability, leaving farmers exposed to drought events. These two alternatives offer different risk levels for crop production and farmers' incomes which determine the value of this information to the river basin authority. The information is relevant for the revision of River Basin Management Plans of the Water Framework Directive (WFD within the context of climate change.

  2. PRODUCING INFORMATION FOR CORINE DATABASE BY USING CLASSIFICATION METHOD: A CASE STUDY OF SAZLIDERE BASIN, ISTANBUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Sarıyılmaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sazlidere Basin is located on the European side of Istanbul within the borders of Arnavutkoy and Basaksehir districts. The total area of the basin, which is largely located within the province of Arnavutkoy, is approximately 177 km2. The Sazlidere Basin is faced with intense urbanization pressures and land use / cover change due to the Northern Marmara Motorway, 3rd airport and Channel Istanbul Projects, which are planned to be realized in the Arnavutkoy region. Due to the mentioned projects, intense land use /cover changes occur in the basin. In this study, 2000 and 2012 dated LANDSAT images were supervised classified based on CORINE Land Cover first level to determine the land use/cover classes. As a result, four information classes were identified. These classes are water bodies, forest and semi-natural areas, agricultural areas and artificial surfaces. Accuracy analysis of the images were performed following the classification process. The supervised classified images that have the smallest mapping units 0.09 ha and 0.64 ha were generalized to be compatible with the CORINE Land Cover data. The image pixels have been rearranged by using the thematic pixel aggregation method as the smallest mapping unit is 25 ha. These results were compared with CORINE Land Cover 2000 and CORINE Land Cover 2012, which were obtained by digitizing land cover and land use classes on satellite images. It has been determined that the compared results are compatible with each other in terms of quality and quantity.

  3. Producing Information for Corine Database by Using Classification Method: a Case Study of Sazlidere Basin, Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıyılmaz, F. B.; Musaoğlu, N.; Uluğtekin, N.

    2017-11-01

    The Sazlidere Basin is located on the European side of Istanbul within the borders of Arnavutkoy and Basaksehir districts. The total area of the basin, which is largely located within the province of Arnavutkoy, is approximately 177 km2. The Sazlidere Basin is faced with intense urbanization pressures and land use / cover change due to the Northern Marmara Motorway, 3rd airport and Channel Istanbul Projects, which are planned to be realized in the Arnavutkoy region. Due to the mentioned projects, intense land use /cover changes occur in the basin. In this study, 2000 and 2012 dated LANDSAT images were supervised classified based on CORINE Land Cover first level to determine the land use/cover classes. As a result, four information classes were identified. These classes are water bodies, forest and semi-natural areas, agricultural areas and artificial surfaces. Accuracy analysis of the images were performed following the classification process. The supervised classified images that have the smallest mapping units 0.09 ha and 0.64 ha were generalized to be compatible with the CORINE Land Cover data. The image pixels have been rearranged by using the thematic pixel aggregation method as the smallest mapping unit is 25 ha. These results were compared with CORINE Land Cover 2000 and CORINE Land Cover 2012, which were obtained by digitizing land cover and land use classes on satellite images. It has been determined that the compared results are compatible with each other in terms of quality and quantity.

  4. Evidence for Deep Tectonic Tremor in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. R.; Prejean, S. G.; Beroza, G. C.; Gomberg, J. S.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    We search for, characterize, and locate tremor not associated with volcanoes along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone using continuous seismic data recorded by the Alaska Volcano Observatory and Alaska Earthquake Information Center from 2005 to the present. Visual inspection of waveform spectra and time series reveal dozens of 10 to 20-minute bursts of tremor throughout the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone (Peterson, 2009). Using autocorrelation methods, we show that these tremor signals are composed of hundreds of repeating low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) as has been found in other circum-Pacific subduction zones. We infer deep sources based on phase arrival move-out times of less than 4 seconds across multiple monitoring networks (max. inter-station distances of 50 km), which are designed to monitor individual volcanoes. We find tremor activity is localized in 7 segments: Cook Inlet, Shelikof Strait, Alaska Peninsula, King Cove, Unalaska-Dutch Harbor, Andreanof Islands, and the Rat Islands. Locations along the Cook Inlet, Shelikof Straight and Alaska Peninsula are well constrained due to adequate station coverage. LFE hypocenters in these regions are located on the plate interface and form a sharp edge near the down-dip limit of the 1964 M 9.2 rupture area. Although the geometry, age, thermal structure, frictional and other relevant properties of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction are poorly known, it is likely these characteristics differ along its entire length, and also differ from other subduction zones where tremor has been found. LFE hypocenters in the remaining areas are also located down-dip of the most recent M 8+ megathrust earthquakes, between 60-75 km depth and almost directly under the volcanic arc. Although these locations are less well constrained, our preliminary results suggest LFE/tremor activity marks the down-dip rupture limit for megathrust earthquakes in this subduction zone. Also, we cannot rule out the possibility that our observations could

  5. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  6. Global phylogenetic analysis of contemporary aleutian mink disease viruses (AMDVs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Pia; Hagberg, E. E.; Chriél, Mariann

    2017-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease has major economic consequences on the mink farming industry worldwide, as it causes a disease that affects both the fur quality and the health and welfare of the mink. The virus causing this disease is a single-stranded DNA virus of the genus Amdoparvovirus belonging to the...

  7. Seasonal and distributional patterns of seabirds along the Aleutian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, M.; Hunt, G.L.; Piatt, John F.; Byrd, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is of global importance to seabirds during the northern summer, but little is known about seabird use of these waters during winter. We compare summer and winter abundances of seabirds around 3 islands: Buldir in the western, Kasatochi in the central, and Aiktak in the eastern Aleutians. The density of combined seabird biomass in nearshore marine waters was higher in summer than in winter at Buldir and Kasatochi, but was higher in winter at Aiktak, despite the departure of abundant migratory species. Comparing foraging guilds, we found that only piscivores increased at the western and central sites in winter, whereas at the eastern site several planktivorous species increased as well. The only planktivore remaining in winter at the central and western sites in densities comparable to summer densities was whiskered auklet Aethia pygmaea. Crested auklet Aethia cristatella and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia showed the greatest proportional winter increase at the eastern site. The seasonal patterns of the seabird communities suggest a winter breakdown of the copepod-based food web in the central and western parts of the archipelago, and a system that remains rich in euphausiids in the eastern Aleutians. We suggest that in winter crested auklets take the trophic role that short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris occupy during summer. We hypothesize that advection of euphausiids in the Aleutian North Slope Current is important for supporting the high biomass of planktivores that occupy the Unimak Pass region on a year-round basis. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  8. The Battle of Attu and the Aleutian Island Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    write this monograph. I also want to thank LTC East for his mentorship during the conceptual phase of this study and MAJ Quail for his assistance in the...10 Japanese Strategy...leading towards the strategic objective of ridding the Aleutians of the Japanese . America was successful due to its ability to organize and apply combat

  9. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Wright

    2012-03-27

    Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski

  10. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation in the basin and range province of Arizona using remote sensing information and geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, F.D.; Callegary, J.B.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a vital water resource in the arid to semi-arid southwestern United States. Accurate accounting of inflows to and outflows from the groundwater system is necessary to effectively manage this shared resource, including the important outflow component of groundwater discharge by vegetation. A simple method for estimating basin-scale groundwater discharge by vegetation is presented that uses remote sensing data from satellites, geographic information systems (GIS) land cover and stream location information, and a regression equation developed within the Southern Arizona study area relating the Enhanced Vegetation Index from the MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite to measured evapotranspiration. Results computed for 16-day composited satellite passes over the study area during the 2000 through 2007 time period demonstrate a sinusoidal pattern of annual groundwater discharge by vegetation with median values ranging from around 0.3 mm per day in the cooler winter months to around 1.5 mm per day during summer. Maximum estimated annual volume of groundwater discharge by vegetation was between 1.4 and 1.9 billion m3 per year with an annual average of 1.6 billion m3. A simplified accounting of the contribution of precipitation to vegetation greenness was developed whereby monthly precipitation data were subtracted from computed vegetation discharge values, resulting in estimates of minimum groundwater discharge by vegetation. Basin-scale estimates of minimum and maximum groundwater discharge by vegetation produced by this simple method are useful bounding values for groundwater budgets and groundwater flow models, and the method may be applicable to other areas with similar vegetation types.

  11. Status and distribution of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris along the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak and Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Erica N.; Piatt, John F.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Romano, Marc D.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Nelson, S. Kim; Williams, Jeffrey C.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    The Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is adapted for life in glacial-marine ecosystems, being concentrated in the belt of glaciated fjords in the northern Gulf of Alaska from Glacier Bay to Cook Inlet. Most of the remaining birds are scattered along coasts of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, where they reside in protected bays and inlets, often in proximity to remnant glaciers or recently deglaciated landscapes. We summarize existing information on Kittlitz's Murrelet in this mainly unglaciated region, extending from Kodiak Island in the east to the Near Islands in the west. From recent surveys, we estimated that ~2400 Kittlitz's Murrelets were found in several large embayments along the Alaska Peninsula, where adjacent ice fields feed silt-laden water into the bays. On Kodiak Island, where only remnants of ice remain today, observations of Kittlitz's Murrelets at sea were uncommon. The species has been observed historically around the entire Kodiak Archipelago, however, and dozens of nest sites were found in recent years. We found Kittlitz's Murrelets at only a few islands in the Aleutian chain, notably those with long complex shorelines, high mountains and remnant glaciers. The largest population (~1600 birds) of Kittlitz's Murrelet outside the Gulf of Alaska was found at Unalaska Island, which also supports the greatest concentration of glacial ice in the Aleutian Islands. Significant populations were found at Atka (~1100 birds), Attu (~800) and Adak (~200) islands. Smaller numbers have been reported from Unimak, Umnak, Amlia, Kanaga, Tanaga, Kiska islands, and Agattu Island, where dozens of nest sites have been located in recent years. Most of those islands have not been thoroughly surveyed, and significant pockets of Kittlitz's Murrelets may yet be discovered. Our estimate of ~6000 Kittlitz's Murrelets along the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands is also likely to be conservative because of the survey protocols we employed (i.e. early

  12. Geographical Information System, to support the management of water resource in rural basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa V, Paula Lizet; Velez U, Jaime Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    The implementation of a GIS support system for the management of water resources at a catchment scale is presented. This system is based upon the hidroSIG java software, which was developed within the Atlas Hidrologico de Colombia project. In the GIS database was included all the information required by the environmental authorities in charge of the water resources management, offering the possibility of displaying, consulting and evaluating different scenarios that could help to make decisions upon the assignation and use of the resource. As a first application of the GIS, a 35 km 2 river basin located in Rionegro Plateau was used. The applied methodology was developed in the following stages: gathering of the available information, processing of the digital topography, study of the dynamics of the climate in the zone, evaluation of the water availability, and evaluation of the demand and water balance. The results obtained show the importance of having continuous and articulated spatial information in a GIS, so permanent update of the information is allowed. It is concluded that the implemented GIS constitutes a valuable tool for planning and management of the hydric resource within a hydrographic basin

  13. Introduction - The impacts of the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano on terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Byrd, G. Vernon; Walker, Lawrence R.; Waythomas, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    The Aleutian Islands are situated on the northern edge of the so-called “Pacific Ring of Fire,” a 40,000-km-long horseshoe-shaped assemblage of continental landmasses and islands bordering the Pacific Ocean basin that contains many of the world's active and dormant volcanoes. Schaefer et al. (2009) listed 27 historically active volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands, of which nine have had at least one major eruptive event since 1990. Volcanic eruptions are often significant natural disturbances, and ecosystem responses to volcanic eruptions may vary markedly with eruption style (effusive versus explosive), frequency, and magnitude of the eruption as well as isolation of the disturbed sites from potential colonizing organisms (del Moral and Grishin, 1999). Despite the relatively high frequency of volcanic activity in the Aleutians, the response of island ecosystems to volcanic disturbances is largely unstudied because of the region's isolation. The only ecological studies in the region that address the effects of volcanic activity were done on Bogoslof Island, a remote, highly active volcanic island in the eastern Aleutians, which grew from a submarine eruption in 1796 (Merriam, 1910; Byrd et al., 1980; Byrd and Williams, 1994). Nevertheless, in the 214 years of Bogoslof's existence, the island has been visited only intermittently.Kasatochi Island is a small (2.9 km by 2.6 km, 314 m high) volcano in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska (52.17°N latitude, 175.51°W longitude; Fig. 1) that erupted violently on 7-8 August 2008 after a brief, but intense period of precursory seismic activity (Scott et al., 2010 [this issue]; Waythomas et al., in review). The island is part of the Aleutian arc volcanic front, and is an isolated singular island. Although the immediate offshore areas are relatively shallow (20–50 m water depth), the island is about 10 km south of the 2000 m isobath, north of which, ocean depths increase markedly. Kasatochi is located between the

  14. Summary of information on aquatic biota and their habitats in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, through 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Bob; Henson, C.M.; Waite, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    Available information on aquatic biota of the Willamette Basin was reviewed and summarized to describe current and historical conditions as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Biological parameters emphasized include the status, distribution, and trends of aquatic biota, particularly algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish; the condition of aquatic and riparian habitat in which these biota reside; and the response of these biota to natural and human-associated impacts, including the level, type, and effect of contaminants.

  15. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PHENOLOGICAL INFORMATION TO MAP CROP ROTATION IN COMPLEX IRRIGATED INDUS BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ismaeel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information of crop rotation in large basin is essential for policy decisions on land, water and nutrient resources around the world. Crop area estimation using low spatial resolution remote sensing data is challenging in a large heterogeneous basin having more than one cropping seasons. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of two phenological datasets individually and in combined form to map crop rotations in complex irrigated Indus basin without image segmentation. Phenology information derived from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Leaf Area Index (LAI of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor, having 8-day temporal and 1000 m spatial resolution, was used in the analysis. An unsupervised (temporal space clustering to supervised (area knowledge and phenology behavior classification approach was adopted to identify 13 crop rotations. Estimated crop area was compared with reported area collected by field census. Results reveal that combined dataset (NDVI*LAI performs better in mapping wheat-rice, wheat-cotton and wheat-fodder rotation by attaining root mean square error (RMSE of 34.55, 16.84, 20.58 and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 24.56 %, 36.82 %, 30.21 % for wheat, rice and cotton crop respectively. For sugarcane crop mapping, LAI produce good results by achieving RMSE of 8.60 and MAPE of 34.58 %, as compared to NDVI (10.08, 40.53 % and NDVI*LAI (10.83, 39.45 %. The availability of major crop rotation statistics provides insight to develop better strategies for land, water and nutrient accounting frameworks to improve agriculture productivity.

  16. Emergency towing systems for the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, L.A.; Brown, J.; Folley, G.; Robertson, T.; Bryant, B.

    2009-01-01

    Several incidents related to distressed or stricken vessels have occurred in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, where vessel groundings have caused environmental and economic impacts. A disabled vessel workgroup was formed to discuss local emergency response solutions in the region, particularly for larger tramper or cargo vessels carrying fuel in bottom tanks. The Aleutian emergency towing system (ETS) group developed emergency towing capabilities for disabled vessels in the Aleutian Island sub-area using tugboats in conjunction with ETS equipment stationed in the town of Unalaska. Emergency towing systems were also purchased to serve a wider range of vessels. The ETS consisted of a lightweight towline, a messenger line to assist in deploying the towline, a line-launcher, a lighted buoy, and chafing gear. The components can be configured to deploy a disabled ship from the stern of a tugboat, or air-dropped via helicopter to a ship's deck. A procedures manual and training DVD has been published, and mobilization and deployment exercises are conducted annually. 1 ref., 2 figs

  17. Seismic array processing and computational infrastructure for improved monitoring of Alaskan and Aleutian seismicity and volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kent Gordon

    We constructed a near-real-time system, called Iceworm, to automate seismic data collection, processing, storage, and distribution at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC). Phase-picking, phase association, and interprocess communication components come from Earthworm (U.S. Geological Survey). A new generic, internal format for digital data supports unified handling of data from diverse sources. A new infrastructure for applying processing algorithms to near-real-time data streams supports automated information extraction from seismic wavefields. Integration of Datascope (U. of Colorado) provides relational database management of all automated measurements, parametric information for located hypocenters, and waveform data from Iceworm. Data from 1997 yield 329 earthquakes located by both Iceworm and the AEIC. Of these, 203 have location residuals under 22 km, sufficient for hazard response. Regionalized inversions for local magnitude in Alaska yield Msb{L} calibration curves (logAsb0) that differ from the Californian Richter magnitude. The new curve is 0.2\\ Msb{L} units more attenuative than the Californian curve at 400 km for earthquakes north of the Denali fault. South of the fault, and for a region north of Cook Inlet, the difference is 0.4\\ Msb{L}. A curve for deep events differs by 0.6\\ Msb{L} at 650 km. We expand geographic coverage of Alaskan regional seismic monitoring to the Aleutians, the Bering Sea, and the entire Arctic by initiating the processing of four short-period, Alaskan seismic arrays. To show the array stations' sensitivity, we detect and locate two microearthquakes that were missed by the AEIC. An empirical study of the location sensitivity of the arrays predicts improvements over the Alaskan regional network that are shown as map-view contour plots. We verify these predictions by detecting an Msb{L} 3.2 event near Unimak Island with one array. The detection and location of four representative earthquakes illustrates the expansion

  18. GIS environmental information analysis of the Darro River basin as the key for the management and hydrological forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paz; Delgado, Expectación; Lopez-Alonso, Mónica; Poyatos, José Manuel

    2018-02-01

    This article presents analyses of soil and environmental information for the Darro River basin (Granada-Spain) preliminary to its hydrological and forestry restoration. These analyses were carried out using a geographical information system (GIS) and employing a new procedure that adapts hydrological forest-restoration methods. The complete analysis encompasses morphological conditions, soil and climate characteristics as well as vegetation and land use. The study investigates soil erosion in the basin by using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and by mapping erosion fragility units. The results are presented in a set of maps and their analysis, providing the starting point for river basin management and the hydrological and forestry-restoration project that was approved at the end of 2015. The presence of soft substrates (e.g. gravel and sand) indicates that the area is susceptible to erosion, particularly the areas that are dominated by human activity and have little soil protection. Finally, land use and vegetation cover were identified as key factors in the soil erosion in the basin. According to the results, river authorities have included several measures in the restoration project aimed at reducing the erosion and helping to recover the environmental value of this river basin and to include it in recreation possibilities for the community of Granada. The presented analytical approach, designed by the authors, would be useful as a tool for environmental restoration in other small Mediterranean river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A new sea star of the genus Leptasterias (Asteroidea: Asteriidae) from the Aleutian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N; Jewett, Stephen C

    2015-04-02

    A new species of asteriid sea star of the genus Leptasterias (Order Forcipulatida) is described from the nearshore waters of the Aleutian Islands. Leptaterias tatei sp. nov. is distinguished from Leptasterias stolacantha Fisher, 1930, by the characteristics of the spines and pedicellariae. Geographic distribution is discussed and a key to the five-rayed Leptasterias of the Aleutian Islands is provided.

  20. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broll, S.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) was studied in experimental infection of 1-year-old female non-Aleutian mink. The ADV-seronegative female mink were inoculated,vith ADV prior to mating or after the expected implantation of the embryos during pregnancy...

  1. River Basin Information System: Open Environmental Data Management for Research and Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Zander

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An open, standardized data management and related service infrastructure is a crucial requirement for a seamless storage and exchange of data and information within research projects, for the dissemination of project results and for their application in decision making processes. However, typical project databases often refer to only one research project and are limited to specific purposes. Once implemented, those systems are often not further maintained and updated, rendering the stored information useless once the system stops operating. The River Basin Information System (RBIS presented here is designed to fit not only the requirements of one research project, but focuses on generic functions, extensibility and standards compliance typically found in interdisciplinary environmental research. Developed throughout more than 10 years of research cooperation worldwide, RBIS is designed to manage different types of environmental data with and without spatial context together with a rich set of metadata. Beside data management and storage, RBIS provides functions for the visualization, linking, analysis and processing of different types of data to support research, decision making, result dissemination and information discovery for all kinds of users. The focus of this paper is on the description of the technical implementation and the presentation of functions. This will be complemented by an overview of example applications and experiences during RBIS development and operation.

  2. SOFTWARE AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM OF YENISEI RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kadochnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the questions of formation of problem-focused geoinformation system of the Yenisei river basin based on interdisciplinary scientific studies. The creation of a system, in which are collected and systematized information about its river network, will provide an opportunity for analysis and modeling of hydrological processes various natural and man-made phenomena, qualitative and quantitative assessment of water resources, ecological status. Methodological basis of development is a regional system of indicators for sustainable environmental management. Development is created in the service-oriented paradigm on the basis of geoportal technologies, interactive web mapping, distributed storage and data processing. The focus in this article is paid to the problems of software design and technological support, the characteristics of software components implementation of the web GIS, the effective processing and presentation of geospatial data.

  3. A Heuristic Dynamically Dimensioned Search with Sensitivity Information (HDDS-S and Application to River Basin Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinggang Chu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available River basin simulation and multi-reservoir optimal operation have been critical for river basin management. Due to the intense interaction between human activities and river basin systems, the river basin model and multi-reservoir operation model are complicated with a large number of parameters. Therefore, fast and stable optimization algorithms are required for river basin management under the changing conditions of climate and current human activities. This study presents a new global optimization algorithm, named as heuristic dynamically dimensioned search with sensitivity information (HDDS-S, to effectively perform river basin simulation and multi-reservoir optimal operation during river basin management. The HDDS-S algorithm is built on the dynamically dimensioned search (DDS algorithm; and has an improved computational efficiency while maintaining its search capacity compared to the original DDS algorithm. This is mainly due to the non-uniform probability assigned to each decision variable on the basis of its changing sensitivity to the optimization objectives during the adaptive change from global to local search with dimensionality reduced. This study evaluates the new algorithm by comparing its performance with the DDS algorithm on a river basin model calibration problem and a multi-reservoir optimal operation problem. The results obtained indicate that the HDDS-S algorithm outperforms the DDS algorithm in terms of search ability and computational efficiency in the two specific problems. In addition; similar to the DDS algorithm; the HDDS-S algorithm is easy to use as it does not require any parameter tuning and automatically adjusts its search to find good solutions given an available computational budget.

  4. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  5. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Bruce Albert [Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  6. Petrophysical Analysis and Geographic Information System for San Juan Basin Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Robert Balch; Tom Engler; Roger Ruan; Shaojie Ma

    2008-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to increase the availability and ease of access to critical data on the Mesaverde and Dakota tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan Basin. Secondary goals include tuning well log interpretations through integration of core, water chemistry and production analysis data to help identify bypassed pay zones; increased knowledge of permeability ratios and how they affect well drainage and thus infill drilling plans; improved time-depth correlations through regional mapping of sonic logs; and improved understanding of the variability of formation waters within the basin through spatial analysis of water chemistry data. The project will collect, integrate, and analyze a variety of petrophysical and well data concerning the Mesaverde and Dakota reservoirs of the San Juan Basin, with particular emphasis on data available in the areas defined as tight gas areas for purpose of FERC. A relational, geo-referenced database (a geographic information system, or GIS) will be created to archive this data. The information will be analyzed using neural networks, kriging, and other statistical interpolation/extrapolation techniques to fine-tune regional well log interpretations, improve pay zone recognition from old logs or cased-hole logs, determine permeability ratios, and also to analyze water chemistries and compatibilities within the study area. This single-phase project will be accomplished through four major tasks: Data Collection, Data Integration, Data Analysis, and User Interface Design. Data will be extracted from existing databases as well as paper records, then cleaned and integrated into a single GIS database. Once the data warehouse is built, several methods of data analysis will be used both to improve pay zone recognition in single wells, and to extrapolate a variety of petrophysical properties on a regional basis. A user interface will provide tools to make the data and results of the study accessible and useful. The final deliverable

  7. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM APPROACH FOR PLAY PORTFOLIOS TO IMPROVE OIL PRODUCTION IN THE ILLINOIS BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly Seyler; John Grube

    2004-12-10

    Oil and gas have been commercially produced in Illinois for over 100 years. Existing commercial production is from more than fifty-two named pay horizons in Paleozoic rocks ranging in age from Middle Ordovician to Pennsylvanian. Over 3.2 billion barrels of oil have been produced. Recent calculations indicate that remaining mobile resources in the Illinois Basin may be on the order of several billion barrels. Thus, large quantities of oil, potentially recoverable using current technology, remain in Illinois oil fields despite a century of development. Many opportunities for increased production may have been missed due to complex development histories, multiple stacked pays, and commingled production which makes thorough exploitation of pays and the application of secondary or improved/enhanced recovery strategies difficult. Access to data, and the techniques required to evaluate and manage large amounts of diverse data are major barriers to increased production of critical reserves in the Illinois Basin. These constraints are being alleviated by the development of a database access system using a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach for evaluation and identification of underdeveloped pays. The Illinois State Geological Survey has developed a methodology that is being used by industry to identify underdeveloped areas (UDAs) in and around petroleum reservoirs in Illinois using a GIS approach. This project utilizes a statewide oil and gas Oracle{reg_sign} database to develop a series of Oil and Gas Base Maps with well location symbols that are color-coded by producing horizon. Producing horizons are displayed as layers and can be selected as separate or combined layers that can be turned on and off. Map views can be customized to serve individual needs and page size maps can be printed. A core analysis database with over 168,000 entries has been compiled and assimilated into the ISGS Enterprise Oracle database. Maps of wells with core data have been generated

  8. Adaptive Fusion of Information for Seeing into Ordos Basin, China: A China-Germany-US Joint Venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. C. J.; Yin, L.; Sauter, M.; Hu, R.; Ptak, T.; Hou, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive fusion of information for seeing into geological basins is the theme of this joint venture. The objective of this venture is to initiate possible collaborations between scientists from China, Germany, and US to develop innovative technologies, which can be utilized to characterize geological and hydrological structures and processes as well as other natural resources in regional scale geological basins of hundreds of thousands of kilometers (i.e., the Ordos Basin, China). This adaptive fusion of information aims to assimilate active (manmade) and passive (natural) hydrologic and geophysical tomography surveys to enhance our ability of seeing into hydrogeological basins at the resolutions of our interests. The active hydrogeophysical tomography refers to recently developed hydraulic tomgoraphic surveys by Chinese and German scientists, as well as well-established geophysical tomography surveys (such as electrical resistivity tomography, cross-borehole radars, electrical magnetic surveys). These active hydrogeophysical tomgoraphic surveys have been proven to be useful high-resolution surveys for geological media of tens and hundreds of meters wide and deep. For basin-scale (i.e., tens and hundreds of kilometers) problems, their applicabilities are however rather limited. The passive hydrogeophysical tomography refers to unexplored technologies that exploit natural stimuli as energy sources for tomographic surveys, which include direct lightning strikes, groundwater level fluctuations due to earthquakes, river stage fluctuations, precipitation storms, barometric pressure variations, and long term climate changes. These natural stimuli are spatially varying, recurrent, and powerful, influencing geological media over great distances and depths (e.g., tens and hundreds of kilometers). Monitoring hydrological and geophysical responses of geological media to these stimuli at different locations is tantamount to collecting data of naturally occurring tomographic

  9. Tsunami Magnitude and Source Area of the Aleutian-Alaska Tsunamis

    OpenAIRE

    Hatori, Tokutaro

    1981-01-01

    Based on tide-gauge records of the USCGS and Japanese data, the magnitude and source area of the Aleutian-Alaska tsunamis during the past 42 years are investigated. According to the author's method based on the attenuation of wave-height with distance, the tsunami magnitude (Imamura-Iida scale) of the 1946 Aleutian and 1964 Alaska tsunamis are estimated to be m=3 and 4 respectively. The magnitudes of the 1957 and 1965 Aleutian tsunamis are m=3. According to the empirical formula, the tsunami ...

  10. Passive transfer of antiviral antibodies restricts replication of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Cohn, A.

    1989-01-01

    When mink kits were infected neonatally with a highly virulent strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV), 100% of both Aleutian and non-Aleutian genotype mink died of interstitial pneumonia characterized by permissive ADV infection of alveolar type II cells. Treatment of infected kits with either mink...... found that the number of ADV-infected type II cells was the same in both untreated and antibody-treated kits. However, in the treated kits, viral replication and transcription were restricted at the cellular level. These data suggested that antibodies prevented acute viral pneumonia by restricting...

  11. Using Spatial Information Technologies as Monitoring Devices in International Watershed Conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A. Twumasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies—Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing—in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region’s entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing

  12. Using spatial information technologies as monitoring devices in international watershed conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merem, Edmund C; Twumasi, Yaw A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies-Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing-in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region's entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing techniques by generating spatially referenced data to supplement

  13. Tsunami recurrence in the eastern Alaska-Aleutian arc: A Holocene stratigraphic record from Chirikof Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard; Dura, Tina; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Forman, S.L.; Vane, Christopher H.; Kelley, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the role of the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust as the source of some of the largest earthquakes and tsunamis, the history of its pre–twentieth century tsunamis is largely unknown west of the rupture zone of the great (magnitude, M 9.2) 1964 earthquake. Stratigraphy in core transects at two boggy lowland sites on Chirikof Island’s southwest coast preserves tsunami deposits dating from the postglacial to the twentieth century. In a 500-m-long basin 13–15 m above sea level and 400 m from the sea, 4 of 10 sandy to silty beds in a 3–5-m-thick sequence of freshwater peat were probably deposited by tsunamis. The freshwater peat sequence beneath a gently sloping alluvial fan 2 km to the east, 5–15 m above sea level and 550 m from the sea, contains 20 sandy to silty beds deposited since 3.5 ka; at least 13 were probably deposited by tsunamis. Although most of the sandy beds have consistent thicknesses (over distances of 10–265 m), sharp lower contacts, good sorting, and/or upward fining typical of tsunami deposits, the beds contain abundant freshwater diatoms, very few brackish-water diatoms, and no marine diatoms. Apparently, tsunamis traveling inland over low dunes and boggy lowland entrained largely freshwater diatoms. Abundant fragmented diatoms, and lake species in some sandy beds not found in host peat, were probably transported by tsunamis to elevations of >10 m at the eastern site. Single-aliquot regeneration optically stimulated luminescence dating of the third youngest bed is consistent with its having been deposited by the tsunami recorded at Russian hunting outposts in 1788, and with the second youngest bed being deposited by a tsunami during an upper plate earthquake in 1880. We infer from stratigraphy, 14C-dated peat deposition rates, and unpublished analyses of the island’s history that the 1938 tsunami may locally have reached an elevation of >10 m. As this is the first record of Aleutian tsunamis extending throughout the Holocene, we

  14. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Points in this data set represent locations of haulout and...

  15. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Laman: Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data supporting the "Model Results of Aleutian Island POP distributions" manuscript are distribution and abundance of Pacific ocean perch from RACEBase,...

  16. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  17. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Wildlife Refuges in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent management...

  18. 75 FR 52964 - Revision of Information Collection; Non-Use Valuation Survey, Klamath Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ...), some have important subsistence and cultural value to Klamath Basin tribes (e.g., salmon, sturgeon... copy of the survey. For the households with a phone number, a non response bias call will be made...

  19. Science, policy, and stakeholders: developing a consensus science plan for Amchitka Island, Aleutians, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Eichelberger, John; Barnes, David; Duffy, Lawrence K; Jewett, Stephen C; Volz, Conrad D

    2005-05-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of radioactive waste and disposal of land no longer needed for nuclear material production or related national security missions. The task of characterizing the hazards and risks from radionuclides is necessary for assuring the protection of health of humans and the environment. This is a particularly daunting task for those sites that had underground testing of nuclear weapons, where the radioactive contamination is currently inaccessible. Herein we report on the development of a Science Plan to characterize the physical and biological marine environment around Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted (1965-1971). Information on the ecology, geology, and current radionuclide levels in biota, water, and sediment is necessary for evaluating possible current contamination and to serve as a baseline for developing a plan to ensure human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Other information required includes identifying the location of the salt water/fresh water interface where migration to the ocean might occur in the future and determining groundwater recharge balances, as well as assessing other physical/geological features of Amchitka near the test sites. The Science Plan is needed to address the confusing and conflicting information available to the public about radionuclide risks from underground nuclear blasts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as the potential for volcanic or seismic activity to disrupt shot cavities or accelerate migration of radionuclides into the sea. Developing a Science Plan involved agreement among regulators and other stakeholders, assignment of the task to the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and development of a consensus Science Plan that dealt with contentious scientific issues. Involvement of the regulators (State of Alaska), resource

  20. Digitization of uranium deposit information in basin. A new strategy of ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2006-01-01

    The discovered ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits in the entire world are mostly blind deposits, many of them occur in bleak desert, gobi desert, and semi-hilly land area. Exploration methods for these deposits mainly depend on great and systematic drilling. There are many large-medium size Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins in northern China, and over twenty of them are thick overburden basins which are mostly the virgin land for ISL sandstone-type uranium deposit. Due to the comprehensive national power, geological background, uranium exploration ability, great and systematic drilling is not favorable for prospecting ISL sandstone-type uranium deposit in China. According to the exploration and prospecting experiences for mineral ore bodies at home and abroad, uranium information mapping based on geochemical survey of the basins is a new strategy for ISL sandstone-type uranium deposits. It is an economic, practical, fast and effective method, and has been manifested by the performing information digitization for oil and gas resources, gold mineral resources in China and the mapping of uranium information for whole Europe continent. (authors)

  1. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Architecture of the new Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Stéphanie; Brentini, Maud; Giuliani, Gregory; Lehmann, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    Growing interests on the subsurface resources can be noted while issues concerning sustainable territorial development are rising too (Blunier et al. 2007). Among these resources, geothermal energy is developing in Geneva and regions and asks questions on subsurface resources management especially in terms of data. The GEothermie 2020 program offers the possibility to reprocess old data (Rusillon et al., 2017; Clerc et al., 2016) and collect new ones in order to increase geological knowledge on the Greater Geneva Basin. To better valorize these data, an Information System (IS) is required for the geological survey of Geneva (GESDEC). However, existing IT infrastructures are not able to meet all their needs. This research aims to develop a geological IS for 2D and 3D data. To fit to the needs of the GESDEC, three aspects will be studied: 1) architecture, 2) tools and 3) data workflow. A case study will validate the Information System designed. The first step of this study was to establish the state of the art on the current geological data management practices in Europe, Switzerland and in Geneva. To evaluate IS, short structured questions have been sent to all European geological surveys as well as an adapted version for the cantonal and federal Swiss institutes. Concerning the database and GIS development aspects, an analysis of the GESDEC's needs and constraints allowed expanding the existing data model (Brentini and Favre 2014). Different database and GIS tools were compared and tested. Possibilities for these tools to communicate with GST, a 3D data viewer and manager (Gabriel et al. 2015), were also taken in account. These developments took place in parallel with discussions with stakeholders involved and various experts in the field of information management, geology and geothermal energy to support reflexions on the data workflows. Questionnaire results showed that the development of a geological IS differs largely from a country to another although their

  2. Multi-decadal modulations in the Aleutian-Icelandic Low seesaw and the axial symmetry of the Arctic Oscillation signature, as revealed in the 20th century reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Shi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seesaw relationship in intensity between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic Lows (AIS is a manifestation of atmospheric teleconnection that bridges the interannual variability over the Pacific and Atlantic in particular winter months. Analysis of the 20th Century Reanalysis data reveals that the strength and timing of AIS have undergone multi-decadal modulations in conjunction with those in structure of the Arctic Oscillation (AO signature, extracted in the leading mode of interannual sea-level pressure (SLP variability over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, events of what may be called ‘pure AO’, in which SLP anomalies exhibit a high degree of axial symmetry in association with in-phase SLP variability between the midlatitude Atlantic and Pacific, tended to occur during multi-decadal periods in which the inter-basin teleconnection through AIS was active under the enhanced interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In contrast, the axial symmetry of the AO pattern was apparently reduced during a multi-decadal period in which the AIS teleconnection was inactive under the weakened interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In this period, the leading mode of interannual SLP variability represented a meridional seesaw between the Atlantic and Arctic, which resembles SLP anomaly pattern associated with the cold-ocean/warm-land (COWL temperature pattern. These multi-decadal modulations in interannual AIS signal and the axial symmetry of the interannual AO pattern occurred under multi-decadal changes in the background state that also represented the polarity changes of the COWL-like anomaly pattern.

  3. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-feet of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through "voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries." The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square miles. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage downstream of Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from Kirk Reef at the southern end of Klamath Marsh downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture. To assist parties involved with decisionmaking and implementation of the OPWP, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes and other stakeholders, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return-flow indicators. The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial

  4. Quantifying subduction erosion and the northward migration of volcanism in the central Aleutian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jicha, B. R.; Kay, S. M.; Schaen, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Crustal material is returned to the upper mantle in convergent margins via sediment subduction or trenchward erosion of the forearc by the downgoing plate (i.e., subduction erosion). The active Aleutian arc is currently classified as an accreting margin as most of the arc has a well-developed accretionary prism that formed in the Pliocene. Geochemistry of Pliocene-Recent lavas in the central Aleutian arc indicates significant sediment involvement during magma genesis. However, prior to the late Pliocene, the Aleutian arc was in a long-term state of episodic forearc subduction erosion with minor involvement of subducted sediment compared to that since the late Pliocene. The central Aleutian volcanic front has migrated northwards tens of kilometers since the construction of the broad arc massif by voluminous volcanism during arc inception in the early to mid-Paleogene. We have recently added more than forty new 40Ar/39Ar dates and obtained new geochemical data for volcanic rocks on thirteen different central and western Aleutian islands to supplement the existing data base in an attempt to quantify how and where Aleutian arc volcanism migrated with time. Crustal losses into subduction zones along with additions from arc magmatism must be considered in the balance of arc construction. In the Aleutian arc, both new addition by arc magmatism and crustal loss by forearc subduction erosion appear to have been episodic since arc inception. As such, the arc has not been in a continuous state of wholesale landward retreat from inception to the Pliocene. Our compiled and newly acquired data allow for numerous cross-arc transects of various lengths and time periods that seem to indicate a long-term average arc migration rate of 1.6 km/Myr from Amlia Island (173.5° W) in the central Aleutians to Kiska Island (177.5° E) in the western Aleutians. This migration rate is about half as fast as the long-term average trench retreat rates of active erosive arcs ( 3.0 km/Myr over tens

  5. Spatial Interpolation of Annual Runoff in Ungauged Basins Based on the Improved Information Diffusion Model Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB is an important task for water resources planning and management and remains a fundamental challenge for the hydrological community. In recent years, geostatistical methods have proven valuable for estimating hydrological variables in ungauged catchments. However, four major problems restrict the development of geostatistical methods. We established a new information diffusion model based on genetic algorithm (GIDM for spatial interpolating of runoff in the ungauged basins. Genetic algorithms (GA are used to generate high-quality solutions to optimization and search problems. So, using GA, the parameter of optimal window width can be obtained. To test our new method, seven experiments for the annual runoff interpolation based on GIDM at 17 stations on the mainstream and tributaries of the Yellow River are carried out and compared with the inverse distance weighting (IDW method, Cokriging (COK method, and conventional IDMs using the same sparse observed data. The seven experiments all show that the GIDM method can solve four problems of the previous geostatistical methods to some extent and obtains best accuracy among four different models. The key problems of the PUB research are the lack of observation data and the difficulties in information extraction. So the GIDM is a new and useful tool to solve the Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB problem and to improve the water management.

  6. Determining of the morpholithology types in the Kamchia River basin (Eastern Bulgaria by means of geographic information system (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the morpholithology types in the Kamchia River basin (Eastern Bulgaria - the catchment area of the largest Bulgarian river which flows into the Black Sea. These types are determined on the base of information about the relief and lithological substrate. The rocks in the investigated area are divided into groups accord­ing to their physical-mechanical and chemical composition, and the relief types are determined in regards to the morphographic features of the catchment area. The research is done on the base of geological and topographic maps in scale 1:200 000 and also terrain observations are taken into account. As a result of the research a map of morpholithological types (1:200 000 is made. The map shows a considerable variety of the morpholithological types in the Kamchia River basin. This variety determines the appearance of the territory and also influences on the landscape differentiation. The analyses and composition of the morpholithology map are done in GIS envi­ronment. For that purpose a GIS database of lithology and relief (topography of the Kamchia River basin is built as spatial 'overlay' analysis is done.

  7. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2010 Aleutian arc and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Harley M.; Herman, Matthew; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This map shows details of the Aleutian arc not visible in an earlier publication. The Aleutian arc extends about 3,000 km from the Gulf of Alaska to the Kamchatka Peninsula. It marks the region where the Pacific plate subducts into the mantle beneath the North America plate. This subduction is responsible for the generation of the Aleutian Islands and the deep offshore Aleutian Trench. Relative to a fixed North America plate, the Pacific plate is moving northwest at a rate that increases from about 55 mm per year at the arc's eastern edge to 75 mm per year near its western terminus. In the east, the convergence of the plates is nearly perpendicular to the plate boundary. However, because of the boundary's curvature, as one travels westward along the arc, the subduction becomes more and more oblique to the boundary until the relative plate motion becomes parallel to the arc at the Near Islands near its western edge. Subduction zones such as the Aleutian arc are geologically complex and produce numerous earthquakes from multiple sources. Deformation of the overriding North America plate generates shallow crustal earthquakes, whereas slip at the interface of the plates generates interplate earthquakes that extend from near the base of the trench to depths of 40 to 60 km. At greater depths, Aleutian arc earthquakes occur within the subducting Pacific plate and can reach depths of 300 km. Since 1900, six great earthquakes have occurred along the Aleutian Trench, Alaska Peninsula, and Gulf of Alaska: M8.4 1906 Rat Islands; M8.6 1938 Shumagin Islands; M8.6 1946 Unimak Island; M8.6 1957 Andreanof Islands; M9.2 1964 Prince William Sound; and M8.7 1965 Rat Islands. Several relevant tectonic elements (plate boundaries and active volcanoes) provide a context for the seismicity presented on the main map panel. The plate boundaries are most accurate along the axis of the Aleutian Trench and more diffuse or speculative in extreme northeastern Russia. The active volcanoes parallel

  8. Genetic differentiation of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, T.P.; Mackinnon, D.; Piatt, John F.; Friesen, Vicki L.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the distribution of genetic variation within and among local populations of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is needed for effective conservation of this rare and declining species. We compared variation in a 429 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci among 53 Kittlitz's Murrelets from three sites in the western Aleutian Islands (Attu Island) and Gulf of Alaska (Glacier Bay and Kachemak Bay). We found that birds in these two regions differ genetically in three assessments: (1) global and pairwise indices of genetic differentiation were significantly greater than zero, (2) mitochondrial haplotypes differed by a minimum of nine substitutions, and (3) molecular assignments indicated little gene flow between regions. The data suggest that birds in these regions have been genetically isolated for an extended period. We conclude that Kittlitz's Murrelets from Attu Island and from the Gulf of Alaska represent separate evolutionarily significant units, and should be treated as such for conservation. Genetic data for Kittlitz's Murrelets from the remainder of the breeding range are urgently needed.

  9. Elaboration of a velocity model of the Bogota basin (Colombia) based on microtremors arrays measurements, gravity data, and geological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Senna, S.; Garcia, H. Mr; Montejo, S.; Reyes, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Bogotá, a megacity with almost 8 million inhabitants is prone to a significant earthquake hazard due to nearby active faults as well as subduction megathrust earthquakes. The city has been severely affected by many historical earthquakes in the last 500 years, reaching MM intensities of 8 or more in Bogotá. The city is also located at a large lacustrine basin composed of extremely soft soils which may strongly amplify the ground shaking from earthquakes. The basin extends approximately 40 km from North to South, is bounded by the Andes range to the East and South, and sharply deepens towards the West of Bogotá. The city has been the subject of multiple microzonations studies which have contributed to gain a good knowledge on the geotechnical zonation of the city and tectonic setting of the region. To improve our knowledge on the seismic risk of the city as one of the topics, we started a 5 years project sponsored by SATREPS (a joint program of JICA and JST), entitled "Application of state of the art technologies to strengthen research and response to seismic, volcanic and tsunami events and enhance risk management in Colombia (2015-2019)". In this paper we will show our results for the elaboration of a velocity model of the city. To construct a velocity model of the basin we conducted multi-sized microtremors arrays measurements (radius from 60 cm up to 1000 m) at 41 sites within the city. We calculated dispersion curves and inferred velocity profiles at all the sites. We combine these results with gravity measurements as well as geological information to obtain the initial velocity model of the basin. Ackowledgments This research is funded by SATREPS (a joint program of JICA and JST).

  10. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  11. Geochemistry and geochronology of surficial Acre Basin sediments (Western Amazonia): key information for climate reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, B.I.; Benchimol, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Geochemical and geochronological analyses of samples of surficial Acre Basin sediments and fossils indicates an extensive fluvial-lacustrine system, occupying this region, desiccated slowly during the last glacial cycle (LGC). This research documents direct evidence for aridity in western Amazonia during the LGC and is important in establishing boundary conditions for LGC climate models as well as in correlating marine and continental (LGC) climate conditions. (author)

  12. Modelling nonpoint source pollution of MUDA river basin using GIS (Geographic Information System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyon Yong Chik; Taher Buyong

    2000-01-01

    The management of our rivers is under increasing pressure to conserve and sustain as it remains the focus of human civilization and subjected to increasing demand from man and its activities. Integrated river basin management represents comprehensive form of terrestrial water resources management while GIS is a promising tool to be used in the management strategy. In efforts to display the true capabilities of GIS in analysing nonpoint source pollution (NPS), an assessment of NPS was carried out at MUDA river basin using Arc View 3.0 Spatial Analyst. Expected Mean Concentration (EMC) which is associated with land use was used to predict the amount of pollutants constituents. A runoff grid was then processed to model the flow domain. Finally, the modelling of the pollutant loads downstreams towards the basin outlet is achieved by flow direction and accumulation analysis of the product of EMC and runoff grid. A user interface was programmed to display each application data theme via a pop-up window. In addition, users will be able to enter EMG values for the corresponding land use through an application dialog developed in Visual Basic. (Author)

  13. 78 FR 64892 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Bering Sea subarea and Eastern Aleutian district (BS/EAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... CFR part 679. The 2013 TAC of Atka mackerel, in the BS/EAI, allocated to vessels participating in the... in the BS/EAI by vessels participating in the BSAI trawl limited access fishery. After the effective...

  14. 76 FR 65975 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Bering Sea subarea and Eastern Aleutian district (BS/EAI) of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island... CFR part 679. The 2011 TAC of Atka mackerel, in the BS/EAI, allocated to vessels participating in the... in the BS/EAI by vessels participating in the BSAI trawl limited access fishery. After the effective...

  15. 78 FR 15677 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...-BC25 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab... Amendment 42 to the Fishery Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP) for..., standardize reporting across participants, and reduce costs associated with the data collection. This action...

  16. 76 FR 35772 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Tanner Crabs. Amendment 34 amends the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program to... for the Crab Rationalization Program are available from the NMFS Alaska Region Web site at http...

  17. 76 FR 35781 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Amendment 37 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Tanner Crabs (FMP). This action amends the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program by... Assessment prepared for the Crab Rationalization Program are available from the NMFS Alaska Region Web site...

  18. Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Interpretations and 2.5D Cross-Section Models over the Border Ranges Fault System and Aleutian Subduction Zone, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankhemthong, N.; Doser, D. I.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G.; Jones, S.; Eslick, B. E.; Budhathoki, P.

    2011-12-01

    Quaternary glacial covers and lack of dense geophysical data on the Kenai Peninsula cause a location and geometry of the Border Ranges fault system (BRFS) within a recent forearc-accretionary boundary of Aleutian subduction zone in southern Alaska are unclear. Using new ~1,300 gravity collections within the Anchorage and Kenai Peninsula regions complied with prior 1997 gravity and aeromagnetic data help us better imaging these fault and the subduction structures. Cook Inlet forearc basin is corresponded by deep gravity anomaly lows; basin boundaries are characterized by a strong gravity gradient, where are considered to be traces of Border Ranges fault system on the east and Castle Mountain and Bruin Bay fault system on the west and northwest of the forearc basin respectively. Gravity anomaly highs over accreted rocks generally increase southeastward to the Aleutian trench, but show a gravity depression over the Kenai Mountains region. The lineament between gravity high and low in the same terrenes over the Kenai Peninsula is may be another evidence to determine the Southern Edge of the Yakutat Microplate (SEY) as inferred by Eberhart-Phillips et al. (2006). Our 2.5-D models illustrate the main fault of the BRFS dips steeply toward the west with a downslip displacement. Gravity and Magnetic anomaly highs, on the east of the BRFS, probably present a slice of the ultramafic complex emplaced by faults along the boundary of the forearc basin and accretionary wedge terranes. Another magnetic high beneath the basin in the southern forearc basin support a serpentiznied body inferred by Saltus et al. (2001), with a decreasing size toward the north. Regional density-gravity models show the Pacific subducting slab beneath the foreacre-arc teranes with a gentle and flatted dip where the subducting plate is located in north of SEY and dips more steeply where it is located on the south of SEY. The gravity depression over the accreted terrene can be explained by a density low

  19. Evolutionary analysis of whole-genome sequences confirms inter-farm transmission of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Larsen, Lars E

    2017-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with mink farming. Previous phylogenetic analyses of AMDV have been based on shorter and more conserved parts of the genome, e.g. the partial NS1 gene. Such fragments are suitable for detection but are less useful...... for elucidating transmission pathways while sequencing entire viral genomes provides additional informative sites and often results in better-resolved phylogenies. We explore how whole-genome sequencing can benefit investigations of AMDV transmission by reconstructing the relationships between AMDV field samples...... direction of spread. It was however impossible to infer transmission pathways from the partial NS1 gene tree, since all samples from the case farms branched out from a single internal node. A sliding window analysis showed that there were no shorter genomic regions providing the same phylogenetic resolution...

  20. Subduction Controls of Hf and Nd Isotopes in Lavas of the Aleutian Island Arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogodzinski, Gene; Vervoort, Jeffery; Brown, Shaun Tyler; Gerseny, Megan

    2010-08-29

    The Hf and Nd isotopic compositions of 71 Quaternary lavas collected from locations along the full length of the Aleutian island arc are used to constrain the sources of Aleutian magmas and to provide insight into the geochemical behavior of Nd and Hf and related elements in the Aleutian subduction-magmatic system. Isotopic compositions of Aleutian lavas fall approximately at the center of, and form a trend parallel to, the terrestrial Hf-Nd isotopic array with {var_epsilon}{sub Hf} of +12.0 to +15.5 and {var_epsilon}{sub Nd} of +6.5 to +10.5. Basalts, andesites, and dacites within volcanic centers or in nearby volcanoes generally all have similar isotopic compositions, indicating that there is little measurable effect of crustal or other lithospheric assimilation within the volcanic plumbing systems of Aleutian volcanoes. Hafnium isotopic compositions have a clear pattern of along-arc increase that is continuous from the eastern-most locations near Cold Bay to Piip Seamount in the western-most part of the arc. This pattern is interpreted to reflect a westward decrease in the subducted sediment component present in Aleutian lavas, reflecting progressively lower rates of subduction westward as well as decreasing availability of trench sediment. Binary bulk mixing models (sediment + peridotite) demonstrate that 1-2% of the Hf in Aleutian lavas is derived from subducted sediment, indicating that Hf is mobilized out of the subducted sediment with an efficiency that is similar to that of Sr, Pb and Nd. Low published solubility for Hf and Nd in aqueous subduction fluids lead us to conclude that these elements are mobilized out of the subducted component and transferred to the mantle wedge as bulk sediment or as a silicate melt. Neodymium isotopes also generally increase from east to west, but the pattern is absent in the eastern third of the arc, where the sediment flux is high and increases from east to west, due to the presence of abundant terrigenous sediment in the

  1. Mink farms predict Aleutian disease exposure in wild American mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa A Nituch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD, a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. METHODS: To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled; however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations.

  2. From the Mountains of the Moon to the Grand Renaissance: misinformation, disinformation and, finally, information for cooperation in the Nile River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Habib, S.; Anderson, M. C.; Ozdogan, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Nile River basin is shared by 11 nations and approximately 200 million people. Eight of the riparian States are defined as Least Developed Countries by the United Nations, and about 50% of the total basin population lives below the international poverty line. In addition, eight of the eleven countries have experienced internal or external wars in the past 20 years, six are predicted to be water scarce by 2025, and, at present, major water resource development projects are moving forward in the absence of a fully recognized basin-wide water sharing agreement. Nevertheless, the Nile basin presents remarkable opportunities for transboundary water cooperation, and today—notwithstanding significant substantive and perceived disagreements between stakeholders in the basin—this cooperation is beginning to be realized in topics ranging from flood early warning to hydropower optimization to regional food security. This presentation will provide an overview of historic and present challenges and opportunities for transboundary water management in the Nile basin and will present several case studies in which improved hydroclimatic information and communication systems are currently laying the groundwork for advanced cooperation. In this context climate change acts as both stress and motivator. On one hand, non-stationary hydrology is expected to tax water resources in the basin, and it undermines confidence in conventionally formulated water sharing agreements. On the other, non-stationarity is increasingly understood to be an exogenous threat to regional food and water security that will require informed, flexible cooperation between riparian states.

  3. Using Collaborative Modeling to Inform Policy Decisions in the Bow River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, A. S.; Sheer, D. P.; Hill, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Bow River in Alberta, Canada serves a wide range of municipal, agricultural, recreational, and industrial purposes in the province. In 2006, the basin was deemed over-allocation and closed to new licenses. The Calgary region, however, continues to expand. In the next 60 to 70 years, population levels are expected to reach 2.8 million (more than double the current 1.2 million) with 800,000 new jobs. This increasing pressure led several stakeholders to work together in the development of a new management model to improve the management of the system as an integrated watershed. The major previous model of the system allowed only limited flexibility in management, focusing instead on strict license based operations. Over a 6 month period, with numerous multi-party meetings, the group developed the Bow River Operations Model (BROM). Based in OASIS software, this model integrated input from the major water users in the region to emulate the real-life decisions that are actually made on a daily bases, even when technically in violation of the strict license agreements (e.x. junior licensees receiving water despite senior priority due to exceedingly low volume requirements). Using historical records as forecasts, and performance measures developed with the best available science through expert opinion, participants jointly developed a new reservoir operation strategy. Even with such a short timeframe, the BROM exercise showed that there was substantial room for improvement. Utilizing a "Water Bank" of purchased storage, downstream flows could be significantly improved without affecting quality. Additional benefits included fishery improvement, new recreation opportunities, dissolved oxygen improvement during critical periods, and the ability to accommodate long-term demand forecasts for surrounding municipalities. This strategy has been presented to, and favorably received by, the Alberta Minister of Environment for guidance during negotiations with the local

  4. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Integration of geological data in the new Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentini, Maud; Favre, Stéphanie; Rusillon, Elme; Moscariello, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Piloted by the State of Geneva and implemented by the SIG (Services Industriels de Genève), the GEothermie2020 program aims to develop geothermal energy resources in the Greater Geneva Basin (GGB) (Moscariello A., 2016). Since 2014, many existing data have been examined (Rusillon et al., 2017, Clerc et al., 2016) and new ones have been collected. Nevertheless, to date the actual IT infrastructure of the State of Geneva is neither designed to centralize these data, nor to respond efficiently to operational demands. In this context, we are developing a new Information System adapted to this specific situation (Favre et al., 2017). In order to establish a solid base line for future exploration and exploitation of underground natural resources, the centralization of the geological surface/subsurface knowledge is the real challenge. Finding the balance between comprehensiveness and relevance of the data to integrate into this future complete database system is key. Geological data are numerous, of various nature, and often very heterogeneous. Incorporating and relating all individual data is therefore a difficult and challenging task. As a result, a large work has to be done on the understanding and the harmonization of the stratigraphy of the Geneva Basin, to appreciate the data and spatial geological heterogneity. The first step consisted in consulting all data from MSc and PhD work of the University of Geneva (about 50) and from literature concerning the regional geology. In parallel, an overview concerning the subsurface geological data management in Europe carried out to learn from the experience of other geological surveys. Heterogeneities and discrepancies of the data are the main issue. Over several years (since late 30s) individual authors collected different type of data and made different interpretations leading a variety of stratigraphic facies definitions, associations and environmental reconstructions. Cross checking these data with national programs

  5. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudini; Nasir Matori, Abd; Talib, Jasmi Ab; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS). Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  6. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS to Model the Hydrocarbon Migration: Case Study from North-East Malay Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to model the migration of hydrocarbon using Geographic Information System (GIS. Understanding hydrocarbon migration is important since it can mean the difference between success and failure in oil and gas exploration project. The hydrocarbon migration modeling using geophysical method is still not accurate due to the limitations of available data. In recent years, GIS has emerged as a powerful tool for subsurface mapping and analysis. Recent studies have been carried out about the abilities of GIS to model hydrocarbon migration. Recent advances in GIS support the establishment and monitoring of prediction hydrocarbon migration. The concept, model, and calculation are based on the current geological situation. The spatial data of hydrocarbon reservoirs is determined by its geometry of lithology and geophysical attributes. Top of Group E horizon of north-east Malay basin was selected as the study area due to the occurrence of hydrocarbon migration. Spatial data and attributes data such as seismic data, wells log data and lithology were acquired and processed. Digital Elevation Model (DEM was constructed from the selected horizon as a result of seismic interpretation using the Petrel software. Furthermore, DEM was processed in ArcGIS as a base map to shown hydrocarbon migration in north-east Malay Basin. Finally, all the data layers were overlaid to produce a map of hydrocarbon migration. A good data was imported to verify the model is correct.

  7. Soil erosion assessment using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) study from Ankara-Guvenc Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengiz, Orhan; Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Baskan, Oguz

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this research was to assess vulnerable soil erosion risk with qualitative approach using GIS in Ankara-Guvenc Basin. The study area is located about 44 km north of Ankara and covers 17.5 km2. The selected theme layers of this model include topographic factor, soil factors (depth, texture, impermeable horizon) and land use. Slope layer and land use-land cover data were prepared by using DEM and Landsat-TM satellite image. According to land use classification, the most common land use type and land cover are rangeland (50.5%) then, rainfed (36.4%), week forest land (3.2%), irrigated land (0.7%) and other various lands (rock out crop and lake) (9.2%). Each land characteristic is also considered as a thematic layer in geographical information systems (GIS) process. After combination of the layers, soil erosion risk map was produced. The results showed that 44.4% of the study area is at high soil erosion risk, whereas 42% of the study area is insignificantly and slightly susceptible to erosion risk. In addition, it was found that only 12.6% of the total area is moderately susceptible to erosion risk. Furthermore, conservation land management measures were also suggested for moderate, high and very high erosion risk areas in Ankara-Guvenc Basin.

  8. Integrating Remote Sensing Information Into A Distributed Hydrological Model for Improving Water Budget Predictions in Large-scale Basins through Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Changbo; Jia, Yangwen; Su, Z.(Bob); Zhou, Zuhao; Qiu, Yaqin; Suhui, Shen

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether remote sensing evapotranspiration estimates can be integrated by means of data assimilation into a distributed hydrological model for improving the predictions of spatial water distribution over a large river basin with an area of 317,800 km2. A series of available MODIS satellite images over the Haihe River basin in China are used for the year 2005. Evapotranspiration is retrieved from these 1×1 km resolution images using the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System) algorithm. The physically-based distributed model WEP-L (Water and Energy transfer Process in Large river basins) is used to compute the water balance of the Haihe River basin in the same year. Comparison between model-derived and remote sensing retrieval basin-averaged evapotranspiration estimates shows a good piecewise linear relationship, but their spatial distribution within the Haihe basin is different. The remote sensing derived evapotranspiration shows variability at finer scales. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) data assimilation algorithm, suitable for non-linear problems, is used. Assimilation results indicate that remote sensing observations have a potentially important role in providing spatial information to the assimilation system for the spatially optical hydrological parameterization of the model. This is especially important for large basins, such as the Haihe River basin in this study. Combining and integrating the capabilities of and information from model simulation and remote sensing techniques may provide the best spatial and temporal characteristics for hydrological states/fluxes, and would be both appealing and necessary for improving our knowledge of fundamental hydrological processes and for addressing important water resource management problems. PMID:27879946

  9. Southeastern Aleutian Basin (Bogoslof Island) Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1202, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)...

  10. Southeastern Aleutian Basin (Bogoslof Island) Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1402, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)...

  11. Southeastern Aleutian Basin (Bogoslof Island) Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock (DY1603, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)...

  12. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associ...

  13. Monitoring chronic infection with a field strain of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) readily spread within farmed mink and causes chronic infections with significant impacts for welfare and economy. In the present study a currently circulating Danish AMDV strain was used to induce chronic experimental infection of farmed mink.PCR was used to det...

  14. Tracking along-arc sediment inputs to the Aleutian arc using thallium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sune G.; Yogodzinski, Gene; Prytulak, Julie; Plank, Terry; Kay, Suzanne M.; Kay, Robert W.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Owens, Jeremy D.; Auro, Maureen; Kading, Tristan

    2016-05-01

    Sediment transport from the subducted slab to the mantle wedge is an important process in understanding the chemical and physical conditions of arc magma generation. The Aleutian arc offers an excellent opportunity to study sediment transport processes because the subducted sediment flux varies systematically along strike (Kelemen et al., 2003) and many lavas exhibit unambiguous signatures of sediment addition to the sub-arc mantle (Morris et al., 1990). However, the exact sediment contribution to Aleutian lavas and how these sediments are transported from the slab to the surface are still debated. Thallium (Tl) isotope ratios have great potential to distinguish sediment fluxes in subduction zones because pelagic sediments and low-temperature altered oceanic crust are highly enriched in Tl and display heavy and light Tl isotope compositions, respectively, compared with the upper mantle and continental crust. Here, we investigate the Tl isotope composition of lavas covering almost the entire Aleutian arc a well as sediments outboard of both the eastern (DSDP Sites 178 and 183) and central (ODP Hole 886C) portions of the arc. Sediment Tl isotope compositions change systematically from lighter in the Eastern to heavier in the Central Aleutians reflecting a larger proportion of pelagic sediments when distal from the North American continent. Lavas in the Eastern and Central Aleutians mirror this systematic change to heavier Tl isotope compositions to the west, which shows that the subducted sediment composition is directly translated to the arc east of Kanaga Island. Moreover, quantitative mixing models of Tl and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes reveal that bulk sediment transfer of ∼0.6-1.0% by weight in the Eastern Aleutians and ∼0.2-0.6% by weight in the Central Aleutians can account for all four isotope systems. Bulk mixing models, however, require that fractionation of trace element ratios like Ce/Pb, Cs/Tl, and Sr/Nd in the Central and Eastern Aleutians occurs after

  15. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Aleutian mink disease virus isolates in north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xue; Liu, Dongxu; Li, Jianming; Shi, Kun; Zeng, Fanli; Zong, Ying; Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhibo; Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Yadong; Du, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Aleutian mink disease is the most important disease in the mink-farming industry worldwide. So far, few large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of AMDV, based on the NS1 and VP2 genes, have been conducted in China. Here, eight new Chinese isolates of AMDV from three provinces in north-east China were analyzed to clarify the molecular epidemiology of AMDV. The seroprevalence of AMDV in north-east China was 41.8% according to counterimmuno-electrophoresis. Genetic variation analysis of the eight isolates showed significant non-synonymous substitutions in the NS1 and VP2 genes, especially in the NS1 gene. All eight isolates included the caspase-recognition sequence NS1:285 (DQTD↓S), but not the caspase recognition sequence NS1:227 (INTD↓S). The LN1 and LN2 strains had a new 10-amino-acid deletion in-between amino acids 28-37, while the JL3 strain had a one-amino-acid deletion at position 28 in the VP2 protein, compared with the AMDV-G strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on most of NS1 (1755 bp) and complete VP2 showed that the AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their pathogenicity or geographic origin. Local and imported ADMV species are all prevalent in mink-farming populations in the north-east of China. This is the first study to report the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in north-east China based on most of NS1 and the complete VP2, and further provides information about polyG deletions and new variations in the amino acid sequences of NS1 and VP2 proteins. This report is a good foundation for further study of AMDV in China.

  16. Application of Hydrometeorological Information for Short-term and Long-term Water Resources Management over Ungauged Basin in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-in; Ryu, Kyongsik; Suh, Ae-sook

    2016-04-01

    In 2014, three major governmental organizations that are Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), K-water, and Korea Rural Community Corporation have been established the Hydrometeorological Cooperation Center (HCC) to accomplish more effective water management for scarcely gauged river basins, where data are uncertain or non-consistent. To manage the optimal drought and flood control over the ungauged river, HCC aims to interconnect between weather observations and forecasting information, and hydrological model over sparse regions with limited observations sites in Korean peninsula. In this study, long-term forecasting ensemble models so called Global Seasonal forecast system version 5 (GloSea5): a high-resolution seasonal forecast system, provided by KMA was used in order to produce drought outlook. Glosea5 ensemble model prediction provides predicted drought information for 1 and 3 months ahead with drought index including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI3) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Also, Global Precipitation Measurement and Global Climate Observation Measurement - Water1 satellites data products are used to estimate rainfall and soil moisture contents over the ungauged region.

  17. SAR-based Estimation of Glacial Extent and Velocity Fields on Isanotski Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, D.; Lee, A.; Parker, O. P.; Pressler, Y.; Guo, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Global studies show that Earth's glaciers are losing mass at increasing rates, creating a challenge for communities that rely on them as natural resources. Field observation of glacial environments is limited by cost and inaccessibility. Optical remote sensing is often precluded by cloud cover and seasonal darkness. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes these obstacles by using microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation to provide high resolution information on large spatial scales and in remote, atmospherically obscured environments. SAR is capable of penetrating clouds, operating in darkness, and discriminating between targets with ambiguous spectral signatures. This study evaluated the efficacy of two SAR Earth observation methods on small (Unimak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, USA. The local community on the island, the City of False Pass, relies on glacial melt for drinking water and hydropower. Two methods were used: (1) velocity field estimation based on Repeat Image Feature Tracking (RIFT) and (2) glacial boundary delineation based on interferometric coherence mapping. NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) single-polarized power images and JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) single-look complex images were analyzed over the period 2008-2011. UAVSAR image pairs were coregistered to sub-pixel accuracy and processed with the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) feature tracking module to derive glacial velocity field estimates. Maximum glacier velocities ranged from 28.9 meters/year to 58.3 meters/year. Glacial boundaries were determined from interferometric coherence of ALOS PALSAR data and subsequently refined with masking operations based on terrain slope and segment size. Accuracy was assessed against hand-digitized outlines from high resolution UAVSAR power images, yielding 83.0% producer's accuracy (errors of omission) and 86.1% user's accuracy (errors of

  18. Informing climate-related decisions in complex river basins: A comparative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Bark, R. H.; Maia, R.; Udall, B.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated water resources management provides an important governance framework to achieve climate-related adaptation measures across socio-economic, environmental and administrative systems. Adaptation includes technical changes that improve water use efficiency, early warning, demand management (e.g. through metering and pricing), and institutional changes that improve the tradability of water rights. Supply-side strategies generally involve increases in storage capacity, abstraction from watercourses, and water transfers. Incentives for improving water-use efficiency, hold considerable promise for water savings and the reallocation of water to highly valued uses. However, conflicts exist between processes and goals of water management and governance. These militate against the effectiveness of using scientific information to meet short-term needs in the context of reducing longer-term vulnerabilities such as for “increasing water supply while meeting environmental needs.” A complete analysis of the effects of climate change on human water uses would consider cross-sector interactions, including the impacts of transfers of the use of water from one sector to another. In this presentation we will review the challenges and lessons provided in water resources management in the context of a changing climate. Lessons are drawn from watersheds around the world including the Colorado, Columbia, Murray-Darling, Guadiana and others. We explore how watershed managers and researchers are attempting to address the risks associated with climatic change and potential surprises. In spite of numerous climate impacts studies the management of the cumulative impacts of extremes (droughts, floods etc.) remains reactive and crisis-driven. Most recommendations stay within the applied sciences realm of technological interventions and supply driven approaches. Clearly more is needed to inform an integrated watershed management approaches in which adaptive management functions as

  19. Decadal Climate Information Needs of Stakeholders for Decision Support in Water and Agriculture Production Sectors: A Case Study in the Missouri River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, V. M.; Knutson, C.; Rosenberg, N.

    2012-12-01

    Many decadal climate prediction efforts have been initiated under the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. There is considerable ongoing discussion about model deficiencies, initialization techniques, and data requirements, but not much attention is being given to decadal climate information (DCI) needs of stakeholders for decision support. We report the results of exploratory activities undertaken to assess DCI needs in water resources and agriculture sectors, using the Missouri River Basin (the Basin) as a case study. This assessment was achieved through discussions with 120 representative stakeholders. Stakeholders' awareness of decadal dry and wet spells and their societal impacts in the Basin is established; and stakeholders' DCI needs and potential barriers to their use of DCI are enumerated. We find that impacts, including economic impacts, of DCV on water and agricultural production in the Basin are distinctly identifiable and characterizable. Stakeholders have clear notions about their needs for DCI and have offered specific suggestions as to how these might be met. But, while stakeholders are eager to have climate information, including decadal climate outlooks (DCOs), there are many barriers to the use of such information. The first and foremost is that the credibility of DCOs is yet to be established. Secondly, the nature of institutional rules and regulations, laws, and legal precedents that pose obstacles to the use of DCOs must be better understood and means to modify these, where possible, must be sought. For the benefit of climate scientists, these and other stakeholder needs will also be articulated in this talk. We are engaged in a project to assess simulation and hindcast skills of DCV phenomena and their associations with hydro-meteorological variability in the Basin in the HadCM3, GFDL-CM2.1, NCAR CCSM4, and MIROC5 global coupled models participating in the WCRP's CMIP5 project. Results from this project

  20. Unusually large tsunamis frequent a currently creeping part of the Aleutian megathrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Carver, G.A.; Briggs, Richard; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Koehler, R.D.; La Selle, SeanPaul M.; Bender, Adrian M.; Engelhart, S.E.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Hill, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Current models used to assess earthquake and tsunami hazards are inadequate where creep dominates a subduction megathrust. Here we report geological evidence for large tsunamis, occurring on average every 300–340 years, near the source areas of the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These areas bookend a postulated seismic gap over 200 km long where modern geodetic measurements indicate that the megathrust is currently creeping. At Sedanka Island, evidence for large tsunamis includes six sand sheets that blanket a lowland facing the Pacific Ocean, rise to 15 m above mean sea level, contain marine diatoms, cap terraces, adjoin evidence for scour, and date from the past 1700 years. The youngest sheet, and modern drift logs found as far as 800 m inland and >18 m elevation, likely record the 1957 tsunami. Modern creep on the megathrust coexists with previously unrecognized tsunami sources along this part of the Aleutian Subduction Zone.

  1. Seabird distribution, abundance and diets in the eastern and central Aleutian Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Jahncke, J; Coyle, KO; Hunt, GL

    2005-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that seabird distribution, abundance and diets differ among the eastern and central Aleutian Islands in response to distinct marine environments and energy pathways in each region. Research cruises were conducted in June 2001 and May-June 2002. We determined the distribution, abundance, diet and prey consumption of seabirds, and related these to zooplankton abundance and water masses that possess different physical properties. We found that distribution, abundance a...

  2. Ecotypic variation and predatory behavior among killer whales (Orcinus orca) off the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Matkin, Craig O.; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G.; Yurk, Harald; Ellifrit, David; Trites, Andrew W.

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2004 in the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, killer whales (Orcinus orca) were encountered 250 times during 421 days of surveys that covered a total of 22,491 miles. Three killer whale groups (resident, transient, and offshore) were identified acoustically and genetically. Resident killer whales were found 12 times more frequently than transient killer whales, and offshore killer whales were encountered only once. A minimum of 901 photographically identified resident wh...

  3. Determination of the Environmental Vulnerability into Potiguar Basin , on Macau (RN region, using Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Franco de Souza Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zones are important regions by their fragilities and dynamic. The research area is placed near Macau (RN county and it is known by land petrol exploration. About this view, this research had made maps of the natural and environmental vulnerability from base maps of geology, soils, vegetation, geomorphology and of using and occupation. Analyzing these maps it can diagnostic sensible areas from environmental problems, by allowing recommendation toward best advantage from control and protect activities. The vulnerability map elaboration aims to show the intensity and its distribution, mainly considering the stability related to morphogenesis and pedogenesis. The methodology procedures consists in the logical integration of different available data, and the set of all these information were integrated to make and to store a georeferencing data base into the Arcview ® GIS 3.2 software, permitting a systematic analysis of each element of thematic maps. The maps crossing was based on stability concept of each unit by considering the ecodynamic analysis concept.

  4. The use of process models to inform and improve statistical models of nitrate occurrence, Great Miami River Basin, southwestern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.; Starn, J. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Statistical models of nitrate occurrence in the glacial aquifer system of the northern United States, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, use observed relations between nitrate concentrations and sets of explanatory variables—representing well-construction, environmental, and source characteristics— to predict the probability that nitrate, as nitrogen, will exceed a threshold concentration. However, the models do not explicitly account for the processes that control the transport of nitrogen from surface sources to a pumped well and use area-weighted mean spatial variables computed from within a circular buffer around the well as a simplified source-area conceptualization. The use of models that explicitly represent physical-transport processes can inform and, potentially, improve these statistical models. Specifically, groundwater-flow models simulate advective transport—predominant in many surficial aquifers— and can contribute to the refinement of the statistical models by (1) providing for improved, physically based representations of a source area to a well, and (2) allowing for more detailed estimates of environmental variables. A source area to a well, known as a contributing recharge area, represents the area at the water table that contributes recharge to a pumped well; a well pumped at a volumetric rate equal to the amount of recharge through a circular buffer will result in a contributing recharge area that is the same size as the buffer but has a shape that is a function of the hydrologic setting. These volume-equivalent contributing recharge areas will approximate circular buffers in areas of relatively flat hydraulic gradients, such as near groundwater divides, but in areas with steep hydraulic gradients will be elongated in the upgradient direction and agree less with the corresponding circular buffers. The degree to which process-model-estimated contributing recharge areas, which simulate advective transport and therefore account for

  5. Modeling potential tsunami sources for deposits near Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Selle, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    In regions with little seismic data and short historical records of earthquakes, we can use preserved tsunami deposits and tsunami modeling to infer if, when and where tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred. The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone in the region offshore of Unalaska Island is one such region where the historical and paleo-seismicity is poorly understood. This section of the subduction zone is not thought to have ruptured historically in a large earthquake, leading some to designate the region as a seismic gap. By modeling various historical and synthetic earthquake sources, we investigate whether or not tsunamis that left deposits near Unalaska Island were generated by earthquakes rupturing through Unalaska Gap. Preliminary field investigations near the eastern end of Unalaska Island have identified paleotsunami deposits well above sea level, suggesting that multiple tsunamis in the last 5,000 years have flooded low-lying areas over 1 km inland. Other indicators of tsunami inundation, such as a breached cobble beach berm and driftwood logs stranded far inland, were tentatively attributed to the March 9, 1957 tsunami, which had reported runup of 13 to 22 meters on Umnak and Unimak Islands, to the west and east of Unalaska. In order to determine if tsunami inundation could have reached the runup markers observed on Unalaska, we modeled the 1957 tsunami using GeoCLAW, a numerical model that simulates tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation. The published rupture orientation and slip distribution for the MW 8.6, 1957 earthquake (Johnson et al., 1994) was used as the tsunami source, which delineates a 1200 km long rupture zone along the Aleutian trench from Delarof Island to Unimak Island. Model results indicate that runup and inundation from this particular source are too low to account for the runup markers observed in the field, because slip is concentrated in the western half of the rupture zone, far from Unalaska. To ascertain if any realistic

  6. Evolving Neogene Sediment Delivery to and Dispersal in the Aleutian-Alaska Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, J. M.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morey, S.; Frederik, M. C. G.; Somchat, T. K.

    2016-12-01

    The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone is the most tectonically active region in North America and contains pronounced along-strike variations in seismicity, volcanism, and incoming plate properties. Evaluation of the continental margin in the Kodiak Island region has argued for a fundamental change from erosion to accretion within the Neogene related to glacigenic sediment input from the north. Here we review recent geophysical and scientific drilling results to evaluate this hypothesis. Reanalysis of trench wedge sediment thickness coupled with recently acquired geophysical data reveal pronounced along-strike variation in trench sedimentation. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Exp 341 recovered Miocene-to-recent strata from the Surveyor Fan that is subducting/accreting along the Aleutian Trench. Age control from Site U1417 allows for regional isopach mapping of trench and fan strata and a temporal evaluation of sediment delivery to the trench. The onset of major tidewater glaciation at 2.7 Ma represents a fundamental regional change in sedimentation. Prior to this, pre-Surveyor fan accumulation consisted of pelagic facies interspersed with episodic gravity flow deposition whose deep-water dispersal was dictated by seamounts with a relatively minor flux to the trench. The onset of glacigenic delivery from the coastal St. Elias orogen to the deepwater resulted in the formation of the Surveyor channel, which created the modern turbidite-dominated Surveyor fan and initiated direct sediment delivery to the Aleutian trench. Sediment accumulation on the fan and in the trench doubled after 2.7 Ma. The lack of avulsion of the Surveyor channel since 2.7 Ma may be a consequence of an underfilled trench that has maintained steep topographic gradients on the fan. Transition to longer duration glacial conditions starting 1.2 Ma resulted in increased flux through Surveyor Channel but also significant increases in along-strike flux down the Aleutian Trench as cross-shelf glacial

  7. Improving the Availability and Delivery of Critical Information for Tight Gas Resource Development in the Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Behling; Susan Pool; Douglas Patchen; John Harper

    2008-12-31

    To encourage, facilitate and accelerate the development of tight gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin, the geological surveys in Pennsylvania and West Virginia collected widely dispersed data on five gas plays and formatted these data into a large database that can be accessed by individual well or by play. The database and delivery system that were developed can be applied to any of the 30 gas plays that have been defined in the basin, but for this project, data compilation was restricted to the following: the Mississippian-Devonian Berea/Murrysville sandstone play and the Upper Devonian Venango, Bradford and Elk sandstone plays in Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and the 'Clinton'/Medina sandstone play in northwestern Pennsylvania. In addition, some data were collected on the Tuscarora Sandstone play in West Virginia, which is the lateral equivalent of the Medina Sandstone in Pennsylvania. Modern geophysical logs are the most common and cost-effective tools for evaluating reservoirs. Therefore, all of the well logs in the libraries of the two surveys from wells that had penetrated the key plays were scanned, generating nearly 75,000 scanned e-log files from more than 40,000 wells. A standard file-naming convention for scanned logs was developed, which includes the well API number, log curve type(s) scanned, and the availability of log analyses or half-scale logs. In addition to well logs, other types of documents were scanned, including core data (descriptions, analyses, porosity-permeability cross-plots), figures from relevant chapters of the Atlas of Major Appalachian Gas Plays, selected figures from survey publications, and information from unpublished reports and student theses and dissertations. Monthly and annual production data from 1979 to 2007 for West Virginia wells in these plays are available as well. The final database also includes digitized logs from more than 800 wells, sample descriptions from more than 550 wells, more than 600

  8. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: Sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  9. Forearc structure from legacy multichannel seismic data linked to mechanical variability and rupture segmentation on the central Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, E. C.; von Huene, R.; Miller, J.; Haeussler, P. J.; Scholl, D. W.; Ryan, H. F.; Kirby, S. H.

    2012-12-01

    interpretations of recently reprocessed MCS data from the USGS R/V Lee and R/V Ewing are considered in the context of the seismogenic properties of several distinct rupture segments. We consider variations in wedge geometry along-strike to gain some insight into changes in the mechanical strength of the interface. Interseismic seismicity patterns associated with small magnitude, shallow interplate earthquakes and seismicity in the overriding plate also provide information about potential changes in the mechanical properties of the subduction zone along-strike that correlate with variations in forearc structure at the Alaska-Aleutian margin.

  10. Determination of soil erosion risk in the Mustafakemalpasa River Basin, Turkey, using the revised universal soil loss equation, geographic information system, and remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Gokhan; Aksoy, Ertugrul; Dirim, M Sabri; Tumsavas, Zeynal

    2012-10-01

    Sediment transport from steep slopes and agricultural lands into the Uluabat Lake (a RAMSAR site) by the Mustafakemalpasa (MKP) River is a serious problem within the river basin. Predictive erosion models are useful tools for evaluating soil erosion and establishing soil erosion management plans. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) function is a commonly used erosion model for this purpose in Turkey and the rest of the world. This research integrates the RUSLE within a geographic information system environment to investigate the spatial distribution of annual soil loss potential in the MKP River Basin. The rainfall erosivity factor was developed from local annual precipitation data using a modified Fournier index: The topographic factor was developed from a digital elevation model; the K factor was determined from a combination of the soil map and the geological map; and the land cover factor was generated from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images. According to the model, the total soil loss potential of the MKP River Basin from erosion by water was 11,296,063 Mg year(-1) with an average soil loss of 11.2 Mg year(-1). The RUSLE produces only local erosion values and cannot be used to estimate the sediment yield for a watershed. To estimate the sediment yield, sediment-delivery ratio equations were used and compared with the sediment-monitoring reports of the Dolluk stream gauging station on the MKP River, which collected data for >41 years (1964-2005). This station observes the overall efficiency of the sediment yield coming from the Orhaneli and Emet Rivers. The measured sediment in the Emet and Orhaneli sub-basins is 1,082,010 Mg year(-1) and was estimated to be 1,640,947 Mg year(-1) for the same two sub-basins. The measured sediment yield of the gauge station is 127.6 Mg km(-2) year(-1) but was estimated to be 170.2 Mg km(-2) year(-1). The close match between the sediment amounts estimated using the RUSLE

  11. Seismic potential of the Queen Charlotte-Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishenko, S.P. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Jacob, K.H. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States))

    1990-03-10

    The 5,000 km long Queen Charlotte-Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone is subdivided into 17 unequally sized segments. The 17 segments are chosen to represent areas likely to be ruptured by characteristic earthquakes. This term usually implies repeated breakage of a plate boundary segment by either a large or great earthquake, whose source dimensions remain consistent from cycle to cycle. Formal computations of the conditional probabilities for future large and great earthquakes in the 17 segments of the Queen Charlotte-Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone are based on the following data sets and findings: (1) recurrence intervals from historic and geologic data; (2) direct recurrence time estimates based on rates of relative plate motion and the size or displacement of the most recent characteristic event in each segment; and (3) the application of a lognormal distribution of recurrence times for large and great earthquakes. Results of these computations indicate seven areas that have high (i.e., {ge} 60%) conditional probabilities for the recurrence of either large or great earthquakes within the next 20 years (1988-2008). These areas include Cape St. James, Yakataga, the Shumagin Islands, Unimak Island, and the Fox, Delarof, and Near Islands segments of the Aleutian arc. When a shorter time interval is considered (1988-1998), those segments more likely to rupture in large (M{sub S} 7-7.7) rather than great earthquakes have a high conditional probability. These areas include the Unimak, Fox, and Delarof Islands segments. The largest uncertainties in these forecasts stem from the short historic record (providing a single recurrence time estimate for some segments, or widely varying estimates for others); from the unknown importance of aseismic slip; and from a vague definition of characteristic earthquake size. In fact, characteristic earthquake size may not be a time-invariant quantity.

  12. Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Wade, Paul R.

    2006-11-01

    Large whales were extensively hunted in coastal waters off Alaska, but current distribution, population sizes and trends are poorly known. Line transect surveys were conducted in coastal waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula in the summer of 2001-2003. Abundances of three species were estimated by conventional and multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) methods. Time series of abundance estimates were used to derive rates of increase for fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae). Fin whales occurred primarily from the Kenai Peninsula to the Shumagin Islands, but were abundant only near the Semidi Islands and Kodiak. Humpback whales were found from the Kenai Peninsula to Umnak Island and were more abundant near Kodiak, the Shumagin Islands and north of Unimak Pass. Minke whales ( B. acutorostrata) occurred primarily in the Aleutian Islands, with a few sightings south of the Alaska Peninsula and near Kodiak Island. Humpback whales were observed in large numbers in their former whaling grounds. In contrast, high densities of fin whales were not observed around the eastern Aleutian Islands, where whaling occurred. Average abundance estimates (95% CI) for fin, humpback and minke whales were 1652 (1142-2389), 2644 (1899-3680), and 1233 (656-2315), respectively. Annual rates of increase were estimated at 4.8% (95% CI=4.1-5.4%) for fin and 6.6% (5.2-8.6%) for humpback whales. This study provides the first estimate of the rate of increase of fin whales in the North Pacific Ocean. The estimated trends are consistent with those of other recovering baleen whales. There were no sightings of blue or North Pacific right whales, indicating the continued depleted status of these species.

  13. The Aleutian Tsunami of 1946: the Compound Earthquake-Landslide Source and Near-Field Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, G. J.; Yamazaki, Y.; McMurtry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The tsunami of April 1, 1946, spread death and destruction throughout the Pacific from the Aleutians to Antarctica, and produced exceptional runup, 42 m, at Scotch Cap on Unimak Island in the near field. López & Okal (2006) showed that the triggering earthquake was at least MW = 8.6, large enough to explain the far-field tsunami but still requiring a landslide or other secondary source to achieve the local runup. No convincing landslide was found until von Huene, et al (2014) merged all available multibeam data and reprocessed a old multichannel line to show that a feature on the Aleutian Terrace they call Lone Knoll (LK) is the displaced block of a translational slide. From 210Pb dating of push cores taken near the summit of LK, we find that a disruption in sedimentation occurred in 1946 at one site, but sedimentation was not disrupted at another site nearby. We infer that the slide block moved coherently at a speed close to the threshold for erosion of the hemipelagic clays. From GLORIA sidescan, Fryer, et al (2004) had earlier tentatively identified LK as a landslide deposit, but if the tsunami crossed the shallow Aleutian Shelf at the long-wave speed, that landslide had to extend up to the shelf edge to satisfy the known 48-min travel time to Scotch Cap. The resulting landslide was enormous, and a multibeam survey later in 2004 showed that it could not exist. The slide imaged by von Huene, et al is far smaller, with a headwall 30 km downslope at a depth of 3 km. The greater distance demands that the tsunami travel much faster across the shelf. The huge runup, however, suggests that wave height was a significant fraction of the water depth (only 80 m), so the tsunami probably crossed the Aleutian Shelf as a bore. From modeling the landslide-generated tsunami with a shock-capturing dispersive code we infer that it did indeed cross the shelf as a bore traveling at roughly twice the long-wave speed. We are still exploring the dependence of the tsunami on slide

  14. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection....69 N 176 12.44 W 52 6.59 N 176 6.12 W 2 Cape Moffett I 52 0.11 N 176 46.65 W 52 0.10 N 176 53.00 W 51 55.69 N 176 53.00 W 51 55.69 N 176 48.59 W 51 57.96 N 176 46.52 W 3 Adak Canyon 51 39.00 N 177 0.00 W...

  15. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields: Chapter C.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Kinney, Scott A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more recent maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields (and the adjoining Black Warrior basin) is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compilation by Mast and others (1998) (see Trippi and others, this volume, chap. I.1). This map is part of a larger oil and gas field map for the conterminous United States that was derived by Mast and others (1998) from the Well History Control System (WHCS) database of Petroleum Information, Inc. (now IHS Energy Group). Rather than constructing the map from the approximately 500,000 proprietary wells in the Appalachian and Black Warrior part of the WHCS database, Mast and others (1998) subdivided the region into a grid of 1-mi2 (square mile) cells and allocated an appropriate type of hydrocarbon production (oil production, gas production, oil and gas production, or explored but no production) to each cell. Each 1-mi2 cell contains from 0 to 5 or more exploratory and (or) development wells. For example, if the wells in the 1-mi2 cell consisted of three oil wells, one gas well, and one dry well, then the cell would be characterized on the map as an area of oil and gas production. The map by Mast and others (1998) accurately shows the distribution and types of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Appalachian and Black Warrior basins, but it does not show the names of individual fields. To determine the locality and name of individual oil and gas fields, one must refer to State oil and gas maps (for example, Harper and others, 1982), which are generally published at scales of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 (see References Cited), and (or) published journal articles.

  16. StreamNet; Northwest Aquatic Resource Information Network - Status of Salmon and Steelhead in the Columbia River Basin, 1995 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Duane A.; Beamesderfer, Raymond C. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Enterprise, OR (United States); Woodard, Bob [Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Information on fish populations, fisheries, and fish habitat is crucial to the success of ongoing program to protect, recover, enhance, and manage fish resources in the Columbia River Basin. However, pertinent data are often difficult to locate because it is scattered among many agencies and is often unpublished. The goal of this annual report is to bring many diverse data types and sources into a single comprehensive report on the status of anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin and the environmental conditions that may affect that status. Brief summaries are provided to identify the type and scope of available information. This synopsis is intended to complement other more detailed reports to which readers are referred for comprehensive treatment of specific subjects. This first report focuses mainly on anadromous salmon and steelhead (primarily through 1994) but the authors intend to expand the scope of future issues to include resident species. This is the first of what the authors intend to be an annual report. They welcome constructive suggestions for improvements. This report is a product of the StreamNet (formerly Coordinated Information System and Northwest Environmental Data Base) project which is a part of the Bonneville Power Administration`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The project is called for in the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The project`s objective is to promote exchange and dissemination of information in a standardized electronic format throughout the basin. This project is administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission with active participation by tribal, state, and federal fish and wildlife agencies.

  17. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  18. Ports and Waterways Safety Assessment Workshop Report for Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-25

    Balanced indicates that no intervention is needed and risk is balanced in the waterway. A yellow Caution indicates a consensus alert meaning there was...near shore and in other sensitive areas (e.g, ecotour ) • USCG requires Advance Notice of Arrival for vessels calling on a U.S. port • Small...already available through local means , and 2) obtaining information from other agencies (10) • Conduct “places of refuge and anchorages” study as

  19. A model for selecting bioindicators to monitor radionuclide concentrations using Amchitka Island in the Aleutians as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    World War II and the Cold War have left the Unites States, and other Nations, with massive cleanup and remediation tasks for radioactive and other legacy hazardous wastes. While some sites can be cleaned up to acceptable residential risk levels, others will continue to hold hazardous wastes, which must be contained and monitored to protect human health and the environment. While media (soil, sediment, groundwater) monitoring is the usual norm at many radiological waste sites, for some situations (both biological and societal), biomonitoring may provide the necessary information to assure greater peace of mind for local and regional residents, and to protect ecologically valuable buffer lands or waters. In most cases, indicators are selected using scientific expertise and a literature review, but not all selected indicators will seem relevant to stakeholders. In this paper, I provide a model for the inclusion of stakeholders in the development of bioindicators for assessing radionuclide levels of biota in the marine environment around Amchitka Island, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Amchitka was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. The process was stakeholder-initiated, stakeholder-driven, and included stakeholders during each phase. Phases included conceptualization, initial selection of biota and radionuclides, refinement of biota and radionuclide target lists, collection of biota, selection of biota and radionuclides for analysis, and selection of biota, tissues, and radionuclides for bioindicators. The process produced site-specific information on biota availability and on radionuclide levels that led to selection of site-appropriate bioindicators. I suggest that the lengthy, iterative, stakeholder-driven process described in this paper results in selection of bioindicators that are accepted by biologists, public health personnel, public-policy makers, resource agencies, regulatory agencies, subsistence hunters/fishers, and a wide

  20. A model for selecting bioindicators to monitor radionuclide concentrations using Amchitka Island in the Aleutians as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2007-11-01

    World War II and the Cold War have left the Unites States, and other Nations, with massive cleanup and remediation tasks for radioactive and other legacy hazardous wastes. While some sites can be cleaned up to acceptable residential risk levels, others will continue to hold hazardous wastes, which must be contained and monitored to protect human health and the environment. While media (soil, sediment, groundwater) monitoring is the usual norm at many radiological waste sites, for some situations (both biological and societal), biomonitoring may provide the necessary information to assure greater peace of mind for local and regional residents, and to protect ecologically valuable buffer lands or waters. In most cases, indicators are selected using scientific expertise and a literature review, but not all selected indicators will seem relevant to stakeholders. In this paper, I provide a model for the inclusion of stakeholders in the development of bioindicators for assessing radionuclide levels of biota in the marine environment around Amchitka Island, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Amchitka was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. The process was stakeholder-initiated, stakeholder-driven, and included stakeholders during each phase. Phases included conceptualization, initial selection of biota and radionuclides, refinement of biota and radionuclide target lists, collection of biota, selection of biota and radionuclides for analysis, and selection of biota, tissues, and radionuclides for bioindicators. The process produced site-specific information on biota availability and on radionuclide levels that led to selection of site-appropriate bioindicators. I suggest that the lengthy, iterative, stakeholder-driven process described in this paper results in selection of bioindicators that are accepted by biologists, public health personnel, public-policy makers, resource agencies, regulatory agencies, subsistence hunters/fishers, and a wide

  1. Infection with Aleutian disease virus-like virus in a captive striped skunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Schumacher, Juergen; Thomas, Kathy V; McCain, Stephanie L; Ramsay, Edward C; James, Evan W; Wise, Annabel G; Maes, Roger K; Reel, Danielle

    2008-03-01

    A 5-month-old captive female striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) was evaluated because of lethargy, signs of depression, azotemia, and erythema of the skin around the eyes. Antemortem diagnostic tests revealed renal disease but failed to identify an etiologic agent. A diagnosis of severe nonsuppurative interstitial nephritis was made on the basis of results of histologic examination of renal biopsy specimens. The skunk was administered isotonic fluids SC daily and later every other day because of the handling-related stress. Because of the skunk's deteriorating condition, it was euthanized after 24 days of supportive care. Aleutian disease was diagnosed on the basis of positive results of a PCR assay that targeted the DNA from Aleutian disease virus (ADV); positive results for ADV were also obtained by use of plasma counterimmunoelectrophoresis and an ELISA. Genetic sequencing of the 365-base pair PCR product revealed 90% sequence identity with mink ADV. In the skunk of this report, infection with a skunk-specific parvovirus resulted in clinical signs and pathologic changes similar to those associated with ADV infection in mink. For skunks with signs of renal failure, differential diagnoses should include parvovirus infection. In confirmed cases of infection with this ADV-like virus, appropriate quarantine and biosecurity measures should be in place to prevent spread to other susceptible animals within a zoological collection.

  2. Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Anderson, M; Ritchie, B W; Ciembor, P; Rimoldi, G; Piazza, M; Pesti, D; Clifford, D L; Giannitti, F

    2015-11-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Analysis of available information on nutrients and suspended sediment, 1974-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Reutter, David C.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an assessment of water quality in the Trinity River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. During the planning phase of this study, existing information on nutrients and suspended sediment was compiled and analyzed. A total of about 5,700 water-quality samples were analyzed from local, State, and Federal agencies. Of these, about 4,200 were from streams and about 1,500 were from wells. Additionally, atmospheric deposition data for two locations were obtained and analyzed.

  4. Web application to access U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works and Restoration Projects information for the Rio Grande Basin, southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.

  5. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    .... 101126521-0640-2] RIN 0648-XA733 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering... prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES...

  6. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    .... 121018563-3418-02] RIN 0648-XC872 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering... prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES...

  7. 77 FR 74161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ...-BA82 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... crab fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the BSAI are managed under the FMP. The FMP was... historically active as crab processing ports continue to receive economic benefits from crab deliveries and to...

  8. 76 FR 10780 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 [Docket No. 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XA252 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Atka Mackerel in the... economic zone according to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  9. 78 FR 65602 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-BD03 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... use by community residents in order to help minimize adverse economic impacts of the IFQ Program on... this action, and the economic and socioeconomic effects of the alternatives (see ADDRESSES). An IRFA is...

  10. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...

  11. 76 FR 80782 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... dependent upon the development of an age-structured model for the Aleutian Islands Pacific cod stock..., which provide updated estimates of stock biomass and spatial distribution, and changes to the models... 2010 survey data, Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) abundance is estimated at 379 million animals...

  12. 77 FR 10669 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... developing an age-structured model for the Aleutian Islands Pacific cod stock assessment that will be.... This is due to model changes for the calculation of octopuses OFL and ABC, and recommendations by the... the Council's recommendation. Based on 2011 survey data, Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) abundance...

  13. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    .... 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA683 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering... retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  14. 76 FR 17360 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    .... 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA322 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering... allowable catch of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary to allow... subpart H of 50 CFR part 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2011 initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of octopus...

  15. 76 FR 47493 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Amendments 38 and 39 to the Fishery Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs... overfishing limit and prevent overfishing. Amendment 39 modifies the snow crab rebuilding plan to define the...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the FMP, and other applicable laws. DATES: The amendment...

  16. 75 FR 56485 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    .../Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Recordkeeping and Reporting AGENCY: National Marine... rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues regulations to remove the Crab Rationalization Program requirements for.... Background The Crab Rationalization (CR) Program is a limited-access system that allocates crab managed under...

  17. 77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost... Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2012/2013 crab fishing year. DATES: Fee liability payments made by the Crab Rationalization...

  18. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost... Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage... that must be submitted by July 31, 2012. DATES: The Crab Rationalization Program Registered Crab...

  19. 75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost... Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage... that must be submitted by July 31, 2011. DATES: The Crab Rationalization Program Registered Crab...

  20. 78 FR 28523 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... Rationalization Program (CR Program) by establishing a process whereby holders of regionally designated individual... scope of this action. Comment 9: One comment generally supported the Crab Rationalization Program...

  1. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost... Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage... that must be submitted by July 31, 2014. DATES: The Crab Rationalization Program Registered Crab...

  2. 76 FR 8700 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for comments.../ Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program by establishing a process for eligible contract signatories... applicable law. DATES: Comments must be received no later than April 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may submit...

  3. Application of digital mapping technology to the display of hydrologic information; a proof-of-concept test in the Fox-Wolf River Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G.K.; Baten, L.G.; Allord, G.J.; Robinove, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Fox-Wolf River basin in east-central Wisconsin was selected to test concepts for a water-resources information system using digital mapping technology. This basin of 16,800 sq km is typical of many areas in the country. Fifty digital data sets were included in the Fox-Wolf information system. Many data sets were digitized from 1:500,000 scale maps and overlays. Some thematic data were acquired from WATSTORE and other digital data files. All data were geometrically transformed into a Lambert Conformal Conic map projection and converted to a raster format with a 1-km resolution. The result of this preliminary processing was a group of spatially registered, digital data sets in map form. Parameter evaluation, areal stratification, data merging, and data integration were used to achieve the processing objectives and to obtain analysis results for the Fox-Wolf basin. Parameter evaluation includes the visual interpretation of single data sets and digital processing to obtain new derived data sets. In the areal stratification stage, masks were used to extract from one data set all features that are within a selected area on another data set. Most processing results were obtained by data merging. Merging is the combination of two or more data sets into a composite product, in which the contribution of each original data set is apparent and can be extracted from the composite. One processing result was also obtained by data integration. Integration is the combination of two or more data sets into a single new product, from which the original data cannot be separated or calculated. (USGS)

  4. Modeling of groundwater potential of the sub-basin of Siriri river, Sergipe state, Brazil, based on Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Franca Rocha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information System (GIS and Remote Sensing for modeling groundwater potential give support for the analysis and decision-making processes about water resource management in watersheds. The objective of this work consisted in modeling the groundwater water potential of Siriri river sub-basin, Sergipe state, based on its natural environment (soil, land use, slope, drainage density, lineament density, rainfall and geology using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System as an integration environment. The groundwater potential map was done using digital image processing procedures of ENVI 4.4 software and map algebra of ArcGIS 9.3®. The Analytical Hierarchy Method was used for modeling the weights definition of the different criteria (maps. Loads and weights of the different classes were assigned to each map according to their influence on the overall objective of the work. The integration of these maps in a GIS environment and the AHP technique application allowed the development of the groundwater potential map in five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, very high. The average flow rates of wells confirm the potential of aquifers Sapucari, Barriers and Maruim since they are the most exploited in this sub-basin, with average flows of 78,113 L/h, 19,332 L/h and 12,085 L/h, respectively.

  5. Seismic potential of the Queen Charlotte-Alaska-Aleutian Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishenko, S. P.; Jacob, K. H.

    1990-03-01

    The 5000 km long Queen Charlotte-Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone is subdivided into 17 unequally sized segments. Their boundaries are delineated based on the prior distribution of large and great earthquakes. The 17 segments are chosen to represent areas likely to be ruptured by "characteristic" earthquakes. This term usually implies repeated breakage of a plate boundary segment by either a large or great earthquake, whose source dimensions remain consistent from cycle to cycle. This definition does not exclude the possibility that occasionally adjacent characteristic earthquake segments may break together in a single "giant" event that is larger than the characteristic size outlined. Conversely, a segment can also sometimes break in a series of smaller ruptures. Formal computations of the conditional probabilities for future large and great earthquakes in the 17 segments of the Queen Charlotte-Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone are based on the following data sets and findings: (1) recurrence intervals from historic and geologic data; (2) direct recurrence time estimates based on rates of relative plate motion and the size or displacement of the most recent characteristic event in each segment; and (3) the application of a lognormal distribution of recurrence times for large and great earthquakes. Results of these computations indicate seven areas that have high (i.e., ≥60%) conditional probabilities for the recurrence of either large or great earthquakes within the next 20 years (1988-2008). These areas include Cape St. James, Yakataga, the Shumagin Islands, Unimak Island, and the Fox, Delarof, and Near Islands segments of the Aleutian arc. When a shorter time interval is considered (1988-1998), those segments more likely to rupture in large (MS 7-7.7) rather than great earthquakes have a high conditional probability. These areas include the Unimak, Fox, and Delarof Islands segments. The largest uncertainties in these forecasts stem from the short historic record

  6. Geological and biological heterogeneity of the Aleutian margin (1965-4822 m)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathburn, A. E.; Levin, L. A.; Tryon, M.; Gieskes, J. M.; Martin, J. B.; Pérez, M. E.; Fodrie, F. J.; Neira, C.; Fryer, G. J.; Mendoza, G.; McMillan, P. A.; Kluesner, J.; Adamic, J.; Ziebis, W.

    2009-01-01

    Geological, biological and biogeochemical characterization of the previously unexplored margin off Unimak Island, Alaska between 1965 and 4822 m water depth was conducted to examine: (1) the geological processes that shaped the margin, (2) the linkages between depth, geomorphology and environmental disturbance in structuring benthic communities of varying size classes and (3) the existence, composition and nutritional sources of methane seep biota on this margin. The study area was mapped and sampled using multibeam sonar, a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera system. Our results provide the first characterization of the Aleutian margin mid and lower slope benthic communities (microbiota, foraminifera, macrofauna and megafauna), recognizing diverse habitats in a variety of settings. Our investigations also revealed that the geologic feature known as the “Ugamak Slide” is not a slide at all, and could not have resulted from a large 1946 earthquake. However, sediment disturbance appears to be a pervasive feature of this margin. We speculate that the deep-sea occurrence of high densities of Elphidium, typically a shallow-water foraminiferan, results from the influence of sediment redeposition from shallower habitats. Strong representation of cumacean, amphipod and tanaid crustaceans among the Unimak macrofauna may also reflect sediment instability. Although some faunal abundances decline with depth, habitat heterogeneity and disturbance generated by canyons and methane seepage appear to influence abundances of biota in ways that supercede any clear depth gradient in organic matter input. Measures of sediment organic matter and pigment content as well as C and N isotopic signatures were highly heterogeneous, although the availability of organic matter and the abundance of microorganisms in the upper sediment (1-5 cm) were positively correlated. We report the first methane seep on the Aleutian slope in the Unimak region (3263-3285 m), comprised of

  7. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: Interspecific and locational differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Donio, Mark [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. - Highlights: • Cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium

  8. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: Interspecific and locational differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Donio, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. - Highlights: • Cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium

  9. Hydrological simulation of Sperchios River basin in Central Greece using the MIKE SHE model and geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios

    2017-05-01

    The MIKE SHE model is able to simulate the entire stream flow which includes direct and basic flow. Many models either do not simulate or use simplistic methods to determine the basic flow. The MIKE SHE model takes into account many hydrological data. Since this study was directed towards the simulation of surface runoff and infiltration into saturated and unsaturated zone, the MIKE SHE is an appropriate model for reliable conclusions. In the current research, the MIKE SHE model was used to simulate runoff in the area of Sperchios River basin. Meteorological data from eight rainfall stations within the Sperchios River basin were used as inputs. Vegetation as well as geological data was used to perform the calibration and validation of the physical processes of the model. Additionally, ArcGIS program was used. The results indicated that the model was able to simulate the surface runoff satisfactorily, representing all the hydrological data adequately. Some minor differentiations appeared which can be eliminated with the appropriate adjustments that can be decided by the researcher's experience.

  10. AFSC/NMML: Killer whale surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  11. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Palsson: Globe navigation data collected during the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands Biennial Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are haul positions and haul depths collected throughout the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands groundfish trawl surveys. Vessel positions are recorded...

  12. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Palsson: Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands Biennial Bottom Trawl Survey estimates of catch per unit effort, biomass, population at length, and associated tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GOA/AI Bottom Trawl Estimate database contains abundance estimates for the Alaska Biennial Bottom Trawl Surveys conducted in the Gulf of Alaska and the Aleutian...

  13. Steller sea lion satellite telemetry data used to determine at-sea distribution in the western-central Aleutian Islands, 2000-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was used for an analysis of the at-sea distribution of Steller sea lions in the western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. This analysis was prepared to...

  14. 76 FR 3090 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Market Report and Non-Binding Price Formula are produced, as well as the negotiation approaches, the... collection). Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations; individuals or households... Organization Reports, 1 hour; establishing price for arbitration negotiations, 45 minutes. Estimated Total...

  15. S-phase-dependent cell cycle disturbances caused by Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    arrest occurred exclusively in cells containing de novo-synthesized viral nonstructural (NS) proteins. Production of ADV NS proteins, indicative of ADV replication, was triggered during S-phase traverse. The NS+ cells that were generated during later parts of S phase did not undergo cytokinesis...... with subthreshold levels of ADV products through the late S/G(2) block and, consequently, that the binary pattern of ADV-induced cell cycle arrest may be governed merely by viral replication levels within a single S phase. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide fluorescence and bromodeoxyuridine uptake showed......We examined replication of the autonomous parovirus Aleutian mink disease parovirus (ADV) in relation to cell cycle progression of permissive Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ADV caused a composite, binary pattern of cell cycle arrest. ADV-induced cell cycle...

  16. Acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits inoculated with defined isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Aasted, B

    1994-01-01

    The present study addressed the causal role of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits. All the examined isolates of ADV caused interstitial pneumonia in newborn kits, although the severity of disease and the mortality varied. These findings indicate...... that ADV is the direct causal agent of this disease in mink kits and that cofactors, which could have been present in the original ADV-K isolate, do not play a role. Acute interstitial pneumonia characterized by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells, intranuclear viral inclusions...... plasma cells in lung, liver, spleen, kidney, mesenteric lymph node, and intestine. Surviving kits also had hypertrophy of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and focal subpleural, intraalveolar accumulations of large cells with foamy cytoplasm, so-called lipid pneumonia....

  17. Glomerular lesions in Aleutian disease of mink (Mustela vison): a morphological and differential morphometrical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, J M; Alvarez, C; Flores, J M; Romano, J

    1991-04-01

    A morphological and morphometrical study has been carried out on glomerular lesions in mink with spontaneous Aleutian disease, using the WHO classification for Systemic Lupus Erytematous Nefritis. 154 renal samples from sick animals and 10 samples from uninfected mink were processed by routine histopathological techniques and metacrylate inclusions. The samples were studied quantitatively with an automatic image analyzer. 5 forms of glomerulonephritis (GN) were identified: mesangial glomerulonephritis (n = 13), focal and segmental GN (n = 10), diffuse GN (n = 99), membranous GN (n = 12) and advanced sclerosing GN (n = 10) and were associated with the degree of interstitial plasmocytosis. Glomerule morphometry was shown to be an excellent method for identifying the type of lesion, while it quantified the participation of various glomerular elements in the lesion.

  18. Low- δ18O tephra from a compositionally zoned magma body: Fisher Caldera, Unimak Island, Aleutians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, Ilya N.; Fournelle, John H.; Valley, John W.

    2001-11-01

    We present the results of an oxygen isotope study of phenocrysts in pumice clasts and ash layers produced by the 9100 yr BP composite dacite-basaltic andesite climactic eruption that formed Fisher Caldera in the eastern Aleutians. Products of the eruption represent a low-δ18O magma with δ18O plagioclase (+4.79±0.24‰) and clinopyroxene (3.81±0.23‰) corresponding to equilibrium at magmatic temperatures. Dacitic and overlying basaltic-andesitic tephra of the climactic eruption, subsequent intracaldera basaltic to andesitic lavas, and a cumulate inclusion, are similarly low in δ18O. Other analyzed lavas and pyroclastics of Unimak island and the lower Alaska peninsula, as well as precaldera Fisher basalt, have normal δ18O magmatic values (>+5.5‰). We propose a model in which prior to 9100 yr BP, normal mantle-derived basaltic magma coalesced in a large shallow precaldera magma chamber during Late Wisconsin glaciation. Lowering of magmatic δ18O resulted then from long-term assimilation of ∼5-10% of syn-glacial hydrothermally-altered country rocks. Differentiation of basaltic magma was concurrent with this assimilation and produced low-δ18O Fisher dacites, cumulates, and post-caldera crystal-richer lavas. We propose the use of δ18O values of phenocrysts (especially alteration-resistant pyroxene) in tephra as a tool for tephrochronological and tephrostratigraphic correlation. Distinctly low-δ18O values are useful in identification of the Fisher ash in the eastern Aleutians and in the lower Alaska Peninsula.

  19. Crustal structure transition from oceanic arc to continental arc, eastern Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, Moritz M.; Klemperer, Simon L.

    2000-07-01

    The Aleutian island arc crosses from the Pacific Ocean to the North-American continent at the island of Unimak. 3-D finite-difference traveltime inversion of our onshore-offshore seismic reflection/refraction data gives a velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle. The arc crust is on average 30 km thick, but thickens to almost 40 km under the western Alaska Peninsula. The transition from oceanic arc to continental arc is characterised by a decrease in average velocity in the upper crust from about 6.5 km/s to less than 6.0 km/s, with no systematic change in the velocity of the lower crust. Throughout our study area, in the upper 15 km of the crust the highest velocities are observed in the fore-arc just south of the volcanic line. In the lower crust, the lowest velocities of just 6.2 km/s are found close to the volcanic line. The uppermost mantle is quite heterogeneous with velocities ranging from 7.6 to 8.2 km/s, in part due to the thermal gradient from cold fore-arc to hot back-arc. Whereas the Aleutian oceanic (fore-)arc has higher seismic velocities than average continental crust throughout the crust, the Peninsula section is close to the continental average in the upper c. 20 km of the crust. We infer that repeated episodes of arc magmatism can produce a felsic-to-intermediate upper crust as is observed in the continents, but arc magmatism produces a thicker mafic lower crust than the average continent retains. Some of the excess mafic material in the island-arc crust can be attributed to pre-existing oceanic crust, which is less evident or absent in a continental arc.

  20. Simulating the 1946 Aleutian far-field tsunami: The successful dislocation and the impossible landslide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, H.; Okal, E. A.

    2004-12-01

    We present a final set of hydrodynamic simulations of the run-up of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami at the transpacific locations obtained during the field surveys taken in 1999-2001 by Okal et al. [2002]. As a source of the tsunami, we use both (i) a dislocation model based on the updated seismological study of Lopez and Okal [2002], which features slow bilateral rupture along a 200-km long fault zone; and (ii) the asymmetric dipolar source successfully used by Okal et al. [2003] to model the near-field run-up surveyed at Unimak Island. The simulations are carried out on a series of grids featuring fine scales both in the source area, and at the receiving shores (the latter up to a final scale of 50 m), but a coarser grid on the high seas. In general, the dislocation source does fit the run-up observations in the far-field, and in particular it reproduces the strong azimuthal directivity expected in the source geometry. This extends the ressults of Titov et al. (2001), who had modeled the inundation at Hilo on the basis of a similar dislocative source, but using a different numerical method. By contrast, the dipolar source produces absolute values of run-up ranging only from a few tens of cm to 3 m on the shorelines of the Marquesas and Juan Fernandez Islands, in all cases significantly less (by a factor of 3 to 5) than observed. We conclude that the near- and far-fields cannot be both modeled by a single source. The final model of the source of the 1946 Aleutian tsunami must be a composite betweem a very large, but very slow earthquake, responsible for the far field tsunami, and a landslide generating the devastating near-field tsunami.

  1. Diamond drilling for geologic information in the middle Precambrian basins in the western portion of northern Michigan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trow, J.

    1979-10-01

    Between September 26, 1977, and May 11, 1978, six initially vertical holes probed a total of 9896 feet (1109 feet or 11.2% in overburden, 155 feet or 1.6% in Precambrian Y mafic dikes, 8386 feet or 84.7% in Precambrian X Goodrich Quartzite and Michigamme Formation, and 246 feet or 2.5% in Precambrian W basement lithologies). In addition to normal examination of core, logging, and storing of core, the holes were extensively logged geophysically, acidized core was tested for phosphate content by ammonium molybdate, splits from five out of every thirty feet of core were subjected to chemical scrutiny, thin sections of all lithologies were examined, and radiometric determinations of geologic age were made for confirmation of Precambrian W basement which was encountered in each of the three basins in Marquette County

  2. Informing sustainable irrigation management strategies in response to implementation of Washington State's Yakima Basin Integrated Plan (YBIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Yoder, J.; Brady, M.; Stockle, C. O.

    2014-12-01

    As an important agricultural snowmelt-dominant watershed in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, the Yakima River basin (YRB) is projected to experience increasing water scarcity problems during the summer irrigation season. The system is already experiencing over-allocation with unmet irrigation entitlements occurring more frequently, resulting in negative consequences to YRB agriculture and therefore the economy of the region. Water storage management is one climate change adaptation strategy particularly applicable to snowmelt-dominant watersheds experiencing a shift of its water availability away from the summer irrigation season. These changes in conjunction with climate change will significantly change the availability of water for agriculture, thus impacting farmers' irrigation decisions. These decisions occur at multiple time scales, including capital investment to change irrigation technology (decadal), to distributing the seasonal allocation of water in a projected drought year (seasonal), to deficit irrigating crops (daily to weekly). The Yakima Basin Integrated Water Resource Management Plan (YBIP) aims to improve the availability of water for agriculture, fish, and communities through a number of projects, including additional or modification of physical infrastructure. Our objective is to reduce the vulnerability of irrigated agriculture in the YRB to climate change through exploring changes in irrigation management strategies in response to implementation of each phase of YBIP. We apply VIC-CropSyst (a newly coupled hydrological/cropping model) and Yakima RiverWare (a water management model) to explore the relationships between climate, hydrology, crop growth and phenology, irrigation management, and YBIP implementation. Results suggest the importance of irrigation management strategies in YRB and indicate that if irrigation strategies are modified in response to changes in physical infrastructure, significant enhancements to instream

  3. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  4. Kelp Forests versus Urchin Barrens: Alternate Stable States and Their Effect on Sea Otter Prey Quality in the Aleutian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgal and urchin barren communities are alternately stable and persist in the Aleutians due to sea otter presence and absence. In the early 1990s a rapid otter population decline released urchins from predation and caused a shift to the urchin-dominated state. Despite increases in urchin abundance, otter numbers continued to decline. Although debated, prey quality changes have been implicated in current otter population status. This study examined otter prey abundance, size, biomass, and potential energy density in remnant kelp forest and urchin-dominated communities to determine if alternate stable states affect prey quality. Findings suggest that although urchin barrens provide more abundant urchin prey, individual urchins are smaller and provide lower biomass and potential energy density compared to kelp forests. Shifts to urchin barrens do affect prey quality but changes are likely compensated by increased prey densities and are insufficient in explaining current otter population status in the Aleutians.

  5. Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock in the Southeastern Aleutian Basin near Bogoslof Island (DY0903, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Midwater Assessment and Conservation Engineering (MACE) program of NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC)...

  6. Comprehensive study of the seismotectonics of the Aleutian Arc. Annual progress report, March 1, 1975--February 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.N.; House, L.; Jacob, K.H.; Bilham, R.; Cormier, V.F.; Kienle, J.

    1976-01-01

    Seismological and geodetic research performed during the past contract year has increased our understanding of the seismotectonics of the eastern Aleutian Island Arc. While generally aimed at producing a coherent theory for the evaluation of the entire arc, our research has focused on the Shumagin Islands seismic gap, a region within which a major earthquake is expected in the not too distant future. Basic seismological data were collected to investigate certain earthquake prediction techniques.

  7. Development of a Network-Based Information Infrastructure for Fisheries and Hydropower Information in the Columbia River Basin : Final Project Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary E.; Perkins, Bill

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this project was to help develop technology and a unified structure to access and disseminate information related to the Bonneville Power Administration's fish and wildlife responsibility in the Pacific Northwest. BPA desires to increase access to, and exchange of, information produced by the Environment Fish, and Wildlife Group in concert with regional partners. Historically, data and information have been managed through numerous centralized, controlled information systems. Fisheries information has been fragmented and not widely exchanged. Where exchange has occurred, it often is not timely enough to allow resource managers to effectively use the information to guide planning and decision making. This project (and related projects) have successfully developed and piloted a network-based infrastructure that will serve as a vehicle to transparently connect existing information systems in a manner that makes information exchange efficient and inexpensive. This project was designed to provide a mechanism to help BPA address measures in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife program: 3.2H Disseminate Research and Monitoring Information and 5.1A.5 manage water supplies in accordance with the Annual Implementation Work Plan. This project also provided resources that can be used to assist monitoring and evaluation of the Program.

  8. Development of a network-based information infrastructure for fisheries and hydropower information in the Columbia River Basin : Final project report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary E.; Perkins, Bill

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this project was to help develop technology and a unified structure to access and disseminate information related to the Bonneville Power Administration's fish and wildlife responsibility in the Pacific Northwest. BPA desires to increase access to, and exchange of, information produced by the Environment Fish, and Wildlife Group in concert with regional partners. Historically, data and information have been managed through numerous centralized, controlled information systems. Fisheries information has been fragmented and not widely exchanged. Where exchange has occurred, it often is not timely enough to allow resource managers to effectively use the information to guide planning and decision making. This project (and related projects) have successfully developed and piloted a network-based infrastructure that will serve as a vehicle to transparently connect existing information systems in a manner that makes information exchange efficient and inexpensive. This project was designed to provide a mechanism to help BPA address measures in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife program: 3.2H Disseminate Research and Monitoring Information and 5.1A.5 manage water supplies in accordance with the Annual Implementation Work Plan. This project also provided resources that can be used to assist monitoring and evaluation of the Program

  9. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Review and analysis of available pesticide information, 1968-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, R.L.; Brown, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin study unit was among the first 20 study units in which work began under full-scale program implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. A retrospective assessment was undertaken to review and analyze existing pesticide data and related environmental factors. Population and land-use data indicate human modifications to the landscape and hydrologic system of the study area during the period 1968–91. A variety of crops treated with pesticides were identified, with wheat and cotton accounting for the largest number of acres treated annually (541,250 and 519,870 acres, respectively). Agricultural-use estimates for the later period covered by this report (1988–90) indicate that 105 different pesticides were used and that 24 pesticides accounted for 75 percent of average agricultural use in the study area. Sorghum was treated by the largest number of the 24 mostused pesticides, and cotton was treated by the second largest number of those pesticides. Dimethoate and methyl parathion were the most heavily used of the organophosphate class pesticides. The herbicide 2,4–D was the most heavily used chlorophenoxy pesticide. Carbamate pesticides are used extensively in the study area, with carbaryl, carbofuran, methomyl, and thiodicarb accounting for the majority of the use of this class of pesticide. Miscellaneous pesticides included alachlor, arsenic acid, picloram, and glyphosate, among others. The data indicate that herbicide use generally is proportionally higher in the study area than in the Nation, and that insecticide use in the study area generally is proportionally lower than in the Nation.

  10. (Dahomey) Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    13 km maximum width in the onshore at the basin axis along Nigerian and Republic of Benin boundary. This narrows westwards and eastwards to about 5 km (Coker and Ejedawe, 1987; Coker,. 2002). Detailed geology, evolution, stratigraphy and hydrocarbon occurrence of the basin have been described by Jones and ...

  11. Sr and O isotopes in western Aleutian seafloor lavas: Implications for the source of fluids and trace element character of arc volcanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Kelemen, Peter B.; Hoernle, Kaj; Brown, Shaun T.; Bindeman, Ilya; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Portnyagin, Maxim; Werner, Reinhard

    2017-10-01

    High Mg# andesites and dacites (Mg# = molar Mg/Mg + Fe) from western Aleutian seafloor volcanoes carry high concentrations of Sr (>1000 ppm) that is unradiogenic (87Sr/86Sr 0.7030). Data patterns in plots of 87Sr/86Sr vs Y/Sr and Nd/Sr imply the existence of an eclogite-melt source component - formed by partial melting of MORB eclogite in the subducting Pacific Plate - which is most clearly expressed in the compositions of western Aleutian andesites and dacites (Nd/Sr and Y/Sr important source of Sr because mixtures of fluids from altered oceanic crust with depleted mantle and sediment produce compositions with 87Sr/86Sr higher than in common Aleutian rocks. The unradiogenic nature of Sr in the western Aleutian andesite-dacite end-member may be understood if H2O required to drive melting of the subducting oceanic crust is transported in fluids containing little Sr. Mass balance demonstrates that such fluids may be produced by dewatering of serpentinite in the mantle section of the subducting plate. If the eclogite-melt source component is present throughout the Aleutian arc, melting of the subducting plate must extend into minimally altered parts of the sheeted dike section or upper gabbros, at depths >2 km below the paleo-seafloor. Oxygen isotopes in western Aleutian seafloor lavas, which fall within a narrow range of MORB-like values (δ18 O = 5.1- 5.7), are also consistent with this model. These results indicate that the subducting Pacific lithosphere beneath the Aleutian arc is significantly hotter than indicated my most thermal models.

  12. Evaluation of environmental information for the Unimak Pass Area, Alaska. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, J.C.; Craig, P.C.

    1986-12-01

    This report identifies and describes the important biological resources of the marine environment of the eastern Aleutian Island, Alaska, between 164 and 170/sup 0/W, and discusses the physical and chemical processes and components that support these resources. It evaluates the potential effects of oil and gas activities on the biota and identifies information needs. It is based solely on a review and analysis of existing information. The eastern Aleutian Islands passes are a major migration corridor between the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea for marine mammals, birds, and some fishes. Plankton is transported into the Bering Sea via island passes.

  13. The 11-year solar cycle, the 27-day Sun's rotation and the area of the stratospheric Aleutian high

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Soukharev

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the 11-year solar cycle on the 30-hPa geopotential height and temperature fields in the area of the Aleutian high caused by solar activity oscillations resulting from the Sun's rotation (27.2 d is investigated, applying methods of statistical cross-spectral analysis to daily data for the period from 1965 to 1998. The area of the stratospheric Aleutian high is considered as an 'indicator' of the solar influence on the winter stratosphere proceeding from the results by LABITZKE and VAN LOON (1988, and VAN LOON and LABITZKE (1990. An effect of the 11-year solar cycle on the response of the summer middle stratosphere to solar activity oscillations on the time scale of the Sun's rotation is not found. In contrast to summer, the atmospheric responses in winter demonstrate clear differences between maximum and minimum of the 11-year solar cycle for the 27.2 d solar rotation periodicity and for the two other oscillations of 29.4 d and 25.3 d, resulting from the modulation of the 27.2 d solar-induced periodicity by the annual atmospheric variation. The atmospheric response for the fourth periodicity studied, the 17 d oscillation, which is supposed to be a normal mode of the atmosphere, close to the known 16-day wave (MADDEN, 1978, also shows a clear dependence on the 11-year solar cycle. For all the periodicities studied the coherence between the 10.7 cm solar radio flux and the 30-hPa height/temperature fields in the Aleutian high area in winter is on the average stronger at maxima than at minima of the 11-year solar cycle. The corresponding amplitudes of the solar-induced geopotential height and temperature perturbations are also larger at high than at low solar activity, with the largest differences revealed at the moderate and polar latitudes. Thus, we conclude that the response of the winter 30-hPa height/temperature fields in the area of the Aleutian high to solar oscillations on the time scale of the Sun's rotation is on the average

  14. An introduced predator alters Aleutian Island plant communities by thwarting nutrient subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, J.L.; Estes, J.A.; Croll, D.A.; Danner, E.M.; Elmendorf, S.C.; Buckelew, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The ramifying effects of top predators on food webs traditionally have been studied within the framework of trophic cascades. Trophic cascades are compelling because they embody powerful indirect effects of predators on primary production. Although less studied, indirect effects of predators may occur via routes that are not exclusively trophic. We quantified how the introduction of foxes onto the Aleutian Islands transformed plant communities by reducing abundant seabird populations, thereby disrupting nutrient subsidies vectored by seabirds from sea to land. We compared soil and plant fertility, plant biomass and community composition, and stable isotopes of nitrogen in soil, plants, and other organisms on nine fox-infested and nine historically fox-free islands across the Aleutians. Additionally, we experimentally augmented nutrients on a fox-infested island to test whether differences in plant productivity and composition between fox-infested and fox-free islands could have arisen from differences in nutrient inputs between island types. Islands with historical fox infestations had soils low in phosphorus and nitrogen and plants low in tissue nitrogen. Soils, plants, slugs, flies, spiders, and bird droppings on these islands had low d15N values indicating that these organisms obtained nitrogen from internally derived sources. In contrast, soils, plants, and higher trophic level organisms on fox-free islands had elevated d15N signatures indicating that they utilized nutrients derived from the marine environment. Furthermore, soil phosphorus (but not nitrogen) and plant tissue nitrogen were higher on fox-free than fox-infested islands. Nutrient subsidized fox-free islands supported lush, high biomass plant communities dominated by graminoids. Fox-infested islands were less graminoid dominated and had higher cover and biomass of low-lying forbs and dwarf shrubs. While d15N profiles of soils and plants and graminoid biomass varied with island size and distance from

  15. Gabbroic and Peridotitic Enclaves from the 2008 Kasatochi Eruption, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, A.; Nadin, E. S.; Izbekov, P. E.; Nye, C. J.; Neill, O. K.

    2012-12-01

    Kasatochi volcano of the Andreanof Islands in the western Aleutian Arc violently erupted over a two day period from August 7-8, 2008. The eruption involved multiple explosive events generating pyroclastic flows, which included abundant mafic and ultramafic enclaves that have since weathered out and accumulated in talus along the coast. These and other mafic enclaves sampled by modern island arc lavas provide insight into subduction magmatism because they emerge from a section of the subduction system that is less likely than shallower zones to be modified by magmatic processes such as mixing, assimilation, or fractionation. We present new whole rock, clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, and melt compositions from Kasatochi enclaves of the 2008 eruption. The highly crystalline (~40 vol. % phenocryst content), medium-K basaltic andesite host rock contains ~52-55 wt. % SiO2 and 0.6-0.9 wt. % K2O, and is composed of plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene, amphibole, and Ti-magnetite in a microlite-rich groundmass. Upon eruption, this magma sampled two distinct enclave populations: gabbro and peridotite. The gabbro has abundant amphibole (mostly magnesio-hastingsite) and plagioclase with minor clinopyroxene, olivine, and magnetite, while the peridotite is composed of olivine with minor amounts of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. There is little textural variation amongst the peridotitic samples collected, but the gabbroic samples vary from layered to massive and cover a range in grain size from fine-grained to pegmatitic. The layered gabbros display centimeter-scale bands of alternating plagioclase- and amphibole-rich layers, with a strong preferential alignment of the amphibole grains. The coarser-grained samples are very friable, with ~10% pore space; disaggregation of these upon host-magma ascent likely formed the amphibole and plagioclase xenocrysts in the andesitic host. Based on the textural and compositional differences, we divide the enclaves into four groups

  16. Integrated universal soil loss equation (USLE and Geographical Information System (GIS for soil erosion estimation in A Sap basin: Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung Gia Pham

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Central Vietnam is very susceptible to soil erosion due to its complicated terrain and heavy rainfall. The objective of this study was to quantify soil erosion in the A Sap river basin, A Luoi district, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam, using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and Geographical Information System (GIS. The results showed that 34% of land area lost accumulated to 10 t ha−1 year−1 while 47% of the total area lost less than 1 t ha−1 year−1. Natural forest land lost the most with an average of about 19 t ha−1 year−1, followed by plantation forest with approximately 7 t ha−1 year−1 and other agricultural lands at 3.70 and 1.45 t ha−1 year−1 for yearly crops and paddy rice, respectively. Soil erosion was most sensitive to the topographic factor (LS, followed by the practice support factor (P, soil erodibility factor (K, cropping management (C, and the rainfall erosivity factor (R. Implications are that changes to the cultivated calendar and implementing intercropping are effective ways to prevent soil erosion in cultivated lands. Furthermore, introducing broad leaves trees for mountainous areas in A Sap basin was the most effective practice in reducing soil erosion. The study also pointed out that the combination of available data sources used with the USLE and GIS technology is a viable option to calculate soil erosion in Central Vietnam, which would allow targeted attention toward a solution is to reduce future soil erosion. Keywords: Central Vietnam, GIS, Soil erosion, USLE

  17. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, C.J. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Juneau, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  18. Comparative molecular analysis of strains of the Aleutian Disease Virus isolated from farmed and wild mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczak, Andrzej; Kowalczyk, Marek; Kostro, Krzysztof; Jezewska-Witkowska, Grazyna

    2017-09-21

    Aleutian Disease is a significant biological factor causing substantial losses in mink farming. The virus inducing the disease also infects wild populations which may constitute an asymptomatic reservoir. To compare genetic variants of the AMD virus occurring in wild and farmed mink populations, an analysis was performed on a fragment of the VP2 protein sequence of the virus infecting both populations, taken from different living environments. Genetic material was isolated from 11 farmed animals in which anti-AMDV antibodies had been detected and from 20 wild animals. The DNA obtained was amplified using primers specific for the fragment encoding the VP2 protein. The product obtained was sequenced and bioinformatic analysis was performed. Viral material was detected in 11 farmed and 7 free-living animals. Similarity of sequences averaged 99% within groups and 94% between groups. The sequencing results made it possible to identify characteristic changes for each group. In the isolates from the wild animals, the following changes were observed in the epitope region with respect to the reference sequence: C3704T, G3710A, T3722C, T3746C and A3749G. In the isolates from the farmed animals a G3779A transition was noted. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the variants infecting the two groups occupy separate branches of the phylogenetic tree. The variants of the virus infecting the two groups may have a common origin, but at present they constitute two separate groups, with characteristic differences making it possible to recognize their genotype.

  19. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover.

  20. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  1. A WebGIS service for managing, sharing and communicating information on mountain risks: a pilot study at the Barcelonnette Basin (South French Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Simone; Skupinski, Grzegorz; Kappes, Melanie; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Puissant, Anne

    2010-05-01

    Integrative analysis, assessment and management of mountain hazards and risks require (1) the intense cooperation among scientists, local practitioners and stakeholders, (2) the compilation of multi-source GIS database on both the sources of the dangers and their impacts, and (3) the communication of scientific results which is still a challenge. Within the European project Mountain Risks and the French-research initiative OMIV (Multi-disciplinary Observatory on Slope Instabilities; http://eost.u-strasbg.fr/omiv), several approaches are under development aiming at a coherent communication of scientific results to the population in order to inform about hazards and risks and support practical risk management measures. A simple and user-friendly approach with a visual-web-based interface is proposed, able (1) to incorporate geographical information on past events and on controlling factors, (2) to include administrative boundaries and official risk regulation maps, and(3) to integrate all modeling results obtained in the study area (already performed or in progress). The possibility to share information by means of web services offers a double utility: firstly it is a way to decrease the gap between scientific community's results and stakeholders' practical needs (simple interface, easy-to-use buttons in a generally user-friendly approach). Secondly the wide collection of diverse information (records of historical events, conditioning and triggering factors, information on elements at risk and their vulnerability, modeling results) in combination with the possibility of comparison among the data offers a great support in the decision-making process. As first case study, the Barcelonnette Basin (South French Alps) has been chosen for the pilot development of the interface. The objective is to organize, manage and share a wide range of information and calibrate a correct web-service solution. Several steps are planned to achieve this goal: the creation of a

  2. A Two-Stage Information-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Landscape-Level Attributes and Maximum Recruitment of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    2000-11-01

    Many anadromous salmonid stocks in the Pacific Northwest are at their lowest recorded levels, which has raised questions regarding their long-term persistence under current conditions. There are a number of factors, such as freshwater spawning and rearing habitat, that could potentially influence their numbers. Therefore, we used the latest advances in information-theoretic methods in a two-stage modeling process to investigate relationships between landscape-level habitat attributes and maximum recruitment of 25 index stocks of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin. Our first-stage model selection results indicated that the Ricker-type, stock recruitment model with a constant Ricker a (i.e., recruits-per-spawner at low numbers of fish) across stocks was the only plausible one given these data, which contrasted with previous unpublished findings. Our second-stage results revealed that maximum recruitment of chinook salmon had a strongly negative relationship with percentage of surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and private moderate-high impact managed forest. That is, our model predicted that average maximum recruitment of chinook salmon would decrease by at least 247 fish for every increase of 33% in surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and privately managed forest. Conversely, mean annual air temperature had a positive relationship with salmon maximum recruitment, with an average increase of at least 179 fish for every increase in 2 C mean annual air temperature.

  3. Shelf-basin Exchange in the Bering Canyon in Southeastern Bering Sea: Role of Unimak Pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W.; Ladd, C. A.; Hermann, A. J.; Stabeno, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    Shelf-basin exchanges in the southeastern Bering Sea have significant implications for primary production on the Bering Sea shelf; yet, the mechanisms controlling such exchange are not well understood. One area with potentially enhanced cross-shelf transport is the Bering Canyon, where flow through the relatively shallow Unimak Pass meets and interacts with the Aleutian North Slope Current (ANSC). As a result, the ocean circulation and water properties in the area are influenced by local as well as remote wind forcing, ocean bathymetry, tides, and exhibit high spatial and temporal variability on multiple scales. In this study, we use ocean in situ measurement and numerical modeling to examine processes influencing shelf-basin exchange in the Bering Canyon. Results thus far suggest that on seasonal and longer time scales, the onshore flow across the Bering Canyon left rim is influenced by the Unimak pass transport, and to a lesser extent by the transport associated with the ANSC. Both Unimak Pass transport and ANSC transport are highly correlated with the along-shore wind stress south of the Aleutian Island Chain, but the Unimak Pass transport responds faster to the along-shore wind forcing by a month. These results highlight the importance of Unimak Pass in influencing the regional circulation and on-shelf transport. Numerical experimentation will be used to further elucidate the effects of tidal mixing and advection associated with Unimak Pass.

  4. The Mekong Fish Network: expanding the capacity of the people and institutions of the Mekong River Basin to share information and conduct standardized fisheries monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricio, Harmony C.; Ainsley, Shaara M.; Andersen, Matthew E.; Beeman, John W.; Hewitt, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong River is one of the most biologically diverse rivers in the world, and it supports the most productive freshwater fisheries in the world. Millions of people in the Lower Mekong River Basin (LMB) countries of the Union of Myanmar (Burma), Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Kingdom of Thailand, the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam rely on the fisheries of the basin to provide a source of protein. The Mekong Fish Network Workshop was convened in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in February 2012 to discuss the potential for coordinating fisheries monitoring among nations and the utility of establishing standard methods for short- and long-term monitoring and data sharing throughout the LMB. The concept for this network developed out of a frequently cited need for fisheries researchers in the LMB to share their knowledge with other scientists and decisionmakers. A fish monitoring network could be a valuable forum for researchers to exchange ideas, store data, or access general information regarding fisheries studies in the LMB region. At the workshop, representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations, and universities, as well as participating foreign technical experts, cited a great need for more international cooperation and technical support among them. Given the limited staff and resources of many institutions in the LMB, the success of the proposed network would depend on whether it could offer tools that would provide benefits to network participants. A potential tool discussed at the workshop was a user-friendly, Web-accessible portal and database that could help streamline data entry and storage at the institutional level, as well as facilitate communication and data sharing among institutions. The workshop provided a consensus to establish pilot standardized data collection and database efforts that will be further reviewed by the workshop participants. Overall, workshop participants agreed that this is the type of

  5. Implementation and validation of a sensitive PCR detection method in the eradication campaign against Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a severe progressive disease causing multiple different clinical syndromes in mink. In Denmark, the disease is notifiable and under official control. The control programme, based on serological screening, has confined successfully AMDV to the northern part...... of Denmark. However, re-infections and new introductions of virus into farms require a confirmatory virological test to verify the positive test results of single animals and ultimately to investigate disease transmission. A one step PCR amplifying a 374-base fragment of the NS1 gene of AMDV was compared...

  6. Objective Tracking of Tropical Cyclones in the North-West Pacific Basin Based on Wind Field Information only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, G. C.; Befort, D. J.; Kruschke, T.

    2016-12-01

    Although only ca. 12% of the global insured losses of natural disasters occurred in Asia, there are two major reasons to be concerned about risks in Asia: a) The fraction of loss events was substantial higher with 39% of which 94% were due to atmospheric processes; b) Asia and especially China, is undergoing quick transitions and especially the insurance market is rapidly growing. In order to allow for the estimation of potential future (loss) impacts in East-Asia, in this study we further developed and applied a feature tracking system based on extreme wind speed occurrences to tropical cyclones, which was originally developed for extra-tropical cyclones (Leckebusch et al., 2008). In principle, wind fields will be identified and tracked once a coherent exceedance of local percentile thresholds is identified. The focus on severe wind impact will allow an objective link between the strength of a cyclone and its potential damages over land. The wind tracking is developed in such a way to be applicable also to course-gridded AOGCM simulation. In the presented configuration the wind tracking algorithm is applied to the Japanese reanalysis (JRA55) and TC Identification is based on 850hPa wind speeds (6h resolution) from 1979 to 2014 over the Western North Pacific region. For validation the IBTrACS Best Track archive version v03r8 is used. Out of all 904 observed tracks, about 62% can be matched to at least one windstorm event identified in JRA55. It is found that the relative amount of matched best tracks increases with the maximum intensity. Thus, a positive matching (hit rate) of above 98% for Violent Typhoons (VTY), above 90% for Very Strong Typhoons (VSTY), about 75% for Typhoons (TY), and still some 50% for less intense TCs (TD, TS, STS) is found. This result is extremely encouraging to apply this technique to AOGCM outputs and to derive information about affected regions and intensity-frequency distributions potentially changed under future climate conditions.

  7. Volcanic and Tectonic Deformation of Unimak Island in the Aleutian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, D.; Freymueller, J. T.

    2001-12-01

    Unimak Island is located in the central part of the Alaska-Aleutian Arc. It hosts several volcanoes and is part of a complex tectonic setting. It is one of the target areas for the proposed Plate Boundary Observatory. We present results from GPS surveys investigating volcanic and tectonic deformation on the island. Westdahl volcano, at the southwest end of the island, last erupted in 1991-1992. GPS surveys conducted between 1998 and 2001 show radial displacement and general uplift of the volcanic edifice, indicating inflation. The inflation source is modeled to be at 9 km depth beneath the summit, producing a subsurface volume change of approximately 0.04 km^{3}/year. This is in agreement with previous results from INSAR studies betwen 1993 and 1998, and shows that Westdahl has been inflating continuously for almost 10 years now. Neighbouring Fisher Caldera has not had recent significant eruptions, but it does have an active hydrothermal system. The GPS data show subsidence of the caldera floor up to 20 mm/year between 1999 and 2001, and horizontal shortening across the center. In the eastern part of Unimak Island, GPS data indicate that there is no strain accumulation across the arc. This is the same scenario as for the western Shumagin section of the arc extending to the northeast. The situation is different at the western end of Unimak. This area is part of the rupture zone of the 1957 M_{W}$9.1 earthquake, and strain accumulation currently causes surface deformation. Elastic dislocation modeling is used to constrain the interseismic coupling. The boundary between the uncoupled segment and the coupled segment is probably close to the western end of the island.

  8. Volcanic and tectonic deformation on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Arc, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, DöRte; Freymueller, Jeffrey

    2003-02-01

    GPS measurements on Unimak Island in the eastern Aleutian arc between 1998 and 2001 show deformation of Westdahl volcano and Fisher caldera. Westdahl is inflating, with the best fit point source located at 7.2-1.2+ 2.3 km depth and a volume change rate of 6.7-1.8+ 3.3 × 106 m3 yr-1. The GPS data indicate that inflation may have slowed down slightly compared with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations between 1993 and 1998. The accumulated subsurface volume increase during the GPS and InSAR observation period (1993-2001), ˜70 × 106 m3, already accounts for at least 15% more than the erupted volume from the last eruption in 1991-1992. Fisher caldera shows subsidence and contraction across the caldera center. The data are fit best with a rectangular dislocation source at a shallow depth. It is 14 km long and 0.5 km wide, dips 80° to the NW, and strikes N35°E, with rather large uncertainties for most of these parameters. Its volume decrease is 2.0 × 106 m3yr-1. The main mechanisms to explain the subsidence and contraction are degassing and contractional cooling of a shallow magma body and depressurization of Fisher's hydrothermal system, possibly triggered by an earthquake in 1999. At the 95% confidence level, no significant strain accumulation due to subduction is observed across the entire island. The low coupling across the rupture zone of the 1946 earthquake is a strong argument for the idea that the earthquake and tsunami did not result from a purely double-couple (earthquake) source.

  9. Temporal variation in fish mercury concentrations within lakes from the western Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah A Kenney

    Full Text Available We assessed temporal variation in mercury (Hg concentrations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus from Agattu Island, Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Total Hg concentrations in whole-bodied stickleback were measured at two-week intervals from two sites in each of two lakes from June 1 to August 10, 2011 during the time period when lakes were ice-free. Across all sites and sampling events, stickleback Hg concentrations ranged from 0.37-1.07 µg/g dry weight (dw, with a mean (± SE of 0.55 ± 0.01 µg/g dw. Mean fish Hg concentrations declined by 9% during the study period, from 0.57 ± 0.01 µg/g dw in early June to 0.52 ± 0.01 µg/g dw in mid-August. Mean fish Hg concentrations were 6% higher in Loon Lake (0.56 ± 0.01 µg/g dw than in Lake 696 (0.53 ± 0.01 µg/g dw, and 4% higher in males (0.56 ± 0.01 µg/g dw than in females (0.54 ± 0.01 µg/g dw. Loon Lake was distinguished from Lake 696 by the presence of piscivorous waterbirds during the breeding season. Mercury concentrations in stickleback from Agattu Island were higher than would be expected for an area without known point sources of Hg pollution, and high enough to be of concern to the health of piscivorous wildlife.

  10. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  11. Distribution of Aleutian mink disease virus contamination in the environment of infected mink farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, A; Fernández-Antonio, R; Díaz-Cao, J M; López, G; Díaz, P; Alonso, J M; Morrondo, P; Fernández, G

    2017-05-01

    Control and eradication of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) are a major concern for fur-bearing animal production. Despite notably reducing disease prevalence, current control programs are unable to prevent the reinfection of farms, and environmental AMDV persistence seems to play a major role regarding this issue. In this study 114 samples from different areas and elements of seven infected mink farms were analyzed by qPCR in order to evaluate the environmental distribution of AMDV load. Samples were classified into nine categories, depending on the type of sample and degree of proximity to the animals, the main source of infection. Two different commercial DNA extraction kits were employed in parallel for all samples. qPCR analysis showed 69.3% positive samples with one kit and 81.6% with the other, and significant differences between the two DNA extraction methods were found regarding AMDV DNA recovery. Regarding sample categorization, all categories showed a high percentage of AMDV positive samples (31%-100%). Quantification of positive samples showed a decrease in AMDV load from animal barns to the periphery of the farm. In addition, those elements in direct contact with animals, the street clothes and vehicles of farm workers and personal protective equipment used for sampling showed a high viral load, and statistical analysis revealed significant differences in AMDV load between the first and last categories. These results indicate high environmental contamination of positive farms, which is helpful for future considerations about cleaning and disinfection procedures and biosecurity protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SURFACE REMEDIATION IN THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: A CASE STUDY OF AMCHITKA ISLAND, ALASKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giblin, M. O.; Stahl, D. C.; Bechtel, J. A.

    2002-02-25

    Amchitka Island, Alaska, was at one time an integral player in the nation's defense program. Located in the North Pacific Ocean in the Aleutian Island archipelago, the island was intermittently inhabited by several key government agencies, including the U.S. Army, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy), and the U.S. Navy. Since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted extensive investigations on Amchitka to determine the nature and extent of contamination resulting from historic nuclear testing. The uninhabited island was the site of three high-yield nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. These test locations are now part of the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's Environmental Management Program. In the summer of 2001, the DOE launched a large-scale remediation effort on Amchitka to perform agreed-upon corrective actions to the surface of the island. Due to the lack of resources available on Amchitka and logistical difficulties with conducting work at such a remote location, the DOE partnered with the Navy and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to share certain specified costs and resources. Attempting to negotiate the partnerships while organizing and implementing the surface remediation on Amchitka proved to be a challenging endeavor. The DOE was faced with unexpected changes in Navy and USACE scope of work, accelerations in schedules, and risks associated with construction costs at such a remote location. Unfavorable weather conditions also proved to be a constant factor, often slowing the progress of work. The Amchitka Island remediation project experience has allowed the DOE to gain valuable insights into how to anticipate and mitigate potential problems associated with future remediation projects. These lessons learned will help the DOE in conducting future work more efficiently, and can also serve as a guide for other agencies performing similar

  13. Regionalizing indicators for marine ecosystems: Bering Sea–Aleutian Island seabirds, climate, and competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydeman, William J.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Piatt, John F.; García-Reyes, Marisol; Zador, Stephani; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Romano, Marc; Renner, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Seabirds are thought to be reliable, real-time indicators of forage fish availability and the climatic and biotic factors affecting pelagic food webs in marine ecosystems. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that temporal trends and interannual variability in seabird indicators reflect simultaneously occurring bottom-up (climatic) and competitor (pink salmon) forcing of food webs. To test this hypothesis, we derived multivariate seabird indicators for the Bering Sea–Aleutian Island (BSAI) ecosystem and related them to physical and biological conditions known to affect pelagic food webs in the ecosystem. We examined covariance in the breeding biology of congeneric pelagic gulls (kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla and R. brevirostris) andauks (murres Uria aalge and U. lomvia), all of whichare abundant and well-studiedinthe BSAI. At the large ecosystem scale, kittiwake and murre breeding success and phenology (hatch dates) covaried among congeners, so data could be combined using multivariate techniques, but patterns of responsedifferedsubstantially betweenthe genera.Whiledata fromall sites (n = 5)inthe ecosystemcould be combined, the south eastern Bering Sea shelf colonies (St. George, St. Paul, and Cape Peirce) provided the strongest loadings on indicators, and hence had the strongest influence on modes of variability. The kittiwake breeding success mode of variability, dominated by biennial variation, was significantly related to both climatic factors and potential competitor interactions. The murre indicator mode was interannual and only weakly related to the climatic factors measured. The kittiwake phenology indicator mode of variability showed multi-year periods (“stanzas”) of late or early breeding, while the murre phenology indicator showed a trend towards earlier timing. Ocean climate relationships with the kittiwake breeding success indicator suggestthat early-season (winter–spring) environmental conditions and the abundance of pink salmon affect the

  14. Slow Earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone Detected by Multiple Mini Seismic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, B.; Ghosh, A.; Thurber, C. H.; Lanza, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone is one of the most seismically and volcanically active plate boundaries on earth. Compared to other subduction zones, the slow earthquakes, such as tectonic tremors (TTs) and low frequency earthquakes (LFEs), are relatively poorly studied due to the limited data availability and difficult logistics. The analysis of two-months of continuous data from a mini array deployed in 2012 shows abundant tremor and LFE activities under Unalaska Island that is heterogeneously distributed [Li & Ghosh, 2017]. To better study slow earthquakes and understand their physical characteristics in the study region, we deployed a hybrid array of arrays, consisting of three well-designed mini seismic arrays and five stand alone stations, in the Unalaska Island in 2014. They were operational for between one and two years. Using the beam back-projection method [Ghosh et al., 2009, 2012], we detect continuous tremor activities for over a year when all three arrays are running. The sources of tremors are located south of the Unalaska and Akutan Islands, at the eastern and down-dip edge of the rupture zone of the 1957 Mw 8.6 earthquake, and they are clustered in several patches, with a gap between the two major clusters. Tremors show multiple migration patterns with propagation in both along-strike and dip directions and a wide range of velocities. We also identify tens of LFE families and use them as templates to search for repeating LFE events with the matched-filter method. Hundreds to thousands of LFEs for each family are detected and their activities are spatiotemporally consistent with tremor activities. The array techniques are revealing a near-continuous tremor activity in this area with remarkable spatiotemporal details. It helps us to better recognize the physical properties of the transition zone, provides new insights into the slow earthquake activities in this area, and explores their relation with the local earthquakes and the potential slow

  15. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Estes, J.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Forsman, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993–1994 and 2000–2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993–1994 to 2000–2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex

  16. Indirect food web interactions: Sea otters and kelp forest fishes in the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisewitz, S.E.; Estes, J.A.; Simenstad, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although trophic cascades - the effect of apex predators on progressively lower trophic level species through top-down forcing - have been demonstrated in diverse ecosystems, the broader potential influences of trophic cascades on other species and ecosystem processes are not well studied. We used the overexploitation, recovery and subsequent collapse of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in the Aleutian archipelago to explore if and how the abundance and diet of kelp forest fishes are influenced by a trophic cascade linking sea otters with sea urchins and fleshy macroalgae. We measured the abundance of sea urchins (biomass density), kelp (numerical density) and fish (Catch per unit effort) at four islands in the mid-1980s (when otters were abundant at two of the islands and rare at the two others) and in 2000 (after otters had become rare at all four islands). Our fish studies focused on rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus), the numerically dominant species in this region. In the mid-1980s, the two islands with high-density otter populations supported dense kelp forests, relatively few urchins, and abundant rock greenling whereas the opposite pattern (abundant urchins, sparse kelp forests, and relatively few rock greenling) occurred at islands where otters were rare. In the 2000, the abundances of urchins, kelp and greenling were grossly unchanged at islands where otters were initially rare but had shifted to the characteristic pattern of otter-free systems at islands where otters were initially abundant. Significant changes in greenling diet occurred between the mid-1980s and the 2000 although the reasons for these changes were difficult to assess because of strong island-specific effects. Whereas urchin-dominated communities supported more diverse fish assemblages than kelp-dominated communities, this was not a simple effect of the otter-induced trophic cascade because all islands supported more diverse fish assemblages in 2000 than in the mid-1980s

  17. Organochlorine contaminants in fishes from coastal waters west of Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Estes, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorines were examined in liver and stable isotopes in muscle of fishes from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in relation to islands or locations affected by military occupation. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) were collected from nearshore waters at contemporary (decommissioned) and historical (World War II) military locations, as well as at reference locations. Total (Σ) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated the suite of organochlorine groups (ΣDDTs, Σchlordane cyclodienes, Σother cyclodienes, and Σchlorinated benzenes and cyclohexanes) detected in fishes at all locations, followed by ΣDDTs and Σchlordanes; dichlorodiphenyldi-chloroethylene (p,p′DDE) composed 52 to 66% of ΣDDTs by species. Organochlorine concentrations were higher or similar in cod compared to halibut and lowest in greenling; they were among the highest for fishes in Arctic or near Arctic waters. Organochlorine group concentrations varied among species and locations, but ΣPCB concentrations in all species were consistently higher at military locations than at reference locations. Moreover, all organochlorine group concentrations were higher in halibut from military locations than those from reference locations. A wide range of molecular weight organochlorines was detected at all locations, which implied regional or long-range transport and deposition, as well as local point-source contamination. Furthermore, a preponderance of higher-chlorinated PCB congeners in fishes from contemporary military islands implied recent exposure. Concentrations in all organochlorine groups increased with δ15N enrichment in fishes, and analyses of residual variation provided further evidence of different sources of ΣPCBs and p,p′DDE among species and locations.

  18. Science informed water resources decision-making: Examples using remote sensing observations in East Africa, the Lower Mekong Basin and the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N.; Farr, T. G.; Ines, A. V. M.; Jayasinghe, S.; Jones, C. E.; Melton, F. S.; Ndungu, L. W.; Lai-Norling, J.; Painter, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Across the globe, planners and decision makers are often hampered by organizational and data silos and/or a lack of historic data or scant in situ observations on which to base policy and action plans. The end result is a complex interaction of responsibilities, legal frameworks, and stakeholder needs guided by uncertain information that is essentially bounded by how climate extremes are defined and characterized. Because of the importance of water, considerable resources in the developing and developed world are invested in data and tools for managing water. However, the existing paradigm of water management around the world faces significant challenges including inadequate funding to install, maintain or upgrade monitoring networks, lack of resources to integrate new science and data sources into existing tools, and demands for improved spatial coverage of observations. Add to this, a changing hydrology that is so complex it requires measurements and analyses that have never been done before. Interest in applying remote sensing science and observations into the decision making process is growing the world over, but in order to succeed, it is essential to form partnerships with stakeholder organizations and decision makers at the outset. In this talk, we describe examples of succesful decision-maker and science partnering based on projects that apply remote sensing science and observations in East Africa and the Lower Mekong Basin supported by the SERVIR Initiative, a joint United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program, and projects in the western United States supported by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Western Water Applications Office (WWAO). All of these examples have benefitted from strong, committed partnerships with end user agencies. Best practices and lessons learned in connecting science to decision making amongst these examples are explored.

  19. Amplification of drawdown and runup over Hawaii's insular shelves by tsunami N-waves from mega Aleutian earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yefei; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Cheung, Kwok Fai

    2018-04-01

    The latest tsunami evacuation maps of Hawaii include an extreme scenario triggered by an Mw 9.3 Aleutian earthquake with large near-trench rupture. The tectonic plate motion produces concentrated seafloor uplift toward the deepest part of the trench generating a tsunami with strong non-hydrostatic characters. A parametric study shows the skewed seafloor uplift produces a dispersive leading crest followed by a prominent trough in the form of an N-wave. The trough maintains its depth across the ocean in the absence of side lobes and dispersion. Shifting of the uplift toward the trench tends to deepen the trough, but has diminishing effects on the wave crest away from the source. While the attenuated leading crest produces relatively moderate runup on north-facing shores of the Hawaiian Islands, with matching of the N-wave and shelf resonance periods, the trough produces an impulsive drawdown followed by an energetic upswing with unprecedented runup for a far-field tsunami. A set of control computations without dispersion reaffirms that a non-hydrostatic model is essential to account for these complex wave processes from the source to the shore. This case study highlights the unique tsunami hazards posed by the Aleutians to Hawaii and the role of wave troughs in delineating the impacts for hazard assessment and engineering design.

  20. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  1. A spatial-seasonal analysis of the oiling risk from shipping traffic to seabirds in the Aleutian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Martin; Kuletz, Kathy J

    2015-12-15

    Some of the largest seabird concentrations in the northern hemisphere are intersected by major shipping routes in the Aleutian Archipelago. Risk is the product of the probability and the severity incidents in an area. We build a seasonally explicit model of seabird distribution and combine the densities of seabirds with an oil vulnerability index. We use shipping density, as a proxy for the probability of oil spills from shipping accident (or the intensity chronic oil pollution). We find high-risk (above-average seabird and vessel density) areas around Unimak Pass, south of the Alaska Peninsula, near Buldir Island, and north of Attu Island. Risk to seabirds is greater during summer than during winter, but the month of peak risk (May/July) varies depending on how data is analyzed. The area around Unimak Pass stands out for being at high-risk year-round, whereas passes in the western Aleutians are at high risk mostly during summer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structure of an island-arc: Wide-angle seismic studies in the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, Moritz M.; Klemperer, Simon L.

    1999-05-01

    New seismic wide-angle data from the eastern Aleutian Islands show a mafic composition and a 30-km-thick island-arc crust. Traveltimes of P and S refracted arrivals and prominent crustal and mantle reflectors observed to offsets of over 300 km were used to derive velocity models for the eastern Aleutian Arc between the islands of Atka and Unimak using a three-dimensional finite difference modeling and tomography code. We interpret the highest crustal P wave velocities of 7.2-7.4 km/s between about 12 and about 22 km depth to the south and north of the main volcanic line as remainders of preexisting oceanic crust into which arc magma is intruded. Apart from the pieces of oceanic crust, the velocities suggest an overall mafic composition for the arc, composed mainly of metabasalts, diorite and diabase in the upper crust, and garnet-granulite or amphibolite-to-hornblendite in the lower crust. Reflected arrivals from the subducting Pacific plate at depths of 45-55 km beneath the fore-arc, together with Pn, show a mantle wedge with P wave velocities as low as 7.4 km/s, increasing with depth to about 8.1 km/s with an average of about 7.7 km/s. A mantle composition that grades from mainly pyroxenite (probably ultramafic cumulates) near the Moho to dunite at greater depths best explains these observed velocities.

  3. Hazard communication by the Alaska Volcano Observatory Concerning the 2008 Eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, J. N.; Cameron, C. E.; Neal, T. A.; Shipman, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska, the number of calls to Ops, emails to the webmaster, and the amount of data served via the AVO website greatly increased during elevated volcanic activity designated by the USGS aviation color code and volcano alert level. Lessons learned include, Ops staffing requirements during periods of high call volume, the need for ash fall hazard information in multiple languages, and the value of real-time observations of remote Aleutian eruptions made by local mariners. An important theme of public inquiries concerned the amount and potential climate impacts of the significant sulfur dioxide gas and ash plumes emitted by Okmok and Kasatochi, including specific questions on the amount of sulfur dioxide discharged during each eruption. The significant plumes produced at the onset of the Okmok and Kasatochi eruptions also had lengthy national and international aviation impacts and yet-to-be resolved hemispherical or possible global, climactic effects.

  4. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: Transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus the same cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bloom, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases, Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease, In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic...

  5. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based calculation on hydrocarbon generated volume: Amazon Basin example; O uso de SIG no calculo de hidrocarbonetos gerados: exemplo da Bacia do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrinha, Saulo; Simoes, Leonardo; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Carneiro, Jason T.G. [Petroleum Geoscience Technology Ltda. (PGT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The calculation of the volume of hydrocarbons generated from a particular source rock a sedimentary basin provides numerical data that help to better describe the petroleum system, and evaluate its potential. Among the various methodologies developed for calculating the volume of oil there is a proposal by Schmoker (1994), which has the advantage to take into account the occurrence of the source rock area in the basin, and the spatial variations in the main geological parameters. Using the tools of a GIS, through the manipulation of georeferred maps, it is possible to calculate the volume of oil generated in a way that would be virtually impossible by using punctual data, only. Even the discretiation maps in minors areas allows, via attribute table in the GIS, the application of a Monte Carlo simulation, which allows to incorporate all the uncertainties related to the input data in the calculation, obtaining distributions of volumes associated with various parts of the final map being integrated throughout the basin. Isopac and maturation maps (Gonzaga et al., 2000), along with TOC data from Barreirinha formation, Amazon Basin, have been scanned and georeferred and, once in the GIS database, were treated in order to spatially distribute the geological properties of the source rock. Then, such maps were handled in accordance with Schmoker (1994) method, leading to a map of mass and distribution of oil generated in the basin at the regional scale. (author)

  6. Scrubbing masks magmatic degassing during repose at Cascade-Range and Aleutian-Arc volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Robert B.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, William C.; Ritchie, B.E.; Counce, Dale; Poreda, R.J.; Iven, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Between 1992 and 1998, we sampled gas discharges from ≤173°C fumaroles and springs at 12 quiescent but potentially restless volcanoes in the Cascade Range and Aleutian Arc (CRAA) including Mount Shasta, Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Augustine Volcano, Mount Griggs, Trident, Mount Mageik, Aniakchak Crater, Akutan, and Makushin. For each site, we collected and analyzed samples to characterize the chemical (H2O, CO2, H2S, N2, CH4, H2, HCl, HF, NH3, Ar, O2, He) and isotopic (δ13C of CO2, 3He/4He, 40Ar/36Ar, δ34S, δ13C of CH4, δ15N, and δD and δ18O of water) compositions of the gas discharges, and to create baseline data for comparison during future unrest. The chemical and isotopic data show that these gases contain a magmatic component that is heavily modified from scrubbing by deep hydrothermal (150° - 350°C) water (primary scrubbing) and shallow meteoric water (secondary scrubbing). The impact of scrubbing is most pronounced in gas discharges from bubbling springs; gases from boiling-point fumaroles and superheated vents show progressively less impact from scrubbing. The most effective strategies for detecting gas precursors to future CRAA eruptions are to measure periodically the emission rates of CO2 and SO2, which have low and high respective solubilities in water, and to monitor continuously CO2 concentrations in soils around volcanic vents. Timely resampling of fumaroles can augment the geochemical surveillance program by watching for chemical changes associated with drying of fumarolic pathways (all CRAA sites), increases in gas geothermometry temperatures (Mount Mageik, Trident, Mount Baker, Mount Shasta), changes in δ13C of CO2 affiliated with magma movement (all CRAA site), and increases in 3He/4He coupled with intrusion of new magma (Mount Rainier, Augustine Volcano, Makushin, Mount Shasta). Repose magmatic degassing may discharge substantial amounts of S and Cl into the edifices of Mount Baker and several other CRAA

  7. Surface Deformation Caused by a Shallow Magmatic Source at Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Y.; Freymueller, J. T.; Kimata, F.; Sato, T.; Mann, D.; Kasahara, M.

    2001-12-01

    Okmok Volcano, located on Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutian arc, last erupted in 1997. Okmok consists of a 10 km wide caldera with several cones located inside. Significant surface deformation before, during and after the eruption has been measured using InSAR. However, the area of coherent data has been limited to the northern part of the caldera, with some additional coherent areas along the outer flanks of the volcano. With support from NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) and the International Arctic Research Center, we carried out GPS campaigns in 2000 and 2001 to supplement the InSAR data with 3D measurements of deformation at well-distributed points. We surveyed 24 sites on and around Okmok in 2000, and 31 sites in 2001. As of this date, no SAR data from suitable passes has been acquired in the summer of 2001; if any are acquired, we will also analyze this data. InSAR data for the period 1997-2000 show what appears to be a radially-symmetric pattern of displacements, consistent with the inflation of a shallow (3-4 km) pressure (Mogi) source located beneath the geoemtric center of the caldera. A deflation source at the same location and depth was inferred from an interferogram spanning the eruption. The 2000-2001 GPS data, on the other hand, show evidence for rapid horizontal extension between sites in center of the caldera. This signal cannot be explained by a Mogi source, and may represent the intrusion of a shallow dike. In addition to this probable dike source, it appears that overall inflation of the volcano continues. The proposed dike extends from roughly the center of the caldera toward the 1997 eruptive vent. In May 2001, a swarm of micro-earthquakes occurred somewhere close to Okmok Volcano (location errors are very large as the closest permanent seismic site is ~100 km from Okmok). It is possible that this small earthquake swarm could have been associated with the intrusion of the shallow dike.

  8. PBO-Style Seismic and Geodetic Monitoring at Frequently-Active Aleutian Arc Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, T. L.; Power, J. A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Tytgat, G.; Moran, S. C.; Lisowski, M.; Johnston, M. J.; Pauk, B. A.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Paskievitch, J. F.; Plucinski, T. A.; McNutt, S. R.; Petersen, T.; Mann, D.

    2002-12-01

    A major goal of EarthScope and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is to obtain real-time data on the dynamics of magma transport and the physical processes surrounding magmatic intrusions before, during, and after eruption. To accomplish this the PBO has selected five active Aleutian arc volcanic centers for instrumentation; Augustine, Pavlof, Unimak Island (the location of Isanotski, Shishaldin, Fisher Caldera, and Westdahl Volcano), Akutan, and Okmok. Six of these volcanoes have erupted within the last 20 years and four are known to be actively deforming. The frequency of eruptive activity at these volcanoes, as well as diverse chemistry of erupted products, makes these volcanic centers unique natural laboratories within the North American plate boundary system for studying active volcanism. During the summer of 2002 the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) began deployment of PBO-style networks consisting of continuous GPS receivers collocated with broadband seismometers at Akutan Volcano and Okmok Caldera. Five GPS receivers were installed in 2002, and are recording on-site. Three GPS receivers on Okmok radio data approximately 70 km to Dutch Harbor. The radio system provides full duplex serial communication between the instruments at each remote site and the central recording system in Dutch Harbor. Planned 2003 work includes adding broadband seismometers to the existing sites and adding three more sites for a total of four telemetered broadband-GPS sites on each volcano. These deployments complement short-period seismic networks that were deployed on Akutan Volcano and Okmok Caldera in 1996 and 2002 and campaign GPS measurements begun in 1996 and 2000, respectively. The instruments installed this year and the addition of the broadband seismometers in 2003 will greatly improve our ability to study volcanic processes. Once the existing networks are enhanced by additional instrumentation through PBO, they will provide the opportunity to study the mechanics and

  9. The last millennium of Aleutian low variability based on dendrochonolgy and water isotope proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglioti, B.; Mann, D. H.; Andreu-Hayles, L.; Wiles, G. C.; Streverler, G.; Williams, P.; Field, R. D.; D'Arrigo, R.

    2017-12-01

    How the wintertime Aleutian Low pressure system (AL) will respond to climate forcing is germane to the forest resources, glaciers, and fisheries in the North Pacific region. Recent work suggests the AL has strengthened over the last few centuries, and new, high-resolution paleo-records could help evaluate this trend. Namely, when it started, whether it has any historical precedents, and what it means for high-latitude climate feedbacks? Our study area is Southeast Alaska and the Southwest Yukon Territory, where the winters are warmer and wetter when the AL is stronger (deeper) and positioned further east. First, we use newly developed winter-sensitive tree-ring records to determine how AL variability has changed over the past 1000 years. During winters with a stronger AL, meridional flow brings: (i) heavy ice storms and snow loads to the coastal mountains that can injure sub-alpine trees; (ii) thaw events that can compromise growth in coastal forests; and (iii) changes in seasonality that can moderate the climate sensitivity of mid-elevation trees. Therefore, a time series of changing tree architecture in the mountains, tree ring widths in the lowlands, and running inter-series correlation in mid-slope chronologies collectively provide a landscape-level view of paleo-AL variability. Second, we compare and complement this dendro perspective with new proxy records based on stable oxygen isotope ratios measured in tree-ring and peat cellulose (d18O cell). To interpret how these proxies reflect the AL, we analyze the precipitation isotopes in Gustavus, Alaska over the past 16 months. We then use d18Ocell time series along a coastal to inland transect that records the degree of heavy-isotope rainout over the St. Elias Mountains, a factor that depends on the sources and pathways of the dominant storm tracks, which are influenced by the AL strength. We will present these new data in the context of existing AL reconstructions, and discuss the implications for the ongoing

  10. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  11. Postglacial eruptive history and geochemistry of Semisopochnoi volcano, western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Michelle L.; Larsen, Jessica F.; Neal, Christina A.

    2018-02-14

    Semisopochnoi Island, located in the Rat Islands group of the western Aleutian Islands and Aleutian volcanic arc, is a roughly circular island composed of scattered volcanic vents, the prominent caldera of Semisopochnoi volcano, and older, ancestral volcanic rocks. The oldest rocks on the island are gently radially dipping lavas that are the remnants of a shield volcano and of Ragged Top, which is an eroded stratocone southeast of the current caldera. None of these oldest rocks have been dated, but they all are likely Pleistocene in age. Anvil Peak, to the caldera’s north, has the morphology of a young stratocone and is latest Pleistocene to early Holocene in age. The oldest recognized Holocene deposits are those of the caldera-forming eruption, which produced the 7- by 6-km caldera in the center of the island, left nonwelded ignimbrite in valleys below the edifice, and left welded ignimbrite high on its flanks. The caldera-forming eruption produced rocks showing a range of intermediate whole-rock compositions throughout the eruption sequence, although a majority of clasts analyzed form a fairly tight cluster on SiO2-variation diagrams at 62.9 to 63.4 weight percent SiO2. This clustering of compositions at about 63 weight percent SiO2 includes black, dense, obsidian-like clasts, as well as tan, variably oxidized, highly inflated pumice clasts. The best estimate for the timing of the eruption is from a soil dated at 6,920±60 14C years before present underlying a thin facies of the ignimbrite deposit on the island’s north coast. Shortly after the caldera-forming eruption, two scoria cones on the northwest flank of the volcano outside the caldera, Ringworm crater and Threequarter Cone, simultaneously erupted small volumes of andesite.The oldest intracaldera lavas, on the floor of the caldera, are andesitic to dacitic, but are mostly covered by younger lavas and tephras. These intracaldera lavas include the basaltic andesites of small Windy cone, as well as the

  12. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  13. Are There Spatial or Temporal Patterns to Holocene Explosive Eruptions in the Aleutian Archipelago? A Work in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; McConville, K.; Hatfield, V.; West, D.

    2013-12-01

    By examining the existing geological and archeological record of radiocarbon dated Aleutian tephras of the last 12,000 years, this study sought to determine whether there were spatial or temporal patterns of explosive eruptive activity. The Holocene tephra record has important implications because two episodes of migration and colonization by humans of distinct cultures established the Unangan/Aleut peoples of the Aleutian Islands concurrently with the volcanic activity. From Aniakchak Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula to the Andreanof Islands (158 to 178° W longitude), 55 distinct tephras represent significant explosive eruptions of the last 12,000 years. Initial results suggest that the Andreanof and Fox Island regions of the archipelago have had frequent explosive eruptions whereas the Islands of Four Mountains, Rat, and Near Island regions have apparently had little or no eruptive activity. However, one clear result of the investigation is that sampling bias strongly influences the apparent spatial patterns. For example field reconnaissance in the Islands of Four Mountains documents two Holocene calderas and a minimum of 20 undated tephras in addition to the large ignimbrites. Only the lack of significant explosive activity in the Near Islands seems a valid spatial result as archeological excavations and geologic reports failed to document Holocene tephras there. An intriguing preliminary temporal pattern is the apparent absence of large explosive eruptions across the archipelago from ca. 4,800 to 6,000 yBP. To test the validity of apparent patterns, a statistical treatment of the compiled data grappled with the sampling bias by considering three confounding variables: larger island size allows more opportunity for geologic preservation of tephras; larger magnitude eruption promotes tephra preservation by creating thicker and more widespread deposits; the comprehensiveness of the tephra sampling of each volcano and island varies widely because of logistical and

  14. Estimation of low-flow statistics at ungaged sites on streams in the Lower Hudson River Basin, New York, from data in geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.; Freehafer, Douglas A.

    2017-08-02

    A variety of watershed properties available in 2015 from geographic information systems were tested in regression equations to estimate two commonly used statistical indices of the low flow of streams, namely the lowest flows averaged over 7 consecutive days that have a 1 in 10 and a 1 in 2 chance of not being exceeded in any given year (7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows). The equations were based on streamflow measurements in 51 watersheds in the Lower Hudson River Basin of New York during the years 1958–1978, when the number of streamflow measurement sites on unregulated streams was substantially greater than in subsequent years. These low-flow indices are chiefly a function of the area of surficial sand and gravel in the watershed; more precisely, 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows both increase in proportion to the area of sand and gravel deposited by glacial meltwater, whereas 7-day, 2-year low flows also increase in proportion to the area of postglacial alluvium. Both low-flow statistics are also functions of mean annual runoff (a measure of net water input to the watershed from precipitation) and area of swamps and poorly drained soils in or adjacent to surficial sand and gravel (where groundwater recharge is unlikely and riparian water loss to evapotranspiration is substantial). Small but significant refinements in estimation accuracy resulted from the inclusion of two indices of stream geometry, channel slope and length, in the regression equations. Most of the regression analysis was undertaken with the ordinary least squares method, but four equations were replicated by using weighted least squares to provide a more realistic appraisal of the precision of low-flow estimates. The most accurate estimation equations tested in this study explain nearly 84 and 87 percent of the variation in 7-day, 10-year and 7-day, 2-year low flows, respectively, with standard errors of 0.032 and 0.050 cubic feet per second per square mile. The equations

  15. ThermoGIS: An integrated web-based information system for geothermal exploration and governmental decision support for mature oil and gas basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.-D. van; Juez-Larre, J.; Mijnlieff, H.; Kronimus, A.; Gessel, S. van; Kramers, L.; Obdam, A.; Verweij, H.; Bonté, D.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years the use of geothermal energy through implementation of low enthalpy geothermal production systems for both electricity and heating have been growing rapidly in north-western Europe. Geothermal exploration and production takes largely place in sedimentary basins at depths from 2

  16. Killer whale surveys conducted in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2001-07-01 to 2010-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0137766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  17. Diversity and stability of Aleutian mink disease virus during bottleneck transitions resulting from eradication in domestic mink in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Hansen, Lene Gram; Chriél, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    was a predisposing risk parameter for disease outbreak at a farm, and strain identity substantiates the suggestion that inadequate disinfection is involved in the recurrence of outbreaks. In cases of new introductions to farms it is indicated that contact including transport between farms played a most significant......Aleutian mink disease (plasmacytosis) virus (AMDV) in domestic mink (Neovison vison) has been subject to eradication in Denmark since 1976. In 2001, approximately 5% of Danish mink farms were still infected and all were located in the northern part of the peninsula of Jutland. In the present study...... for more than 6 years exceeds the rate of mutation driven diversity. Among the isolates from farms in northern Jutland two distinct types could be identified and within each of them a number of sub-types which were all useful in tracking spread of infections. Infection at a farm the preceding season...

  18. Testing for Aleutian mink disease virus in the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in sympatry with infected American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Nituch, Larissa A; Sadowski, Carrie; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) occurs in the American mink (Neovison vison) in wild populations and on mink farms and can cause illness and death. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) may be exposed to AMDV because of shared space and habitat with mink. Using serology and real-time PCR, we tested river otters across Ontario for AMDV infection. We found no evidence of infection in otters, a surprising finding given the sympatric distribution, niche overlap, and close phylogenetic relationship of the river otter and the American mink. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the major point of spillover of AMDV between mink farms and wildlife is manure and composting carcasses on mink farms. Mink farms in Ontario are generally in agricultural landscapes; it is unlikely that river otter use these habitats and thus are likely not exposed to AMDV. We found no evidence that AMD is an important disease for the river otters in Ontario.

  19. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million...... blood samples. The procedure of the method is, that a known positive serum sample is mixed with the patient serum to be tested. The result from a false positive sample will be one precipitin line towards virus and one nonspecific line. If the serum sample is a true positive one, the antibodies...... originating from the patient serum will be added to the antibodies in the standard positive serum giving only one precipitin line. The system is further extended by testing the serum samples towards an antigen preparation containing all the cellular components but free from virus....

  20. San Mateo Creek Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  1. New Near-Source Tsunami Field Data for the April 1, 1946 Aleutian Earthquake, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafker, G.; Synolakis, C. E.; Okal, E. A.

    2001-12-01

    The April 1, 1946 Aleutian earthquake (Ms 7.4; Mw 8.2) stands out among tsunamigenic events because it generated both very high run-up near the earthquake source region and a destructive trans-Pacific tsunami. For this puzzling event, maximum near-field run-up (42 m) is more than 6 times the computed average dip slip on the source fault (Johnson and Satake, 1997). Attempts to model the near-field tsunami have been hampered by an almost total absence of reliable data on wave run-up, direction, and arrival time because the ocean coast in the region was virtually uninhabited, the earthquake and tsunami occurred at night, and there were no nearby recording tide gauges. The lone exception is the Scotch Cap Coast Guard station on the southwestern end of Unimak Island where a reinforced concrete lighthouse and its crew of 5 Coast Guardsmen were obliterated by the tsunami. Survivors at the station, who were in a communications facility on the sea cliff above the lighthouse, report that the wave arrived shortly before low tide at 2:18 A.M., some 48 minutes after the main shock was felt. Previous surveys by Coast Guard personnel indicated a maximum wave run-up elevation of 30-35 m at the station above an unspecified datum. We obtained new data on tsunami distribution along south-facing coasts between Unimak Pass on the west and Sanak Island on the east by measuring the height of driftwood and beach materials that were deposited by the tsunami above the extreme storm tide level. Our data indicate that: 1. The highest measured run-up, which is at the Scotch Cap lighthouse, was 42 m above tide level or about 37 m above present storm tide elevation; 2. Run-up along the rugged coast from Scotch Cap for 12 km NW to Sennett Point is 12.6-18 m and for 30 km east of Scotch Cap to Cape Lutke it is 24-40.6 m; 3. Run-up along the broad lowlands bordering Unimak Bight is 10-15 m and inundation is locally more than 1,000 m; 5. Run-up diminishes to 8 m or less at the SE corner of Unimak

  2. Long-range Receiver Function Profile of Crustal and Mantle Discontinuities From the Aleutian Arc to Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Kathrin; Rondenay, Stéphane; Sawade, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The Circum-Pacific belt, also called the Pacific Ring of Fire, is the most seismically active region on Earth. Multiple plate boundaries form a zone characterized by frequent volcanic eruptions and seismicity. While convergent plate boundaries such as the Peru-Chile trench dominate the Circum-Pacific belt, divergent and transform boundaries are present as well. The eastern section of the Circum-Pacific belt extends from the Aleutian arc, through the Cascadia subduction zone, San Andreas Fault, middle America trench and the Andean margin down to Tierra del Fuego. Due to the significant hazards posed by this tectonic activity, the region has been densely instrumented by thousands of seismic stations deployed across fifteen countries, over a distance of more than 15000 km. Various seismological studies, including receiver function analyses, have been carried out to investigate the crustal and mantle structure beneath local segments of the eastern Circum-Pacific belt (i.e., at ~100-500 km scale). However, to the best of our knowledge, no study to date has ever attempted to combine all available seismic data from the eastern Circum-Pacific belt to generate a continuous profile of seismic discontinuities extending from the Aleutians to Tierra del Fuego. Here, we use results from the "Global Imaging using Earthquake Records" (GLImER) P-wave receiver function database to create a long-range profile of crustal and upper mantle discontinuities across the entire eastern portion of the Circum-Pacific belt. We image intermittent crustal and mantle discontinuities along the profile, and examine them with regard to their behaviour and properties across transitions between different tectonic regimes.

  3. Basin-scale characterization of river hydromorphology by map derived information: A case study on the Red River (Sông Hông), Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since fluvial geomorphic processes shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. Characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location specific and highly demanding in terms of field-works, resource and expertise required. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales, although an urgent need of catchment management, is infeasible at present. Recently available high-resolution data, such as DEM or LIDAR, opens up novel potential for basin-wide analysis of fluvial processes at limited effort and cost. Specifically, in this study we assess the feasibility of characterizing river hydromorphology from specific map derived geomorphic controls namely: channel gradient, bankfull flow, specific stream power, and degree of channel confinement. The river network, extracted from a digital elevation model and validated with available network shape-files and optical satellite imagery, available flow gauging stations and GIS processing allow producing continuous values of geomorphic drivers defined over given length segments at catchment or regional scales. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Sông Hông) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 km2) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river since few years is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to the building of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high developing rate, current efforts to increase water productivity by infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of fluvial system and, in particular, of the basin-wide river hydromorphology. The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially

  4. First images of the crustal structure across the central Algerian margin, off Tipaza (West Algiers) from deep penetrating seismic data: new information to constrain the opening of the Algerian basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprêtre, A.; Deverchere, J.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Graindorge, D.; Schnurle, P.; Yelles, K.; Bracene, R.

    2011-12-01

    The origin of the Algerian margin remains one of the key questions still unresolved in the Western Mediterranean sea. This is related to the unknown nature and kinematics of this Neogene basin. Whereas the westernmost margin is generally assumed to have been shaped as a STEP-fault (Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator, transcurrent) margin by the westward displacement of the Alboran block, the central Algerian margin is believed to have involved a NW-SE basin opening related to a southward slab rollback. This work sheds insight on this issue, using data acquired in the context of the Algerian-French program SPIRAL (Sismique Profonde et Investigation Régionale en Algérie): a cruise conducted on the 'R/V L'Atalante' in October-November 2009. It has provided 5 new combined onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic profiles and an extensive multi-channel seismic dataset spread along the margin, from Oran to Annaba. In this work, the available structural information on the ~N-S wide-angle transect of Tipaza is presented, where the margin broadens due to the presence of a bathymetric high (the Khayr-Al-Din bank) which is assumed to represent a remaining titled block of the passive margin. Along the transect, 39 OBS and 13 landstations recorded 751 low frequency airgun shots. Travel-time tomography and forward modelling were computed using the software developed by Zelt and Barton (1998) and Zelt and Smith (1992), to obtain the velocity structure in the region. A set of multi-channel seismic reflection profiles including two coincident profiles with the wide-angle data allows a combined interpretation and extend the deep structure in the Bou Ismail Bay. MCS data outline the sedimentary sequence filling the Algerian basin depicting an intensive salt tectonic associated with the Messinan Salinity Crisis and allowing to image locally below the salt layer. The deep penetrating data SPIRAL allow to image the sedimentary sequence in the Algerian basin off Tipaza (West Algiers) and

  5. Legacy K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data from the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, Lisa L.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2018-04-06

    Sample descriptions and analytical data for more than 200 K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar analyses from rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska are reported here. Samples were collected over a period of 20 years by Bruce R. Reed and Marvin A. Lanphere (both U.S. Geological Survey) as part of their studies of the batholith.

  6. Comprehensive study of the seismotectonics of the eastern Aleutian arc and associated volcanic systems. Annual progress report, March 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, K.H.; Davies, J.N.; House, L.

    1981-01-01

    Refined hypocenter locations beneath the Shumagin Islands seismic network of the eastern Aleutian arc, Alaska, provide for the first time conclusive evidence for a double-sheeted dipping seismic (Benioff) zone in this arc. This refined seismicity structure was obtained in the arc section centered on the Shumagin seismic gap. A thorough review of three seismic gaps in the eastern Aleutian arc shows a high potential for great earthquakes within the next one to two decades in the Shumagin and Yakataga seismic gaps, and a less certain potential for a large or great earthquake in the possible Unalaska gap. A tilt reversal was geodetically observed to have occurred in 1978/79 in the forearc region of the Shumagin gap and could indicate the onset of a precursory strain relief episode prior to a great quake. A comparative study of the Pavlof volcano seismicity with that of other recently active volcanoes (i.e., Mt. St. Helens) indicates that island-arc (explosive-type) volcanoes respond to small ambient, periodic stress changes (i.e., tides). Stress drop measurements from earthquakes on the main thrust zone indicate high stress drops within the seismic gap regions of the Aleutian arc and low stress drops outside the gap region.

  7. Petroleum geology of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.R.

    1986-03-01

    The Palo Duro Basin, Permian Basin, Texas is an asymmetric, relatively shallow, intracratonic basin in the southern Texas Panhandle filled mostly by Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, and Permian sedimentary rocks. Although deeper and prolific prolific petroleum-producing basins adjoin it on the north (Anadarko Basin), south (Midland Basin), and east (Hardeman Basin), the Palo Duro Basin has produced remarkably small amounts of oil and gas to date. This is all the more noteworthy because the sedimentary sequence and rock types of the basin are similar to those of the adjacent basins. Analyses of the stratigraphic succession and structural configuration of the Palo Duro Basin suggest that adequate reservoir rocks, top-seals, and geologic structures are present. Most of the structures formed early enough to have trapped hydrocarbons if they were migrating in the rock column. Although additional work is under way to properly address the question of the petroleum source rocks, generation, and migration, the general absence of production in the basin may relate to an overall deficiency in hydrocarbon generation within the basin. Geologic information in this report will form part of the basis for further analysis and conclusions on hydrocarbon potential in the Palo Duro Basin

  8. VT Lakes and Ponds Drainage Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The WaterHydro_LKBSPRE layer consists of drainage basins for water bodies of approximately five or more acres. The data was digitized from...

  9. Pumices from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    sediments are significant not only volumetrically but also as indicators of tectonic environments. A few studies in the past concerning the volcanogenic components in the Indian Ocean are informative but these do not pertain to the Central Indian Ocean Basin...

  10. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  11. Superimposed versus residual basin: The North Yellow Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Yellow Sea Basin is a Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin. Based on basin-margin facies, sedimentary thinning, size and shape of the basin and vitrinite reflectance, North Yellow Sea Basin is not a residual basin. Analysis of the development of the basin’s three structural layers, self-contained petroleum systems, boundary fault activity, migration of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic sedimentation centers, different basin structures formed during different periods, and superposition of a two-stage extended basin and one-stage depression basin, the North Yellow Sea Basin is recognized as a superimposed basin.

  12. Final Report: Weatherization and Energy Conservation Education and Home Energy and Safety Review in the Aleutian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Wright

    2011-08-30

    Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. (APIA) hired three part-time local community members that desire to be Energy Technicians. The energy technicians were trained in methods of weatherization assistance, energy conservation and home safety. They developed a listing of homes in the region that required weatherization, and conducted on-site weatherization and energy conservation education and a home energy and safety reviews in the communities of Akutan, False Pass, King Cove and Nelson Lagoon. Priority was given to these smaller communities as they tend to have the residences most in need of weatherization and energy conservation measures. Local residents were trained to provide all three aspects of the project: weatherization, energy conservation education and a home energy and safety review. If the total energy saved by installing these products is a 25% reduction (electrical and heating, both of which are usually produced by combustion of diesel fuel), and the average Alaska home produces 32,000 pounds of CO2 each year, so we have saved about: 66 homes x 16 tons of CO2 each year x .25 = 264 tons of CO2 each year.

  13. Detection of Aleutian mink disease virus DNA and antiviral antibodies in American mink (Neovison vison) 10 days postinoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, A Hossain; Hussain, Irshad; Arju, Irin

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of infection by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV; Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has important ramifications in virus eradication programs. A spleen homogenate containing a local isolate of AMDV was injected intraperitoneally into black (n = 44) and sapphire (n = 12) American mink (Neovison vison). Animals were euthanized 10 days postinoculation and anti-AMDV antibodies and AMDV DNA were tested in plasma and 7 organs by CIEP and PCR, respectively. Viral DNA was detected in the plasma, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lung samples of all inoculated mink, but was not detected in some small intestine, kidney, and liver samples. In contrast, antibodies were detected in the plasma of 3 sapphire (25.0%) and 19 black (43.2%) mink but not in any of the organs. The sensitivity of the CIEP test on plasma samples was 39.3%, implying that low levels of antibodies during the early stages of virus exposure resulted in failure to detect infection by the CIEP test. We concluded that CIEP is not a reliable test for early detection of AMDV infection in mink and that there were considerable differences among mink of each color type for production of detectable levels of antibodies. PCR tests on samples of saliva, rectal swabs, and feces did not produce consistent and reliable results. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S.; Powers, Charles W.; Jewett, Stephen; Friedlander, Barry; Chenelot, Heloise; Volz, Conrad D.; Jeitner, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Levels of radionuclides in seven species of marine brown algae and Ulva were determined to establish a baseline for the Northern Pacific Ocean/Bering Sea (Aleutian Islands). There were differences in levels among algal species and locations (Amchitka Island vs Kiska Island). No values were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) level for 137 Cs, 129 I, 6 Co, 152 Eu, 9 Sr, and 99 Tc. There were interspecific differences in some radionuclides: Ulva lactuca (=Ulva fenestrata) had the highest levels of 241 Am, Alaria fistulosa had the highest levels of 239,24 Pu, and Fucus distichus (=Fucus gardneri) had the highest levels of 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U. However, levels of all radionuclides were generally low and near the MDA for all isotopes. Although Amchitka Island had higher levels of 239,24 Pu than Kiska, the differences were very small and not significant biologically. The data indicate that algae can be useful bioindicators of actinides because they accumulate them at very low environmental levels, allowing them to provide early warning of any potential seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment. Further, the data indicate that some species (the intertidal Fucus) are better accumulators than others, and these should be used as bioindicators in future monitoring schemes

  15. Monitoring Impacts of Long-Term Drought on Surface Water Quantity and Quality in Middle Rio Grande Basin Reservoirs Using Multispectral Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Hargrove, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Elephant Butte and Caballo dams form the largest surface water reservoirs in the Middle Rio Grande basin. The basin supports more than 2 million people, including the major urban centers of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, El Paso, Texas, and Las Cruces, New Mexico, plus more than 70,000 ha of land with water rights for irrigated agriculture. However, this region has experienced severe droughts and growing water demand over the past few decades. This study applied GIS and remote sensing techniques to (1) quantify the shrinking and expansion of the reservoirs for the 44-year period 1973-2017; (2) demonstrate the use of multispectral satellite imagery for qualitative assessment of reservoir water turbidity; and (3) investigate and compare annual and seasonal variability of reservoir temperature. Our preliminary results show apparent shrinkage and recovery cycles of both reservoirs, depending on annual inflow and diversion cycles. For example, the period 1981 to 1993 was unusually `wet' on average, in contrast to the period around September 2002 when the Elephant Butte reservoir shrinked to less than 11 percent of its capacity due to drought. Water in the reservoirs appears more turbid in the fall compared to the summer season, and satellite images showed distinctive zones of deep and shallow water, with evident sedimentation near the in-flow of each reservoir. Examination of image digital numbers revealed the following three distinct temperature zones: scrub environment around the reservoirs, very shallow water around reservoir edges, and deeper reservoir water. The zones were represented by a higher range of digital numbers in the summer in comparison to the fall season, indicating greater surface temperature variability in the summer season. The distinction between high summer temperatures and low fall temperatures was especially prominent along the shallow edges of each reservoir. The fluctuating thermal patterns can be explained by variations in depth

  16. The abyssal and deep circulation of the Northeast Pacific Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Susan L.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional abyssal and deep circulation of the region to the east and north of the Emperor Seamount Chain/Hawaiian Ridge is determined from a compilation of CTD and Argo float data, using a new overdetermined inverse technique for the geostrophic reference velocity and diapycnal/lateral mixing coefficients. The Northeast Pacific Basin is primarily sourced from its northern boundary, at a rate of 3.5 Sv across 47°N below 3000 m. Bottom water in the western subarctic gyre recirculates cyclonically between the Emperor Seamount Chain and 155°W. Bottom water east of 155°W takes a more direct path southward along the flank of a broad topographic slope. In the deep water, a ridge of potential vorticity lying along the Mendocino Fracture Zone separates circulation systems north and south of ∼40°N. The region has very weak diapycnal and lateral mixing, and an aspect ratio for the overturning circulation that is correspondingly flat, with bottom water parcels rising less than 1 km during their long transit from the Aleutian Trench to the latitude of Hawaii.

  17. Basin Subsegments from LDEQ source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [basin_subsegments_LDEQ_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon data set of watershed basin subsegments for Louisiana. The dataset was developed for the LDEQ Office of Water Resources' watershed assessment and...

  18. Using ASCEM Modeling and Visualization to Inform Stakeholders of Contaminant Plume Evolution and Remediation Efficacy at F-Basin Savannah River, SC – 15156

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wainwright, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Arora, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faybishenko, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Krishnan, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hubbard, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Denham, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Moulton, D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lipnikov, K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gable, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Freshley, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-28

    Communication with stakeholders, regulatory agencies, and the public is an essential part of implementing different remediation and monitoring activities, and developing site closure strategies at contaminated sites. Modeling of contaminant plume evolution plays a critical role in estimating the benefit, cost, and risk of particular options. At the same time, effective visualization of monitoring data and modeling results are particularly important for conveying the significance of the results and observations. In this paper, we present the results of the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) project, including the discussion of the capabilities of newly developed ASCEM software package, along with its application to the F-Area Seepage Basins located in the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). ASCEM software includes state-of-the-art numerical methods for simulating complex flow and reactive transport, as well as various toolsets such as a graphical user interface (GUI), visualization, data management, uncertainty quantification, and parameter estimation. Using this software, we have developed an advanced visualization of tritium plume migration coupled with a data management system, and simulated a three-dimensional model of flow and plume evolution on a high-performance computing platform. We evaluated the effect of engineered flow barriers on a nonreactive tritium plume, through advanced plume visualization and modeling of tritium plume migration. In addition, we developed a geochemical reaction network to describe complex geochemical processes at the site, and evaluated the impact of coupled hydrological and geochemical heterogeneity. These results are expected to support SRS’s monitoring activities and operational decisions.

  19. Synthesis of downstream fish passage information at projects owned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Amy C.; Kock, Tobias J.; Hansen, Gabriel S.

    2017-08-07

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates the Willamette Valley Project (Project) in northwestern Oregon, which includes a series of dams, reservoirs, revetments, and fish hatcheries. Project dams were constructed during the 1950s and 1960s on rivers that supported populations of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), winter steelhead (O. mykiss), and other anadromous fish species in the Willamette River Basin. These dams, and the reservoirs they created, negatively affected anadromous fish populations. Efforts are currently underway to improve passage conditions within the Project and enhance populations of anadromous fish species. Research on downstream fish passage within the Project has occurred since 1960 and these efforts are documented in numerous reports and publications. These studies are important resources to managers in the Project, so the USACE requested a synthesis of existing literature that could serve as a resource for future decision-making processes. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive literature review on downstream fish passage studies within the Project. We identified 116 documents that described studies conducted during 1960–2016. Each of these documents were obtained, reviewed, and organized by their content to describe the state-of-knowledge within four subbasins in the Project, which include the North Santiam, South Santiam, McKenzie, and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers. In this document, we summarize key findings from various studies on downstream fish passage in the Willamette Project. Readers are advised to review specific reports of interest to insure that study methods, results, and additional considerations are fully understood.

  20. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate.This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits.The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health and cultural benefits from eating

  1. Re-colonization by common eiders Somateria mollissima in the Aleutian Archipelago following removal of introduced arctic foxes Vulpes lagopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margaret R.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sexson, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Islands provide refuges for populations of many species where they find safety from predators, but the introduction of predators frequently results in elimination or dramatic reductions in island-dwelling organisms. When predators are removed, re-colonization for some species occurs naturally, and inter-island phylogeographic relationships and current movement patterns can illuminate processes of colonization. We studied a case of re-colonization of common eiders Somateria mollissima following removal of introduced arctic foxes Vulpes lagopus in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. We expected common eiders to resume nesting on islands cleared of foxes and to re-colonize from nearby islets, islands, and island groups. We thus expected common eiders to show limited genetic structure indicative of extensive mixing among island populations. Satellite telemetry was used to record current movement patterns of female common eiders from six islands across three island groups. We collected genetic data from these and other nesting common eiders at 14 microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine population genetic structure, historical fluctuations in population demography, and gene flow. Our results suggest recent interchange among islands. Analysis of microsatellite data supports satellite telemetry data of increased dispersal of common eiders to nearby areas and little between island groups. Although evidence from mtDNA is suggestive of female dispersal among island groups, gene flow is insufficient to account for recolonization and rapid population growth. Instead, near-by remnant populations of common eiders contributed substantially to population expansion, without which re-colonization would have likely occurred at a much lower rate. Genetic and morphometric data of common eiders within one island group two and three decades after re-colonization suggests reduced movement of eiders among islands and little movement between island groups after

  2. From the Slab to the Surface: Origin, Storage, Ascent, and Eruption of Volatile-Bearing Magmas in the Aleutian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D.; Plank, T. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Rasmussen, D. J.; Power, J. A.; Lyons, J. J.; Haney, M. M.; Werner, C. A.; Kern, C.; Lopez, T. M.; Izbekov, P. E.; Stelling, P. L.

    2016-12-01

    We present initial results from an integrated geochemical-geophysical study of the Unimak-Cleveland corridor of the Aleutian volcanic arc, which encompasses six volcanoes spanning 450 km of the arc that have erupted in the past 25 years with a wide range of magmatic water contents. This relatively small corridor also exhibits a range of deep and upper-crustal seismicity, apparent magma storage depths, and depths to the subducting tectonic plate. The ultimate goal of this study is to link two normally disconnected big-picture problems: 1) the deep origin of magmas and volatiles, and 2) the formation and eruption of crustal magma reservoirs, which we will do by establishing the depth(s) of crustal magma reservoirs and pre-eruptive volatile contents throughout the corridor. Our preliminary work focuses on the geographic end members Shishaldin Volcano, which last erupted in 2014-2015, and Cleveland Volcano, which last erupted in April-May of this year (2016). Both systems are persistently degassing, open-vent volcanoes whose frequent eruptions are typically characterized by minimal precursory seismicity, making eruption forecasting challenging. At Cleveland, we analyze data from a 12-station broadband seismic network deployed from August 2015-July 2016, which is complemented by two permanent seismo-acoustic stations operated by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). We also analyze tephras from recent eruptions (including 2016) and conducted ground- and helicopter-based gas emission surveys. At Shishaldin, we analyze data from the permanent AVO network, which is comprised of mainly short-period, single-component seismic stations. We also present preliminary analyses of samples of recent eruptive deposits and gas emission data. Through integration of these various datasets we present preliminary interpretations related to the origin, storage, ascent and eruption of volatile-bearing magmas at Cleveland and Shishaldin volcanoes.

  3. Inactivation of the cluster of rRNA genes in the second chromosomal pair of the Aleutian mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafodatskii, A.S.; Lushnikova, T.P.; Vorob' eva, N.V.

    1985-11-01

    The authors present the results of their in situ mapping of the RNA genes in the chromosomes of Aleutian mink. The ribosomal RNA was extracted from the mink liver and analyzed electrophoretically. The 28S and 18S rRNA fractions were separated in 5-25% sucrose gradient containing 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1.0 mM EDTA, and 100 mM NaCl. Centrifugation was done at 2/sup 0/C for 20 h in rotor SW-27 at 21,000 rpm. The 18S rRNA was used to synthesize cDNA in the system of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase of Escherichia coli with the exception that the template concentration was raised to 40 micrograms/ml and that of enzyme to 1080 units of activity/ml. The electrophoretic analysis in polyacrylamide gel with formamide showed that the size of /sup 3/H-cDNA was 4-10S. Specific radioactivity was 10/sup 8/ disintegrations min x microgram. Hybridization on the chromosomal preparations was done by the method described earlier. /sup 3/H-cDNA of the 18S mink RNA was applied to the preparation at the concentration of 0.05 micrograms/ml and hybridized in 3 x SSC for 24 h at 65/sup 0/C. The preparations were covered with photoemulsion type M and exposed for 4 months. The chromosomal preparations were made from the bone marrow cells by the standard method. The silver-staining of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) was done by the method of Bloom and Goodpasture.

  4. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Three Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Sara; Tilander, Hanna; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Burger, Joanna; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. Methods and Findings This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p′-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight), while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight). Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight). Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p′-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight). The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. Conclusion The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health

  5. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODY TO ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS IN EUROPEAN MINK (MUSTELA LUTREOLA) AND AMERICAN MINK (NEOVISON VISON) IN SPAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas, Sisco; Gómez, Asunción; Asensio, Victoria; Palazón, Santiago; Podra, Madis; Alarcia, Olga Esther; Ruiz-Olmo, Jordi; Casal, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) has undergone a dramatic decline and is one of the most endangered mammals in the world. The invasive American mink (Neovison vison) is considered the main factor for this decline. However, the American mink's introduction and the subsequent ecological concurrence of the two species cannot solely explain the decline or disappearance of the European mink. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the main health problem in fur farming worldwide, causing varied clinical syndromes that depend on the viral strain and host factors. Infection with AMDV has been speculated to contribute to the decline of the European mink, but a detailed study has not been performed. To assess the potential effects of AMDV infection on the conservation of the European mink, we surveyed AMDV antibody in samples from 492 native European mink and 1,735 feral American mink collected over 16 yr. The antibody prevalence in European mink was 32%. There were no statistically significant differences in antibody prevalence between sexes, among years, or among weight classes. For recaptured European mink, incidence of seroconversion (negative to positive) was 0.46 cases per animal-year at risk. For positive animals, the incidence of conversion from positive to negative was 0.18 cases per animal-year at risk. In 1,735 feral American minks, the overall prevalence was 32.4% and varied among the six wild populations studied. Infection with AMDV appears to be endemic, distributed across the entire ranges of both species, and no effects on the population dynamics of either species were observed.

  6. Evolution of the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmacher, U. A.; Bauer, F. U.; Kollenz, S.; Delvaux, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Congo Basin is one of the largest basins in the World with very little knowledge on the geological evolution as well as the oil and gas potential. In the past, oil seeps are recorded in the central part of the basin. Four sides in the Congo basin have been drilled so far. The cores of the two drill sides Dekese and Samba are located at the Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Belgium. In a reconnaissance survey, we sampled both drill cores in a nearly even spacing of ~ 150 m covering the whole stratigraphy from Albian to Proterozoic. The red and green to grey sandstone samples were prepared by usual heavy minerals separation technique. Most of the samples revealed enough apatite and zircon grains for the two thermochronometric techniques fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He. The time-temperature (t-T) evolution for the two drill locations were modelled by using the determined thermochronological data within the software code HeFTy. We tested various geological evolutionary constrains. Both techniques provide us information on the thermal and exhumation of the possible source area and on the drill location by themselves.

  7. Estimating tectonic history through basin simulation-enhanced seismic inversion: Geoinformatics for sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, K.; Tuncay, K.; Hubbard, K.; Comer, J.; Ortoleva, P.

    2004-01-01

    optimization technique are found to be most effective in determining the optimal value of the tectonic parameters. Preliminary 1-D studies indicate that one can determine the geothermal gradient even in the presence of observation and numerical uncertainties. The algorithm succeeds even when the synthetic data has detailed information only in a limited depth interval and has a different dominant frequency in the synthetic and observed seismograms. The methodology presented here even works when the basin input data contains only 75 per cent of the stratigraphic layering information compared with the actual basin in a limited depth interval.

  8. Design and Compilation of a Geodatabase of Existing Salinity Information for the Rio Grande Basin, from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County Line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin D.; Maltby, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled salinity-related water-quality data and information in a geodatabase containing more than 6,000 sampling sites. The geodatabase was designed as a tool for water-resource management and includes readily available digital data sources from the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission, Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas, Paso del Norte Watershed Council, numerous other State and local databases, and selected databases maintained by the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Salinity information was compiled for an approximately 26,000-square-mile area of the Rio Grande Basin from the Rio Arriba-Sandoval County line, New Mexico, to Presidio, Texas. The geodatabase relates the spatial location of sampling sites with salinity-related water-quality data reported by multiple agencies. The sampling sites are stored in a geodatabase feature class; each site is linked by a relationship class to the corresponding sample and results stored in data tables.

  9. The Lower Sevier River Basin Crop Monitor and Forecast Decision Support System: Exploiting Landsat Imagery to Provide Continuous Information to Farmers and Water Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rua, A. F.; Walker, W. R.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    The last century has seen a large number of innovations in agriculture such as better policies for water control and management, upgraded water conveyance, irrigation, distribution, and monitoring systems, and better weather forecasting products. In spite of this, irrigation management and irrigation water deliveries by farmers/water managers is still based on factors like water share amounts, tradition, and past experience on irrigation. These factors are not necessarily related to the actual crop water use; they are followed because of the absence of related information provided in a timely manner at an affordable cost. Thus, it is necessary to develop means to deliver continuous and personalized information about crop water requirements to water users/managers at the field and irrigation system levels so managers at these levels can better quantify the required versus available water for irrigation during the irrigation season. This study presents a new decision support system (DSS) platform that addresses the absence of information on actual crop water requirements and crop performance by providing continuous updated farm-based crop water use along with other farm performance indicators such as crop yield and farm management to irrigators and water managers. This DSS exploits the periodicity of the Landsat Satellite Mission (8 to 16 days, depending on the period of interest) to provide remote monitoring at the individual field and irrigation system levels. The Landsat satellite images are converted into information about crop water use, yield performance and field management through application of state-of-the-art semi-physical and statistical algorithms that provide this information at a pixel basis that are ultimately aggregated to field and irrigation system levels. A version of the DSS has been implemented for the agricultural lands in the Lower Sevier River, Utah, and has been operational since the beginning of the 2013 irrigation season. The main goal of

  10. Morphological characteristics and emplacement mechanism of the seamounts in the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, P.; Iyer, S.D.; Kodagali, V.N.

    The morphotectonic features of the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) provide information regarding the development of the basin. Multibeam mapping of the CIOB reveals presence of abundant isolated seamounts and seamount chains sub-parallel to each...

  11. Comprehensive study of the seismotectonics of the eastern Aleutian arc and associated volcanic systems. Annual progress report, March 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, K.H.; Davies, J.N.; Sykes, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    The modern and historic seismicity of the eastern Aleutian arc was thoroughly researched and shows clear evidence that the Shumagin Islands region of the arc has been ruptured at least partly by previous large or great earthquakes; has recurrence times for large earthquakes between 50 and 115 years; has presently the properties of a seismic gap, i.e., was not ruptured by a large or great earthquake for at least 76 years; shows a donut configuration of modest seismicity including high-stress-drop events around the rim of the expected rupture zone of a future large earthquake. From this combined evidence it is concluded that the likelihood for a large or great earthquake to occur within the Shumagin Island gap is high (about 50% probability) within the next decade and very high (about 80% to 90% probability) within the next three decades. This study includes detailed determinations of stress, stress-drop, and other source parameters of moderate earthquakes in the Shumagin islands gap, and similar results for the St. Elias earthquake near the Yakataga gap in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Volcano seismicity, crustal deformantion, and P-residuals continue to be monitored and analyzed in the eastern Aleutian arc segment. 36 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Nathan L.; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands.

  13. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators

  14. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Sullivan, Kelsey [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States); P.O. Box 801, Bethel, Maine, 04217 (United States); Irons, David [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, Alaska 99503 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators.

  15. Distribution, Statistics, and Resurfacing of Large Impact Basins on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Head, James W.; Baker, David M. H.; Chapman, Clark R.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Oberst, Juergen; Prockter, Louise M.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and geological history of large impact basins (diameter D greater than or equal to 300 km) on Mercury is important to understanding the planet's stratigraphy and surface evolution. It is also informative to compare the density of impact basins on Mercury with that of the Moon to understand similarities and differences in their impact crater and basin populations [1, 2]. A variety of impact basins were proposed on the basis of geological mapping with Mariner 10 data [e.g. 3]. This basin population can now be re-assessed and extended to the full planet, using data from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Note that small-to- medium-sized peak-ring basins on Mercury are being examined separately [4, 5]; only the three largest peak-ring basins on Mercury overlap with the size range we consider here. In this study, we (1) re-examine the large basins suggested on the basis of Mariner 10 data, (2) suggest additional basins from MESSENGER's global coverage of Mercury, (3) assess the size-frequency distribution of mercurian basins on the basis of these global observations and compare it to the Moon, and (4) analyze the implications of these observations for the modification history of basins on Mercury.

  16. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  17. K Basins Field Verification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Field Verification Program establishes a uniform and systematic process to ensure that technical information depicted on selected engineering drawings accurately reflects the actual existing physical configuration. This document defines the Field Verification Program necessary to perform the field walkdown and inspection process that identifies the physical configuration of the systems required to support the mission objectives of K Basins. This program is intended to provide an accurate accounting of the actual field configuration by documenting the as-found information on a controlled drawing

  18. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  19. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  20. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  1. Sr Isotopes in Western Aleutian Seafloor Lavas: Implications for the Source of Fluids and Geochemical Decoupling of Trace Metals from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogodzinski, G. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Hoernle, K.; Brown, S. T.; Vervoort, J. D.; Portnyagin, M.; Sims, K. W. W.

    2016-12-01

    Sr provides unique constraints on subduction magma source models because it is a fluid-mobile element that is abundant and relatively unradiogenic in arc volcanic rocks. It is common for arc basalts to be 3-4-times more Sr-rich than similarly evolved MORB (Sr/Nd = 30-50 vs 10-15 in MORB) yet Sr isotopes in arc basalts are usually offset from MORB only slightly (87Sr/86Sr 0.7034 vs 0.7028 for MORB). This is a puzzle because abundant sources of subducted Sr in sediment (GLOSS II 87Sr/86Sr = 0.712) and altered oceanic crust (87Sr/86Sr = 0.704-0.705) are more radiogenic than average arc basalts globally (87Sr/86Sr 0.7034). This is exemplified by lavas in the oceanic Aleutian volcanic arc, where data patterns reveal the need for a source component with 87Sr/86Sr 0.7028 and Sr/Nd 100. This component cannot be a fluid produced by dewatering of altered oceanic crust, which should have 87Sr/86Sr >0.704. The likely source is an eclogite melt, which - after reaction with the mantle wedge - is well represented by primitive, high-Sr lavas from the western Aleutians. End-member samples are magnesian rhyodacites (SiO2 69%, Mg#>0.65) with 1400 ppm Sr, 87Sr/86Sr 100. Formation of this end-member probably involves small degrees of fluid-saturated melting of MORB eclogite, minimally affected by prior seawater alteration. The aqueous fluid flux for melting must have come from a separate source, probably via dewatering of serpentinized peridotite within the mantle section of the subducting plate, which would carry little Sr or other metals, due to their low abundances in serpentinite. This example suggests that Sr, Pb, K, Rb and other incompatible trace elements in Aleutian lavas come primarily from partial melts of subducted basalt and sediment, and so are decoupled from H2O derived from dehydration of serpentinite at sub-arc depths in subducting oceanic lithosphere. Boron may be an exception, because of its high abundance in serpentinite. These source characteristics may help explain

  2. Rio Grande Basin Consortium: Mission, goals, and activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah A. Potter; Deborah M. Finch

    1996-01-01

    The Rio Grande Basin Consortium (RGBC) serves as a networking group and clearinghouse for scientific information pertaining to the Rio Grande Basin. Its membership consists of natural and social scientists from New Mexico’s three research universities, administrators, and resource managers from federal, state, and local governmental agencies, members of community and...

  3. Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Joseph A. Tainter

    1995-01-01

    This book synthesizes existing information on the ecology, diversity, human uses, and research needs of the Middle Rio Grande Basin of New Mexico. Divided into nine chapters, the volume begins with reviews of the environmental history and human cultures in the Basin, followed by an analysis of the influences and problems of climate and water. Later chapters focus on...

  4. Appraisal of the Hydrological Potential of Ungauged Basin Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses of these parameters provide the basis for demonstrating the effects of environmental controls on both the basin stream network system and for predicting the basin's output variables. Such information are essential and provide framework for improving agricultural activities, flood control and management measures ...

  5. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  6. Deposition of Asian Dust in the Tahoe Basin and the Impact of Climate Patterns on Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason

    particle concentrations there, but the particles themselves carried along with them a suite of bioactive nutrients including phosphorus. Phosphorus is of particular importance because of Lake Tahoe being a phosphorus-limited lake and atmospheric deposition of particles accounting for 26% of the phosphorus loading into the Tahoe basin. Aerosol optical depth data from the GOCART model and UV aerosol index data from the Earth Probe satellite identified additional aerosol deposition peaks of Asian origin particularly from the Gobi and Taklimakan deserts along with the Yellow River Basin near Beijing. Based on the GOCART and satellite data, aerosol dust deposition into the Lake Tahoe basin from Asian soils can be 1.31 times greater than those recorded in 2006 by the DRUM data. Such events had occurred in April 2001 and April 2005. The impact of climate variation on Asian dust transport toward Lake Tahoe was also analyzed primarily focusing on the impact of the Madden Julian Oscillation and shifts in the Aleutian Low on Asian dust transport. Based on these analyses, Asian dust transport is at its maximum when propagating MJO related convection is in the central Pacific Ocean and the Aleutian Low is over the Western Alaska. Both of these scenarios are associated with increased westerly wind flows and weaker high pressure off the West Coast of North America. This is instrumental is an efficient transport of dust plumes across the Pacific Ocean and further south toward California.

  7. Geothermal Potential of the Cascade and Aleutian Arcs, with Ranking of Individual Volcanic Centers for their Potential to Host Electricity-Grade Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, Lisa [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark [ATLAS Geosciences, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nick [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Stelling, Pete [Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States); Melosh, Glenn [GEODE, Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Cumming, William [Cumming Geoscience, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    This project brings a global perspective to volcanic arc geothermal play fairway analysis by developing statistics for the occurrence of geothermal reservoirs and their geoscience context worldwide in order to rank U.S. prospects. The focus of the work was to develop play fairways for the Cascade and Aleutian arcs to rank the individual volcanic centers in these arcs by their potential to host electricity grade geothermal systems. The Fairway models were developed by describing key geologic factors expected to be indicative of productive geothermal systems in a global training set, which includes 74 volcanic centers world-wide with current power production. To our knowledge, this is the most robust geothermal benchmark training set for magmatic systems to date that will be made public.

  8. Comprehensive study of the seismotectonics of the easter Aleutian arc and associated volcanic systems. Annual progress report, March 1, 1978--February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, K.H.; Davies, J.N.; Beavan, J.; Johnson, D.; House, L.; Krause, J.; Hickman, S.; Winslow, M.; Hauptman, J.; Mori, J.; Sykes, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the historic seismic record and accurate hypocenter data obtained from the eastern Aleutian seismic network, a relationship between the subduction-zone seismicity, volcano-trench separation, and the occurrence of great thrust earthquakes has been established for the Aleutian arc. On the basis of strong-motion accelerometer data it was found that high stress drops (540 t 650 bars) were associated with two moderate-size earthquakes (m/sub b/ = 6.0 and 5.8) within the Shumagin Islands seismic gap. This indicates that near the down-dip end of the major thrust zone, at depths of about 40 km, high tectonic stresses have accumulated within the gap segment of the arc. That such accumulation of stress is presently an ongoing process is corroborated by results from geodetic precision leveling on Unga Island. The leveling data indicate tilt rates of about 1 microradian/year. The tilting is directed down towards the trench and up towards the volcanic arc. Whether the recent activity of Pavlof, Shishaldin and Westdahl volcanoes indicates transmission of high tectonic stresses from the major thrust zone to the volcanic arc is unresolved. The search for a shallow magma chamber beneath the seismically monitored Pavlof volcano is still inconclusive although large amounts of recently acquired data remain to be analyzed. A geologic reconnaissance of the Shumagin Islands and the Adjacent Alaska Peninsula revealed Quaternary uplifted marine terraces and evidence for Holocene faulting. Both findings have severe implications for long-term tectonic activity and seismic hazards in the region of this seismic gap, portions of which are presently considered for off-shore hydrocarbon exploration and development. A critical analysis of th presently operating seimic data acquisition system reveals that a major change in remote sensing and central recording equipment is urgently needed for the Pavlof, Cold Bay, and Shumagin sections of the seismic array.

  9. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  10. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  11. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  12. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  13. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  14. Digital spatial data as support for river basin management: The case of Sotla river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prah Klemen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many real-world spatially related problems, including river-basin planning and management, give rise to geographical information system based decision making, since the performance of spatial policy alternatives were traditionally and are still often represented by thematic maps. Advanced technologies and approaches, such as geographical information systems (GIS, offer a unique opportunity to tackle spatial problems traditionally associated with more efficient and effective data collection, analysis, and alternative evaluation. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of the use of digital spatial data and geographical information systems in river basis management. Spatial data on social, environmental and other spatial conditions for the study area of 451.77 km2, the Slovenian part of the Sotla river basin, are used to study the GIS capabilities of supporting spatial decisions in the framework of river basin management.

  15. VT Impervious Surfaces for the Lake Champlain Basin - 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) High-resolution impervious surfaces dataset for the Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont and New York. Two impervious classes were mapped: (1)...

  16. Water resources of Wisconsin--Lake Superior basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Skinner, Earl L.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes the physical environment, availability, distribution, movement, quality, and use of water in the upper Wisconsin River basin as an aid in planning and water management. The report presents general information on the basin derived from data obtained from Federal, State, and local agencies, New field data were collected in areas where information was lacking. More detailed studies of problem areas may be required in the future, as water needs and related development increase.

  17. Water resources of Wisconsin: lower Wisconsin River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.; Borman, Ronald G.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes the physical environment, availability, distribution, movement, quality, and use of water in the upper Wisconsin River basin as an aid in planning and water management. The report presents general information on the basin derived from data obtained from Federal, State, and local agencies, New field data were collected in areas where information was lacking. More detailed studies of problem areas may be required in the future, as water needs and related development increase.

  18. Basin Assessment Spatial Planning Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-07-26

    The tool is intended to facilitate hydropower development and water resource planning by improving synthesis and interpretation of disparate spatial datasets that are considered in development actions (e.g., hydrological characteristics, environmentally and culturally sensitive areas, existing or proposed water power resources, climate-informed forecasts). The tool enables this capability by providing a unique framework for assimilating, relating, summarizing, and visualizing disparate spatial data through the use of spatial aggregation techniques, relational geodatabase platforms, and an interactive web-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Data are aggregated and related based on shared intersections with a common spatial unit; in this case, industry-standard hydrologic drainage areas for the U.S. (National Hydrography Dataset) are used as the spatial unit to associate planning data. This process is performed using all available scalar delineations of drainage areas (i.e., region, sub-region, basin, sub-basin, watershed, sub-watershed, catchment) to create spatially hierarchical relationships among planning data and drainages. These entity-relationships are stored in a relational geodatabase that provides back-end structure to the web GIS and its widgets. The full technology stack was built using all open-source software in modern programming languages. Interactive widgets that function within the viewport are also compatible with all modern browsers.

  19. Shoreline Elevation Sabine Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Sabine_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  20. Shoreline Elevation Vermilion Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Vermilion_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  1. Shoreline Elevation Calcasieu Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Calcasieu_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  2. Shoreline Elevation Atchafalaya Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Atchafalaya_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  3. Shoreline Elevation Mermentau Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Mermentau_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  4. Shoreline Elevation Terrebonne Basin, Geographic NAD83, OSRADP/LOSCO (2008) [Shoreline_Elevation_Terrebonne_Basin_OSRADP_2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These data consist of vector line segments tagged with elevation derived from the LOSCO/FEMA LIDAR five meter DEM data set for seven watershed basins in the...

  5. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-02-28

    The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

  6. Configuration Management Plan for K Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, W.R.; Laney, T.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes a configuration management program for K Basins that establishes the systems, processes, and responsibilities necessary for implementation. The K Basins configuration management plan provides the methodology to establish, upgrade, reconstitute, and maintain the technical consistency among the requirements, physical configuration, and documentation. The technical consistency afforded by this plan ensures accurate technical information necessary to achieve the mission objectives that provide for the safe, economic, and environmentally sound management of K Basins and the stored material. The configuration management program architecture presented in this plan is based on the functional model established in the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-1073-93, open-quotes Guide for Operational Configuration Management Programclose quotes

  7. Tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redly, Pal

    In the Williston Basin five regional seismic profiles, covering ˜3090 km were utilized for a comprehensive study of this complex geologic feature. 2300 km field data were added to the existing 790 km profile. The novel seismic information in conjunction with a sizeable number of wireline data and incorporation of structural and isopach maps provided a unique data environment for development of a new elaborate tectonostratigraphic model of this major continental depression. Standard reflection seismic processing procedures were implemented with special emphasis on regional perspectives, including "Earth curvature correction", to generate images of the basin fill. The latter helped to reveal the true nature of this large scale cratonic basin. This novel information permitted new approaches in establishing the deformation styles in the Williston Basin. Structural studies of the newly reprocessed regional seismic profiles revealed the compressional nature of the radially arranged tectonic elements in the center of the basin, and the extensional character of the peripheral regions. The results suggest that axisymmetric deformation controlled the early stages of the Williston Basin area, and was the causal factor of the oval shape of the basin. In the first, "pre-Williston" phase, the region was uplifted by an axisymmetric lithospheric intrusion creating radial extensional signatures in the central zone and compressional structures in the surroundings. Erosion and thermal cooling and/or phase change of the mantle material led to the initiation of the basin subsidence. Consequently, in the "intracratonic phase" (Sauk - Absaroka), the pre-existing radial and circumferentially arranged structures were periodically reactivated in the opposite sense. The active periods were unrelated to global orogenic events of the continent. The exception is the Kaskaskia I (Devonian) interval, when the territory was tilted to the northwest and the axisymmetric cause of the subsidence was

  8. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  9. Bibliography, geophysical data locations, and well core listings for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    To date, comprehensive basin analysis and petroleum system modeling studies have not been performed on any of the basins in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Of these basins, the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin has been selected for study because it is the most petroliferous basin in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, small- and medium-size companies are drilling the majority of the exploration wells. These companies do not have the resources to perform basin analysis or petroleum system modeling research studies nor do they have the resources to undertake elaborate information searches through the volumes of publicly available data at the universities, geological surveys, and regulatory agencies in the region. The Advanced Geologic Basin Analysis Program of the US Department of Energy provides an avenue for studying and evaluating sedimentary basins. This program is designed to improve the efficiency of the discovery of the nation`s remaining undiscovered oil resources by providing improved access to information available in the public domain and by increasing the amount of public information on domestic basins. This report provides the information obtained from Year 1 of this study of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. The work during Year 1 focused on inventorying the data files and records of the major information repositories in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and making these inventories easily accessible in an electronic format.

  10. Evaluation of environmental information for the Unimak Pass Area, Alaska. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, J.C.; Craig, P.C.

    1986-12-01

    This report identifies and describes the important biological resources of the marine environment of the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, between 164 and 170/degree/ W (herein called study area), and discusses the physical and chemical processes and components that support these resources. It evaluates the potential effects of oil and gas activities on the biota and identifies information needs. It is based solely on a review and analysis of existing information. Major points follow under the headings History of Investigation, Marine Mammals, Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Primary Production, Physicochemical Processes, and Regional Comparisons and Potential Impacts.

  11. Great Basin geologic framework and uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.T.; Beal, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Work on this report has been done by a team of seven investigators assisted over the project span by twenty-three undergraduate and graduate students from May 18, 1976 to August 19, 1977. The report is presented in one volume of text, one volume or Folio of Maps, and two volumes of bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 5300 references on geologic subjects pertinent to the search for uranium in the Great Basin. Volume I of the bibliography lists articles by author alphabetically and Volume II cross-indexes these articles by location and key word. Chapters I through IV of the Text volume and accompanying Folio Map Sets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, discuss the relationship of uranium to rock and structural environments which dominate the Great Basin. Chapter 5 and Map Sets 6 and 7 provide a geochemical association/metallogenic grouping of mineral occurrences in the Great Basin along with information on rock types hosting uranium. Chapter VI summarizes the results of a court house claim record search for 'new' claiming areas for uranium, and Chapter VII along with Folio Map Set 8 gives all published geochronological data available through April 1, 1977 on rocks of the Great Basin. Chapter VIII provides an introduction to a computer analysis of characteristics of certain major uranium deposits in crystalline rocks (worldwide) and is offered as a suggestion of what might be done with uranium in all geologic environments. We believe such analysis will assist materially in constructing exploration models. Chapter IX summarizes criteria used and conclusions reached as to the favorability of uranium environments which we believe to exist in the Great Basin and concludes with recommendations for both exploration and future research. A general summary conclusion is that there are several geologic environments within the Great Basin which have considerable potential and that few, if any, have been sufficiently tested

  12. Paleohydrogeology of the San Joaquin basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.M.; Garven, G.; Boles, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Mass transport can have a significant effect on chemical diagenetic processes in sedimentary basins. This paper presents results from the first part of a study that was designed to explore the role of an evolving hydrodynamic system in driving mass transport and chemical diagenesis, using the San Joaquin basin of California as a field area. We use coupled hydrogeologic models to establish the paleohydrogeology, thermal history, and behavior of nonreactive solutes in the basin. These models rely on extensive geological information and account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, tectonic uplift, sediment compaction, and clay dehydration. In our numerical simulations, tectonic uplift and ocean regression led to large-scale changes in fluid flow and composition by strengthening topography-driven fluid flow and allowing deep influx of fresh ground water in the San Joaquin basin. Sediment compaction due to rapid deposition created moderate overpressures, leading to upward flow from depth. The unusual distribution of salinity in the basin reflects influx of fresh ground water to depths of as much as 2 km and dilution of saline fluids by dehydration reactions at depths greater than ???2.5 km. Simulations projecting the future salinity of the basin show marine salinities persisting for more than 10 m.y. after ocean regression. Results also show a change from topography-to compaction-driven flow in the Stevens Sandstone at ca. 5 Ma that coincides with an observed change in the diagenetic sequence. Results of this investigation provide a framework for future hydrologic research exploring the link between fluid flow and diagenesis.

  13. Manyame River Basin, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 42 No. 1 January 2016. Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. A test of the Lake Habitat Survey method in Cleveland Reservoir and. Lake Chivero (Manyame River Basin, Zimbabwe). Tatenda Dalu1*, Edwin ...

  14. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  15. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 3: Kinematics of Great Basin intraplate extension from earthquake, geodetic and geologic information. Final Technical Report, 15 Apr. 1981 - 31 Jan. 1986 M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture, associated with earthquakes, and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to paleostrain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin of the western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced in the last 5 to 10 million years. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions. Contemporary deformation of the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The earthquake related strain shows that the Great Basin is characterized by regional E-W extension at 8.4 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum extension correspond to belts of shallow crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through an effect such as a stress relaxation allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  16. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.

    2012-04-01

    + (Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Assistant System; Götze et al., 2010 and Schmidt et al., 2011). The ensuing model will be applied to predict the present-day deep crustal configuration and thermal field characteristics of the basin. Thereafter, 3D volumetric backstripping analysis will be performed to predict basin subsidence mechanisms (i.e. tectonic, thermal and sediment load) through time as well as to estimate paleo-water depths for paleogeographic reconstruction. The information gathered from crust-scale basin dynamics will be subsequently used at the petroleum system modelling stage to holistically assess the hydrocarbon potential of the basin in terms of source rock maturity and hydrocarbon generation, migration, timing and accumulation.

  17. Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly basin activities report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-31

    A summation is presented of the drilling and testing activity in the four primary study areas and the USGS designated core sites of the Western Gas Sands Project (WGSP). Pertinent review information for April, May and June 1978, included for each study area, is divided into two sections. The core program section identifies industry activity within the USGS recommended core areas and relates the status of WGSP core acquisition developments. The second part, the activity section, details drilling and testing operations of interest to the WGSP throughout the entire basin or province. Newly staked or completed wells are listed in tabular form and shown on a map. Information is included on activities in the Northern Great Plains Province, the greater Green River Basin, the Uinta Basin, and the Piceance Basin.

  18. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  19. Near-continuous tremor and low-frequency earthquake activities in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone revealed by a mini seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ghosh, Abhijit

    2017-06-01

    Tectonic tremor and low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) are relatively poorly studied in the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone due to the limited data availability, difficult logistics, and rugged terrain. Using 2 months of continuous data recorded by a mini seismic array in the Akutan Island, we detect near-continuous tremor activity with an average of 1.3 h of tectonic tremor per day using a beam backprojection method. Tremor sources are clustered in two patches with an 25 km gap in between them. In addition, we visually identify three low-frequency earthquakes, and using them as templates, we detect 1300 additional LFEs applying a matched-filter method. Tremor and LFE activities agree well in space and time, and LFEs show a much smaller recurrence interval during tremor than during non-tremor time periods. Tremor sources propagate both along the strike and dip directions of the subduction fault with velocities ranging between 13 and 110 km/h. Prolific patchy tremor and LFE activities suggest lateral heterogeneity in the locked to freely slipping transition zone, indicating that slow earthquakes may play an important role in the earthquake cycles in this subduction zone.

  20. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  1. Canada Basin revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  2. Reconnaissance coal study in the Susitna basin, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. LePain,; Stanley, Richard G.; Harun, Nina T.; Helmold, Kenneth T.; Tsigonis, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) conducted fieldwork during the summer of 2014 in the Susitna basin as part of an ongoing evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of frontier basins, particularly those near the Railbelt region (for example, Decker and others, 2013; Gillis and others, 2013). Topical studies associated with this recent work include sedimentary facies analysis (LePain and others, 2015) and structural geology investigations (Gillis and others, 2015). The Susitna basin contains coal-bearing Paleogene and Neogene strata correlative with formations that host oil and gas in Cook Inlet basin to its south. Isotopic signatures of natural gas reservoired in the Miocene/Pliocene Sterling and Miocene Beluga Formations suggest a biogenic origin for Cook Inlet gas (Claypool and others, 1980). To assess the biogenic gas potential of the Susitna basin, it is important to obtain information from its coal-bearing units.Characteristics of coal, such as maturity/rank and cleat development are key parameters influencing viability of a biogenic gas system (Laubach and others, 1998). In an early study of the Susitna basin (Beluga–Yentna region), Barnes (1966) identified, analyzed, and recognized potentially valuable subbituminous coal resources at Fairview Mountain, Canyon Creek, and Johnson Creek. Merritt (1990), in a sedimentological study to evaluate surface coal mining potential of the Tertiary rocks of the Susitna basin (Susitna lowland), concluded that the basin contained several billion tons of mineable reserves. This preliminary report offers a brief summary of new information on coals in the Susitna Basin acquired during associated stratigraphic studies (see LePain and others, 2015). 

  3. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL; Geerlofs, Simon H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended

  4. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  5. BASIN-CENTERED GAS SYSTEMS OF THE U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A. Popov; Vito F. Nuccio; Thaddeus S. Dyman; Timothy A. Gognat; Ronald C. Johnson; James W. Schmoker; Michael S. Wilson; Charles Bartberger

    2000-11-01

    The USGS is re-evaluating the resource potential of basin-centered gas accumulations in the U.S. because of changing perceptions of the geology of these accumulations, and the availability of new data since the USGS 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources (Gautier et al., 1996). To attain these objectives, this project used knowledge of basin-centered gas systems and procedures such as stratigraphic analysis, organic geochemistry, modeling of basin thermal dynamics, reservoir characterization, and pressure analysis. This project proceeded in two phases which had the following objectives: Phase I (4/1998 through 5/1999): Identify and describe the geologic and geographic distribution of potential basin-centered gas systems, and Phase II (6/1999 through 11/2000): For selected systems, estimate the location of those basin-centered gas resources that are likely to be produced over the next 30 years. In Phase I, we characterize thirty-three (33) potential basin-centered gas systems (or accumulations) based on information published in the literature or acquired from internal computerized well and reservoir data files. These newly defined potential accumulations vary from low to high risk and may or may not survive the rigorous geologic scrutiny leading towards full assessment by the USGS. For logistical reasons, not all basins received the level of detail desired or required.

  6. Drainage basins features and hydrological behaviour river Minateda basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Sarria, F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine basin variables (shape, size and topology) have been analyzed in four small basins with non-permanent run off (SE of Spain). These geomorphological variables have been selected for their high correlation with the Instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters. It is shown that the variables can change from one small basin to another within a very short area; because of it, generalizations about the behaviour of the run off are not possible. In conclusion, it is stated that the variations in geomorphological aspects between different basins, caused mainly by geological constraints, are a very important factor to be controlled in a study of geoecological change derived from climatic change

  7. The Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic: An Extinct Young Ocean Basin or a Failed Breakup Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alan; Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the crustal structure and composition of the Rockall Trough which is located in the NE Atlantic to the west of Ireland and the UK. The Rockall Trough is a large extensional basin formed in the Early Cretaceous and has dimensions of approximately 250 km in width and 1000 km in length. It is one of several basins formed during the complex Mesozoic northward propagation of rifting, continental breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation of the North Atlantic; other adjacent basins formed at this time include the Porcupine Trough to its east and the East and West Orphan Basins on the Canadian conjugate margin. To investigate the crustal structure of the Rockall Trough we have used three independent analyses of available 2D and 3D data: 1. 3D gravity inversion, using public-domain gravity and sediment-thickness information, has produced maps of (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness (figure 1) and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins. 2. Gravity inversion as above, but using public-domain gravity data combined with new proprietary 2D sediment-thickness information, has produced a series of cross-sections which show (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins 3. Geodynamic modelling, comprising 2D flexural backstripping and forward modelling, has been used to produce (i) estimates of stretching/thinning factor, (ii) whole-crustal cross-sections and (iii) predictions of palaeobathymetry through time along a series of project-specific transects. Our analysis of the Rockall Trough shows a rapid shallowing of crustal basement thicknesses on the flanks of the basin with central values of crustal thickness typically 8-10 km consistent with previously published seismic estimates. An important question is whether this thin crust is hyper-extended continental crust or proto-oceanic crust. Locally isolated patches of crustal thicknesses as low as 3km are observed which are consistent with the

  8. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  9. Structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1990-01-01

    Freshwater basin wetlands are found in depressions of various depths, generally in areas where precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration or where the depression intersects the water table creating groundwater seeps or springs. Forested basins are those that contain woody vegetation with the potential for reaching tree stature; they do not include woody shrub wetlands. In North America these areas are mainly in the central and eastern region. Pertinent information and reviews on the distribution, floristic composition, structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands are summarized. The major emphasis is on freshwater wetlands, but data for saltwater wetlands mainly from Florida and tropical America are included. The external factors affecting basin wetlands or the important components of a wetlands energy signature are described as well as the distribution and floristic composition of representative basin wetlands. Sections on structural characteristics, organic matter dynamics, and nutrient cycling comprise the bulk of quantitative information. The effects of disturbances, both natural and human induced, with varying degrees of impact depending upon the intensity and on the part of the ecosystem to which the stressor is applied are evaluated. Examples of stressors in basin wetlands include water impoundment, water diversion, thermal stress from hot water, sedimentation, addition of toxic substances, addition of wastewater, oil spills, and harvesting. 86 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2006-05-26

    The principal research effort for Phase 1 (Concept Development) of the project has been data compilation; determination of the tectonic, depositional, burial, and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin; basin modeling (geohistory, thermal maturation, hydrocarbon expulsion); petroleum system identification; comparative basin evaluation; and resource assessment. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, and regional cross sections have been prepared. Structure, isopach and formation lithology maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and burial history, thermal maturation history, and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs include Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies; shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies; and carbonate shoal, shelf and reef facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary. Hydrocarbon

  11. South Platte River Basin - Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Kevin F.; Litke, David W.; Tate, Cathy M.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1993-01-01

    The South Platte River Basin was one of 20 study units selected in 1991 for investigation under the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. One of the initial tasks undertaken by the study unit team was to review the environmental setting of the basin and assemble ancillary data on natural and anthropogenic factors in the basin. The physical, chemical, and biological quality of the water in the South Platte River Basin is explicitly tied to its environmental setting. The resulting water quality is the product of the natural conditions and human factors that make up the environmental setting of the basin.This description of the environmental setting of the South Platte River Basin and its implications to the water quality will help guide the design of the South Platte NAWQA study. Natural conditions such as physiography, climate, geology, and soils affect the ambient water quality while anthropogenic factors such as water use, population, land use and water-management practices can have a pronounced effect on water quality in the basin. The relative effects of mining, urban, and agricultural land- and water-uses on water-quality constituents are not well understood. The interrelation of the surface-water and ground-water systems and the chemical and biological processes that affect the transport of constituents needs to be addressed. Interactions between biological communities and the water resources also should be considered. The NAWQA program and the South Platte River Basin study will provide information to minimize existing knowledge gaps, so that we may better understand the effect these natural conditions and human factors have on the water-quality conditions in the basin, now and in the future.

  12. Multiple oscillatory modes of the Argentine Basin. Part II. The spectral origin of the basin modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Vevier, F.; Gille, S.T.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the spectrum of barotropic basin modes of the Argentine Basin is shown to be connected to the classical Rossby basin modes of a flat-bottom (constant depth), rectangular basin. First, the spectrum of basin modes is calculated for the Argentine Basin, by performing a normal-mode

  13. Modeling connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska: Are there any linkages to the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Hinckley, Sarah; Horne, John; Mazur, Michael; Hermann, Albert; Curchister, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and linkages to the Bering Sea (BS) and Aleutian Island (AL) regions. We used a spatially-explicit Individual-based model (IBM) coupled to 6 years of a hydrodynamic model that simulates the early life history of walleye pollock in the GOA (eggs to age-0 juveniles). The processes modeled included growth, movement, mortality, feeding and the bioenergetics component for larvae and juveniles. Simulations were set to release particles on the 1st of the month (February to May) in fourteen historical spawning areas in the GOA up to the 1st of September each year. Model results reproduced the link between the Shelikof Strait spawning area and the Shumagin nursery region for March and April spawners, besides other Potential Nursery Areas (PNAs) found in the GOA. A prominent finding of this study was the appearance of the BS as important PNAs for several GOA spawning grounds, which is supported by a consistent flow into the BS through Unimak Pass. The simulations showed the highest density of simulated surviving pollock in the western Bering Sea (WBS) region with the lowest coefficients of variation of the whole domain. Three spawning sectors were defined, which aggregate multiple spawning areas in the eastern (EGOA), central (CGOA) and western Gulf of Alaska (WGOA). A connectivity matrix showed strong retention within the CGOA (25.9%) and EGOA (23.8%), but not in the WGOA (7.2%). Within the GOA, the highest connectivity is observed from EGOA to CGOA (57.8%) followed by the connection from CGOA to WGOA (24.3%). Overall, one of the most prominent connections was from WGOA to WBS (62.8%), followed by a connection from CGOA to WBS (29.2%). In addition, scenarios of shifting spawning locations and nursery sectors of GOA, BS and AL are explored and implications for walleye pollock stock structure hypotheses are discussed.

  14. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  15. 76 FR 17088 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    .... 0910301387-91390-01] RIN 0648-AY33 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and...-7228. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The King and Tanner crab fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of... vessels that may be deployed in the groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the BSAI and...

  16. 76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... documents that are required under the Arbitration System to resolve price, delivery, and other disputes... market information used to conduct arbitration proceedings. This action is intended to promote the goals and objectives of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the FMP, and other...

  17. Identification of biosecurity measures and spatial variables as potential risk factors for Aleutian disease in Danish mink farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Houe, Hans; Agger, Jens Frederik Gramstrup

    2012-01-01

    for the infection in this region based on logistic regression of spatial (environmental, neighbourhood) variables and biosecurity measures. Information on potential biosecurity (management) risk factors in the region was obtained from interviews in 342 registered farms in the region using a structured questionnaire...

  18. 76 FR 24404 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t... posted without change. All Personal Identifying Information (for example, name, address, etc... the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the opening of directed fishing for...

  19. 75 FR 19561 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... catch (TAC) of Pacific cod specified for the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t... period has closed. Comment will generally be posted without change. All Personal Identifying Information... prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the...

  20. 78 FR 17341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... time the CR Program began did not collect employment, cost, and sales information necessary to... requirement for catcher vessels to report their fishing activity, including fish ticket numbers, days fishing... fishing, days traveling, and days processing) and financial (i.e., landings by share type, sales by...

  1. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  2. Geophysical Investigation of the Raton Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    65 miles wide, the Raton Basin is divided by the Cimarron Arch into the northern Raton Basin and the Las Vegas Basin on the south. The deepest...to the east, the Cimarron Arch on the north, and was linked by a low saddle to the Tucumcari Basin to the south. The Colorado and Rowe-Mora Basins...sedimentary rock thinning near the Apishipa, Cimarron , and Sierra Grande Arches; 2) presence of volcanic rock in the southern portion of the Basin; 3

  3. Geodatabase of sites, basin boundaries, and topology rules used to store drainage basin boundaries for the U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, Jean A.; Crowfoot, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This geodatabase and its component datasets are part of U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 650 and were generated to store basin boundaries for U.S. Geological Survey streamgages and other sites in Colorado. The geodatabase and its components were created by the U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Water Science Center, and are used to derive the numeric drainage areas for Colorado that are input into the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System (NWIS) database and also published in the Annual Water Data Report and on NWISWeb. The foundational dataset used to create the basin boundaries in this geodatabase was the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. This geodatabase accompanies a U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods report (Book 11, Section C, Chapter 6) entitled "Digital Database Architecture and Delineation Methodology for Deriving Drainage Basins, and Comparison of Digitally and Non-Digitally Derived Numeric Drainage Areas." The Techniques and Methods report details the geodatabase architecture, describes the delineation methodology and workflows used to develop these basin boundaries, and compares digitally derived numeric drainage areas in this geodatabase to non-digitally derived areas. 1. COBasins.gdb: This geodatabase contains site locations and basin boundaries for Colorado. It includes a single feature dataset, called BasinsFD, which groups the component feature classes and topology rules. 2. BasinsFD: This feature dataset in the "COBasins.gdb" geodatabase is a digital container that holds the feature classes used to archive site locations and basin boundaries as well as the topology rules that govern spatial relations within and among component feature classes. This feature dataset includes three feature classes: the sites for which basins have been delineated (the "Sites" feature class), basin bounding lines (the "BasinLines" feature class), and polygonal basin areas (the "BasinPolys" feature class). The feature dataset

  4. A NEW METHOD FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW ASSESSMENT BASED ON BASIN GEOLOGY. APPLICATION TO EBRO BASIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The determination of environmental flows is one of the commonest practical actions implemented on European rivers to promote their good ecological status. In Mediterranean rivers, groundwater inflows are a decisive factor in streamflow maintenance. This work examines the relationship between the lithological composition of the Ebro basin (Spain) and dry season flows in order to establish a model that can assist in the calculation of environmental flow rates.Due to the lack of information on the hydrogeological characteristics of the studied basin, the variable representing groundwater inflows has been estimated in a very simple way. The explanatory variable used in the proposed model is easy to calculate and is sufficiently powerful to take into account all the required characteristics.The model has a high coefficient of determination, indicating that it is accurate for the intended purpose. The advantage of this method compared to other methods is that it requires very little data and provides a simple estimate of environmental flow. It is also independent of the basin area and the river section order.The results of this research also contribute to knowledge of the variables that influence low flow periods and low flow rates on rivers in the Ebro basin.

  5. Desert basins of the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Konieczki, Alice D.; Rees, Julie A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation’s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to urban and rural communities, supports irrigation and industry, sustains the flow of streams and rivers, and maintains riparian and wetland ecosystems. In many areas of the Nation, the future sustainability of ground-water resources is at risk from overuse and contamination. Because ground-water systems typically respond slowly to human actions, a long-term perspective is needed to manage this valuable resource. This publication is one in a series of fact sheets that describe ground-water-resource issues across the United States, as well as some of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey that provide information to help others develop, manage, and protect ground-water resources in a sustainable manner. Ground-water resources in the Southwest are among the most overused in the United States. Natural recharge to aquifers is low and pumping in many areas has resulted in lowering of water tables. The consequences of large-scale removal of water from storage are becoming increasingly evident. These consequences include land subsidence; loss of springs, streams, wetlands and associated habitat; and degradation of water quality. Water managers are now seeking better ways of managing ground-water resources while looking for supplemental sources of water. This fact sheet reviews basic information on ground water in the desert basins of the Southwest. Also described are some activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that are providing scientific information for sustainable management of ground-water resources in the Southwest. Ground-water sustainability is defined as developing and using ground water in a way that can be maintained for an indefinite time without causing unacceptable environmental, economic, or social consequences.

  6. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  7. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in the musi basin using remote sensing data and gis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganapuram, Sreedhar; Vijaya Kumar, G.T.; Murali Krishna, I.V.; Kahya, Ercan; Demirel, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the groundwater availability for agriculture in the Musi basin. Remote sensing data and geographic information system were used to locate potential zones for groundwater in the Musi basin. Various maps (i.e., base, hydrogeomorphological, geological,

  8. 1996 Phase 2 soil sampling at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report consolidates 1996 soil sampling data collected from the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin Site. This report is intended to be a data reference and does not make comparisons or conclusions regarding specific regulatory criteria. Chemical and radiological data were collected to support cleanup activities at the Hanford Site; soil sampling occurred beneath and next to the former basin structures. The 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, which consisted of four adjoining concrete basins, were located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, north of the retired 105-H Reactor. Originally, the basins were built as part of the 100-H water treatment structures. The four basins were inactive from the mid-1960's until 1973 when radioactive and dangerous (mixed) waste from the 300 Area Fuel Fabrication Facility was shipped to the basins for storage and treatment. The basins were used for solar evaporation of the waste. The last shipment of waste to the 183-H Basins took place in November 1985. Decontamination of the cement structure took place in 1995. The structure has subsequently been dismantled and disposed. Chapters 2.0 through 4.0 present summary information about sampling (1) beneath the loading ramp and berm piles, (2) in shallow soils beneath the former basin floor, and (3) deep vadose soils. Detailed data are provided in the appendices

  9. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trasmonte

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems tools, using minimum temperature – 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April, when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l., while the low (or null probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.. Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l., moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

  10. Repository site definition in basalt: Pasco Basin, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    Discussion of the regional setting, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Pasco Basin are included in this report. Pasco basin is a structural and topographic basin of approximately 2000 mi/sup 2/ (5180 km/sup 2/) located within the Yakima Fold Belt Subprovince of the Columbia Plateau. The stratigraphic sequence within the basin consists of an undetermined thickness of lower Miocene and younger flood basalts with interbedded and overlying sedimentary units. This sequence rests upon a basement of probably diverse rock types that may range in age from precambrian through early Tertiary. Although a large amount of information is available on the hydrology of the unconfined aquifer system, ground-water flow within the basin is, in general, poorly understood. Recharge areas for the Mabton interbed and the Saddle Mountains Formation are the highlands surrounding the basin with the flow for these units toward Gable Butte - Gable Mountain and Lake Wallula. Gable Butte - Gable Mountain probably is a ground-water sink, although the vertical flow direction in this zone is uncertain. The amount of upward vertical leakage from the Saddle Mountains Formation into the overlying sediments or to the Columbia River is unknown. Units underlying the Mabton interbed may have a flow scheme similar to those higher units or a flow scheme dominated by interbasin flow. Upward vertical leakage either throughout the basin, dominantly to the Columbia River, or dominantly to Lake Wallula has been proposed for the discharge of the lower units. None of these proposals is verified. The lateral and vertical distribution of major and minor ions in solution, Eh and pH, and ion exchange between basalt and ground-water are not well defined for the basin. Changes in the redox potential from the level of the subsurface facility to the higher stratigraphic levels along with the numerous other factors influencing K/sub d/, result in a poor understanding of the retardation process.

  11. Repository site definition in basalt: Pasco Basin, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.

    1982-03-01

    Discussion of the regional setting, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Pasco Basin are included in this report. Pasco basin is a structural and topographic basin of approximately 2000 mi 2 (5180 km 2 ) located within the Yakima Fold Belt Subprovince of the Columbia Plateau. The stratigraphic sequence within the basin consists of an undetermined thickness of lower Miocene and younger flood basalts with interbedded and overlying sedimentary units. This sequence rests upon a basement of probably diverse rock types that may range in age from precambrian through early Tertiary. Although a large amount of information is available on the hydrology of the unconfined aquifer system, ground-water flow within the basin is, in general, poorly understood. Recharge areas for the Mabton interbed and the Saddle Mountains Formation are the highlands surrounding the basin with the flow for these units toward Gable Butte - Gable Mountain and Lake Wallula. Gable Butte - Gable Mountain probably is a ground-water sink, although the vertical flow direction in this zone is uncertain. The amount of upward vertical leakage from the Saddle Mountains Formation into the overlying sediments or to the Columbia River is unknown. Units underlying the Mabton interbed may have a flow scheme similar to those higher units or a flow scheme dominated by interbasin flow. Upward vertical leakage either throughout the basin, dominantly to the Columbia River, or dominantly to Lake Wallula has been proposed for the discharge of the lower units. None of these proposals is verified. The lateral and vertical distribution of major and minor ions in solution, Eh and pH, and ion exchange between basalt and ground-water are not well defined for the basin. Changes in the redox potential from the level of the subsurface facility to the higher stratigraphic levels along with the numerous other factors influencing K/sub d/, result in a poor understanding of the retardation process

  12. Selected hydrologic data in the upper Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don; Waddell, K.M.

    1973-01-01

    Most of the information in this atlas pertains to the ground-water resources of the basin. The surface-water resources, climate, and geohydrologic framework have been described in considerable detail by Iorns and others (1964, 1965).The maps in this atlas are highly generalized, and are intended to provide the reader with only a general understanding of the geology, ground-water conditions, and chemical quality of the water in the basin as a whole. In most instances, the availability, depth to, and chemical quality of ground water at a given well site can be determined only by special investigations. Only previously collected data were used to compile the maps in this atlas. More detailed information for specific parts of the basin can be found in the reports and maps in the list of references.

  13. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  14. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Endorheic Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cheng, Guodong; Ge, Yingchun; Li, Hongyi; Han, Feng; Hu, Xiaoli; Tian, Wei; Tian, Yong; Pan, Xiaoduo; Nian, Yanyun; Zhang, Yanlin; Ran, Youhua; Zheng, Yi; Gao, Bing; Yang, Dawen; Zheng, Chunmiao; Wang, Xusheng; Liu, Shaomin; Cai, Ximing

    2018-01-01

    Endorheic basins around the world are suffering from water and ecosystem crisis. To pursue sustainable development, quantifying the hydrological cycle is fundamentally important. However, knowledge gaps exist in how climate change and human activities influence the hydrological cycle in endorheic basins. We used an integrated ecohydrological model, in combination with systematic observations, to analyze the hydrological cycle in the Heihe River Basin, a typical endorheic basin in arid region of China. The water budget was closed for different landscapes, river channel sections, and irrigation districts of the basin from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that climate warming, which has led to greater precipitation, snowmelt, glacier melt, and runoff, is a favorable factor in alleviating water scarcity. Human activities, including ecological water diversion, cropland expansion, and groundwater overexploitation, have both positive and negative effects. The natural oasis ecosystem has been restored considerably, but the overuse of water in midstream and the use of environmental flow for agriculture in downstream have exacerbated the water stress, resulting in unfavorable changes in surface-ground water interactions and raising concerns regarding how to fairly allocate water resources. Our results suggest that the water resource management in the region should be adjusted to adapt to a changing hydrological cycle, cropland area must be reduced, and the abstraction of groundwater must be controlled. To foster long-term benefits, water conflicts should be handled from a broad socioeconomic perspective. The findings can provide useful information on endorheic basins to policy makers and stakeholders around the world.

  15. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting

  16. K-Basins design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines

  17. Calc-Alkaline Liquid Lines of Descent Produced Under Oxidizing Conditions: An Experimental and Petrologic Study of Basaltic Tephras from the Western Aleutians, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, L. E.; Cottrell, E.; Kelley, K. A.; Coombs, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Buldir, a volcano in the western Aleutian Arc, features eruptive products that form one of the most strongly calc-alkaline compositional trends observed in modern island arcs. Previous studies of Buldir and nearby submarine dredge samples suggest that Buldir's mineral phases and isotopic signatures may be introduced through mixing of two distinct magmas and/or melts, as no experimental study has been able to create a liquid line of descent (LLD) as calc-alkaline as Buldir's whole rock trend. To further test this hypothesis, we present new experimental results and petrographic analysis of tephras from the 2015 field season of the GeoPRISMS shared platform. Tephras (51.4-54.8 wt% SiO2) have a phenocryst assemblage of olivine + plagioclase + cpx + spinel ± hornblende (hbl). In natural samples, plagioclase comprises most of the crystal volume, followed by either olivine or hornblende. In samples that contain abundant hbl (Hbl Mg#=65-80), olivine and plagioclase span a range of compositions from Fo72-86 and An60-93, respectively. In samples without hbl, olivines are more forsteritic (Fo79-90), and plagioclase is less calcic (An65-83). Spinel is ubiquitous; with Cr- rich spinel inclusions in olivine and hbl, and magnetite in the groundmass. Our petrologic observations do not require magma mixing. To determine whether these observations could be consistent with the LLD of a single parental liquid, we conducted a series of phase equilibrium experiments at 100 MPa in a rapid-quench cold-seal (MHC) apparatus on the most primitive natural lava from Buldir (9.34 wt% MgO). Experiments were equilibrated in noble metal capsules pre-saturated with Fe, and buffered at Re-ReO2 under water-saturated conditions. Spinel [(Mg80, Fe2+20)(Fe3+52, Cr83, Al66)O4] is the liquidus phase, followed by olivine, then plagioclase, then cpx, and lastly, hbl. Once cpx and hbl saturate, spinel composition shifts to magnetite. Experimental run products demonstrate that all mineral phases observed in

  18. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the Western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gi Hoon [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, 1270 Sa 2 dong, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Baskaran, Mark, E-mail: Baskaran@wayne.edu [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Molaroni, Shannon Marie [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Lee, Hyun-Mi [Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, 1270 Sa 2 dong, Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) and natural radionculides ({sup 40} K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226}Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of {sup 90}Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg{sup -1} and {sup 137}Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg{sup -1}.{sup 137}Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average {sup 137}Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40} K, and {sup 226}Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total {sup 210}Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported {sup 210}Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess {sup 210}Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, {sup 137}Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, {sup 210}Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, {sup 40}K and {sup 226}Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 {mu}SV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological

  19. Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid proteins in defined segments: localization of immunoreactive sites and neutralizing epitopes to specific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M E; Martin, D A; Oie, K L; Huhtanen, M E; Costello, F; Wolfinbarger, J B; Hayes, S F; Agbandje-McKenna, M

    1997-01-01

    The capsid proteins of the ADV-G isolate of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) were expressed in 10 nonoverlapping segments as fusions with maltose-binding protein in pMAL-C2 (pVP1, pVP2a through pVP2i). The constructs were designed to capture the VP1 unique sequence and the portions analogous to the four variable surface loops of canine parvovirus (CPV) in individual fragments (pVP2b, pVP2d, pVP2e, and pVP2g, respectively). The panel of fusion proteins was immunoblotted with sera from mink infected with ADV. Seropositive mink infected with either ADV-TR, ADV-Utah, or ADV-Pullman reacted preferentially against certain segments, regardless of mink genotype or virus inoculum. The most consistently immunoreactive regions were pVP2g, pVP2e, and pVP2f, the segments that encompassed the analogs of CPV surface loops 3 and 4. The VP1 unique region was also consistently immunoreactive. These findings indicated that infected mink recognize linear epitopes that localized to certain regions of the capsid protein sequence. The segment containing the hypervariable region (pVP2d), corresponding to CPV loop 2, was also expressed from ADV-Utah. An anti-ADV-G monoclonal antibody and a rabbit anti-ADV-G capsid antibody reacted exclusively with the ADV-G pVP2d segment but not with the corresponding segment from ADV-Utah. Mink infected with ADV-TR or ADV-Utah also preferentially reacted with the pVP2d sequence characteristic of that virus. These results suggested that the loop 2 region may contain a type-specific linear epitope and that the epitope may also be specifically recognized by infected mink. Heterologous antisera were prepared against the VP1 unique region and the four segments capturing the variable surface loops of CPV. The antisera against the proteins containing loop 3 or loop 4, as well as the anticapsid antibody, neutralized ADV-G infectivity in vitro and bound to capsids in immune electron microscopy. These results suggested that regions of the ADV capsid proteins

  20. Anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in caribou and muskoxen in the Western Alaskan Arctic and marine fish in the Aleutian Islands in the first half of 2000s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Baskaran, Mark; Molaroni, Shannon Marie; Lee, Hyun-Mi; Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    A number of caribou and muskoxen samples from the western Alaskan Arctic and fish samples from the Aleutian Islands were collected between 1998 and 2006 and analyzed for anthropogenic ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs) and natural radionculides ( 40 K, 210 Pb and 226 Ra), as part of the radiological assessment for the regional subsistence hunting communities in the first half of 2000s. We examined the relationship between the activities of these nuclides with the size of the fish. In caribou samples, concentration of 90 Sr in muscle was below the detection limit of 0.14 Bq kg -1 and 137 Cs concentration in bones was below the detection limit of 0.15 Bq kg -1 . 137 Cs activity varied over an order of magnitude in caribou muscle samples with an average value of 2.5 Bq/kg wet wt. Average 137 Cs activity in muskoxen muscle was found to be 9.7 Bq/kg wet wt. However, there were a little variation (less than 60%) in 210 Pb, 40 K, and 226 Ra in both muscle and bone of both caribou and muskoxen. The activities of total 210 Pb in caribou and muskox bones were found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of parent-supported 210 Pb indicating the potential for dating of bones of terrestrial mammals (time elapsed since the death of the animal) based on the excess 210 Pb method exists. In fish muscle samples, 137 Cs activity varied from below detection limit to 154 mBq/kg wet wt. and its content increased with the size of the fish due to its transfer through the food chain. Among the seven fish species investigated, 210 Pb activities varied almost an order of magnitude; however, 40 K and 226 Ra activities varied less than a factor of two. Total annual effective dose due to 90 Sr and 137 Cs from the ingestion of those terrestrial and marine meats was estimated to be negligible (ca. 9 μSV/a) compared to the natural radionuclides present thus posing negligible radiological threat to humans. - Highlights: → Quantification of radiation dose to humans from the ingestion of fish, muskox

  1. The central and northern Appalachian Basin-a frontier region for coalbed methane development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is the world's second largest coalbed-methane (CBM) producing basin. It has nearly 4000 wells with 1996 annual production at 147.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Cumulative CBM production is close to 0.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama in the southern Appalachian basin (including a very minor amount from the Cahaba coal field) accounts for about 75% of this annual production and about 75% of the wells, and the remainder comes from the central and northern Appalachian basin. The Southwest Virginia coal field accounts for about 95% of the production from the central and northern parts of the Appalachian basin. Production data and trends imply that several of the Appalachian basin states, except for Alabama and Virginia, are in their infancy with respect to CBM development. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and northern Appalachian basin have been variously estimated at 66 to 76 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), of which an estimated 14.55 Tcf (~ 20%) is technically recoverable according to a 1995 U.S. Geological Survey assessment. For comparison in the Black Warrior basin of the 20 Tcf in-place CBM resources, 2.30 Tcf (~ 12%) is technically recoverable. Because close to 0.9 Tcf of CBM has already been produced from the Black Warrior basin and the proved reserves are about 0.8 Tcf for 1996 [Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1997]. U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1996 Annual Report. U.S. Department of Energy DOE/EIA-0216(96), 145 pp.], these data imply that the central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin CBM picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin (Black Warrior Basin and Cahaba Coal Field). CBM development in the Appalachian states could decrease the eastern U.S.A.'s dependence on coal for electricity. CBM is expected to provide over the next few decades a virtually untapped source of

  2. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  3. Teale Ground Water Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  4. Basin-wide water accounting based on remote sensing data: an application for the Indus Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the application of a new water accounting plus (WA+ framework to produce information on depletion of water resources, storage change, and land and water productivity in the Indus basin. It shows how satellite-derived estimates of land use, rainfall, evaporation (E, transpiration (T, interception (I and biomass production can be used in addition to measured basin outflow, for water accounting with WA+. It is demonstrated how the accounting results can be interpreted to identify existing issues and examine solutions for the future. The results for one selected year (2007 showed that total annual water depletion in the basin (501 km3 plus outflows (21 km3 exceeded total precipitation (482 km3. The water storage systems that were effected are groundwater storage (30 km3, surface water storage (9 km3, and glaciers and snow storage (2 km3. Evapotranspiration of rainfall or "landscape ET" was 344 km3 (69 % of total depletion. "Incremental ET" due to utilized flow was 157 km3 (31% of total depletion. Agriculture depleted 297 km3, or 59% of the total depletion, of which 85% (254 km3 was through irrigated agriculture and the remaining 15% (44 km3 through rainfed systems. Due to excessive soil evaporation in agricultural areas, half of all water depletion in the basin was non-beneficial. Based on the results of this accounting exercise loss of storage, low beneficial depletion, and low land and water productivity were identified as the main water resources management issues. Future scenarios to address these issues were chosen and their impacts on the Indus Basin water accounts were tested using the new WA+ framework.

  5. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  6. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  7. River basin management and community : the Great Ouse Basin, 1850–present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.

    2017-01-01

    River basins are difficult units to manage. Society is generally not organized on the basis of river basins, yet river basins are important units for society and vice versa. This paper discusses the development and effectiveness of river basin management, using the Great Ouse Basin in the east of

  8. Appropriate models in decision support systems for river basin management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, YuePing; Booij, Martijn J.; Morell, M.; Todorovik, O.; Dimitrov, D.; Selenica, A.; Spirkovski, Z.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, new ideas and techniques appear very quickly, like sustainability, adaptive management, Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing and participations of new stakeholders, which contribute a lot to the development of decision support systems in river basin management. However, the

  9. Mineral composite assessment of Kelkit River Basin in Turkey by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 118; Issue 6 ... Utilizing remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) tools, mineral composite characteristics (ferrous minerals (FM), iron oxide (IO), and clay minerals (CM)) of the Kelkit River Basin (15913.07 km2) in Turkey were investigated and ...

  10. Interaction between stakeholders and research for integrated river basin management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Padovani, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated Water Management calls for basin-wide coordination of activities related to land and water use. The need for multi-stakeholder involvement, the necessity to integrate scientific approaches and local information, the process of mutual communication, the results of discussions on integrated

  11. Spatial quantification of groundwater abstraction in the irrigated indus basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheema, M. J M; Immerzeel, W. W.; Bastiaanssen, W. G M

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater abstraction and depletion were assessed at a 1-km resolution in the irrigated areas of the Indus Basin using remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation; a process-based hydrological model and spatial information on canal water supplies. A calibrated Soil and Water

  12. Spatial Quantification of Groundwater Abstraction in the Irrigated Indus Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheema, M.J.M.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater abstraction and depletion were assessed at a 1-km resolution in the irrigated areas of the Indus Basin using remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation; a process-based hydrological model and spatial information on canal water supplies. A calibrated Soil and Water

  13. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  14. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

  15. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  16. The Tethys Rifting of the Valencia Trough Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Marina; Ranero, César R.; Cameselle, Alejandra L.

    2017-04-01

    The western Mediterranean submarine realm is composed of several basin inferred to be formed by a common geodynamic process: upper plate extension during slab rollback of a retreating subduction zone. Although the time evolution of the geometry of the trenches is debated, all models assume that basins opened sequentially from NW (Gulf of Lions) towards the SE (Ligurian-Provençal and later Tyrrhenian basins) and SW (Valencia Trough and later Algerian-South Balearic and Alboran Basin) as trenches migrated. Basin opening history is key to reconstruct kinematics of slab retreat preferred in each model. However, the deep structure of basins is inadequately known due to the paucity of modern wide-angle and multichannel reflection seismic studies across entire systems, and absence of deep drilling in the deep-water regions of the basins, as a result, much of the opening evolution is inferred from indirect evidence. In the Valencia Trough Basin (VTB), drilling and vintage seismic data provide good knowledge of the shallow geology of the basin. However, crustal-scale information across the entire VTB has been limited to two studies (Figure 1): One in the late 80's (Valsis experiment) with three Expanded Spread Profiles that yielded local 1D velocity/depth models used to constrain 2D gravity modeling, and a few multichannel seismic profiles along the Iberian shelf and across segments of the basin. A second study in the early 90's (ESCI experiment) collected a low-resolution deep-penetration multichannel seismic reflection profile across the basin and a coincident wide-angle seismic line with numerous land stations in Iberia but a handful of widely-spaced Ocean Bottom Seismometers. In the absence of modern detailed crustal structure, the origin and evolution of the VTB is still debated. Industry multichannel seismic reflection profiles cover the SW segment of the VTB. This is a region where the basin sea floor is comparatively shallower and has numerous industry wells

  17. Estimating future flood frequency and magnitude in basins affected by glacier wastage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present field measurements of meteorology, hydrology and glaciers and long-term modeled projections of glacier mass balance and : stream flow informed by downscaled climate simulations. The study basins include Valdez Glacier Stream (342 km2 : ), ...

  18. VT Generalized Land Cover Land Use for Champlain Basin - SAL 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Circa 1992 land use - land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. This layer was created by performing a retrospective change detection on the...

  19. VT Generalized Land Cover Land Use for Champlain Basin - SAL 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Circa 2001 land use / land cover (LULC) for the Lake Champlain Basin. The goal in creating this layer was to generate an "improved" version of...

  20. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems

  1. The Middle Ordovician Knox unconformity in the Black Warrior Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Gary S.; Repetski, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of well core and cuttings from the Black Warrior Basin in Mississippi reveals the presence of a Middle Ordovician (Whiterockian) erosional unconformity interpreted to be equivalent to the well-known Knox-Beekmantown unconformity in eastern North America. The unconformity occurs at the top of a peritidal dolostone unit known informally as the upper dolostone, whose stratigraphic placement has been the subject of a long-standing controversy. The unconformity, which represents the Sauk-Tippecanoe megasequence boundary on the North American craton, was previously thought to be short-lived or altogether absent in the Black Warrior Basin.

  2. The birth of the Xigaze forearc basin in southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Gang; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; An, Wei; Liu, Xiao-Chi

    2017-05-01

    The stratigraphic succession of a forearc basin provides crucial information on the history of a convergent plate margin. In particular, it helps to establish the origin of the underlying ophiolites and to unravel the earliest evolutionary stage of arc-trench systems, which remain poorly understood. The Xigaze forearc basin in southern Tibet is one of the best examples of a fossil forearc basin. This study illustrates detailed stratigraphic and high-precision SIMS U-Pb zircon geochronological and Hf isotopic data from the Chongdui Formation, representing the very base of the Xigaze forearc-basin succession, and reconstructs when and how the basin was formed. The Chongdui Formation includes tuffaceous chert and siliceous mudrocks deposited directly on top of pillow basalts of the Xigaze ophiolite and conformably overlain by volcaniclastic turbidites. Tuff layers are interbedded throughout the unit, and their U-Pb zircon ages range from 119 to 113 Ma in the lower member and from 113 to 110 Ma in the upper member, broadly consistent with the established radiolarian biostratigraphy. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope signatures of zircons contained in both tuff layers and turbiditic sandstones indicate clear affinity with magmatic rocks of the Lhasa terrane. Direct depositional and chronostratigraphic relationship with the underlying oceanic crust, dated between 131 and 124 Ma, proves that the Xigaze ophiolite is the basement of the Xigaze forearc basin. After an initial prolonged stage of starved siliceous sedimentation, influx of terrigenous detritus began at 113-110 Ma, reflecting the onset of topographic growth and erosion of the Lhasa terrane in response to intense magmatic activity. Formation of the ophiolitic basement during the early stage of subduction and the subsequent topographic growth of the arc source induced by subduction-related magmatism are thus two critical factors for the birth of the Xigaze forearc basin. Similar stratigraphies were identified in the Great

  3. The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project — basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, David C.; Martini, Nicole; Buness, Hermann; Gabriel, Gerald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2010-05-01

    Within the context of the Heidelberg Basin Project (Gabriel et al. 2008), we present the first results of three-dimensional structural modelling of the basin, based on interpretation of reflection seismics and decompaction using porosity data measured from core material. Firstly, we interpreted six horizons (Base Quaternary, Internal and Base Pliocene, Base Upper Miocene, Internal and Base Mid Miocene Hydrobien beds) from all available industrial (ca. 100 km) and our own reflection seismic sections (ca. 15 km), which lie within a 8 km radius around the Heidelberg UniNord 1/2 boreholes. This data was used to construct a three-dimensional geometrical model of the Heidelberg Basin. Using 300 core samples, we determined the porosity of the Quaternary sediments and constructed an exponential porosity/depth relationship for these rocks, which were then attributed to the model. Lower strata were given values from the literature. The model shows that the Heidelberg basin has a N-S and E-W areal extent of only 10 × 6 km, directly abutting the eastern fault boundary of the Upper Rhine Graben. The strongest synsedimentary tectonic subsidence occurred during the Upper Miocene, Upper Pliocene, and Quarternary. Faults are not seen within the basin at this level, but a NW-SE striking strike-slip structure is recorded to the west of the basin. Furthermore, the sedimentary depocentre shifted 2 km northwards over time to the present location, directly below the city of Heidelberg. We determined that Quaternary sediments have porosities of over 60% at the surface, but at the Base Quaternary porosity is less than 35%. This strong decrease means that 740 m of sediments were compacted to produce the present ca. 500 m thickness of Quaternary strata. Gabriel, G., Ellwanger, D., Hoselmann, C. & Weidenfeller, M. (2008): The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project. -- Quaternary Science Journal, 57, 3-4, 253-260.

  4. Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Baskin, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program.The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation’s surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water-quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at Federal, State, and local levels.A major design feature of the NAWQA Program will enable water-quality information at different areal scales to be integrated. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, which ae the principal building blocks of the program upon which national-level assessment activities will be based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. These study units cover areas from less than 1.000 to greater than 60,000 mi2 and incorporate from about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation’s water use and population served by public water supply. In 1993, assessment activities began in the Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study unit.

  5. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  6. Petroleum potential of the northern Sinu-San Jacinto Basin, Colombia: an integrated petroleum system and basin modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino, Christian H.; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Bedregal, Ricardo P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Azevedo, Debora A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Landau, Luis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    The northern Sinu-San Jacinto basin, located in the northwestern corner of South America (Colombia), belongs to the accretionary prism that resulted from the collision and subduction of the Caribbean plate under the South America plate. Despite all the previous exploratory efforts, solely a few small sub-commercial oil and gas accumulation have been found up to now. The geological and geochemical information acquired by different companies during the lasts decades was integrated with new geochemical analysis and basin modeling to characterize the petroleum systems, to reconstruct the hydrocarbon charge history in the study area and to better assess the exploratory risk. (author)

  7. Water Availability for Shale Gas Development in Sichuan Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengjun; Weinthal, Erika; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Deshusses, Marc A; Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-03-15

    Unconventional shale gas development holds promise for reducing the predominant consumption of coal and increasing the utilization of natural gas in China. While China possesses some of the most abundant technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world, water availability could still be a limiting factor for hydraulic fracturing operations, in addition to geological, infrastructural, and technological barriers. Here, we project the baseline water availability for the next 15 years in Sichuan Basin, one of the most promising shale gas basins in China. Our projection shows that continued water demand for the domestic sector in Sichuan Basin could result in high to extremely high water stress in certain areas. By simulating shale gas development and using information from current water use for hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin (20,000-30,000 m(3) per well), we project that during the next decade water use for shale gas development could reach 20-30 million m(3)/year, when shale gas well development is projected to be most active. While this volume is negligible relative to the projected overall domestic water use of ∼36 billion m(3)/year, we posit that intensification of hydraulic fracturing and water use might compete with other water utilization in local water-stress areas in Sichuan Basin.

  8. Contribution to the stratigraphy of the onshore Paraiba Basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Valeriano, Marcio M., E-mail: rossetti@dsr.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Sensoriamento Remoto; Goes, Ana M.; Brito-Neves, Benjamim B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Bezerra, Francisco H.R.; Ochoa, Felipe L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra. Departamento de Geologia

    2012-06-15

    Several publications have contributed to improve the stratigraphy of the Paraiba Basin in northeastern Brazil. However, the characterization and distribution of sedimentary units in onshore areas of this basin are still incomplete, despite their significance for reconstructing the tectono- sedimentary evolution of the South American passive margin. This work provides new information to differentiate among lithologically similar strata, otherwise entirely unrelated in time. This approach included morphological, sedimentological and stratigraphic descriptions based on surface and sub-surface data integrated with remote sensing, optically stimulated luminescence dating, U+Th/He dating of weathered goethite, and heavy mineral analysis. Based on this study, it was possible to show that Cretaceous units are constrained to the eastern part of the onshore Paraiba Basin. Except for a few outcrops of carbonatic-rocks nearby the modern coastline, deposits of this age are not exposed to the surface in the study area. Instead, the sedimentary cover throughout the basin is constituted by mineralogically and chronologically distinctive deposits, inserted in the Barreiras Formation and mostly in the Post-Barreiras Sediments, of early/middle Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene ages, respectively. The data presented in this work support tectonic deformation as a factor of great relevance to the distribution of the sedimentary units of the Paraiba Basin. (author)

  9. The late Holocene dry period: multiproxy evidence for an extended drought between 2800 and 1850 cal yr BP across the central Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensing, Scott A.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Tunno, Irene; Sada, Don W.; Thomas, Jim M.; Starratt, Scott W.; Smith, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of a multi-centennial scale dry period between ∼2800 and 1850 cal yr BP is documented by pollen, mollusks, diatoms, and sediment in spring sediments from Stonehouse Meadow in Spring Valley, eastern central Nevada, U.S. We refer to this period as the Late Holocene Dry Period. Based on sediment recovered, Stonehouse Meadow was either absent or severely restricted in size at ∼8000 cal yr BP. Beginning ∼7500 cal yr BP, the meadow became established and persisted to ∼3000 cal yr BP when it began to dry. Comparison of the timing of this late Holocene drought record to multiple records extending from the eastern Sierra Nevada across the central Great Basin to the Great Salt Lake support the interpretation that this dry period was regional. The beginning and ending dates vary among sites, but all sites record multiple centuries of dry climate between 2500 and 1900 cal yr BP. This duration makes it the longest persistent dry period within the late Holocene. In contrast, sites in the northern Great Basin record either no clear evidence of drought, or have wetter than average climate during this period, suggesting that the northern boundary between wet and dry climates may have been between about 40° and 42° N latitude. This dry in the southwest and wet in the northwest precipitation pattern across the Great Basin is supported by large-scale spatial climate pattern hypotheses involving ENSO, PDO, AMO, and the position of the Aleutian Low and North Pacific High, particularly during winter.

  10. Investigation of Earthquake and Geyser Events in the Upper Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park from a Nodal Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S.; Karplus, M. S.; Farrell, J.; Lin, F. C.; Smith, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    A large seismic nodal array incorporating 133 three-component, 5-Hz geophones deployed for two weeks in early November 2015 in the Upper Geyser Basin recorded earthquake and hydrothermal activity. The University of Utah, the University of Texas at El Paso, and Yellowstone National Park collaborated to deploy Fairfield Nodal ZLand 3-C geophones concentrically centered around the Old Faithful Geyser with an average station spacing of 50 m and an aperture of 1 km. The array provided a unique dataset to investigate wave propagation through various fractures and active geysers in a hydrothermal field located over the Yellowstone hotspot. The complicated sub-surface features associated with the hydrothermal field appear to impact earthquake wave propagation in the Upper Geyser Basin and to generate seismic signals. Previous work using ambient noise cross-correlation has found an intricately fractured sub-surface that provides pathways for water beneath parts of the Upper Geyser Basin that likely feed Old Faithful and other nearby geysers and hot springs. For this study, we used the data to create visualizations of local earthquake, teleseismic earthquake, and hydrothermal events as they propagate through the array. These ground motion visualizations allow observation of wave propagation through the geyser field, which may indicate the presence of anomalous structure impacting seismic velocities and attenuation. Three teleseismic events were observed in the data, two 6.9MW earthquakes that occurred off the coast of Coquimbo, Colombia 9,000km from the array and one 6.5MW near the Aleutian Islands 4,500km from the array. All three teleseismic events observed in the data exhibited strong direct P-wave arrivals and several additional phases. One local earthquake event (2.5ML) 100km from the Upper Geyser Basin was also well-recorded by the array. Time-domain spectrograms show the dominant frequencies present in the recordings of these events. The two 6.9MW earthquakes in Chile

  11. Flood tracking chart, Amite River Basin, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Lawrence E.; McCallum, Brian E.; Brazelton, Sebastian R.; Anderson, Mary L.; Ensminger, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    The Amite River Basin flood tracking chart is designed to assist emergency response officials and the local public in making informed decisions about the safety of life and property during floods along the Amite and Comite Rivers and Bayou Manchac in southeastern Louisiana. This chart is similar in concept to the charts used to track hurricanes; the user can record the latest river stage information at selected gaging stations and the latest flood crest predictions. The latest stage data can be compared to historical flood peaks as well as to the slab or pier elevation of a threatened property. The chart also discusses how to acquire the latest river stage data from the Internet and a recorded voice message.

  12. Upper Colorado River Basin Climate Effects Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, Donald; Kershner, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Climate Effects Network (CEN) is a science team established to provide information to assist land managers in future decision making processes by providing a better understanding of how future climate change, land use, invasive species, altered fire cycles, human systems, and the interactions among these factors will affect ecosystems and the services they provide to human communities. The goals of this group are to (1) identify science needs and provide tools to assist land managers in addressing these needs, (2) provide a Web site where users can access information pertinent to this region, and (3) provide managers technical assistance when needed. Answers to the team's working science questions are intended to address how interactions among climate change, land use, and management practices may affect key aspects of water availability, ecosystem changes, and societal needs within the UCRB.

  13. Hydrological simulation of the Brahmaputra basin using global datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Conway, Crystal; Craven, Joanne; Masih, Ilyas; Mazzolini, Maurizio; Shrestha, Shreedeepy; Ugay, Reyne; van Andel, Schalk Jan

    2017-04-01

    Brahmaputra River flows through China, India and Bangladesh to the Bay of Bengal and is one of the largest rivers of the world with a catchment size of 580K km2. The catchment is largely hilly and/or forested with sparse population and with limited urbanisation and economic activities. The catchment experiences heavy monsoon rainfall leading to very high flood discharges. Large inter-annual variation of discharge leading to flooding, erosion and morphological changes are among the major challenges. The catchment is largely ungauged; moreover, limited availability of hydro-meteorological data limits the possibility of carrying out evidence based research, which could provide trustworthy information for managing and when needed, controlling, the basin processes by the riparian countries for overall basin development. The paper presents initial results of a current research project on Brahmaputra basin. A set of hydrological and hydraulic models (SWAT, HMS, RAS) are developed by employing publicly available datasets of DEM, land use and soil and simulated using satellite based rainfall products, evapotranspiration and temperature estimates. Remotely sensed data are compared with sporadically available ground data. The set of models are able to produce catchment wide hydrological information that potentially can be used in the future in managing the basin's water resources. The model predications should be used with caution due to high level of uncertainty because the semi-calibrated models are developed with uncertain physical representation (e.g. cross-section) and simulated with global meteorological forcing (e.g. TRMM) with limited validation. Major scientific challenges are seen in producing robust information that can be reliably used in managing the basin. The information generated by the models are uncertain and as a result, instead of using them per se, they are used in improving the understanding of the catchment, and by running several scenarios with varying

  14. Technical basis for high-level waste repository land control requirements for Palo Duro Basin, Paradox Basin, and Richton Dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.P.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-02-01

    Three sites, the Palo Duro Basin in Texas, the Paradox Basin in Utah, and the Richton Dome in Mississippi, are being investigated by the US Department of Energy for high-level radioactive-waste disposal in mined, deep geologic repositories in salt. This report delineates the use of regulatory, engineering, and performance assessment information to establish the technical basis for controlled area requirements. Based on the size of the controlled area determined, plus that of the geologic repository operations area, recommendations of possible land control or ownership area requirements for each locale are provided. On a technical basis, the following minimum land control or ownership requirements are recommended, assuming repository operations area of 2240 ac (907 ha), or 3.5 mi 2 (9.1 km 2 ): Palo Duro Basin - 4060 ac (1643 ha), or 6.3 mi 2 (16.4 km 2 ); Paradox Basin - 4060 ac (1643 ha), or 6.3 mi 2 (16.4 km 2 ); and Richton Dome - 5000 ac (2024 ha), or 7.8 mi 2 (20.2 km 2 ). Of the factors used to determine the technically based recommendations, one was found to dominate each locale. For the Palo Duro and Paradox Basins, the dominant factor was the need to limit potential radionuclide release by ground-water flow to the accessible environment. For the Richton Dome, the dominant factor was the need to limit the potential effects of solution mining on dome and repository integrity

  15. A new bush anole (Iguanidae, Polychrotinae, Polychrus) from the upper Marañon basin, Peru, with a redescription of Polychrus peruvianus (Noble, 1924) and additional information on Polychrus gutturosus Berthold, 1845.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Garcia-Bravo, Antonio; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We herein describe a new colorful species of Polychrus with a conspicuous sexual dimorphism from the dry forest of the northern portion of Región de La Libertad, Peru. The new species differs from all other Polychrus species, in that this species has very small dorsal scales and thus a higher number of scales around midbody and in the middorsal line from behind the occipital scales to the level of the posterior edge of the thigh. Furthermore, we redescribe Polychrus peruvianus whose original description is short and lacks information on intraspecific variation and sexual dimorphism. Also, we add some information on intraspecific variation and ecology of Polychrus gutturosus. Finally, we synonymize Polychrus spurrelli Boulenger with Polychrus gutturosus.

  16. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the Río Artiguas basin, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, J. A.; Barmen, G.

    2006-07-01

    The Río Artiguas basin in central Nicaragua shows a distinctive case of environmental deterioration due to anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals used in gold mining and other wastes are continuously released into the rivers, representing a threat to the water quality. This article aims to evaluate the groundwater intrinsic vulnerability in the Río Artiguas basin and to provide information for sustainable use of water resources. The DRASTIC and GOD methods were used to analyse the relative pollution potential within the basin. DRASTIC was modified to include the degree of influence that geological structures have on the vulnerability. Moderate vulnerability areas cover most of the basin along stream valleys and lowlands, increasing downstream in the basin. The resulting vulnerability maps show that the limited groundwater resources are susceptible to surface water pollution as high vulnerability areas converge along the river valleys.

  17. Information and Informality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Segerstéen, Solveig; Svensson, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    and interviews were analyzed thematically, resulting in three central themes: informality, information based authority, and information brokering. The general informal character of interactions at work included a network based information dissemination. In these networks, persons were percieved as informal...

  18. Testing for Basins of Wada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Yorke, James A

    2015-11-10

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has the Wada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries.

  19. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  20. Detention basin alternative outlet design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the outlets structures CDOT has historically employed to drain water quality treatment detention basins and flood control basins, presents two new methods of metering the water quality capture volume (WQCV), namely 1) the Elliptic...

  1. K-Basin spent nuclear fuel characterization data report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Gray, W.J.; Ketner, G.L.; Marschman, S.C.; Pyecha, T.D.; Thornton, T.A.

    1996-03-01

    An Integrated Process Strategy has been developed to package, condition, transport, and store in an interim storage facility the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) currently residing in the K-Basins at Hanford. Information required to support the development of the condition process and to support the safety analyses must be obtained from characterization testing activities conducted on fuel samples from the Basins. Some of the information obtained in the testing was reported in PNL-10778, K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Characterization Data Report (Abrefah et al. 1995). That report focused on the physical, dimensional, metallographic examinations of the first K-West (KW) Basin SNF element to be examined in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL) hot cells; it also described some of the initial SNF conditioning tests. This second of the series of data reports covers the subsequent series of SNF tests on the first fuel element. These tests included optical microscopy analyses, conditioning (drying and oxidation) tests, ignition tests, and hydrogen content tests

  2. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the... future projects being funded with Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project funds. The CAG will also...

  3. Numerical representation of rainfall field in the Yarmouk River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shentsis, Isabella; Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien; Rosenthal, Eliyahu

    2017-04-01

    , geomorphologic and climatic division of the basin. Difference between regional curves is comparable with amplitude of rainfall variance within the regions. In general, rainfall increases with altitude and decreases from west to east (south-east). It should be emphasized that (i) Lake Kinneret Basin (2,490 sq. km) was earlier divided into seven "orographic regions" and (ii) the Lake Kinneret Basin and the Yarmouk River Basin are presented by the system of regional curves X = f (Z) as one whole rainfall field in the Upper Jordan River Basin, where the mean annual rain (X) increases with altitude (Z) and decreases from west to east and from north to south. In the Yarmouk Basin there is much less rainfall (344 mm) than in the Lake Kinneret Basin (749 mm), wherein mean annual rain (2,352 MCM versus 1,865 MCM) is shared between Syria, Jordan and Israel as 80%, 15% and 5%, respectively. The provided rainfall data allow more precise estimations of surface water balances and of recharge to the regional aquifers in the Upper Jordan River Basin. The derived rates serve as fundamental input data for numerical modeling of groundwater flow. This method can be applied to other areas at different temporal and spatial scales. The general applicability makes it a very useful tool in several hydrological problems connected with assessment, management and policy-making of water resources, as well as their changes due to climate and anthropogenic factors. Reference: I. Shentsis (1990). Mathematical models for long-term prediction of mountainous river runoff: methods, information and results, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 35:5, 487-500, DOI: 10.1080/02626669009492453

  4. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...about Arctic acoustics during the Cold War is now obsolete. The goal of the Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE) is to determine the...Canada Basin (McLaughlin et al., 2011). These changing conditions make the Canada Basin an ideal location to test the hypothesis put forward by P

  5. Fifteenmile Basin habitat enhancement project.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, Thomas C.; Hutchinson, Corey Sue; MacDonald, Ken; United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Division of Fish and Wildlife.

    1989-01-01

    The Fifteenmile Basin Habitat Improvement Project is an ongoing multi-agency effort to improve habitat in the Fifteenmile drainage and increase production of the depressed wild, winter steelhead run. Cooperating agencies include the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, USDA Forest Service. USDA Soil Conservation Service and Bonneville Power Administration. in consultation with the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is administering project work on state and private lands and the U.S.D.A. Forest Service is administering project work on National Forest land. Project work on the Forest has been sub-divided into four components; (1) Ramsey Creek, (2) Eightmile Creek, (3) Fifteenmile Creek, and (4) Fivemile Creek. Forest Service activities in the Fifteenmile basin during 1988 involved habitat improvement work on Ramsey Creek, continuation of physical and biological monitoring, collection of spawning survey information, and macroinvertebrate sampling. The primary project objective on Ramsey Creek was to increase juvenile rearing habitat for 1+ steelhead. A total of 48 log structures including sills, diggers, wings and diagonal series were constructed in two project areas

  6. FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT IN THE NIRAJ BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA ROŞCA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood susceptibility assessment in the Niraj basin. In the context of global warming and the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, it becomes evident that we have to face natural hazards, such as floods. In the area of Niraj basin this phenomenon is specific both in the spring, because of the snow melting and of the precipitations which come along with the season, and then in the summer because of the torrential precipitations but rarely in autumn and winter. The aim of this paper is to determinate the susceptibility of the zone and obtain a map which will take into consideration the possibility of a flooding. Defining vulnerability can help us understand this type of natural disasters and find the best ways to reduce it. For this purpose we use thematic layers, morphological characteristics (slope and depth fragmentation, hydrological characteristics, geology, pedology (permeability and soil texture, landuse, precipitation data, and human interventions because in this way we have the possibility to use data mining for this purpose. Data mining will allow us to extract new information based on the existing sets of data.The final result will be a thematic map that highlights the areas which are exposed to the flood. Therefore, this map can be used as a support decision for local government or business purposes.

  7. The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Monocentric and Polycentric River Basin Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Lankford

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two contemporary theories of river basin management are compared. One is centralised 'regulatory river basin management' with an apex authority that seeks hydrometric data and nationally agreed standards and procedures in decisions over water quality and allocation. This model is commonplace and can be identified in many water training curricula and derivatives of basin management policy. The other, 'polycentric river basin management', is institutionally, organisationally and geographically more decentralised, emphasising local, collective ownership and reference to locally agreed standards. The polycentric model is constructed from the creation of appropriate managerial subunits within river basins. This model emphasises the deployment of hydrologists, scientists and other service providers as mediating agents of environmental and institutional transformation, tackling issues arising within and between the basin subunits such as water allocation and distribution, productivity improvement and conflict resolution. Significantly, it considers water allocation between subunits rather than between sectors and to do this promulgates an experimental, step-wise pragmatic approach, building on local ideas to make tangible progress in basins where data monitoring is limited, basin office resources are constrained and regulatory planning has stalled. To explore these issues, the paper employs the 'Cathedral and Bazaar' metaphor of Eric Raymond. The discussion is informed by observations from Tanzania, Nigeria and the UK.

  8. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  9. On the significance of ELF basins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to complement to chemical intuition (see, e.g., refs. 2, 3). In a mathematically more rigorous way, such regions, ELF basins,4 were defined following the spirit of Bader's Atoms in Molecules (AIM). All points in space which lead to the a given maximum of ELF, by following the gradient of ELF, belong to the same basin. Basins ...

  10. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Vindhyan basin is a classic example of Proterozoic intracontinental basin that developed in the central part of the Indian shield along with several other basins such as Cuddapah,Chattisgarh,etc.The strata are exposed in three major sectors:Son valley,Bundelkhand and Rajasthan. Substantially thick Vindhyan rocks ...

  11. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  12. Columbia Basin residents' view on water : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronalds, L.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is no strategic plan for water management in the Columbia Basin to ensure that long-term water quality and quantity issues are addressed according to residents' values and views. The Columbia Basin Trust was therefore created to address water management issues. It devised a comprehensive water information questionnaire and sent it to a broad range of respondents that fell within the Canadian portion of the Columbia Basin. These included municipal, regional, provincial and federal government agencies; community and watershed groups; industry and agriculture groups; recreation and tourism groups; and, First Nations groups. The most prevalent concern among the respondents pertained to issues surrounding domestic water consumption, and the most widespread water issue in the Columbia Basin was that of water conservation. The state of aquatic ecosystems was also of significant importance to respondents. Respondents also expressed concern for the cost of providing potable water and for the sustainability of rivers and their tributaries within the Basin. The survey also found a concern for the fluctuating reservoir levels within the Basin and the protection of drinking water from contamination. In order to address the wide range of water related issues, respondents indicated that an education program should be implemented to address the general nature of the hydrologic cycle; how much water is being used for toilets, lawn watering, and showers; the cost of potable water; the importance of water on a local and global level; the importance and nature of watersheds; the ways people influence and pollute water; the challenges of cleaning up contaminated water sources; the community's water sources; the role of water in sustaining food growth; and, challenges and consequences of other communities that experience severe water quality and quantity issues. It was suggested that the education program should address a water conservation plan, including conservation

  13. TecDEM: A MATLAB based toolbox for tectonic geomorphology, Part 2: Surface dynamics and basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Faisal; Gloaguen, Richard

    2011-02-01

    We present the analytical capability of TecDEM, a MATLAB toolbox used in conjunction with Global DEMs for the extraction of tectonic geomorphologic information. TecDEM includes a suite of algorithms to analyze topography, extracted drainage networks and sub-basins. The aim of part 2 of this paper series is the generation of morphometric maps for surface dynamics and basin analysis. TecDEM therefore allows the extraction of parameters such as isobase, incision, drainage density and surface roughness maps. We also provide tools for basin asymmetry and hypsometric analysis. These are efficient graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for mapping drainage deviation from basin mid-line and basin hypsometry. A morphotectonic interpretation of the Kaghan Valley (Northern Pakistan) is performed with TecDEM and the findings indicate a high correlation between surface dynamics and basin analysis parameters with neotectonic features in the study area.

  14. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  15. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  16. Coastal inlets and tidal basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.; Dronkers, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Dongeren, A.; Wang, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    lecture note: Tidal inlets and their associated basins (lagoons) are a common feature of lowland coasts all around the world. A significant part ofthe world's coastlines is formed by barrier island coasts, and most other tidal coasts are interrupted by estuaries and lagoon inlets. These tidal

  17. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  18. THE HORTON-STRAHLER RIVER ORDER IMPLEMENTATION RELEVANCE WITHIN THE ANALYSIS OF THE ALMAŞ BASIN RELIEF

    OpenAIRE

    MĂDĂLINA-IOANA RUS; I. A. IRIMUŞ

    2014-01-01

    The Horton-Strahler River Order Implementation Relevance within the Analysis of the Almaș Basin. The purpose of the present study/research aims at underlining the importance of the enforcement of the river order within the analysis of the Almaș basin relief. The topic was chosen based on the fact that the hydrographic networks hierarchy offers at the same time quality and quantity information, on the relief evolution tendency and also the chance to compare the Almaș tributary sub-basins ones ...

  19. A topological system for delineation and codification of the Earth's river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, K.L.; Verdin, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive reference system for the Earth's river basins is proposed as a support to fiver basin management, global change research, and the pursuit of sustainable development. A natural system for delineation and codification of basins is presented which is based upon topographic control and the topology of the fiver network. These characteristics make the system well suited for implementation and use with digital elevation models (DEMs) and geographic information systems. A demonstration of these traits is made with the 30-arcsecond GTOPO30 DEM for North America. The system has additional appeal owing to its economy of digits and the topological information that they carry. This is illustrated through presentation of comparisons with USGS hydrologic unit codes and demonstration of the use of code numbers to reveal dependence or independence of water use activities within a basin.

  20. L-Reactor 186-basin cleaning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Operation of L Reactor will necessitate annual cleaning of the L Area 186 basins. Alternatives are presented for sediment discharge due to 186-basin cleaning activities as a basis for choosing the optimal cleaning method. Current cleaning activities (i.e. removal of accumulated sediments) for the P, C and K-Area 186 basins result in suspended solids concentrations in the effluent waters above the NPDES limits, requiring an exemption from the NPDES permit for these short-term releases. The objective of mitigating the 186-basin cleaning activities is to decrease the suspended solids concentrations to within permit limits while continuing satisfactory operation of the basins

  1. Application of GIS in Modeling Zilberchai Basin Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekani, L.; Khaleghi, S.; Mahmoodi, M.

    2014-10-01

    Runoff is one of most important hydrological variables that are used in many civil works, planning for optimal use of reservoirs, organizing rivers and warning flood. The runoff curve number (CN) is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS) are now being used in combination with the SCS-CN method. This work uses a methodology of determining surface runoff by Geographic Information System model and applying SCS-CN method that needs the necessary parameters such as land use map, hydrologic soil groups, rainfall data, DEM, physiographic characteristic of the basin. The model is built by implementing some well known hydrologic methods in GIS like as ArcHydro, ArcCN-Runoff for modeling of Zilberchai basin runoff. The results show that the high average weighted of curve number indicate that permeability of the basin is low and therefore likelihood of flooding is high. So the fundamental works is essential in order to increase water infiltration in Zilberchai basin and to avoid wasting surface water resources. Also comparing the results of the computed and observed runoff value show that use of GIS tools in addition to accelerate the calculation of the runoff also increase the accuracy of the results. This paper clearly demonstrates that the integration of GIS with the SCS-CN method provides a powerful tool for estimating runoff volumes in large basins.

  2. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthe, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and

  3. Gas liquid sampling for closed canisters in KW Basin - test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkoff, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Test procedures for the gas/liquid sampler. Characterization of the Spent Nuclear Fuel, SNF, sealed in canisters at KW-Basin is needed to determine the state of storing SNF wet. Samples of the liquid and the gas in the closed canisters will be taken to gain characterization information. Sampling equipment has been designed to retrieve gas and liquid from the closed canisters in KW basin. This plan is written to outline the test requirements for this developmental sampling equipment

  4. New sedimentological and palynological data from surface Miocene strata in the central Amazonas Basin area

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; Dino, Rodolfo; Soares, Dominicky Peres; Antonioli, Luzia; Silva, Marco Antônio Lima da

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The scarcity of stratigraphic data has hindered the demarcation of the outcropping area of Miocene deposits of the Amazon Basin, represented informally by the Novo Remanso Formation. Moreover, this unit is characterized by a sparse and irregular geographic distribution due to its sedimentological features and rare fossil content. Miocene deposits cropping out in central Amazonas Basin area were described in sedimentological terms and analyzed palynologically. All analyses were undert...

  5. Quality of surface water in the Bear River basin, Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Price, Don

    1972-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, began a reconnaissance in 1967 to obtain essential water-quality information for the Bear River basin. The reconnaissance was directed toward defining the chemical quality of the basin’s surface waters, including suitability for specific uses, geology, and general basin hydrology. Emphasis was given to those areas where water-development projects are proposed or being considered.

  6. Evaluating the Impacts of Urbanization on Hydrological Processes and Water Resources by Comparing Two Neighboring Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, M.; Zhao, G.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    Texas, the fastest growing state in the US, has seen significant land cover/land use change due to urbanization over the past decades. With most of the region being arid/semi-arid, water issues are unprecedentedly pressing. Among the 15 major river basins, two adjacent river basins located in south-central Texas—the San Antonio River Basin (SARB) and the Guadalupe River Basin (GRB)—form an ideal testbed for evaluating the impacts of urbanization on both hydrological processes and water resources. These two basins are similar in size and in climate pattern, but differ in terms of urbanization progress. In SARB, where the city of San Antonio is located, the impervious area has increased from 0.6% (1929) to 7.8% (2011). In contrast, there is little land cover change in the GRB. With regard to the underground components, both basins intersect with the Edward Aquifer (more than 15% of basin area in both cases). The Edward Aquifer acts as one of the major municipal water supplies for San Antonio, and as the water source for local agricultural uses (and for the surrounding habitat). This aquifer has the characteristic of being highly sensitive to changes in surface water conditions, like the descending trend of the underground water table due to over exploitation. In this study, a distributed hydrologic model—DHSVM (the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model)—is used to compare the hydrologic characteristics (and their impacts on water resources) over the two basins. With a 200m spatial resolution, the model is calibrated and validated during the historical period over both basins. The objectives of the comparisons are two-fold: First, the urbanization effects on peak flows are evaluated for selected extreme rainfall events; Second, the Edward Aquifer recharge rate from surface water under flood and/or drought conditions within the two basins is analyzed. Furthermore, future urbanization scenarios are tested to provide information relevant to decision making.

  7. Modelling Forearc Basin Formation and Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, Utsav; Ueda, Kosuke; Willett, Sean; Gerya, Taras; Strasser, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Comparison of synthetic stratigraphy of forearc basins as generated in coupled plate subduction and accretionary wedge models to the stratal patterns observed for forearc basins in nature, could be used to ascertain the dynamic consistency of the interpreted deformational history of the wedge. Additionally, it could help us understand the emergence of stratigraphic patterns in forearc basins as an interplay between sedimentary flux and wedge dynamics. Here we present a simple methodology to generate synthetic stratigraphy by emplacing isochronal surfaces during the evolution of the wedge. We use a dynamic 2D, high-resolution, thermo-mechanical, subduction model coupled to an adaptive irregular surface grid to model the free surface. In this model, we track basin stratigraphy developing in the wedge top basins atop the accretionary prism by emplacing lines of Lagrangian markers at discrete times along the upper surface of the model, which subsequently are buried, transported, and deformed according to the velocity field generated in the model. We conduct numerical experiments to identify the stratigraphic signatures of different forearc basin formation mechanisms. We also study the impact of hinterland and trench sedimentation on the wedge evolution and its impact on forearc basin formation. Forearc basins that form on top of the overriding plate remain passive to the deformation history of the wedge. Forearc basins formed as negative alpha basins remain mostly undeformed. Forearc basins that form due to wedge stabilization exhibit landward tilting of strata with time. We also find that trench sedimentation enhances the landward tilting of the basin by shifting deformation landwards and potentially triggering out-of-sequence-thrust emergence/reactivation. Predicted stratigraphic features in our numerical models agree well with stratigraphic patterns observed in different types of forearc basins in the Nankai Trough, Sunda Strait and Lombok Basin offshore Japan, Java

  8. Socioeconomic data base report for the Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the data base of socioeconomic characteristics of 14 counties and 13 key cities that surround the two locations in the Palo Duro Basin. The information describes the demographic features, economic base, community facilities and services, and governmental and fiscal structure. The land use patterns and zoning requirements for selected cities of varying sizes and complexities and the general social characteristics of the region as a whole are described also. Extensive references, 23 figures, 92 tables

  9. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage

  10. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage.

  11. Environmental Setting of the Lower Merced River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Kratzer, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey began to study the effects of natural and anthropogenic influences on the quality of ground water, surface water, biology, and ecology as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. As part of this program, the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins study unit is assessing parts of the lower Merced River Basin, California. This report provides descriptions of natural and anthropogenic features of this basin as background information to assess the influence of these and other factors on water quality. The lower Merced River Basin, which encompasses the Mustang Creek Subbasin, gently slopes from the northeast to the southwest toward the San Joaquin River. The arid to semiarid climate is characterized by hot summers (highs of mid 90 degrees Fahrenheit) and mild winters (lows of mid 30 degrees Fahrenheit). Annual precipitation is highly variable, with long periods of drought and above normal precipitation. Population is estimated at about 39,230 for 2000. The watershed is predominately agricultural on the valley floor. Approximately 2.2 million pounds active ingredient of pesticides and an estimated 17.6 million pounds active ingredient of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer is applied annually to the agricultural land.

  12. Changing provenance of late Cenozoic sediments in the Jianghan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River is one of the most important components of the East Asia river system. In this study, sediments in the Jianghan Basin, middle Yangtze River, were selected for trace element and rare earth element (REE measurements, in order to decipher information on the change of sediment provenance and evolution of the Yangtze River. According to the elemental variations, the late Cenozoic sediments of the Jianghan Basin could be divided into four parts. During 2.68–2.28 Ma and 1.25–0 Ma, provenance of the sediments was consistent, whereas sediments were derived from variable sources during 2.28–1.25 Ma. Comparison of the elemental compositions between the Pliocene and Quaternary sediments revealed a change in sediment source from a more felsic source area to a more basic source area around the Pliocene–Quaternary boundary. Input from the Emeishan LIP should account for this provenance change. Based on the provenance analysis of sediments in the Jianghan Basin, we infer that the Yangtze River developed into a large river with its drainage basin extended to the Emeishan LIP no later than the Pliocene–Quaternary boundary.

  13. Mechanical Properties of K Basin Sludge Constituents and Their Surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2004-01-01

    A survey of the technical literature was performed to summarize the mechanical properties of inorganic components in K Basins sludge. The components included gibbsite, ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite and goethite, hematite, quartz, anorthite, calcite, basalt, Zircaloy, aluminum, and, in particular, irradiated uranium metal and uranium dioxide. Review of the technical literature showed that information on the hardness of uranium metal at irradiation exposures similar to those experienced by the N Reactor fuel present in the K Basins (typically up to 3000 MWd/t) were not available. Measurements therefore were performed to determine the hardness of coupons taken from three irradiated N Reactor uranium metal fuel elements taken from K Basins. Hardness values averaged 30 ± 8 Rockwell C units, similar to values previously reported for uranium irradiated to ∼1200 MWd/t. The physical properties of candidate uranium metal and uranium dioxide surrogates were gathered and compared. Surrogates having properties closest to those of irradiated uranium metal appear to be alloys of tungsten. The surrogate for uranium dioxide, present both as particles and agglomerates in actual K Basin sludge, likely requires two materials. Cerium oxide, CeO2, was identified as a surrogate of the smaller UO2 particles while steel grit was identified for the UO2 agglomerates

  14. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  15. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  16. The sedimentary basins of Tanzania - reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbede, E. I.

    The sedimentary basins of Tanzania have been classified into four morphotectonic groups: the coastal basin, the Karoo rift basins, basins found within the present East African rift valley and the cratonic sag basins. Except for the cratonic sag basins, each of these basin group has been affected by rifting at one time or another. The geology of each basin is discussed, structural evolution is evaluated and the prospectivity is thence looked into. Coal is exploited at Songwe-Kiwira coalfield and is found in potentially economic quantities in other Karoo basins. Prospecting for hydrocarbon resources has been going on since the 50s. Gas has been discovered in Songosongo and Mnazi bay fields, uneconomical quantities of oil have also been reported in Songosongo. Being basically rift basins which have reached different stages of development, source rocks normally associated with Initial-rifting, synrifting as well as post-rifting processes are probably well developed. Reservoir rocks, traps and cap rocks are normally not rare in such tectonic environments. Thermal gradients associated with the rifting stage are normaly high to effect maturation of source rocks even at low sedimentary thicknesses. Studies done so far are still inconclusive, because while testing has mainly been focused on structural traps stratigraphic traps seems to be more promising.

  17. Suwannee river basin and estuary integrated science workshop: September 22-24, 2004 Cedar Key, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian; Raabe, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental concerns in the mostly pristine Suwannee River Basin and the Suwannee River Estuary system, the States of Florida and Georgia, the Federal government, and other local organizations have identified the Suwannee River as an ecosystem in need of protection because of its unique biota and important water resources. Organizations with vested interests in the region formed a coalition, the Suwannee Basin Interagency Alliance (SBIA), whose goals are to promote coordination in the identification, management, and scientific knowledge of the natural resources in the basin and estuary. To date, an integrated assessment of the physical, biological, and water resources has not been completed. A holistic, multi-disciplinary approach is being pursued to address the research needs in the basin and estuary and to provide supportive data for meeting management objectives of the entire ecosystem. The USGS is well situated to focus on the larger concerns of the basin and estuary by addressing specific research questions linking water supply and quality to ecosystem function and health across county and state boundaries. A strategic plan is being prepared in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies to identify and implement studies to address the most compelling research issues and management questions, and to conduct fundamental environmental monitoring studies. The USGS, Suwannee River Water Management District and the Florida Marine Research Institute are co-sponsoring this scientific workshop on the Suwannee River Basin and Estuary to: Discuss current and past research findings, Identify information gaps and research priorities, and Develop an action plan for coordinated and relevant research activities in the future. This workshop builds on the highly successful basin-wide conference sponsored by the Suwannee Basin Interagency Alliance that was held three years ago in Live Oak, Florida. This years workshop will focus on

  18. Uranium geochemistry of Orca Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.F. Jr.; Sackett, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Orca Basin, an anoxic, brine-filled depression at a depth of 2200 m in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope, has been studied with respect to its uranium geochemistry. Uranium concentration profiles for four cores from within the basin were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Uranium concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 ppm on a salt-free and carbonate-corrected basis. The highest uranium concentrations were associated with the lowest percentage and delta 13 C organic carbon values. For comparison, cores from the brine-filled Suakin and Atlantis II Deeps, both in the Red Sea, were also analyzed. Uranium concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 ppm in the Suakin Deep and from 8.0 to 11.0 ppm in the Atlantis II Deep. No significant correlation was found between uranium concentrations and organic carbon concentrations and delta 13 C values for these cores. Although anoxic conditions are necessary for significant uranium uptake by non-carbonate marine sediments, other factors such as dilution by rapidly depositing materials and uranium supply via mixing and diffusion across density gradients may be as important in determining uranium concentrations in hypersaline basin sediments. (author)

  19. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  20. Streamflow estimation in ungauged basins using remote sensed hydrological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Nicolas; Vargas, Ximena

    2017-04-01

    In several parts of the world the scarcity of streamflow gauging stations produces an important deficit of information, and calibrating these basins remains a challenge for hydrologists. Improvements in remote sensing have provided significant information about hydrological cycle, which can be used to calibrate a hydrological model when streamflow information is not available. Several satellite products related to snow, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, among other variables provide essential information about hydrological processes, and can be used to calibrate physically based hydrological models. Despite this useful information, other aspects are unknown like aquifers dimensions or precipitation heterogeneity. We calibrated three snow driven basins in the Coquimbo Region in Northern Chile, using fSCA from MODIS (MOD10 and MYD10) and NDSI from Landsat. We also considered the MOD16 product to estimate evapotranspiration. Soil Moisture from AMSR-E was considered but it was not useful due to the spatial resolution of the product and the high heterogeneity of the terrain. The Cold Regional Hydrological Modal (CHRM) was selected to represent the hydrological processes due to the importance of snow processes which are, by far, the most important in this area, where precipitation falls as snow principally in winter (June to August) and the melting period begins in spring (September) and ends in the beginning of summer (December and January). The inputs used in the model are precipitation, temperature, short wave radiation, wind speed and relative humidity. The meteorological information was obtained from stations available in the area, and distributed spatially using orographic gradients for wind and precipitation and lapse rates for air temperature and dew point temperature. Short wave radiation was computed and corrected by cloud cover data from MODIS. Streamflow data was available but it was not used in the calibration process. The three basins are Cochiguaz river

  1. Characterizing fluvial systems at basin scale by fuzzy signatures of hydromorphological drivers in data scarce environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

    2014-06-01

    Despite the relevance of river hydromorphology (HYMO) for integrated water resource management, consistent geomorphic information at the scale of whole river basin is still scarce, especially in emerging economies. In this paper, we propose a new, scalable and globally applicable framework to analyze and classify fluvial systems in data-scarce environments. The framework is based on a data-driven analysis of a multivariate data set of 6 key hydro-morphologic drivers derived using freely available remote-sensing information and several in situ hydrological time series. Core of the framework is a fuzzy classifier that assigns a characteristic signature of HYMO drivers to individual river reaches. We demonstrate the framework on the Red River Basin, a large, trans-boundary river basin in Vietnam and China, where human-induced morphological change, concretely endangering local livelihoods, is contrasted by very limited HYMO information. The derived HYMO information covers spatial scales from the entire basin to individual reaches. It conveys relevant information on subbasin hydro-morphologic characteristic as well as on local geomorphologic forms and processes. The fuzzy classifier successfully distinguishes abrupt from continuous downstream change and spatially dissects the river system in segments with homogeneous hydro-morphologic forcings. Successful numerical modelling of morphologic forms and process rates based on the HYMO signatures indicates that the multivariate, basin-scale classification captures relevant morphological drivers, outperforms an analysis based on local drivers only, and can support river management from diverse, morphology related perspectives over a wide range of scales.

  2. Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Project Abstracts; May 25-27, Portland, Oregon, 1997 Annual Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allee, Brian J. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Portland, OR)

    1997-06-26

    Abstracts are presented from the 1997 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Review of Projects. The purpose was to provide information and education on the approximate 127 million dollars in Northwest electric ratepayer fish and wildlife mitigation projects funded annually.

  3. Estimate of Geothermal Energy Resource in Major U.S. Sedimentary Basins (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porro, C.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    This study estimates the magnitude of geothermal energy from fifteen major known US sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties are known. This reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin as well as a relative assessment of geologic risk elements for each play. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by Muffler (USGS). Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient Information were gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data was insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission websites. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size and temperature distribution, and to qualitatively assess reservoir productivity.

  4. Migration of global radioactive fallout to the Arctic Ocean (on the example of the Ob's river drainage basin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, A; Semenkov, I

    2012-11-01

    This article provides an assessment of the impact of global fallout on (137)Cs contamination in the bottom sediments of Kara Sea. The erosiveness of 10th-level river basins was estimated by landscape-geochemical and geomorphological characteristics. All 10th-level basins (n=154) were separated into three groups: mountain, mountain-lowland and plain. Four different types of basins were identified depending on the geochemical conditions of the migration of radiocaesium in the plain and mountain-lowland. Classifications of types were carried out using the geographic information systems-based approach. The Ob River's macroarena covers 3.5 million km(2). Internal drainage basins cover 23 % of the macroarena and accumulate whole radiocaesium from the global fallout. The remaining territory is transitional for the (137)Cs. The field research works performed in the three plain first-level basins allow one to estimate the radiocaesium run-off. The calculations show that 7 % of (137)Cs was removed from the first-level basin in arable land. Accumulation of radiocaesium in the first-level basin under undisturbed forest is 99.8 %. The research shows that (137)Cs transfer from the humid basins is in the range of 6.9-25.5 TBq and for semi-humid basins 5.6-285.5 TBq. The areas of these basins cover 40 and 8 % of the Ob River's macroarena, respectively. Drainage lakes and reservoir drainage basins make up 22 % of the macroarena. Mountainous and semi-arid drainage basins cover 7 % of the macroarena.

  5. Use of remote sensing to model ungauged Chilean basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Nicolas; Vargas, Ximena

    2016-04-01

    Calibration of hydrological models is usually performed in gauged basins with streamflow data, which is the result of the hydrological cycle processes, due to a poor monitoring system of other processes like melting, infiltration, evapotranspiration or sublimation. This approach can generate several parameters combinations with similar streamflow results and choosing a reliable set of parameters can be challenging, especially in ungauged basins. Remote sensing can be useful because is an additional source of ungauged variables, and is distributed in space and time. This is valuable information related to the processes of hydrological cycle, and it helps to represent the basin with physically based models where the focus is on the processes, such as the Cold Regional Hydrological Model (CRHM). There are several satellites products related to the hydrological cycle such as snow covered area, albedo, evapotranspiration or surface temperature, in the case of MODIS, rain rate from TRMM, Soil moisture from SMOS or snow water equivalent (SWE) from AMSR, and these can be used to improve the representation of the processes in a basin or, in the case of this work, to estimate stream flow using remote sensing only. The study area is Elqui River, in northern Chile, with a semi-arid mediterranean climate and a snow driven regime due to the Andes, where snow accumulation and snowmelt control water availability and the maximum snow covered area reach 50% of the total basin. Several satellite products related principally to snow are considered to represent the variation of the snowpack in space and time as inputs to the model or as state variables.

  6. Criticality safety evaluation report for K Basin filter cartridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    A criticality safety evaluation of the K Basin filter cartridge assemblies has been completed to support operations without a criticality alarm system. The results show that for normal operation, the filter cartridge assembly is far below the safety limit of k eff = 0.95, which is applied to plutonium systems at the Hanford Site. During normal operating conditions, uranium, plutonium, and fission and corrosion products in solution are continually accumulating in the available void spaces inside the filter cartridge medium. Currently, filter cartridge assemblies are scheduled to be replaced at six month intervals in KE Basin, and at one year intervals in KW Basin. According to available plutonium concentration data for KE Basin and data for the U/Pu ratio, it will take many times the six-month replacement time for sufficient fissionable material accumulation to take place to exceed the safety limit of k eff = 0.95, especially given the conservative assumption that the presence of fission and corrosion products is ignored. Accumulation of sludge with a composition typical of that measured in the sand filter backwash pit will not lead to a k eff = 0.95 value. For off-normal scenarios, it would require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent events to take place before the k eff = 0.95 limit was exceeded. Contingencies considered include failure to replace the filter cartridge assemblies at the scheduled time resulting in additional buildup of fissionable material, the loss of geometry control from the filter cartridge assembly breaking apart and releasing the individual filter cartridges into an optimal configuration, and concentrations of plutonium at U/Pu ratios less than measured data for KE Basin, typically close to 400 according to extensive measurements in the sand filter backwash pit and plutonium production information

  7. Regionalization of precipitation characteristics in Iran's Lake Urmia basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Berndtsson, Ronny; Uvo, Cintia Bertacchi; Madani, Kaveh; Kløve, Bjørn

    2018-04-01

    Lake Urmia in northwest Iran, once one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world, has shrunk by almost 90% in area and 80% in volume during the last four decades. To improve the understanding of regional differences in water availability throughout the region and to refine the existing information on precipitation variability, this study investigated the spatial pattern of precipitation for the Lake Urmia basin. Daily rainfall time series from 122 precipitation stations with different record lengths were used to extract 15 statistical descriptors comprising 25th percentile, 75th percentile, and coefficient of variation for annual and seasonal total precipitation. Principal component analysis in association with cluster analysis identified three main homogeneous precipitation groups in the lake basin. The first sub-region (group 1) includes stations located in the center and southeast; the second sub-region (group 2) covers mostly northern and northeastern part of the basin, and the third sub-region (group 3) covers the western and southern edges of the basin. Results of principal component (PC) and clustering analyses showed that seasonal precipitation variation is the most important feature controlling the spatial pattern of precipitation in the lake basin. The 25th and 75th percentiles of winter and autumn are the most important variables controlling the spatial pattern of the first rotated principal component explaining about 32% of the total variance. Summer and spring precipitation variations are the most important variables in the second and third rotated principal components, respectively. Seasonal variation in precipitation amount and seasonality are explained by topography and influenced by the lake and westerly winds that are related to the strength of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Despite using incomplete time series with different lengths, the identified sub-regions are physically meaningful.

  8. An integrated science plan for the Lake Tahoe basin: conceptual framework and research strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary P. Hymanson; Michael W. Collopy

    2010-01-01

    An integrated science plan was developed to identify and refine contemporary science information needs for the Lake Tahoe basin ecosystem. The main objectives were to describe a conceptual framework for an integrated science program, and to develop research strategies addressing key uncertainties and information gaps that challenge government agencies in the theme...

  9. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  10. Exergetic efficiency of basin type solar still

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Apurba

    2017-06-01

    Simplicity of solar distillation system makes it very attractive, but the yield as well as the thermal efficiency is very low. Different types of absorbing materials e.g. black ink, black dye solution in basin water and black toner on water surface were used to evaluate their effect on the yield. As the absorbing material absorbs more solar radiation and increases basin water temperature, increases yield as well as energy efficiency. To enhance the thermal performance, and to have the insight of thermal losses; exergetic analysis of solar still is done. The maximum energy efficiency obtained for basin water having these absorber material on basin water are about 41.3 %, 43.42 % and 45.79 %, while exergetic efficiency values are 5.91%, 6.34 % and 7.10 % respectively. Exergy destruction from basin liner is the highest compared to that from basin water and glazing.

  11. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  12. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  14. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  15. The Removal Action Work Plan for CPP-603A Basin Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. T. Richards

    2006-01-01

    This revised Removal Action Work Plan describes the actions to be taken under the non-time-critical removal action recommended in the Action Memorandum for the Non-Time Critical Removal Action at the CPP-603A Basins, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as evaluated in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the CPP-603A Basin Non-Time Critical Removal Action, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The regulatory framework outlined in this Removal Action Work Plan has been modified from the description provided in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (DOE/NE-ID-11140, Rev. 1, August 2004). The modification affects regulation of sludge removal, treatment, and disposal, but the end state and technical approaches have not changed. Revision of this document had been delayed until the basin sludge was successfully managed. This revision (Rev. 1) has been prepared to provide information that was not previously identified in Rev. 0 to describe the removal, treatment, and disposal of the basin water at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CERCLA Disposal Facility evaporation ponds and fill the basins with grout/controlled low strength material (CLSM) was developed. The Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the CPP-603A Basin Non-Time Critical Removal Action, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center - conducted pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - evaluated risks associated with deactivation of the basins and alternatives for addressing those risks. The decision to remove and dispose of the basin water debris not containing uranium grouted in place after the sludge has been removed and managed under the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act has been documented in the Act Memorandum for the Non-Time Critical Removal Action at the CPP-603A Basins, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

  16. Evaluation of constraints to water quality improvements in the Western Lake Erie Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaluvu, Lawrence; Zhang, Lefei; Gitau, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    Severe environmental and health impacts have been experienced in the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB) because of eutrophication and associated proliferation of harmful algae blooms. Efforts to improve water quality within the WLEB have been on-going for several decades. However, water quality improvements in the basin have not been realized as anticipated. In this study, factors affecting water quality within the WLEB were evaluated with a view to differentiating their impacts and informing further assessments in the basin. Over the long-term (1966-2015) and basin-wide, total annual precipitation increased significantly by about 2.4 mm/year while mean monthly streamflows also increased during the same period although the increase was not significant (p = 0.36). There was, however, a significant increase in spring streamflows during this period (p = 0.003). Patterns in water quality parameters showed significant reductions in total suspended solids (TSS) (p basin with daily values ranging between 0.03 and 1.84 mg/L and less than 0.002-0.52 mg/L, respectively. Basin-wide, both spring precipitation and spring streamflows increased significantly during the period 2005-2015 (p basin and fertilizer applied to corn increased by 33% and 10% respectively. Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) and impoundments were also important factors due to their prevalence in the basin. Based on the analysis, changes in agricultural management, increase in spring precipitation, CSOs, legacy phosphorus, and the presence of dams were thought to present constraints to water quality improvements despite conservation efforts within the basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing Floodplain Management in the Lower Mekong River Basin Using Vegetation and Water Cycle Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Spruce, J.; Wilson, R.; Strauch, K.; Doyle, T.; Srinivan, R.; Lakshmi, V.; Gupta, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River Basin shared by China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam, is considered the lifeblood of Southeast Asia. The Mekong Basin is subject to large hydrological fluctuations on a seasonal and inter-annual basis. The basin remains prone to severe annual floods that continue to cause widespread damage and endanger food security and the livelihood of the millions who dwell in the region. Also the placement of newly planned dams primarily for hydropower in the Lower Mekong Basin may cause damaging social, agriculture and fisheries impacts to the region where we may now likely be at a critical 'tipping point'. The primary goal of this project is to apply NASA and USGS products, tools, and information for improved flood and water management in the Lower Mekong River Basin to help characterize, understand, and predict future changes on the basin. Specifically, we are providing and helping transfer to the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and the member countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Lao, Vietnam, and Burma the enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using remotely sensed surface, ground water, and root zone soil moisture along with improved Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) maps. In order to estimate the flood potential and constrain the SWAT Available Water Capacity model parameter over the region, we are assimilated GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage observations into the Catchment Land Surface Model. In addition, a Graphic Visualization Tool (GVT) as been developed to work in concert with the output of the SWAT model parameterized for the Mekong Basin as an adjunct tool of the MRC Decision Support Framework. The project requires a close coordination of the development and assessment of the enhanced MRC SWAT with the guidance of MRC resource managers and technical advisors. This presentation will evaluate the skill of the enhanced SWAT model using qualitative (i.e., MODIS change detection) and quantitative (e.g., streamflow) metrics over one

  18. Morphotectonics of the Jamini River basin, Bundelkhand Craton, Central India; using remote sensing and GIS technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, K.; Mohanty, T.; Pati, J. K.; Singh, S.; Chaubey, K.

    2017-11-01

    Morphological and morphotectonic analyses have been used to obtain information that influence hydrographic basins, predominantly these are modifications of tectonic elements and the quantitative description of landforms. Discrimination of morphotectonic indices of active tectonics of the Jamini river basin consists the analyses of asymmetry factor, ruggedness number, basin relief, gradient, basin elongation ratio, drainage density analysis, and drainage pattern analysis, which have been completed for each drainage basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Jamini river is one of the major tributaries of the Betwa river in central India. The Jamini river basin is divided into five subwatersheds viz. Jamrar, Onri, Sainam, Shahzad and Baragl subwatershed. The quantitative approach of watershed development of the Jamini river basin, and its four sixth (SW1-SW4) and one fifth (SW5) order subwatersheds, was carried out using Survey of India toposheets (parts of 54I, 54K, 54L, 54O, and 54P), Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER (GDEM) data, and field data. The Jamini river has low bifurcation index which is a positive marker of tectonic imprint on the hydrographic network. The analyses show that the geomorphological progression of the study area was robustly influenced by tectonics. The analysis demonstrates to extensional tectonics system with the following alignments: NE-SW, NW-SE, NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW, E-W, and N-S. Three major trends are followed by lower order streams viz. NE-SW, NW-SE, and E-W directions which advocate that these tectonic trends were active at least up to the Late Pleistocene. The assessment of morphotectonic indices may be used to evaluate the control of active faults on the hydrographic system. The analysis points out westward tilting of the drainage basins with strong asymmetry in some reaches, marked elongation ratio of subwatersheds, and lower order streams having close alignment with lineaments (active faults). The study facilitated to considerate the

  19. Hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; McCabe, Gregory; Pederson, Gregory T.; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of the Missouri River for navigation, recreation, habitat, hydroelectric power, and agriculture, relatively little is known about the basic hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (MRB). This is of particular concern given the droughts and floods that have occurred over the past several decades and the potential future exacerbation of these extremes by climate change. Here, observed and modeled hydroclimatic data and estimated natural flow records in the MRB are used to 1) assess the major source regions of MRB flow, 2) describe the climatic controls on streamflow in the upper and lower basins , and 3) investigate trends over the instrumental period. Analyses indicate that 72% of MRB runoff is generated by the headwaters in the upper basin and by the lowest portion of the basin near the mouth. Spring precipitation and temperature and winter precipitation impacted by changes in zonal versus meridional flow from the Pacific Ocean play key roles in surface water supply variability in the upper basin. Lower basin flow is significantly correlated with precipitation in late spring and early summer, indicative of Atlantic-influenced circulation variability affecting the flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Although increases in precipitation in the lower basin are currently overriding the effects of warming temperatures on total MRB flow, the upper basin’s long-term trend toward decreasing flows, reduction in snow versus rain fraction, and warming spring temperatures suggest that the upper basin may less often provide important flow supplements to the lower basin in the future.

  20. Non-volant mammals in a protected area on the Central Andes of Colombia: new records for the Caldas department and the Chinchiná River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Mejía, Andrés; Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The Chinchiná River basin is located on the western slope of the Colombian Central Andes. This basin provides ecosystem services such as water provision for >500,000 people, but has suffered considerable ecosystem degradation, and the information on its biodiversity is limited. We inventoried the non-volant mammals in the Caldas' Central Hydroelectric (CHEC) Reserve in the Chinchiná River basin, in the Caldas department. We detected 18 species of mammals, present the first record of Puma ya...

  1. Relating petroleum system and play development to basin evolution: West African South Atlantic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beglinger, S.E.; Doust, H.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary basins can be classified according to their structural genesis and evolutionary history and the latter can be linked to petroleumsystem and playdevelopment. We propose an approach in which we use the established concepts in a new way: breaking basins down into their natural basin cycle

  2. Fractal basin boundaries generated by basin cells and the geometry of mixing chaotic flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, HE; Yorke, JA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments and computations indicate that mixing in chaotic flows generates certain coherent spatial structures. Lf a two-dimensional basin has a basin cell (a trappings region whose boundary consists of pieces of the stable and unstable manifold of some periodic orbit) then the basin consists of a

  3. Geophysical Surveys of the Hydrologic Basin Underlying Yosemite Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, E. L.; Shaw, K. A.; Carey, C.; Dunn, M. E.; Whitman, S.; Bourdeau, J.; Eckert, E.; Louie, J. N.; Stock, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    UNR students in an Applied Geophysics course conducted geophysical investigations in Yosemite Valley during the months of March and August 2017. The goal of the study is to understand better the depth to bedrock, the geometry of the bedrock basin, and the properties of stratigraphy- below the valley floor. Gutenberg and others published the only prior geophysical investigation in 1956, to constrain the depth to bedrock. We employed gravity, resistivity, and refraction microtremor(ReMi) methods to investigate the interface between valley fill and bedrock, as well as shallow contrasts. Resistivity and ReMi arrays along three north-south transects investigated the top 50-60m of the basin fill. Gravity results constrained by shallow measurements suggest a maximum depth of 1000 m to bedrock. ReMi and resistivity techniques identified shallow contrasts in shear velocity and electrical resistivity that yielded information about the location of the unconfined water table, the thickness of the soil zone, and spatial variation in shallow sediment composition. The upper several meters of sediment commonly showed shear velocities below 200 m/s, while biomass-rich areas and sandy river banks could be below 150 m/s. Vs30 values consistently increased towards the edge of the basin. The general pattern for resistivity profiles was a zone of relatively high resistivity, >100 ohm-m, in the top 4 meters, followed by one or more layers with decreased resistivity. According to gravity measurements, assuming either -0.5 g/cc or -0.7 g/cc density contrast between bedrock and basin sediments, a maximum depth to bedrock is found south of El Capitan at respectively, 1145 ± 215 m or 818 ± 150 m. Longitudinal basin geometry coincides with the basin depth geometry discussed by Gutenberg in 1956. Their results describe a "double camel" shape where the deepest points are near El Capitan and the Ahwahnee Hotel and is shallowest near Yosemite Falls, in a wider part of the valley. An August Deep

  4. Assessment of droughts at a continental scale under different climate change scenarios. Case study: La Plata Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, Maria Dolores; Asenjo, Victor; Bianucci, Paola

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we characterized and diagnosed the droughts across La Plata Basin for the reference (1961 - 2005) and future (2007 - 2040, 2041 - 2070 and 2071 - 2099) scenarios. La Plata Basin is located in the Centre-South of South America and comprises 3.174.229 km2 and five countries. Despite the significant impact of droughts on agriculture, cattle, water supply, natural water courses and wetlands, droughts are still difficult to predict in the region, both in time and space. We used the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to characterize droughts based on Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) and Precipitation (P) at a monthly scale. PET and P were obtained for all 10 x 10 km-size cells within the basin by using the regional climatic model Eta, under the boundary conditions of the HadGEM2-ES model and the CO2 emissions scenario RCP 4.5. Cell to cell information was integrated into a sub-basin level in order to show and analyze the results. For each sub-basin, climate scenario, and temporal scale of SPEI (1, 3, 6 and 12 months), we identified the beginning of each drought, calculated its duration, magnitude, maximum and mean intensities, and the duration between drought events. Additionally, for each SPEI temporal scale and sub-basin, we described the spatial coverage of droughts for the temporal series of all climate scenarios. Spatially, we found a decrease of PET from North to South. Temporally, results showed a future increase of PET for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin but similar to present values for the remaining basin. Results showed that P will be similar in the future for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin, but will increase within the remaining basin. During the 2007 - 2040 scenario, we expect that the northern sub-basins suffer from several droughts while the southern ones have wetter climate with few short drought events. As we analyzed more distant future scenarios the wet climate

  5. Crop domestication in the upper Madeira River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Roland Clement

    Full Text Available Abstract Most native Amazonian crops were domesticated in the periphery of the basin. The upper Madeira River basin is an important part of this periphery where several important crops were domesticated and others are suspected to have been domesticated or arrived early. Some of these crops have been reasonably well studied, such as manioc, peanut, peach palm, coca and tobacco, while others are not as well known, such as the hot peppers Capsicum baccatum and C. frutescens, and still others need confirmation, such as cocoyam and annatto. We review the information available for manioc, peach palm, Capsicum, peanut, annatto and cocoyam. The state-of-the-art for Capsicum frutescens, annatto and cocoyam is insufficient to conclude definitively that they were domesticated in the upper Madeira, while all the others have at least one of their origins or centers of diversity in the upper Madeira.

  6. Gravity survey of groundwater characterization at Labuan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, L.; Wardhana, D. D.; Hartanto, P.; Delinom, R.; Sudaryanto; Bakti, H.; Lubis, RF

    2018-02-01

    Labuan groundwater basin currently has an abundance of water. As a deltaic area of Lada Bay, groundwater supply comes from local precipitation and also from recharge region in mountain ranges surrounding. However, Labuan has been experiencing a fast economic development with high population and tourism industry growth. Such progress would lead to the increase of water consumption. A comprehensive groundwater management should be prepared for possible future problems. Therefore, a groundwater investigation is a necessary step towards that purpose. Gravity method was applied to identify the regional condition of the basement. The assessment of deep buried basin and basement relationship using gravity data is a challenge in groundwater investigation, but previous studies had indicated the efficiency of the method to obtain basic information and can be used as a foundation for more advanced studies.

  7. Evaluation of genetic population structure of smallmouth bass in the Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Megan K.; Bartron, Meredith L.; Wertz, Timothy; Niles, Jonathan M.; Shaw, Cassidy H.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    The Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu was introduced into the Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania, nearly 150 years ago. Since introduction, it has become an economically and ecologically important species that supports popular recreational fisheries. It is also one of the most abundant top predators in the system. Currently, there is no information on the level of genetic diversity or genetic structuring that may have occurred since introduction. An understanding of genetic diversity is important for the delineation of management units and investigation of gene flow at various management scales. The goals of this research were to investigate population genetic structure of Smallmouth Bass at sites within the Susquehanna River basin and to assess genetic differentiation relative to Smallmouth Bass at an out-of-basin site (Allegheny River, Pennsylvania) located within the species’ native range. During spring 2015, fin clips (n = 1,034) were collected from adults at 11 river sites and 13 tributary sites in the Susquehanna River basin and at one site on the Allegheny River. Fin clips were genotyped at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Based on our results, adults sampled throughout the Susquehanna River basin did not represent separate genetic populations. There were only subtle differences in genetic diversity among sites (mean pairwise genetic differentiation index FST = 0.012), and there was an overall lack of population differentiation (K = 3 admixed populations). The greatest genetic differentiation was observed between fish collected from the out-of-basin site and those from the Susquehanna River basin sites. Knowledge that separate genetic populations of Smallmouth Bass do not exist in the Susquehanna River basin is valuable information for fisheries management in addition to providing baseline genetic data on an introduced sport fish population.

  8. Report on information collection and analysis for fundamental survey on coal resource development in fiscal 1998. Survey on coal supply potentiality in Bowen Basin in Australia; 1998 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa joho shushu kaiseki hokokusho. Goshu Bowen bonchi sekitan kyokyu potentiality chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A survey was made on coal supply potentiality in Bowen Basin in Australia. The main coal beds exist in the order of four beds in the Permian period. The oldest bed is the Reids Dome bed in the Lower Permian period, deposited in the south-west part of the basin. The later wide-area transgression has caused the Back Creek bed groups to deposit, whereas three coal measures have deposited in a concave on the raised basic bed. Later, the ocean has invaded into the entire basin. After having turned into the Upper Permian period, regression had occurred from north to south, where major coal measures such as the Moranbah and German Creek beds had deposited over the entire basin. Further regression has taken place to south, causing three uppermost coal measures to have deposited over the entire basin. In major part of the areas identified currently with existence of coal measures, and even in areas without mines, the mining right or the exploration right has been established, limiting the areas having development potentiality. Five abandoned mining areas exist in the Rangal coal measure, two in the Moranbah coal measure, two in the Reids Dome coal measure, and one in the Baralaba coal measure. There is a possibility of discovering areas developable for a scale of several ten million tons. (NEDO)

  9. Carboniferous geology and uranium potential of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.M. de; Camarco, P.E.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous sequences of the northeast flank of the Parana Basin and those of the southwest flank of the Parnaiba Basin have been the subject of discussion and polemics for quite a long time, especially in terms of their stratigraphic relations and depositional environments. Thus, we reinforce our main objective, which is to furnish data for the definition of the uranium potential in these Carboniferous sediments, by adding recently acquired information that should aid in the clarification of the existing controversies. The Carboniferous along the northeast flank of the Parana Basin is represented by the Aquidauana Formation which has been informally divided into three members: lower, middle and upper members. The middle member, of marine origin, constitutes a prospective target for uranium and phosphate associations, in which sandstones interbedded with shales constitute the host rocks. On the other hand, the Carboniferous of the southwest margin of the Parnaiba Basin, which encompasses the Longa, Poti and Piaui Formations has shown very remote possibilities of uranium occurrences. The regional structural framework, as reflected by the Carboniferous rocks along both basin flanks, is characterized by homoclines cut by gravity faults. The faults along these weakness zones were occasionally intruded by basic rocks of Cretaceous age. Superimposed on the regional structure, open folds appear in the form of anticlines and domes. These folds are discontinuous structures resulting from uplift due to vertical stresses or result from differential subsidence along the limbs of the folds. (Author) [pt

  10. Suceava Anthropic Torrential Basin - Prolegomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Emil BRICIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One problem discussed by urban hydrology today is the draining influence of the modern cities over the natural drainage systems. The increasing urban areas and of their imperviousness all over theworld is linked to floods shape modifications and unpredicted systemic implications.  Generally, the draining influence of a city over its environment begins when it has a surface great enough to create an anthropic-generated runoff during a rain with enoughprecipitations to provoke waters accumulation into street torrents. The size, imperviousness, precipitations, drainage system and water consumption of the Suceava city are analysed in order to estimate the discharge of the city into Suceava river at various rainfalls. The article is structured as follows:1. Argumentation on the class separation between natural and anthropic torrential basins.2. Placing Suceava city as one of the torrential anthropic basins in Romania using basic arguments.3. Extending one of the argument, the importance of the rainfalls, in more detailed discussions (rainfall characteristics mainly, but also its cumulative effect with the floods on the Suceava river and the consumption of water in the city, with two scenarios. 4. The city is analysed as being integrated into a metropolitan area which can exacerbate the influence of the main city over the surrounding natural drainage basins nearby that area.5. Conclusions, where measures are proposed in order to diminish the potential negative effects on environment and human society.This article is only an introduction to a more detailed analysis which will be complete with further field data.

  11. Open Drainage and Detention Basin Combined System Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Banihabib

    2017-01-01

    basin and the narrower valley. After the initial selection of dam sites, based on the reservoir volume to construction volume ratio of each dam site, best sites were selected to have the higher ratio. The layout of the main drainage scheme that is responsible for collecting and transferring overland flows of farmlands and reservoir outflows was designed. In order to simulate the hydrological processes in upstream watershed and flood analysis, HEC-HMS model which is an extended version of HEC-1 was used as hydrologic model. The optimal combination of open drainages and detention basins was also developed. Watershed in terms of detention basin dams, topography and drainage were divided into 19 smaller sub-basins. The downstream agricultural basin due to the slope and drainage area was divided into 27 sub-basins. Regarding available information of the watershed, SCS method was used to calculate losses and to convert rainfall to runoff hydrograph. In this section Muskingum flood routing method was used considering its accuracy. In the present optimization model, the total cost of the combined system of dams and open drains used as the objective function. It is function bottom outlet diameter which is minimized by using optimization model. Other factors of the simulation model such as dam height and drainage dimensions were defined as function of the diameter of the bottom outlet of dams. After determining the optimal dimensions of the combined system of open drainage and detention basins, a sensitivity analysis was performed on hydrological factors. Results and Discussion: After optimization of the dimensions of open drainage and detention basin integrated-system, sensitivity analysis was carried out on the dimensions of system for variation of flood simulation parameters such as rainfall, curve number and lag time. The error of estimated rainfall effected far less than the curve number (CN on the optimum dimensions and cost. 10% variation of the rainfall depth caused

  12. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, “Southwest”) since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality.The synthesis consists of three major components:1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report).2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants.3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination.Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  13. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-09-28

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  14. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  15. Stratigraphic Signatures of Forearc Basin Formation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, U.; Ueda, K.; Gerya, T.; Willett, S.; Strasser, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forearc basins are loci of active sedimentation above the landward portion of accretionary prisms. Although these basins typically remain separated from the frontal prism by a forearc high, their evolution has a significant impact on the structure and deformation of the entire wedge. Formation of forearc basins has been proposed as a consequence of changes in wedge stability due to an increase of slab dip in subduction zones. Another hypothesis attributes this to higher hinterland sedimentation, which causes the rear of the wedge to stabilize and eventually develop a forearc basin. Basin stratigraphic architecture, revealed by high-resolution reflection seismic data and borehole data allows interpretation of structural development of the accretionary prism and associated basins with the goal of determining the underlying driving mechanism(s) of basin formation. In this study we supplement data interpretation with thermo-mechanical numerical models including high-resolution isochronal surface tracking to visualize the developing stratigraphy of basins that develop in subduction zone and wedge dynamic models. We use a dynamic 2D thermo mechanical model incorporating surface processes, strain weakening and sediment subduction. The model is a modification of I2VIS model, which is based on conservative, fully staggered finite differences and a non-diffusive marker- in-cell technique capable of modelling mantle convection. In the model different driving mechanisms for basin formation can be explored. Stratigraphic simulations obtained by isochronal surface tracking are compared to reflection pattern and stratigraphy of seismic and borehole data, respectively. Initial results from a model roughly representing the Nankai Trough Subduction Zone offshore Japan are compared to available seismic and Integrated Ocean Drilling (IODP) data. A calibrated model predicting forearc basin stratigraphy will be used to discern the underlying process of basins formation and wedge

  16. FRACTURED RESERVOIR E&P IN ROCKY MOUNTAIN BASINS: A 3-D RTM MODELING APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Ortoleva; J. Comer; A. Park; D. Payne; W. Sibo; K. Tuncay

    2001-11-26

    production-induced formation pressure drawdown). The Piceance Basin (Colorado) was chosen for this study because of the extensive set of data provided to us by federal agencies and industry partners, its remaining reserves, and its similarities with other Rocky Mountain basins. We focused on the Rulison Field to test our ability to capture details in a well-characterized area. In this study, we developed a number of general principles including (1) the importance of even subtle flexure in creating fractures; (2) the tendency to preserve fractures due to the compressibility of gases; (3) the importance of oscillatory fracture/flow cycles in the expulsion of natural gas from source rock; and (4) that predicting fractures requires a basin model that is comprehensive, all processes are coupled, and is fully 3-D. A major difficulty in using Basin RTM or other basin simulator has been overcome in this project; we have set forth an information theory technology for automatically integrating basin modeling with classical database analysis; this technology also provides an assessment of risk. We have created a relational database for the Piceance Basin. We have developed a formulation of devolatilization shrinkage that integrates organic geochemical kinetics into incremental stress theory, allowing for the prediction of coal cleating and associated enhancement of natural gas expulsion from coal. An estimation of the potential economic benefits of the technologies developed or recommended here is set forth. All of the above findings are documented in this report.

  17. Estimation of Streamflow and Fluvial Sediment Loads in the White Volta Basin under Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumor, M.; Amisigo, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The White Volta Basin is one of the major sub-catchments of the Volta Basin of West Africa, covers an estimated 106,000 km2 and is shared between Burkina Faso and Ghana. The basin currently faces many challenges such as flooding, drought, high temporal and spatial variation of rainfall, deforestation, land degradation, climate change and high population growth rate. These challenges put pressure on the quantity and quality of the water resources in the basin. Current infrastructure developments in the basin have already impacted on the hydrological cycle, and future development plans potentially pose a threat to the sustainability of the resources if not appropriately managed. Information on runoff and sediment loads is a very important requirement for sustainable management of the water resources in the basin. This study therefore seeks to assess runoff and sediment loads in the White Volta Basin using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and provide understanding of how climate change impacts on future runoff and sediment loads in the basin.The model was calibrated for the period 1991 to 2003 and validated for the period 2004 to 2013.The model was also validated at one gauging station on the main river and another on a tributary. Analysis of the water balance of the basin shows that 4.90% of the simulated mean annual precipitation is converted to surface runoff while 84.37% evapotranspires. The results also show that the White Volta Basin contributes approximately 5.68x106tonnes/yr of sediment load into the Volta Lake. The calibrated model was used to simulate the water balance for the present time slice (1975-2005) as the basis for comparing with the future (2025-2055) water balance in the WhiteVolta Basin. The results show that annual surface runoff and sediment loads could increase by 56% and 70% respectively. A projected reduction by 0.54% in actual evapotranspiration is however estimated for the selected time period in the basin.

  18. Macroecology, paleoecology, and ecological integrity of terrestrial species and communities of the interior Columbia basin and northern portions of the Klamath and Great Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; L.K. Croft; J.F. Lehmkuhl; R.H. Naney; C.G. Niwa; W.R. Owen; R.E. Sandquist

    1998-01-01

    This report present information on biogeography and broad-scale ecology (macroecology) of selected fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates of the interior Columbia River basin and adjacent areas. Rareplants include many endemics associated with local conditions. Potential plant and invertebrate bioindicators are identified. Species...

  19. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Jensen, Iris Hedegaard; Guzinski, R.

    2015-01-01

    assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. The objective of this study is to develop open-source software tools to support hydrologic forecasting and integrated water resources management......Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data...... in Africa. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations...

  20. Fractal basins in an ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Djellit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex dynamics is detected in an ecological model of host-parasitoid interaction. It illustrates fractalization of basins with self-similarity and chaotic attractors. This paper describes these dynamic behaviors, bifurcations, and chaos. Fractals basins are displayed by numerical simulations.

  1. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected ...

  2. K-Basin isolation barrier seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, E.S.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents various aspects of the design, analysis, procurement, and fabrication of the hydraulic seal on the isolation barriers to be installed in the 100-K Area spent nuclear fuel basin. The isolation barrier is used to keep water in the basin in the event of an earthquake

  3. Attractors and basins of dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Dénes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several programs for studying dynamical systems, but none of them is very useful for investigating basins and attractors of higher dimensional systems. Our goal in this paper is to show a new algorithm for finding even chaotic attractors and their basins for these systems. We present an implementation and examples for the use of this program.

  4. Sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected East Africa.

  5. Backward modelling of the subsidence evolution of the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina and its relation to the evolution of the conjugate Orange Basin, offshore SW Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Ingo; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Cacace, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    In this study we focus on reconstructing the post-rift subsidence evolution of the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina. We make use of detailed structural information about its present-day configuration of the sedimentary infill and the crystalline crust. This information is used as input in a backward modelling approach which relies on the assumption of local isostasy to reconstruct the amount of subsidence as induced by the sedimentary load through different time stages. We also attempt a quantification of the thermal effects on the subsidence as induced by the rifting, here included by following the uniform stretching model of lithosphere thinning and exponentially cooling through time. Based on the available information about the present-day geological state of the system, our modelling results indicate a rather continuous post-rift subsidence for the Colorado Basin, and give no significant evidence of any noticeable uplift phase. In a second stage, we compare the post-rift evolution of the Colorado Basin with the subsidence evolution as constrained for its conjugate SW African passive margin, the Orange Basin. Despite these two basins formed almost coevally and therefore in a similar large scale geodynamic context, their post-rift subsidence histories differ. Based on this result, we discuss causative tectonic processes likely to provide an explanation to the observed differences. We therefore conclude that it is most probable that additional tectonic components, other than the ridge-push from the spreading of the South Atlantic Ocean, are required to explain the observed differences in the subsidence of the two basins along the conjugate passive margins. Such additional tectonic components might be related to a dynamic mantle component in the form of either plume activity (Africa) or a subducting slab and the presence of an ongoing compressional stress system as revealed for different areas in South America.

  6. Towards a digital watershed, with a case study in the Heihe River Basin of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.-D.; Ma, M.-G.; Lu, L.; Ge, Y.-C.

    2003-04-01

    Integrated watershed study and river basin management needs integrated database and integrated hydrological and water resource models. We define digital watershed as a web-based information system that integrates data from different sources and in different scales through both information technology and hydrological modeling. In the last two years, a “digital basin” of the Heihe River Basin, which is a well-studied in-land catchment in China’s arid region was established. More than 6 Gb of in situ observation data, GIS maps, and remotely sensed data have been uploaded to the Heihe web site. Various database and dynamic web techniques such as PHP, ASP, XML, VRML are being used for data service. In addition, the DIAL (Data and Information Access Link), IMS (Internet Map Server) and other Web-GISs are used to make GIS and remote sensing datasets of the Heihe River Basin available and accessible on the Internet. We also have developed models for estimating the evapotranspiration, bio-physical parameters, and snow runoff. These methods can be considered as the elements to build up the integrated watershed model that can be used for integrated management of the Heihe River Basin. The official domain name of the digital Heihe River Basin is heihe.westgis.ac.cn

  7. Science applications in the Colorado River basin to improve drought management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. W.; Werner, K.; Hobbins, M. T.; Clark, M. P.; Verdin, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    The recent multi-year drought in the upper Colorado R. basin brought storage levels in the major reservoirs of the basin (Mead and Powell) to alarmingly low levels that raised national media attention. The conditions of the early 2000s combined with increasing water demand have brought greater scrutiny of forecasting and water management practices in the basin, and spurred efforts to improve monitoring and prediction of water and drought. Information sources to support these efforts include gage-based analyses (e.g., for snow and accumulated precipitation), climate predictions, reservoir status reports and modeled surface water datasets - e.g., distributed soil moisture anomalies, snow analyses and river flows, past and future. The NIDIS Upper Colorado R. pilot integrates these analysis products into regular webinars to inform stakeholders, complementing regular CBRFC webinars, communicate watershed-scale drought and water outlook information to water users and allow stakeholder inquiries. Although these efforts are well received in stakeholder communities, major challenges remain. For example, ensemble streamflow predictions are a central component of water outlooks in the upper Colorado River basin, yet are still driven by climatological weather sequences. This talk reviews current basin activities related to drought and describes new efforts to advance drought prediction. These include the evaluation and incorporation of medium-range to seasonal climate predictions into operational flow forecasting, improvements in evaporative demand estimation, expanded collaborations with stakeholders, and the exploration of improved modeling approaches for snow.

  8. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  9. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive wasste disposal in the southeast United States: Triassic basin subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Based on an evaluation of existing information, areas were identified within the Triassic basins of the southeastern United States with geologic properties considered favorable for containment of radioactive waste. The study region included both exposed and buried Triassic basins from Maryland to Georgia. These basins are long, narrow northeast-trending troughs filled with continental deposits derived from Paleozoic and Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks bordering the basins. The rocks are predominantly red in color and consist mainly of fanglomerates, conglomerates, arkosic sandstones, siltstones, claystones, shales, and argillites. The investigation identified 14 exposed and 5 buried basins within the study region. Candidate areas for further investigation were identified which meet the broad general criteria for tectonic stability, slow ground water movement, and long flow paths to the biosphere. These include: the Danville Triassic Basin in Virginia; the Dan River, Durham, and Wadesboro Triassic Basins in North Carolina; and the buried Florence and Dunbarton Triassic Basins in South Carolina. Other rock types in the southeast may prove more or less suitable as host rocks for a repository, but the available data suggest that the argillaceous Triassic rocks offer sufficient promise to be considered for additional study

  10. Sedimentary basins reconnaissance using the magnetic Tilt-Depth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A.; Williams, S.; Samson, E.; Fairhead, D.; Ravat, D.; Blakely, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    We compute the depth to the top of magnetic basement using the Tilt-Depth method from the best available magnetic anomaly grids covering the continental USA and Australia. For the USA, the Tilt-Depth estimates were compared with sediment thicknesses based on drilling data and show a correlation of 0.86 between the datasets. If random data were used then the correlation value goes to virtually zero. There is little to no lateral offset of the depth of basinal features although there is a tendency for the Tilt-Depth results to be slightly shallower than the drill depths. We also applied the Tilt-Depth method to a local-scale, relatively high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The Tilt-Depth method successfully identified a variety of important tectonic elements known from geological mapping. Of particular interest, the Tilt-Depth method illuminated deep (3km) contacts within the non-magnetic sedimentary core of the Olympic Mountains, where magnetic anomalies are subdued and low in amplitude. For Australia, the Tilt-Depth estimates also give a good correlation with known areas of shallow basement and sedimentary basins. Our estimates of basement depth are not restricted to regional analysis but work equally well at the micro scale (basin scale) with depth estimates agreeing well with drill hole and seismic data. We focus on the eastern Officer Basin as an example of basin scale studies and find a good level of agreement between previously-derived basin models. However, our study potentially reveals depocentres not previously mapped due to the sparse distribution of well data. This example thus shows the potential additional advantage of the method in geological interpretation. The success of this study suggests that the Tilt-Depth method is useful in estimating the depth to crystalline basement when appropriate quality aeromagnetic anomaly data are used (i.e. line spacing on the order of or less than the expected depth to

  11. Oils and source rocks from the Anadarko Basin: Final report, March 1, 1985-March 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, R. P. [School of Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The research project investigated various geochemical aspects of oils, suspected source rocks, and tar sands collected from the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. The information has been used, in general, to investigate possible sources for the oils in the basin, to study mechanisms of oil generation and migration, and characterization of depositional environments. The major thrust of the recent work involved characterization of potential source formations in the Basin in addition to the Woodford shale. The formations evaluated included the Morrow, Springer, Viola, Arbuckle, Oil Creek, and Sylvan shales. A good distribution of these samples was obtained from throughout the basin and were evaluated in terms of source potential and thermal maturity based on geochemical characteristics. The data were incorporated into a basin modelling program aimed at predicting the quantities of oil that could, potentially, have been generated from each formation. The study of crude oils was extended from our earlier work to cover a much wider area of the basin to determine the distribution of genetically-related oils, and whether or not they were derived from single or multiple sources, as well as attempting to correlate them with their suspected source formations. Recent studies in our laboratory also demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight components(C{sub 4}-C{sub 80}) in oils and waxes from drill pipes of various wells in the region. Results from such a study will have possible ramifications for enhanced oil recovery and reservoir engineering studies.

  12. Identifying the groundwater basin boundaries, using environmental isotopes: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroğlu, Muhterem

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater, which is renewable under current climatic conditions separately from other natural sources, in fact is a finite resource in terms of quality and fossil groundwater. Researchers have long emphasized the necessity of exploiting, operating, conserving and managing groundwater in an efficient and sustainable manner with an integrated water management approach. The management of groundwater needs reliable information about changes on groundwater quantity and quality. Environmental isotopes are the most important tools to provide this support. No matter which method we use to calculate the groundwater budget and flow equations, we need to determine boundary conditions or the physical boundaries of the domain. The Groundwater divide line or basin boundaries that separate the two adjacent basin recharge areas from each other must be drawn correctly to be successful in defining complex groundwater basin boundary conditions. Environmental isotope data, as well as other methods provide support for determining recharge areas of the aquifers, especially for karst aquifers, residence time and interconnections between aquifer systems. This study demonstrates the use of environmental isotope data to interpret and correct groundwater basin boundaries giving as an example the Yeniçıkrı basin within the main Sakarya basin.

  13. Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. (Tom Raadgever

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.

  14. Evaluation of relative tectonic perturbations of the Kashmir Basin, Northwest Himalaya, India: An integrated morphological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, R. K.; Dar, Javid Ahmad; Kothyari, Girish Ch.

    2017-10-01

    Geomorphic and morphotectonic evaluations of the Kashmir Basin have been carried by implicating different geomorphic indices such as stream-gradient index (SL), hypsometric integral (HI), drainage basin asymmetry (AF), valley floor height and width ratio (Vf), transverse topographic symmetry factor (T), mountain front sinuosity (Smf), drainage basin shape (BS) and sinuosity index (SI) for the categorization of relative index of active tectonics (RIAT) through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) so as to decipher the role of neotectonics in geomorphologic evolution of the basin. The verified RIAT classes through field investigation and validation reveal the traverse of twenty-one active faults in the basin with demarcation of three RIAT classes viz., class-1 (inactive 20.07% of the area), class-2 (moderately active; 36.52% of the area) and class-3 (very active; 43.4% of the area). The observed values of RIAT distribution pattern are well corroborated with field observations. Ultimately, the overall geomorphic outputs and clustering of recent seismicity support the active tectonic control over the Kashmir basin, India.

  15. Mapping and Assessment of Degraded Land in the Heihe River Basin, Arid Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Cai

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a great threat in the Heihe River Basin, located in the aridinland of northwestern China and land desertification is one of the main aspects ofenvironmental changes in this basin. Previous studies have focused on water resourceutilization and soil erosion, but the status of degraded land in the Heihe River Basin, suchas its distribution, extent and precise characteristics is often inadequately known. Based onfield observations and TM images from the year 2003, this study provides classificationand evaluation information concerning the degraded land in the basin of the Heihe River.There are five types of degraded land types in the Heihe River Basin: water eroded in thesouthern mountains, sandified and vegetation degraded near the oases, aridized in the lowreaches, and salinized in the lowlands. The total degraded area covers 29,355.5 km2,22.58% of the land in the study area. Finally, degraded land in the Heihe River Basin wasevaluated according to changes in the physical structure and chemical components of soils,land productivity, secondary soil salt, and water conditions.

  16. Hydro-economic modeling with aquifer-river interactions to guide sustainable basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahil, Mohamed Taher; Ward, Frank A.; Albiac, Jose; Eggleston, Jack; Sanz, David

    2016-08-01

    Policymakers in arid and semiarid basins face hard choices on water policies needed for adaptation to climate change. Hydro-economic modeling is a state-of-the art approach that can be used to guide the design and implementation of these policies in basins. A major gap in developments of hydro-economic modeling to date has been the weak integration of physically-based representations of water sources and uses such as the interaction between ground and surface water resources, to inform complex basin scale policy choices. This paper presents an integrated hydro-economic modeling framework to address this gap with application to an important and complex river basin in Spain, the Jucar basin, for the assessment of a range of climate change scenarios and policy choices. Results indicate that in absence of adequate policies protecting water resources and natural ecosystems, water users will strategically deplete reservoirs, aquifers and river flows for short-term adaptation to climate change, disregarding the impacts on the environment and future human activities. These impacts can be addressed by implementing sustainable management policies. However, these policies could have disproportionate costs for some stakeholders groups, and their opposition may undermine attempts at sustainable policy. These tradeoffs among water policy choices are important guides to the design of policies aimed at basin-wide adaptation to climate change.

  17. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of an extensional basin revealed by a combined photo-geological and field-mapping approach. The Montefalco Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Francesco; Mirabella, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    Active extensional basins are important since their sedimentary infills and bounding tectonic structures provide: i) sinks with preservation potential for sedimentary and fossil records of past changes in climate and sediment/water supply, ii) information on the growth, activity, decay and death of normal faults, iii) vast economic reserves of hydrocarbons, water and minerals. Unfortunately, quaternary extensional basins, especially if located in humid and temperate climate environments, are often characterized by extensively cultivated areas, homogeneous terrains and quite flat morphologies. Furthermore, they commonly host human settlements, together with roads, economic and industrial infrastructures, with a consequent limited availability of good outcrops. Such a limitation can (often severely) hamper an adequate mapping of the sedimentary infill. Therefore alternative methodological approaches (such as aerial photographs interpretation, API) are needed to integrate heterogeneous and incomplete datasets. This contribution presents an updated photo-geological map of a Quaternary extensional basin in Central Italy, the Montefalco Basin. This basin developed in a continental environment characterized by clayey-sandy lacustrine and fluvial sequences (late Pliocene - early Pleistocene) underlying more recent coarse grained deposits related to alluvial fan environment (early-to-late Pleistocene) and younger palustrine deposits (late Pleistocene). Since the late Pleistocene, regional uplift and local tectonics led to the end of deposition in the Montefalco basin, which experienced a diffuse incision and the modification of the drainage network, in response to the W-to-E migration of active faulting and tectonic subsidence. The new photo-geological map represents an important improvement compared to the existing data, since it provides unprecedented and spatially distributed information on the geometry of the continental deposits and on the tectonic structures affecting

  18. Seismicity of the Paradox Basin and the Colorado Plateau interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.

    1984-04-01

    National Waste Terminal Storage Program site qualification criteria require that a nuclear waste repository be located so that ground motion associated with the maximum credible and maximum probable earthquakes or other earthquake-associated effects will not have an unacceptable adverse impact on system performance. To determine whether a potential repository site located in the Paradox salt formation in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah satisfies these criteria, seismological studies were undertaken by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in March 1978. These studies included: (1) analysis of historical seismicity; (2) analysis of contemporary seismicity and tectonics of both the Paradox Basin and surrounding Colorado Plateau, including an extensive program of microearthquake monitoring; (3) evaluation of the Paradox Basin crustal structure; (4) evaluation of mining-induced seismicity; and (5) characterization of design-related earthquake-induced ground motions pertinent to a potential repository site through studies of attentation and subsurface ground motions. A detailed discussion of the results of the seismological studies performed through December 1980 is contained in WCC (1982). The purpose of this topical report is to update and summarize the studies on the local, regional, and mining-induced seismicity conducted through December 1982. The limitations of any interpretations are also discussed and additional information that remains to be acquired is identified. 56 references, 45 figures, 4 tables

  19. Cutting-edge technology may yield elephants in Orphan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, W.

    2006-10-15

    Controlled source electromagnetic survey (CSEM) technology may soon supply vital information to oil companies about Newfoundland's offshore basins. The technology shoots low-frequency electromagnetic signals at the sea-floor to measure resistivity. Natural gas, crude oil and water each have a particular strength to resist the power of an electromagnetic signal, and leave a unique signature. To collect data, the electromagnetic pulse emitter is towed back and forth over an area of seabed potentially holding hydrocarbons. Connected to the ship by a long tether, the emitter hangs approximately 30 to 50 m above the ocean floor, and reaches depths of 2.4 km. The sea floor has 36 receivers anchored to it in a grid of concrete blocks that dissolve within 3 months of installation. The test blocks are first dropped overboard to verify current speed and strength in order to calculate exactly where on the water's surface the concrete blocks will be lowered. The Canada Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board (CNLOPB) has deemed the technology environmentally safe. Eight land parcels have now been leased for exploration in the Orphan Basin and are expected to receive approval for seismic and electromagnetic surveys. Industry players have shown unusual optimism about the basin's potential, which is estimated to contain 4 oilfields containing a billion barrels of oil each. 2 figs.

  20. Lake Chad basin water balance using multi-sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappart, F.; Syed, T. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Ramillien, G.; Cazenave, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Lake Chad basin, which covers 8% of the surface of Africa, is one of the largest fresh water bodies of the African continent. In the last decades, it has dramatically decreased in size due to climate change and human water consumption, from approximately 25000 km2 in 1973 to less than 2000 km2 in the 1990s. Freshwater shortage is a major concern for this region. Remote sensing offers new opportunities to monitor and better understand the hydrological cycle of major basins. On the one hand, satellite radar altimetry is currently used to construct water level time series. Spatio- temporal variations of surface water volume can be estimated by combining information from these sensors. On the other hand, the delivery of monthly Earth gravity field by the GRACE project allows the determination of small time-variations of the Earth gravity and particularly the variations of land water storage. We have estimated surface water volume variations over the Lake Chad for 15 years of Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and ENVISAT/RA-2 altimeter data. The results obtained are then compared with water volume variations derived from GRACE measurements over a four year time span (April 2002 to March 2006) for the entire Lake Chad basin.